Science.gov

Sample records for 4-h horse activities

  1. Stable Relationships: Horse Care Activities. Level 3. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08055

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the third in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  2. Head, Heart, & Hooves: Horse Raising Activities. Level 2. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08054

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  3. Riding the Range: Horse Riding Activities. Level 4. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08056

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  4. Giddy up & Go: Discovering Horses Activities. Level 1. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08053

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the first in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. This guide focuses on the introductory basics and familiarizes youth with…

  5. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse…

  6. Implementing and Assessing 4-H Educational Activity Kits for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheer, Scott D.; Yeske, Janine; Zimmer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Educational activity kits were developed and implemented through a statewide effort for 4-H Youth Development Extension programs serving 5-8 year-old children. The purpose of the kits was to promote life skills in children and assess the learning environment. Data was collected based on the observations of 577 children across 22 counties. Findings…

  7. Jumping to New Heights: Horsemanship Activities. Level 5. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08057

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  8. Fashion Revue. 4-H Textile Science Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This publication was developed to help students participating in Fashion Review, a 4-H event in which students model a clothing outfit and accessories and are judged on their modeling ability, their presentation, and how well the clothing and accessory choices complement the students' skin tones, hair color, figure or physique, personality, and…

  9. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  10. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  11. Wiggles and Wags: Dog 1--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guides are activity guides. Several fact-filled books about dogs are listed as resources on this guide. The activities are active, hands-on, and engaging and are guided by the 4-H motto: Learning by Doing. As youth explore a dog project topic of interest to them, they also practice essential life skills. Although a few dog project youth will…

  12. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., attendants, exercise boys, and watchmen employed at the breeding or training farm. On the other hand... horses which have been used in commercial racing and returned to a breeding or training farm for...

  13. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., attendants, exercise boys, and watchmen employed at the breeding or training farm. On the other hand... horses which have been used in commercial racing and returned to a breeding or training farm for...

  14. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., attendants, exercise boys, and watchmen employed at the breeding or training farm. On the other hand... horses which have been used in commercial racing and returned to a breeding or training farm for...

  15. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  16. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  17. Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emo, Kenneth Roy

    Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

  18. A remarkable activity of human leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) toward unnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Byzia, Anna; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Salvesen, Guy S; Drag, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H--EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme, which processes LTA4 through an epoxide hydrolase activity and is also able to trim one amino acid at a time from N-terminal peptidic substrates via its aminopeptidase activity. In this report, we have utilized a library of 130 individual proteinogenic and unnatural amino acid fluorogenic substrates to determine the aminopeptidase specificity of this enzyme. We have found that the best proteinogenic amino acid recognized by LTA4H is arginine. However, we have also observed several unnatural amino acids, which were significantly better in terms of cleavage rate (k cat/K m values). Among them, the benzyl ester of aspartic acid exhibited a k cat/K m value that was more than two orders of magnitude higher (1.75 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) as compared to L-Arg (1.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). This information can be used for design of potent inhibitors of this enzyme, but may also suggest yet undiscovered functions or specificities of LTA4H.

  19. Horses

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of humans and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant some antibiotics. Horses carrying MRSA might not necessarily show clinical ...

  20. Seasonal variations in daily rhythms of activity in athletic horses.

    PubMed

    Bertolucci, C; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

    2008-07-01

    Circadian rhythms reflect extensive programming of biological activity that meets and exploits the challenges and opportunities offered by the periodic nature of the environment. In the present investigation, we recorded the total activity of athletic horses kept at four different times of the year (vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumn equinox and winter solstice), to evaluate the presence of seasonal variations of daily activity rhythms. Athletic Thoroughbred horses were kept in individual boxes with paddock. Digitally integrated measure of total activity of each mare was continuously recorded by actigraphy-based data loggers. Horse total activities were not evenly distributed over the day, but they were mainly diurnal during the year. Daily activity rhythms showed clear seasonal variations, with the highest daily amount of activity during the vernal equinox and the lowest during the winter solstice. Interestingly, the amount of activity during either photophase or scotophase changed significantly throughout the year. Circadian analysis of horse activities showed that the acrophase, the estimated time at which the peak of the rhythm occurs, did not change during the year, it always occurred in the middle of the photoperiod. Analysing the time structure of long-term and continuously measured activity and feeding could be a useful method to critically evaluate athletic horse management systems in which spontaneous locomotor activity and feeding are severely limited. Circadian rhythms are present in several elements of sensory motor and psychomotor functions and these would be taken into consideration to plan the training schedules and competitions in athletic horses. PMID:22443706

  1. A Beach and Dune Community. 4-H Marine Science. Member's Guide. Activity I. MSp 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The investigation in this booklet is designed to provide 4-H members with opportunities to identify common plants and animals found on beaches and sand dunes and to determine the role of the plants and animals in this community. Learners are provided with a picture of a hypothetical beach and sand dune and a list of organisms (included in the…

  2. Synthesis and antifungal activity of 2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one derivatives.

    PubMed

    Śmist, Małgorzata; Kwiecień, Halina; Krawczyk, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A series of 2-alkyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (4a-l) was easily synthesized by two-step process involving O-alkylation of 2-nitrophenols with methyl 2-bromoalkanoates and next "green" catalytic reductive cyclization of the obtained 2-nitro ester intermediates (3a-l). Further, 6,7-dibromo (5a-c) and N-acetyl (6) derivatives were prepared by bromination and acetylation of unsubstituted 2-alkyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (4a-c). The novel compounds (3a-l, 4d-l, 5a-c and 6) were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods (MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR). 2-Alkyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (4a-l, 5a-c and 6) were screened for antifungal activity. Preliminary assays were performed using two methods: in vitro against seven phytopathogenic fungi-Botrytis cinerea, Phythophtora cactorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Phoma betae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata-and in vivo against barley powdery mildew Blumeria graminis. The tested compounds displayed moderate to good antifungal activity at high concentration (200 mg L(-1)). The most potent compounds were 2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4a), 2-ethyl-7-fluoro-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4g) and 4-acetyl-2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (6), which completely inhibited the mycelial growth of seven agricultural fungi at the concentration of 200 mg L(-1) in the in vitro tests. Moreover, 2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4a) and 4-acetyl-2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (6) were also screened for antifungal activity at concentrations of 100 mg L(-1) and 20 mg L(-1). In the concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the N-acetyl derivative (6) completely inhibited the growth of three strains of fungi (F. culmorum, P. cactorum and R. solani), while 2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4a) completely inhibited only R. solani strain. At the concentration of 20 mg L(-1), compound 6 showed good activity only against P. cactorum strain (72%). PMID:26963527

  3. Wild Horses: Stories and Activities. The Wonder Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorehead, Carol Ann

    This curriculum guide is all about wild horses and provides information through the telling of stories about these animals and their history and folklore. The activities contained in this guide employ an interdisciplinary approach and use mazes, puzzles, model-building, and board games to interest and inform students. Topics covered include the…

  4. Synthesis, bioassay, and QSAR study of bronchodilatory active 4H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitriles.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Adel S; Saleh, Dalia O; George, Riham F; Srour, Aladdin M; Pillai, Girinath G; Panda, Chandramukhi S; Katritzky, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    A statistically significant QSAR model describing the bioactivity of bronchodilatory active 4H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitriles (N = 41, n = 8, R(2) = 0.824, R(2)cv = 0.724, F = 18.749, s(2) = 0.0018) was obtained employing CODESSA-Pro software. The bronchodilatory active 4H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitriles 17-57 were synthesized through a facile approach via reaction of 1-alkyl-4-piperidones 1-4 with ylidenemalononitriles 5-16 in methanol in the presence of sodium. The bronchodilation properties of 17-57 were investigated in vitro using isolated guinea pig tracheal rings pre-contracted with histamine (standard method) and compared with theophylline (standard reference). Most of the compounds synthesized exhibit promising bronchodilation properties especially, compounds 25 and 28. PMID:25462283

  5. Leading the Pack: Dog 3--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08168

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Experienced youth investigate responsible breeding, diseases, caring for geriatric dogs, training, service dogs, dog roles and careers related to dogs. This guide provides youth with numerous leadership opportunities. Because youth development programs help build tomorrow's leaders, leadership is a strong theme in Level 3 activities. One will be…

  6. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES, A GUIDE FOR 4-H CLUB LEADERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOSTER, ALBERT B.; FOX, ADRIAN C.

    THIS PUBLICATION WAS PREPARED BY THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE FOR USE WITH YOUTH GROUPS. VARIOUS ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CAN BE USED TO DEVELOP CONCEPTS ABOUT SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION. IN ORDER TO SIMPLIFY THE PROCESS OF DEMONSTRATING THESE ACTIVITIES, MANY OF THE CONCEPTS ARE PICTORIALLY ILLUSTRATED. THE ACTIVITIES…

  7. Effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and fermentative activities in horses: impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Faubladier, C; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; da Veiga, L; Julliand, V

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and activities in horses with or without supplementation of live yeast and attempted to link those effects with changes in blood stress markers. Four mature horses were assigned to a crossover design and fed a basal diet (60:40 forage to concentrate; 1.45% BW on a DM basis), with or without supplementation, of 2 × 10(10) cfu/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077. After a 14-d adaptation to dietary treatments, the 5-d experiment started 1 d before transportation (d -1). At d 0, horses were simultaneously transported in a truck for 2 h. Feces were sampled 4 h after the morning meal of concentrate at d -1, 0 (immediately after transportation), and 3 for enumeration of the main functional bacterial groups and determination of fermentative variables. Within each dietary treatment, feces were pooled before DNA extraction and molecular analysis of the bacterial communities, using temporal temperature gradient electrophoreses (TTGE). Blood samples were collected at the same time for determination of white blood cells (WBC) counts and glucose and total protein concentrations. Regardless of dietary treatment, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio increased during transportation (P < 0.01), indicating that horses were stressed. In both treatments, TTGE profiles were clearly different before and 3 d after transportation, and the percentage of similarity between profiles at d -1 and 3 was greater in supplemented horses compared with the controls. From d 0 to 3, the molar percentage of propionate increased and total concentration of VFA and the acetate + butyrate to propionate ratio decreased, regardless of dietary treatment (P < 0.01, P = 0.02, and P < 0.01, respectively), whereas pH decreased only in control horses (P = 0.03). Regardless of day of sampling, fecal concentrations of lactate-utilizing bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria were greater in supplemented horses than in control horses (P

  8. Synthesis, in vitro and in silico antimalarial activity of 7-chloroquinoline and 4H-chromene conjugates.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, A; Muthukumaran, J; Manhas, Ashan; Srivastava, Kumkum; Krishna, R; Rao, H Surya Prakash

    2015-10-15

    A new series of chloroquinoline-4H-chromene conjugates incorporating piperizine or azipane tethers were synthesized and their anti-malarial activity were evaluated against two Plasmodium falciparum strains namely 3D7 chloroquine sensitive (CQS) and K1 chloroquine resistant (CQR). Chloroquine was used as the standard and also reference for comparison. The conjugates exhibit intense UV absorption with λmax located at 342 nm (log ε=4.0), 254 nm (log ε=4.2), 223 nm (log ε=4.4) which can be used to spectrometrically track the molecules even in trace amounts. Among all the synthetic compounds, two molecules namely 6-nitro and N-piperazine groups incorporated 7d and 6-chloro and N-azapane incorporated 15b chloroquinoline-4H-chromene conjugates showed significant anti-malarial activity against two strains (3D7 and K1) of P. falciparum. These values are lesser than the values of standard antimalarial compound. Molecular docking results suggested that these two compounds showing strong binding affinity with P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) and also they occupy the co-factor position which indicated that they could be the potent inhibitors for dreadful disease malaria and specifically attack the glycolytic pathway in parasite for energy production. PMID:26338359

  9. Online detection of an emotional response of a horse during physical activity.

    PubMed

    Jansen, F; Van der Krogt, J; Van Loon, K; Avezzù, V; Guarino, M; Quanten, S; Berckmans, D

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a non-invasive method to detect an emotional response of a horse to novelty during physical activity. Two horses performed 20 trials each, in which the horse's heart rate (HR) and physical activity were continuously measured. The relationship between the horse's physical activity and HR was described by a mathematical model allowing online decomposition of the horse's HR into a physical component and a component containing information about its emotional state. Exposure to the novel object resulted in an increase in the emotional component of HR, which allowed automatic detection of an emotional response of the horse in 33/40 trials. In the remaining seven trials no stable model could be built or data were missing. The results show that model-based decomposition of HR can be a useful tool for quantification of certain aspects of temperament.

  10. Critical tests of the anthelmintic febantel in the horse: activity of a paste formulation alone or with a trichlorfon paste.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    1978-09-01

    Critical tests were carried out in 10 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of febantel given alone or with trichlorfon. Paste formulations were administered intraorally at dose levels of 6 mg of febantel (active ingredient)/kg and 35 mg of trichlorfon (active ingredient)/kg. In 5 tests with febantel alone, removal of 100% was recorded for mature or immature Parascaris equorum from 2 infected horses. Strongylus vulgaris from 4 infected horses, S edentatus from 5 infected horses, and mature Oxyuris equi from 1 infected horse; and removal of 96% was recorded for small strogyles from 1 horse tested, and bots in 5 infected horses were not affected. In 5 horses treated with both compounds, removal of 100% was recorded for mature P equorum from 2 infected horses, immature P equorum from 1 infected horse, S vulgaris from 5 infected horses, Sedentatus from 5 infected horses, mature O equi from 2 infected horses, immature O equi from 1 horse tested, 2nd Gasterophilus intestin-equi from 1 infected horse, 2nd-instar C nasalis from 1 infected horse, and 3rd-instar C nasalis from 4 infected horses. Removal of 98% was recorded for small strongyles from 1 horse tested, and removal of 65% to 100% for 3rd-instar C intestinalis from 5 infected horses. In the aggregate, removal of 3rd-instar C intestinalis was 99%. Untoward effects of treatment were quite limited. Only a transient softening of feces in 1 of 5 horses given the trichlorfon paste plus the febantel paste was recorded.

  11. Influence of an active stable system on the behavior and body condition of Icelandic horses.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G; Bentke, A; Rose-Meierhöfer, S; Berg, W; Mazetti, P; Hardarson, G H

    2012-10-01

    Horses are often stabled in individual boxes, a method that does not meet their natural needs and may cause psychical and musculoskeletal diseases. This problem is particularly evident in Iceland, where horses often spend the long winter periods in cramped boxes. The aim of this study was to analyze the suitability of a group housing system in Iceland, but the results are also applicable to horses of other regions. Eight Icelandic horses were observed in an active stable system, and their behavior and time budget were recorded. Movement and lying behavior were studied with ALT (Activity, Lying, Temperature detection) pedometers. The effect of an automatic concentrate feeding station (CFS) on the horses' behavior was examined. In the first period of investigation, the horses were fed concentrates manually, and in the second period, they were fed with the CFS. Additional behavioral observations and a determination of social hierarchy occurred directly or by video surveillance. The physical condition of the horses was recorded by body weight (BW) measurement and body condition scoring (BCS). The results showed a significant increase between the first and second trial periods in both the activity (P < 0.001) and the lying time (P = 0.003) of the horses with use of the CFS. However, there was no significant change in BW during the first period without the CFS (P = 0.884) or during the second period with the CFS (P = 0.540). The BCS of the horses was constant at a very good level during both trial periods, and the horses showed a low level of aggression, a firm social hierarchy and behavioral synchronization. This study concludes that group housing according to the active stable principle is a welfare-friendly option for keeping horses and is a suitable alternative to conventional individual boxes. PMID:22717220

  12. 4-H and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on Iowa's role in the historical development of the 4-H youth program. "Roots in Iowa" and "Jessie Field Shambaugh: The Mother of 4-H" (J. Friedel) describes the rural Iowan roots of the 4-H program, which today is located in 80 different countries, and give the story of its founder. Jessie Shambaugh, a rural Iowa teacher and…

  13. Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda; Coates-Markle, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

  14. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  15. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  16. Synthesis of a Biologically Active Oxazol-5-(4H)-One via an Erlenmeyer-Plo¨chl Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Catarina A. B.; Martinho, Jose´ M. G.; Afonso, Carlos A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of (Z)-4-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-2- phenyloxazol-5(4"H")-one, which is a potent immunomodulator and tyrosinase inhibitor, is described as an experiment for an upper-division undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. This compound is produced via an Erlenmeyer-Plo¨chl reaction in the absence of any additional solvents…

  17. 4-Aryl-4H-naphthopyrans derivatives: one-pot synthesis, evaluation of Src kinase inhibitory and anti-proliferative activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A series of 2-amino-4-aryl-4H-benzo[h or f]chromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of Src kinase and cell proliferation in breast carcinoma (BT-20) cell lines. Methods The one-pot, three-component reaction of α or β-naphthol, malonitrile and an aromatic aldehyde in the presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate was afforded the corresponding 2-amino-4-aryl-4H-benzo[h or f]chromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives, All target compounds were evaluated for inhibition of Src kinase and cell proliferation in breast carcinoma (BT-20) cell lines. Results Among all tested compounds, unsubstituted 4-phenyl analog 4a showed Src kinas inhibitory effect with IC50 value of 28.1 μM and was the most potent compound in this series. In general, the compounds were moderately active against BT-20. 3-Nitro-phenyl 4e and 3-pyridinyl 4h derivatives inhibited the cell proliferation of BT-20 cells by 33% and 31.5%, respectively, and found to be more potent compared to doxorubicin (25% inhibition of cell growth). Conclusion The data indicate that 4-aryl-4H-naphthopyrans scaffold has the potential to be optimized further for designing more potent Src kinase inhibitors and/or anticancer lead compounds. PMID:23351304

  18. Chronic active interstitial pancreatitis as a cause of transverse colonic obstruction and colic in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Katharina L.; Allen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    A mature Quarter horse was euthanized following colic of 3 days duration. Postmortem, the large intestine, except the descending colon, was diffusely distended and associated with adhesion of the transverse colon to the pancreas, which had changes consistent with chronic active interstitial pancreatitis. Other lesions included hepatic fibrosis, erosive gastritis, and bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia. PMID:26538675

  19. Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of new 2,4-diaryl-4H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]benzopyran-5-ones on MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Y; Refouvelet, B; Bermont, L; Adessi, G L; Leclercq, G; Xicluna, A

    2002-04-01

    A series of eight halogenated 2,4-diaryl-4H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]benzopyran-5-ones have been synthesized, characterized and their stereochemistry determined. In a second stage of our work, the reported molecules were tested for their antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. Pharmacological results were compared with those of diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen, as well as ICI 182,780, a pure antiestrogen. Then, these derivatives were evaluated for their capacity to activate the transcription of a reporter gene and for their affinity for human recombinant estrogen receptors alpha (hER alpha). These results were compared with those of coumestrol, a phytoestrogen structurally close to 2,4-diaryl-4H,5H-pyrano[3,2-c]benzopyran-5-ones, and with RU 58668, a pure antiestrogen. Although these derivatives exhibit a significant antiproliferative activity higher than that of ICI 182,780, neither of them displayed a significant estrogenicity or an affinity for hER alpha. Such results may suggest that their antiproliferative activity is not dependent of an antiestrogenic response.

  20. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 3-(Substituted)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Appani, Ramgopal; Bhukya, Baburao; Gangarapu, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-(substituted)-2-(substituted quinazolinylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized by the reaction of 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazoline-4(3H)-ones with 2-phenyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one. The starting materials 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized from various primary amines by a multistep synthesis. All the title compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity using ciprofloxacin as reference standard. Compounds 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9a) and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9h) emerged as the most active compounds of the series. These compounds have shown most potent antibacterial activity against the tested organisms of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis having zone of inhibition values of 1.1 cm and 1.4 cm for compound 9a 1.2 cm and 1.0 cm for compound 9h, respectively. PMID:27190676

  1. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity.

  2. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. PMID:23664016

  3. Synthesis and Anticonvulsant Activity Evaluation of 4-Phenyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-one and Its Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Jian; Jin, Peng; Wang, Shi-Ben; Li, Fu-Nan; Guan, Li-Ping; Quan, Zhe-Shan

    2015-08-01

    A series of 4-(substituted-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-ones (6a-x) with triazole and other heterocyclic substituents (7-14) were synthesized and the compounds were evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity and neurotoxicity by maximal electroshock (MES) and rotarod neurotoxicity tests. Among the compounds studied, 6o and 6q showed wide margins of safety with protective indices (PIs) that were much higher than those of currently used drugs (PI6o  > 25.5, PI6q  > 26.0). Compounds 6o and 6q showed significant oral activity against MES-induced seizures in mice, with ED50 values of 88.02 and 94.6 mg/kg, respectively. The two compounds were also found to have potent activity against seizures that were induced by pentylenetetrazole and bicuculline.

  4. Managing 4-H Volunteer Staff: A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Hope M.

    The 4-H intern report organizes concepts and materials to aid the extension worker in his role as coordinator and trainer of 4-H volunteer staff. A 10-item task analysis of the extension worker--4-H and youth--as volunteer leader coordinator is presented. The importance of managing a volunteer staff is touched upon, and models for job descriptions…

  5. The expression and activity of 5-LOX in the large intestine of horses harbouring encysted cyathostomin larvae.

    PubMed

    Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Traversa, Donato; Geurden, Thomas; Marcer, Federica; Di Francesco, Andrea; Angelini, Chiara; di Cesare, Angela; Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2014-06-16

    Leukotrienes are products of the arachidonic acid metabolism and act as potent inflammatory mediators modulating the immune response and various physiological processes. This study evaluated the expression and activity of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), the enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes, in horses infected by larval cyathostomins. Tissue samples from dorsal and ventral colon, and from the cecum were collected from 16 horses slaughtered for human consumption. Samples were analyzed to estimate the burdens of encysted cyathostomin larvae and adult luminal stages, and then processed for the evaluation of biochemical parameters. No significant differences were found in the protein expression and enzymatic activity of 5-LOX between animals harbouring only adult parasites and negative horses. The protein expression and enzyme activity of 5-LOX were significantly higher in horses harbouring encysted larvae in comparison with horses free of encysted larvae. Although preliminary, these results indicate that 5-LOX is an important mediator in the course of horse cyathostominosis and further studies are warranted to unveil the possible role this enzyme plays in the pathogenesis of horse cyathostominosis, and its potential as a diagnostic marker.

  6. Keeping 4-H Volunteer Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Keith L.; Bigler, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    This study showed that continuing and discontinuing volunteer 4-H Club leaders are significantly different in their geographical location, number of children in family, and number of children in family who have participated in 4-H. These variables may affect the volunteer's decision to continue serving as a 4-H Club leader. (Author/CT)

  7. High-efficiency impurity activation by precise control of cooling rate during atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet annealing of 4H-SiC wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Keisuke; Hanafusa, Hiroaki; Ashihara, Ryuhei; Hayashi, Shohei; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated high-temperature and rapid annealing of a silicon carbide (SiC) wafer by atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet (TPJ) irradiation for impurity activation. To reduce the temperature gradient in the SiC wafer, a DC current preheating system and the lateral back-and-forth motion of the wafer were introduced. A maximum surface temperature of 1835 °C within 2.4 s without sample breakage was achieved, and aluminum (Al), phosphorus (P), and arsenic (As) activations in SiC were demonstrated. We have investigated precise control of heating rate (Rh) and cooling rate (Rc) during rapid annealing of P+-implanted 4H-SiC and its impact on impurity activation. No dependence of resistivity on Rh was observed, while increasing Rc significantly decreased resistivity. A minimum resistivity of 0.0025 Ω·cm and a maximum carrier concentration of 2.9 × 1020 cm-3 were obtained at Rc = 568 °C/s.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of The Homocyclotrimer Of 4-Oxo-4h-Thieno[3,4-C]Chromene-3-Diazonium Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Sopbue Fondjo, Emmanuel; Sorel, Djeukoua Dimo Kamal; Jean-de-Dieu, Tamokou; Joseph, Tsemeugne; Sylvian, Kouamo; Doriane, Ngouanet; Rodolphe, Chouna Jean; Pepin, Nkeng-Efouet-Alango; Jules-Roger, Kuiate; Arnaud, Ngongang Ndjintchui; Lucas, Sondengam Beibam

    2016-01-01

    The in situ formed 4-oxo-4H-thieno[3,4-c]chromene-3-diazonium sulfate (5) in the coupling reactions involving the parent 2-aminothiophene (4) and various phenolic and arylamines’ couplers, readily undergoes homocyclotrimerization at low temperature to afford in fairly good yield the first ever reported eighteen member ring heteroaromatic holigomer 6. Compound 6 was fully characterized by its elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HRMS spectral data. The HMBC and HSQC techniques were used to ascertain the structural assignments. A comparative study on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of compounds 3, 4 and 6 was carried out to assess the SAR due to the transformations (from 3 to 6 via 4) on the tested compounds. It was found that compounds 6 and 4 were respectively the most active compounds against bacteria (MIC = 32-64 μg/ml) and yeasts (MIC = 16–64 μg/ml). Compound 6 also showed high radical-scavenging activities and ferric reducing power when compared with vitamin C and BHT used as reference antioxidants. PMID:27583034

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of The Homocyclotrimer Of 4-Oxo-4h-Thieno[3,4-C]Chromene-3-Diazonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Sopbue Fondjo, Emmanuel; Sorel, Djeukoua Dimo Kamal; Jean-de-Dieu, Tamokou; Joseph, Tsemeugne; Sylvian, Kouamo; Doriane, Ngouanet; Rodolphe, Chouna Jean; Pepin, Nkeng-Efouet-Alango; Jules-Roger, Kuiate; Arnaud, Ngongang Ndjintchui; Lucas, Sondengam Beibam

    2016-01-01

    The in situ formed 4-oxo-4H-thieno[3,4-c]chromene-3-diazonium sulfate (5) in the coupling reactions involving the parent 2-aminothiophene (4) and various phenolic and arylamines' couplers, readily undergoes homocyclotrimerization at low temperature to afford in fairly good yield the first ever reported eighteen member ring heteroaromatic holigomer 6. Compound 6 was fully characterized by its elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and HRMS spectral data. The HMBC and HSQC techniques were used to ascertain the structural assignments. A comparative study on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of compounds 3, 4 and 6 was carried out to assess the SAR due to the transformations (from 3 to 6 via 4) on the tested compounds. It was found that compounds 6 and 4 were respectively the most active compounds against bacteria (MIC = 32-64 μg/ml) and yeasts (MIC = 16-64 μg/ml). Compound 6 also showed high radical-scavenging activities and ferric reducing power when compared with vitamin C and BHT used as reference antioxidants. PMID:27583034

  10. Active infection and morphometric study of Trypanosoma evansi among horses in Peninsula Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, E I; Sani, R A; Hassan, L; Sharma, R; Bashir, A; Abubakar, I A

    2013-09-01

    Apart from occasional reports of clinical disease affecting horses, there is no information about Trypanosoma evansi in horses in Peninsula Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted in eight states in Peninsula Malaysia to determine the active presence of T. evansi in horses. A total of 527 blood samples were obtained and examined by haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT), Giemsa-stained thin blood smear (GSS), morphometric measurements, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloning of PCR products. The results showed an overall parasitological prevalence of 0.57% (3/527, CI: 1.6-0.19%) with both HCT and GSS. Morphometric study revealed the mean total length of the trypanosomes including the free flagellum was 27.94 ± 2.63 μm. PCR successfully amplified a trypanosome specific 257 bp in 1.14% of samples (6/527, CI: 2.4-0.52%) and was confirmed by nucleotide sequences. The mean packed cell volume (PCV) for the positive cases detected by HCT was lower (23% ± 7.00) compared to the positive cases detected by PCR alone in the state of Terengganu (35% ± 4.73). In conclusion, this study showed T. evansi infection occurred in low frequency in horses in Peninsula Malaysia, and anaemia coincided with parasitaemic animals. PCR is considered as a sensitive diagnostic tool when parasitaemia is undetectable. The slight lengthier mean of parasite and anaemia may indicate a virulent strain of T. evansi circulating throughout the country. Thus, it's highly recommended to shed light on host-parasite relationship for better epidemiological understanding.

  11. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    This report is meant to highlight the activities of the 2003 field season, as well as to provide a general overview of the data collected. More in-depth data analysis will be conducted following the conclusion of each I phase of the research project, and in many cases will not be possible until several seasons of data are collected.

  12. Localised mitogenic activity in horses following infection with Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    McLean, R; Rash, N L; Robinson, C; Waller, A S; Paillot, R

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, a highly contagious upper respiratory disease of equids. Streptococcus equi produces superantigens (sAgs), which are thought to contribute to strangles pathogenicity through non-specific T-cell activation and pro-inflammatory response. Streptococcus equi infection induces abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck. In some individuals, some abscess material remains into the guttural pouch and inspissates over time to form chondroids which can harbour live S. equi. The aim of this study was to determine the sites of sAg production during infection and therefore improve our understanding of their role. Abscess material, chondroids and serum collected from Equidae with signs of strangles were tested in mitogenic assays. Mitogenic sAg activity was only detected in abscess material and chondroids. Our data support the localised in vivo activity of sAg during both acute and carrier phases of S. equi infection.

  13. Negative bias-and-temperature stress-assisted activation of oxygen-vacancy hole traps in 4H-silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettisserry, D. P.; Goldsman, N.; Akturk, A.; Lelis, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    We use hybrid-functional density functional theory-based Charge Transition Levels (CTLs) to study the electrical activity of near-interfacial oxygen vacancies located in the oxide side of 4H-Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). Based on the "amorphousness" of their local atomic environment, oxygen vacancies are shown to introduce their CTLs either within (permanently electrically active) or outside of (electrically inactive) the 4H-SiC bandgap. The "permanently electrically active" centers are likely to cause threshold voltage (Vth) instability at room temperature. On the other hand, we show that the "electrically inactive" defects could be transformed into various "electrically active" configurations under simultaneous application of negative bias and high temperature stresses. Based on this observation, we present a model for plausible oxygen vacancy defects that could be responsible for the recently observed excessive worsening of Vth instability in 4H-SiC power MOSFETs under high temperature-and-gate bias stress. This model could also explain the recent electrically detected magnetic resonance observations in 4H-SiC MOSFETs.

  14. An allolactose trapped at the lacZ β-galactosidase active site with its galactosyl moiety in a (4)H3 conformation provides insights into the formation, conformation, and stabilization of the transition state.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Robert W; Huber, Reuben E

    2015-12-01

    When lactose was incubated with G794A-β-galactosidase (a variant with a "closed" active site loop that binds transition state analogs well) an allolactose was trapped with its Gal moiety in a (4)H3 conformation, similar to the oxocarbenium ion-like conformation expected of the transition state. The numerous interactions formed between the (4)H3 structure and β-galactosidase indicate that this structure is representative of the transition state. This conformation is also very similar to that of d-galactono-1,5-lactone, a good transition state analog. Evidence indicates that substrates take up the (4)H3 conformation during migration from the shallow to the deep mode. Steric forces utilizing His418 and other residues are important for positioning the O1 leaving group into a quasi-axial position. An electrostatic interaction between the O5 of the distorted Gal and Tyr503 as well as C-H-π bonds with Trp568 are also significant. Computational studies of the energy of sugar ring distortion show that the β-galactosidase reaction itinerary is driven by energetic considerations in utilization of a (4)H3 transition state with a novel (4)C1-(4)H3-(4)C1 conformation itinerary. To our knowledge, this is the first X-ray crystallographic structural demonstration that the transition state of a natural substrate of a glycosidase has a (4)H3 conformation.

  15. An allolactose trapped at the lacZ β-galactosidase active site with its galactosyl moiety in a (4)H3 conformation provides insights into the formation, conformation, and stabilization of the transition state.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Robert W; Huber, Reuben E

    2015-12-01

    When lactose was incubated with G794A-β-galactosidase (a variant with a "closed" active site loop that binds transition state analogs well) an allolactose was trapped with its Gal moiety in a (4)H3 conformation, similar to the oxocarbenium ion-like conformation expected of the transition state. The numerous interactions formed between the (4)H3 structure and β-galactosidase indicate that this structure is representative of the transition state. This conformation is also very similar to that of d-galactono-1,5-lactone, a good transition state analog. Evidence indicates that substrates take up the (4)H3 conformation during migration from the shallow to the deep mode. Steric forces utilizing His418 and other residues are important for positioning the O1 leaving group into a quasi-axial position. An electrostatic interaction between the O5 of the distorted Gal and Tyr503 as well as C-H-π bonds with Trp568 are also significant. Computational studies of the energy of sugar ring distortion show that the β-galactosidase reaction itinerary is driven by energetic considerations in utilization of a (4)H3 transition state with a novel (4)C1-(4)H3-(4)C1 conformation itinerary. To our knowledge, this is the first X-ray crystallographic structural demonstration that the transition state of a natural substrate of a glycosidase has a (4)H3 conformation. PMID:26291713

  16. Using Relational Developmental Systems Theory to Link Program Goals, Activities, and Outcomes: The Sample Case of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Wang, Jun; Chase, Paul A.; Gutierrez, Akira S.; Harris, Elise M.; Rubin, Rachel O.; Yalin, Ceren

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary developmental science, relational development systems models have been used to frame the positive youth development (PYD) perspective, which posits that youth will thrive when there is alignment between their strengths and ecological resources in their context. Evidence from the 4-H Study of PYD indicates that out-of-school-time…

  17. Effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Nam; Lee, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living (ADLs) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Among 20 participants with stroke, 10 were randomly assigned to the experimental group, and 10 were randomly assigned to the control group. The experimental group participated in horse-riding exercise for 30 minutes per day, 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Balance was tested with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Gait was measured using the 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT). ADLs were tested with the Modified Barthel Index (MBI). Differences between pre- and post-experiment values within the two groups were compared using paired t-tests. Between-group differences were compared using independent t-tests. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvements in balance, gait, and ADLs following horse-riding exercise. Additionally, the experimental group showed significant differences in balance, gait, and ADLs compared with in the control group. [Conclusion] These results support that horse-riding exercise enhances balance, gait, and ADLs in stroke patients. This study supports the need for further research on horse-riding exercise programs. PMID:25931690

  18. The Preschooler: 4-H Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Connie M.

    Intended for 4-H participants who plan and implement activities in the area of child development, this booklet provides a study guide to help young learners: (1) gain understanding of a preschool child's physical, mental, social, and emotional growth; (2) learn to care for a preschooler and promote preschoolers' feelings of security and safety;…

  19. Negative bias-and-temperature stress-assisted activation of oxygen-vacancy hole traps in 4H-silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ettisserry, D. P. E-mail: neil@umd.edu; Goldsman, N. E-mail: neil@umd.edu; Akturk, A.; Lelis, A. J.

    2015-07-28

    We use hybrid-functional density functional theory-based Charge Transition Levels (CTLs) to study the electrical activity of near-interfacial oxygen vacancies located in the oxide side of 4H-Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). Based on the “amorphousness” of their local atomic environment, oxygen vacancies are shown to introduce their CTLs either within (permanently electrically active) or outside of (electrically inactive) the 4H-SiC bandgap. The “permanently electrically active” centers are likely to cause threshold voltage (V{sub th}) instability at room temperature. On the other hand, we show that the “electrically inactive” defects could be transformed into various “electrically active” configurations under simultaneous application of negative bias and high temperature stresses. Based on this observation, we present a model for plausible oxygen vacancy defects that could be responsible for the recently observed excessive worsening of V{sub th} instability in 4H-SiC power MOSFETs under high temperature-and-gate bias stress. This model could also explain the recent electrically detected magnetic resonance observations in 4H-SiC MOSFETs.

  20. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  1. Spectroscopic Identification of Y(C4H6) Isomers Formed by Yttrium-Mediated C-H Bond Activation of Butenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Y(C4H6) was observed from the reactions of laser-vaporized Y atom with 1-butene (CH2=CHCH2CH3) and iso-butene (CH2=C(CH3)2) in a pulsed molecular beam source, and its structural isomers were investigated with mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy combined with electronic structure calculations and spectral simulations. Y(C4H6) was identified as a five-membered metallacycle [Y(CH2-CH=CH-CH2)] from the Y + 1-butene reaction and a tetrahedral structure [YC(CH2)3] from the Y + iso-butene reaction. The metallacycle has a Cs structure with Y binding to the two terminal carbon atoms, whereas the tetrahedron has C3v symmetry with Y binding to the tertiary carbon atom of trimethylenemethane. Both isomers have a doublet ground state with the highest molecular orbital being largely a Y 5s character. Ionization removes the metal based electron, and the resultant singlet ion has a similar structure to the neutral complex. However, the adiabatic ionization energy [46309(5) cm-1] of the tetrahedron is considerably higher than that [43473(5) cm-1] of the cyclic structure.

  2. The effect of social stress on adrenal axis activity in horses: the importance of monitoring corticosteroid-binding globulin capacity.

    PubMed

    Alexander, S L; Irvine, C H

    1998-06-01

    Plasma cortisol is largely bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), which regulates its bioavailability by restricting exit from capillaries. Levels of CBG may be altered by several factors including stress and this can influence the amount of cortisol reaching cells. This study investigated the effect of social instability on plasma concentrations of CBG, total and free (not protein bound) cortisol in horses. Horses new to our research herd ('newcomers') were confined in a small yard with four dominant resident horses for 3-4 h daily for 3-4 (n = 5) or 9-14 (n = 3) days. Jugular blood was collected in the mornings from newcomers before the period of stress began ('pre-stress'), and then before each day's stress. Residents were bled before stress on the first and thirteenth day. Residents always behaved aggressively towards newcomers. By the end of the stress period, all newcomers were subordinate to residents. In newcomers (n = 8) after 3-4 days of social stress, CBG binding capacity had fallen (P = 0.0025), while free cortisol concentrations had risen (P = 0.0016) from pre-stress values. In contrast, total cortisol did not change. In residents, CBG had decreased slightly but significantly (P = 0.0162) after 12 days of stress. Residents and newcomers did not differ in pre-stress CBG binding capacity, total or free cortisol concentrations. However, by the second week of stress, CBG binding capacity was lower (P = 0.015) and free cortisol higher (P = 0.030) in newcomers (n = 3) than in residents. Total cortisol did not differ between the groups. In conclusion social stress clearly affected the adrenal axis of subordinate newcomer horses, lowering the binding capacity of CBG and raising free cortisol concentrations. However, no effect of stress could be detected when only total cortisol was measured. Therefore, to assess adrenal axis status accurately in horses, it is essential to monitor the binding capacity of CBG and free cortisol concentrations in addition

  3. Discovery of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as a new series of apoptosis inducers using a cell- and caspase-based high-throughput screening assay. 1. Structure-activity relationships of the 4-aryl group.

    PubMed

    Kemnitzer, William; Drewe, John; Jiang, Songchun; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Jianghong; Jia, Shaojuan; Herich, John; Labreque, Denis; Storer, Richard; Meerovitch, Karen; Bouffard, David; Rej, Rabindra; Denis, Real; Blais, Charles; Lamothe, Serge; Attardo, Giorgio; Gourdeau, Henriette; Tseng, Ben; Kasibhatla, Shailaja; Cai, Sui Xiong

    2004-12-01

    By applying a novel cell- and caspase-based HTS assay, 2-amino-3-cyano-7-(dimethylamino)-4-(3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyphenyl)-4H-chromene (1a) has been identified as a potent apoptosis inducer. Compound 1a was found to induce nuclear fragmentation and PARP cleavage, as well as to arrest cells at the G(2)/M stage and to induce apoptosis as determined by the flow cytometry analysis assay in multiple human cell lines (e.g. Jurkat, T47D). Through structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the 4-aryl group, a 4- and 7-fold increase in potency was obtained from the screening hit 1a to the lead compounds 2-amino-4-(3-bromo-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-cyano-7-(dimethylamino)-4H-chromene (1c) and 2-amino-3-cyano-7-(dimethylamino)-4-(5-methyl-3-pyridyl)-4H-chromene (4e), with an EC(50) of 19 and 11 nM in the caspase activation assay in T47D breast cancer cells, respectively. The 2-amino-4-aryl-3-cyano-7-(dimethylamino)-4H-chromenes also were found to be highly active in the growth inhibition MTT assay, with GI(50) values in the low nanomolar range for compound 1c. Significantly, compound 1c was found to have a GI(50) value of 2 nM in the paclitaxel resistant, p-glycoprotein overexpressed, MES-SA/DX5 tumor cells. Functionally, compound 1c was found to be a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization and to effectively inhibit the binding of colchicine to tubulin. These results confirm that the cell-based caspase activation assay is a powerful tool for the discovery of potent apoptosis inducers and suggest that the 4-aryl-4H-chromenes have the potential to be developed into future anticancer agents.

  4. Cellular Trojan horse based polymer nanoreactors with light-sensitive activity.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Patric; Spulber, Mariana; Dinu, Ionel Adrian; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2014-08-01

    production, stability, and Trojan horse activity inside cells support our light-sensitive nanoreactors for medical applications which require ROS to be generated with precise time and space control.

  5. 4-H in the 70's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Developed under the leadership of the 1970 and 1971 Extension Committee on Organization and Policy 4-H Youth Subcommittees, the brochure offers a statement of potential and new directions for Extension 4-H youth programs. Opening sections deal with the functions of 4-H and balanced 4-H program expansion to serve seven million youth. Succeeding…

  6. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

    PubMed Central

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  7. The effect of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A injections on motor unit activity of the deep digital flexor muscle in healthy sound Royal Dutch sport horses.

    PubMed

    Wijnberg, Inge D; Hardeman, Lotte C; van der Meij, Bram R; Veraa, Stefanie; Back, Willem; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2013-12-01

    Therapeutic reduction of the activity of the deep digital flexor (DDF) muscle may play a role in treatment of laminitic horses. Clostridium botulinum toxin type A induces reduced muscle activity and has a spasmolytic effect in horses. In this study, the effectiveness of 200 IU C. botulinum toxin type A on reduction of DDF muscle activity was measured in seven healthy, sound, adult Royal Dutch sport horses. C. botulinum toxin type A was injected using ultrasound and electromyographic (EMG) guidance. The effectiveness was assessed by interference pattern analysis (IPA) and motor unit action potential (MUAP) analysis. All needle EMG MUAP variables, along with IPA amplitude/turn and turns/s, were significantly reduced after C. botulinum toxin type A injections. The strongest effect occurred within the first 3 days after injection. The reduced muscle induced by C. botulinum toxin type A may have benefits in the treatment of horses with laminitis. PMID:24360760

  8. Ceria-Vanadia/Silica-Catalyzed Cascade for C-C and C-O Bond Activation: Green One-Pot Synthesis of 2-Amino-3-cyano-4H-pyrans.

    PubMed

    Maddila, Surya Narayana; Maddila, Suresh; van Zyl, Werner E; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-02-01

    We designed a ceria-vanadia/silica (Ce-V/SiO2) heterogeneous catalyst and used it for the green and efficient synthesis of 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-pyran derivatives. The green reaction was a multicomponent one-pot condensation of 5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione, aromatic aldehyde, and malononitrile in an eco-compatible solvent (ethanol). The catalyst was synthesized and fully characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The reported procedure offers a number of advantages including decreased reaction times, mild conditions, high yields, operational simplicity, and environmentally benign and simple work-up procedures. Furthermore, the catalyst is economical, fully recyclable, and reusable for over five runs while preserving its high activity. The synthesized 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-pyran products can later be used for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27308209

  9. Ceria-Vanadia/Silica-Catalyzed Cascade for C-C and C-O Bond Activation: Green One-Pot Synthesis of 2-Amino-3-cyano-4H-pyrans.

    PubMed

    Maddila, Surya Narayana; Maddila, Suresh; van Zyl, Werner E; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-02-01

    We designed a ceria-vanadia/silica (Ce-V/SiO2) heterogeneous catalyst and used it for the green and efficient synthesis of 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-pyran derivatives. The green reaction was a multicomponent one-pot condensation of 5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione, aromatic aldehyde, and malononitrile in an eco-compatible solvent (ethanol). The catalyst was synthesized and fully characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The reported procedure offers a number of advantages including decreased reaction times, mild conditions, high yields, operational simplicity, and environmentally benign and simple work-up procedures. Furthermore, the catalyst is economical, fully recyclable, and reusable for over five runs while preserving its high activity. The synthesized 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-pyran products can later be used for pharmaceutical purposes.

  10. Local and remote lesions in horses subjected to small colon distension and decompression

    PubMed Central

    Faleiros, Rafael R.; Macoris, Delphim G.; Alves, Geraldo Eleno S.; Souza, Danielle G.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Moore, Rustin M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe and characterize colonic and lung lesions in horses subjected to experimental distension and decompression of the small colon. Sixteen healthy adult horses were divided into 2 groups: 9 horses that were subjected to distension of the small colon by means of a latex balloon surgically implanted in the lumen and inflated to a pressure of 40 mm Hg for 4 h, and 7 horses in which the balloon was implanted but not inflated. Colonic biopsy specimens were collected before balloon implantation, at the end of the period of obstruction, and 1.5 and 12 h after decompression and were examined for hemorrhage, edema, and neutrophil infiltration; myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and hemoglobin concentration were measured as well. At the end of the experiment, lung samples were also collected and examined for neutrophil accumulation and MPO activity. The mucosa was not affected by luminal distension; lesions were restricted to the seromuscular layer. Neutrophil accumulation and edema were observed in the samples from both groups of horses but were greater in those from the distension group, in which there was also hemorrhage, fibrin deposition, and increased MPO activity in the seromuscular layer. Similarly, there was greater accumulation of neutrophils in the lung samples from the distension group than in those from the sham-operated group, as determined by histologic evaluation and MPO assay. These findings provide new evidence of reperfusion injury and a systemic inflammatory response, followed by remote lesions, in horses with intestinal obstruction. PMID:18214165

  11. One-pot catalyst free synthesis of novel kojic acid tagged 2-aryl/alkyl substituted-4H-chromenes and evaluation of their antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities.

    PubMed

    Bingi, Chiranjeevi; Emmadi, Narender Reddy; Chennapuram, Madhu; Poornachandra, Y; Kumar, C Ganesh; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Atmakur, Krishnaiah

    2015-05-01

    A number of 3-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-yl)-4H-pyran-4-ones (3) have been synthesized in a one pot catalyst free reaction of 2-hydroxy chalcone (1) with kojic acid (2) in toluene at reflux temperature and evaluated for antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities. Compounds 3a, 3e, 3f, 3l showed potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus MLS-16 MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 and Escherichia coli MTCC 739, whereas 3b and 3k exhibited excellent activity against Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 and Escherichia coli MTCC 739, while 3g showed promising activity against Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 and Escherichia coli MTCC 739. On the other hand, compounds 3a, 3b and 3l showed very good anti-biofilm activity and 3g showed moderate activity against Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121. Whereas, compounds 3a and 3f showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli MTCC 739, while compounds 3a, 3b, 3k and 3l displayed similar activity against Staphylococcus aureus MLS-16 MTCC 2940.

  12. Quality evaluation of physical properties, antinutritional factors, and antioxidant activity of bread fortified with germinated horse gram (Dolichus uniflorus) flour.

    PubMed

    Moktan, Karishma; Ojha, Pravin

    2016-09-01

    Horse gram was germinated at 90% RH at 25°C for 72 h after 24 h soaking and then grinded to pass through 150 μm mesh size screens. The germination of horse gram result in increased protein, fiber, total polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity of horse gram flour whereas fat, ash, carbohydrate, iron, calcium, tannin, phytate, and oxalate were reduced due to germination. Bread was prepared by the incorporation of (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) germinated horse gram flour (GHF) by a straight dough method. The loaf volume and specific volume decreased with an increased use of percentage of GHF. The sensory evaluation revealed that the incorporation of GHF up to 6% was acceptable. The protein (% db), fiber (% db), ash (% db), iron (mg/100 g), calcium (mg/100 g), tannin (mg/g), phytate (mg/g), oxalate (mg/g), total polyphenol content (GAE/g), and antioxidant activity (DPPH % inhibition) was found to be 9.08 ± 0.01, 1.23 ± 0.15, 1.36 ± 0.11, 4.07 ± 0.03, 128 ± 0.26, 2.06 ± 0.15, 2.46 ± 0.15, 0.7 ± 0.1, 12.44 ± 0.40, and 31.13 ± 0.25, respectively, in 6% GHF incorporated bread. The research concludes that 6% GHF incorporation in bread enhance the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties. PMID:27625781

  13. Parturition in horses is dominated by parasympathetic activity of the autonomous nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Christina; Erber, Regina; Ille, Natascha; von Lewinski, Mareike; Aurich, Jörg; Möstl, Erich; Aurich, Christine

    2014-07-01

    External and internal stressors prolong parturition in different species. At parturition, sympathoadrenal activation should be avoided because an increased sympathetic tone may cause uterine atonia via β2-receptors. We hypothesized that at physiological parturition, horses are under parasympathetic dominance, and stress-response mechanisms are not activated during delivery of the foal. To evaluate stress responses, heart rate, heart rate variability, catecholamines, and cortisol were analyzed in mares (n = 17) throughout foaling. Heart rate decreased from 2 hours before (51 ± 1 beats/minute) to 2 hours after delivery (41 ± 2 beats/minute; P < 0.05). Heart rate variability variables, standard deviation of the beat-to-beat interval, and root mean square of successive beat-to-beat differences, changed over time (P < 0.05) with the highest values within 15 minutes after delivery. The number of mares with atrioventricular blocks and the number of atrioventricular blocks per mare increased over time (P < 0.01) and were significantly elevated from 15 minutes before to 45 minutes after birth of the foal. Salivary cortisol concentrations increased to a maximum at 30 minutes after delivery (25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL; P < 0.01). Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations showed significant fluctuations from rupture of the allantochorion to expulsion of the fetal membranes (P < 0.01) but were not markedly elevated at any time. In conclusion, mares give birth under high parasympathetic tone. Cortisol release during and after foaling is most likely part of the endocrine pathways regulating parturition and not a labor-associated stress response.

  14. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL AND SURGICAL VASECTOMY ON TESTICULAR ACTIVITY IN FREE-ROAMING HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS).

    PubMed

    Scully, Clare M; Lee, Rebecca L; Pielstick, Leon; Medlock, Jan; Patton, Kristin M; Collins, Gail H; Kutzler, Michelle A

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming horse (Equus caballus) management is a complex issue incorporating social, economic, emotional, political, and environmental factors. Currently, few proven field techniques exist for managing free-roaming horse population growth, which can reach 20-25% annually. Although there are several strategies available for sterilizing mares when managing free-roaming horse populations, surgical vasectomy is the only method used in the field for stallions. Some managers believe that surgically vasectomizing dominant stallions would have significant effects on reducing horse populations. However, sterilizing only dominant harem stallions results in a relatively modest reduction in population growth as substantial reproduction may occur even when 100% of the dominant harem stallions are sterilized if other males perform as little as 10% of the breeding. The overall goal of the current project was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel nonsurgical method for sterilizing free-roaming horses (chemical vasectomy). In September of 2013, stallions that had been previously surgically vasectomized (SURG, n = 25), previously chemically vasectomized (CHEM, n = 16), or untreated (CONT, n = 32) were captured and surgically castrated in preparation for adoption. When comparing both sterilization methods to CONT, serum testosterone and estrone sulfate concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05), suggesting that these methods for sterilizing free-roaming stallions would not disrupt herd social hierarchy. However, similar to the CONT, all CHEM stallions had sperm present within the vas deferens seminal fluid samples. CHEM stallions had more morphologically abnormal sperm than did CONT stallions but it is not known if this affected the actual fertility. Additional research is needed using alternative sclerosing agents for chemical vasectomy in free-roaming horse populations.

  15. 1H-NMR comparative study of the active site in shark (Galeorhinus japonicus), horse, and sperm whale deoxy myoglobins.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Iwafune, K; Chûjô, R; Inoue, Y; Imai, K; Suzuki, T

    1992-09-01

    1H-NMR spectra of deoxy myoglobins (Mbs) from shark (Galeorhinus japonicus), horse, and sperm whale have been studied to gain insights into their active site structure. It has been demonstrated for the first time that nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) can be observed between heme peripheral side-chain proton resonances of these paramagnetic complexes. Val-E11 methyl and His-F8 C delta H proton resonances of these Mbs were also assigned from the characteristic shift and line width. The hyperfine shift of the former resonance was used to calculate the magnetic anisotropy of the protein. The shift analysis of the latter resonance, together with the previously assigned His-F8 N delta H proton resonance, revealed that the strain on the Fe-N epsilon bond is in the order horse Mb approximately whale Mb < shark Mb and that the hydrogen bond strength of the His-F8 N delta H proton to the main-chain carbonyl oxygen in the preceding turn of the F helix is in the order shark Mb < horse Mb < whale Mb. Weaker Feporphyrin interaction in shark Mb was manifested in a smaller shift of the heme methyl proton resonance and appears to result from distortion of the coordination geometry in this Mb. Larger strain on the Fe-N epsilon bond in shark Mb should be to some extent attributed to its lowered O2 affinity (P50 = 1.1 mmHg at 20 degrees C), compared to whale and horse Mbs.

  16. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  17. Engaging Library Partners in 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Nia Imani; Rafferty, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    When most people think about 4-H, they remember county fairs, livestock programs, and agricultural education. While these programs are still prominent, 4-H has grown in order to meet the growing demands of today's youth. The organization has expanded services and programs to serve rural, suburban, and urban youth in every state in the U.S. 4-H is…

  18. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  19. Georgia 4-H Consumer Judging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Mary Ellen; Hall, Doris N.

    Materials are provided for a consumer education activity designed to help teenagers make knowledgeable, rational decisions when purchasing goods and services. A student manual describes how the activity--a consumer judging contest--works. Information is provided on how consumers make decisions. Topics include: needs versus wants; sources of…

  20. Imidazolium Sulfonates as Environmental-Friendly Catalytic Systems for the Synthesis of Biologically Active 2-Amino-4H-chromenes: Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Jacinto; Pérez-Mayoral, Elena; Calvino-Casilda, Vanesa; López-Peinado, Antonio J; Bañares, Miguel A; Soriano, Elena

    2015-09-10

    Ionic Liquids (ILs) are valuable reaction media extremely useful in industrial sustainable organic synthesis. We describe here the study on the multicomponent reaction (MCR) between salicylaldehyde (2) and ethyl cyanoacetate (3), catalyzed by imidazolium sulfonates, to form chromenes 1, a class of heterocyclic scaffolds exhibiting relevant biological activity. We have clarified the reaction mechanism by combining the experimental results with computational studies. The results reported herein suggest that both the imidazolium core and the sulfonate anions in the selected ILs are involved in the reaction course acting as hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, respectively. Contrarily to the most widely accepted mechanism through initial Knoevenagel condensation, the most favorable reaction pathway consists of an aldolic reaction between reagents followed by heterocyclization, subsequent dehydration, and, finally, the Michael addition of the second molecule of ethyl cyanoacetate (3) to yield the chromenes 1. PMID:26301460

  1. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables

    PubMed Central

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary A new web tool for equine activities, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. The aim of the safety section of the web tool was to raise awareness of safety issues in daily horse stable activities. This section contains a safety checklist, stable safety map and good practices to support human health and horse welfare and to prevent injuries in horse-related activities. Reviews of the literature and statistics, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were utilized in designing the web tool. Abstract Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  2. Neutron activation analysis of sources of raw material of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Warriors and Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhengyao; Zhao, Weijuan; Li, Guoxia; Xie, Jianzhong; Han, Guohe; Feng, Songlin; Fan, Dongyu; Zhang, Ying; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Rongwu; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Junxiao

    2003-02-01

    There have been selected 83 samples of terracotta warriors and horses of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s Mausoleum, 20 samples of clays taken from around Qin’s Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. All these samples have been measured by instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and as many as 32 kinds of element contents of each sample are measured. The following conclusion has been reached when fuzzy cluster analysis is conducted to element contents of all these samples: (i) The samples are roughly classified into five categories: namely, samples from pits No. 1 and No. 2; samples from pit No. 3; loam layers; the mixture of loam and loess; and Yaozhou porcelain bodies. (ii) The terracotta warriors and horses in pits No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 are relatively independent from one another. The clays from which they were made are not entirely identical. We have found that samples in pit No. 3 are very closely related and their clay sources are comparatively concentrated. Samples in pits No. 1 and No. 2 are less related and their clay sources are comparatively scattered. (iii) The clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made are closely related to the loam layer near Qin’s Mausoleum, particularly to the loam layer of Zaoyuan village and Gaoxing village, but they are not so related to loess layers there, nor to the loam layers of Anhoubao, even less related to Yaozhou porcelain bodies. A rational deduction thus drawn is that the raw material of clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made might probably be taken from loam layers around Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, or loam layers near Qin’s Mausoleum whose properties are identical with those of loam layers of Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, rather than loess layers around the above places. Since the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses was taken from loam near Qin’s Mausoleum, it could be deducted that the kiln sites might be located in around Qin’s Mausoleum.

  3. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Energy Project. 4-H Member's E-Book, Unit 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 1 (ages 9-11) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. In this project, members are required to: (1) use energy wisely by closing doors and turning off lights; (2) inspecting homes for energy use at least once; (3) judging the best use of lighting in a home; (4) sharing ideas about energy use in a…

  4. Fossil Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFadden, Bruce J.

    1994-06-01

    The family Equidae have an extensive fossil record spanning the past 58 million years, and the evolution of the horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution. In recent years, however, there have been many important discoveries of fossil horses, and these, in conjunction with such new methods as cladistics, and techniques such as precise geochronology, have allowed us to achieve a much greater understanding of the evolution and biology of this important group. This book synthesizes the large body of data and research relevant to an understanding of fossil horses from several disciplines including biology, geology and paleontology. Using horses as the central theme, the author weaves together in the text such topics as modern geochronology, paleobiogeography, climate change, evolution and extinction, functional morphology, and population biology during the Cenozoic period. This book will be exciting reading for researchers and graduate students in vertebrate paleontology, evolution, and zoology.

  5. The effects of horse riding simulation exercise on muscle activation and limits of stability in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of horse riding simulation (HRS) on balance and trunk muscle activation as well as to provide evidence of the therapeutic benefits of the exercise. Thirty elderly subjects were recruited from a medical care hospital and randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group performed the HRS exercise for 20 min, 5 times a week, for 8 weeks, and conventional therapy was also provided as usual. The muscle activation and limits of stability (LOS) were measured. The LOS significantly increased in the HRS group (p<0.05) but not in the control group (p>0.05). The activation of all muscles significantly increased in the HRS group. However, in the control group, the muscle activations of the lateral low-back (external oblique and quadratus lumborum) and gluteus medius (GM) significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in other muscles. After the intervention, the LOS and all muscle activations significantly increased in the HRS group compared with the control group. The results suggest that the HRS exercise is effective for reducing the overall risk of falling in the elderly. Thus, it is believed that horse riding exercise would help to increase dynamic stability and to prevent elderly people from falling.

  6. The effects of horse riding simulation exercise on muscle activation and limits of stability in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of horse riding simulation (HRS) on balance and trunk muscle activation as well as to provide evidence of the therapeutic benefits of the exercise. Thirty elderly subjects were recruited from a medical care hospital and randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group performed the HRS exercise for 20 min, 5 times a week, for 8 weeks, and conventional therapy was also provided as usual. The muscle activation and limits of stability (LOS) were measured. The LOS significantly increased in the HRS group (p<0.05) but not in the control group (p>0.05). The activation of all muscles significantly increased in the HRS group. However, in the control group, the muscle activations of the lateral low-back (external oblique and quadratus lumborum) and gluteus medius (GM) significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in other muscles. After the intervention, the LOS and all muscle activations significantly increased in the HRS group compared with the control group. The results suggest that the HRS exercise is effective for reducing the overall risk of falling in the elderly. Thus, it is believed that horse riding exercise would help to increase dynamic stability and to prevent elderly people from falling. PMID:25465508

  7. Cardiolipin modulates allosterically the nitrite reductase activity of horse heart cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria; Polticelli, Fabio; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    Upon cardiolipin (CL) liposomes binding, horse heart cytochrome c (cytc) changes its tertiary structure disrupting the heme-Fe-Met80 distal bond, reduces drastically the midpoint potential, binds CO and NO with high affinity, displays peroxidase activity, and facilitates peroxynitrite isomerization. Here, the effect of CL liposomes on the nitrite reductase activity of ferrous cytc (cytc-Fe(II)) is reported. In the absence of CL liposomes, hexa-coordinated cytc-Fe(II) displays a very low value of the apparent second-order rate constant for the NO2 (-)-mediated conversion of cytc-Fe(II) to cytc-Fe(II)-NO (k on = (7.3 ± 0.7) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1); at pH 7.4 and 20.0 °C). However, CL liposomes facilitate the NO2 (-)-mediated nitrosylation of cytc-Fe(II) in a dose-dependent manner inducing the penta-coordination of the heme-Fe(II) atom. The value of k on for the NO2 (-)-mediated conversion of CL-cytc-Fe(II) to CL-cytc-Fe(II)-NO is 2.6 ± 0.3 M(-1) s(-1) (at pH 7.4 and 20.0 °C). Values of the apparent dissociation equilibrium constant for CL liposomes binding to cytc-Fe(II) are (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(-6) M, (1.8 ± 0.2) × 10(-6) M, and (1.4 ± 0.2) × 10(-6) M at pH 6.5, 7.4, and 8.1, respectively, and 20.0 °C. These results suggest that the NO2 (-)-mediated conversion of CL-cytc-Fe(II) to CL-cytc-Fe(II)-NO could play anti-apoptotic effects impairing lipid peroxidation and therefore the initiation of the cell death program by the release of pro-apoptotic factors (including cytc) in the cytoplasm. PMID:24969400

  8. The nitrite reductase activity of horse heart carboxymethylated-cytochrome c is modulated by cardiolipin.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Sbardella, Diego; Sinibaldi, Federica; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Horse heart carboxymethylated cytc (CM-cytc) displays myoglobin-like properties. Here, the effect of cardiolipin (CL) liposomes on the nitrite reductase activity of ferrous CM-cytc [CM-cytc-Fe(II)], in the presence of sodium dithionite, is reported between pH 5.5 and 7.6, at 20.0 °C. Cytc-Fe(II) displays a very low value of the apparent second-order rate constant for the NO2 (-)-mediated conversion of cytc-Fe(II) to cytc-Fe(II)-NO [k on = (7.3 ± 0.7) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1); at pH 7.4], whereas the value of k on for NO2 (-) reduction by CM-cytc-Fe(II) is 1.1 ± 0.2 M(-1) s(-1) (at pH 7.4). CL facilitates the NO2 (-)-mediated nitrosylation of CM-cytc-Fe(II) in a dose-dependent manner, the value of k on for the NO2 (-)-mediated conversion of CL-CM-cytc-Fe(II) to CL-CM-cytc-Fe(II)-NO (5.6 ± 0.6 M(-1) s(-1); at pH 7.4) being slightly higher than that for the NO2 (-)-mediated conversion of CL-cytc-Fe(II) to CL-cytc-Fe(II)-NO (2.6 ± 0.3 M(-1) s(-1); at pH 7.4). The apparent affinity of CL for CM-cytc-Fe(II) is essentially pH independent, the average value of B being (1.3 ± 0.3) × 10(-6) M. In the absence and presence of CL liposomes, the nitrite reductase activity of CM-cytc-Fe(II) increases linearly on lowering pH and the values of the slope of the linear fittings of Log k on versus pH are -1.05 ± 0.07 and -1.03 ± 0.03, respectively, reflecting the involvement of one proton for the formation of the transient ferric form, NO, and OH(-). These results indicate that Met80 carboxymethylation and CL binding cooperate in the stabilization of the highly reactive heme-Fe atom of CL-CM-cytc. PMID:27010463

  9. 4-H Clover Awareness Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Barbara; Leach, Jennifer

    The purpose of this teaching guide is to introduce children in grades 1-4 and their parents to the 4-H program without the long-term commitment of the traditional 4-H club. The 4-H Clover Awareness Program was designed as an after-school program; however, it could be used in other settings such as a day camp. In addition to introducing children to…

  10. Discovery of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as a new series of apoptosis inducers using a cell- and caspase-based high-throughput screening assay. 2. Structure-activity relationships of the 7- and 5-, 6-, 8-positions.

    PubMed

    Kemnitzer, William; Kasibhatla, Shailaja; Jiang, Songchun; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Jianghong; Jia, Shaojuan; Xu, Lifen; Crogan-Grundy, Candace; Denis, Réal; Barriault, Nancy; Vaillancourt, Louis; Charron, Sylvie; Dodd, Jennifer; Attardo, Giorgio; Labrecque, Denis; Lamothe, Serge; Gourdeau, Henriette; Tseng, Ben; Drewe, John; Cai, Sui Xiong

    2005-11-01

    As a continuation of our efforts to discover and develop the apoptosis inducing 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as novel anticancer agents, we explored the SAR of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes with modifications at the 7- and 5-, 6-, 8-positions. It was found that a small hydrophobic group, such as NMe2, NH2, NHEt, and OMe, is preferred at the 7-position. Di-substitution at either the 5,7-positions or the 6,7-positions generally led to a large decrease in potency. Di-substitution at the 7,8-positions, in general, was found to result in potent compounds. 7-NMe2, 7-NHEt, 7-OMe, and 7,8-di-NH2 analogs were found to have similar SAR for the 4-aryl group, and several 7-substituted and 7,8-di-substituted analogs were found to have similar potencies as the lead compound MX58151 (2a) both as caspase activators and inhibitors of cell proliferation.

  11. In vitro anticancer activity of Betulinic acid and derivatives thereof on equine melanoma cell lines from grey horses and in vivo safety assessment of the compound NVX-207 in two horses.

    PubMed

    Liebscher, G; Vanchangiri, K; Mueller, Th; Feige, K; Cavalleri, J-M V; Paschke, R

    2016-02-25

    Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, and its derivatives are promising compounds for cancer treatment in humans. Melanoma is not only a problem for humans but also for grey horses as they have a high potential of developing melanoma lesions coupled to the mutation causing their phenotype. Current chemotherapeutic treatment carries the risk of adverse health effects for the horse owner or the treating veterinarian by exposure to antineoplastic compounds. Most treatments have low prospects for systemic tumor regression. Thus, a new therapy is needed. In this in vitro study, Betulinic acid and its two derivatives B10 and NVX-207, both with an improved water solubility compared to Betulinic acid, were tested on two equine melanoma cell lines (MelDuWi and MellJess/HoMelZh) and human melanoma (A375) cell line. We could demonstrate that all three compounds especially NVX-207 show high cytotoxicity on both equine melanoma cell lines. The treatment with these compounds lead to externalization of phosphatidylserines on the cell membrane (AnnexinV-staining), DNA-fragmentation (cell cycle analysis) and activation of initiator and effector caspases (Caspase assays). Our results indicate that the apoptosis is induced in the equine melanoma cells by all three compounds. Furthermore, we succeed in encapsulating the most active compound NVX-207 in 2-Hydroxyprolyl-β-cyclodextrine without a loss of its activity. This formulation can be used as a promising antitumor agent for treating grey horse melanoma. In a first tolerability evaluation in vivo the formulation was administered every one week for 19 consecutive weeks and well tolerated in two adult melanoma affected horses. PMID:26772157

  12. In vitro anticancer activity of Betulinic acid and derivatives thereof on equine melanoma cell lines from grey horses and in vivo safety assessment of the compound NVX-207 in two horses.

    PubMed

    Liebscher, G; Vanchangiri, K; Mueller, Th; Feige, K; Cavalleri, J-M V; Paschke, R

    2016-02-25

    Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, and its derivatives are promising compounds for cancer treatment in humans. Melanoma is not only a problem for humans but also for grey horses as they have a high potential of developing melanoma lesions coupled to the mutation causing their phenotype. Current chemotherapeutic treatment carries the risk of adverse health effects for the horse owner or the treating veterinarian by exposure to antineoplastic compounds. Most treatments have low prospects for systemic tumor regression. Thus, a new therapy is needed. In this in vitro study, Betulinic acid and its two derivatives B10 and NVX-207, both with an improved water solubility compared to Betulinic acid, were tested on two equine melanoma cell lines (MelDuWi and MellJess/HoMelZh) and human melanoma (A375) cell line. We could demonstrate that all three compounds especially NVX-207 show high cytotoxicity on both equine melanoma cell lines. The treatment with these compounds lead to externalization of phosphatidylserines on the cell membrane (AnnexinV-staining), DNA-fragmentation (cell cycle analysis) and activation of initiator and effector caspases (Caspase assays). Our results indicate that the apoptosis is induced in the equine melanoma cells by all three compounds. Furthermore, we succeed in encapsulating the most active compound NVX-207 in 2-Hydroxyprolyl-β-cyclodextrine without a loss of its activity. This formulation can be used as a promising antitumor agent for treating grey horse melanoma. In a first tolerability evaluation in vivo the formulation was administered every one week for 19 consecutive weeks and well tolerated in two adult melanoma affected horses.

  13. Plasma myeloperoxidase level and polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation in horses suffering from large intestinal obstruction requiring surgery: preliminary results.

    PubMed Central

    Grulke, S; Benbarek, H; Caudron, I; Deby-Dupont, G; Mathy-Hartert, M; Farnir, F; Deby, C; Lamy, M; Serteyn, D

    1999-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a significantly higher plasma level of MPO in horses operated for strangulation obstruction of the large intestine (n = 6) than in horses suffering from a non-strangulating displacement of the large intestine (n = 9). For the 2 groups, 3 phases were distinguished: reception (P1), intensive care (P2) and terminal phase (P3). The mean peak values of MPO for these phases were 121.6 ng/mL (P1), 168.6 ng/mL (P2), and 107.0 ng/mL (P3) for the non-strangulating group, and 242.6 ng/mL (P1); 426.0 ng/mL (P2), and 379.5 ng/mL (P3) for the strangulation group. The variations of the mean peak values of plasma MPO were significantly different between the 2 groups and between the different phases. A significant increase of the least square means of MPO was observed between P1 and P2. A significant decrease of the least square means of the number of circulating leukocytes was observed between P1 and P3. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation could play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute abdominal disease and endotoxic shock. PMID:10369573

  14. Synthesis of some new 1,2,4-triazole derivatives starting from 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol with anti-lipase and anti-urease activities.

    PubMed

    Bekircan, Olcay; Menteşe, Emre; Ulker, Serdar; Kucuk, Cagatay

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, starting compound 4 was prepared by deamination of compound 2 in the presence of hypophosphorous acid and sodium nitrite. Treatment of compound 4 with ethyl bromoacetate produced ethyl[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]acetate (5), which was converted to the hydrazide derivative (6) by treatment with hydrazine hydrate. The reaction of compound 6 with aromatic aldehydes resulted in the formation of arylidene hydrazides (7). Treatment of 6 with CS2 in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH), followed by cyclization with hydrazine hydrate, afforded 4-amino-5-{[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]methyl}-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione (9). The condensation of 9 with appropriate aldehydes gave Schiff bases (10), which were converted into Mannich bases (11) in the presence of formaldehyde. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-lipase and anti-urease activities. Compounds 7b, 7d, 11b, 11c, and 11d showed moderate-to-good lipase inhibitory effects compared to orlistat. Compounds 7b and 7d exhibited better anti-lipase activity. Furthermore, among the compounds tested, 11a and 11d were found to show high inhibitory effect against urease with IC50 values of 12.39 ± 0.35 and 16.12 ± 1.06 µg/mL, respectively. Compound 11c showed moderate inhibitory activity. The Mannich base containing compound 11 may be a source of good leads for the synthesis of lipase and urease dual inhibitors.

  15. The Toddler: 4-H Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Connie M.

    Part of a series for 4-H members between 9 and 19 years of age, this age-graded guide is designed to help children and adolescents: (1) understand the toddler's physical, mental, social, and emotional growth; (2) learn to care for a toddler; and (3) choose types of play that toddlers enjoy. Contents include suggestions on projects that 4-H members…

  16. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:…

  17. Community Development: A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheneman, C. Stephen

    State progress reports on the 4-H/Community Development program, a 1973 nationwide Federally sponsored program facilitating youth in community decision-making processes, indicate that the program appears to be evolving into a viable and integral part of the total 4-H program. Although the report describes unique program features of various States,…

  18. Sodium diffusion in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Linnarsson, M. K. Hallén, A.

    2014-09-01

    Sodium diffusion has been studied in p-type 4H-SiC. Heat treatments have been performed from 1200 °C to 1800 °C for 1 min to 4 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to measure the sodium distribution. We show that sodium has a considerable mobility at 1200 °C in p-type 4H-SiC. On the other hand for sodium atoms trapped at suitable sites the mobility is limited up to 1800 °C. Trap limited diffusion kinetics is suggested and an effective diffusivity has been extracted with an activation energy of 4 eV for sodium diffusion in p-type 4H-SiC.

  19. QSAR Study on Anti-HIV-1 Activity of 4-Oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline and 4-Oxo-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine Derivatives Using SW-MLR, Artificial Neural Network and Filtering Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hajimahdi, Zahra; Ranjbar, Amin; Abolfazl Suratgar, Amir; Zarghi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Predictive quantitative structure–activity relationship was performed on the novel4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline and 4-oxo-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives to explore relationship between the structure of synthesized compounds and their anti-HIV-1 activities. In this way, the suitable set of the molecular descriptors was calculated and the important descriptors using the variable selections of the stepwise technique were selected. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) as nonlinear system were used for constructing QSAR models. The predictive quality of the quantitative structure–activity relationship models was tested for an external set of five compounds, randomly chosen out of 25 compounds. The findings exhibited that stepwise-ANN model was more efficient at prediction activity of both training and test sets with high statistical qualities. Based on QSAR models results, electronegativity, the atomic masses, the atomic van der Waals volumes, the molecular symmetry and polarizability were found to be important factors controlling the anti-HIV-1 activity. PMID:26185507

  20. Megazol and its bioisostere 4H-1,2,4-triazole: comparing the trypanocidal, cytotoxic and genotoxic activities and their in vitro and in silico interactions with the Trypanosoma brucei nitroreductase enzyme

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Alcione Silva; Salomão, Kelly; de Castro, Solange Lisboa; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena Pereira da Silva; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl; Hall, Belinda Suzette; Wilkinson, Shane Robert; Boechat, Núbia

    2014-01-01

    Megazol (7) is a 5-nitroimidazole that is highly active against Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, as well as drug-resistant forms of trypanosomiasis. Compound 7 is not used clinically due to its mutagenic and genotoxic properties, but has been largely used as a lead compound. Here, we compared the activity of 7 with its 4H-1,2,4-triazole bioisostere (8) in bloodstream forms of T. brucei and T. cruzi and evaluated their activation by T. brucei type I nitroreductase (TbNTR) enzyme. We also analysed the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of these compounds in whole human blood using Comet and fluorescein diacetate/ethidium bromide assays. Although the only difference between 7 and 8 is the substitution of sulphur (in the thiadiazole in 7) for nitrogen (in the triazole in 8), the results indicated that 8 had poorer antiparasitic activity than 7 and was not genotoxic, whereas 7 presented this effect. The determination of Vmax indicated that although 8 was metabolised more rapidly than 7, it bounds to the TbNTR with better affinity, resulting in equivalent kcat/KM values. Docking assays of 7 and 8 performed within the active site of a homology model of the TbNTR indicating that 8 had greater affinity than 7. PMID:24676659

  1. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 2 (ages 12-14) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) a word search of energy-related words (with definitions provided); (2) determining fuel waste; (3) reading electric/gas meters and…

  2. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 3 (ages 15-19) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) determining ways to reduce energy waste with hot water heaters; (2) making personal choices about using appliances; (3) conducting a…

  3. Predatory activity of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans on horse cyathostomin infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Braga, Fabio R; Araújo, Jackson V; Silva, André R; Carvalho, Rogério O; Araujo, Juliana M; Ferreira, Sebastião R; Benjamin, Laércio A

    2010-08-01

    This work was performed to determine the predatory capacity in vitro of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) on cyathostomin infective larvae of horse (L(3)). The experimental assay was carried out on plates with 2% water-agar (2% WA). In the treated group, each plate contained 1.000 L(3) and 1.000 conidia of the fungus. The control group without fungus only contained 1.000 L(3) in the plates. Ten random fields (4 mm diameter) were examined per plate of treated and control groups, every 24 h for seven days under an optical microscope (10x and 40x objective lens) for non-predated L(3) counts. After 7 days, the non-predated L(3) were recovered from the Petri dishes using the Baermann method. The interaction there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) of 93.64% in the cyathostomin L(3) recovered. The results showed that the D. flagrans is a potential candidate to the biological control of horse cyathostomin L(3). PMID:20213221

  4. Relationships between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Ewing, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationships between 4-H volunteer leader competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Using a descriptive-correlational research, the study reported found significant relationships between leadership competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Regression analysis revealed that two variables--skills and…

  5. Identificaton of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one isolated from Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 culture supernatants as a compound that stimulates autonomic nerve activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Yoshinori; Komura, Hajime; Izumo, Takayuki; Horii, Yuko; Shen, Jiao; Tanida, Mamoru; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Nagai, Katsuya

    2012-11-01

    Intestinal administration of various lactobacilli has been reported to affect autonomic neurotransmission, blood pressure, and body weight in rats. In this study, three molecules (peaks A, B, and C) were isolated from Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 (S-PT 84) culture supernatants. Intraduodenal (ID) injection of these molecules increased or inhibited renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats as follows: peak A, 134%; peak B, 40.1%; peak C, 408%. Furthermore, we identified peak C as 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP). ID injection of DDMP increased brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA; 118 ± 15.3%), whereas intraoral injection of DDMP increased the body temperature above the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT-T; 0.72 ± 0.13 °C) in rats. These data suggest that S-PT84 produces molecules that modulate autonomic nerve activity. In addition, DDMP increased BAT-SNA and BAT-T, and these changes in BAT-T may be caused by changes in BAT-SNA.

  6. Middle Childhood: 4-H Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Connie M.

    Part of a series for 4-H members between 9 and 19 years of age, this age-graded guide to the development of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds aims to help 4-H members who are children and adolescents themselves: (1) understand the physical, mental, social, and emotional development of children in middle childhood; (2) learn to care for a child in middle…

  7. Keys To The Kansas Environment. 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service.

    The 4-H Club packet for preschool and elementary school children contains nine "keys", or short learning exercises, designed to enrich science and environmental education both in and out of the classroom. Each "key" includes the purpose of the activity, the intended audience, the best time of the year for the activity, background information,…

  8. Structure-catalytic activity relationships of dicyclohexylcarboxamidine analogs in phosphorylation and alkylation of nucleosides by a two-step phosphorylating agent, 2-methylthio-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide (MTBO).

    PubMed

    Eto, M; Kawasaki, S

    1986-01-01

    Adenosine borate complex was phosphorylated and o-hydroxybenzylated by 2-methylthio-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide (MTBO) in the presence of 4-morpholine-N,N'-dicyclohexylcarboxamidine (MDC) at first to give 1-(o-hydroxybenzyl)adenosine derivative followed by the rearrangement of the benzyl group to the N-6 amino group to give N6-(o-hydroxybenzyl)adenosine 5'-S-methyl phosphorothiolate. More than 20 analogs of MDC were examined for their catalytic activity in phosphorylation and o-hydroxybenzylation of ribonucleoside by MTBO. Dicyclohexylformamidine (DCF) and n-alkylamino analogs of MDC had no effect on the o-hydroxybenzylation of ribonucleoside by MTBO, but had great effect on the phosphorylation. Dialkylamino and cyclic imino analogs of MDC had high catalytic activities to the both reaction. The dicyclohexylcarboxamidine structure of MDC gave the catalytic ability for phosphorylation by MTBO, while the morpholine moiety had great effect on the selectivity of o-hydroxybenzylation by MTBO. PMID:3562278

  9. Perceptions of Missouri 4-H Youth Development Personnel Regarding Interorganizational Cooperative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Torres, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of 4-H youth development personnel regarding interorganizational cooperation were studied between the perceived and desired levels of cooperative activities between 4-H youth development personnel and secondary agriculture teachers. Results indicated that 4-H youth development personnel wanted higher levels of coordinated efforts…

  10. Synthesis, spectral (FT-IR, UV-visible, NMR) features, biological activity prediction and theoretical studies of 4-Amino-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione and its tautomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Kumar, Abhishek; Misra, Neeraj; Manjula, P. S.; Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.

    2016-03-01

    Triazole compounds constitute an important class of organic chemistry due to their various biological and corrosion inhibition activities. The synthesis scheme of a new triazole compound namely, 4-Amino-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (4AHT) has been theoretically analyzed. Our density functional theory (DFT) based calculations show that the synthesis of 4AHT is energetically feasible at the room temperature as the reaction is exothermic, spontaneous as well as favored in forward direction. The calculated bond-lengths are found to be in good agreement with corresponding crystallographic values. We have considered two possible tautomers of 4AHT viz. thione and thiol forms. The FT-IR (KBr disc), UV-visible (ethanol) and 1H-NMR (DMSO) spectra of 4AHT have been recorded. The vibrational modes have been assigned on the basis of their potential energy distributions and scaled wavenumbers agree well with the FT-IR wavenumbers. Time dependent DFT calculations are performed to analyze the electronic transitions for various excited states which reproduce the experimental peak observed in UV-visible spectrum. Using gauge independent atomic orbital method 1H-NMR chemical shifts have been calculated and correlated with the experimental chemical shifts with the linear correlation coefficient of 0.9453. Our spectral analyses reveal the dominance of thione over thiol form of 4AHT. The chemical reactivity of 4AHT has been discussed by molecular electrostatic potential surface as well as various electronic parameters. The biological activities of 4AHT have also been explored theoretically and it has been found that the title molecule can act as a potential inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 enzyme. These findings may guide the synthesis and design of new triazole compounds with interesting biological activity.

  11. Psychogenic colic in a horse.

    PubMed

    Murray, M J; Crowell-Davis, S L

    1985-02-15

    A 4-year-old mixed-breed gelding was presented with colic-type behavior of 5 days' duration that included pawing, looking at the flank area, and kicking and biting at the abdomen and flank when it was eating hay or grain. Medical evaluation did not reveal the cause of the "colic." During its stay in the hospital, the horse improved as regarded the colic-type behavior while eating, but resumed this behavior when it was able to see hay that it was not allowed to eat. It was determined that the persistent colic-type behavior developed as a result of the horse having been repeatedly displaced from its food by other horses. When the horse performed the colic-type behavior, the owner would remain with it and effectively protect it from competitors. The initial bout of colic may have been a result of true colic, psychosomatic colic secondary to stress, redirected aggression, or displacement activity. PMID:3972697

  12. Density Functional Exploration of C4H3N Isomers.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas; Szczepaniak, Urszula; Gronowski, Marcin; Fabisiewicz, Emilia; Couturier-Tamburelli, Isabelle; Kołos, Robert

    2016-07-28

    Molecules having C4H3N stoichiometry are of astrophysical interest. Two of these, methylcyanoacetylene (CH3C3N) and its structural isomer allenyl cyanide (H2CCCHN), have been observed in interstellar space, while several more have been examined in laboratories. Here we describe, for a broad range of C4H3N isomers, density functional calculations (B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ) of molecular parameters including the energetics, geometries, rotational constants, electric dipole moments, polarizabilities, vibrational IR frequencies, IR absorption intensities, and Raman activities. Singlet-triplet splittings as well as singlet vertical electronic excitation energies are given for selected species. The identification of less stable C4H3N molecules, generated in ongoing spectroscopic experiments, relies heavily on these quantum chemical predictions. PMID:27341606

  13. Marketing Strategies for Recruiting 4-H Members in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Nestor, Cheryl; Lawrence, Layle D.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Woloshuk, Jean; Mulkeen, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    According to a survey of 174 West Virginia 4-H members aged 13-18, the Internet and word of mouth were most effective in recruiting new members. Active messages stressing camps, fun, and friendship had the most influence on retention. A statewide marketing plan was recommended. (SK)

  14. Folkpatterns 4-H Leader's Guide: A Cultural Heritage Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, LuAnne Gaykowski

    Folkpatterns is a 4-H program in which young people investigate folklore, cultural traditions, and local history. These materials include a leader's guide and Folkpatterns activities. The leader's guide provides information for leading a Folkpatterns project and 12 sample meeting plans to be used with Folkpatterns members or to be adapted for use…

  15. 4-H Textile Science Beginner Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This packet contains three 4-H projects for students beginning the sewing sequence of the textile sciences area. The projects cover basics of sewing using sewing machines, more difficult sewing machine techniques, and hand sewing. Each project provides an overview of what the student will learn, what materials are needed, and suggested projects…

  16. Multi-state 4-H energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, U.B.; Garthe, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Through Agricultural Engineering 4-H Energy Programs, youth can be educated to gain knowledge, increase hands on skills, and incorporate energy-saving techniques into their lifestyle. In a pilot multi-state energy program tested by 13 states, youth increased their energy awareness.

  17. 4-H for Central City Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Joseph C.

    1970-01-01

    Joseph C. Paige is the Dean of Community Education and Director of Cooperative Extension Service of the only urban Land-Grant College, Federal City College, in Washington, D.C. Here he is interviewed about 4-H with children of poor ethnic groups in the District of Columbia. (NL)

  18. The Infant: 4-H Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Connie M.

    This booklet for 4-H members who elect to undertake projects in child caregiving provides guidelines and information that help children and adolescents between 9 and 19 years of age: (1) understand infants' physical, mental, social, and emotional growth; (2) learn to care for a baby and promote feelings of security and safety; and (3) choose types…

  19. Separates. 4-H Textile Science Advanced Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This booklet, which was developed for use by 4-H club members in Pennsylvania, contains the information required to sew a two-piece nontailored outfit and/or a one-or two-piece dress. The following are among the topics covered: the difference between a fiber and a fabric; properties of different fibers and fabrics; common jacket, neckline, sleeve,…

  20. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  1. Water Worlds. 4-H Member's Guide M-5-18; 4-H Leaders Guide L-5-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; And Others

    This pocket folder of materials is designed to provide children aged 9 to 12 with an opportunity to explore and observe aquatic environments. The package includes a 4-H Leader's guide, member's guide, and supplementary materials. The leader's guide contains safety considerations, tips and techniques, and additional activities for getting started…

  2. Effectiveness of the 4-H Program as Perceived by Parents of 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Foley, Caitlin; Ingram, Patreese; Ewing, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effectiveness of 4-H program as perceived by parents of program participants. Descriptive-correlational design was employed, with data collected using a mail survey. Parents perceived 4-H as an effective organization in teaching life skills to youth. Significant relationships were found between parents'…

  3. National 4-H Common Measures: Initial Evaluation from California 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Horrillo, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith; Worker, Steven M.; Trzesniewski, Kali

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation is a key component to learning about the effectiveness of a program. This article provides descriptive statistics of the newly developed National 4-H Common Measures (science, healthy living, citizenship, and youth development) based on data from 721 California 4-H youth. The measures were evaluated for their reliability and validity of…

  4. Dual-function protein in plant defence: seed lectin from Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) exhibits lipoxygenase activity

    PubMed Central

    Roopashree, Subbaiah; Singh, Sridevi Annapurna; Gowda, Lalitha R.; Rao, A. G. Appu

    2006-01-01

    Plant–pathogen interactions play a vital role in developing resistance to pests. Dolichos biflorus (horse gram), a leguminous pulse crop of the subtropics, exhibits amazing defence against attack by pests/pathogens. Investigations to locate the possible source of the indomitable pest resistance of D. biflorus, which is the richest source of LOX (lipoxygenase) activity, have led to a molecule that exhibits LOX-like functions. The LOX-like activity associated with the molecule, identified by its structure and stability to be a tetrameric lectin, was found to be unusual. The evidence for the lectin protein with LOX activity has come from (i) MALDI–TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization–time-of-flight) MS, (ii) N-terminal sequencing, (iii) partial sequencing of the tryptic fragments of the protein, (iv) amino acid composition, and (v) the presence of an Mn2+ ion. A hydrophobic binding site of the tetrameric lectin, along with the presence of an Mn2+ ion, accounts for the observed LOX like activity. This is the first ever report of a protein exhibiting both haemagglutination and LOX-like activity. The two activities are associated with separate loci on the same protein. LOX activity associated with this molecule adds a new dimension to our understanding of lectin functions. This observation has wide implications for the understanding of plant defence mechanisms against pests and the cellular complexity in plant–pathogen interactions that may lead to the design of transgenics with potential to impart pest resistance to other crops. PMID:16441240

  5. Electron-transfer-mediated binding of optically active cobalt(III) complexes to horse heart cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Ulrich; Merchán, Alejandro Castillejo; Bernauer, Klaus

    2005-03-22

    Optically active cobalt(II) complexes are used as reducing agents in the electron-transfer reaction involving horse heart cytochrome c. Analysis of the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of reaction products indicates that the corresponding cobalt(III) species of both enantiomers of [CoII(alamp)] (H2alamp=N,N'-[(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(methylene)]-bis[alanine]) are partly attached to the protein during electron transfer by coordination to an imidazole unit of one of the histidine residues. His-26 and His-33 are both solvent exposed, and the results suggest that one of these histidine residues acts as a bridge in the electron transfer to and from the haem iron of cytochrome c. The reaction is enantioselective: the ratio of the relative reactivity at 15 degrees C is 2.9 in favour of the R,R-enantiomer. A small induced CD activity in the haem chromophore reveals that some structural changes in the protein occur consecutively with the binding of the cobalt(III) complex.

  6. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED C{sub 4}H

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksy, Andrew L.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; Patel, Nimesh A.; Young, Ken H.; McCarthy, M. C.; Killian, T. C.

    2015-02-01

    Rotational spectra in four new excited vibrational levels of the linear carbon chain radical C{sub 4}H were observed in the millimeter band between 69 and 364 GHz in a low pressure glow discharge, and two of these were observed in a supersonic molecular beam between 19 and 38 GHz. All have rotational constants within 0.4% of the X{sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground vibrational state of C{sub 4}H and were assigned to new bending vibrational levels, two each with {sup 2}Σ and {sup 2}Π vibrational symmetry. The new levels are tentatively assigned to the 1ν{sub 6} and 1ν{sub 5} bending vibrational modes (both with {sup 2}Π symmetry), and the 1ν{sub 6}+1ν{sub 7} and 1ν{sub 5}+1ν{sub 6} combination levels ({sup 2}Σ symmetry) on the basis of the derived spectroscopic constants, relative intensities in our discharge source, and published laser spectroscopic and quantum calculations. Prior spectroscopic constants in the 1ν{sub 7} and 2ν{sub 7} levels were refined. Also presented are interferometric maps of the ground state and the 1ν{sub 7} level obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) near 257 GHz which show that C{sub 4}H is present near the central star in IRC+10216. We found no evidence with the SMA for the new vibrationally excited levels of C{sub 4}H at a peak flux density averaged over a 3{sup ′′} synthesized beam of ⩾0.15 Jy/beam in the 294–296 and 304–306 GHz range, but it is anticipated that rotational lines in the new levels might be observed in IRC+10216 when ALMA attains its full design capability.

  7. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed.

  8. Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed…

  9. Origins of the high catalytic activity of human alcohol dehydrogenase 4 studied with horse liver A317C alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Herdendorf, Timothy J; Plapp, Bryce V

    2011-05-30

    The turnover numbers and other kinetic constants for human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 4 ("stomach" isoenzyme) are substantially larger (10-100-fold) than those for human class I and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenases. Comparison of the primary amino acid sequences (69% identity) and tertiary structures of these enzymes led to the suggestion that residue 317, which makes a hydrogen bond with the nicotinamide amide nitrogen of the coenzyme, may account for these differences. Ala-317 in the class I enzymes is substituted with Cys in human ADH4, and locally different conformations of the peptide backbones could affect coenzyme binding. This hypothesis was tested by making the A317C substitution in horse liver ADH1E and comparisons to the wild-type ADH1E. The steady-state kinetic constants for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and the reduction of benzaldehyde catalyzed by the A317C enzyme were very similar (up to about 2-fold differences) to those for the wild-type enzyme. Transient kinetics showed that the rate constants for binding of NAD(+) and NADH were also similar. Transient reaction data were fitted to the full Ordered Bi Bi mechanism and showed that the rate constants for hydride transfer decreased by about 2.8-fold with the A317C substitution. The structure of A317C ADH1E complexed with NAD(+) and 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl alcohol at 1.2 Å resolution is essentially identical to the structure of the wild-type enzyme, except near residue 317 where the additional sulfhydryl group displaces a water molecule that is present in the wild-type enzyme. ADH is adaptable and can tolerate internal substitutions, but the protein dynamics apparently are affected, as reflected in rates of hydride transfer. The A317C substitution is not solely responsible for the larger kinetic constants in human ADH4; thus, the differences in catalytic activity must arise from one or more of the other hundred substitutions in the enzyme.

  10. Thermochemistry of disputed soot formation intermediates C4H3 and C4H5.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Steven E; Allen, Wesley D; Schaefer, Henry F

    2004-11-01

    Accurate isomeric energy differences and standard enthalpies of formation for disputed intermediates in soot formation, C(4)H(3) and C(4)H(5), have been determined through systematic extrapolations of ab initio energies. Electron correlation has been included through second-order Z-averaged perturbation theory (ZAPT2), and spin-restricted, open-shell coupled-cluster methods through triple excitations [ROCCSD, ROCCSD(T), and ROCCSDT] utilizing the correlation-consistent hierarchy of basis sets, cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5, and 6), followed by extrapolations to the complete basis set limit via the focal point method of Allen and co-workers. Reference geometries were fully optimized at the ROCCSD(T) level with a TZ(2d1f,2p1d) basis set. Our analysis finds that the resonance-stabilized i-C(4)H(3) and i-C(4)H(5) isomers lie 11.8 and 10.7 kcal mol(-1) below E-n-C(4)H(3) and E-n-C(4)H(5), respectively, several kcal mol(-1) (more, less) than reported in recent (diffusion Monte Carlo, B3LYP density-functional) studies. Moreover, in these systems Gaussian-3 (G3) theory suffers from large spin contamination in electronic wave functions, poor reference geometries, and anomalous vibrational frequencies, but fortuitous cancellation of these sizable errors leads to isomerization energies apparently accurate to 1 kcal mol(-1). Using focal-point extrapolations for isodesmic reactions, we determine the enthalpies of formation (delta(f)H(0) (composite function)) for i-C(4)H(3), Z-n-C(4)H(3), E-n-C(4)H(3), i-C(4)H(5), Z-n-C(4)H(5), and E-n-C(4)H(5) to be 119.0, 130.8, 130.8, 78.4, 89.7, and 89.1 kcal mol(-1), respectively. These definitive values remove any remaining uncertainty surrounding the thermochemistry of these isomers in combustion models, allowing for better assessment of whether even-carbon pathways contribute to soot formation. PMID:15527344

  11. Thermochemistry of disputed soot formation intermediates C4H3 and C4H5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Steven E.; Allen, Wesley D.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2004-11-01

    Accurate isomeric energy differences and standard enthalpies of formation for disputed intermediates in soot formation, C4H3 and C4H5, have been determined through systematic extrapolations of ab initio energies. Electron correlation has been included through second-order Z-averaged perturbation theory (ZAPT2), and spin-restricted, open-shell coupled-cluster methods through triple excitations [ROCCSD, ROCCSD(T), and ROCCSDT] utilizing the correlation-consistent hierarchy of basis sets, cc-pVXZ (X=D, T, Q, 5, and 6), followed by extrapolations to the complete basis set limit via the focal point method of Allen and co-workers. Reference geometries were fully optimized at the ROCCSD(T) level with a TZ(2d1f,2p1d) basis set. Our analysis finds that the resonance-stabilized i-C4H3 and i-C4H5 isomers lie 11.8 and 10.7 kcal mol-1 below E-n-C4H3 and E-n-C4H5, respectively, several kcal mol-1 (more, less) than reported in recent (diffusion Monte Carlo, B3LYP density-functional) studies. Moreover, in these systems Gaussian-3 (G3) theory suffers from large spin contamination in electronic wave functions, poor reference geometries, and anomalous vibrational frequencies, but fortuitous cancellation of these sizable errors leads to isomerization energies apparently accurate to 1 kcal mol-1. Using focal-point extrapolations for isodesmic reactions, we determine the enthalpies of formation (ΔfH0∘) for i-C4H3, Z-n-C4H3, E-n-C4H3, i-C4H5, Z-n-C4H5, and E-n-C4H5 to be 119.0, 130.8, 130.8, 78.4, 89.7, and 89.1 kcal mol-1, respectively. These definitive values remove any remaining uncertainty surrounding the thermochemistry of these isomers in combustion models, allowing for better assessment of whether even-carbon pathways contribute to soot formation.

  12. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  13. Suspected tremetol poisoning in horses.

    PubMed

    Olson, C T; Keller, W C; Gerken, D F; Reed, S M

    1984-11-01

    Of 10 horses in a heavily overgrazed pasture, 4 died within 1 week. Clinical signs included muscle tremors, ataxia, reluctance to walk, heavy sweating, and myoglobinuria. Serum creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were high. Histopathologic findings were nonspecific. On the basis of clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, nonspecific histopathologic findings, the condition of the pasture, the identification of numerous white snakeroot plants from which trematone was extracted, and evidence that these plants had been heavily browsed, it was believed that the horses died from ingestion of Eupatorium rugosum. PMID:6542560

  14. Anticomplementary Activity of Horse IgG and F(ab')2 Antivenoms

    PubMed Central

    Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Marcelino, José Roberto; Ribeiro da Cunha, Luiz Eduardo; Gutiérrez, José María; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2014-01-01

    Envenomation by poisonous animals is a neglected condition according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Antivenoms are included in the WHO Essential Medicines List. It has been assumed that immunoglobulin G (IgG) antivenoms could activate the complement system through Fc and induce early adverse reactions (EARs). However, data in the literature indicate that F(ab')2 fragments can also activate the complement system. Herein, we show that several batches of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms from the Butantan, Vital Brazil, and Clodomiro Picado Institutes activated the complement classical pathway and induced the production of C3a; however, only those antivenoms from Clodomiro Picado generated C5a. Different protein profiles (IgG heavy chain, protein contaminants, and aggregates) were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analyses. Our results show that various antivenoms from different producers are able to activate the classical pathway of the complement system and generate anaphylatoxins, and these findings suggest that factors, such as composition, contaminant proteins, and aggregates, may influence the anticomplementary activity of antivenoms in vitro. Therefore, there is a need to further improve antivenom production methods to reduce their anticomplementary activity and potential to cause EARs. PMID:24445201

  15. Neutrophil function in healthy aged horses and horses with pituitary dysfunction.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Dianne; Hill, Kim; Anton, Jason

    2015-06-15

    Immunosuppression leading to opportunist bacterial infection is a well-recognized sequela of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). The mechanisms responsible for immune dysfunction in PPID however, are as of yet poorly characterized. Horses with PPID have high concentrations of hormones known to impact immune function including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and insulin. α-MSH and related melanocortins have been shown in rodents and people to impair neutrophil function by decreasing superoxide production (known as oxidative burst activity), migration and adhesion. The goal of this study was to determine if neutrophil function is impaired in horses with PPID and, if so, to determine if plasma α-MSH or insulin concentration correlated with the severity of neutrophil dysfunction. Specifically, neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst activity, chemotaxis and adhesion were assessed. Results of this study indicate that horses with PPID have reduced neutrophil function, characterized by decreased oxidative burst activity and adhesion. In addition, chemotaxis was greater in healthy aged horses than in young horses or aged horses with PPID. Plasma insulin: α-MSH ratio, but not individual hormone concentration was correlated to neutrophil oxidative burst activity. In summary, neutrophil function is impaired in horses with PPID, likely due to altered hormone concentrations and may contribute to increased risk of opportunistic infections. Whether regulation of hormone concentration profiles in horses with PPID using therapeutic intervention improves neutrophil function and reduces infections needs to be explored.

  16. Grassland management for horses.

    PubMed

    Archer, M

    1980-08-23

    The pasture needs for horses as compared to those for farm livestock are reviewed. The differing preferences of various types of grasses and other plants, and the patterns of grazing seen on"horse-sick" pastures, are discussed. Suggestions for practical management include frequent collection and removal of droppings, the use of grazing by cattle, adequate rest from horses and the application of cattle manure. Methods for controlling weeds and renovating horse-sick paddocks are discussed and compared to ploughing up. Finally, the place of fertilisers is considered for use on pastures for horses.

  17. Reductive Elimination of H2 Activates Nitrogenase to Reduce the N≡N Triple Bond: Characterization of the E4(4H) Janus Intermediate in Wild-Type Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Lukoyanov, Dmitriy; Khadka, Nimesh; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dean, Dennis R; Seefeldt, Lance C; Hoffman, Brian M

    2016-08-24

    We proposed a reductive elimination/oxidative addition (re/oa) mechanism for reduction of N2 to 2NH3 by nitrogenase, based on identification of a freeze-trapped intermediate of the α-70(Val→Ile) MoFe protein as the Janus intermediate that stores four reducing equivalents on FeMo-co as two [Fe-H-Fe] bridging hydrides (denoted E4(4H)). The mechanism postulates that obligatory re of the hydrides as H2 drives reduction of N2 to a state (denoted E4(2N2H)) with a moiety at the diazene (HN═NH) reduction level bound to the catalytic FeMo-co. EPR/ENDOR/photophysical measurements on wild type (WT) MoFe protein now establish this mechanism. They show that a state freeze-trapped during N2 reduction by WT MoFe is the same Janus intermediate, thereby establishing the α-70(Val→Ile) intermediate as a reliable guide to mechanism. Monitoring the Janus state in WT MoFe during N2 reduction under mixed-isotope condition, H2O buffer/D2, and the converse, establishes that the bridging hydrides/deuterides do not exchange with solvent during enzymatic turnover, thereby solving longstanding puzzles. Relaxation of E4(2N2H) to the WT resting-state is shown to occur via oa of H2 and release of N2 to form Janus, followed by sequential release of two H2, demonstrating the kinetic reversibility of the re/oa equilibrium. Relative populations of E4(2N2H)/E4(4H) freeze-trapped during WT turnover furthermore show that the reversible re/oa equilibrium between [E4(4H) + N2] and [E4(2N2H) + H2] is ∼ thermoneutral (ΔreG(0) ∼ -2 kcal/mol), whereas, by itself, hydrogenation of N2(g) is highly endergonic. These findings demonstrate that (i) re/oa accounts for the historical Key Constraints on mechanism, (ii) that Janus is central to N2 reduction by WT enzyme, which (iii) indeed occurs via the re/oa mechanism. Thus, emerges a picture of the central mechanistic steps by which nitrogenase carries out one of the most challenging chemical transformations in biology. PMID:27529724

  18. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  19. Diversity Inclusion in 4-H Youth Programs: Examining the Perceptions among West Virginia 4-H Youth Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVergne, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here sought to examine the perceptions of 4-H youth professionals towards diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. A majority of professionals positively reported that there are benefits for youth of color and youth with disabilities in 4-H youth programs. Respondents indicated that the lack of information about 4-H youth…

  20. Curtiss JN-4H Towing Model Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1921-01-01

    In 1919 the NACA Langley laboratory received its first three research aircraft which were Curtiss JN-4Hs borrowed from the US Army Air Service at Langley Field. One of the first research projects of the laboratory initiated that year was a flight investigation of the lift and drag characteristics of the JN-4H. One of the objectives of the flight tests was to obtain data for correlation with wind-tunnel test results measured at MIT and to aid in the derivation of techniques for extrapolation of model results to full-scale conditions. In a pioneering aeronautical effort in 1920, pressure orifices were installed in the horizontal tail of one of the Jennies and connected to glass manometers for pressure measurements that could be photographed in flight. The NACA also used the aircraft in some of the earliest experiments on maneuverability in 1921. In addition to serving as test subjects, the aircraft were used for measurements of aerodynamic behavior of aircraft components. In this photograph made in 1921, one of the JN- 4Hs is towing a model of an aircraft wing to obtain lift and drag information for comparison to tunnel results. All three Jenny aircraft departed Langley in 1923. Reference: 'Flying the Frontiers: NACA and NASA Experimental Aircraft' by Arthur Pearcy. Naval Institute Press, 1993. ISBN 1-55750-258-7

  1. Birds in Your Backyard. 4-H Leaders Guide. L-5-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; Held Phillips, Diane

    This pocket folder of instructional materials is designed to introduce youth aged 9 to 12 to ornithology, the study of birds. The package includes a 4-H member's guide and a Leader's guide. The illustrated 4-H member's guide contains information about attracting and feeding birds. It also includes activities for cooking for birds, making bird…

  2. Alabama 4-H Marine Pilot Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Mac; Trussell, Gale

    Brief descriptions and eight activities related to zooplankton, sharks, dune ecology, ocean currents, and sea products comprise this manual. Among the activities are harvesting seafood, making Japanese fish prints, and tracing marine currents with drift bottles. (WB)

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparison of the active site structures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase isoenzymes H2, H3, H4, H5, H8, and H10.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Copeland, B; Yamazaki, I; Powers, L

    1995-10-10

    The iron heme and its immediate environment can provide information that is pivotal to our understanding of the structural and mechanistic features that confer unusual properties to the heme peroxidases. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which is ideally suited for the investigation of the local environment and electronic structure of the heme iron of hemeproteins, has been used to characterize a variety of lignin peroxidase and manganese-dependent peroxidase isoenzymes produced by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The data suggest no differences within the error in the first coordination shell of iron for the isoenzymes H2, H3, H4, H5, H8, and H10 examined in this study. The pyrrole nitrogens are at a distance of 2.05 +/- 0.015 A, and the proximal histidine nitrogens are at 1.93 +/- 0.02 A, while the sixth ligands are located at 2.17 +/- 0.03 A. Significant differences are observed in higher coordination shells which may be related to conformational differences in the heme.

  4. CPR: Purposeful Action. Putting New Life into 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah A.; Smith, William C.

    1988-01-01

    In Ohio, 4-H professionals found that it is necessary to conduct market research to have an effective program. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has been successful in strengthening the 4-H position in the marketplace. (JOW)

  5. Hamsters?! What Does 4-H Stand for, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundeen, Brenda

    This paper briefly traces the history of 4-H youth development programs, explains what youth development is, and shows how the experiential learning model is used in 4-H. Begun over 75 years ago as a means of extending the learning of the land-grant university to rural youth, 4-H is part of the Cooperative Extension Service. The curriculum…

  6. The 4-H Club Meeting: An Essential Youth Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.

    2015-01-01

    The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of…

  7. Using Digital Classrooms to Conduct 4-H Club Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Patricia; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Morgan, A. Christian; Duncan, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Using computer technology and digital classrooms to conduct 4-H Club meetings is an efficient way to continue delivering quality 4-H programming during times of limited resources and staff. Nineteen Junior and Senior 4-H'ers participated in seven digital classroom workshops using the Wimba Classroom application. These digital classroom…

  8. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  9. Heart rate variability after horse trekking in leading and following horses.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Masaya; Irimajiri, Mami; Yamazaki, Atusi; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Hodate, Koichi

    2010-10-01

    Horse trekking (HT) is having a stroll on a horse along a walking trail in a forest, field, and/or sandy beach. Generally in HT, horses exercise in tandem line outside the riding facilities. Because the leading horse will be confronted with stressors in the forefront, we hypothesized that the leading horse shows higher stress responses than the following one. In order to verify the hypothesis, we compared short-term stress responses between each position in six horses. Exercise consisted of 15 min of ground riding and 45 min of HT with walking and trotting. Heart rate variability was analyzed for 5 min at 30, 60, and 90 min after the exercising period. There was no significant difference in heart rate during exercise between leading and following positions. The high frequency / low frequency power band of heart rate variability, an index of sympathetic nervous activity, after exercise, tended to be higher in the leading position than following one (P < 0.1). The result in this study can suggest that the leading horse was in a higher stressed state than the following horse after HT.

  10. The mechanisms of complement activation in normal bovine serum and normal horse serum against Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 strains with different outer membrane proteins content.

    PubMed

    Miętka, K; Brzostek, K; Guz-Regner, K; Bugla-Płoskońska, G

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a common zoonotic pathogen and facultative intracellular bacterium which can survive within blood cells. Cattle and horses are considered a reservoir of Y. enterocolitica which often causes several serious syndromes associated with yersiniosis such as abortions, premature births or infertility. The aim of our investigation was to determine the vitality of Y. enterocolitica O:9 strains (Ye9) in bovine and horse sera (NBS and NHrS) and explain the role of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in serum resistance of these bacteria. Our previous studies demonstrated moderate human serum (NHS) resistance of the wild type Ye9 strain, whereas mutants lacking YadA, Ail or OmpC remained sensitive to the bactericidal activity of NHS. The present study showed that the wild type of Ye9 strain was resistant to the bactericidal activity of both NHrS and NBS, while Ye9 mutants lacking the YadA, Ail and OmpC proteins were sensitive to NHrS and NBS as well as to NHS. The mechanisms of complement activation against Ye9 strains lacking Ail and YadA were distinguished, i.e. activation of the classical/lectin pathways decisive in the bactericidal mechanism of complement activation of NBS, parallel activation of the classical/lectin and alternative pathways of NHrS. In this research the mechanism of independent activation of the classical/lectin or the alternative pathway of NBS and NHrS against Ye9 lacking OmpC porin was also established. The results indicate that serum resistance of Ye9 is multifactorial, in which extracellular structures, i.e. outer membrane proteins (OMPs) such as Ail, OmpC or YadA, play the main role. PMID:27096793

  11. The mechanisms of complement activation in normal bovine serum and normal horse serum against Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 strains with different outer membrane proteins content.

    PubMed

    Miętka, K; Brzostek, K; Guz-Regner, K; Bugla-Płoskońska, G

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a common zoonotic pathogen and facultative intracellular bacterium which can survive within blood cells. Cattle and horses are considered a reservoir of Y. enterocolitica which often causes several serious syndromes associated with yersiniosis such as abortions, premature births or infertility. The aim of our investigation was to determine the vitality of Y. enterocolitica O:9 strains (Ye9) in bovine and horse sera (NBS and NHrS) and explain the role of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in serum resistance of these bacteria. Our previous studies demonstrated moderate human serum (NHS) resistance of the wild type Ye9 strain, whereas mutants lacking YadA, Ail or OmpC remained sensitive to the bactericidal activity of NHS. The present study showed that the wild type of Ye9 strain was resistant to the bactericidal activity of both NHrS and NBS, while Ye9 mutants lacking the YadA, Ail and OmpC proteins were sensitive to NHrS and NBS as well as to NHS. The mechanisms of complement activation against Ye9 strains lacking Ail and YadA were distinguished, i.e. activation of the classical/lectin pathways decisive in the bactericidal mechanism of complement activation of NBS, parallel activation of the classical/lectin and alternative pathways of NHrS. In this research the mechanism of independent activation of the classical/lectin or the alternative pathway of NBS and NHrS against Ye9 lacking OmpC porin was also established. The results indicate that serum resistance of Ye9 is multifactorial, in which extracellular structures, i.e. outer membrane proteins (OMPs) such as Ail, OmpC or YadA, play the main role.

  12. Charley horse

    MedlinePlus

    ... calf often occur while kicking during swimming or running. They can also happen at night when you ... bed. Upper leg spasms are more common with running or jumping activities. Spasm in the neck (cervical ...

  13. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H) genes from Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding leguminous tree.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Omer, Sumita; Patel, Krunal; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-02-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a leguminous tree species accounting for one-fourth of raw material supplied to paper and pulp industry in India. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) is the second gene of phenylpropanoid pathway and a member of cytochrome P450 family. There is currently intense interest to alter or modify lignin content of L. leucocephala. Three highly similar C4H alleles of LlC4H1 gene were isolated and characterized. The alleles shared more than 98 % sequence identity at amino acid level to each other. Binding of partial promoter of another C4H gene LlC4H2, to varying amounts of crude nuclear proteins isolated from leaf and stem tissues of L. leucocephala formed two loose and one strong complex, respectively, suggesting that the abundance of proteins that bind with the partial C4H promoter is higher in stem tissue than in leaf tissue. Quantitative Real Time PCR study suggested that among tissues of same age, root tissues had highest level of C4H transcripts. Maximum transcript level was observed in 30 day old root tissue. Among the tissues investigated, C4H activity was highest in 60 day old root tissues. Tissue specific quantitative comparison of lignin from developing seedling stage to 1 year old tree stage indicated that Klason lignin increased in tissues with age. PMID:23070917

  14. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Equitation science describes an approach to horse training and riding that focuses on embracing the cognitive abilities of horses, their natural behaviour, and how human riders can use signalling and rewards to best effect. This approach is concerned with both horse welfare and rider safety, and this review discusses how equitation science can minimise risk to humans around horses and enhance horse welfare. Abstract Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare. PMID:26907354

  15. Biological and imaging characteristics and radiation dose rates associated with the use of technetium-99m-labelled imidodiphosphate in the horse.

    PubMed

    Riddolls, L J; Byford, G G; McKee, S L

    1996-04-01

    The biological and imaging characteristics of technetium-99m imidodiphosphate (Tc99m-IDP) were measured in 4 horses once and in 1 horse twice. All computational results are expressed with 95.5% (mean +/- 2 SD) confidence limits. The clearance half-time of the radiopharmaceutical from the blood was 29.6 +/- 2.3 min. The percentage of the administered dose circulating in the whole-blood volume at 4 h was 3.9 +/- 0.8%. The Tc99m-IDP radioactivity confined at the plasma fraction of the whole blood at 4 h was 85.3 +/- 1.6%. At 8 h, approximately 45 +/- 16% of the dose administered had been excreted via the urine. The mean effective half-time of the urine activity concentration was 1.1 +/- 0.3 h. The ratios of bone-to-soft tissue activities increased with time postinjection. Urinary radioactivity concentration measurements and radiation dose rate measurements immediately behind the elbows were analysed and it was determined that 24 h is an appropriate radioisolation time for mature horses administered 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) Tc99m-IDP.

  16. Immunodiffusion test for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Standard, P G

    1986-01-01

    A practical, sensitive, and specific immunodiffusion test was developed for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses. Culture filtrates, a soluble cell mass, and trypsinized Pythium sp. antigens were evaluated against prepared rabbit anti-Pythium sp. serum and pythiosis horse case sera. The culture filtrate antigens demonstrated the greatest capacity for detecting precipitins and the greatest stability during storage. In contrast, the trypsinized antigens had the weakest capability for detecting multiple precipitins and the poorest stability. The 13 sera from horses with proven active pythiosis were positive in immunodiffusion tests with the culture filtrate antigens. Each serum contained from three to six precipitins. Treated horses lost precipitins, and some became antibody negative. No false-positive reactions were noted in tests with sera from normal horses and humans or with sera from a variety of heterologous horse and human infections. Images PMID:3086368

  17. Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Tamburrini, A; La Rosa, G

    2001-06-01

    In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy. The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses.

  18. A pH Switch Regulates the Inverse Relationship between Membranolytic and Chaperone-like Activities of HSP-1/2, a Major Protein of Horse Seminal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Sudheer; Swamy, Musti J

    2016-07-01

    HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma binds to choline phospholipids present on the sperm plasma membrane and perturbs its structure by intercalating into the hydrophobic core, which results in an efflux of choline phospholipids and cholesterol, an important event in sperm capacitation. HSP-1/2 also exhibits chaperone-like activity (CLA) in vitro and protects target proteins against various kinds of stress. In the present study we show that HSP-1/2 exhibits destabilizing activity toward model supported and cell membranes. The membranolytic activity of HSP-1/2 is found to be pH dependent, with lytic activity being high at mildly acidic pH (6.0-6.5) and low at mildly basic pH (8.0-8.5). Interestingly, the CLA is also found to be pH dependent, with high activity at mildly basic pH and low activity at mildly acidic pH. Taken together the present studies demonstrate that the membranolytic and chaperone-like activities of HSP-1/2 have an inverse relationship and are regulated via a pH switch, which is reversible. The higher CLA observed at mildly basic pH could be correlated to an increase in surface hydrophobicity of the protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting regulation of two different activities of a chaperone protein by a pH switch. PMID:27292547

  19. Hydroperoxidic inhibitor of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase activity, tightly bound to the enzyme-NAD+ complex, characteristically degrades the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Skurský, L; Rezác, M; Khan, A N; Zídek, L; Rocek, J

    1992-01-01

    The strong inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLAD) by p-methylbenzyl hydroperoxide (XyHP) is only transient, XyHP behaves also as a pseudo-substrate of the enzyme and in the presence of NAD+, is degraded by HLAD to (as yet unidentified) non-inhibiting products while the NAD+ is converted to a derivative similar to the "NADX", originally observed in an analogous reaction of HLAD with hydrogen peroxide. The apparent KM for XyHP is approximately 10(4) times smaller than that for H2O2. The catalytic constant kcat for HLAD degradation of XyHP is two orders of magnitude less than that for ethanol dehydrogenation. XyHP inhibits both directions of the alcohol-aldehyde interconversion with equal potency. The first step of the inhibition mechanism is a tight binding of XyHP to the binary HLAD-NAD+ complex. PMID:1284958

  20. Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilek, Kevin Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join 4-H have been more thoroughly researched than the reasons they quit. This study explores why youth choose to discontinue membership…

  1. Synthesis, Polymorphism, and Insecticidal Activity of Methyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-iodo-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline-3-Carboxylate Against Anopheles arabiensis Mosquito.

    PubMed

    Venugopala, Katharigatta N; Nayak, Susanta K; Gleiser, Raquel M; Sanchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Garcia, Daniel A; Odhav, Bharti

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vectors of pathogens and parasites including those causing malaria, the most deadly vector-borne disease. The negative environmental effects of most synthetic compounds combined with widespread development of insecticide resistance encourage an interest in finding and developing alternative products against mosquitoes. In this study, pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline derivative DHPM3 has been synthesized by three-step chemical reaction and screened for larvicide, adulticide, and repellent properties against Anopheles arabiensis, one of the dominant vectors of malaria in Africa. The title compound emerged as potential larvicide agent for further research and development, because it exerted 100% mortality, while adulticide activity was considered moderate.

  2. The Oneida County 4-H Conservation Field Days Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen C.; Vonhof, Sarah; Kelley, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    Examines the various perspectives held by the three major organizations involved (an environmental citizens group, a local sportsmen's club, and the cooperative extension service) regarding a conflict over a 4-H program involving hunting and wildlife management. Discusses why the 4-H program's attempt to build consensus among the organizations was…

  3. Embracing Scientific and Engineering Practices in 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worker, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The 4-H Science Initiative has renewed efforts to strengthen 4-H programmatic and evaluation efforts in science and engineering education. A fundamental component of this initiative is to provide opportunities to youth to aid in their development of science process skills; however, emerging research stresses the importance of engaging youth in…

  4. Council of Presidents: A Multifaceted Idea for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torretta, Alayne

    2015-01-01

    Communication between 4-H professionals and the youth they work with is an important part of a successful 4-H program. By creating a Council of Presidents comprised of officers of all the clubs in your county, you can increase communication while assuring your program addresses all four essential elements. The Council is also as a vehicle for…

  5. 4-H Participation and Science Interest in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Katherine; Carlos, Ramona M.; Barnett, Cynthia; Smith, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the impacts of participation in 4-H on young people's interest and participation in science. Survey data were collected from relatively large and ethnically diverse samples of elementary and high school-aged students in California. Results indicated that although elementary-grade 4-H members are not more…

  6. Stabilization of 4H hexagonal phase in gold nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhanxi; Bosman, Michel; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Ding; Yu, Yi; Ong, Khuong P.; Akimov, Yuriy A.; Wu, Lin; Li, Bing; Wu, Jumiati; Huang, Ying; Liu, Qing; Eng Png, Ching; Lip Gan, Chee; Yang, Peidong; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Gold, silver, platinum and palladium typically crystallize with the face-centred cubic structure. Here we report the high-yield solution synthesis of gold nanoribbons in the 4H hexagonal polytype, a previously unreported metastable phase of gold. These gold nanoribbons undergo a phase transition from the original 4H hexagonal to face-centred cubic structure on ligand exchange under ambient conditions. Using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy, the strong infrared plasmon absorption of single 4H gold nanoribbons is observed. Furthermore, the 4H hexagonal phases of silver, palladium and platinum can be readily stabilized through direct epitaxial growth of these metals on the 4H gold nanoribbon surface. Our findings may open up new strategies for the crystal phase-controlled synthesis of advanced noble metal nanomaterials. PMID:26216712

  7. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  8. Postanesthetic Myonecrosis in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Friend, S. C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Two horses died of massive myonecrosis following surgery. The hematological, biochemical and pathological changes are described and compared with those previously reported in the literature. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:7337914

  9. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Lee, S T; Green, B T; Hall, J O

    2013-10-01

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehydrotremetone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyl-tremetone) are responsible for the toxicity of rayless goldenrod. However, experimental reproduction of rayless goldenrod-induced disease and detailed descriptions of poisoning in horses with known concentrations of tremetone and other BFK has not been documented. In this study four horses were fed increasing amounts of rayless goldenrod to obtain doses of approximately 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg BFK/kg BW for 14 days. After seven days of dosing the horse dosed with 60 mg BFK/kg BW horse developed depression, reluctance to eat, dehydration, trembling, and muscle fatigue. Biochemical alterations including increases in the serum enzyme activities of CK, AST, ALT, and LDH, and increased cardiac troponin I concentration, were also identified. Physiologically the clinically poisoned horse had decreased endurance seen as reluctance to perform on the treadmill with increased resting heart rate and a prolonged recovery of heart rate following treadmill exercise. The condition of the horse continued to decline and it was euthanized and necropsied on day 10. At necropsy the myocardium was pale and soft and many of the appendicular and large apical muscles were pale and moist. Histologically, the myocardium had extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis with extensive fibrosis and multifocal mineralization. Several of the large appendicular muscles in this horse also had small foci of skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. Less severe myocardial changes were also identified in the horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW after 14 days of dosing. No clinical, biochemical or histologic changes were identified in the control horse and

  10. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Lee, S T; Green, B T; Hall, J O

    2013-10-01

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehydrotremetone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyl-tremetone) are responsible for the toxicity of rayless goldenrod. However, experimental reproduction of rayless goldenrod-induced disease and detailed descriptions of poisoning in horses with known concentrations of tremetone and other BFK has not been documented. In this study four horses were fed increasing amounts of rayless goldenrod to obtain doses of approximately 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg BFK/kg BW for 14 days. After seven days of dosing the horse dosed with 60 mg BFK/kg BW horse developed depression, reluctance to eat, dehydration, trembling, and muscle fatigue. Biochemical alterations including increases in the serum enzyme activities of CK, AST, ALT, and LDH, and increased cardiac troponin I concentration, were also identified. Physiologically the clinically poisoned horse had decreased endurance seen as reluctance to perform on the treadmill with increased resting heart rate and a prolonged recovery of heart rate following treadmill exercise. The condition of the horse continued to decline and it was euthanized and necropsied on day 10. At necropsy the myocardium was pale and soft and many of the appendicular and large apical muscles were pale and moist. Histologically, the myocardium had extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis with extensive fibrosis and multifocal mineralization. Several of the large appendicular muscles in this horse also had small foci of skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. Less severe myocardial changes were also identified in the horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW after 14 days of dosing. No clinical, biochemical or histologic changes were identified in the control horse and

  11. Flathead Lake Angler Survey; Monitoring Activities for the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Plan, 1992-1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Evarts, Les; Hansen, Barry; DosSantos, Joe

    1994-02-01

    A roving creel survey was conducted on Flathead Lake in northwestern Montana from May 17, 1992 to May 19, 1993. The primary objective of the survey was to quantify the baseline fishery and exploitation rates existing prior to Hungry Horse Dam mitigation efforts. Anglers were counted on 308 occasions, comprising 5,618 fishing boats, 515 shore anglers, and 2,191 ice anglers. The party interviews represented 4,410 anglers, made up of 2,613 boat anglers, 787 shore anglers, and 1,010 ice anglers. A total of 47,883 angler days (190,108 angler hours) of pressure and a harvest of 42,979 fish (including lake trout, lake whitefish, yellow perch, bull trout, and westslope cutthroat trout) were estimated. Pressure was distributed between shore, boat, and ice anglers as 4%, 87%, and 9%, respectively. Seventynine percent of the total effort was directed at lake trout during the study period. Limited comparisons were made to previous creel surveys on Flathead Lake due to differences in methods and radical changes in the fishery. Potential sources of bias are explained in detail. Future creel surveys must employ methods consistent with this survey to obtain estimates that are statistically distinguishable.

  12. Exercise and Rehabilitation of Older Horses.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Kenneth Harrington

    2016-08-01

    An increasing percentage of the equine population is more than 15 years old, many performing various athletic activities into their 20s. Studies of aged humans have led to a fine tuning of exercise prescription to promote fitness while preventing adverse and potentially dangerous effects of excessive exercise. However, limited data exist regarding the exercise capacity of aged horses. This article presents an overview of published studies on aging-induced decreases in physiologic function and exercise capacity in the horse. The information presented can be used as a guide for exercise prescription for the growing population of active older equine athletes. PMID:27449392

  13. Gasterophilosis in horses in Sardinia (Italy): effect of meteorological variables on adult egg-laying activity and presence of larvae in the digestive tract, and update of species.

    PubMed

    Pilo, Cristian; Altea, Antonella; Scala, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Gasterophilus larvae are common obligate parasites of the digestive tract of the equids. Horses become infected with this parasite by ingesting the larvae hatched from eggs laid by the female flies. In this study carried out monthly, we (i) counted the Gasterophilus eggs deposited by female flies on the coat of 30 grazing horses, (ii) counted and identified the Gasterophilus larvae retrieved from the digestive tract of 128 slaughtered horses, and (iii) compared these results to meteorological data. Eggs were deposited on all monitored horses, and were present from October to January and from May to September, whereas they were absent from February to April. The number of laid eggs was significantly different between the months, body regions, genders, and age classes (p < 0.05). Larvae were recovered in 112 (87.5%) horses, and 6 species of Gasterophilus were identified. The prevailing species were Gasterophilus intestinalis (recovered in 110 horses; 85.9%) and Gasterophilus nasalis (69 horses; 53.9 %), recovered in all months. Gasterophilus inermis (5 horses; 3.9%), Gasterophilus pecorum (3 horses; 2.3%), Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis (3 horses; 2.3%)¸ and Gasterophilus meridionalis (2 horses; 1.6%) larvae were also found. Significant differences were found among monthly larval burdens for both Gasterophilus spp. and G. intestinalis (p < 0.05), but not for G. nasalis (p > 0.05). Larval burdens and prevalences did not differed significantly between both genders and age classes (p > 0.05). Monthly eggs and larvae trends were not significantly correlated (p > 0.05). With regard to the meteorological variables, minimum air temperature was significantly correlated with the eggs trend (rho = 1.000; p < 0.001) and maximum air temperature with the Gasterophilus spp. (rho = 0.972; p < 0.001) and G. intestinalis (rho = 0.972; p < 0.001) larvae trends. In addition, the number of hours with a temperature below +10 °C was

  14. Fabrication of High-Q Nanobeam Photonic Crystals in Epitaxially Grown 4H-SiC.

    PubMed

    Bracher, David O; Hu, Evelyn L

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an intriguing material due to the presence of spin-active point defects in several polytypes, including 4H-SiC. For many quantum information and sensing applications involving such point defects, it is important to couple their emission to high quality optical cavities. Here we present the fabrication of 1D nanobeam photonic crystal cavities (PCC) in 4H-SiC using a dopant-selective etch to undercut a homoepitaxially grown epilayer of p-type 4H-SiC. These are the first PCCs demonstrated in 4H-SiC and show high quality factors (Q) of up to ∼7000 as well as low modal volumes of <0.5 (λ/n)(3). We take advantage of the high device yield of this fabrication method to characterize hundreds of devices and determine which PCC geometries are optimal. Additionally, we demonstrate two methods to tune the resonant wavelengths of the PCCs over 5 nm without significant degradation of the Q. Lastly, we characterize nanobeam PCCs coupled to luminescence from silicon vacancy point defects (V1, V2) in 4H-SiC. The fundamental modes of two such PCCs are tuned into spectral overlap with the zero phonon line (ZPL) of the V2 center, resulting in an intensity increase of up to 3-fold. These results are important steps on the path to developing 4H-SiC as a platform for quantum information and sensing.

  15. Synthesis of 4H/fcc Noble Multimetallic Nanoribbons for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Huang, Xiao; Li, Bing; Chen, Ye; Wang, Jie; Hu, Yanling; Zhang, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Noble multimetallic nanomaterials, if only consisting of Au, Ag, Pt, and Pd, typically adopt the high-symmetry face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Here for the first time, by using the 4H/fcc Au@Ag nanoribbons (NRBs) as seeds, we report the synthesis of 4H/fcc trimetallic Au@PdAg core-shell NRBs via the galvanic reaction method under ambient conditions. Moreover, this strategy can also be used to synthesize 4H/fcc trimetallic Au@PtAg and quatermetallic Au@PtPdAg core-shell NRBs. Impressively, for the first time, these alloy shells, i.e., PdAg, PtAg, and PtPdAg, epitaxially grown on the 4H/fcc Au core with novel 4H hexagonal phase were successfully synthesized. Remarkably, the obtained 4H/fcc Au@PdAg NRBs exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction, which is even quite close to that of the commercial Pt black. We believe that our findings here may provide a novel strategy for the crystal-structure-controlled synthesis of advanced functional noble multimetallic nanomaterials with various promising applications.

  16. Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species. PMID:23803176

  17. Metal toxicosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Casteel, S W

    2001-12-01

    The ubiquity and stability of metals in the environment make them unique as a pollutant or an essential dietary component. Metals are neither created nor destroyed by chemical processes but are redistributed in the environment. In combination with other elements, metal compounds and alloys are essential materials of the contemporary world. Inappropriate use or distribution in the environment leads to adverse health effects on all biologic systems, including horses. Gastrointestinal upset is a common feature of acute toxicosis with metals in general. Among the metals discussed, arsenic and inorganic mercury have a propensity to do severe damage to the gut. Deposition of cadmium on forage is the source most likely to intoxicate horses. This subchronic to chronic problem in horses is manifest as disease of the musculoskeletal system and kidneys. Iron-containing hematinics are widely used in racetrack horses and occasionally result in hepatopathy when excessive doses are administered. Lead continues to be recognized as the most significant environmental metal pollutant. Poisoning is encountered routinely in humans and animals. Of the animal species of veterinary concern, lead-poisoned horses are not a frequent encounter. Lead-intoxicated horses show signs of peripheral neuropathy (laryngeal hemiplegia), intermittent colic, and mild anemia. Acute mercury poisoning sometimes occurs from the common use of mercury-containing blistering agents, with most clinical findings related to acute renal failure. Chronic excessive intake of zinc by horses is uncommon but devastating in rapidly growing foals. The mechanism of chronic zinc toxicosis is coupled to the induced copper deficiency. The condition is a disease of cartilage in the articular and growth physes.

  18. Properties of homoepitaxial 4H-SiC and characteristics of Ti/4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Li, Z. Y.; Bai, S.; Han, P.

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the properties of the homoepitaxial 4H-SiC layer, the fabrication and electrical parameters of Ti/4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD). The 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, grown on the commercially available 8°off-oriented Si-face(0001) single-crystal 4H-SiC wafers, have been performed at 1550~1600°C by using the step controlled epitaxy with low pressure chemical vapor deposition. X-ray diffraction measurement result indicates the single crystal nature of the epilayer, and Raman spectrum shows the typical 4H-SiC feature peaks. When the off-oriented angle of substrate is 8°, the epitaxial growth perfectly replicates the substrate's polytype. High quality 4H-SiC epilayer has been generated on the 4H-SiC substrate. Ti/4H-SiC SBDs with blocking voltage 1kV have been made on an undoped epilayer with 12um in thick and 3×10 15cm -3 in carrier density. The ideality factor n=1.16 and the effective barrier height φ e=0.9V of the Ti/4H-SiC SBDs are measured with method of forward density-voltage (J-V). The diode rectification ratio of forward to reverse (defined at +/-1V) is over 10 7 at room temperature. By using B + implantation, an amorphous layer as the edge termination is formed. The SBDs have on-state current density of 200A/cm2 at a forward voltage drop of about 2V. The specific on-resistance for the rectifier is found to be as 6.6mΩ•cm2.

  19. Mandibular condylectomy in a horse.

    PubMed

    Patterson, L J; Shappell, K K; Hurtig, M B

    1989-07-01

    Mandibular condylectomy was effective in improving mastication and stopping weight loss in a horse. The horse had a history of intermittent purulent drainage from a facial wound and unilateral ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint. PMID:2759880

  20. Isomer Energy Differences for the C4H3 and C4H5 Isomers UsingDiffusion Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Domin, D.; Lester Jr., W.A.; Whitesides, R.; Frenklach, M.

    2007-12-01

    A new diffusion Monte Carlo study is performed on the isomers of C{sub 4}H{sub 3} and C{sub 4}H{sub 5} emulating the methodology of a previous study [Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 33, 808 (2001)]. Using the same trial wave function form of the previous study, substantially different isomerization energies were found owing to the use of larger walker populations in the present work. The energy differences between the E and I isomers of C{sub 4}H{sub 3} were found to be 10.5 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol and for C{sub 4}H{sub 5}, 9.7 {+-} 0.6 kcal/mol. These results are in reasonable accord with recent MRCI and CCSD(T) findings.

  1. Staphylococcal septic arthritis in three horses.

    PubMed

    Rose, R J; Love, D N

    1979-04-01

    Three horses were diagnosed as having monarticular septic arthritis due to Staphylococcus aureus on the basis of culture of articular cartilage, synovial membrane and/or synovial fluid. The organisms were all well recognised human phage types and in two cases demonstrated beta-lactamase (penicillinase) activity. Details of case histories are presented and the bacteriological techniques and antibiotic management with cloxacillin, methicillin and penicillin discussed. Following treatment, sterile cultures of synovial fluid were achieved in all cases, but in two horses the infections resulted in degenerative articular changes. This necessitated arthrodesis of the fetlock joint in one case.

  2. Water homeostasis and diabetes insipidus in horses.

    PubMed

    Schott, Harold C

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disorder of horses characterized by profound polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD), which can be caused by loss of production of arginine vasopressin (AVP). This condition is termed neurogenic or central DI. DI may also develop with absence or loss of AVP receptors or activity on the basolateral membrane of collecting-duct epithelial cells. This condition is termed nephrogenic DI. Equine clinicians may differentiate true DI from more common causes of PU/PD by a systematic diagnostic approach. DI may not be a correctable disorder, and supportive care of affected horses requires an adequate water source.

  3. [Occurrance of antibodies against Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Pikalo, Jutta; Sattler, Tatjana; Eichinger, Michaela; Loitsch, Angelika; Sun, Hao; Schmoll, Friedrich; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to detect antibodies and potential risk factors for an infec- tion with Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany. Serum samples of 314 horses were examined retrospectively by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against eight Leptospira serovars. In total, 17.2% (n = 54) of the horses were positive for one or more of the serovars analyzed. The most prevalent serovar was lcterohaemorrhagiae (11.1%), followed by serovar Bratislava (9.6 %) and Grippotyphosa (1.9%). Mares showed a significantly higher occurrence of antibodies (p < 0.05) than geldings or stallions. Horses used for breeding have a significantly lower risk than horses used in sport or horses used for leisure activity. There was also a significantly higher prevalence (p < 0.05) in summer than in the other seasons. No significant influence of breed, husbandry conditions and age on the antibody occurrence was observed (p > 0.05). The clinical chemical parameters did not differ significantly between horses with positive or negative Leptospira antibody result (p > 0.05). It became apparent that horses can be infected with Leptospira without developing of clinical symptoms. PMID:27344912

  4. [Occurrance of antibodies against Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Pikalo, Jutta; Sattler, Tatjana; Eichinger, Michaela; Loitsch, Angelika; Sun, Hao; Schmoll, Friedrich; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to detect antibodies and potential risk factors for an infec- tion with Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany. Serum samples of 314 horses were examined retrospectively by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against eight Leptospira serovars. In total, 17.2% (n = 54) of the horses were positive for one or more of the serovars analyzed. The most prevalent serovar was lcterohaemorrhagiae (11.1%), followed by serovar Bratislava (9.6 %) and Grippotyphosa (1.9%). Mares showed a significantly higher occurrence of antibodies (p < 0.05) than geldings or stallions. Horses used for breeding have a significantly lower risk than horses used in sport or horses used for leisure activity. There was also a significantly higher prevalence (p < 0.05) in summer than in the other seasons. No significant influence of breed, husbandry conditions and age on the antibody occurrence was observed (p > 0.05). The clinical chemical parameters did not differ significantly between horses with positive or negative Leptospira antibody result (p > 0.05). It became apparent that horses can be infected with Leptospira without developing of clinical symptoms.

  5. Polymorphisms of the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene in Stabled Horses are Related to Differences in Behavioral Response to Frustration

    PubMed Central

    Ninomiya, Shigeru; Anjiki, Akiko; Nishide, Yudai; Mori, Minori; Deguchi, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this study, the association between behavioral responses to frustration and DRD4 polymorphisms was investigated in horses. Twenty one horses were observed for 4–4.5 h during feeding for several days. Horses were then genotyped for the DRD4 gene. Behavioral responses to frustration were recorded more frequently in horses without the A allele than in horses with the A allele. These results indicate that polymorphisms of DRD4 should be considered when assessing the welfare of stabled horses, by means of behavioral indicators of frustration. Abstract In stabled horses, behavioral responses to frustration are often observed, especially around feeding time. These behavioral responses are a useful indicator of their welfare. In this study, we investigated the association between this behavioral indicator and DRD4 gene polymorphisms in stabled horses. Twenty one horses housed in two stables were used. The horses were observed for approximately 4 h around feeding over three or more days using focal-sampling and instantaneous-sampling. Horses were genotyped for the A–G substitution in the DRD4 gene. The effects of the A–G substitution (with or without the A allele in the DRD4 gene), the stables, and their interaction on the frequency of behavioral responses to frustration were analyzed using general linear models. The total time budget of behavioral responses to frustration was higher in horses without the A allele than in those with the A allele (P = 0.007). These results indicate that the A–G substitution of the DRD4 gene is related to frustration-related behavioral responses in stabled horses. Appropriate consideration should be made for the DRD4 gene polymorphism when the welfare of stabled horses is assessed, based on this behavioral indicator. PMID:26479526

  6. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: The aging horse: Effects of inflammation on muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Reed, S A; LaVigne, E K; Jones, A K; Patterson, D F; Schauer, A L

    2015-03-01

    With improvements in care, the equine population is living longer, remaining active, and competing at increasingly older ages. Both advancing age and exercise result in increased concentrations of circulating and local cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Athletic endeavors in the aged horse may further increase the proinflammatory environment in muscle, decreasing the ability to react appropriately to exercise. Poor response to exercise limits the athletic ability of geriatric horses, thus reducing their useful life span and potentially increasing the risk of injury. Satellite cells are muscle stem cells that reside adjacent to muscle fibers in skeletal muscle and are at least partially responsible for maintenance of muscle mass and muscle hypertrophy. In the adult animal, these cells normally exist in a quiescent state, becoming active, proliferating, and differentiating in response to specific stimuli. Growth factors and cytokines present during hypertrophy and following exercise affect satellite cell activity. Whereas the specific effects of cytokines on equine satellite cells are not well established, cytokines can influence satellite cell and myoblast proliferation and differentiation both positively and negatively. Understanding the effects of cytokines on equine satellite cell function will provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the poor response to exercise in the aged horse. The proinflammatory environment in aged horses may inhibit exercise induced satellite cell activity, thereby diminishing exercise-induced hypertrophy. As more horses are surviving and competing into their 20s, more research is required to understand the response of these animals to exercise during normal aging.

  7. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  8. Welfare in horse breeding.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, P

    2015-04-25

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations.

  9. Discovery of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as a new series of apoptosis inducers using a cell- and caspase-based high throughput screening assay. 4. Structure-activity relationships of N-alkyl substituted pyrrole fused at the 7,8-positions.

    PubMed

    Kemnitzer, William; Drewe, John; Jiang, Songchun; Zhang, Hong; Crogan-Grundy, Candace; Labreque, Denis; Bubenick, Monica; Attardo, Giorgio; Denis, Real; Lamothe, Serge; Gourdeau, Henriette; Tseng, Ben; Kasibhatla, Shailaja; Cai, Sui Xiong

    2008-02-14

    In our continuing effort to discover and develop apoptosis inducing 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as novel anticancer agents, we explored the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of alkyl substituted pyrrole fused at the 7,8-positions. A methyl group substituted at the nitrogen in the 7-position of the pyrrole ring led to a series of potent apoptosis inducers with potency in the low nanomolar range. These compounds were also found to be low nanomolar or subnanomolar inhibitors of cell growth, and they inhibited tubulin polymerization, indicating that methylation of the 7-position nitrogen does not change the mechanism of action of these chromenes. Compound 2d was identified as a highly potent apoptosis inducer with an EC50 value of 2 nM and a highly potent inhibitor of cell growth with a GI50 value of 0.3 nM in T47D cells.

  10. Electronic spectra of C4H3Cl+ isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, S.; Rudnev, V.; Fulara, J.; Dietsche, R.; Nagy, A.; Garkusha, I.; Mazzotti, F. J.; Rice, C. A.; Maier, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Two experimental methods were applied to identify the structure and electronic transitions of C4H3Cl+ isomers. The first is a direct absorption technique where mass-selected ions are embedded in 6 K neon matrices using a mass-selected ion beam and absorption spectra of different C4H3Cl+ isomers were thus observed. The second is a gas phase method on ions which have been collisional cooled with cryogenic helium inside of a 22-pole ion trap. The c-type (1)2 A‧ ← X 2 A″ electronic transition of a C4H3Cl+ isomer could then be measured by a one-colour, two-photon technique at 20 and 50 K in the gas phase. The two sets of data, complemented by calculated excitation energies, allowed the assignment of particular isomers. Rotational structure in the gas phase spectra was resolved for C4H3 35Cl+ and C4H3 37Cl+ isomers of cis-1-chlorobutenynylium. The analysis leads to the spectroscopic constants: T 00 = 19 184.680(5), ? , ? , ? , ? , ? and ? (all in cm-1).

  11. On the Ionization Energies of C4H3 Isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, Ralf I.; Mebel, Alexander; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid

    2009-09-16

    We have conducted a combined experimental and theoretical study on the formation of distinct isomers of resonantly stabilized free radicals, C4H3, which are important intermediates in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in combustion flames and possibly in the interstellar medium. Our study utilized laser ablation of graphite in combination with seeding the ablated species in neat methylacetylene gas which also acted as a reagent. Photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves were recorded of the C4H3 isomers at the Advanced Light Source from 8.0 to 10.3 eV. The experimental PIE curve was compared with theoretical ones suggesting the formation of four C4H3 radicals: two acyclic structures i-C4H3 [1] and E/Z-n-C4H3 [2E/2Z]and two cyclic isomers 3 and 4. These molecules are likely formed via an initial addition of ground state carbon atoms to the carbon-carbon triple bond of the methylacetylene molecule followed by isomerization via hydrogen migrations and ring opening and emission of atomic hydrogen from these intermediates.

  12. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of sorghum [Sorghum biocolor (L.) Moench] gene SbC4H1 restricts lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first hydroxylase enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and its content and activity affects the lignin synthesis. In this study, we isolated a C4H gene SbC4H1 from the suppression subtractive hybridization library of brown midrib (bmr) mutants of Sorghum b...

  13. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  14. Optimizing protease production from an isolate of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans using response surface methodology and its larvicidal activity on horse cyathostomins.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Araújo, J V; Soares, F E F; Araujo, J M; Genier, H L A; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Queiroz, J H; Ferreira, S R

    2011-06-01

    Protease production from Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) was optimized and the larvicidal activity of the enzymatic extract was evaluated on infective horse cyathostomin larvae (L3). Duddingtonia flagrans was grown in liquid medium with eight different variables: glucose, casein, bibasic potassium phosphate (K2HPO4), magnesium sulphate (MgSO4), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), copper sulphate (CuSO4) and temperature. The Plackett-Burman analysis showed a significant influence of MgSO4, CuSO4 and casein (P < 0.05) on protease production by D. flagrans in liquid medium. Central composite design indicated that the highest proteolytic activity was 39.56 U/ml as a function of the concentrations of casein (18.409 g/l), MgSO4 (0.10 g/l) and CuSO4 (0.50 mg/l). A significant difference (P < 0.01) was found for the larval number between the treated and control groups at the end of the experiment. A reduction of 95.46% in the number of free-living larvae was found in the treated group compared with the control. The results of this study suggest that protease production by D. flagrans (AC001) in liquid medium was optimized by MgSO4, CuSO4 and casein, showing that the optimized enzymatic extract exerted larvicidal activity on cyathostomins and therefore may contribute to large-scale industrial production. PMID:20682085

  15. Self-assembly of C4H-type hydrogenated graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zilong; Xue, Qingzhong; Xing, Wei; Du, Yonggang; Han, Zhide

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations that patterned partially hydrogenated graphene (C4H) can self-assemble at room temperature. The main driving force of the self-assembly of C4H is due to the one-sided distribution of hydrogen and the corresponding asymmetric orientation of sp(3) bonding, there exists strong electrostatic repulsion between the relatively close H atoms. The simulations show that C4H can self-assemble into various carbon nanoscroll (CNS) structures, this is mainly controlled by its geometry (size and aspect ratio). And the carbon nanotube (CNT) is a good candidate to activate and guide C4H to form CNS, whose core size can be controlled. Meanwhile, a novel CNT/C4H core/shell composite nanostructure is also formed. The theoretical results shed important light on a feasible approach to fabricate high-quality CNS and other novel nanostructures including core/shell structures, which hold great potential applications in optics, optoelectronic devices, hydrogen storage, sensors, and energy storage in supercapacitors or batteries. PMID:24064528

  16. Theme Unit. Horse Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses…

  17. Hyperelastosis in the Horse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

  18. Deborah Butterfield: "Derby Horse."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spomer, Marvin J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for students in grades seven to nine which examines the working methods of Deborah Butterfield's sculpture and its place in contemporary U.S. art. Includes a photograph of the sculpture, "Derby Horse," and provides background information about the artist, student objectives, instructional strategies, and evaluation criteria.…

  19. Nickel ohmic contacts of high-concentration P-implanted 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunjuan, Liu; Su, Liu; Jingjing, Feng; Rong, Wu

    2012-03-01

    Different-dose phosphorus ion implantation into 4H-SiC followed by high-temperature annealing was investigated. AlN/BN and graphite post-implantation annealing for ion-implanted SiC at 1650 °C for 30 min was conducted to electrically activate the implanted P+ ions. Ni contacts to the P+-implanted 4H-SiC layers were examined by transmission line model and Hall measurements fabricated on P-implanted (0001). The results indicated that a high-quality ohmic contact and specific contact resistivity of 1.30 × 10-6 Ω · cm2 was obtained for the P+-implanted 4H-SiC layers. The ρC values of the Ni-based implanted layers decreased with increasing P doping concentrations, and a weaker temperature dependence was observed for different samples in the 200-500 K temperature range.

  20. Pennsylvania Youth in Action: 4-H Community Development. Adult Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Dept. of Agricultural and Extension Education.

    Designed to assist leaders in their roles as catalysts, advisors, and resource persons for the Pennsylvania Youth in Action 4-H Community Development program, the guide provides complementary educational, craft, and recreation suggestions to enhance student workbooks for three community development activity units. The first section focuses on the…

  1. Adult volunteerism in Pennsylvania 4-H natural resources programs for youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sanford Sherrick

    2001-07-01

    Pennsylvania's 4-H Youth Development Program relies on adult volunteers to reach youth with educational information and opportunities. Finding adults willing to do this volunteer work is challenging. This study looks at the current status of adult volunteerism with natural resources 4-H projects, and seeks to understand potential volunteers. The literature has much to offer in regards to general volunteer trends, management, motivations, and task preferences; however, few studies focus on volunteers in natural resources or environmental education. A telephone survey conducted with county 4-H agents revealed that only 3.2% of Pennsylvania's 4-H volunteers work with natural resources projects in 56 out of 67 counties, and that very few volunteers have any formal background in natural resources. Semi-structured interviews with 41 adult volunteers currently working with natural resources projects explored volunteer demographics, history, program design preferences, and ideas for seeking more volunteers. Findings from the telephone survey and the semi-structured interviews were used to generate a mail survey with large, random samples from three population groups: (1) 4-H Volunteers, (2) 4-H Parents, and (3) Natural Resources Professionals. Confidence with youth and subject matter, and adult willingness to volunteer was explored for each of the groups in relation to background, demographic characteristics, motivational needs, past and present volunteer activity, personal interests, and program design importance. Natural resources subject matter confidence was shown to be the most significant variable determining willingness to volunteer for all three groups. The variables that contributed to subject matter and youth confidence varied for each population. Key variables effecting willingness to volunteer included outdoor activity level, personal interest in natural resources, the need to fulfill feelings of social responsibility, and confidence with youth. Program design

  2. Textile Science Leader's Guide. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This instructor's guide provides an overview of 4-H student project modules in the textile sciences area. The guide includes short notes explaining how to use the project modules, a flowchart chart showing how the project areas are sequenced, a synopsis of the design and content of the modules, and some program planning tips. For each of the…

  3. Effectiveness of the Indiana 4-H Tractor Program: Alumni Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrabba, James J., Jr.; Talbert, B. Allen; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Responses from Indiana 4-H tractor driving contestants 1982-197 (n=139) showed that 74% were employed on farms; most felt the contests effectively taught tractor safety and made them generally aware of safety. However, many still engaged in risky behaviors such as not wearing seatbelts in tractors with rollover protective structures or allowing…

  4. "Ohio 4-H CARTEENS": Peer Intervention Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropper, Rebecca J.

    1999-01-01

    Ohio 4-H's CARTEENS seeks to reduce juvenile traffic violations in a program designed and presented by teen peer educators with guidance and technical assistance from the state highway patrol. Teens examined court data to determine content, which includes defensive driving, rural road safety, and dealing with peer pressure. (SK)

  5. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  6. CONSERVING OUR NATURAL RESOURCES, A 4-H LEADER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMICK, W. ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    AN EFFECTIVE 4-H CONSERVATION PROGRAM IS DEVELOPED AROUND THE FOLLOWING BASIC CONCEPTS--(1) MAN IS A PART OF THE NATURAL WORLD, IN WHICH THERE ARE MANY VALUABLE MATERIALS, (2) MAN HAS LEARNED TO USE MANY OF THOSE MATERIALS FOR HUMAN SUSTENANCE AND BETTERMENT, AND (3) MAN'S ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND GENERAL WELFARE IS LARGELY DEPENDENT UPON THE MANNER…

  7. Self-Protection: A New Approach to 4-H Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sharon K. B.

    This document introduces the issue of self-protection as the Minnesota 4-H Youth Development response to self-destructive behavior among adolescents. It presents findings from a statewide survey of over 36,000 secondary school students using the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. Responses are given in the areas of health, school attitudes,…

  8. The Evaluation Attitudes and Practices of 4-H Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Bennett, Amanda M.

    2011-01-01

    Extension educators are expected to conduct program evaluation. An Internet survey was sent to county 4-H educators in Ohio to examine their evaluation attitudes and practices, as well as barriers to conducting evaluation. Respondents indicated a range of attitudes about evaluation and limited use of different designs and methods. Having enough…

  9. A Phenomenological Look at 4-H Volunteer Motives for Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…

  10. New potent inhibitors of tyrosinase: novel clues to binding of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thiones, and substituted hydrazides to the dicopper active site.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Usman; Ullah, Nisar

    2010-06-01

    A series of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thiones, and substituted hydrazides were tailored and synthesized as new potent inhibitors of tyrosinase. The rationale for inhibitor design was based on the active site structural evidence from the crystal structures of bacterial tyrosinase and potato catechol oxidase enzymes. Kinetic and active site binding studies suggested mono-dentate binding of thiadiazole, oxadiazole, and triazole rings to the active site dicopper center of tyrosinase including hydrophobicity contributing to the potent inhibition. Kinetic plots showed mixed-type of inhibition by all 25 compounds. Substitutions at C3 of the triazole ring and C5 of the thiadiazole/oxadiazole rings were found to be playing a major role in the high binding affinity to tyrosinase. The current work may help develop new potent tyrosinase inhibitors against hyperpigmentation including potential insecticides. PMID:20452224

  11. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of a new derivative of the Meldrun acid: 2,2-dimethyl-5-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylaminomethylene)-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (C9H10N4O4).

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Gillena M M; Teixeira, Alexandre M R; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Sena Junior, Diniz M; Freire, Paulo T C; Bento, Ricardo R F; Silva, Luiz E

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new substances with proven antimicrobial activity is the current study goal of various researchers. Usage of synthetic products has grown considerably in the past few years due to processing agility, and capability of going through previous chemical modifications in order to enhance its biological activity. Widespread careless use of antimicrobials has made the number of resistant microorganisms rise significantly, thus demanding more efficient drugs to fight them. One of these synthetic candidates for this purpose is the substance 2,2-Dimethyl-5-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylaminomethylene)-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (C9H10N4O4), aminomethylene derivative from Meldrum's acid. This substance, alone and in association with common antibiotics, were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial activity, and had their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) towards Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, as well as multiresistant strains Escherichia coli 27, Staphylococcus aureus 358 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03 determined. The antimicrobial modulation action tests of the aminoglycosides with C9H10N4O4 were performed according to the microdilution method, and resulted in observation of a positive synergic effect. PMID:26417318

  12. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of a new derivative of the Meldrun acid: 2,2-dimethyl-5-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylaminomethylene)-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (C9H10N4O4)

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Gillena M. M.; Teixeira, Alexandre M. R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Sena Junior, Diniz M.; Freire, Paulo T. C.; Bento, Ricardo R. F.; Silva, Luiz E.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new substances with proven antimicrobial activity is the current study goal of various researchers. Usage of synthetic products has grown considerably in the past few years due to processing agility, and capability of going through previous chemical modifications in order to enhance its biological activity. Widespread careless use of antimicrobials has made the number of resistant microorganisms rise significantly, thus demanding more efficient drugs to fight them. One of these synthetic candidates for this purpose is the substance 2,2-Dimethyl-5-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylaminomethylene)-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (C9H10N4O4), aminomethylene derivative from Meldrum's acid. This substance, alone and in association with common antibiotics, were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial activity, and had their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) towards Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, as well as multiresistant strains Escherichia coli 27, Staphylococcus aureus 358 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03 determined. The antimicrobial modulation action tests of the aminoglycosides with C9H10N4O4 were performed according to the microdilution method, and resulted in observation of a positive synergic effect. PMID:26417318

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of N′-[(Z)-(3-Methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazol-4-ylidene)(phenyl)methyl]benzohydrazide and Its Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Asegbeloyin, Jonnie N.; Ujam, Oguejiofo T.; Okafor, Emmanuel C.; Babahan, Ilknur; Coban, Esin Poyrazoglu; Özmen, Ali; Biyik, Halil

    2014-01-01

    Reaction of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one and benzoyl hydrazide in refluxing ethanol gave N′-[(Z)-(3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazol-4-ylidene)(phenyl)methyl]benzohydrazide (HL1), which was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray structure study. X-ray diffraction analyses of the crystals revealed a nonplanar molecule, existing in the keto-amine form, with intermolecular hydrogen bonding forming a seven-membered ring system. The reaction of HL1 with Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) halides gave the corresponding complexes, which were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic measurements, and infrared and electronic spectral studies. The compounds were screened for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and antimicrobial activity against some bacteria and yeasts. Results showed that the compounds are potent against HL-60 cells with the IC50 value ≤5 μM, while some of the compounds were active against few studied Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25332694

  14. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    PubMed

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses. PMID:24833979

  15. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    PubMed

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses.

  16. Procedure for granulokinetic studies in the horse with chromium-51

    SciTech Connect

    Carakostas, M.C.; Moore, W.E.; Smith, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    A procedure with chromium-51 (51Cr) as the cell label that maintains high-cell viability for studying granulocyte kinetics in horses is described. The procedure combines and modifies several methods for isolating leukocytes and granulocytes for use in the horse when a large volume of labeled cells is required. Also described is an improved technique for measuring granulocyte specific activity in large serial blood samples, using a Ficoll-sedimentation method. The procedure should be useful for determining granulocyte kinetics in the horse, the only major domestic species for which such data are not available.

  17. Exercise physiology of the older horse.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Kenneth Harrington

    2002-12-01

    Surveys indicate that up to 15% of the equine population in the United States is older than 20 years of age, with many of these animals performing various athletic activities well into their 20s. As is the case with their human counterparts, these geriatric equine athletes have the ability to continue to perform in athletic events. Unfortunately, many horse owners continue to train their active older animals using exercise training protocols that, although appropriate for a younger animal, may not be appropriate for the older equine athlete. Studies in aged human beings have led to a fine-tuning of exercise prescription for the older human athlete so as to prevent the adverse and potentially dangerous effects of excessive work. Published results have led to new and improved programs to promote fitness for the growing population of older adults. Unfortunately, limited data exist regarding the exercise capacity of the aged horse. Future studies on the effects of aging on exercise capacity in equine athletes need to take a few major directions. One question to be answered is at what age does physiologic function first begin to decline in the horse? In human beings, this age varies with training, but noticeable changes in aerobic capacity are first seen in 40- to 50-year-olds. Second, data are needed to determine what levels of exercise enhance the health and well-being of the older horse without harm. Lastly, studies are needed to determine the physiologic mechanisms associated with the onset of aging-induced decreases in physiologic function in the horse. The ultimate goal of all these studies should be to adjust exercise levels to meet the needs of the growing population of athletically active older equine athletes.

  18. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  19. Starting and Maintaining a Marine Aquarium: 4-H Members Guide [and] 4-H Member's Project Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    The guide and the project record book included in this document are designed for 4-H members who would like to start a salt-water aquarium project. The guide includes the following topics: (1) general requirements for salt-water aquariums; (2) directions for making an aquarium; (3) suggestions for where to locate it; (4) pros and cons of using…

  20. Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, Yiannis G; Daras, Michael D; Liappas, Ioannis A; Markianos, Manolis

    2005-12-01

    Anthropophagic horses have been described in classical mythology. From a current perspective, two such instances are worth mentioning and describing: Glaucus of Potniae, King of Efyra, and Diomedes, King of Thrace, who were both devoured by their horses. In both cases, the horses' extreme aggression and their subsequent anthropophagic behaviour were attributed to their madness (hippomania) induced by the custom of feeding them with flesh. The current problem of 'mad cow' disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is apparently related to a similar feed pattern. Aggressive behaviour in horses can be triggered by both biological and psychological factors. In the cases cited here, it is rather unlikely that the former were the cause. On the other hand, the multiple abuses imposed on the horses, coupled with people's fantasies and largely unconscious fears (hippophobia), may possibly explain these mythological descriptions of 'horse-monsters'. PMID:16482685

  1. Differences in serum protein 2D gel electrophoresis patterns of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Barsuren, Enkhbolor; Namkhai, Bandi; Kong, Hong Sik

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in serum protein expression profiles of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses using proteome analysis. The serum proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and five different gene products were identified. Proteins represented by the five spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS technology. The identities of all proteins were deduced based on their similarity to proteins in the human plasma protein database. Three proteins (a haptoglobin-2 alpha glycoprotein and two haptoglobin-2beta glycoproteins with different accession numbers) were downregulated in Przewalski's horse sera compared to thoroughbred horse sera. Moreover, two proteins (tetraspanin-18 and pM5) were upregulated in Przewalski's horses compared to thoroughbred horses. Haptoglobin-2 alpha and haptoglobin-2beta may serve as candidate molecules in future studies of inflammation, coagulation, immune modulation and pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity with consequential effects on the entire metabolism of the horse.

  2. The origin of ambling horses.

    PubMed

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-01

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. PMID:27505236

  3. The origin of ambling horses.

    PubMed

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-01

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date.

  4. Synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@M (M = Ir, Os, IrOs) Core-Shell Nanoribbons For Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Chen, Ye; Wang, Jie; Li, Bing; Zong, Yun; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The high-yield synthesis of 4H/face-centered cubic (fcc)-Au@Ir core-shell nanoribbons (NRBs) is achieved via the direct growth of Ir on 4H Au NRBs under ambient conditions. Importantly, this method can be used to synthesize 4H/fcc-Au@Os and 4H/fcc-Au@IrOs core-shell NRBs. Significantly, the obtained 4H/fcc-Au@Ir core-shell NRBs demonstrate an exceptional electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction under acidic condition, which is much higher than that of the commercial Ir/C catalyst.

  5. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  6. Design, spectral characterization, thermal, DFT studies and anticancer cell line activities of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B S; Yadav, Deepak

    2015-06-15

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L(1), L(2) have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and furan-2-carbaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 1:1 and 2:1. The characterization of Schiff bases and metal complexes was done by (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrometry and molar conductivity studies. The in DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The effect of these complexes on proliferation of human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (Hep-G2) were studied and compared with those of free ligand. The anticancer cell line results reveal that all metal complexes show moderate to significant % cytotoxicity on cell line HepG2 and MCF-7.

  7. Design, spectral characterization, thermal, DFT studies and anticancer cell line activities of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B. S.; Yadav, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L1, L2 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and furan-2-carbaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 1:1 and 2:1. The characterization of Schiff bases and metal complexes was done by 1H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrometry and molar conductivity studies. The in DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The effect of these complexes on proliferation of human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (Hep-G2) were studied and compared with those of free ligand. The anticancer cell line results reveal that all metal complexes show moderate to significant % cytotoxicity on cell line HepG2 and MCF-7.

  8. Improved activity and thermo-stability of the horse radish peroxidase with graphene quantum dots and its application in fluorometric detection of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyan, Zhou; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2016-08-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received extensive concern in many fields such as optical probe, bioimaging and biosensor. However, few reports refer on the influence of GQDs on enzyme performance. The paper reports two kinds of graphene quantum dots (termed as GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs) that were prepared by cutting of graphene oxide and pyrolysis of citric acid and L-cysteine, and their use for the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) modification. The study reveals that GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs exhibit an opposite effect on the HRP performance. Only HRP modified with GO-GQDs offers an enhanced activity (more than 1.9 times of pristine enzyme) and thermo-stability. This is because GO-GQDs offer a larger conjugate rigid plane and fewer hydrophilic groups compared to N,S-GQDs. The characteristics can make GO-GQDs induce a proper conformational change in the HRP for the catalytic performance, improving the enzyme activity and thermo-stability. The HRP modified with green luminescent GO-GQDs was also employed as a biocatalyst for sensing of H2O2 by a fluorometric sensor. The colorless tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is oxidized into blue oxidized TMB in the presence of H2O2 by the assistance of HRP/GO-GQDs, leading to an obvious fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity linearly decreases with the increase of H2O2 concentration in the range from 2 × 10 - 9 to 2 × 10 - 4 M with the detection limit of 6.8 × 10 - 10 M. The analytical method provides the advantage of sensitivity, stability and accuracy compared with present H2O2 sensors based on the pristine HRP. It has been successfully applied in the determination of H2O2 in real water samples. The study also opens a new avenue for modification of enzyme activity and stability that offers great promise in applications such as biological catalysis, biosensing and enzyme engineering.

  9. Improved activity and thermo-stability of the horse radish peroxidase with graphene quantum dots and its application in fluorometric detection of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Xiaoyan, Zhou; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2016-08-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received extensive concern in many fields such as optical probe, bioimaging and biosensor. However, few reports refer on the influence of GQDs on enzyme performance. The paper reports two kinds of graphene quantum dots (termed as GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs) that were prepared by cutting of graphene oxide and pyrolysis of citric acid and l-cysteine, and their use for the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) modification. The study reveals that GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs exhibit an opposite effect on the HRP performance. Only HRP modified with GO-GQDs offers an enhanced activity (more than 1.9 times of pristine enzyme) and thermo-stability. This is because GO-GQDs offer a larger conjugate rigid plane and fewer hydrophilic groups compared to N,S-GQDs. The characteristics can make GO-GQDs induce a proper conformational change in the HRP for the catalytic performance, improving the enzyme activity and thermo-stability. The HRP modified with green luminescent GO-GQDs was also employed as a biocatalyst for sensing of H2O2 by a fluorometric sensor. The colorless tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is oxidized into blue oxidized TMB in the presence of H2O2 by the assistance of HRP/GO-GQDs, leading to an obvious fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity linearly decreases with the increase of H2O2 concentration in the range from 2×10-9 to 2×10-4M with the detection limit of 6.8×10-10M. The analytical method provides the advantage of sensitivity, stability and accuracy compared with present H2O2 sensors based on the pristine HRP. It has been successfully applied in the determination of H2O2 in real water samples. The study also opens a new avenue for modification of enzyme activity and stability that offers great promise in applications such as biological catalysis, biosensing and enzyme engineering. PMID:27116472

  10. Daytime shelter use of individually kept horses during Swedish summer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Hopkins, R J; Blomgren, E; Ventorp, M; von Brömssen, C; Dahlborn, K

    2015-02-01

    In Sweden, no provision for summer shelter to protect horses from heat and insects is required, although access to shelter for horses kept outdoors 24 h during winter is a requirement. This study investigated horses' daytime shelter-seeking behavior in relation to weather conditions and insect activity during a 2-wk period in summer. Eight Warmblood riding horses had access to 2 shelters of different design to test which shelter design is preferred by horses. Furthermore, rectal and skin temperatures and insect-defensive behavior were measured to test whether horses would benefit from the provision of shade. The horses were kept alone in paddocks for 4 d. During 2 d, horses had access to 2 shelters: 1) open shelter with roof and uncovered sides and 2) closed shelter with roof, wind nets on 2 sides, and opaque plastic opposite the entrance. Weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed) were recorded every 10 min. The number of insects (flies, mosquitos) was counted from insect traps placed in each shelter and outside. Behavior (shelter use, insect-defensive behavior, locomotion, grazing) was recorded at 5-min intervals between 0900 to 1200 h and 1300 to 1600 h and rectal and skin temperatures were measured at 0800 h, 1200 h, and 1600 h. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure for Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Ambient temperature ranged from 16 to 25°C (average temperature humidity index 65.7 ± 1.4). Five horses preferred the closed shelter and were observed inside up to 2.5 h continuously. Greater wind speed decreased the likelihood of observing horses inside the shelter ( < 0.001), as did lower numbers of flies ( < 0.001). The insect-defensive behaviors, skin shiver and ear flick, were performed less frequently when horses were using the closed shelter ( < 0.001), indicating that they were less disturbed by insects. Thirty-minute shelter use had no effect on rectal and skin temperatures ( > 0

  11. Daytime shelter use of individually kept horses during Swedish summer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Hopkins, R J; Blomgren, E; Ventorp, M; von Brömssen, C; Dahlborn, K

    2015-02-01

    In Sweden, no provision for summer shelter to protect horses from heat and insects is required, although access to shelter for horses kept outdoors 24 h during winter is a requirement. This study investigated horses' daytime shelter-seeking behavior in relation to weather conditions and insect activity during a 2-wk period in summer. Eight Warmblood riding horses had access to 2 shelters of different design to test which shelter design is preferred by horses. Furthermore, rectal and skin temperatures and insect-defensive behavior were measured to test whether horses would benefit from the provision of shade. The horses were kept alone in paddocks for 4 d. During 2 d, horses had access to 2 shelters: 1) open shelter with roof and uncovered sides and 2) closed shelter with roof, wind nets on 2 sides, and opaque plastic opposite the entrance. Weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed) were recorded every 10 min. The number of insects (flies, mosquitos) was counted from insect traps placed in each shelter and outside. Behavior (shelter use, insect-defensive behavior, locomotion, grazing) was recorded at 5-min intervals between 0900 to 1200 h and 1300 to 1600 h and rectal and skin temperatures were measured at 0800 h, 1200 h, and 1600 h. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure for Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Ambient temperature ranged from 16 to 25°C (average temperature humidity index 65.7 ± 1.4). Five horses preferred the closed shelter and were observed inside up to 2.5 h continuously. Greater wind speed decreased the likelihood of observing horses inside the shelter ( < 0.001), as did lower numbers of flies ( < 0.001). The insect-defensive behaviors, skin shiver and ear flick, were performed less frequently when horses were using the closed shelter ( < 0.001), indicating that they were less disturbed by insects. Thirty-minute shelter use had no effect on rectal and skin temperatures ( > 0

  12. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  13. Horse sense: social status of horses (Equus caballus) affects their likelihood of copying other horses' behavior.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Konstanze; Heinze, Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Animals that live in stable social groups need to gather information on their own relative position in the group's social hierarchy, by either directly threatening or by challenging others, or indirectly and in a less perilous manner , by observing interactions among others. Indirect inference of dominance relationships has previously been reported from primates, rats, birds, and fish. Here, we show that domestic horses, Equus caballus, are similarly capable of social cognition. Taking advantage of a specific "following behavior" that horses show towards humans in a riding arena, we investigated whether bystander horses adjust their response to an experimenter according to the observed interaction and their own dominance relationship with the horse whose reaction to the experimenter they had observed before. Horses copied the "following behavior" towards an experimenter after watching a dominant horse following but did not follow after observing a subordinate horse or a horse from another social group doing so. The "following behavior," which horses show towards an experimenter, therefore appears to be affected by the demonstrator's behavior and social status relative to the observer.

  14. Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Pythium insidiosum in horses with pythiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, L; Nicholson, V; Prescott, J F

    1992-01-01

    Reactions to Pythium insidiosum by sera from horses with active pythiosis were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Five strains of P. insidiosum were grown in nutrient broth and then sonicated. After centrifugation, supernatant antigens were separated by SDS-PAGE. An exoantigen of Conidiobolus coronatus was also tested. Bands with molecular weights between 97,000 and 14,000 were identified by Coomassie blue and silver staining. After being transferred to nitrocellulose, the antigens were reacted against sera from six horses with pythiosis, sera from four horses cured a year earlier by vaccination, and sera from five healthy horses. The sera from horses with pythiosis recognized at least 20 antigens in all strains. Three antigens with molecular weights of 32,000, 30,000, and 28,000 appeared to be immunodominant and specific. Sera from horses cured by immunotherapy showed only five very weak bands, three of them the 32,000-molecular-weight (32K), 30K, and 28K antigens. No bands were observed with sera from healthy horses or sera from horses with a variety of other infections. Sera from horses with pythiosis cross-reacted with the 44K antigen of C. coronatus. The immunodominant antigens described here may be useful for diagnostic purposes and in immunotherapy for this oomycotic infection in horses. Images PMID:1452669

  15. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse's cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare. PMID:26907354

  16. Septic arthritis in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Carstanjen, B; Boehart, S; Cislakova, M

    2010-01-01

    Septic arthritis in horses is a serious disease which can become life-threatening. In case the infection can be eliminated before irreversible joint damage occurs, complete recovery is possible. This article gives an overview of the literature concerning etiology, diagnosis and strategies of therapy in cases of septic arthritis in adult horses, with special reference to novel options of treatment.

  17. Two-Dice Horse Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  18. High efficiency 4H-SiC betavoltaic power sources using tritium radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; Portnoff, Samuel; Spencer, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Realization of an 18.6% efficient 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) large area betavoltaic power source using the radioisotope tritium is reported. A 200 nm 4H-SiC P+N junction is used to collect high-energy electrons. The electron source is a titanium tritide (TiH3x) foil, or an integrated titanium tritide region formed by the diffusion of tritium into titanium. The specific activity of the source is directly measured. Dark current measured under short circuit conditions was less than 6.1 pA/cm2. Samples measured with an external tritium foil produced an open circuit voltage of 2.09 V, short circuit current of 75.47 nA/cm2, fill factor of 0.86, and power efficiency of 18.6%. Samples measured with an integrated source produced power efficiencies of 12%. Simulations were done to determine the beta spectrum (modified by self absorption) exiting the source and the electron hole pair generation function in the 4H-SiC. The electron-hole pair generation function in 4H-SiC was modeled as a Gaussian distribution, and a closed form solution of the continuity equation was used to analyze the cell performance. The effective surface recombination velocity in our samples was found to be 105-106 cm/s. Our analysis demonstrated that the surface recombination dominates the performance of a tritium betavoltaic device but that using a thin P+N junction structure can mitigate some of the negative effects.

  19. Clinical nutrition of adult horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S L

    1990-08-01

    Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old.

  20. Connecting Kids To The Universe: Partnering With 4-H Youth Development To Pilot 'Afterschool Universe' In New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Nancy

    2008-05-01

    4-H Youth Development - as the youth program of the Cooperative Extension system associated with the land grant university in every state - is an ideal partner for statewide dissemination of EPO programs. With funding from a Chandra Cycle 9 EPO grant we are piloting `Afterschool Universe’ in five urban locations in New York State. `Afterschool Universe’ is an education/outreach effort sponsored by NASA's Beyond Einstein program and was developed in partnership with the Imagine the Universe EPO program. The program is targeted at middle school students in out-of-school-time settings and explores basic astronomy concepts focused on the Universe beyond the solar system. Consisting of 12 sessions of engaging hands-on activities, the flexibly structured program can be used in a variety of settings, including astronomy days, youth groups, summer camps, and afterschool programs. Partnering with 4-H Youth Development helps us reach large numbers of underserved and underrepresented minority youth and girls in widely dispersed areas of New York and fits ideally with the current national 4-H SET (science, engineering, and technology) initiative and emphasis on 4-H afterschool programming. The pilot program provides teaching kits and workshops for program leaders. Our 4-H county partners recruit afterschool program staff, science center staff, 4-H volunteers, 4-H teens, and other youth group leaders as workshop participants. The 4-H program will house and loan the kit to trained leaders. By providing kits and training in 2008, we are gearing up for International Year of Astronomy programs in 2009 in out-of-school settings. Based on pilot results, we will seek additional funding to expand the program. The poster will discuss kit development, 4-H partnership, workshops, participating organizations, target audiences, successes, and challenges.

  1. Horse Hoof Protectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

  2. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    PubMed

    Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

    2011-02-09

    It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work

  3. Impact of horse traffic on trails in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summer, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Disturbances related to the impact of horses on trails in Rocky Mountain National Park vary across the landscape. Geomorphic monitoring of permanent sites suggests that horse traffic is not the single, dominant process active on trails, nor is degredation always a direct result of horse use. Instead, amounts and rates of change are a function of geomorphic and biologic characteristics of the terrain interacting with horse traffic of varying degrees. The most influential landscape factors governing trail deteriortion, rockiness, stoniness, vegetation, and drainage. - from Author

  4. The Absolute Threshold of Colour Vision in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Lina S. V.; Balkenius, Anna; Kelber, Almut

    2008-01-01

    Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity. PMID:19002261

  5. An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB). Results This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable. Conclusions These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative

  6. [Respiratory infectious diseases in horses].

    PubMed

    Mayr, A

    1987-01-01

    Among all infectious diseases affecting horses, respiratory disease pose the greatest threat to horses kept in stables, horses used for breeding and race horses. Here a distinction should be made between the so-called monocausal infectious diseases (so-called Henle-Koch postulates) and multicausal infectious diseases which are the result of the synergistic interaction of different processes, that alone do not lead to disease. There is no clearcut distinction between the two groups. The most important monocausal respiratory infections of horses are caused by equine influenza virus (subtypes 1 and 2), equine rhinopneumonitis virus (equine herpes-virus type 1), equine arteritis virus and partially by Reoviruses. In addition, streptococcus equi (strangles, adenitis equorum, coryza contagiosa equorum) and mycobacteria tuberculosis can cause monocausal diseases. In multicausal infections, the first step usually is a virus infection. This is the basis for secondary infection by widespread, opportunistic agents such as bacteria, mycoplasms or fungi which lead to clinical disease. The method of choice for controlling monocausal respiratory infections of horses is prophylactic vaccination and chemotherapy. Measures to control multicausal infections include: vaccination with functional-synergistic combined vaccines; the use of herd-specific vaccines; medical stimulation of the non-specific part of immunity (immunmodulation, paramunization). Paramunization is a new concept in the prophylaxis and therapy of respiratory infections of horses and can be combined with prophylactic vaccination as well as with chemotherapy. In severe cases of respiratory disease paramunization can also be combined with corticosteroids.

  7. 4H-SiC detectors for ultraviolet light monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Badalà, P.; Carbone, B.; Russo, A.; Coffa, S.

    2015-02-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) provides the unique property of near-perfect visible blindness and very high signal-to-noise ratio due to the high quantum efficiency and low dark current even at high temperature. These features make SiC the best available material for the manufacturing of visible blind semiconductor ultraviolet (UV) light detectors. Thanks to their properties, SiC detectors have been extensively used in fact for flame detection monitoring, UV sterilization and astronomy. Here we report on the electrical and optical performance of patterned thin metal film NiSi/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes with different semiconductor exposed area suitably designed for UV light monitoring.

  8. Experimental investigations of the hypernucleus Λ4H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, P.; Schulz, F.; Aulenbacher, S.; Beričič, J.; Bleser, S.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Fujii, Y.; Fujita, M.; Gogami, T.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Kusaka, W.; Margaryan, A.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, U.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez Lorente, A.; Schlimme, B. S.; Schoth, M.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Steinen, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tang, L.; Thiel, M.; Tsukada, K.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.

    2016-03-01

    Negatively charged pions from two-body decays of stopped Λ4H hypernuclei were studied in 2012 at the Mainz Microtron MAMI, Germany. The momenta of the decay-pions were measured with unprecedented precision by using high-resolution magnetic spectrometers. A challenge of the experiment was the tagging of kaons from associated K+∧ production off a Be target at very forward angles. In the year 2014, this experiment was continued with a better control of the systematic uncertainties, with better suppression of coincident and random background, improved particle identification, and with higher luminosities. Another key point of the progress was the improvement in the absolute momentum calibration of the magnetic spectrometers.

  9. Transport induced inflammatory responses in horses.

    PubMed

    Wessely-Szponder, J; Bełkot, Z; Bobowiec, R; Kosior-Korzecka, U; Wójcik, M

    2015-01-01

    Deleterious response to road transport is an important problem in equine practice. It determines different physiological, immunological and metabolic changes which lead to increased susceptibility to several disorders such as pneumonia, diarrhea, colics, laminitis, injuries and rhabdomyolisis. The aim of our study was to look for possible relationships between transportation of female young and older horses over a long and short distance and an inflammatory state reflected by an increase of acute phase protein concentration, oxidative stress and muscle injury. The study was conducted on 24 cold-blooded female horses divided into four groups. Six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 550 km, six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 50 km. Plasma and serum were obtained from blood samples taken before transportation (T0), immediately after transportation (T1) and at an abattoir during slaughter (T2). In these samples fibrinogen, MDA, AST and CK were assessed. Fibrinogen increased in all studied groups especially in fillies after long distance transportation, where it reached 205±7.07 mg/dl before transportation, 625±35.35 mg/dl after transportation, and 790±14.14 mg/dl during slaughter. MDA concentrations rose after transportation and reached the maximal level during slaughter. CK activity was more elevated after short transportation in younger horses, whereas initial activity of AST was higher in older horses. We estimated that intensified responses from acute phase, oxidative stress and muscle injury parameters indicated an inflammatory state. PMID:26172192

  10. Extended defects in 4H-silicon carbide homoepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the structure of extended defects in 4H-SIC homoepitaxial layers, and to identify their nucleation mechanisms. Characteristics of basal plane dislocations in 4H-SiC epilayers were investigated in a comprehensive manner, including their morphologies, Burgers' vectors, positions, and correlation with the extended defects propagating from the substrate. Plan-view transmission x-ray topography was the major characterization technique used in this study. Complementary data was obtained by KOH etching and optical microscopy. Trace of glide was detected on every basal plane dislocation in the entire 3-inch epilayer. In the center area of the epi-wafer, the glide can extend to macroscopic distance and form edge-type dislocations at the epilayer/surface interface. During the motion, dislocation half loop arrays were found to nucleate at the growth front. The magnitude of the resolved shear stress was estimated based on the radius of curvature of the dislocation lines. It surpassed the critical resolved shear stress at the epitaxial growth temperature. The stress was identified to be compressive in the epilayer. Its origin was studied. Nitrogen-doping-difference-induced misfit strain was excluded as the source of the stress. The structures of two morphological defects, 'carrots' and 'arrows', were studied. Cross-section x-ray topography was used to image the structure of carrot defect in whole. The defect was found to nucleate at the epilayer/substrate interface on a threading screw dislocation propagating from the substrate. Its structure was mainly composed of a prismatic stacking fault and a Frank-type basal plane stacking fault. The arrow defect was found to be produced by a spheroid shape inclusion in the volume of the epilayer. Zone axis diffraction pattern under transmission electron microscope identified the nature of the inclusion as 3C-SIC. It was determined to nucleate at the substrate surface contaminations.

  11. Intergenerational Panels at Centennial Events: Stimulating Discussion about Continuity and Change in the 4-H Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Matthew S.; Weikert, Ben; Scholl, Jan; Rushton, Mya

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an intergenerational strategy for organizations planning centennial celebratory events. The methods and findings from the 4-H through the Generations session conducted at the joint 4-H Leadership Conference and 4-H Leaders Forum to celebrate the Pennsylvania 4-H Centennial are reported. Youth and adult participants shared…

  12. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  13. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.

    PubMed

    Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation.

  14. Efficacy of the repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET) against tabanid flies on horses evaluated in a field test in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Herholz, C; Kopp, C; Wenger, M; Mathis, A; Wägeli, S; Roth, N

    2016-05-15

    Female tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can be a serious nuisance for horses because of their painful bites during blood feeding. They also play a primary role in mechanical transmission of a lentivirus causing Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), a virus that has spread within Europe in recent years. According to the European law for products intended for use as a repellent on horses (recreational and sport horses), a field test is mandatory to demonstrate sufficient repellency of such a substance against the specific target fly species, but currently no agreed protocols are available for testing of potential repellents. The aim of the present study was to establish a protocol for a field test to investigate the efficacy of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET, Brum®, Huebeli-Stud Horse Care AG) in a 15-17% oil-water emulsion against tabanid flies on horses up to four hours. Between July and August 2015, four horses on three farms each were tested on two consecutive days in a cross-over design. The four horses on Farm A were used in the pre-test as well as in the main test. Two and a half hours after repellent application the horses were lunged until sweating. Tabanid fly infestations were both photographed and directly counted during five minutes 3 and 4h after repellent application on the right side of the horses in the area from the head to the flank, belly and first third of the foreleg. Without repellent application, up to 29 tabanid flies were counted on a horse, whereas the maximum for the repellent treated horses was four. In 50% of the horses treated with DEET there were no Tabanids observed (efficacy 100%), and in all horses the tabanid fly counts were lower than in the control horses with one exemption at 4h. The efficacy of the DEET repellent was at least 80% and 71% respectively, three or four hours after application (with a confidence level of 89%). A fly trap (Horse Pal) revealed the presence of the tabanid species Tabanus brominus and Haematopota

  15. America's Wild Horses. Five Day Lesson Plan and Workbook--4th Grade. Legend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Arlene E.

    This document contains a teaching guide and a children's activity book about the wild horses and burros living on Nevada public lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). In 1971 Congress passed legislation to protect, manage, and control wild horses and burros on public lands. The BLM maintains 270 herd management areas in 10 states.…

  16. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses.

    PubMed

    Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2008-07-01

    The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for successful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production. When these technologies were developed, the application of cloning also became possible and cloned horse offspring were obtained. This review summarizes the main technical procedures that are required for cloning equids and the present status of this technique. The first step is competent oocyte maturation, this is followed by oocyte enucleation and reconstruction, using either zona-enclosed or zona-free oocytes, by efficient activation to allow high cleavage rates and finally by a suitable in vitro embryo culture technique. Cloning of the first equid, a mule, was achieved using an in vivo-matured oocytes and immediate transfer of the reconstructed embryo, i.e. at the one cell stage, to the recipient oviduct. In contrast, the first horse offspring was obtained using a complete in vitro procedure from oocyte maturation to embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by non-surgical transfer. Later studies on equine cloning report high efficiency relative to that for other species. Cloned equid offspring reported to date appear to be normal and those that have reached puberty have been confirmed to be fertile. In summary, horse cloning is now a reproducible technique that offers the opportunity to preserve valuable genetics and notably to generate copies of castrated champions and therefore, offspring from those champions that would be impossible to obtain otherwise. PMID:18638143

  17. Demonstration of the First 4H-SiC EUV Detector with Large Detection Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xin, Xiaobin; Yan, Feng; Koeth, Timothy W.; Hu, Jun; Zhao, Jian H.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) detectors are very attractive in astronomy, photolithography and biochemical applications. For EUV applications, most of the semiconductor detectors based on PN or PIN structures suffer from the very short penetration depth. Most of the carries are absorbed at the surface and recombined there due to the high surface recombination before reach the depletion region, resulting very low quantum efficiency. On the other hand, for Schottky structures, the active region starts from the surface and carriers generated from the surface can be efficiently collected. 4H-Sic has a bandgap of 3.26eV and is immune to visible light background noise. Also, 4H-Sic detectors usually have very good radiation hardness and very low noise, which is very important for space applications where the signal is very weak. The E W photodiodes presented in this paper are based on Schottky structures. Platinum (Pt) and Nickel (Ni) are selected as the Schottky contact metals, which have the highest electron work functions (5.65eV and 5.15eV, respectively) among all the known metals on 4H-Sic.

  18. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

  19. "Horses for Courses"

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Joyce E.; Frost, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This commentary considers the vexed question of whether or not we should be spending time and resources on using multifaceted interventions to undertake implementation of evidence in healthcare. A review of systematic reviews has suggested that simple interventions may be just as effective as those taking a multifaceted approach. Taking cognisance of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework this commentary takes account of the evidence, context and facilitation factors in undertaking implementation. It concludes that a ‘horses for courses’ approach is necessary meaning that the specific implementation approach should be selected to fit the implementation task in hand whether it be a single or multifaceted approach and reviewed on an individual basis. PMID:26673180

  20. Energetic cost of breathing, body composition, and pulmonary function in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Mazan, Melissa R; Deveney, Edward F; DeWitt, Shane; Bedenice, Daniela; Hoffman, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether horses with naturally occurring, severe chronic recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) 1). have a greater resting energy expenditure (REE) than control horses, 2). suffer body mass depletion, and 3). have significantly decreased REE after bronchodilation and, therefore, also 4). whether increased work of breathing contributes to the cachexia seen in some horses with RAO. Six RAO horses and six control horses underwent indirect calorimetric measures of REE and pulmonary function testing using the esophageal balloon-pneumotachograph method before and after treatment with ipratropium bromide, a parasympatholytic bronchodilator agent, at 4-h intervals for a 24-h period. Body condition scoring was performed, and an estimate of fat mass was determined via B-mode ultrasonography. O(2) and CO(2) fractions, respiratory airflow, respiratory rate, and pleural pressure changes were recorded, and O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, REE, pulmonary resistance, dynamic elastance, and tidal volume were calculated. In addition, we performed lung function testing and calorimetry both before and after sedation in two control horses. RAO horses had significantly lower body condition scores (2.8 +/- 1.0 vs. 6.4 +/- 1.2) and significantly greater O(2) consumption than controls (4.93 +/- 1.30 vs. 2.93 +/- 0.70 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). After bronchodilation, there was no significant difference in O(2) consumption between RAO horses and controls, although there remained evidence of residual airway obstruction. There was a strong correlation between O(2) consumption and indexes of airway obstruction. Xylazine sedation was not associated with changes in pulmonary function but did result in markedly decreased REE in controls.

  1. My Kingdom for a Horse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

  2. Wetlands Are Wonderlands. Leader/Teacher Guide and Member/Youth Guide. 4-H Marine Education Series-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenen, Kimberly, Ed.; Goettel, Robin G., Ed.

    This guide, for a 4-H wetlands project, is designed for sixth to eighth grade youth and their leaders interested in learning and doing aquatic science activities that can help the environment. The project provides basic wetland information with one or more activities for each of six sections: (1) What is a wetland?; (2) value of wetlands; (3)…

  3. Towards a Postural Indicator of Back Pain in Horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Lesimple, Clémence; Fureix, Carole; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Sénèque, Emilie; Menguy, Hervé; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Postures have long been used and proved useful to describe animals’ behaviours and emotional states, but remains difficult to assess objectively in field conditions. A recent study performed on horses using geometric morphometrics revealed important postural differences between 2 horse populations differing in management conditions (leisure horses living in social groups used for occasional “relaxed” riding/riding school horses living in individual boxes used in daily riding lessons with more constraining techniques). It was suggested that these postural differences may reflect chronic effects of riding techniques on the horses’ kinematics and muscular development. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the interest of postural measures to assess welfare in horses. This study was separated into 2 parts. First, 18 horses coming from these 2 types of populations (leisure/riding school horses) were submitted to 2 back evaluations by 1) manual examination (experienced practitioner) and 2) sEMG measures along the spine. We then measured neck roundness on 16 of these 18 horses. The results highlighted high correlations between manual and sEMG examinations over the spine. sEMG measures at the different locations were strongly correlated all over the spine. Moreover, neck postures and muscular activities were strongly correlated, horses with concave necks having higher sEMG measures both at precise locations (i.e. cervical sites) but also when comparing neck postures to the whole spine muscular activity highlighting the functioning of horses’ back as a whole. Lastly, strong differences appeared between the populations, leisure horses being evaluated as having sounder spines, exhibiting lower sEMG measures and rounder neck than the riding school horses. sEMG measures and neck “roundness” seemed therefore to be reliable indicators of back disorders, easy to evaluate in field conditions. This highlights the accuracy of using postural elements to evaluate the

  4. The earliest horse harnessing and milking.

    PubMed

    Outram, Alan K; Stear, Natalie A; Bendrey, Robin; Olsen, Sandra; Kasparov, Alexei; Zaibert, Victor; Thorpe, Nick; Evershed, Richard P

    2009-03-01

    Horse domestication revolutionized transport, communications, and warfare in prehistory, yet the identification of early domestication processes has been problematic. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence demonstrating domestication in the Eneolithic Botai Culture of Kazakhstan, dating to about 3500 B.C.E. Metrical analysis of horse metacarpals shows that Botai horses resemble Bronze Age domestic horses rather than Paleolithic wild horses from the same region. Pathological characteristics indicate that some Botai horses were bridled, perhaps ridden. Organic residue analysis, using delta13C and deltaD values of fatty acids, reveals processing of mare's milk and carcass products in ceramics, indicating a developed domestic economy encompassing secondary products.

  5. Horse domestication and conservation genetics of Przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences.

    PubMed

    Lau, Allison N; Peng, Lei; Goto, Hiroki; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2009-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domestication-specific differences between the two. To investigate the genetic relationship of Przewalski's horse to the domestic horse and to address whether evolution of the domestic horse is driven by males or females, five homologous introns (a total of approximately 3 kb) were sequenced on the X and Y chromosomes in two Przewalski's horses and three breeds of domestic horses: Arabian horse, Mongolian domestic horse, and Dartmoor pony. Five autosomal introns (a total of approximately 6 kb) were sequenced for these horses as well. The sequences of sex chromosomal and autosomal introns were used to determine nucleotide diversity and the forces driving evolution in these species. As a result, X chromosomal and autosomal data do not place Przewalski's horses in a separate clade within phylogenetic trees for horses, suggesting a close relationship between domestic and Przewalski's horses. It was also found that there was a lack of nucleotide diversity on the Y chromosome and higher nucleotide diversity than expected on the X chromosome in domestic horses as compared with the Y chromosome and autosomes. This supports the hypothesis that very few male horses along with numerous female horses founded the various domestic horse breeds. Patterns of nucleotide diversity among different types of chromosomes were distinct for Przewalski's in contrast to domestic horses, supporting unique evolutionary histories of the two species.

  6. Evaluation of parasiticidal activity of fenbendazole, ivermectin, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate in horse foals with emphasis on ascarids (Parascaris equorum) in field studies on five farms in Central Kentucky in 2007.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Ionita, M; Collins, S S

    2008-07-01

    Horse foals on five farms in Central Kentucky were used in field studies in 2007 evaluating activity of paste formulations of four compounds (fenbendazole-FBZ, ivermectin-IVM, oxibendazole-OBZ, and pyrantel pamoate-PRT) against internal parasites with emphasis on ascarids (Parascaris equorum). It has been well established the last few years that there is widespread resistance of P. equorum to ivermectin. The main purpose of the present research was to obtain current data on ascaridicidal activity of FBZ, OBZ, and PRT; also, to acquire further information on ascarid resistance to ivermectin. Additionally, data were documented on drug activity on small strongyles. Detection of ascarid and strongyle eggs in feces of foals was by a qualitative method (presence or absence) or a quantitative method (eggs per gram of feces). Strongyle eggs all were assumed to be from small strongyles. This is based on fecal cultures from horses on one farm and historic records from horses in this area on excellent deworming programs. A girth tape was used to estimate the body weight of each foal so that the appropriate dose rate of each drug could be given. Many of the foals were used in more than one cycle of treatments. Efficacy of the drugs, administered intraorally, was determined by calculating the average percentage reduction (% red.) of the number of foals passing eggs after vs. before treatment: (1) FBZ at 10 mg/kg was tested on four farms; 76 foals were examined, 50 with ascarid eggs (84% red.) and 62 with strongyle eggs (0% red.); (2) IVM at 200 microg/kg was tested on three farms; 58 foals were examined, 18 with ascarid eggs (0% red.) and 48 with strongyle eggs (100% red.); (3) OBZ at 10 mg/kg was tested on three farms; 181 foals were examined, 78 with ascarid eggs (94% red.) and 79 with strongyle eggs (0% red.); (4) PRT was tested on two farms, one farm at 1x (6.6 mg base/kg); 42 were foals examined, 16 with ascarid eggs (0% red.) and 33 with strongyle eggs (12% red.) and one

  7. [New drugs for horses and production animals in 2012].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, I U

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, two newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. Those are the parenterally applicable first generation cephalosporin Cefalonium (Cepravin®) and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Suxibuzone (Danilon®). Furthermore, one established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredient is applicable to additional species: The anticoccidial Amprolium (Eimeryl®) has again been authorized for chicken and turkeys. Additionally, two veterinary drugs with a new formulation as well as three products with a new strength and one product with a new indication have recently been released to the veterinary drugs market for horses and food producing animals.

  8. Pelger-Huët anomaly in an Arabian horse.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Tanya M; DeWitt, Shane F; Keeton, Kerry S

    2007-09-01

    A 9-year-old Arabian mare was evaluated for a 7-day history of malaise. Results of a CBC included a leukocyte concentration within the reference interval (8.4 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 6.0-14.0 x 10(3)/microL) with an apparent degenerative left shift (segmented neutrophils 1.2 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 2.5-7.5 x 10(3)/microL; hyposegmented neutrophils 1.8 x 10(3)/microL, reference interval 0.0-0.2 x 10(3)/microL). Serum clinical chemistry results included increased aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities. A presumptive diagnosis of hepatitis or cholangiohepatitis was made. The horse was treated with antimicrobials and the malaise quickly resolved. However, in a recheck CBC on day 13, the apparent degenerative left shift remained. Further evaluation of the blood smear revealed many hyposegmented granulocytes with coarse mature chromatin and normal cytoplasmic features. On the basis of the microscopic examination, the horse was diagnosed with Pelger-Huët anomaly. The patient's offspring was subsequently also diagnosed with Pelger-Huët anomaly on the basis of blood film examination. Neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil mean nuclear scores in both affected horses (mare, range 1.5-2.6; offspring, range 1.6-3.2) were lower than those in 2 unrelated Arabian horses (range, 2.8-5.0) and 5 non-Arabian control horses (range, 2.8-5.0). Results of immunophenotyping and phagocytosis/oxidative burst assays via flow cytometry showed no difference in the expression of myeloid-specific or adhesion molecules or in neutrophil function between affected and control horses. This is the second known report of equine Pelger-Huët anomaly, both of which affected Arabian horses.

  9. Dietary requirements and athletic performance of horses.

    PubMed

    Frape, D L

    1988-05-01

    There is no clear evidence that the chronic requirement for any non-energy yielding nutrient rises in proportion as the energy requirement increases with hard work. The need for protein, and probably that for calcium, remain a function of bodyweight daily. Some proportionality with energy may exist for certain nutrients, although the evidence has not been adduced. For example, because of an increase in both the proportion and amount of propionic acid in the volatile fatty acids of caecal contents, the tissue requirement for vitamin B12 may rise with an increase in the rate of energy metabolism. Exercise influences appetite and therefore voluntary intake, and consequently the daily intake of nutrients. Although that intake is not just a function of dietary bulk and weight, it is necessary to increase energy concentration of diets to achieve an adequate chronic intake of energy where work intensity and energy expenditure are considerable. Acute nutrient requirements paint a different picture from chronic requirements. An increase in total feed intake, or the density of that feed, would neither satisfy these requirements nor be a desirable means of doing so. The acute needs of water, electrolytes and soluble carbohydrates should be met by dosing when the need arises. The timing of the consumption of energy yielding substrates relative to that of exercise may be critical to performance. An inevitable postprandial consequence of a meal of starch or protein by the resting horse, is an increase in the activity of plasma insulin. This increase decreases blood glucose, depriving muscles of a critical substrate, but the assertion has not been resolved by experiment in horses. Experiments are required to ascertain the optimum feeding regime during the 24 h preceding extreme exertion. Whereas exhaustion in sprint work is largely a function of elevated blood lactate concentration, that of extended work is a consequence of a decline in glycogen reserves and losses of body fluid

  10. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers’ Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience

    PubMed Central

    GILLE, Claudia; KAYSER, Maike; SPILLER, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the “amateurs”, the “experienced” and the “experts”. Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the “amateur” group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside “measureable” qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the “amateur” group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses. PMID:24833979

  11. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper documents the dynamics of Australian thoroughbred jump racing in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with the aim of informing debate about risks to horses and the future of this activity. We conclude that the safety of Australian jump racing has improved in recent years but that steeplechases are considerably riskier for horses than hurdle races. Abstract Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396

  12. Immunological response and markers of cell damage in seropositive horses for Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo, Guilherme M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Klauck, Vanderlei; Pazinato, Rafael; Moura, Anderson B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Bochi, Guilherme V; Moresco, Rafael N; Stefani, Lenita M

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important parasitic disease affecting several species of mammals, but little is known about this disease in horses. This study aimed to investigate the levels of several immunological variables and markers of cell damage in the serum of seropositive horses for Toxoplasma gondii. Sera samples of adult horses from the Santa Catarina State, Brazil used on a previous study were divided into groups according to their antibody levels for T. gondii determined by immunofluorescence assay, i.e. 20 samples from seronegative horses (Group A - control), 20 samples from horses with titers of 1:64 (Group B), 20 samples of horses with titers of 1:256 (Group C), and five samples from horses with titers of 1:1024 (Group D). Positive animals (Groups B, C, and D) had higher levels of immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-4, and IL-6) and protein C-reactive protein, as well as lower levels of IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) when compared to seronegative horses (Group A). The nitric oxide levels were also elevated in seropositive horses. Therefore, we have found humoral and cellular immune responses in seropositive horses, and a correlation between high antibody levels and inflammatory mediators. Markers of cell injury by lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein oxidation (AOPP) were elevated in animals seropositives for T. gondii when compared to seronegatives. Therefore, seropositive horses to T. gondii can keep active immune responses against the parasite. As a consequence with chronicity of disease, they show cellular lesions that may lead to tissue damage with the appearance of clinical disease.

  13. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.

    2011-05-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed.

  14. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  15. Wound care in horses.

    PubMed

    Caston, Stephanie S

    2012-04-01

    Care of equine wounds in the field can be a challenging endeavor. Many times, wound care is complicated by chronicity or by prior inappropriate care in addition to the great degree of tissue trauma that occurred when the horse was wounded. Recognizing involvement of synovial structures, loss of skin, and damage to bone are critical in the initial examination of wounds and will guide future care. Education of clients is also important in that preparing them for possible outcomes during healing may help improve compliance and proper treatment of wound. Owners and trainers often perform much of the daily care and monitoring of equine wounds and thus can greatly assist or impede the progress. Bandaging is important to management of equine wounds-especially on the limbs-and is sometimes overlooked because of its labor-intensive nature and the desire for a spray, ointment, or salve that will heal the wound. The practitioner that improves and utilizes his or her understanding of the wound-healing process in concert with his or her knowledge of local anatomy will be the one who is best equipped to care for wounds in ambulatory practice.

  16. Catching the spirit: a study of Bureau of Land Management wild horse adopters in New England.

    PubMed

    Koncel, Mary A; Rutberg, Allen T

    2012-01-01

    Between 1971 and 2009, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) adopted out nearly 225,000 horses and burros in the wild (wild horses and burro) who were removed from public lands (BLM, 2009). The inability of the BLM to adopt out wild horses as quickly as they are removed and recurring reports that many wild horse adoptions fail suggests that a better understanding of the adoption program is warranted. This study surveyed and interviewed 38 New Englanders who collectively adopted 68 wild horses directly from the BLM during the last 15 years. Adopters who participated in the study generally described their experiences as positive. They desired a range of horses in terms of age, gender, and color; they were flexible when deciding the activities that best suited their horses. Adopters' past knowledge of, and experience with, horses appeared not to play a major role in the success of the adoption. However, willingness to seek assistance and the availability of support were crucial for many of them. Based on the findings, the study made recommendations for better marketing of the program and improvement of the quality of adoptions.

  17. Catching the spirit: a study of Bureau of Land Management wild horse adopters in New England.

    PubMed

    Koncel, Mary A; Rutberg, Allen T

    2012-01-01

    Between 1971 and 2009, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) adopted out nearly 225,000 horses and burros in the wild (wild horses and burro) who were removed from public lands (BLM, 2009). The inability of the BLM to adopt out wild horses as quickly as they are removed and recurring reports that many wild horse adoptions fail suggests that a better understanding of the adoption program is warranted. This study surveyed and interviewed 38 New Englanders who collectively adopted 68 wild horses directly from the BLM during the last 15 years. Adopters who participated in the study generally described their experiences as positive. They desired a range of horses in terms of age, gender, and color; they were flexible when deciding the activities that best suited their horses. Adopters' past knowledge of, and experience with, horses appeared not to play a major role in the success of the adoption. However, willingness to seek assistance and the availability of support were crucial for many of them. Based on the findings, the study made recommendations for better marketing of the program and improvement of the quality of adoptions. PMID:22233214

  18. The ultraviolet photochemistry of diacetylene - Direct detection of primary products of the metastable C4H2* + C4H2 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Lakshminarayan, Chitra; Frost, Rex K.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    The products of diacetylene's ultraviolet photochemistry over the 245-220 nm region were directly determined in experiments where C4H2 was excited within a small reaction tube attached to a pulsed nozzle. The products formed in the collisions of C4H2* with C4H2 were subsequently ionized by vacuum UV radiation (at 118 nm) in the ion source of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It was found that the reaction of C4H2* with C4H2 produces C6H2 (+C2H2), C8H2 (+2H,H2), and C8H3 (+H), confirming the results of Glicker and Okabe (1987). Under certain conditions, secondary products were observed. Mechanisms for the observed reactions are proposed.

  19. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  20. The hour of transition into luteolysis in horses and cattle: a species comparison.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Beg, M A

    2012-06-01

    Hourly blood sampling in both horses and cattle indicate that the transition between the end of preluteolysis and the beginning of luteolysis occurs within 1 h, as manifested by a change in progesterone concentrations. Each species presents a separate temporality enigma on the relationship between pulses of a prostaglandin (PG) F2α metabolite (PGFM) and the hour of the progesterone transition. In horses, relatively small pulses of PGFM occur during preluteolysis (before transition) and at transition. Oxytocin, but not estradiol, increases and decreases concomitantly with the small PGFM pulse at transition but not with previous pulses and may account for the initiation of luteolysis during the small PGFM pulse. In cattle, the last PGFM pulse of preluteolysis occurs hours before transition (e.g., 4 h), and the next pulse occurs well after transition (e.g., 9 h); unlike in horses, a PGFM pulse does not occur at transition. During the last PGFM pulse before transition, progesterone concentration decreases during the ascending portion of the PGFM pulse. Concentration then rebounds in synchrony with an LH pulse. The rebound returns progesterone to the concentration before the PGFM pulse. During luteolysis, an LH-stimulated progesterone rebound may occur after the peak of a PGFM pulse, but progesterone does not return to the concentration before the PGFM pulse. A similar LH-stimulated progesterone rebound does not occur in horses, and therefore progesterone fluctuations are more shallow in horses than in cattle.

  1. Expression analysis of kenaf cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) ortholog during developmental and stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to clone and analyze the expression pattern of a C4H gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). A full-length C4H ortholog was cloned using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. The full-length C4H ortholog...

  2. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  3. Relationship between Participation in 4-H and Community Leadership in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Allison; Frick, Martin; Steele, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the impact of 4-H on former members generally use alumni as one cohort. In rural states, such as Montana, it is important to understand the impact of 4-H on alumni in these rural areas and the role 4-H plays in community involvement. The study reported here sought to determine the perception of current community leaders in rural Montana…

  4. Perceptions of Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors on Career Development, Higher Education, and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…

  5. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  6. Text to Speech: A 4-H Model of Accessibility and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    4-H project manuals play an integral part in a youth's ability to achieve mastery in a specific project area. For youth who struggle with reading, written 4-H materials prove inadequate in addressing the needs of the learner. This article proposes a new delivery method of 4-H educational material designed to create a more inclusive and…

  7. Examination of Attitude and Interest Measures for 4-H Science Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Worker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Science education research has demonstrated the influence of affect on learning. The National 4-H Science Logic Model outlines outcomes from youth participation in 4-H science programs, which includes attitude and interest outcomes. The associated measure, the National 4-H Science Common Measure, assesses these attitude constructs and not other…

  8. Effects of fentanyl administration on locomotor response in horses with the G57C μ-opioid receptor polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Lois A; Pascoe, Peter J; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Lindsey, Jane C

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the locomotor response to the administration of fentanyl in horses with and without the G57C polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor. ANIMALS 20 horses of various breeds and ages (10 horses heterozygous for the G57C polymorphism and 10 age-, breed-, and sex-matched horses that did not have the G57C polymorphism). PROCEDURES The number of steps each horse took was counted over consecutive 2-minute periods for 20 minutes to determine a baseline value. The horse then received a bolus of fentanyl (20 μg/kg, IV), and the number of steps was again counted during consecutive 2-minute periods for 60 minutes. The mean baseline value was subtracted from each 2-minute period after fentanyl administration; step counts with negative values were assigned a value of 0. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS Data for 19 of 20 horses (10 horses with the G57C polymorphism and 9 control horses without the G57C polymorphism) were included in the analysis. Horses with the G57C polymorphism had a significant increase in locomotor activity, compared with results for horses without the polymorphism. There was a significant group-by-time interaction. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses heterozygous for the G57C polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor had an increased locomotor response to fentanyl administration, compared with the response for horses without this polymorphism. The clinical impact of this finding should be investigated. PMID:27463545

  9. On the relationship between radiation-stimulated photoluminescence and nitrogen atoms in p-4 H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Ber, B. Ya.; Bogdanova, E. V.; Seredova, N. V.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) appearing in p-4 H-SiC upon its electron irradiation has been studied. A model that accounts for the dependence of the PL intensity on the irradiation dose is suggested. The conclusion is drawn that nitrogen-radiation defect donor-acceptor pairs are PL activators.

  10. Nationwide Participation in 4-H during the 1980s: Information from the Office of Education NELS:88 Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara M.; And Others

    A study examined national participation in 4-H Club activities during the 1980s. The study population was a carefully drawn sample of 24,500 eighth graders from more than 1,000 public and private schools throughout the country as well as their parents and teachers. The study established that, as of 1988, about one of every six eighth-grade…

  11. Horner's syndrome in ten horses

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sherril L.; Cochrane, Susan M.; Smith-Maxie, Laura

    1992-01-01

    Ten cases of equine Horner's syndrome were reviewed. None of the clinical signs in this series were transient (<48 hours). Sweating and ptosis were consistently observed by the attending clinician in over half of the affected horses. Enophthalmos and prolapse of the third eyelid were not reported consistently. The average duration of the clinical signs was 4.94 months and ranged from 14 days to 15 months. Eight of the ten horses developed associated complications, some of which affected performance. Airway obstruction and impedance of passage of a fiberoptic endoscope due to nasal mucosal edema occurred in five horses. Facial paralysis (4/10) and laryngeal hemiplegia (2/10), which are not direct features of Horner's syndrome, were also observed. PMID:17424002

  12. [Ecological characteristics of horse stomach botflies in Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Enileeva, N Kh

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the flight periods and dynamics of abundance of horse botflies, life span of females and males, effect of environmental factors on the activity of flies and their behaviour, potential fecundity of different species of botflies, duration of embryonal development, preservation of viability of larvae in egg membranes, localization of different stages of botflies in the host, and methods of their control.

  13. West Nile Virus Infection in Humans and Horses, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Maria Guadalupe; Fernández, Roberto; Llop, Alina; Dickinson, Félix Orlando; Pérez, Daniel; Cruz, Raúl; González, Tayri; Estévez, Gonzalo; González, Hiram; Santos, Paulino; Kourí, Gustavo; Andonova, Maya; Lindsay, Robbin; Artsob, Harvey; Drebot, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A surveillance system to detect West Nile virus (WNV) was established in Cuba in 2002. WNV infection was confirmed by serologic assays in 4 asymptomatic horses and 3 humans with encephalitis in 2003 and 2004. These results are the first reported evidence of WNV activity in Cuba. PMID:16707068

  14. Comprehensive study of a 4H-SiC MES-MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali Mahabadi, S. E.; Amini Moghadam, Hamid

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we studied the enhancement of the breakdown voltage in the 4H-SiC MESFET-MOSFET (MES-MOSFET) structure which we have proposed in our previous work. We compared this structure with Conventional Bulk-MOSFET (CB-MOSFET) and Field plated Conventional Bulk-MOSFET (FCB-MOSFET) structures. The 4H-SiC MES-MOSFET structure consists of two additional schottky buried gates which behave like a Metal on Semiconductor (MES) at the interface of the active region and substrate. The motivation for this structure was to enhance the breakdown voltage by introducing a new technique of utilizing the reduced surface field (RESURF) concept. In our comparison and investigation we used a two-dimensional device simulator. Our simulation results show that the breakdown voltage of the proposed structure is 3.7 and 2.9 times larger than CB-MOSFET and FCB-MOSFET structures, respectively. We also showed that the threshold voltage and the slope of drain current (ID) as a function of drain-source voltage (VDS) for all the structures is the same.

  15. Skynet Junior Scholars: From Idea to Enactment--Tales from the Trenches I. Implementation in 4-H settings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnside, Jason; Feldman, Lynn; Gurton, Suzanne; Heatherly, Sue Ann; Hoette, Vivian L.; Murray, Jenny; Zastrow, Ginger

    2016-01-01

    The creators of Skynet Junior Scholars were ambitious to say the least when they set out to:- Develop online tools that enable middle school and high school aged youth to use robotic optical and radio telescopes to do astronomy- Create an inquiry-based curriculum that promotes critical thinking and scientific habits of mind- Proactively incorporate Principles of Universal Design in all SJS development tasks to ensure access by blind/low vision and deaf/hard of hearing youth- Prepare 180 adult youth leaders from diverse backgrounds including museum educators, amateur astronomers, teachers 4-H leaders to facilitate SJS activities in a variety of settings.After 3 years of development SJS is in full implementation mode. As of August, 2015, 105 youth leaders and leader supervisors from 24 states have completed professional development and many have formed SJS youth groups. In this paper we describe what it takes for a successful implementation of Skynet Junior Scholars in a 4-H setting, from the viewpoint of adult leaders in the trenches who have created novel implementation models to make SJS work in diverse environments from monthly 4-H meetings to immersive residential camps.4-H is the nation's largest positive youth development organization, with a membership of more than six million young people in the U.S. In 2003 the national organization formed a strong commitment to STEM education with the goal to "to engage one million new youth in a dynamic process of discovery and exploration in science, engineering and technology to prepare them to meet the challenges of the 21st century". Skynet Junior Scholars has formed a strong and growing partnership with state 4-H agencies in West Virginia and Wisconsin, with a goal of establishing SJS as a national 4-H curriculum.Skynet Junior Scholars is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers 1223687, 1223235 and 1223345.

  16. Health Rocks! Beginning Level. 4-H Healthy Life Series. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Written for 8 to 12 year olds. The 21 activities use hands-on experience to facilitate youth learning, including concepts review and learning assessment at each chapter's end. A retrospective impact evaluation is included in the appendices along with additional resources, glossary, training outline and teaching tips. An accompanying cd-rom…

  17. Health Rocks! Intermediate Level. 4-H Healthy Life Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Written for 12 to 14 year olds. The 25 activities use hands-on experience to facilitate youth learning, including concepts review and learning assessment at each chapter's end. A retrospective impact evaluation is included in the appendices along with additional resources, glossary, training outline and teaching tips. An accompanying cd-rom…

  18. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Manganese (II) Complexes of Phthalic and Isophthalic Acid: X-Ray Crystal Structures of [Mn(ph)(Phen)2(H2O)]· 4H2O, [Mn(Phen)2(H2O)2]2(Isoph)2(Phen)· 12H2O and {[Mn(Isoph)(bipy)]4· 2.75biby}n(phH2 = Phthalic Acid; isoph = Isophthalic Acid; phen = 1,10-Phenanthroline; bipy = 2,2-Bipyridine)

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Malachy; Leon, Vanessa; Geraghty, Majella; McKee, Vickie; Wikaira, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Manganese(II) acetate reacts with phthalic acid (phH2) to give [Mn(ph)]·0.5H2O (1). Reaction of 1 with 1,10-phenanthroline produces [Mn(ph)(phen)]·2H2O (2) and [Mn(ph)(phen)2(H2O)]·4H2O (3). Reaction of isophthalic acid (isophH2) with manganese(II) acetate results in the formation of [Mn(isoph)]·2H2O (4). The addition of the N,N-donor ligands 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine to 4 leads to the formation of [Mn2 (isoph)2(phen)3)]·4H2O (5), [(Mn(phen)2(H2O)2]2(isoph)2(phen)·12H2O (6) and {[Mn(isoph)(bipy)]4·2.75 biby}n (7), respectively. Molecular structures of 3, 6 and 7 were determined crystallographically. In 3 the phthalate ligand is bound to the manganese via just one of its carboxylate groups in a monodentate mode with the remaining coordination sites filled by four phenanthroline nitrogen and one water oxygen atoms. In 6 the isophthalates are uncoordinated with the octahedral manganese center ligated by two phenanthrolines and two waters. In 7 the Isophthalate ligands act as bridges resulting in a polymeric structure. One of the carboxylate groups is chelating a single manganese with the other binding two metal centres in a bridging bidentate mode. The phthalate and isophthalate complexes, the metal free ligands and a number of simple manganes salts were each tested for their ability, to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. Only the “metal free” 1,10-phenanthroline and its manganese complexes were found to be active. PMID:18475957

  19. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  20. Haniwa Figure of a Horse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Tad

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses a "haniwa" figure of a horse to introduce K-3 students to Japanese ceramic sculpture. Includes student objectives and background information on the Kofun Period in Japan (250-552 A.D.). Presents instructional strategies, evaluation criteria, and a photograph of the sculpture. (GEA)

  1. Septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in 12 horses.

    PubMed

    Honnas, C M; Welch, R D; Ford, T S; Vacek, J R; Watkins, J P

    1992-01-01

    The medical records of 12 horses with septic arthritis of a distal interphalangeal joint were reviewed to determine clinical features and response to treatment. Sepsis was caused by trauma or an injection that resulted in an open or contaminated distal interphalangeal joint. All horses were severely lame. Treatment included broad-spectrum parenterally administered antimicrobial drugs (ten horses), percutaneous through-and-through joint lavage (eight horses), indwelling drains (three horses), immobilization of the limb in a cast (three horses), intraarticular injection of sodium hyaluronate (one horse), intraarticular injection of antimicrobial drugs (five horses), curettage of the distal phalanx (one horse), and cancellous bone grafting to promote fusion (one horse). Five horses were euthanatized. Ankylosis of the affected joint developed in five horses, four of which are pasture sound. Two horses treated medically are sound although one underwent subsequent palmar digital neurectomy for treatment of navicular syndrome.

  2. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  3. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  4. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  5. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  6. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  7. Improvement of the lung function of horses with heaves by treatment with a botanical preparation for 14 days.

    PubMed

    Anour, R; Leinker, S; van den Hoven, R

    2005-12-01

    The effects of an oral preparation containing a mixture of extracts from yellow gentian, garden sorrel, cowslip, verbena and common elder on the lung function of nine horses suffering from heaves were determined in a longitudinal crossover study. The horses were divided at random into a group of five (group 1) and a group of four (group 2). The horses in group 1 were each given 15 tablets of the preparation twice daily, while the horses in group 2 were left untreated. Fourteen days later, the horses in group 2 were given the same course of treatment while the horses in group 1 were left untreated. On being subjected to a histamine inhalation provocation test, five of eight horses tested appeared to be hyperresponsive to histamine. The treatment decreased the histamine sensitivity of three of them; it also caused a significant decrease in maximal intrapleural pressure difference of all the horses. The treatment had no significant effects on the clinical signs, the mucociliary activity or the cytology of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the horses.

  8. Effect of rider experience and evaluator expertise on subjective grading of lameness in sound and unsound sports horses under saddle.

    PubMed

    Marqués, Fernando J; Waldner, Cheryl; Reed, Stephen; Autet, Fernando; Corbeil, Louise; Campbell, John

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether rider experience influences the assessment and grading of lameness in horses based on under-saddle gait analysis. Thirteen adult sports horses in active training were included in the study. After a baseline lameness and neurologic examination by the principal investigators, horses were videotaped while being ridden by an experienced and a less experienced rider. A 3-minute video was made for each horse and rider and 26 videos were randomly ordered and compiled on a DVD. Veterinarians with different levels of experience in evaluating lameness and veterinary students viewed the DVD and assigned a lameness score to each horse/rider combination. In a model accounting for the expertise of the evaluator, there was no difference in overall lameness scores between experienced and less experienced riders. This result was consistent for both sound and unsound horses. The overall lameness scores reported by specialists and students, however, differed significantly. The lameness score reported by the study participants while the horse was ridden was significantly associated with the subjective baseline lameness assessment reported by the principal investigators for the same limb when the horse was not under saddle. Additional work is necessary to determine whether riders with even lower skill levels would further alter the balance and motion pattern of the horse and have more influence on subjective grading of lameness. PMID:24688169

  9. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  10. Synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@Metal Sulfide Core-Shell Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Jian; Wu, Xue-Jun; Liu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Although great advances on the synthesis of Au-semiconductor heteronanostructures have been achieved, the crystal structure of Au components is limited to the common face-centered cubic (fcc) phase. Herein, we report the synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@Ag2S core-shell nanoribbon (NRB) heterostructures from the 4H/fcc Au@Ag NRBs via the sulfurization of Ag. Remarkably, the obtained 4H/fcc-Au@Ag2S NRBs can be further converted to a novel class of 4H/fcc-Au@metal sulfide core-shell NRB heterostructures, referred to as 4H/fcc-Au@MS (M = Cd, Pb or Zn), through the cation exchange. We believe that these novel 4H/fcc-Au@metal sulfide NRB heteronanostructures may show some promising applications in catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering, solar cells, photothermal therapy, etc.

  11. Discovery of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as a new series of apoptosis inducers using a cell- and caspase-based high-throughput screening assay. 3. Structure-activity relationships of fused rings at the 7,8-positions.

    PubMed

    Kemnitzer, William; Drewe, John; Jiang, Songchun; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Jianghong; Crogan-Grundy, Candace; Xu, Lifen; Lamothe, Serge; Gourdeau, Henriette; Denis, Réal; Tseng, Ben; Kasibhatla, Shailaja; Cai, Sui Xiong

    2007-06-14

    As a continuation of our efforts to discover and develop the apoptosis-inducing 4-aryl-4H-chromenes as novel anticancer agents, we explored the SAR of fused rings at the 7,8-positions. It was found that a five-member aromatic ring, such as pyrrolo with nitrogen at either the 7- or 9-position, is preferred. A six-member aromatic ring, such as benzo or pyrido, also led to potent compounds. The SAR of the 4-aryl group was found to be similar for chromenes with a fused ring at the 7,8-positions. These compounds were found to inhibit tubulin polymerization, indicating that cyclization of the 7,8-positions into a ring does not change the mechanism of action. Compound 2h was identified to be a highly potent apoptosis inducer with an EC50 of 5 nM and a highly potent inhibitor of cell proliferation with a GI50 of 8 nM in T47D cells.

  12. Six intestinal microflora-associated characteristics in sport horses.

    PubMed

    Collinder, E; Lindholm, A; Midtvedt, T; Norin, E

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 6 microflora-associated characteristics (MACs) in faecal samples from horses and to compare the results with baselines previously established in other mammals. A MAC is defined as any anatomical structure, physiological, biochemical or immunological characteristic in a host, which has been acted on by microorganisms. When the active microbes are absent, as in germ-free animals and healthy newborn organisms, the corresponding characteristic is defined as germ-free animal characteristic (GAC). The MACs studied were degradation of mucin, conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol and bilirubin to urobilinogens, inactivation of tryptic activity, degradation of beta-aspartylglycine and excretion of short-chain fatty acids. Five MACs were studied in 19 sport horses and the mucin pattern investigated in 25 other sport horses. Our results show that conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol was present in all horses, irrespective of diet. All horses also demonstrated excretion of urobilinogens; however, the values varied depending on diet. Mucin and beta-aspartylglycine were totally degraded, as occurs similarly in other animal species. Excretion of short-chain fatty acids was lower than values previously found in man, rats and pigs, and the level of faecal tryptic activity was low. Our results show that the MAC/GAC concept is as good in monogastric herbivores as in omnivores for investigations of endogenous and exogenous factors influencing the intestinal ecosystem(s). Therefore, use of the MAC/GAC concept has a potential significance for future studies on functions related to the microflora.

  13. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  14. Development of 4H-pyridopyrimidines: a class of selective bacterial protein synthesis inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We have identified a series of compounds that inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria. Initial IC50's in aminoacylation/translation (A/T) assays ranged from 3 to14 μM. This series of compounds are variations on a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ol scaffold (e.g., 4H-pyridopyrimidine). Methods Greater than 80 analogs were prepared to investigate the structure-activity relationship (SAR). Structural modifications included changes in the central ring and substituent modifications in its periphery focusing on the 2- and 6-positions. An A/T system was used to determine IC50 values for activity of the analogs in biochemical assays. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for each analog against cultures of Enterococcus faecalis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli tolC mutants and E. coli modified with PMBN. Results Modifications to the 2-(pyridin-2-yl) ring resulted in complete inactivation of the compounds. However, certain modifications at the 6-position resulted in increased antimicrobial potency. The optimized compounds inhibited the growth of E. faecalis, M. catarrhalis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, E. coli tolC, mutants and E. coli modified with PMBN with MIC values of 4, ≤ 0.12, 1, 2, 4, 1, 1 μg/ml, respectively. IC50 values in biochemical assay were reduced to mid-nanomolar range. Conclusion 4H-pyridopyrimidine analogs demonstrate broad-spectrum inhibition of bacterial growth and modification of the compounds establishes SAR. PMID:22373064

  15. Further evaluation in field tests of the activity of three anthelmintics (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, and pyrantel pamoate) against the ascarid Parascaris equorum in horse foals on eight farms in Central Kentucky (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Tolliver, Sharon C; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Collins, Sandra S

    2011-10-01

    The activity of three anthelmintics (fenbendazole-FBZ; oxibendazole-OBZ; and pyrantel pamoate-PRT) was ascertained against the ascarid Parascaris equorum in horse foals on eight farms in Central Kentucky (2009-2010) in field tests. A total of 316 foals were treated, and 168 (53.2%) were passing ascarid eggs on the day of treatment. Evaluation of drug efficacy was determined qualitatively by comparing the number of foals passing ascarid eggs in their feces before and after treatment. The main purpose was to obtain data on current activity of these compounds against ascarids. Additionally, the objective was to compare these findings with those from earlier data on the efficacy of these three compounds on nematodes in foals in this geographical area. Efficacies (average) for the foals ranged for FBZ (10 mg/kg) from 50% to 100% (80%), for OBZ (10 mg/kg) from 75% to 100% (97%), and for PRT at 1× (6.6 mg base/kg) from 0% to 71% (2%) and at 2× (13.2 mg base/kg) 0% to 0% (0%). Although the efficacy varied among the drugs, combined data for all farms indicated a significant reduction of ascarid infections for FBZ (p < 0.0001) and OBZ (p < 0.0001) but not for PRT (p = 0.0953).

  16. Decreased oxidative phosphorylation and PGAM deficiency in horses suffering from atypical myopathy associated with acquired MADD.

    PubMed

    Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; van Diggelen, O P; Schoonderwoerd, K; Bierau, J; Waterham, H R; van der Kolk, J H

    2011-11-01

    Earlier research on ten horses suffering from the frequently fatal disorder atypical myopathy showed that MADD (multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency) is the biochemical derangement behind atypical myopathy. From five horses that died as a result of this disease and seven healthy control horses, urine and plasma were collected ante mortem and muscle biopsies were obtained immediately post-mortem (2 patients and 7 control horses), to analyse creatine, purine and carbohydrate metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation. In patients, the mean creatine concentration in urine was increased 17-fold and the concentration of uric acid approximately 4-fold, compared to controls. The highest degree of depletion of glycogen was observed in the patient with the most severe myopathy clinically. In this patient, glycolysis was more active than in the other patients and controls, which may explain this depletion. One patient demonstrated very low phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) activity, less than 10% of reference values. Most respiratory chain complex activity in patients was 20-30% lower than in control horses, complex II activity was 42% lower than normal, and one patient had severely decrease ATP-synthase activity, more than 60% lower than in control horses. General markers for myopathic damage are creatine kinase (CK) and lactic acid in plasma, and creatine and uric acid in urine. To obtain more information about the cause of the myopathy analysis of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation is advised. This study expands the diagnostic possibilities of equine myopathies. PMID:21843962

  17. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... management. On May 27, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 30864- 30868, Docket No. APHIS-2011...); (2) show or exhibit a horse at a horse show, public auction, or exhibition such as a college...

  18. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses of horses to therapeutic riding program: effects of different riders.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Cravana, Cristina; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2013-06-13

    In order to determine whether therapeutic riding could result in higher levels of stress than recreational riding, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response was evaluated in six horses by monitoring circulating β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Horses were already accustomed to be trained both for therapy and riding school activity since 2004. Intervention consisted of 60-minute therapeutic sessions, two times per week for 6weeks with different riders: disabled and recreational riders (session A and B respectively). The therapeutic riders' group (A) consisted of six children with psychomotor disabilities; the recreational riders' group (B) consisted of six healthy children without any previous horse riding experience. Horses were asked to perform the same gaits and exercises at all sessions, both with disabled and healthy users. The statistical analysis showed that during both sessions the mean basal β-endorphin and ACTH levels of horses did not show any significant changes, while the one way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of sessions A on the cortisol (F=11.50; P<0.01) levels. Horses submitted to sessions A showed lower cortisol levels both at 5min (P<0.001) and at 30min (P<0.005) after therapeutic sessions than those after session B. Results suggest that in tested horses and for the variables settled, HPA axis was less responsive to disabled than healthy, recreational riders. Among the endocrine responses, cortisol was one of the indicators of HPA axis stress response. PMID:23684906

  19. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses of horses to therapeutic riding program: effects of different riders.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Esterina; Medica, Pietro; Cravana, Cristina; Ferlazzo, Adriana

    2013-06-13

    In order to determine whether therapeutic riding could result in higher levels of stress than recreational riding, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response was evaluated in six horses by monitoring circulating β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Horses were already accustomed to be trained both for therapy and riding school activity since 2004. Intervention consisted of 60-minute therapeutic sessions, two times per week for 6weeks with different riders: disabled and recreational riders (session A and B respectively). The therapeutic riders' group (A) consisted of six children with psychomotor disabilities; the recreational riders' group (B) consisted of six healthy children without any previous horse riding experience. Horses were asked to perform the same gaits and exercises at all sessions, both with disabled and healthy users. The statistical analysis showed that during both sessions the mean basal β-endorphin and ACTH levels of horses did not show any significant changes, while the one way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of sessions A on the cortisol (F=11.50; P<0.01) levels. Horses submitted to sessions A showed lower cortisol levels both at 5min (P<0.001) and at 30min (P<0.005) after therapeutic sessions than those after session B. Results suggest that in tested horses and for the variables settled, HPA axis was less responsive to disabled than healthy, recreational riders. Among the endocrine responses, cortisol was one of the indicators of HPA axis stress response.

  20. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  1. Expression of surface platelet receptors (CD62P and CD41/61) in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

    PubMed

    Iwaszko-Simonik, Alicja; Niedzwiedz, Artur; Graczyk, Stanislaw; Slowikowska, Malwina; Pliszczak-Krol, Aleksandra

    2015-03-15

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is an allergic disease of horses similar to human asthma, which is characterized by airway inflammation and activation of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets. Platelet activation and an increase in circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates may lead to airway remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate platelet status in RAO-affected horses based on the platelet morphology and platelet surface expression of CD41/61 and CD62P. Ten RAO-affected horses and ten healthy horses were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained to determine the platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR). Expression of CD62P and CD41/61 was detected by flow cytometry on activated platelets. The median PLT was significantly reduced in horses with RAO compared to the controls. The MPV and the P-LCR values were significantly higher in RAO horses than controls. Expression of CD41/61 on platelets was increased in RAO horses, while CD62P expression was reduced. This study demonstrated the morphological changes in platelets and expression of platelet surface receptors. Despite the decrease of CD62P expression, the observed increased surface expression of CD41/61 on platelets in horses with RAO may contribute to the formation of platelet aggregates in their respiratory system.

  2. AB INITIO CHARACTERIZATION OF C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H, AND C{sub 4}H{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Senent, M. L.

    2010-01-10

    Using state-of-the-art theoretical methods, we investigate the stable isomers of C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H and C{sub 4}H{sup -}. Three of them are relevant for astrophysics and astrochemistry. These computations are performed using highly correlated ab initio methods and the aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T,Q) basis sets. In addition to the linear isomers, we predict the existence of several cyclic and branched forms for these molecules. For all the molecular species of interest here, sets of spectroscopic parameters are determined with perturbation theory, which compare quite well with experiment. For l - C{sub 4}H{sup -}(X {sup 1}SIGMA{sup +}), the quartic force field is computed at the coupled cluster level of theory. This force field is derived from full nine-dimensional potential energy surface generated close to the equilibrium geometry of this anion. Finally, we treat the thermochemistry of the hydrogen attachment and the electron attachment reactions that may lead to the formation of the C{sub 4}H{sup -} from either C{sup -}{sub 4} or C{sub 4}H.

  3. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  4. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story of a blind person's…

  5. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33607-33619, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0030), and... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse...

  6. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  7. Dental care in the older horse.

    PubMed

    Graham, Bradley P

    2002-12-01

    Dental care in any horse need not be looked at as the difficult challenge it used to be before the days of sedation and tungsten carbide and diamond cutting wheels. Horses are living longer and more comfortable lives thanks, in part, to the advancements of dental care and special dietary rations. With the evolution of the horse's place in family circles today, people want the best care possible for their animals. Dentistry has become an important part of that care.

  8. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G; Lear, Teri L; Adelson, David L; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-10-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  9. Serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (≥200 nmol/L vs. <200 nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (≥200 nmol/L compared with <200 nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs ≥200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates >45 beats per min (compared with ≤45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs.

  10. Some nutritional problems of horses.

    PubMed

    Hintz, H F; Kallfelz, F A

    1981-07-01

    The effects of overfeeding, calcium-phosphorus imbalance, misuse of supplements and false advertising on equine nutrition are discussed. Overfeeding is known to cause disorders in several species but, although a similar relationship has been suggested on clinical evidence, no controlled trials on horses have been reported. It has also been suggested that overfeeding is a problem only for those horses with a genetic predisposition to skeletal problems. The importance of adequate calcium and phosphorus levels has been known for many years but severe cases of calcium deficiency still occur. Client education is important and should not be neglected. Excessive use of supplements containing high levels of trace minerals (eg, iodine and selenium) or fat soluble vitamins (eg, vitamin A and vitamin D) can be harmful. Some manufacturers advertise supplements in terms which may inadvertently or intentionally misrepresent their products. Supplements should, therefore, be selected carefully to ensure that they meet the particular requirements of the individual. PMID:7197619

  11. Systematic pain assessment in horses.

    PubMed

    de Grauw, J C; van Loon, J P A M

    2016-03-01

    Accurate recognition and quantification of pain in horses is imperative for adequate pain management. The past decade has seen a much needed surge in formal development of systematic pain assessment tools for the objective monitoring of pain in equine patients. This narrative review describes parameters that can be used to detect pain in horses, provides an overview of the various pain scales developed (visual analogue scales, simple descriptive scales, numerical rating scales, time budget analysis, composite pain scales and grimace scales), and highlights their strengths and weaknesses for potential clinical implementation. The available literature on the use of each pain assessment tool in specific equine pain states (laminitis, lameness, acute synovitis, post-castration, acute colic and post-abdominal surgery) is discussed, including any problems with sensitivity, reliability or scale validation as well as translation of results to other clinical pain states. The review considers future development and further refinement of currently available equine pain scoring systems. PMID:26831169

  12. Reversible Photoinduced Reductive Elimination of H2 from the Nitrogenase Dihydride State, the E(4)(4H) Janus Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Lukoyanov, Dmitriy; Khadka, Nimesh; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dean, Dennis R; Seefeldt, Lance C; Hoffman, Brian M

    2016-02-01

    We recently demonstrated that N2 reduction by nitrogenase involves the obligatory release of one H2 per N2 reduced. These studies focus on the E4(4H) "Janus intermediate", which has accumulated four reducing equivalents as two [Fe-H-Fe] bridging hydrides. E4(4H) is poised to bind and reduce N2 through reductive elimination (re) of the two hydrides as H2, coupled to the binding/reduction of N2. To obtain atomic-level details of the re activation process, we carried out in situ 450 nm photolysis of E4(4H) in an EPR cavity at temperatures below 20 K. ENDOR and EPR measurements show that photolysis generates a new FeMo-co state, denoted E4(2H)*, through the photoinduced re of the two bridging hydrides of E4(4H) as H2. During cryoannealing at temperatures above 175 K, E4(2H)* reverts to E4(4H) through the oxidative addition (oa) of the H2. The photolysis quantum yield is temperature invariant at liquid helium temperatures and shows a rather large kinetic isotope effect, KIE = 10. These observations imply that photoinduced release of H2 involves a barrier to the combination of the two nascent H atoms, in contrast to a barrierless process for monometallic inorganic complexes, and further suggest that H2 formation involves nuclear tunneling through that barrier. The oa recombination of E4(2H)* with the liberated H2 offers compelling evidence for the Janus intermediate as the point at which H2 is necessarily lost during N2 reduction; this mechanistically coupled loss must be gated by N2 addition that drives the re/oa equilibrium toward reductive elimination of H2 with N2 binding/reduction.

  13. Clinical, histopathological and metabolic responses following exercise in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Payton, M E; Valberg, S J

    2016-10-01

    A previous report suggests a substantial incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Arabian horses performing endurance racing. This study compared formalin histopathology and clinical and metabolic responses to a standardised field exercise test (SET) between Arabians with and without ER. Arabian horses with (n = 10; age 15.4 ± 5.6 years) and without (n = 9; 12.9 ± 6.1 years) prior ER were stall-rested for 24-48 h, after which paired ER and control horses were fitted with a telemetric ECG and performed a 47 min submaximal SET. Plasma glucose, lactate, electrolyte and total protein concentrations and packed cell volume were measured before and immediately after exercise. Blood and percutaneous gluteal muscle samples were also obtained before and 3 h after exercise for measurement of plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle glycogen concentration, respectively. Histopathologic analysis of formalin-fixed pre-exercise muscle sections was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and non-parametric tests (P <0.05). No horses displayed clinical signs of ER during exercise, and plasma CK increased similarly in ER and control Arabians. Muscle glycogen, heart rate, and remaining plasma variables did not differ between horses with ER and control horses. Horses with ER had more internalised nuclei in mature myofibers, more aggregates of cytoplasmic glycogen and desmin, and higher myopathic scores than control horses. Although many horses with ER had histopathologic evidence of chronic myopathy, muscle glycogen concentrations and metabolic exercise responses were normal. Results did not support a consistent metabolic myopathy or a glycogen storage disorder in Arabians with ER. PMID:27687952

  14. Clinical, histopathological and metabolic responses following exercise in Arabian horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, E C; Eyrich, L V; Payton, M E; Valberg, S J

    2016-10-01

    A previous report suggests a substantial incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in Arabian horses performing endurance racing. This study compared formalin histopathology and clinical and metabolic responses to a standardised field exercise test (SET) between Arabians with and without ER. Arabian horses with (n = 10; age 15.4 ± 5.6 years) and without (n = 9; 12.9 ± 6.1 years) prior ER were stall-rested for 24-48 h, after which paired ER and control horses were fitted with a telemetric ECG and performed a 47 min submaximal SET. Plasma glucose, lactate, electrolyte and total protein concentrations and packed cell volume were measured before and immediately after exercise. Blood and percutaneous gluteal muscle samples were also obtained before and 3 h after exercise for measurement of plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle glycogen concentration, respectively. Histopathologic analysis of formalin-fixed pre-exercise muscle sections was performed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and non-parametric tests (P <0.05). No horses displayed clinical signs of ER during exercise, and plasma CK increased similarly in ER and control Arabians. Muscle glycogen, heart rate, and remaining plasma variables did not differ between horses with ER and control horses. Horses with ER had more internalised nuclei in mature myofibers, more aggregates of cytoplasmic glycogen and desmin, and higher myopathic scores than control horses. Although many horses with ER had histopathologic evidence of chronic myopathy, muscle glycogen concentrations and metabolic exercise responses were normal. Results did not support a consistent metabolic myopathy or a glycogen storage disorder in Arabians with ER.

  15. Blood Levels of Zinc in Creole Horses Used in Sera Production

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Kovacs, Luciana; Freitas, M. G.; Marcelino, Jose R.

    2010-08-04

    Using Neutron Activation Analysis Zn concentrations were determined in blood of horses (Creole breed). No significant difference was observed between male (0.0029{+-}.0007 gL{sup -1}) and female (0.0031{+-}.0011 gL{sup -1}) animals. These data are an important support to understand the physiological functions of Zn in blood during the process of sera production at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo, Brazil) using horses.

  16. Monolayer growth modes of Re and Nb on 4H -SiC(0001) and 4H-SiC(0001¯)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, K. W.; Bozack, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and secondary electron emission have been used to specify the room temperature monolayer adsorption characteristics of Re and Nb on the basal, polar surfaces of 4H -SiC. Measurement of the secondary electron emission current relates the absorbed crystal current to the change in AES peak-to-peak signal intensities for both substrate and adsorbate. For the 4H-SiC(0001) Si-face surface, both metals grow by formation of a single monolayer followed by growth of simultaneous monolayers. For the 4H -SiC(0001¯) C-face surface, both metals grow layer by layer (Frank-van der Merwe). Measurements of the coefficient of attenuation, inelastic mean free path, and coverage versus Auger intensities are also reported.

  17. Organocatalyzed enantioselective synthesis of 2-amino-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carboxylates

    PubMed Central

    Ramireddy, Naresh; Abbaraju, Santhi; Zhao, Cong-Gui

    2011-01-01

    The organocatalyzed enantioselective synthesis of biologically active 2-amino-5-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-chromene-3-carboxylate derivatives was achieved using bifunctional cinchona alkaloids as the catalysts. Using quinine thiourea as the catalyst, the tandem Michael addition-cyclization reaction between 1,3-cyclohexanediones and alkylidenecyanoacetate derivatives gives the desired products in high yields (up to 92%) and good ee values (up to 82%). PMID:22081731

  18. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  19. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in horses.

    PubMed

    Bousquet-Melou, A; Bernard, S; Schneider, M; Toutain, P L

    2002-07-01

    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic expected to be effective in the treatment of infections involving gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria in horses. In order to design a rational dosage regimen for the substance in horses, the pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin were investigated in 6 horses after i.v., subcutaneous and oral administration of a single dose of 2 mg/kg bwt and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) assessed for bacteria isolated from equine infectious pathologies. The clearance of marbofloxacin was mean +/- s.d. 0.25 +/- 0.05 l/kg/h and the terminal half-life 756 +/- 1.99 h. The marbofloxacin absolute bioavailabilities after subcutaneous and oral administration were 98 +/- 11% and 62 +/- 8%, respectively. The MIC required to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0.027 microg/ml for enterobacteriaceae and 0.21 microg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus. The values of surrogate markers of antimicrobial efficacy (AUIC, Cmax/MIC ratio, time above MIC90) were calculated and the marbofloxacin concentration profiles simulated for repeated administrations. These data were used to determine rational dosage regimens for target bacteria. Considering the breakpoint values of efficacy indices for fluoroquinolones, a marbofloxacin dosage regimen of 2 mg/kg bwt/24 h by i.v., subcutaneous or oral routes was more appropriate for enterobacteriaceae than for S. aureus.

  20. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses.

  1. Changes in intramuscular amino acid levels in submaximally exercised horses - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, R; Bauer, A; Hackl, S; Zickl, M; Spona, J; Zentek, J

    2010-08-01

    The time-dependent changes in intramuscular amino acid (AA) levels caused by exercise and by feeding a protein/AA supplement were analysed in nine horses. Horses were submitted to a total of four standardized exercise tests (SETs). Amino acid concentrations were determined prior to, immediately after, 4 and 18 h after exercise. The experiment was subdivided into two consecutive periods of 3 weeks. In each period two SETs were performed. In the second period, horses were given a protein/AA supplement within 1 h after exercise. Significant changes in mean plasma AA levels similar to previous studies were noted to be time-dependent and to be associated with feeding the supplement. The intramuscular concentrations of the free AA in relation to pre-exercise levels showed significant time-dependent changes for alanine, asparagine, aspartate, citrulline, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, serine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine and valine. Feeding the supplement significantly increased the 4 h post-exercise intramuscular concentration of alanine, isoleucine, methionine and tyrosine. At 18 h after exercise, apart from isoleucine and methionine, levels were still increased and also those of asparagine, histidine and valine in relation to none treatment. Hence, it was concluded that AA mixtures administered orally to horses within 1 h after exercise increased intramuscular AA pool. PMID:19663973

  2. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-raising programs using the 4-H Name or Emblem may be carried out for specific educational purposes. Such... Research, Education, and Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture, or a designee, if the fund-raising program is multi-State or Nationwide. (b) When used to promote 4-H educational...

  3. The 4-H Debate Project: Getting Adults and Children Involved in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, Deborah F.

    Intended to enhance adult leadership skills, the 4-H Debate Project, developed by the 4-H Communication Committee of Delaware County (Pennsylvania), was designed to (1) increase the members' knowledge of library skills through research, (2) make them aware of current issues, (3) help them to become better public speakers and communicators, (4)…

  4. Factors Related to the Developmental Experiences of Youth Serving as 4-H Camp Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David N.; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental experiences of high-school-aged 4-H youth volunteering as counselors at Louisiana 4-H summer camps. A total of 288 counselors from 10 different camping sessions participated in the study. The Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 and the Developmental Experience Survey measured the personal…

  5. The Challenges Associated with Change in 4-H/Youth Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Renee K.; Talbert, B. Allen; Barkman, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 97 Indiana 4-H/youth development educators and interviews with staff and volunteer board members indicated that volunteers believe in core 4-H values, recommend reaching more and different youth, and believe that the rural image inhibits progress. Staff interactions with volunteers, lack of parental involvement, group organization and…

  6. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  7. 4-H and Forestry Afterschool Clubs: A Collaboration to Foster Stewardship Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Angela S.; Grant, Samantha; Strauss, Andrea Lorek

    2012-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension's 4-H and Forestry Afterschool program combined the 4-H structure and various forestry curricula to foster positive attitudes towards the environment and stewardship-related behaviors as these may serve as precursors to later choices that benefit the environment. Evaluation of third through fifth grade…

  8. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  9. 4-H and Tech Ed Partnership Gets Students Geeked about STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Debra; Quam, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the 4-H Gateway Academies specifically designed to enhance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills and knowledge in middle school youth. The innovative summer day camps partnered Project Lead the Way--trained teachers with county 4-H staff from University of Wisconsin-Extension (UW-Extension) Cooperative…

  10. Acquisition, Custody, and Storage of Firearms Used in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Smith, Jedediah D.

    2014-01-01

    Shooting sports has been a 4-H program offering since the 1930's. Tragic events related to the use of firearms as weapons have caused public and private entities to evaluate and consider the appropriateness of youth access to and usage of firearms. 4-H educators have the primary responsibility for managing the risk associated with shooting…

  11. 4-H and School-Age Care: A Great Combination! Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenbergh, Barbara D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the positive relationship between 4-H programs and school-age care programs, advocating the use of 4-H programs as a model for care, or as a source of care, caregiver training, or curriculum. Notes the role of the Cooperative Extension System in training and supporting school-age care providers. (JPB)

  12. Food Challenge: Serving Up 4-H to Non-Traditional Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Sara; Follmer-Reece, Holly E.; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Reyna, Roxanna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for introducing 4-H to non-traditional/diverse audiences using 4-H Food Challenge. Set in a low SES and minority-serving rural school, Food Challenge was presented during the school day to all 7th grade students, with almost half voluntarily participating in an after-school club component. Program design…

  13. College Transition Study Shows 4-H Helps Youth Prepare for and Succeed in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkos, Judy; Knollenberg, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults enter college without the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine if 4-H helps develop life skills needed for the transition to college and overall college success. An online survey was sent to college-attending 4-H alumni and a comparison group, with a final sample size…

  14. 4-H Youth Development: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Hawkey, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Program within Cooperative Extension is more than 100 years old. As we celebrate 100 years of Cooperative Extension, the foundation built by the 4-H Program serves as grounds to meet the needs of today's youth. The diversity of the youth who participate continues to grow, families continue to become less traditional, potential…

  15. 4-H Healthy Living Programs with Impact: A National Environmental Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development program of the nation's 109 land-grant universities and the Cooperative Extension System is one of the largest youth development organization in the United States serving approximately six million youth. The 4-H Healthy Living initiative began in 2008 to promote achievement of optimal physical, social, and emotional…

  16. Characteristics and Perceptions of 4-H Participants: Gender and Age Differences across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…

  17. Fitting the Framework: The STEM Institute and the 4-H Essential Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Peek, Gina G.

    2014-01-01

    Extension and 4-H youth development programs are addressing a shortage of scientists, engineers, and other related professionals by promoting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This case study illustrates how the Oklahoma 4-H Youth Development program trained youth-adult teams to design and implement STEM projects. The STEM…

  18. Global 4-H Network: Laying the Groundwork for Global Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jennifer; Miller, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive study examining 4-H programs in Africa, Asia, and Europe was conducted to provide understanding and direction in the establishment of a Global 4-H Network. Information regarding structure, organizational support, funding, and programming areas was gathered. Programs varied greatly by country, and many partnered with other 4-H…

  19. Simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Shahid, M. Y.; Iqbal, F.; Fatima, K.; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Arbi, H. M.; Tsu, R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study we report thermal evaporation technique as a simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on p-type silicon substrate. A mixture of Si and C60 powder of high purity (99.99%) was evaporated from molybdenum boat. The as grown film was characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and Hall Measurements. The XRD pattern displayed four peaks at 2Θ angles 28.550, 32.700, 36.100 and 58.900 related to Si (1 1 1), 4H-SiC (1 0 0), 4H-SiC (1 1 1) and 4H-SiC (2 2 2), respectively. FTIR, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and electrical properties further strengthened the 4H-SiC growth.

  20. The regulation of respiratory resistance in exercising horses.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Saibene, Franco; Albertini, Mariangela; Clement, M Giovanna

    2003-10-01

    Horses display remarkable aerobic capabilities, attaining during muscular exercise a maximal rate of oxygen consumption about 30-fold higher than the resting value, and 2.5-fold higher than that of other mammals of similar body mass. Under these circumstances an enormous mechanical burden is expected to impinge on the equine respiratory pump and regulatory mechanisms aiming to minimize this load may play an important role in determining the adequacy of the respiratory system to the metabolic requirements. The behaviour of the respiratory system has been investigated in horses at rest and during treadmill locomotion at different velocities and gaits. During exercise hyperpnoea, horses exhibit a significant reduction in the lung viscous resistance not observed in other mammals, such as dogs and humans. Therefore, the exercise-dependent increase in the rate of mechanical work of breathing is lower in the horse than in other mammals. This increase in the equine airway patency during exercise appeared to be mainly determined by the pattern of laryngeal movements. In fact, during exercise, the laryngeal cross-sectional area, determined with a video-endoscopic imaging technique at the level of rima glottidis (CSArg), undergoes during inspiration an increase averaging up to over 4 times the resting expiratory values. Although a significant linear correlation was found between CSArg and minute ventilation (VE), the laryngeal activation contributes to increase lung conductance only when CSArg is narrower than the tracheal section. It appears therefore that in exercising horses pulmonary resistive features are finely controlled to reduce the mechanical load supported by the respiratory muscles and to counterbalance the increase in the ventilatory energetic requirements inherent in the remarkably enhanced aerobic performance observed in this species.

  1. Ultra high voltage MOS controlled 4H-SiC power switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S.; Capell, C.; Van Brunt, E.; Jonas, C.; O'Loughlin, M.; Clayton, J.; Lam, K.; Pala, V.; Hull, B.; Lemma, Y.; Lichtenwalner, D.; Zhang, Q. J.; Richmond, J.; Butler, P.; Grider, D.; Casady, J.; Allen, S.; Palmour, J.; Hinojosa, M.; Tipton, C. W.; Scozzie, C.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra high voltage (UHV, >15 kV) 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have the potential to significantly improve the system performance, reliability, and cost of energy conversion systems by providing reduced part count, simplified circuit topology, and reduced switching losses. In this paper, we compare the two MOS based UHV 4H-SiC power switching devices; 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFETs and 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET shows a specific on-resistance of 204 mΩ cm2 at 25 °C, which increased to 570 mΩ cm2 at 150 °C. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET provides low, temperature-independent, switching losses which makes the device more attractive for applications that require higher switching frequencies. The 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT shows a significantly lower forward voltage drop (VF), along with reasonable switching performance, which make it a very attractive device for high voltage applications with lower switching frequency requirements. An electrothermal analysis showed that the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT outperforms the 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET for applications with switching frequencies of less than 5 kHz. It was also shown that the use of a carrier storage layer (CSL) can significantly improve the conduction performance of the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs.

  2. Synthesis of 5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[d]isoxazol-7-one and 5,6-dihydro-4H-isoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-7-one derivatives as potential Hsp90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Musso, Loana; Cincinelli, Raffaella; Giannini, Giuseppe; Manetti, Fabrizio; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2015-11-01

    A novel class of 5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[d]isoxazol-7-ones and 5,6-dihydro-4H-isoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-7-ones was designed, synthesized, and assayed to investigate the affinity toward Hsp90 protein. The synthetic route was based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitriloxides, generated in situ from suitable benzaldoximes, with 2-bromocyclohex-2-enones or 3-bromo-5,6-dihydro-1H-pyridin-2-ones. Whereas all the compounds bearing a benzamide group on the bicyclic scaffold were devoid of activity, the derivatives carrying a resorcinol-like fragment showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on Hsp90. Docking calculations were performed to investigate the orientation of the new compounds within the binding site of the enzyme.

  3. Synthesis of 5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[d]isoxazol-7-one and 5,6-dihydro-4H-isoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-7-one derivatives as potential Hsp90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Musso, Loana; Cincinelli, Raffaella; Giannini, Giuseppe; Manetti, Fabrizio; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2015-11-01

    A novel class of 5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[d]isoxazol-7-ones and 5,6-dihydro-4H-isoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-7-ones was designed, synthesized, and assayed to investigate the affinity toward Hsp90 protein. The synthetic route was based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitriloxides, generated in situ from suitable benzaldoximes, with 2-bromocyclohex-2-enones or 3-bromo-5,6-dihydro-1H-pyridin-2-ones. Whereas all the compounds bearing a benzamide group on the bicyclic scaffold were devoid of activity, the derivatives carrying a resorcinol-like fragment showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on Hsp90. Docking calculations were performed to investigate the orientation of the new compounds within the binding site of the enzyme. PMID:25855505

  4. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of

  5. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    PubMed

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  6. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    PubMed

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  7. Effects of mosapride on motility of the small intestine and caecum in normal horses after jejunocaecostomy.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Kouichi; Sasaki, Naoki; Kikuchi, Takuya; Murata, Aya; Lee, Inhyung; Yamada, Haruo; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prokinetic effects of mosapride with non-invasive assessment of myoelectrical activity in the small intestine and caecum of healthy horses after jejunocaecostomy. Six horses underwent celiotomy and jejunocaecostomy, and were treated with mosapride (treated group) at 1.5 mg/kg per osos once daily for 5 days after surgery. The other six horses did not receive treatment and were used as controls (non-treated group). The electrointestinography (EIG) maximum amplitude was used to measure intestinal motility. Motility significantly decreased following surgery. In the treated group, the EIG maximum amplitude of the small intestine was significantly higher than in the controls from day 6 approximately 31 after treatment. These findings clearly indicate that mosapride could overcome the decline of intestinal motility after jejunocaecostomy in normal horses. PMID:19461212

  8. Effects of mosapride on motility of the small intestine and caecum in normal horses after jejunocaecostomy

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Kouichi; Kikuchi, Takuya; Murata, Aya; Lee, Inhyung; Yamada, Haruo; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prokinetic effects of mosapride with non-invasive assessment of myoelectrical activity in the small intestine and caecum of healthy horses after jejunocaecostomy. Six horses underwent celiotomy and jejunocaecostomy, and were treated with mosapride (treated group) at 1.5 mg/kg per osos once daily for 5 days after surgery. The other six horses did not receive treatment and were used as controls (non-treated group). The electrointestinography (EIG) maximum amplitude was used to measure intestinal motility. Motility significantly decreased following surgery. In the treated group, the EIG maximum amplitude of the small intestine was significantly higher than in the controls from day 6~31 after treatment. These findings clearly indicate that mosapride could overcome the decline of intestinal motility after jejunocaecostomy in normal horses. PMID:19461212

  9. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization, and pharmacological importance of new 4H-1,4-benzothiazines, their sulfone analogues, and ribofuranosides.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Naveen; Garg, Ankita; Gautam, Dinesh Chand

    2015-01-01

    The present article describes the synthesis of new 4H-1,4-benzothiazines via condensation and oxidative cyclization of substituted 2-aminobenzenethiols with compounds containing active methylene groups. It is believed that the reaction proceeds via intermediary of the enaminoketone system. The sulfone derivatives were synthesized by oxidation of 4H-1,4-benzothiazines using 30% hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid. Benzothiazines were used as bases to prepare ribofuranosides by treatment with a sugar derivative (β-D-ribofuranosyl-1-acetate-2,3,5-tribenzoate). The pharmacological importance of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by their, antimicrobial properties against various bacterial strains and fungal species. The structures of the compounds have been confirmed by spectral and chemical analysis. PMID:25513863

  11. Melting of H2SO4·4H2O Particles upon Cooling: Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds

    PubMed

    Koop; Carslaw

    1996-06-14

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are important for the chemical activation of chlorine compounds and subsequent ozone depletion. Solid PSCs can form on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) (H2SO4·4H2O) nuclei, but recent laboratory experiments have shown that PSC nucleation on SAT is strongly hindered. A PSC formation mechanism is proposed in which SAT particles melt upon cooling in the presence of HNO3 to form liquid HNO3-H2SO4-H2O droplets 2 to 3 kelvin above the ice frost point. This mechanism offers a PSC formation temperature that is defined by the ambient conditions and sets a temperature limit below which PSCs should form.

  12. Effects of oral tetrachlorvinphos fly control (Equitrol) administration in horses: physiological and behavioural findings.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Valdez, S; Puschner, B; Leutenegger, C M; Gardner, I A; Madigan, J E

    2008-01-01

    Highly reactive horses may pose risks to humans involved in equestrian activities. Among the factors that may affect horses' reactivity to external stimuli are pesticides used for fly control in equine facilities. The organophosphorus (OP) insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) is used as a feed-through larvicide to prevent completion of the fly larval life cycle in horse manure. TCVP exerts its effect by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) leading to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AChE) in synapses of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations of whole-blood ChE levels associated with feeding a commercially available product (Equitrol, Farnam Companies, Inc.) to horses for fly control. A second aim was to report neurological, physiological and behavioural findings in addition to profiles of selected immune markers (IFN-gamma, IL-12p40 and COX-2) and serum thyroid hormones during and after a 30-day treatment period of TCVP feeding. The results indicated significant decreases in whole-blood ChE activity and concomitant behavioural alterations, manifested as increased reactivity and decreased controllability in treated horses. No changes were detected in physiological or neurological parameters, immune markers or thyroid hormones in treated (n=6) or control (n=4) horses during the course of the study.

  13. A Critical Review of Horse-Related Risk: A Research Agenda for Safer Mounts, Riders and Equestrian Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kirrilly; McGreevy, Paul; McManus, Phil

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of improving horse-related safety seems self-evident, no comprehensive study into understanding or reducing horse-related risk has been undertaken. In this paper, we discuss four dimensions of horse-related risk: the risk itself, the horse, the rider and the culture in which equestrian activities takes place. We identify how the ways in which risk is constructed in each dimension affects the applicability of four basic risk management options of avoidance, transference, mitigation and acceptance. We find the acceptance and avoidance of horse-related risk is generally high, most likely due to a common construction of horses as irrevocably unpredictable, fearful and dangerous. The transference of risk management is also high, especially in the use of protective technologies such as helmets. Of concern, the strategy least utilised is risk mitigation. We highlight the potential benefit in developing mitigation strategies directed at: (a) improving the predictability of horses (to and by humans), and (b) improving riders’ competence in the physical skills that make them more resilient to injury and falls. We conclude with the presentation of a multidisciplinary agenda for research that could reduce accident, injury and death to horse-riders around the world. PMID:26479374

  14. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  15. Photic headshaking in the horse: 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Madigan, J E; Kortz, G; Murphy, C; Rodger, L

    1995-07-01

    Seven horses with headshaking are described. No physical abnormalities were detected in any of the cases. Six of these horses had onset of clinical signs in the spring. The role of light was assessed by application of a blindfold or dark grey lens to the eyes, covering the eyes with a face mask and observing the horse in total darkness outdoors. Cessation of headshaking was observed with blindfolding (5/5 horses), night darkness outdoors (4/4 horses) and use of grey lenses (2/3 horses). Outdoor behaviour suggested efforts to avoid light in 4/4 cases. The photic sneeze in man is suggested as a putative mechanism for equine headshaking. Five of 7 horses had improvement with cyproheptadine treatment (0.3 mg/kg bwt b.i.d.). Headshaking developed within 2 calendar weeks of the same date for 3 consecutive years in one horse. Neuropharmacological alterations associated with photoperiod mechanisms leading to optic trigeminal summation are suggested as possible reasons for spring onset of headshaking.

  16. Photic headshaking in the horse: 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Madigan, J E; Kortz, G; Murphy, C; Rodger, L

    1995-07-01

    Seven horses with headshaking are described. No physical abnormalities were detected in any of the cases. Six of these horses had onset of clinical signs in the spring. The role of light was assessed by application of a blindfold or dark grey lens to the eyes, covering the eyes with a face mask and observing the horse in total darkness outdoors. Cessation of headshaking was observed with blindfolding (5/5 horses), night darkness outdoors (4/4 horses) and use of grey lenses (2/3 horses). Outdoor behaviour suggested efforts to avoid light in 4/4 cases. The photic sneeze in man is suggested as a putative mechanism for equine headshaking. Five of 7 horses had improvement with cyproheptadine treatment (0.3 mg/kg bwt b.i.d.). Headshaking developed within 2 calendar weeks of the same date for 3 consecutive years in one horse. Neuropharmacological alterations associated with photoperiod mechanisms leading to optic trigeminal summation are suggested as possible reasons for spring onset of headshaking. PMID:8536668

  17. Ileal impaction in the horse: 75 cases.

    PubMed

    Parks, A H; Doran, R E; White, N A; Allen, D; Baxter, G M

    1989-01-01

    Records of 75 horses with ileal impactions were examined retrospectively. There was a sex predilection towards mares. Arabians were over-represented compared to the hospital population. The average age was 8.3 years. Abdominal pain was observed in 96% of horses. Nasogastric reflux was present in 56% of horses, small intestinal distention was found on rectal palpation in 96% and an ileal impaction in 25%. Exploratory celiotomy was performed in 69 horses, the mass was reduced by extramural massage in 67 horses, and ingesta was removed via enterotomy in 2. Jejunocecostomies were performed in 47 horses. Twenty-five horses developed postoperative ileus, and 11 developed laminitis. Twenty-seven horses survived. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) between survivors and non-survivors were found for rectal temperature (37.7 and 38.2 degrees C, respectively), plasma protein concentration (7.8 and 8.9 g/dl, respectively) and anion gap (15 and 21.3 mEq/l, respectively). Survival decreased with increasing duration of clinical signs. Enterotomy, enterectomy, and/or jejunocecostomy performed during surgery had a deleterious effect on survival.

  18. Surface Al doping of 4H-SiC via low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junbo; Kim, Ki-hwan; Park, Young-rak; Kim, Minki; Lee, Hyungseok; Jun, Chi-Hoon; Koo, Sangmo; Ko, Sang Choon

    2016-07-01

    We present a method of forming shallow p-doping on a 4H-SiC surface by depositing a thin Al layer (d = 5 nm) and then thermally annealing it at 1000 °C for 10 min. A secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the annealed Al/SiC sample reveals an Al concentration in excess of 1017 cm-3 up to a depth of d ≤ 250 nm. I-V measurements and CV characterizations of Ti-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) fabricated on a n-type SiC epi-wafer indicate that the shallow Al doping increases the built-in potential of the junction and the barrier height by Δ V b i = 0.51 eV and Δ ϕ B = 0.26 eV , respectively. Assuming a rectangular doping profile, calculations of the built-in voltage shift and the Schottky barrier height indicate that partial dopant activation (activation ratio ˜2%) can induce the observed barrier height shift. The shallow doping method was then used to fabricate junction terminations in SBDs which increased the breakdown voltage and reduced the reverse leakage current. Technology CAD simulations of the SBD with and without doping verify that a reduction of peak electric field can explain the improvement of the breakdown voltage.

  19. Dicarbon antisite defect in n -type 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, T.; Isoya, J.; Morishita, N.; Ohshima, T.; Janzén, E.; Gali, A.

    2009-03-01

    We identify the negatively charged dicarbon antisite defect ( C2 core at silicon site) in electron-irradiated n -type 4H-SiC by means of combined electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and first-principles calculations. The HEI5 and HEI6 EPR centers ( S=1/2 ; C1h symmetry) are associated with cubic and hexagonal dicarbon antisite defects, respectively. This assignment is based on a comparison of the measured and calculated hyperfine tensors of C13 and S29i atoms as far as the second neighborhood around the defects. Theoretically, the dicarbon antisites are stable in a single negative charge state under a wide range of n -type samples. We found that the defects can be created under a wide range of irradiation conditions, and our measurements strongly suggest the existence of carbon antisite defects in the as-grown samples. Annealing studies revealed several atomistic processes such as recombination of carbon interstitials with vacancies and formation of carbon aggregates. These processes were activated at about 1000°C , and as theoretically predicted, the dicarbon antisite is much more stable than the dicarbon interstitial defect ( C2 core at carbon site). The measured activation temperature is consistent with the temperature range for forming various carbon aggregate-related photoluminescence centers.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes from H-cardanol.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hulluru Surya Prakash; Kamalraj, Mani

    2014-09-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a variety of fat-soluble, low-melting and medicinally useful 4-aryl-4H-chromenes from H-cardanol (side-chain perhydrogenated cardanol, 3-pentadecylphenol), a renewable and low-cost product from locally grown cashew nut trees (Anacardium occidentale L.). We incorporated H-cardanol into the aromatic rings of either 4H-chromene or phenol, or both. Substitution of C4SMe in N-methyl-4-(methylthio)-3-nitro-4H-chromene-2-amines with H-cardanol was regio-specific at the C6 position. PMID:25918806

  1. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of 2,3,5,6,7,9-hexahydrothieno[3,2-b]quinolin-8(4H)-one 1,1-dioxide K(ATP) channel openers: discovery of (-)-(9S)-9-(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)-2,3,5,6,7,9- hexahydrothieno[3,2-b]quinolin-8(4H)-one 1,1-dioxide (A-278637), a potent K(ATP) opener that selectively inhibits spontaneous bladder contractions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, William A; Altenbach, Robert J; Bai, Hao; Brioni, Jorge D; Brune, Michael E; Buckner, Steven A; Cassidy, Christopher; Chen, Yiyuan; Coghlan, Michael J; Daza, Anthony V; Drizin, Irene; Fey, Thomas A; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Gregg, Robert J; Henry, Rodger F; Holladay, Mark W; King, Linda L; Kort, Michael E; Kym, Philip R; Milicic, Ivan; Tang, Rui; Turner, Sean C; Whiteaker, Kristi L; Yi, Lin; Zhang, Henry; Sullivan, James P

    2004-06-01

    Structure-activity relationships were investigated on a novel series of sulfonyldihydropyridine-containing K(ATP) openers. Ring sizes, absolute stereochemistry, and aromatic substitution were evaluated for K(ATP) activity in guinea pig bladder cells using a fluorescence-based membrane potential assay and in a pig bladder strip assay. The inhibition of spontaneous bladder contractions in vitro was also examined for a select group of compounds. All compounds studied showed greater potency to inhibit spontaneous bladder contractions relative to their potencies to inhibit contractions elicited by electrical stimulation. In an anesthetized pig model of myogenic bladder overactivity, compound 14 and (-)-cromakalim 1 were found to inhibit spontaneous bladder contractions in vivo at plasma concentrations lower than those that affected hemodynamic parameters. Compound 14 showed approximately 5-fold greater selectivity than 1 in vivo and supports the concept that bladder-selective K(ATP) channel openers may have utility in the treatment of overactive bladder.

  2. Using Multiple Youth Programming Delivery Modes to Drive the Development of Social Capital in 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how 4-H youth participants are building social capital, or connections among individuals and community members, through their 4-H experiences. These experiences can be seen through the lens of such 4-H delivery modes as the traditional 4-H club, after-school programs, and school enrichment programs. In addition, other…

  3. Exploring the virome of diseased horses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S.; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Pusterla, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  4. Exploring the virome of diseased horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola; Delwart, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  5. Pleiotropic effects of pigmentation genes in horses.

    PubMed

    Bellone, R R

    2010-12-01

    Horses are valued for the beauty and variety of colouration and coat patterning. To date, eleven different genes have been characterized that contribute to the variation observed in the horse. Unfortunately, mutations involving pigmentation often lead to deleterious effects in other systems, some of which have been described in the horse. This review focuses on six such pleiotropic effects or associations with pigmentation genes. These include neurological defects (lethal white foal syndrome and lavender foal syndrome), hearing defects, eye disorders (congenital stationary night blindness and multiple congenital ocular anomalies), as well as horse-specific melanoma. The pigmentation phenotype, disorder phenotype, mode of inheritance, genetic or genomic methods utilized to identify the genes involved and, if known, the causative mutations, molecular interactions and other susceptibility loci are discussed. As our understanding of pigmentation in the horse increases, through the use of novel genomic tools, we are likely to unravel yet unknown pleiotropic effects and determine additional interactions between previously discovered loci.

  6. Exploring the virome of diseased horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola; Delwart, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases.

  7. Evolution of extended defects in PVT-grown 4H-silicon carbide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaewon

    The purpose of this thesis is to identify the origin and evolution of two types of extended defects frequently observed in physical vapor transport (PVT) grown hexagonal SiC bulk crystals. They are basal plane dislocations and threading edge dislocations. PVT-grown 4H-SiC single crystals were investigated using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, defect selective etching, and transmission electron microscopy. The (0008) diffraction peak position shifted about 2.5° along the 3 inch crystal diameter indicating the bending of the basal plane. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the bending is due to deformation-induced basal plane dislocations with at least a partial edge character. The basal plane dislocations had a non-zero net Burgers vector with the net extra half plane pointing toward the seed side of the investigated crystals, and thus caused the basal plane to bend concave toward the growth direction. Approximately parallel basal plane dislocation arrays were shown to correspond to basal plane slip bands. The bending of entire boules and the global distribution of the slip bands indicated that the basal plane slip system was activated by the macroscopic shear stress resulting from the thermal gradient imposed on the crystal during the PVT growth. The fine structure of the 'star defect' in PVT-grown 4H-SiC single crystals was investigated using molten KOH etching, transmission x-ray topography, and transmission electron microscopy. The star defect is one of the macroscopic extended defects consisting of the defect center and symmetric dislocation arrays extending along six equivalent <11-20> directions. The <11-20> arms of the star defect were shown to consist of polygonized threading edge dislocation arrays, which correspond to prismatic slip bands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that Burgers vectors of the dislocations are anti-parallel to corresponding arm directions, and the extra half planes of the dislocations extend toward the

  8. Nitrogen bridgehead compounds. 38. New antiallergic 4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones. 3.

    PubMed

    Hermecz, I; Breining, T; Vasvári-Debreczy, L; Horváth, A; Mészáros, Z; Bitter, I; DeVos, C; Rodriguez, L

    1983-10-01

    The weak antiallergic activity of 6-methyl-4-oxo-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxylic acid (4) on the rat reaginic passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test was enhanced by the introduction of appropriate functional groups into position 9 of the pyridopyrimidine ring. The most active 9-substituted pyridopyrimidinecarboxylic acids contained an oxime, a phenylamino, or a (phenylamino)thioxomethyl group in position 9. The 9-phenylcarboxamido and 9-phenylhydrazono moieties may be regarded as bioisosteric groups in the pyridopyrimidinone series. In the series of 9-(arylamino)dihydropyridopyrimidines, the structure-activity relationship study revealed similar relationships as found for the 9-(arylhydrazono)tetrahydropyridopyrimidines. The biological activity was due to the 6S enantiomers. A monosubstituted arylamino moiety in position 9 was necessary for the intravenous activity. The most active compound, 9-[(3-acetylphenyl)amino]-6-methyl-4-oxo-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H- pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxylic acid (40) was three times as active as the reference sodium chromoglycate (DSCG) in the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test.

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2004-12-01

    Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

  10. Esophageal phytobezoar in a horse.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, M H; Richardson, D W; Morse, C C

    1987-12-01

    A 23-year-old Thoroughbred stallion was admitted to the hospital for treatment of acute esophageal obstruction. Clinical examination and contrast radiography confirmed the presence of an esophageal obstruction. The horse was euthanatized, and examination revealed a bolus of feed material occluding the esophageal lumen 6 cm caudal to the thoracic inlet, with underlying necrosis of the esophageal mucosa. A large pulsion diverticulum was identified in the caudocervical portion of the esophagus. Apparently, the phytobezoar was formed within the esophageal diverticulum and subsequently became dislodged, occluding the esophagus.

  11. Laryngeal reinnervation in the horse.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Ian C; Stick, John A; Derksen, Fredrik J

    2003-04-01

    Left laryngeal hemiplegia is a frustrating condition for the equine athlete and equine veterinarian. Treatment for the past 30 years has centered on the prosthetic laryngoplasty ("tie-back") with or without ventriculectomy. Laryngeal reinnervation has been used successfully in people and has been shown experimentally to benefit affected horses. This article reviews equine laryngeal reinnervation using the nerve muscle pedicle graft and describes the surgical technique, its complications, and the follow-up in 146 cases treated over the past 10 years. Also discussed is ongoing research into stimulation studies to improve the success of equine laryngeal reinnervation.

  12. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. PMID:27449391

  13. Handicaps No Hindrance with Horses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, Colleen

    1974-01-01

    A horseback riding program, sponsored by 4-H members for handicapped children in Michigan's Genesse County, has proven physically and emotionally veneficial for the children. All therapeutic exercises were performed with the approval of the child's physician and therapist. Plans for expanding the program are being considered. (AG)

  14. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  15. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  16. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  17. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  18. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  19. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  20. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  1. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  2. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  3. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  4. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  5. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  6. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  7. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  8. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  9. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  10. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  11. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  12. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  13. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  14. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  15. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  16. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  17. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  18. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  19. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by...

  20. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  1. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  2. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  3. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  4. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  5. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  6. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  7. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  8. Reaching Migrant Farmworker Youth through 4-H Career and Workforce Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wille, Celina G.

    1999-01-01

    Migrant-farm-worker youth learned about employment and educational opportunities in agriculture through a 4-H-sponsored conference. The conference was developed by a partnership of university extension, community organizations, schools, and private industry. (SK)

  9. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue.

  10. Innovative use of an automated horse walker when breaking in young horses.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    There is an inherent element of risk associated with "backing" and riding the previously unbroken horse. If training proceeds too quickly, conflict behaviors may result from the simultaneous application of too many cues. Automated horse walkers (AHW) facilitate the exercising of several horses concurrently at walk or trot for warm-up, cool-down, fitness programs, and rehabilitation purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate if backing the horse within the AHW was an appropriate training method. Ten horses (3-year-olds) took part in this study. They began training within the AHW with a simple bridle and protective boots. A handler subsequently long-reined the horses within the AHW when they wore rollers, side reins, and a saddle. When considered appropriate, the handler went from jumping beside the horse to lying over the saddle to sitting astride the horse within the AHW. The horses habituated to this innovative approach quickly without evidence of conflict behavior. The handler rode the horses from the AHW after approximately 4 riding episodes of this innovative training system.

  11. Domesticated horses differ in their behavioural and physiological responses to isolated and group housing.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Kelly; Hall, Carol; Royle, Chris; Walker, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    The predominant housing system used for domestic horses is individual stabling; however, housing that limits social interaction and requires the horse to live in semi-isolation has been reported to be a concern for equine welfare. The aim of the current study was to compare behavioural and physiological responses of domestic horses in different types of housing design that provided varying levels of social contact. Horses (n = 16) were divided equally into four groups and exposed to each of four housing treatments for a period of five days per treatment in a randomized block design. The four housing treatments used were single housed no physical contact (SHNC), single housed semi-contact (SHSC), paired housed full contact (PHFC) and group housed full contact (GHFC). During each housing treatment, adrenal activity was recorded using non-invasive faecal corticosterone metabolite analysis (fGC). Thermal images of the eye were captured and eye temperature was assessed as a non-invasive measure of the stress response. Behavioural analysis of time budget was carried out and an ease of handling score was assigned to each horse in each treatment using video footage. SHNC horses had significantly higher (p = 0.01) concentrations of fGC and were significantly (p = 0.003) more difficult to handle compared to the other housing types. GHFC horses, although not significantly different, had numerically lower concentrations of fGC and were more compliant to handling when compared to all other housing treatments. Eye temperature was significantly (p = 0.0001) lower in the group housed treatment when compared to all other treatments. These results indicate that based on physiological and behavioural measures incorporating social contact into the housing design of domestic horses could improve the standard of domestic equine welfare.

  12. Domesticated horses differ in their behavioural and physiological responses to isolated and group housing.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Kelly; Hall, Carol; Royle, Chris; Walker, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    The predominant housing system used for domestic horses is individual stabling; however, housing that limits social interaction and requires the horse to live in semi-isolation has been reported to be a concern for equine welfare. The aim of the current study was to compare behavioural and physiological responses of domestic horses in different types of housing design that provided varying levels of social contact. Horses (n = 16) were divided equally into four groups and exposed to each of four housing treatments for a period of five days per treatment in a randomized block design. The four housing treatments used were single housed no physical contact (SHNC), single housed semi-contact (SHSC), paired housed full contact (PHFC) and group housed full contact (GHFC). During each housing treatment, adrenal activity was recorded using non-invasive faecal corticosterone metabolite analysis (fGC). Thermal images of the eye were captured and eye temperature was assessed as a non-invasive measure of the stress response. Behavioural analysis of time budget was carried out and an ease of handling score was assigned to each horse in each treatment using video footage. SHNC horses had significantly higher (p = 0.01) concentrations of fGC and were significantly (p = 0.003) more difficult to handle compared to the other housing types. GHFC horses, although not significantly different, had numerically lower concentrations of fGC and were more compliant to handling when compared to all other housing treatments. Eye temperature was significantly (p = 0.0001) lower in the group housed treatment when compared to all other treatments. These results indicate that based on physiological and behavioural measures incorporating social contact into the housing design of domestic horses could improve the standard of domestic equine welfare. PMID:25725117

  13. Ferromagnetism in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ren-Wei; Wang, Hua-Jie; Chen, Wei-Bin; Li, Fei; Liu, Xue-Chao Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-04-15

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal. An initial increase in proton dose leads to pronounced ferromagnetism, accompanying with obvious increase in vacancy concentration. Further increase in irradiation dose lowers the saturation magnetization with the decrease in total vacancy defects due to the defects recombination. It is found that divacancies are the mainly defects in proton irradiated 4H-SiC and responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  14. Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC by liquid immersion excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Akihiro; Nishi, Koji; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2013-02-04

    Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC is performed by KrF excimer laser irradiation of 4H SiC immersed in phosphoric acid. Phosphorus is incorporated to a depth of a few tens of nanometers at a concentration of over 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} without generating significant crystal defects. Formation of a pn junction diode with an ideality factor of 1.06 is demonstrated.

  15. Electron paramagnetic resonance and theoretical studies of Nb in 4H- and 6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien Son, Nguyen; Thang Trinh, Xuan; Gällström, Andreas; Leone, Stefano; Kordina, Olof; Janzén, Erik; Szász, Krisztián; Ivády, Viktor; Gali, Adam

    2012-10-01

    High purity silicon carbide (SiC) materials are of interest from high-power high temperature applications across recent photo-voltaic cells to hosting solid state quantum bits, where the tight control of electrically, optically, and magnetically active point defects is pivotal in these areas. 4H- and 6H-SiC substrates are grown at high temperatures and the incorporation of transition metal impurities is common. In unintentionally Nb-doped 4H- and 6H-SiC substrates grown by high-temperature chemical vapor deposition, an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum with C1h symmetry and a clear hyperfine (hf) structure consisting of ten equal intensity hf lines was observed. The hf structure can be identified as due to the interaction between the electron spin S = 1/2 and the nuclear spin of 93Nb. Additional hf structures due to the interaction with three Si neighbors were also detected. In 4H-SiC, a considerable spin density of ˜37.4% was found on three Si neighbors, suggesting the defect to be a complex between Nb and a nearby carbon vacancy (VC). Calculations of the 93Nb and 29Si hf constants of the neutral Nb on Si site, NbSi0, and the Nb-vacancy defect, NbSiVC0, support previous reported results that Nb preferentially forms an asymmetric split-vacancy (ASV) defect. In both 4H- and 6H-SiC, only one Nb-related EPR spectrum has been observed, supporting the prediction from calculations that the hexagonal-hexagonal defect configuration of the ASV complex is more stable than others.

  16. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.

  17. An investigation of the role of soluble CD14 in hospitalized, sick horses.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adriana; Wagner, Bettina; McKenzie, Harold C; Desrochers, Anne M; Furr, Martin O

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of equine soluble CD14 (sCD14) and monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to equine CD14 on lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) secretion from equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); and to (2) determine serum concentrations of sCD14 in a population of horses with gastrointestinal diseases or other illnesses likely to result in endotoxemia. Equine PBMC isolated from 10 healthy horses were incubated with Escherichia coli LPS plus CD14 mAb or sCD14 and assayed for TNF-α activity. Pre-incubation with CD14 mAb did not inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α production, whereas use of sCD14 inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, blood samples from 55 ill and 23 healthy horses were used to determine serum concentrations of sCD14. Concentrations of sCD14 were positively correlated to respiratory rate, duration of clinical signs and band neutrophil count. Although serum sCD14 was significantly increased in the ill horses compared to healthy horses, sCD14 did not correlate with outcome. Results of this study indicate that release of sCD14 is increased in ill horses and that TNF-α production by PBMC is decreased when cells are treated with sCD14.

  18. Analysis of basal physical fitness and lumbar muscle function according to indoor horse riding exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Hong, Chul Un; Kang, Seung Rok; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the effect of indoor horse riding exercise on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The subjects included were 20 healthy females, who participated in the horse riding exercise using SRider (Rider Co. & ChonbuK National Univ, Korea) for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week, over a period of 8 weeks. The subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows, with 10 subjects in each group: Postural Balance Exercise mode (PBE), Abdomen Exercise mode (ADE), Whole body Exercise mode (WBE), and Multiple Exercise (MTE). Isokinetic muscular function test was performed before and after the horse riding exercise, to assess the effect of horse riding on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The test result on basal physical exercise and isokinetic muscular function showed improvements with variable degree in the back muscle strength, maximum joint torque, total work, and muscular acceleration time. The result signifies that the horse riding is an antagonistic exercise mainly performed on waist and abdomen area, and the machine induces persistent muscle contraction and causes myotonic induction enhancing the muscle strength. Indoor horse riding exercise proved its effectiveness for senior or the disabled people who need muscle exercises but have difficulties performing outdoor activities.

  19. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N. F.; Damaty, Hend M. El

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horse naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5%) have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8%) were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25%) followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20%) and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%). Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion: S. equi easily

  20. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N. F.; Damaty, Hend M. El

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horse naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5%) have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8%) were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25%) followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20%) and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%). Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion: S. equi easily

  1. The crystal structure of "green" Cs 2[VOF 4(H 2O)] and its relationship to "blue" Cs 2[VOF 4(H 2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattes, Rainer; Foerster, Harry

    1982-11-01

    Crystals of a second, "green" modification of Cs 2[VOF 4(H 2O)] were obtained from aqueous solution. Their crystal structure was studied on the basis of three-dimensional X-ray data. The structure is orthorhombic, a = 8.231(3), b = 10.323(3), c = 8.497(3) Å, V = 722.0Å 3, Z = 4, space group Ccmm. The final R and RW were 0.035 and 0.048, respectively, for 421 independent reflections. As the already known "blue" modification, the present structure contains isolated, highly deformed octahedral [VOF 4(H 2O)] 2- ions with the oxygen atoms in trans positions. The cesium sublattice and the orientation of the anions to each other are completely different in both modifications. uv/VIS reflection, and ir and Raman spectra of both modifications are discussed.

  2. Discovery and Analysis of 4H-Pyridopyrimidines, a Class of Selective Bacterial Protein Synthesis Inhibitors▿

    PubMed Central

    Ribble, Wendy; Hill, Walter E.; Ochsner, Urs A.; Jarvis, Thale C.; Guiles, Joseph W.; Janjic, Nebojsa; Bullard, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial protein synthesis is the target for numerous natural and synthetic antibacterial agents. We have developed a poly(U) mRNA-directed aminoacylation/translation protein synthesis system composed of phenyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, and ribosomal factors from Escherichia coli. This system, utilizing purified components, has been used for high-throughput screening of a small-molecule chemical library. We have identified a series of compounds that inhibit protein synthesis with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3 to 14 μM. This series of compounds all contained the same central scaffold composed of tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ol (e.g., 4H-pyridopyrimidine). All analogs contained an ortho pyridine ring attached to the central scaffold in the 2 position and either a five- or a six-member ring tethered to the 6-methylene nitrogen atom of the central scaffold. These compounds inhibited the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MICs ranging from 0.25 to 32 μg/ml. Macromolecular synthesis (MMS) assays with E. coli and S. aureus confirmed that antibacterial activity resulted from specific inhibition of protein synthesis. Assays were developed for the steps performed by each component of the system in order to ascertain the target of the compounds, and the ribosome was found to be the site of inhibition. PMID:20696870

  3. Discovery and analysis of 4H-pyridopyrimidines, a class of selective bacterial protein synthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ribble, Wendy; Hill, Walter E; Ochsner, Urs A; Jarvis, Thale C; Guiles, Joseph W; Janjic, Nebojsa; Bullard, James M

    2010-11-01

    Bacterial protein synthesis is the target for numerous natural and synthetic antibacterial agents. We have developed a poly(U) mRNA-directed aminoacylation/translation protein synthesis system composed of phenyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, and ribosomal factors from Escherichia coli. This system, utilizing purified components, has been used for high-throughput screening of a small-molecule chemical library. We have identified a series of compounds that inhibit protein synthesis with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) ranging from 3 to 14 μM. This series of compounds all contained the same central scaffold composed of tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ol (e.g., 4H-pyridopyrimidine). All analogs contained an ortho pyridine ring attached to the central scaffold in the 2 position and either a five- or a six-member ring tethered to the 6-methylene nitrogen atom of the central scaffold. These compounds inhibited the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MICs ranging from 0.25 to 32 μg/ml. Macromolecular synthesis (MMS) assays with E. coli and S. aureus confirmed that antibacterial activity resulted from specific inhibition of protein synthesis. Assays were developed for the steps performed by each component of the system in order to ascertain the target of the compounds, and the ribosome was found to be the site of inhibition.

  4. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature. PMID:26354098

  5. Silicon vacancy center in 4 H -SiC: Electronic structure and spin-photon interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soykal, Ö. O.; Dev, Pratibha; Economou, Sophia E.

    2016-02-01

    Defects in silicon carbide are of intense and increasing interest for quantum-based applications due to this material's properties and technological maturity. We calculate the multiparticle symmetry-adapted wave functions of the negatively charged silicon vacancy defect in hexagonal silicon carbide via use of group theory and density functional theory and find the effects of spin-orbit and spin-spin interactions on these states. Although we focused on VSi- in 4 H -SiC because of its unique fine structure due to the odd number of active electrons, our methods can be easily applied to other defect centers of different polytypes, especially to the 6 H -SiC. Based on these results, we identify the mechanism that polarizes the spin under optical drive, obtain the ordering of its dark doublet states, point out a path for electric field or strain sensing, and find the theoretical value of its ground-state zero-field splitting to be 68 MHz, in good agreement with experiment. Moreover, we present two distinct protocols of a spin-photon interface based on this defect. Our results pave the way toward quantum information and quantum metrology applications with silicon carbide.

  6. Current gain of 4H SiC high-voltage BJTs at reduced temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. A.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Palmour, J. W.; Agarwal, A. K.; Krishnaswami, S.

    2007-06-01

    The dependences of the common-emitter current gain β on the collector current IC have been measured at reduced temperatures in 3 kV 4H-SiC epitaxial-emitter npn bipolar junction transistors with implanted p+ base contact and base-emitter distances Lbe ranging from 3 to 15 µm. The collector-emitter voltage was fixed (at 100 V) to provide the active operation mode at any collector current in a wide range from 80 mA to 10 A (current densities of 3.5-445 A cm-2). The maximum current gain steadily grows with Lbe from 8 (Lbe = 3 µm) to 21 (Lbe = 15 µm) at room temperature. For all values of Lbe, β steadily increases as the temperature becomes lower; however, the smaller Lbe is, the weaker the effect produced by temperature lowering. As, for example, the temperature is lowered to -42 °C, β increases from 8 to 9 for structures with Lbe = 3 µm and from 21 to 31 for structures with Lbe = 15 µm. The phenomena observed have been accounted for by recombination at the p+-p base boundary.

  7. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature.

  8. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature. PMID:26354098

  9. Systemic blastomycosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Julia H; Olson, Erik J; Haugen, Edward W; Hunt, Luanne M; Johnson, Jennifer L; Hayden, David W

    2006-11-01

    Progressive multisystemic disease caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was diagnosed in a 17-year-old Quarter horse broodmare. The mare had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics for mastitis 3 months postpartum. The disease progressed to exudative cutaneous lesions affecting the ventrum, pectoral region, and limbs accompanied by weight loss across several months. Yeast bodies were observed in swabs of the cutaneous exudate, suggesting a clinical diagnosis of blastomycosis. Following referral, pleural effusion, cavitated lung lesions, and hyperproteinemia were identified, and the mare was euthanized because of poor prognosis. Necropsy revealed extensive pyogranulomas in the mammary gland, skin, subcutaneous tissues, and lungs, accompanied by thrombi in major blood vessels of the lungs and hind limbs. Histologically, pyogranulomatous inflammation was evident in many tissues, and fungal organisms were seen in sections of mammary gland, skin, subcutis, pericardium, and lung. Blastomyces dermatitidis was cultured from mammary tissue, lungs, lymph node, and an inguinal abscess. Although blastomycosis is endemic in the area of origin of the mare in northwestern Wisconsin, the disease is extremely rare in horses and hence easily misdiagnosed. Unique features of this case included the extent of mammary gland involvement and the presence of thrombi in multiple sites. PMID:17121096

  10. Experimental infection of horses with Hendra virus/Australia/horse/2008/Redlands.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Glenn A; Haining, Jessica; Hancock, Timothy J; Robinson, Rachel; Foord, Adam J; Barr, Jennifer A; Riddell, Shane; Heine, Hans G; White, John R; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E; Wang, Lin-Fa; Middleton, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for natural infection. In 2 of the 3 animals, HeV RNA was detected continually in nasal swabs from as early as 2 days postexposure, indicating that systemic spread of the virus may be preceded by local viral replication in the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. Our data suggest that a critical factor for reducing HeV exposure risk to humans includes early consideration of HeV in the differential diagnosis and institution of appropriate infection control procedures.

  11. Clostridium difficile infection in horses: a review.

    PubMed

    Diab, S S; Songer, G; Uzal, F A

    2013-11-29

    Clostridium difficile is considered one of the most important causes of diarrhea and enterocolitis in horses. Foals and adult horses are equally susceptible to the infection. The highly resistant spore of C. difficile is the infectious unit of transmission, which occurs primarily via the fecal-oral route, with sources of infection including equine feces, contaminated soil, animal hospitals, and feces of other animals. Two major risk factors for the development of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) in adult horses are hospitalization and antimicrobial treatment, although sporadically, cases of CDAD can occur in horses that have not received antimicrobials or been hospitalized. The most common antibiotics associated with CDAD in horses are erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfonamides, β-lactam antimicrobials, clindamycin, rifampicin, and gentamicin. Clinical signs and intestinal lesions of CDAD infection are not specific and they cannot be used to distinguish infections by C. difficile from infections by other agents, such as Clostridium perfringens or Salmonella sp. The distribution of lesions throughout the intestinal tract seems to be age-dependent. Small intestine is invariably affected, and colon and cecum may or may not have lesions in foals<1-month old. Naturally acquired disease in older foals and adult horses has a more aboral distribution, affecting colon and sometimes cecum, but rarely the small intestine. Detection of toxin A, toxin B or both in intestinal contents or feces is considered the most reliable diagnostic criterion for CDAD in horses. Isolation of toxigenic strains of C. difficile from horses with intestinal disease is highly suggestive of CDAD. A better understanding of pathogenesis, reservoirs of infection, and vaccines and other methods of control is needed. Also further studies are recommended to investigate other possible predisposing factors and/or etiological agents of enteric diseases of horses. PMID:23642413

  12. Blood steroid concentrations in domestic Mongolian horses.

    PubMed

    Haffner, John C; Fecteau, Kellie A; Eiler, Hugo; Tserendorj, Tsek; Hoffman, Rhonda M; Oliver, Jack W

    2010-07-01

    Traditionally, analysis of blood cortisol alone has been used to evaluate adrenal function. Currently, multisteroid analyses are considered more informative than analysis of a single hormone to assess adrenal function. The objective of the present research was to create a database for steroid reference values for domestic Mongolian horses. Seven adrenal steroid levels were determined in the blood of 18 colts, 34 stallions, 25 geldings, 17 fillies, and 29 mares. Results were as follows (lowest and highest group median, in nanograms per milliliter): progesterone: <0.030 (fillies), 4.30 (mares), and 0.070 (all horses); 17-OH-progesterone: 0.070 (colts), 0.520 (mares), and 0.110 (all horses); androstenedione: 0.101 (colts), 0.256 (stallions), and 0.181 (all horses); testosterone: <0.040 (mares, stallions, and fillies), 0.040 (geldings and colts), and <0.40 (all horses); estradiol: 0.066 (stallions), 0.093 (fillies), and 0.085 (all horses); cortisol: 23.040 (colts), 70.210 (geldings), and 50.770 (all horses); and aldosterone: 0.018 (colts), 0.297 (geldings), and 0.191 (all horses). Overall medians indicate that cortisol (98.70%) is the predominant steroid, followed by aldosterone (0.37%), androstenedione (0.35%), 17-OH-progesterone (0.21%), estradiol (0.17%), progesterone (0.14%), and testosterone (0.06%). This information provides adrenal and gonadal steroid reference concentrations to assist in physiological characterization and diagnosis of endocrine disorders in domestic Mongolian horses.

  13. IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang

    2010-01-01

    The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function. PMID:20556207

  14. Serum bactericidal responses to Streptococcus equi of horses following infection or vaccination.

    PubMed

    Timoney, J F; Eggers, D

    1985-07-01

    An indirect test based on horse blood was used to study bactericidal responses of the horse to Streptococcus equi following infection or vaccination. Bactericidal antibody appeared in convalescent sera between two and four weeks and high titres were usually attained by eight weeks. Infection without clinical evidence of abscessation was also effective in eliciting strong bactericidal responses. Serum bactericidal activity of horses either recovered from strangles or immunised with commercial bacterin had declined eight months after vaccination. However, horses that developed strangles eight to 10 months after vaccination exhibited rapid and substantial increases in serum bactericidal activity. Groups of yearlings immunised with commercial S equi vaccines consisting either of M protein or bacterin developed clinical strangles within six months of vaccination although the majority of the animals had exhibited strong serum bactericidal activity a few weeks before occurrence of the disease. Similarly, a group of seven yearling ponies hyperimmunised with experimental vaccine, rich in M protein, were found to be highly susceptible to an intranasal challenge of 5 X 10(8) colony forming units of S equi, although their sera exhibited strong bactericidal activity at the time of challenge. These observations suggest that the role of serum bactericidal antibody in protection of the horse against strangles has been overrated.

  15. Gastritis, Enteritis, and Colitis in Horses.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2015-08-01

    The gastrointestinal system of horses is affected by a large variety of inflammatory infectious and noninfectious conditions. The most prevalent form of gastritis is associated with ulceration of the pars esophagea. Although the diagnostic techniques for alimentary diseases of horses have improved significantly over the past few years, difficulties still exist in establishing the causes of a significant number of enteric diseases in this species. This problem is compounded by several agents of enteric disease also being found in the intestine of clinically normal horses, which questions the validity of the mere detection of these agents in the intestine.

  16. Nitrogen bridgehead compounds. 44. New antiallergic 4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-ones. 4.

    PubMed

    Hermecz, I; Horváth, A; Mészáros, Z; De Vos, C; Rodriguez, L

    1984-10-01

    The weak antiallergic activity of 6-methyl-4-oxo-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidine-3-carbox yli c acid (1) in the rat reaginic passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test was enhanced by the introduction of an (arylamino)methylene moiety into position 9 of the pyridopyrimidine ring. Compound 34, (+)-6(S)-methyl-9-[(m-methylphenyl)-hydrazono]-4-oxo-4H-pyrido[1,2 -a] pyrimidine-3-carboxylic acid, displayed about 10 000 times the activity of the starting compound 1. A structure-activity relationship study of 9-[(arylamino)methylene]tetrahydropyridopyrimidine-3-carb ox ylic acids resulted in conclusions similar to those found for the 9-(arylhydrazono)tetrahydro-and 9-(arylamino)dihydropyridopyrimidine series. Replacement of the 3-carboxy group of 9-(phenylhydrazono)-tetrahydropyridopyrimidin-4-ones with an acrylic acid moiety caused slight increases in potency. In the 6-methyl-substituted series, a high stereospecificity was observed between the enantiomers with 6S and 6R absolute configurations, the former being responsible for the antiallergic activity. The effects of some 9-[(arylamino)-methylene]tetrahydropyridopyrimidine-3-car box ylic acids on the rat passive peritoneal anaphylaxis test were also investigated.

  17. Coniochaetones E-I, new 4H-chromen-4-one derivatives from the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Fimetariella sp.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lianwu; Niu, Shubing; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng; Li, Erwei

    2013-09-01

    Five new 4H-chromen-4-one derivatives coniochaetones E-I (1-5), along with the known compounds coniochaetones B (6) and A (7) have been isolated from solid cultures of the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Fimetariella sp. Their structures were elucidated primarily by NMR spectroscopy and the absolute configurations of compounds 1-3 were assigned using the modified Mosher's method. Compound 4 showed weak cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 72.8 μM. The co-isolated known compound 6 showed modest inhibitory effects against Aspergilus fumigates, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium nivale. PMID:23685047

  18. Design and fabrication of a 3.3 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runhua, Huang; Yonghong, Tao; Song, Bai; Gang, Chen; Ling, Wang; Ao, Liu; Neng, Wei; Yun, Li; Zhifei, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    A 4H-SiC MOSFET with breakdown voltage higher than 3300 V has been successfully designed and fabricated. Numerical simulations have been performed to optimize the parameters of the drift layer and DMOSFET cell structure of active area. The n-type epilayer is 33 μm thick with a doping of 2.5 × 1015 cm-3. The devices were fabricated with a floating guard ring edge termination. The drain current Id = 5 A at Vg = 20 V, corresponding to Vd = 2.5 V. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2014AA052401).

  19. CFD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Spry, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Du, Hui; Skowronski, Marek; Huang, XianRong; Dudley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate non-trivial in-plane lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  20. Existence of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H: A variational Monte Carlo search

    SciTech Connect

    Shoeb, Mohammad

    2005-02-01

    A variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculation for the binding energy B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} of the lightest hypernucleus {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H has been performed in the four-body {lambda}{lambda}pn model. A range of input {lambda}{lambda} potentials of moderate strength produce a particle-stable {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H for the simulated NSC97e and f {lambda}N potentials, whereas the phenomenological Minnesota {lambda}N potential needs a much stronger {lambda}{lambda} potential to bind. The VMC results for B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} agree with the prediction of the stochastic variational model but contradict the recent Faddeev-Yakubovsky calculation. As reported earlier, B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} is sensitive to the triplet {lambda}N channel for a given {lambda}{lambda} potential. The B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H in the three-body {lambda}{lambda}d cluster model is consistent with but slightly lower than the Faddeev calculation. The VMC method predicts a stable {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H system in both models and thus offers the possibility of identifying {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H in a future extension of E906 or of a related experiment at KEK, provided the simulated potentials are true representations of realistic Nijmegen potentials.

  1. CVD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    SciTech Connect

    Neudeck,P.; Trunek, A.; Spry, D.; Powell, J.; Du, H.; Skowronski, M.; Huang, X.; Dudley, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM) measurements indicate non-trivial, in-plane, lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  2. Effect of neutron irradiation on charge collection efficiency in 4H-SiC Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Jiang, Yong; Lei, Jiarong; Fan, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Yu; Li, Meng; Zou, Dehui; Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) in 4H-SiC Schottky diode is studied as a function of neutron fluence. The 4H-SiC diode was irradiated with fast neutrons of a critical assembly in Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Institute and CCE for 3.5 MeV alpha particles was then measured as a function of the applied reverse bias. It was found from our experiment that an increase of neutron fluence led to a decrease of CCE. In particular, CCE of the diode was less than 1.3% at zero bias after an irradiation at 8.26×1014 n/cm2. A generalized Hecht's equation was employed to analyze CCE in neutron irradiated 4H-SiC diode. The calculations nicely fit the CCE of 4H-SiC diode irradiated at different neutron fluences. According to the calculated results, the extracted electron μτ product (μτ)e and hole μτ product (μτ)h of the irradiated 4H-SiC diode are found to decrease by increasing the neutron fluence.

  3. Malignant hyperthermia in a halothane-anesthetized horse.

    PubMed

    Waldron-Mease, E; Klein, L V; Rosenberg, H; Leitch, M

    1981-11-01

    Malignant hyperthermia developed in a 4-year-old Thoroughbred horse following 3 hours and 15 minutes of halothane anesthesia, with supplementary succinylcholine. Clinical signs included fever, sweating, hyperventilation, tachycardia, and decreased blood pressure followed by a rapid increase in blood pressure. Biochemical aberrations included hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, myoglobinuria, and high creatine phosphokinase and ornithine carbamyl transferase activities. Treatment consisted initially of surface cooling with cold water, alcohol and ice, IV administration of cooled balanced electrolyte solutions and sodium bicarbonate, and removal from the anesthetic and rebreathing circuit. Oxygen was given by endotracheal insufflation. The rectum was then packed with ice, the horse was moved to a recovery raft and pool, and his body was packed in ice. Xylazine and dantrolene were given during recovery from anesthesia. Following recovery, treatment consisted of administration of balanced electrolyte solutions, calcium borogluconate, potassium penicillin, meperidine, and additional dantrolene. Muscle biopsy demonstrated exaggerated contracture responses to halothane and caffeine, confirming a diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia. The horse was returned to training following a routine postsurgical convalescent period.

  4. Canine Connection: Dog 2--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08167

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Youth explore more about dog health, nutrition, and care, genetic problems, population control, showmanship, training, ethics and budgeting. Youth who engage in this curriculum will develop essential dog project skills such as selecting a dog; investigating breeds; appreciating dogs' places and roles in society; practicing grooming, fitting,…

  5. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C.

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  6. Immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin genes of the horse.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Antibodies of the horse were studied intensively by many notable immunologists throughout the past century until the early 1970's. After a large gap of interest in horse immunology, additional basic studies on horse immunoglobulin genes performed during the past 10 years have resulted in new insights into the equine humoral immune system. These include the characterization of the immunoglobulin lambda and kappa light chain genes, the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant (IGHC) gene regions, and initial studies regarding the heavy chain variable genes. Horses express predominately lambda light chains and seem to have a relatively restricted germline repertoire of both lambda and kappa chain variable genes. The IGHC region contains eleven constant heavy chain genes, seven of which are gamma heavy chain genes. It is suggested that all seven genes encoding IgG isotypes are expressed and have distinct functions in equine immune responses.

  7. Embryo technologies in the horse.

    PubMed

    Squires, E L; Carnevale, E M; McCue, P M; Bruemmer, J E

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that zwitterionic buffers could be used for satisfactory storage of equine embryos at 5 degrees C. The success of freezing embryos is dependent upon size and stage of development. Morulae and blastocysts <300 microm can be slowly cooled or vitrified with acceptable pregnancy rates after transfer. The majority of equine embryos are collected from single ovulating mares, as there is no commercially available product for superovulation in equine. However, pituitary extract, rich in FSH, can be used to increase embryo recovery three- to four-fold. Similar to human medicine, assisted reproductive techniques have been developed for the older, subfertile mare. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes from young, healthy mares into a recipient's oviduct results in a 70-80% pregnancy rate compared with a 30-40% pregnancy rate when the oocytes are from older, subfertile mares. This procedure can also be used to evaluate in vitro maturation systems. In vitro production of embryos is still quite difficult in the horse. However, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been used to produce several foals. Cleavage rates of 60% and blastocyst rates of 30% have been reported after ICSI of in vitro-matured oocytes. Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) is a possible treatment for subfertile stallions. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes with 200,000 sperm into the oviduct of normal mares resulted in a pregnancy rate of 55-82%. Oocyte freezing is a technique that has proven difficult in most species. However, equine oocytes vitrified in a solution of ethylene glycol, DMSO, and Ficoll and loaded onto a cryoloop resulted in three pregnancies of 26 transfers and two live foals produced. Production of a cloned horse appears to be likely, as several cloned pregnancies have recently been produced. PMID:12499026

  8. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Ruth A.; Keen, John A.; Walker, Brian R.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL) is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing’s disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing’s syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6) and horses with EL (n = 6) destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein) and the facial skin (facial skin arteries) by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10−9–10-5M) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10−9–10-5M) and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10−9–10-5M) was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01). In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006) and veins (P = 0.009) from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof. PMID:27684374

  9. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  10. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse.

    PubMed

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease.

  11. A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses

    PubMed Central

    Nappert, Germain; Vrins, André; Breton, Luc; Beauregard, Michel

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17423438

  12. Reconciling Horse Welfare, Worker Safety, and Public Expectations: Horse Event Incident Management Systems in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Julie M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Although often highly rewarding, human-horse interactions can also be dangerous. Using examples from equine and other contexts, this article acknowledges the growing public awareness of animal welfare, work underway towards safer equestrian workplaces, and the potential for adapting large animal rescue skills for the purposes of horse event incident management. Additionally, we identity the need for further research into communication strategies that address animal welfare and safety issues that arise when humans and horses interact in the workplace. Abstract Human-horse interactions have a rich tradition and can be highly rewarding, particularly within sport and recreation pursuits, but they can also be dangerous or even life-threatening. In parallel, sport and recreation pursuits involving animals, including horses, are facing an increased level of public scrutiny in relation to the use of animals for these purposes. However, the challenge lies with event organisers to reconcile the expectations of the public, the need to meet legal requirements to reduce or eliminate risks to paid and volunteer workers, and address horse welfare. In this article we explore incident management at horse events as an example of a situation where volunteers and horses can be placed at risk during a rescue. We introduce large animal rescue skills as a solution to improving worker safety and improving horse welfare outcomes. Whilst there are government and horse industry initiatives to improve safety and address animal welfare, there remains a pressing need to invest in a strong communication plan which will improve the safety of workplaces in which humans and horses interact. PMID:26927189

  13. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes) from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus) were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region) were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski) using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73%) already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the time depth of the

  14. Anti-reflective nano- and micro-structures on 4H-SiC for photodiodes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this study, nano-scale honeycomb-shaped structures with anti-reflection properties were successfully formed on SiC. The surface of 4H-SiC wafer after a conventional photolithography process was etched by inductively coupled plasma. We demonstrate that the reflection characteristic of the fabricated photodiodes has significantly reduced by 55% compared with the reference devices. As a result, the optical response Iillumination/Idark of the 4H-SiC photodiodes were enhanced up to 178%, which can be ascribed primarily to the improved light trapping in the proposed nano-scale texturing. PMID:21711744

  15. Crystal and molecular structure of 2,4,4-trisubstituted 5-amino-4 H-imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellanato, J.; Avendaño, C.; Ramos, M. T.; Smith-Verdier, P.; Florencio, F.; Garcia-Blanco, S.

    Three 5-amino-4 H-imidazole derivatives 2(2-pyridyl) and 2-ethoxycarbonyl-4,4-pentamethylene-5-amino-and 2(2-pyridyl)-4,4-dimethyl-5(2-pyridylamino)4 H-imidazoles have been studied by i.r. and Raman spectroscopy. The crystal structure of one has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The tautomeric amino-imino equilibrium in different working conditions is also studied from spectroscopic data. The amino and the unconjugated imino forms are characterized.

  16. Estimation of negative ions in VHF SiH4/H2 plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Tsukasa; Nakano, Shinya; Nakao, Sachiko; Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Ichiki, Ryuta; Muta, Hiroshi; Uchino, Kiichiro; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of a VHF SiH4/H2 plasma (frequency: 60 MHz) at high pressures were examined as a function of silane concentration with a heated Langmuir probe. Anomalous reductions in electron saturation current were observed, suggesting the existence of many negative ions. An estimation of the concentration of negative ions was attempted using the sheath theory including negative ions. It was found that there exist H- and SiH3- ions as dominant negative ions in the VHF SiH4/H2 plasma. In addition, the measured floating potential agreed with the theoretical value.

  17. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN 13 HORSES WITH LYMPHOMA.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Valentin; Evrard, Laurence; Cerri, Simona; Gougnard, Alexandra; Busoni, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography and radiography are commonly used for staging of lymphoma in horses, however there is little published information on imaging characteristics for horses with confirmed disease. The purpose of this retrospective, case series study was to describe ultrasonographic and radiographic findings for a group of horses with a confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma. A total of 13 horses were sampled. Lymphadenopathy (8/13), peritoneal effusion (6/13), splenic (6/13), and hepatic (5/13) lesions were the most frequently identified. The predominant splenic and hepatic ultrasonographic lesions were hypoechoic nodules, organomegaly, and changes in echogenicity. Digestive tract lesions were detected in three horses and these included focal thickening and decreased echogenicity of the small (2/13) and large intestinal (2/13) wall. Thoracic lesions were predominantly pleural effusion (4/13), lymphadenopathy (4/13), and lung parenchymal changes (3/13). Enlarged lymph nodes were detected radiographically (4/13) and/or ultrasonographically (2/13) in the thorax and ultrasonographically in the abdomen (7/13) and in the caudal cervical region (4/13). Findings supported the use of abdominal and thoracic ultrasonography for lymphoma staging in horses. Ultrasound landmarks for localizing cecal and caudal deep cervical lymph nodes were also provided. PMID:26456541

  18. RT-qPCR comparison of mast cell populations in whole blood from healthy horses and those with laminitis.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S A; Bailey, E

    2010-12-01

    Inflammatory damage to the digital laminae, a structure responsible for suspension of the distal skeleton within the hoof capsule, results in a painful and often life-threatening disease in horses called laminitis. There can be many diverse causes of laminitis; however, previous work in the horse has suggested that in each case, the inflammation and resulting tissue damage is consistent with the action of mediators released from mast cells (MC), as well as the downstream consequences of their activation. The recent development of molecular genetics tools to characterize cells based on their transcriptional activity makes a new approach for measuring MCs possible. Healthy thoroughbred horses from a variety of age groups were used to assess the amount of variation in KIT (encoding mast cell growth factor receptor) and TPSB2 (encoding mast cell tryptase beta 2) gene expression present in the population and to establish "normal" values. Horses (n=9) with a wider range of body condition scores (3-8), because of a more lax management setting that could predispose them to laminitis, had significantly higher KIT expression in circulating peripheral blood cells than horses under individualized management conditions (n=10) that produced ideal body condition scores (4-6) (mean 2.573-fold, P<0.0005). Likewise, horses affected with acute laminitis (n=11) had elevated expression of TPSB2 (2.760-fold, P=0.0011) relative to control horses (n=15). These data suggest that investigation of MC-related genes KIT and TPSB2 may be effective to assay MC population and activity. More work is needed to refine the diagnostic criteria to better describe at what point MC activation occurs and illustrate the use of gene expression assays in clinical cases of laminitis. Additionally, MC activation is associated with inflammatory disease in several mammalian species and may prove a valuable therapeutic target in the horse.

  19. Managing for Motivation: Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Its Application to 4-H Leadership. National Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Walter J.

    A study examined the organizational factors contributing to the motivation of 4-H volunteer leaders. A modified form of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory served as the research design of the study. A total of 149 4-H leaders were interviewed regarding thirteen job factors: recognition; personal growth; relationships with other 4-H leaders,…

  20. Maine 4-H Afterschool Academy--A Professional Development Opportunity for Out-of-School-Time Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobley, Jennifer; Ouellette, Kristy L.

    2013-01-01

    The Maine 4-H Afterschool Academy trained 369 after-school and out of school time providers in 2011. This easy-to-adapt professional development opportunity used blended learning, a combination of in-person and Web-based opportunities. Providers successfully learned concepts and practical knowledge regarding 4-H, specifically 4-H Science. In…

  1. Current Practices for Training Staff to Accommodate Youth with Special Health Care Needs in the 4-H Camp Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Lauren; Bruce, Jacklyn

    2013-01-01

    The theory of inclusion is the foundation for the study reported here; inclusion is a focus not only of formal education, but also of nonformal educational settings such as 4-H. Ideally, 4-H camps are designed to serve youth of all backgrounds and abilities. By accommodating youth with special health care needs, 4-H camps are effectively meeting…

  2. E-Learning for 4-H Volunteers: Who Uses It, and What Can We Learn from Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Kristy L.; Lesmeister, Marilyn K.; Lobley, Jennifer; Gross, Kerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Orienting and training 4-H volunteers are critical to individuals and the organization. The two-part study reported here re-establishes the profile of the 4-H volunteer and evaluates both the format and content of e-Learning for 4-H Volunteers modules launched in 2006. Volunteers from seven states perceived that online modules made learning more…

  3. Towards the elimination of excessive cobalt supplementation in racing horses: A pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Kinobe, Robert T

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt is an essential trace element for many vital physiological functions. Cobalt is also known to stabilise hypoxia-inducible transcription factors leading to increased expression of erythropoietin which activates production of red blood cells. This implies that cobalt can be used to enhance aerobic performance in racing horses. If this becomes a pervasive practice, the welfare of racing animals would be at risk because cobalt is associated with cardiovascular, haematological, thyroid gland and reproductive toxicity as observed in laboratory animals and humans. It is expected that similar effects may manifest in horses but direct evidence on equine specific effects of cobalt and the corresponding exposure conditions leading to such effects is lacking. Available pharmacokinetic data demonstrates that intravenously administered cobalt has a long elimination half-life (42-156 h) and a large volume of distribution (0.94 L/kg) in a horse implying that repeated administration of cobalt would accumulate in tissues over time attaining equilibrium after ~9-33 days. Based on these pharmacokinetic data and surveys of horses post racing, threshold cobalt concentrations of 2-10 μg/L in plasma and 75-200 μg/L in urine have been recommended. However, there is no clearly defined, presumably normal cobalt supplementation regimen for horses and characterisation of potential adverse effects of any established threshold cobalt concentrations has not been done. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of the existing literature on the pharmacological effects of cobalt in horses with some recommendations on what gaps to bridge to enable the determination of optimal threshold cobalt concentrations in racing horses. PMID:26850547

  4. A Survey on Transport Management Practices Associated with Injuries and Health Problems in Horses.

    PubMed

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne L; Hall, Evelyn; Knight, Peter; Celi, Pietro; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents' demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents' details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic. The survey generated 797 responses. Traumatic injuries were the most common transport-related problem, with a reported incidence of 45.0%. Younger respondents (<40 years old) caring for large numbers of horses (>30 in a week) were more likely to report transport-related injuries. Injury risk was also linked to the use of protections and tranquilizers prior to transport, and checking horses after the journey. Diarrhoea (20.0%) and heat stroke (10.5%) were reported more by amateur than professional horse carers. Increased risk of heat stroke was linked to the restriction of hay and water prior to transportation. Muscular problems (13.0%) appeared to be exacerbated when horse health was not assessed before journey; whilst the risk of laminitis (2.9%) was around three fold greater when post transport recovery strategies were not applied. Associations were made between transport pneumonia (9.2%) and duration of journey, and with activity (horses involved in racing at greater risk). No associations were seen between the incidence of colic (10.3%) and the variables examined. Study findings should be interpreted with caution as they represent participant perceptions and recall. Nevertheless, results support many current recommendations for safe transportation of horses. They also

  5. A Survey on Transport Management Practices Associated with Injuries and Health Problems in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne L.; Hall, Evelyn; Knight, Peter; Celi, Pietro; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents’ demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents’ details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic. The survey generated 797 responses. Traumatic injuries were the most common transport-related problem, with a reported incidence of 45.0%. Younger respondents (<40 years old) caring for large numbers of horses (>30 in a week) were more likely to report transport-related injuries. Injury risk was also linked to the use of protections and tranquilizers prior to transport, and checking horses after the journey. Diarrhoea (20.0%) and heat stroke (10.5%) were reported more by amateur than professional horse carers. Increased risk of heat stroke was linked to the restriction of hay and water prior to transportation. Muscular problems (13.0%) appeared to be exacerbated when horse health was not assessed before journey; whilst the risk of laminitis (2.9%) was around three fold greater when post transport recovery strategies were not applied. Associations were made between transport pneumonia (9.2%) and duration of journey, and with activity (horses involved in racing at greater risk). No associations were seen between the incidence of colic (10.3%) and the variables examined. Study findings should be interpreted with caution as they represent participant perceptions and recall. Nevertheless, results support many current recommendations for safe transportation of horses. They

  6. Movements of the horse's mouth in relation to horse-rider kinematic variables.

    PubMed

    Eisersiö, M; Roepstorff, L; Weishaupt, M A; Egenvall, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of horses to rein contact and the movement of the riders' hands through analysis of data from horses ridden at two different head and neck positions. It was hypothesised that the riders' hand movements and rein tension would generate behavioural responses from horses and that these responses would be more marked when horses were ridden 'on the bit' than when unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horse/rider combinations at sitting trot on a high speed treadmill. Kinematics were recorded using a 12-camera, infrared-based opto-electronic system. Three horses wore a rein tension meter. Behavioural registrations were made from video. Behavioural responses included lip movement, mouth movement, open mouth, change in ear position, head tilt and tail movement. Mouth movements were associated with the suspension phase of the trot. Head and neck position was non-significant in the final models, while rein tension and the distance between the rider's hand and the horse's mouth were related to mouth movements. Interactions between horses and riders are complex and highly variable.

  7. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  8. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse.

  9. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse. PMID:25226963

  10. Reconciling Horse Welfare, Worker Safety, and Public Expectations: Horse Event Incident Management Systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Julie M; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Human-horse interactions have a rich tradition and can be highly rewarding, particularly within sport and recreation pursuits, but they can also be dangerous or even life-threatening. In parallel, sport and recreation pursuits involving animals, including horses, are facing an increased level of public scrutiny in relation to the use of animals for these purposes. However, the challenge lies with event organisers to reconcile the expectations of the public, the need to meet legal requirements to reduce or eliminate risks to paid and volunteer workers, and address horse welfare. In this article we explore incident management at horse events as an example of a situation where volunteers and horses can be placed at risk during a rescue. We introduce large animal rescue skills as a solution to improving worker safety and improving horse welfare outcomes. Whilst there are government and horse industry initiatives to improve safety and address animal welfare, there remains a pressing need to invest in a strong communication plan which will improve the safety of workplaces in which humans and horses interact.

  11. Reconciling Horse Welfare, Worker Safety, and Public Expectations: Horse Event Incident Management Systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Julie M; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Human-horse interactions have a rich tradition and can be highly rewarding, particularly within sport and recreation pursuits, but they can also be dangerous or even life-threatening. In parallel, sport and recreation pursuits involving animals, including horses, are facing an increased level of public scrutiny in relation to the use of animals for these purposes. However, the challenge lies with event organisers to reconcile the expectations of the public, the need to meet legal requirements to reduce or eliminate risks to paid and volunteer workers, and address horse welfare. In this article we explore incident management at horse events as an example of a situation where volunteers and horses can be placed at risk during a rescue. We introduce large animal rescue skills as a solution to improving worker safety and improving horse welfare outcomes. Whilst there are government and horse industry initiatives to improve safety and address animal welfare, there remains a pressing need to invest in a strong communication plan which will improve the safety of workplaces in which humans and horses interact. PMID:26927189

  12. Cortisol release, heart rate and heart rate variability in the horse and its rider: different responses to training and performance.

    PubMed

    von Lewinski, Mareike; Biau, Sophie; Erber, Regina; Ille, Natascha; Aurich, Jörg; Faure, Jean-Michel; Möstl, Erich; Aurich, Christine

    2013-08-01

    Although some information exists on the stress response of horses in equestrian sports, the horse-rider team is much less well understood. In this study, salivary cortisol concentrations, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), SDRR (standard deviation of beat-to-beat interval) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive beat-to-beat intervals) were analysed in horses and their riders (n=6 each) at a public performance and an identical rehearsal that was not open to the public. Cortisol concentrations increased in both horses and riders (P<0.001) but did not differ between performance and rehearsal. HR in horses and riders increased during the rehearsal and the public performance (P<0.001) but the increase in HR was more pronounced (P<0.01) in riders than in their horses during the public performance (from 91 ± 10 to 150 ± 15 beats/min) compared to the rehearsal (from 94 ± 10 to 118 ± 12 beats/min). The SDRR decreased significantly during the equestrian tasks in riders (P<0.001), but not in their horses. The RMSSD decreased in horses and riders (P<0.001) during rehearsal and performance, indicating a decrease in parasympathetic tone. The decrease in RMSSD in the riders was more pronounced (P<0.05) during the performance (from 32.6 ± 6.6 to 3.8 ± 0.3 ms) than during the rehearsal (from 27.5 ± 4.2 to 6.6 ± 0.6 ms). The study has shown that the presence of spectators caused more pronounced changes in cardiac activity in the riders than it did in their horses.

  13. Middle School Dropout? Enrollment Trends in the California 4-H Youth Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Heck, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    There is a widespread belief that youth drop out of youth development programs during the middle school years. Alternative explanations for the smaller number of adolescent program participants have yet to be explored. We examine age trends in program enrollment using data from over 221,000 youth enrolled in the California 4-H Youth Development…

  14. Promoting the Essential Elements of 4-H Youth Development through an Experiential Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Shelley; Jones, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project reported here was to apply Experiential Learning Theory to a context involving middle and high school aged youth while assessing the four concepts (belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity) in relation to the 4-H youth development essential elements. The conclusions of the project's evaluation suggest…

  15. Performance statistics of the FORTRAN 4 /H/ library for the IBM system/360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, N. A.; Cody, W. J., Jr.; Hillstrom, K. E.; Thieleker, E. A.

    1969-01-01

    Test procedures and results for accuracy and timing tests of the basic IBM 360/50 FORTRAN 4 /H/ subroutine library are reported. The testing was undertaken to verify performance capability and as a prelude to providing some replacement routines of improved performance.

  16. A Partnership Model for Training Episodic Environmental Stewardship 4-H Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jane Chin; Alexander, Janice; Smith, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Marin Environmental Stewardship pilot project demonstrates the potential for a partnership model that brings together external and internal collaborators to recruit and train episodic 4-H volunteers to meet environmental education needs within a community. The clientele served by the volunteers trained through the project was at-risk, urban…

  17. Formation of low-temperature cirrus from H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, A; Molina, M J; Sassen, K; Kulmala, M

    2006-11-23

    We present experimental results obtained with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) that indicate the small ice particles in low-temperature cirrus clouds are not completely solid but rather coated with an unfrozen H2SO4/H2O overlayer. Our results provide a new look on the formation, development, and microphysical properties of low-temperature cirrus clouds.

  18. The Value of 4-H Judging Teams--Missouri Dairy Judging Alumni Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Karla; Probert, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Former Missouri 4-H Dairy Judging Team members responded to a survey about life skills development and the value of the judging team experience. Results of the survey indicate that judging team experience was highly influential in the development of communication, public speaking, and presentation skills. Respondents also indicated that judging…

  19. Determining Directions for Change in a County 4-H Youth Program: The Role of Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braverman, Marc; And Others

    This paper describes the evaluation of the 4-H youth program (serving ages 9 through 19) in Yolo County, California. The paper concentrates on the first component of the evaluation plan, a telephone survey of community needs and perceptions regarding services for youth which was conducted in November, 1984. The originally perceived questions…

  20. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Leader's Guide for Units 2 & 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This leader's guide is designed for units 2 and 3 of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. The goals of the project are to: (1) help young people understand energy problems related to life styles; (2) use energy resources carefully; (3) guide members in choosing their own energy alternatives; and (4) to enjoy together the challenges and creativity of…