Science.gov

Sample records for 4-h horse activities

  1. Stable Relationships: Horse Care Activities. Level 3. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08055

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the third in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  2. Riding the Range: Horse Riding Activities. Level 4. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08056

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  3. Head, Heart, & Hooves: Horse Raising Activities. Level 2. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08054

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  4. Giddy up & Go: Discovering Horses Activities. Level 1. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08053

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the first in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. This guide focuses on the introductory basics and familiarizes youth with…

  5. SADDLE HORSE AND OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS' PERCEPTIONS OF 4-H CLUB WORK IN OHIO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROVES, ROBERT H.

    PERCEPTIONS AND UNDERSTANDINGS OF 4-H OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAMS OF 4-H SADDLE HORSE ADVISORS WERE COMPARED WITH THOSE OF OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS IN NORTHEASTERN AND SOUTHWESTERN DISTRICTS OF OHIO. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY QUESTIONNAIRES FROM 90 SADDLE HORSE AND 133 OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS. STATE 4-H STAFF AND SUPERVISORS PROVIDED CORRECT ANSWERS.…

  6. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse…

  7. Jumping to New Heights: Horsemanship Activities. Level 5. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08057

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiberger-Miller, Ami

    2004-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…

  8. Litter Control Achievement - Ohio 4-H Club Score Sheet [and] Activity Guides 1 through 7. 4-H Pilot Program 918.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Seven activity guides, evaluation sheet, and club scoresheet have been prepared for Ohio 4-H clubs' litter education program. Topics of the seven activity guides include: (1) general guidelines and types of activities; (2) little known facts about waste/litter; (3) guidelines for a walking tour; (4) fact sheet (questionnaire) related to garbage;…

  9. Fashion Revue. 4-H Textile Science Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    This publication was developed to help students participating in Fashion Review, a 4-H event in which students model a clothing outfit and accessories and are judged on their modeling ability, their presentation, and how well the clothing and accessory choices complement the students' skin tones, hair color, figure or physique, personality, and…

  10. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  11. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  12. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  13. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  14. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  15. Wiggles and Wags: Dog 1--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guides are activity guides. Several fact-filled books about dogs are listed as resources on this guide. The activities are active, hands-on, and engaging and are guided by the 4-H motto: Learning by Doing. As youth explore a dog project topic of interest to them, they also practice essential life skills. Although a few dog project youth will…

  16. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  17. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  18. Synthesis, antifungal activity and docking study of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirjalili, BiBi Fatemeh; Zamani, Leila; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Haghighijoo, Zahra; Malakotikhah, Zahra; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Khojasteh, Shaghayegh

    2016-07-01

    Pathogenic fungi are associated with diseases ranging from simple dermatosis to life-threatening infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. During the past two decades, resistance to established antifungal drugs has increased dramatically and has made it crucial to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Here, we selected 12 new compounds of 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile drivetives (C1-C12) for synthesis by using nano-TiCl4.SiO2 as efficient and green catalyst, then nine of synthetic compounds were evaluated against different species of fungi, positive gram and negative gram of bacteria. Standard and clinical strains of antibiotics sensitive and resistant fungi and bacteria were cultured in appropriate media. Biological activity of the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives against fungi and bacteries were estimated by the broth micro-dilution method as recommended by clinical and laboratory standard institute (CLSI). In addition minimal fangicidal and bactericial concenteration of the compounds were also determined. Considering our results showed that compound 2-amino-4-(4-methyl benzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9) had the most antifungal activity against Aspergillus clavatus, Candida glabarata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis at concentrations ranging from 8 to ≤128 μg/mL. Also compounds 2-amino-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C4) and 2-amino-4-(4-isopropylphenyl)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C3) had significant inhibitory activities against Epidermophyton floccosum following 2-amino-4-(4-methylbenzoate)-4H-benzo[f]chromen-3-carbonitrile (C9), respectively. Docking simulation was performed to insert compounds C3, C4 and C9 in to CYP51 active site to determine the probable binding model.

  19. Children and their 4-H animal projects: How children use science in agricultural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emo, Kenneth Roy

    Many children are introduced to science through informal educational programs. 4-H, an educational youth program, has a history of introducing scientific practices into agriculture. The purpose of this ethnographically-driven case study is to examine how science informs the actions of children raising market animals in a 4-H project. For two years the researcher collected data on 4-H children with market animal projects. Observations, interviews, and artifacts gathered are interpreted using the framework of activity theory. This study provides evidence for how the context of an activity system influences individual actions. Rules developed by the organization guide the actions of children to incorporate physical and psychological tools of science into their project to achieve the object: producing animals of proper weight and quality to be competitive in the county fair. Children learn the necessary actions from a community of practitioners through which expertise is distributed. Children's learning is demonstrated by the way their participation in their project changes with time, from receiving assistance from others to developing expertise in which they provide assistance to others. The strength of this educational experience is how children apply specific tools of science in ways that provide meaning and relevancy to their 4-H activity.

  20. A remarkable activity of human leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) toward unnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Byzia, Anna; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Salvesen, Guy S; Drag, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H--EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme, which processes LTA4 through an epoxide hydrolase activity and is also able to trim one amino acid at a time from N-terminal peptidic substrates via its aminopeptidase activity. In this report, we have utilized a library of 130 individual proteinogenic and unnatural amino acid fluorogenic substrates to determine the aminopeptidase specificity of this enzyme. We have found that the best proteinogenic amino acid recognized by LTA4H is arginine. However, we have also observed several unnatural amino acids, which were significantly better in terms of cleavage rate (k cat/K m values). Among them, the benzyl ester of aspartic acid exhibited a k cat/K m value that was more than two orders of magnitude higher (1.75 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) as compared to L-Arg (1.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). This information can be used for design of potent inhibitors of this enzyme, but may also suggest yet undiscovered functions or specificities of LTA4H. PMID:24573245

  1. Horses

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of humans and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant some antibiotics. Horses carrying MRSA might not necessarily show clinical ...

  2. Seasonal variations in daily rhythms of activity in athletic horses.

    PubMed

    Bertolucci, C; Giannetto, C; Fazio, F; Piccione, G

    2008-07-01

    Circadian rhythms reflect extensive programming of biological activity that meets and exploits the challenges and opportunities offered by the periodic nature of the environment. In the present investigation, we recorded the total activity of athletic horses kept at four different times of the year (vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumn equinox and winter solstice), to evaluate the presence of seasonal variations of daily activity rhythms. Athletic Thoroughbred horses were kept in individual boxes with paddock. Digitally integrated measure of total activity of each mare was continuously recorded by actigraphy-based data loggers. Horse total activities were not evenly distributed over the day, but they were mainly diurnal during the year. Daily activity rhythms showed clear seasonal variations, with the highest daily amount of activity during the vernal equinox and the lowest during the winter solstice. Interestingly, the amount of activity during either photophase or scotophase changed significantly throughout the year. Circadian analysis of horse activities showed that the acrophase, the estimated time at which the peak of the rhythm occurs, did not change during the year, it always occurred in the middle of the photoperiod. Analysing the time structure of long-term and continuously measured activity and feeding could be a useful method to critically evaluate athletic horse management systems in which spontaneous locomotor activity and feeding are severely limited. Circadian rhythms are present in several elements of sensory motor and psychomotor functions and these would be taken into consideration to plan the training schedules and competitions in athletic horses. PMID:22443706

  3. Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity of 2-aryl-4H-chromen-4-ones.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Badavath Vishnu; Ciftci-Yabanoglu, S; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Timiri, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, Barij N; Ucar, G; Soliman, Mahmoud E S; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan

    2015-02-01

    A series of twenty 2-aryl-4H-chromen-4-one (flavones) derivatives (3a-3s) were synthesized and tested for hMAO inhibitory activity. Fifteen compounds (3a, 3c, 3e-3h, 3j-3p, 3r, 3s) were found to be selective towards MAO-B, while 3d was selective towards MAO-A, and 3b, 3i and 3q were non-selective. Experimental Selectivity Index for MAO-B ranges from 2.0 (3g, 3p) to 30.0 (3j). Compound 3j, which is carrying 3,4-di-OMeC6H3 groups at R position on the molecule, was found to be potent MAO-B inhibitor amongst the fifteen with Ki value for MAO-B of 0.16±0.01 μM comparable to that of standard drug, Selegiline (Ki for MAO-B is 0.16±0.01 μM). Compound 3j also appeared as the most selective MAO-B inhibitor according to its best selectivity index (30.0), which is comparable to that of Selegiline (SIMAO-B=35.0). Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies were carried out using Autodock-4.0 and Amber12 to understand the molecular level interaction and energy relation of MAO isoforms with selective inhibitors (3d and 3j). Simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Leads identified may further be explored to develop potent isoform specific inhibitors of MAO. PMID:25506816

  4. A Beach and Dune Community. 4-H Marine Science. Member's Guide. Activity I. MSp 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auburn Univ., AL. Cooperative Extension Service.

    The investigation in this booklet is designed to provide 4-H members with opportunities to identify common plants and animals found on beaches and sand dunes and to determine the role of the plants and animals in this community. Learners are provided with a picture of a hypothetical beach and sand dune and a list of organisms (included in the…

  5. Synthesis and antifungal activity of 2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one derivatives.

    PubMed

    Śmist, Małgorzata; Kwiecień, Halina; Krawczyk, Maria

    2016-06-01

    A series of 2-alkyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (4a-l) was easily synthesized by two-step process involving O-alkylation of 2-nitrophenols with methyl 2-bromoalkanoates and next "green" catalytic reductive cyclization of the obtained 2-nitro ester intermediates (3a-l). Further, 6,7-dibromo (5a-c) and N-acetyl (6) derivatives were prepared by bromination and acetylation of unsubstituted 2-alkyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (4a-c). The novel compounds (3a-l, 4d-l, 5a-c and 6) were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods (MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR). 2-Alkyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-ones (4a-l, 5a-c and 6) were screened for antifungal activity. Preliminary assays were performed using two methods: in vitro against seven phytopathogenic fungi-Botrytis cinerea, Phythophtora cactorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Phoma betae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata-and in vivo against barley powdery mildew Blumeria graminis. The tested compounds displayed moderate to good antifungal activity at high concentration (200 mg L(-1)). The most potent compounds were 2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4a), 2-ethyl-7-fluoro-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4g) and 4-acetyl-2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (6), which completely inhibited the mycelial growth of seven agricultural fungi at the concentration of 200 mg L(-1) in the in vitro tests. Moreover, 2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4a) and 4-acetyl-2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (6) were also screened for antifungal activity at concentrations of 100 mg L(-1) and 20 mg L(-1). In the concentration of 100 mg L(-1), the N-acetyl derivative (6) completely inhibited the growth of three strains of fungi (F. culmorum, P. cactorum and R. solani), while 2-ethyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (4a) completely inhibited only R. solani strain. At the concentration of 20 mg L(-1), compound 6 showed good activity only against P. cactorum strain (72%). PMID:26963527

  6. Tioxidazole: evaluation of antiparasitic activity of a micronized formulation in horses by the critical test method.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1981-06-01

    Antiparasitic activity of a micronized formulation of the benzothiazole compound, tioxidazole, at the dose rate of 11 mg/kg, was evaluated by the critical test method. Drug was given by stomach to 3 horses and on feed to 3 horses. Excellent removal activity was found for Strongylus vulgaris (100%) in 5 naturally infected horses, S edentatus (91% to 100%) in 5 horses, small strongyles (88% to 99%) in 6 horses, immature Oxyuris equi (100%) in 5 horses, and Parascaris equorum (100%) in 5 horses (a 6th horse had 10 small specimens present at necropsy). There was no measurable activity against bots, tapeworms, or stomach worms. Tioxidazole, administered in the feed, was palatable. Signs of toxicosis were not observed. PMID:7283235

  7. Synthesis, bioassay, and QSAR study of bronchodilatory active 4H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitriles.

    PubMed

    Girgis, Adel S; Saleh, Dalia O; George, Riham F; Srour, Aladdin M; Pillai, Girinath G; Panda, Chandramukhi S; Katritzky, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    A statistically significant QSAR model describing the bioactivity of bronchodilatory active 4H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitriles (N = 41, n = 8, R(2) = 0.824, R(2)cv = 0.724, F = 18.749, s(2) = 0.0018) was obtained employing CODESSA-Pro software. The bronchodilatory active 4H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitriles 17-57 were synthesized through a facile approach via reaction of 1-alkyl-4-piperidones 1-4 with ylidenemalononitriles 5-16 in methanol in the presence of sodium. The bronchodilation properties of 17-57 were investigated in vitro using isolated guinea pig tracheal rings pre-contracted with histamine (standard method) and compared with theophylline (standard reference). Most of the compounds synthesized exhibit promising bronchodilation properties especially, compounds 25 and 28. PMID:25462283

  8. Leading the Pack: Dog 3--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08168

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Experienced youth investigate responsible breeding, diseases, caring for geriatric dogs, training, service dogs, dog roles and careers related to dogs. This guide provides youth with numerous leadership opportunities. Because youth development programs help build tomorrow's leaders, leadership is a strong theme in Level 3 activities. One will be…

  9. Dog Helper's Guide: Dog Project Group Activities Grades 3-12. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08169

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This final guide in the series is designed to assist in one's role of helper for youth interested in the dog project. These learn-by-doing activities can be adapted for families, classrooms, dog project meetings, after school programs, camps or other settings. In this Helper's Guide, one will find helpful information about characteristics of…

  10. Effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and fermentative activities in horses: impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 supplementation.

    PubMed

    Faubladier, C; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; da Veiga, L; Julliand, V

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of transportation on fecal bacterial communities and activities in horses with or without supplementation of live yeast and attempted to link those effects with changes in blood stress markers. Four mature horses were assigned to a crossover design and fed a basal diet (60:40 forage to concentrate; 1.45% BW on a DM basis), with or without supplementation, of 2 × 10(10) cfu/d of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077. After a 14-d adaptation to dietary treatments, the 5-d experiment started 1 d before transportation (d -1). At d 0, horses were simultaneously transported in a truck for 2 h. Feces were sampled 4 h after the morning meal of concentrate at d -1, 0 (immediately after transportation), and 3 for enumeration of the main functional bacterial groups and determination of fermentative variables. Within each dietary treatment, feces were pooled before DNA extraction and molecular analysis of the bacterial communities, using temporal temperature gradient electrophoreses (TTGE). Blood samples were collected at the same time for determination of white blood cells (WBC) counts and glucose and total protein concentrations. Regardless of dietary treatment, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio increased during transportation (P < 0.01), indicating that horses were stressed. In both treatments, TTGE profiles were clearly different before and 3 d after transportation, and the percentage of similarity between profiles at d -1 and 3 was greater in supplemented horses compared with the controls. From d 0 to 3, the molar percentage of propionate increased and total concentration of VFA and the acetate + butyrate to propionate ratio decreased, regardless of dietary treatment (P < 0.01, P = 0.02, and P < 0.01, respectively), whereas pH decreased only in control horses (P = 0.03). Regardless of day of sampling, fecal concentrations of lactate-utilizing bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria were greater in supplemented horses than in control horses (P

  11. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES, A GUIDE FOR 4-H CLUB LEADERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOSTER, ALBERT B.; FOX, ADRIAN C.

    THIS PUBLICATION WAS PREPARED BY THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE FOR USE WITH YOUTH GROUPS. VARIOUS ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CAN BE USED TO DEVELOP CONCEPTS ABOUT SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION. IN ORDER TO SIMPLIFY THE PROCESS OF DEMONSTRATING THESE ACTIVITIES, MANY OF THE CONCEPTS ARE PICTORIALLY ILLUSTRATED. THE ACTIVITIES…

  12. Synthesis, in vitro and in silico antimalarial activity of 7-chloroquinoline and 4H-chromene conjugates.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, A; Muthukumaran, J; Manhas, Ashan; Srivastava, Kumkum; Krishna, R; Rao, H Surya Prakash

    2015-10-15

    A new series of chloroquinoline-4H-chromene conjugates incorporating piperizine or azipane tethers were synthesized and their anti-malarial activity were evaluated against two Plasmodium falciparum strains namely 3D7 chloroquine sensitive (CQS) and K1 chloroquine resistant (CQR). Chloroquine was used as the standard and also reference for comparison. The conjugates exhibit intense UV absorption with λmax located at 342 nm (log ε=4.0), 254 nm (log ε=4.2), 223 nm (log ε=4.4) which can be used to spectrometrically track the molecules even in trace amounts. Among all the synthetic compounds, two molecules namely 6-nitro and N-piperazine groups incorporated 7d and 6-chloro and N-azapane incorporated 15b chloroquinoline-4H-chromene conjugates showed significant anti-malarial activity against two strains (3D7 and K1) of P. falciparum. These values are lesser than the values of standard antimalarial compound. Molecular docking results suggested that these two compounds showing strong binding affinity with P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) and also they occupy the co-factor position which indicated that they could be the potent inhibitors for dreadful disease malaria and specifically attack the glycolytic pathway in parasite for energy production. PMID:26338359

  13. Critical tests of the anthelmintic febantel in the horse: activity of a paste formulation alone or with a trichlorfon paste.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    1978-09-01

    Critical tests were carried out in 10 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of febantel given alone or with trichlorfon. Paste formulations were administered intraorally at dose levels of 6 mg of febantel (active ingredient)/kg and 35 mg of trichlorfon (active ingredient)/kg. In 5 tests with febantel alone, removal of 100% was recorded for mature or immature Parascaris equorum from 2 infected horses. Strongylus vulgaris from 4 infected horses, S edentatus from 5 infected horses, and mature Oxyuris equi from 1 infected horse; and removal of 96% was recorded for small strogyles from 1 horse tested, and bots in 5 infected horses were not affected. In 5 horses treated with both compounds, removal of 100% was recorded for mature P equorum from 2 infected horses, immature P equorum from 1 infected horse, S vulgaris from 5 infected horses, Sedentatus from 5 infected horses, mature O equi from 2 infected horses, immature O equi from 1 horse tested, 2nd Gasterophilus intestin-equi from 1 infected horse, 2nd-instar C nasalis from 1 infected horse, and 3rd-instar C nasalis from 4 infected horses. Removal of 98% was recorded for small strongyles from 1 horse tested, and removal of 65% to 100% for 3rd-instar C intestinalis from 5 infected horses. In the aggregate, removal of 3rd-instar C intestinalis was 99%. Untoward effects of treatment were quite limited. Only a transient softening of feces in 1 of 5 horses given the trichlorfon paste plus the febantel paste was recorded. PMID:697152

  14. The Relationship between Participation in Community Service-Learning Projects and Personal and Leadership Life Skills Development in 4-H Leadership Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Connie S.; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared perceptions of personal and leadership life skills development of high school 4-H leadership activity participants by whether they participated in the 4-H Junior Leader Club (JLC) and/or the CHARACTER COUNTS! (CC) peer teaching program. The target population was all high school students who participated in either the CC or JLC…

  15. Antiparasitic activity of parbendazole in critical tests in horses.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1980-01-01

    Critical tests were conducted in 11 naturally infected horses to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of parbendazole. Single doses at the rates of 30, 20, 10, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight were administered by stomach tube to 1, 4, 2, 2, and 2 horses, respectively. Parbendazole was active against Parascaris equorum, Oxyuris equi, Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, and small strongyles throughout the range of doses. Generally, small numbers of P equorum were present, but apparently a dose rate higher than 2.5 mg/kg is necessary for complete clearance. Removal of O equi was virtually 100%, even at the 2.5 mg/kg dose rate, although mature forms were present in small numbers. Removal of S vulgaris and S edentatus was 98% to 100% at the largest and smallest dose rates and was somewhat inconsistent, especially of S edentatus, at most intermediate dose rates. Overall removal of small strongyles was good even at smallest dose rate. Activity was limited or lacking against stomach parasites. Transient diarrhea was observed for 24 to 48 hours after treatment at each dose rate tested. PMID:6892671

  16. Seasonal changes in ovarian activity: lessons learnt from the horse.

    PubMed

    Donadeu, F X; Watson, E D

    2007-08-01

    The annual reproductive cycle in the horse involves a reduction in ovarian activity during short days. The absence of ovulatory activity during winter has important consequences for an equine industry eager to breed mares early during the year. The anovulatory season results from a reduction in the secretion of pituitary gonadotropin that is in turn triggered by the inhibitory effects of short photoperiod on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. Recent studies have provided evidence that the response of the ovaries to endocrine stimuli during the anovulatory season is affected not only by circulating concentrations of trophic hormones but also by locally produced growth factors that are putative modulators of follicular responses to gonadotropins. The present review summarises current knowledge on ovarian dynamics during the equine anovulatory season and the regulatory mechanisms involved at both systemic and local levels. PMID:17207590

  17. Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda; Coates-Markle, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

  18. 4-H and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue focuses on Iowa's role in the historical development of the 4-H youth program. "Roots in Iowa" and "Jessie Field Shambaugh: The Mother of 4-H" (J. Friedel) describes the rural Iowan roots of the 4-H program, which today is located in 80 different countries, and give the story of its founder. Jessie Shambaugh, a rural Iowa teacher and…

  19. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  20. Cloning the Horse RNA Polymerase I Promoter and Its Application to Studying Influenza Virus Polymerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Gang; He, Dong; Wang, Zengchao; Ou, Shudan; Yuan, Rong; Li, Shoujun

    2016-01-01

    An influenza virus polymerase reconstitution assay based on the human, dog, or chicken RNA polymerase I (PolI) promoter has been developed and widely used to study the polymerase activity of the influenza virus in corresponding cell types. Although it is an important member of the influenza virus family and has been known for sixty years, no studies have been performed to clone the horse PolI promoter or to study the polymerase activity of equine influenza virus (EIV) in horse cells. In our study, the horse RNA PolI promoter was cloned from fetal equine lung cells. Using the luciferase assay, it was found that a 500 bp horse RNA PolI promoter sequence was required for efficient transcription. Then, using the developed polymerase reconstitution assay based on the horse RNA PolI promoter, the polymerase activity of two EIV strains was compared, and equine myxovirus resistance A protein was identified as having the inhibiting EIV polymerase activity function in horse cells. Our study enriches our knowledge of the RNA PolI promoter of eukaryotic species and provides a useful tool for the study of influenza virus polymerase activity in horse cells. PMID:27258298

  1. Circadian regulation of locomotor activity and skeletal muscle gene expression in the horse.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ann-Marie; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Duffy, Pat; Blake, Catriona M; Ben Attia, Sarra; Katz, Lisa M; Browne, John A; Gath, Vivian; McGivney, Beatrice A; Hill, Emmeline W; Murphy, Barbara A

    2010-11-01

    Circadian rhythms are innate 24-h cycles in behavioral and biochemical processes that permit physiological anticipation of daily environmental changes. Elucidating the relationship between activity rhythms and circadian patterns of gene expression may contribute to improved human and equine athletic performance. Six healthy, untrained mares were studied to determine whether locomotor activity behavior and skeletal muscle gene expression reflect endogenous circadian regulation. Activity was recorded for three consecutive 48-h periods: as a group at pasture (P), and individually stabled under a light-dark (LD) cycle and in constant darkness (DD). Halter-mounted Actiwatch-L data-loggers recorded light exposure and motor activity. Analysis of mean activity (average counts/min, activity bouts/day, average bout length) and cosinor parameters (acrophase, amplitude, mesor, goodness of fit) revealed a predominantly ultradian (8.9 ± 0.7 bouts/24 h) and weakly circadian pattern of activity in all three conditions (P, LD, DD). A more robust circadian pattern was observed during LD and DD. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the middle gluteal muscles every 4 h for 24 h under DD. One-way qRT-PCR results confirmed the circadian expression (P < 0.05) of six core clock genes (Arntl, Per1, Per2, Nr1d1, Nr1d2, Dbp) and the muscle-specific transcript, Myf6. Additional genes, Ucp3, Nrip1, and Vegfa, demonstrated P values approaching significance. These findings demonstrate circadian regulation of muscle function and imply that human management regimes may strengthen, or unmask, equine circadian behavioral outputs. As exercise synchronizes circadian rhythms, our findings provide a basis for future work determining peak times for training and competing horses, to reduce injury and to achieve optimal performance. PMID:20847133

  2. Synthesis of a Biologically Active Oxazol-5-(4H)-One via an Erlenmeyer-Plo¨chl Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Catarina A. B.; Martinho, Jose´ M. G.; Afonso, Carlos A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of (Z)-4-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-2- phenyloxazol-5(4"H")-one, which is a potent immunomodulator and tyrosinase inhibitor, is described as an experiment for an upper-division undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. This compound is produced via an Erlenmeyer-Plo¨chl reaction in the absence of any additional solvents…

  3. Critical tests of anthelmintic activity of a paste formulation of thiabendazole in horses.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1976-06-01

    Critical tests of the activity on large strongyles, ascarids, mature pinworms, and bots were carried out in 11 horses intraorally treated with a paste formulation of thiabendazole. The dose level of 44 mg/kg was administered to 3 horses, and the dose level of 88 mg/kg to 8 horses. Removals of Strongylus vulgaris and mature Oxyuris equi were 100% at the 2 dose levels, and efficacy against Strongylus edentatus varied from 95 to 99% and 89 to 100% for the 44- and the 88-mg/kg dose levels, respectively. Strongylus equinus was completely removed from the 1 infected horse treated at the dose level of 88 mg/kg. Activity of the smaller dose against Parascaris equorum was 46%, and that of the larger dose varied from 32 to 100%. The drug was inactive on Gasterophilus intestinalis and Gasterophilus nasalis. PMID:937790

  4. Synthesis and characterization of biologically active recombinant elk and horse FSH.

    PubMed

    Fachal, María Victoria; Furlan, Mike; Clark, Rena; Card, Claire E; Chedrese, P Jorge

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this investigation was to clone and express the elk and horse common alpha-subunit and FSH beta-subunit cDNAs, and to produce recombinant FSH from both species in vitro. The RNAs extracted from elk and horse pituitary glands were reverse-transcribed and amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The cDNAs corresponding to both subunits of elk and horse were cloned into the expression vector pBudCE4.1 and transfected into CRL-9096 cells. Expression of both genes was determined in the transfected cells by Northern and Western blot analysis. Recombinant elk and horse FSH secreted in culture media were characterized by an in vitro bioassay and RIA. When the recombinant products were assessed as activity over mass of FSH measured by RIA, the horse product was 5.6 times more potent than the elk product. The recombinant products injected to immature female Wistar rats stimulated ovarian growth. The results suggest that the products obtained correspond to recombinant versions of the native elk and horse FSH. The availability of these recombinant products may aid in the development of more predictable and efficient techniques of ovarian stimulation in cervids, equids, and other species as well. PMID:19500922

  5. Electrically active defects in n-type 4H-silicon carbide grown in a vertical hot-wall reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Storasta, L.; Bergman, J. P.; Son, N. T.; Janzén, E.

    2003-04-01

    We have studied intrinsic and impurity related defects in silicon carbide (SiC) epilayers grown with fast epitaxy using chemical vapor deposition in a vertical hot-wall reactor. Using capacitance transient techniques, we have detected low concentrations of electron traps (denoted as Z1/2, EH6/7 and titanium) and hole traps (denoted as HS1 and shallow boron) in the n-type 4H-SiC epilayers. The concentration of intrinsic defects (Z1/2, EH6/7, and HS1 centers) increases with increasing growth temperature. The incorporation of shallow boron (B) decreases at higher growth temperatures, whereas the titanium (Ti) concentration is not sensitive to the growth temperature. The concentration of shallow B and Ti increases with increasing C/Si ratio. The concentration of the EH6/7 and the HS1 centers however, decreases with increasing C/Si ratio. We have also tested graphite susceptors with TaC or SiC coating and observed that the purity of the susceptor material plays a critical role in reducing the background impurity incorporation. The correlation with the carrier lifetime of these epilayers indicates that the EH6/7 and the Z1/2 centers may be the lifetime limiting defects in the investigated epilayers.

  6. Structural simplification of bioactive natural products with multicomponent synthesis. 4. 4H-Pyrano-[2,3-b]naphthoquinones with anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Magedov, Igor V.; Kireev, Artem S.; Jenkins, Aaron R.; Evdokimov, Nikolai M.; Lima, Dustin T.; Tongwa, Paul; Altig, Jeff; Steelant, Wim F. A.; Van slambrouck, Severine; Antipin, Mikhail Yu.; Kornienko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    4H-Pyrano-[2,3-b]naphthoquinone is a structural motif commonly found in natural products manifesting anticancer activities. As part of a program aimed at structural simplification of bioactive natural products utilizing multicomponent synthetic processes, we developed a compound library based on this heterocyclic scaffold. We found that several library members displayed low micromolar antiproliferative activity and induced apoptosis in human cancer cells. Selected compounds showed promising activity against cancer cell lines resistant to proapoptotic stimuli, demonstrating their potential in treating cancers with dismal prognoses. PMID:22819765

  7. Chronic active interstitial pancreatitis as a cause of transverse colonic obstruction and colic in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Lohmann, Katharina L.; Allen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    A mature Quarter horse was euthanized following colic of 3 days duration. Postmortem, the large intestine, except the descending colon, was diffusely distended and associated with adhesion of the transverse colon to the pancreas, which had changes consistent with chronic active interstitial pancreatitis. Other lesions included hepatic fibrosis, erosive gastritis, and bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia. PMID:26538675

  8. Synthesis and Anticonvulsant Activity of N-(Substituted)-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2-dihydroquinazoline-3(4H)-carboxamides.

    PubMed

    Deepakumari, Hemavathi N; Jayanna, Bidarur K; Prashanth, Maralekere K; Revanasiddappa, Hosakere D; Veeresh, Bantal

    2016-07-01

    A series of new N-(substituted)-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2-dihydroquinazoline-3(4H)-carboxamides were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited potent anticonvulsant activities in the maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) test. The most promising compound 4c showed significant anticonvulsant activity with a protective index value of 3.58. The compounds 4a-c were also found to have encouraging anticonvulsant activity in the MES and PTZ screen when compared with the standard drugs, valproate and methaqualone. The same compounds were found to exhibit advanced anticonvulsant activity as well as lower neurotoxicity than the reference drugs. PMID:27231098

  9. Synthesis and Anticonvulsant Activity Evaluation of 3-alkoxy-4-(4-(hexyloxy/heptyloxy)phenyl)-4H-1,2,4 -triazole

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ying-Quan; Sun, Chun-Ling; Liu, Da-Chuan; Wang, Shi-Ben; Quan, Zhe-San

    2015-01-01

    A series of 3-alkoxy-4-(4-(hexyloxy/heptyloxy) phenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole was synthesized. The anticonvulsant effect and neurotoxicity of the compounds were calculated with maximal electroshock (MES) test and rotarod tests with intraperitoneally injected mice. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 3-heptyloxy-4-(4-(hexyloxy) phenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole (5f) was the most active one and also had the lowest toxicity. In the anti-MES potency test, it showed median effective dose (ED50) of 37.3 mg/Kg, median toxicity dose (TD50) of 422.5 mg/Kg, and the protective index (PI) of 11.3 which is much greater than the reference drug carbamazepine with PI value of 6.4. As well as demonstrating the anti-MES efficacy of compound 5f, its potency against seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole, 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and bicuculline were also established, with the results suggesting that GABA-mediated mechanisms might be involved in its anticonvulsant activity, such as enhancing of GABAergic neurotransmission or activity, activate GAD or inhibit GABA-T, and GABAA-mediated mechanisms. PMID:25561914

  10. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. PMID:23664016

  11. Synthesis and antidepressant activities of 4-(substituted-phenyl)tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-ones and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Jian; Wang, Shi-Ben; Quan, Zhe-Shan

    2015-11-01

    A series of novel 4-(substituted-phenyl) tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-ones (6a-x) and their derivatives with tetrazole and other heterocyclic substituents (7-14) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for antidepressant activities in mice. Pharmacological tests showed that three compounds (6l, 6u, and 6v) at a dose of 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the immobility time in the forced swimming test. The most active compound was 4-(p-tolyl)tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-one (6v), which decreased the immobility time by 82.69 % at 50 mg/kg. Moreover, 6v did not affect spontaneous activity in the open-field test, and this effect was comparable to the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine. Noradrenaline (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the brains of mice in the test sample groups significantly increased at a dose of 50 mg/kg compared with that in the control group. The monoamine oxidase (MAO) level of all test groups was reduced, but this result was not significantly different between the groups. Therefore, we can infer that their underlying mechanisms may involve the regulation of brain monoamine neurotransmitter homeostasis, based on the detected content of NE, 5-HT, and MAO in mouse brain tissue. PMID:26251313

  12. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 3-(Substituted)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one.

    PubMed

    Appani, Ramgopal; Bhukya, Baburao; Gangarapu, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-(substituted)-2-(substituted quinazolinylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized by the reaction of 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazoline-4(3H)-ones with 2-phenyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one. The starting materials 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized from various primary amines by a multistep synthesis. All the title compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity using ciprofloxacin as reference standard. Compounds 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9a) and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9h) emerged as the most active compounds of the series. These compounds have shown most potent antibacterial activity against the tested organisms of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis having zone of inhibition values of 1.1 cm and 1.4 cm for compound 9a 1.2 cm and 1.0 cm for compound 9h, respectively. PMID:27190676

  13. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 3-(Substituted)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Appani, Ramgopal; Bhukya, Baburao; Gangarapu, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-(substituted)-2-(substituted quinazolinylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized by the reaction of 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazoline-4(3H)-ones with 2-phenyl-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one. The starting materials 3-(substituted)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones were synthesized from various primary amines by a multistep synthesis. All the title compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity using ciprofloxacin as reference standard. Compounds 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9a) and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-oxo-2-phenylquinazolin-3(4H)-ylamino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (9h) emerged as the most active compounds of the series. These compounds have shown most potent antibacterial activity against the tested organisms of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis having zone of inhibition values of 1.1 cm and 1.4 cm for compound 9a 1.2 cm and 1.0 cm for compound 9h, respectively. PMID:27190676

  14. Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Delta (PPARδ) Gene before and after Exercise in Horse

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Shin, Sangsu; Park, Jeong-Woong; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Nam-Young; Lee, Woon-Kyu; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Song, Ki-Duk; Cho, Byung-Wook

    2015-01-01

    While athletic abilities such as speed, endurance and recovery are important in the horse, genes related to these abilities have not been extensively investigated. Here, we characterized the horse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) gene and analyzed the expression of PPARδ during exercise. PPARδ is a known regulator of β-oxidation, muscle fiber transformation, and running endurance. Through evolutionary analysis using the synonymous and non-synonymous mutation ratio, it was revealed that positive selection occurred in the horse PPARδ gene. Two important domains related to nuclear hormone receptors, C4 zinc finger and ligand binding domain, were also found to be conserved well in horse PPARδ. Horse PPARδ was expressed ubiquitously in many tissues, but the expression level was various depending on the tissues. In the skeletal muscle, PPARδ increased about 2.5 folds after 30 min of exercise. Unlike in muscle, the increase of PPARδ expression was observed at 60 min but not 30 min of exercise in leukocytes. This finding might be useful for testing the endurance of horse using blood samples. Conclusively, the horse PPARδ gene is evolutionarily conserved well and can be used as a biomarker of endurance in horse. PMID:25924962

  15. Holding on to 4-H Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Glen

    1979-01-01

    Data from a survey of 4-H Club leaders in Saskatchewan, Canada, were used to determine the effect of attendance at leadership training events on leaders' decisions to re-enroll or discontinue. It was found that involvement in 4-H activities, supported by leadership training, increased leaders' satisfaction and likelihood of re-enrolling. (MF)

  16. Horse chestnut extract induces contraction force generation in fibroblasts through activation of Rho/Rho kinase.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2006-06-01

    Contraction forces generated by non-muscle cells such as fibroblasts play important roles in determining cell morphology, vasoconstriction, and/or wound healing. However, few factors that induce cell contraction forces are known, such as lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin. Our study analyzed various plant extracts for ingredients that induce generation of cell contraction forces in fibroblasts populating collagen gels. We found that an extract of Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is able to induce such contraction forces in fibroblasts. The involvement of actin polymerization and stress fiber formation in the force generation was suggested by inhibition of this effect by cytochalasin D and by Rhodamine phalloidin. Rho kinase inhibitors (Y27632 and HA1077) and a Rho inhibitor (exoenzyme C3) significantly inhibited the force generation induced by the Horse chestnut extract. H7, which inhibits Rho kinase as well as other protein kinases, also significantly inhibited induction of force generation. However, inhibitors of other protein kinases such as myosin light chain kinase (ML-9), protein kinase C (Calphostin), protein kinase A (KT5720), and tyrosine kinase (Genistein, Herbimycin A) had no effect on force generation induced by Horse chestnut extract. These results suggest that the Horse chestnut extract induces generation of contraction forces in fibroblasts through stress fiber formation followed by activation of Rho protein and Rho kinase but not myosin light chain kinase or other protein kinases. PMID:16754996

  17. Characterization and Conductivity Behavior of Magnetic Activated Carbon (MAC) from FeCl2.4H2O-Containing Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aripin, Department Of Physics, Faculty Of Mathematics; Natural Science, Haluoleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu Kendari 93232 Indonesia

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbons (AC) and magnetic-containing activated carbons (MAC) have been synthesized using coconut shells as carbon sources and FeCl2.4H2O as magnetic precursor. The samples were characterized by nitrogen sorption, XRD, and FTIR. The BET surface area and total pore volume of MAC increase as the temperature increased. AC has XRD peaks, which evidences an amorphous carbon framework and MAC shows that this material consists of an organized carbon with the nanocrystalline magnetite embedded in its structure. The FTIR spectrum of MAC shows that carboxyl groups decreased as the temperature increased. Absorption bands of MAC shows the stretching and torsional vibration modes of the magnetite Fe-O bond in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. The electrical conductivity studies showed that conductivity of MAC is more than the AC due to structural properties of carbons exists on a framework containing metal structures.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of 4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole, pyrazole and benzylidene derivatives of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Pramod K; Sahu, Praveen K; Gupta, S K; Thavaselvam, D; Agarwal, D D

    2012-08-01

    A novel, one-pot, simple, efficient procedure for 4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole (4a-h), pyrazole (6a-d) and benzylidene (7a-d) derivatives of curcumin under solvent and solvent free conditions in microwave with good yield is have been synthesized. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Providencia rettgeri and antifungal activity against fungi viz Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus flavus. Detailed mechanistic study shows reaction proceeds through Knoevenagel type intermediate 3a which has been suggested as key intermediate for reaction (Fig. 3). PMID:22683240

  19. Using relational developmental systems theory to link program goals, activities, and outcomes: the sample case of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Richard M; Wang, Jun; Chase, Paul A; Gutierrez, Akira S; Harris, Elise M; Rubin, Rachel O; Yalin, Ceren

    2014-12-01

    In contemporary developmental science, relational development systems models have been used to frame the positive youth development (PYD) perspective, which posits that youth will thrive when there is alignment between their strengths and ecological resources in their context. Evidence from the 4-H Study of PYD indicates that out-of-school-time youth development programs are key ecological resources enhancing youth thriving. This chapter discusses the particular facets of youth development programs (the "Big Three"-positive and sustained adult-youth relationships, skill-building activities, and youth leadership opportunities) involved in promoting youth thriving. The importance of using theory to design and implement programs is also discussed, and challenges of reaching the diversity of American youth with effective programs are noted. PMID:25537347

  20. Effects of caffeine on locomotor activity of horses: determination of the no-effect threshold.

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Neto, A; Zamur, G; Carregaro, A B; Mataqueiro, M I; Salvadori, M C; Azevedo, C P; Harkins, J D; Tobin, T

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine is the legal stimulant consumed most extensively by the human world population and may be found eventually in the urine and/or blood of race horses. The fact that caffeine is in foods led us to determine the highest no-effect dose (HNED) of caffeine on the spontaneous locomotor activity of horses and then to quantify this substance in urine until it disappeared. We built two behavioural stalls equipped with juxtaposed photoelectric sensors that emit infrared beams that divide the stall into nine sectors in a 'tic-tac-toe' fashion. Each time a beam was interrupted by a leg of the horse, a pulse was generated; the pulses were counted at 5-min intervals and stored by a microcomputer. Environmental effects were minimized by installing exhaust fans producing white noise that obscured outside sounds. One-way observation windows prevented the animals from seeing outside. The sensors were turned on 45 min before drug administration (saline control or caffeine). The animals were observed for up to 8 h after i.v. administration of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 or 5.0 mg caffeine kg(-1). The HNED of caffeine for stimulation of the spontaneous locomotor activity of horses was 2.0 mg kg(-1). The quantification of caffeine in urine and plasma samples was done by gradient HPLC with UV detection. The no-effect threshold should not be greater than 2.0 microg caffeine ml(-1) plasma or 5.0 microg caffeine ml(-1) urine. PMID:11404835

  1. Identification of key residues that confer Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS activity at horse TLR4/MD-2.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Katherine L; Gangloff, Monique; Walsh, Catherine M; Spring, David R; Gay, Nicholas J; Bryant, Clare E

    2014-01-01

    The molecular determinants underpinning how hexaacylated lipid A and tetraacylated precursor lipid IVa activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are well understood, but how activation is induced by other lipid A species is less clear. Species specificity studies have clarified how TLR4/MD-2 recognises different lipid A structures, for example tetraacylated lipid IVa requires direct electrostatic interactions for agonism. In this study, we examine how pentaacylated lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RSLPS) antagonises human TLR4/MD-2 and activates the horse receptor complex using a computational approach and cross-species mutagenesis. At a functional level, we show that RSLPS is a partial agonist at horse TLR4/MD-2 with greater efficacy than lipid IVa. These data suggest the importance of the additional acyl chain in RSLPS signalling. Based on docking analysis, we propose a model for positioning of the RSLPS lipid A moiety (RSLA) within the MD-2 cavity at the TLR4 dimer interface, which allows activity at the horse receptor complex. As for lipid IVa, RSLPS agonism requires species-specific contacts with MD-2 and TLR4, but the R2 chain of RSLA protrudes from the MD-2 pocket to contact the TLR4 dimer in the vicinity of proline 442. Our model explains why RSLPS is only partially dependent on horse TLR4 residue R385, unlike lipid IVa. Mutagenesis of proline 442 into a serine residue, as found in human TLR4, uncovers the importance of this site in RSLPS signalling; horse TLR4 R385G/P442S double mutation completely abolishes RSLPS activity without its counterpart, human TLR4 G384R/S441P, being able to restore it. Our data highlight the importance of subtle changes in ligand positioning, and suggest that TLR4 and MD-2 residues that may not participate directly in ligand binding can determine the signalling outcome of a given ligand. This indicates a cooperative binding mechanism within the receptor complex, which is becoming increasingly important in TLR

  2. Identification of Key Residues That Confer Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS Activity at Horse TLR4/MD-2

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Catherine M.; Spring, David R.; Gay, Nicholas J.; Bryant, Clare E.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular determinants underpinning how hexaacylated lipid A and tetraacylated precursor lipid IVa activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are well understood, but how activation is induced by other lipid A species is less clear. Species specificity studies have clarified how TLR4/MD-2 recognises different lipid A structures, for example tetraacylated lipid IVa requires direct electrostatic interactions for agonism. In this study, we examine how pentaacylated lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RSLPS) antagonises human TLR4/MD-2 and activates the horse receptor complex using a computational approach and cross-species mutagenesis. At a functional level, we show that RSLPS is a partial agonist at horse TLR4/MD-2 with greater efficacy than lipid IVa. These data suggest the importance of the additional acyl chain in RSLPS signalling. Based on docking analysis, we propose a model for positioning of the RSLPS lipid A moiety (RSLA) within the MD-2 cavity at the TLR4 dimer interface, which allows activity at the horse receptor complex. As for lipid IVa, RSLPS agonism requires species-specific contacts with MD-2 and TLR4, but the R2 chain of RSLA protrudes from the MD-2 pocket to contact the TLR4 dimer in the vicinity of proline 442. Our model explains why RSLPS is only partially dependent on horse TLR4 residue R385, unlike lipid IVa. Mutagenesis of proline 442 into a serine residue, as found in human TLR4, uncovers the importance of this site in RSLPS signalling; horse TLR4 R385G/P442S double mutation completely abolishes RSLPS activity without its counterpart, human TLR4 G384R/S441P, being able to restore it. Our data highlight the importance of subtle changes in ligand positioning, and suggest that TLR4 and MD-2 residues that may not participate directly in ligand binding can determine the signalling outcome of a given ligand. This indicates a cooperative binding mechanism within the receptor complex, which is becoming increasingly important in TLR

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of The Homocyclotrimer Of 4-Oxo-4h-Thieno[3,4-C]Chromene-3-Diazonium Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Sopbue Fondjo, Emmanuel; Sorel, Djeukoua Dimo Kamal; Jean-de-Dieu, Tamokou; Joseph, Tsemeugne; Sylvian, Kouamo; Doriane, Ngouanet; Rodolphe, Chouna Jean; Pepin, Nkeng-Efouet-Alango; Jules-Roger, Kuiate; Arnaud, Ngongang Ndjintchui; Lucas, Sondengam Beibam

    2016-01-01

    The in situ formed 4-oxo-4H-thieno[3,4-c]chromene-3-diazonium sulfate (5) in the coupling reactions involving the parent 2-aminothiophene (4) and various phenolic and arylamines’ couplers, readily undergoes homocyclotrimerization at low temperature to afford in fairly good yield the first ever reported eighteen member ring heteroaromatic holigomer 6. Compound 6 was fully characterized by its elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HRMS spectral data. The HMBC and HSQC techniques were used to ascertain the structural assignments. A comparative study on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of compounds 3, 4 and 6 was carried out to assess the SAR due to the transformations (from 3 to 6 via 4) on the tested compounds. It was found that compounds 6 and 4 were respectively the most active compounds against bacteria (MIC = 32-64 μg/ml) and yeasts (MIC = 16–64 μg/ml). Compound 6 also showed high radical-scavenging activities and ferric reducing power when compared with vitamin C and BHT used as reference antioxidants. PMID:27583034

  4. High-efficiency impurity activation by precise control of cooling rate during atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet annealing of 4H-SiC wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Keisuke; Hanafusa, Hiroaki; Ashihara, Ryuhei; Hayashi, Shohei; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated high-temperature and rapid annealing of a silicon carbide (SiC) wafer by atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet (TPJ) irradiation for impurity activation. To reduce the temperature gradient in the SiC wafer, a DC current preheating system and the lateral back-and-forth motion of the wafer were introduced. A maximum surface temperature of 1835 °C within 2.4 s without sample breakage was achieved, and aluminum (Al), phosphorus (P), and arsenic (As) activations in SiC were demonstrated. We have investigated precise control of heating rate (Rh) and cooling rate (Rc) during rapid annealing of P+-implanted 4H-SiC and its impact on impurity activation. No dependence of resistivity on Rh was observed, while increasing Rc significantly decreased resistivity. A minimum resistivity of 0.0025 Ω·cm and a maximum carrier concentration of 2.9 × 1020 cm-3 were obtained at Rc = 568 °C/s.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of The Homocyclotrimer Of 4-Oxo-4h-Thieno[3,4-C]Chromene-3-Diazonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Sopbue Fondjo, Emmanuel; Sorel, Djeukoua Dimo Kamal; Jean-de-Dieu, Tamokou; Joseph, Tsemeugne; Sylvian, Kouamo; Doriane, Ngouanet; Rodolphe, Chouna Jean; Pepin, Nkeng-Efouet-Alango; Jules-Roger, Kuiate; Arnaud, Ngongang Ndjintchui; Lucas, Sondengam Beibam

    2016-01-01

    The in situ formed 4-oxo-4H-thieno[3,4-c]chromene-3-diazonium sulfate (5) in the coupling reactions involving the parent 2-aminothiophene (4) and various phenolic and arylamines' couplers, readily undergoes homocyclotrimerization at low temperature to afford in fairly good yield the first ever reported eighteen member ring heteroaromatic holigomer 6. Compound 6 was fully characterized by its elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and HRMS spectral data. The HMBC and HSQC techniques were used to ascertain the structural assignments. A comparative study on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of compounds 3, 4 and 6 was carried out to assess the SAR due to the transformations (from 3 to 6 via 4) on the tested compounds. It was found that compounds 6 and 4 were respectively the most active compounds against bacteria (MIC = 32-64 μg/ml) and yeasts (MIC = 16-64 μg/ml). Compound 6 also showed high radical-scavenging activities and ferric reducing power when compared with vitamin C and BHT used as reference antioxidants. PMID:27583034

  6. A series of pyrido[2,3-b]pyrazin-3(4H)-one derivatives as aldose reductase inhibitors with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhongfei; Hao, Xin; Ma, Bing; Zhu, Changjin

    2016-10-01

    A series of pyrido[2,3-b]pyrazin-3(4H)-one based derivatives were designed as inhibitors of aldose reductase (ALR2), the enzyme which plays a key role in the development of diabetes complications as well as in the oxidative stress processes associated with diabetes and other pathologies. Most of the derivatives, having a substituted C2 aromatic group and a N4 acetic acid group on the core structure, were found to be potent and selective aldose reductase inhibitors with submicromolar IC50 values, and 9c was the most active with IC50 value 0.009 μM. Particularly, a number of the designed compounds bearing phenolic hydroxyl substituted C2-styryl side chain showed excellent not only in ALR2 inhibition but also in antioxidant, and among these 11i was proved to be the top one with an antioxidant ability even comparable to that of the well-known antioxidant Trolox. Structure-activity relationship and molecular docking studies highlighted the importance of phenolic hydroxyl substituents and vinyl spacer in C2 side chain of the scaffold for the construction of efficient and multifunctional ALR2 inhibitors. PMID:27267001

  7. Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richley, James C.; Fox, Oliver J. L.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Mankelevich, Yuri A.

    2011-03-01

    A comprehensive study of microwave (MW) activated CH4/H2/Ar plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition is reported, focusing particularly on the effects of gross variations in the H2/Ar ratio in the input gas mixture (from H2/Ar mole fraction ratios of > 10:1, through to ˜1:99). Absolute column densities of C2(a) and CH(X) radicals and of H(n = 2) atoms have been determined by cavity ringdown spectroscopy, as functions of height (z) above a substrate and of process conditions (CH4, H2, and Ar input mole fractions, total pressure, p, and input microwave power, P). Optical emission spectroscopy has also been used to explore the relative densities of electronically excited H atoms, and CH, C2, and C3 radicals, as functions of these same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by extensive 2D (r, z) modeling of the plasma chemistry, which provides a quantitative rationale for all of the experimental observations. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar (at constant p and P) leads to an expanded plasma volume. Under H2-rich conditions, > 90% of the input MW power is absorbed through rovibrational excitation of H2. Reducing the H2 content (as in an Ar-rich plasma) leads to a reduction in the absorbed power density; the plasma necessarily expands in order to accommodate a given input power. The average power density in an Ar-rich plasma is much lower than that in an H2-rich plasma operating at the same p and P. Progressive replacement of H2 by Ar is shown also to result in an increased electron temperature, an increased [H]/[H2] number density ratio, but little change in the maximum gas temperature in the plasma core (which is consistently ˜3000 K). Given the increased [H]/[H2] ratio, the fast H-shifting (CyHx + H ↔ CyHx-1 + H2; y = 1-3) reactions ensure that the core of Ar-rich plasma contains much higher relative abundances of "product" species like C atoms, and C2, and C3 radicals. The effects of Ar dilution on the absorbed power

  8. Combined experimental and modeling studies of microwave activated CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasmas for microcrystalline, nanocrystalline, and ultrananocrystalline diamond deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Richley, James C.; Fox, Oliver J. L.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Mankelevich, Yuri A.

    2011-03-15

    A comprehensive study of microwave (MW) activated CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition is reported, focusing particularly on the effects of gross variations in the H{sub 2}/Ar ratio in the input gas mixture (from H{sub 2}/Ar mole fraction ratios of > 10:1, through to {approx}1:99). Absolute column densities of C{sub 2}(a) and CH(X) radicals and of H(n = 2) atoms have been determined by cavity ringdown spectroscopy, as functions of height (z) above a substrate and of process conditions (CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, and Ar input mole fractions, total pressure, p, and input microwave power, P). Optical emission spectroscopy has also been used to explore the relative densities of electronically excited H atoms, and CH, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3} radicals, as functions of these same process conditions. These experimental data are complemented by extensive 2D (r, z) modeling of the plasma chemistry, which provides a quantitative rationale for all of the experimental observations. Progressive replacement of H{sub 2} by Ar (at constant p and P) leads to an expanded plasma volume. Under H{sub 2}-rich conditions, > 90% of the input MW power is absorbed through rovibrational excitation of H{sub 2}. Reducing the H{sub 2} content (as in an Ar-rich plasma) leads to a reduction in the absorbed power density; the plasma necessarily expands in order to accommodate a given input power. The average power density in an Ar-rich plasma is much lower than that in an H{sub 2}-rich plasma operating at the same p and P. Progressive replacement of H{sub 2} by Ar is shown also to result in an increased electron temperature, an increased [H]/[H{sub 2}] number density ratio, but little change in the maximum gas temperature in the plasma core (which is consistently {approx}3000 K). Given the increased [H]/[H{sub 2}] ratio, the fast H-shifting (C{sub y}H{sub x} + H {r_reversible} C{sub y}H{sub x-1} + H{sub 2}; y = 1-3) reactions ensure that the core of Ar-rich plasma

  9. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    This report is meant to highlight the activities of the 2003 field season, as well as to provide a general overview of the data collected. More in-depth data analysis will be conducted following the conclusion of each I phase of the research project, and in many cases will not be possible until several seasons of data are collected.

  10. Preparation of NiO nanoparticles from Ni(OH)2·NiCO3·4H2O precursor by mechanical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadisoltansaraei, Kolsoom; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-07-01

    A mechanical activation process was introduced as a facile method for producing nickel oxide nanopowders. The precursor compound Ni(OH)2·NiCO3·4H2O was synthesized by chemical precipitation. The precursor was milled with NaCl diluent. A high-energy ball milling process led to decomposition of the precursor and subsequent dispersal in NaCl media. Nickel oxide nanocrystalline powders were produced by subsequent heat treatment and water washing. Milling rotation speed, milling time, ball-to-powder ratio (BPR), and nickel chloride-to-precursor ratio were introduced as influential parameters on the wavelength of maximum absorption ( λ max). The effects of these parameters were investigated by the Taguchi method. The optimum conditions for this study were a milling rotation speed of 150 r/min, a milling time of 20 h, a BPR of 15/1, and a NaCl-to-powder weight ratio (NPR) of 6/1. In these conditions, λ max was predicted to be 292 nm. The structural properties of the samples were determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectrometry.

  11. Synthesis, experimental, theoretical characterization and biological activities of 4-ethyl-5-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-1,2,4-triazole-3(4H)-thione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koparir, Metin; Orek, Cahit; Koparir, Pelin; Sarac, Kamiran

    2013-03-01

    This work presents the characterization of 4-ethyl-5-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2H-1,2,4-triazole-3(4H)-thione (III) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values of III in the ground state have been calculated using the density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The calculated results show that the optimized geometry can well reproduce the crystal structure, and the theoretical vibrational frequencies and chemical shift values show good agreement with experimental values. To determine conformational flexibility, the molecular energy profile of the title compound was obtained by DFT calculations with respect to the selected torsion angle, which was varied from -180° to +180° in steps of 10°. The energetic behavior of III in solvent media was examined using the B3LYP method with the 6-31G(d) basis set by applying the Onsager and the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The predicted nonlinear optical properties of III are greater than ones of urea. In addition, DFT calculations of molecular electrostatic potentials and frontier molecular orbitals of III were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The title compound was screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of multi-active site grafting starch copolymer initiated by KMnO4 and HIO4/H2SO4 systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiaoxia; Wang, Yanqing; Fan, Ya; Liu, Xiwen; Ren, Shenyong; Wen, Yuanzhen; Shen, Baojian

    2015-03-01

    A novel initiator system containing KMO4, HIO4, and H2SO4 for synthesizing grafting starch copolymers is reported. In this system, KMnO4 was used to oxidize the primary hydroxyl group to aldehyde group of glucose in the starch, and the formed aldehyde group reacted with Mn(4+), Mn(3+) to afford starch free radical. At the same time HIO4 perform as the oxidant to open the C2C3 bond of glucose ring in starch to form two more aldehyde groups, and then two more free radicals are generated. As a result one glucose unit could provide ultimately three active sites for starch grafting reaction. Graft copolymers with a higher grafting ratio and grafting efficiency could be obtained by using the composite initiation system than the KMnO4/H2SO4 initiation system. The grafting of polyacrylamide onto the corn starch backbone was confirmed by viscometry, elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. PMID:25498632

  13. Localised mitogenic activity in horses following infection with Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    McLean, R; Rash, N L; Robinson, C; Waller, A S; Paillot, R

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, a highly contagious upper respiratory disease of equids. Streptococcus equi produces superantigens (sAgs), which are thought to contribute to strangles pathogenicity through non-specific T-cell activation and pro-inflammatory response. Streptococcus equi infection induces abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck. In some individuals, some abscess material remains into the guttural pouch and inspissates over time to form chondroids which can harbour live S. equi. The aim of this study was to determine the sites of sAg production during infection and therefore improve our understanding of their role. Abscess material, chondroids and serum collected from Equidae with signs of strangles were tested in mitogenic assays. Mitogenic sAg activity was only detected in abscess material and chondroids. Our data support the localised in vivo activity of sAg during both acute and carrier phases of S. equi infection. PMID:25841794

  14. Negative bias-and-temperature stress-assisted activation of oxygen-vacancy hole traps in 4H-silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettisserry, D. P.; Goldsman, N.; Akturk, A.; Lelis, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    We use hybrid-functional density functional theory-based Charge Transition Levels (CTLs) to study the electrical activity of near-interfacial oxygen vacancies located in the oxide side of 4H-Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). Based on the "amorphousness" of their local atomic environment, oxygen vacancies are shown to introduce their CTLs either within (permanently electrically active) or outside of (electrically inactive) the 4H-SiC bandgap. The "permanently electrically active" centers are likely to cause threshold voltage (Vth) instability at room temperature. On the other hand, we show that the "electrically inactive" defects could be transformed into various "electrically active" configurations under simultaneous application of negative bias and high temperature stresses. Based on this observation, we present a model for plausible oxygen vacancy defects that could be responsible for the recently observed excessive worsening of Vth instability in 4H-SiC power MOSFETs under high temperature-and-gate bias stress. This model could also explain the recent electrically detected magnetic resonance observations in 4H-SiC MOSFETs.

  15. An allolactose trapped at the lacZ β-galactosidase active site with its galactosyl moiety in a (4)H3 conformation provides insights into the formation, conformation, and stabilization of the transition state.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Robert W; Huber, Reuben E

    2015-12-01

    When lactose was incubated with G794A-β-galactosidase (a variant with a "closed" active site loop that binds transition state analogs well) an allolactose was trapped with its Gal moiety in a (4)H3 conformation, similar to the oxocarbenium ion-like conformation expected of the transition state. The numerous interactions formed between the (4)H3 structure and β-galactosidase indicate that this structure is representative of the transition state. This conformation is also very similar to that of d-galactono-1,5-lactone, a good transition state analog. Evidence indicates that substrates take up the (4)H3 conformation during migration from the shallow to the deep mode. Steric forces utilizing His418 and other residues are important for positioning the O1 leaving group into a quasi-axial position. An electrostatic interaction between the O5 of the distorted Gal and Tyr503 as well as C-H-π bonds with Trp568 are also significant. Computational studies of the energy of sugar ring distortion show that the β-galactosidase reaction itinerary is driven by energetic considerations in utilization of a (4)H3 transition state with a novel (4)C1-(4)H3-(4)C1 conformation itinerary. To our knowledge, this is the first X-ray crystallographic structural demonstration that the transition state of a natural substrate of a glycosidase has a (4)H3 conformation. PMID:26291713

  16. Using Relational Developmental Systems Theory to Link Program Goals, Activities, and Outcomes: The Sample Case of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Wang, Jun; Chase, Paul A.; Gutierrez, Akira S.; Harris, Elise M.; Rubin, Rachel O.; Yalin, Ceren

    2014-01-01

    In contemporary developmental science, relational development systems models have been used to frame the positive youth development (PYD) perspective, which posits that youth will thrive when there is alignment between their strengths and ecological resources in their context. Evidence from the 4-H Study of PYD indicates that out-of-school-time…

  17. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  18. Effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Nam; Lee, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living (ADLs) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Among 20 participants with stroke, 10 were randomly assigned to the experimental group, and 10 were randomly assigned to the control group. The experimental group participated in horse-riding exercise for 30 minutes per day, 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Balance was tested with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Gait was measured using the 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT). ADLs were tested with the Modified Barthel Index (MBI). Differences between pre- and post-experiment values within the two groups were compared using paired t-tests. Between-group differences were compared using independent t-tests. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvements in balance, gait, and ADLs following horse-riding exercise. Additionally, the experimental group showed significant differences in balance, gait, and ADLs compared with in the control group. [Conclusion] These results support that horse-riding exercise enhances balance, gait, and ADLs in stroke patients. This study supports the need for further research on horse-riding exercise programs. PMID:25931690

  19. Negative bias-and-temperature stress-assisted activation of oxygen-vacancy hole traps in 4H-silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ettisserry, D. P. E-mail: neil@umd.edu; Goldsman, N. E-mail: neil@umd.edu; Akturk, A.; Lelis, A. J.

    2015-07-28

    We use hybrid-functional density functional theory-based Charge Transition Levels (CTLs) to study the electrical activity of near-interfacial oxygen vacancies located in the oxide side of 4H-Silicon Carbide (4H-SiC) power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). Based on the “amorphousness” of their local atomic environment, oxygen vacancies are shown to introduce their CTLs either within (permanently electrically active) or outside of (electrically inactive) the 4H-SiC bandgap. The “permanently electrically active” centers are likely to cause threshold voltage (V{sub th}) instability at room temperature. On the other hand, we show that the “electrically inactive” defects could be transformed into various “electrically active” configurations under simultaneous application of negative bias and high temperature stresses. Based on this observation, we present a model for plausible oxygen vacancy defects that could be responsible for the recently observed excessive worsening of V{sub th} instability in 4H-SiC power MOSFETs under high temperature-and-gate bias stress. This model could also explain the recent electrically detected magnetic resonance observations in 4H-SiC MOSFETs.

  20. The Preschooler: 4-H Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Connie M.

    Intended for 4-H participants who plan and implement activities in the area of child development, this booklet provides a study guide to help young learners: (1) gain understanding of a preschool child's physical, mental, social, and emotional growth; (2) learn to care for a preschooler and promote preschoolers' feelings of security and safety;…

  1. 4-H Club Goat Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Kipp

    This guide provides information for 4-H Club members who have decided on a club goat project. Topics include general information in the following areas: show rules; facilities and equipment (barns/sheds, fences, feeders, water containers, and equipment); selection (structural correctness, muscle, volume and capacity, style and balance, and growth…

  2. Recruiting 4-H Volunteer Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Four-H Club Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The guide is intended to assist 4-H Club extension workers in recruiting volunteer adult and youth leaders. It discusses: why volunteers serve (organizational identity, desire to serve, involvement of other family members, future opportunities and obligations, community status, self interest, and public opinion); how to recruit (person-to-person…

  3. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Horse chestnut. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on September 8, 2009. Horse chestnut. Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on September ...

  4. Lactoferrin, a glycoprotein with immunomodulatory and mast cell stabilising properties, in skin of horses suffering from Culicoides hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kolm, Gabriela; Knapp, Elzbieta; Wagner, Regina; Klein, Dieter

    2007-10-01

    Lactoferrin (LF), a glycogen of the transferrin family with anti-bacterial and immunomodulatory properties, is expressed in various secretions and tissues. Cutaneous LF serves as a mast cell stabilising compound, modulates T cell activity and is found during IgE-mediated late phase reactions at allergen challenged sites. Culicoides hypersensitivity (CHS) in horses is a common IgE-mediated allergic dermatitis, characterised by an early and late phase cutaneous reaction upon allergen challenge. The aim of the study presented here was to examine whether LF mRNA expression in skin biopsies from horses affected by CHS prior to and 4h following intradermal challenge with a commercial C. nubeculosus extract is modified in comparison to skin biopsies from non-affected horses. In order to obtain reliable data, real time PCR was performed and genes of interest were normalized using three different housekeeping genes, beta-actin, GAPDH, beta-2-microglobulin. In comparison to non-affected horses, higher variation in LF mRNA levels both prior to and post-intradermal challenge with C. nubeculosus extract was seen in horses affected by CHS. However, the statistical analysis demonstrated that LF mRNA expression was not significantly different between CHS affected and non-affected horses prior to intradermal challenge with C. nubeculosus extract. Intradermal injection of C. nubeculosus extract did not result in local upregulation of LF mRNA at 4h post-injection. LF mRNA expression was therefore not significantly different pre- or post-intradermal challenge with C. nubeculosus extract in either group. Our data indicate that clinically normal skin of horses affected by CHS is not characterized by modified maintenance levels of LF mRNA. In contrast to human skin allergen challenged sites, LF mRNA levels in horses affected by CHS are not significantly different to that of control sites at 4h post-injection of C. nubeculosus extract. PMID:17222435

  5. The Uses of 2-Ethoxy-(4H)-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one in the Synthesis of Some Quinazolinone Derivatives of Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    El-Hashash, Maher A.; Darwish, Khalid M.; Rizk, Sameh A.; El-Bassiouny, Fakhry A.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of 2-ethoxy-(4H)-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one (1) towards nitrogen nucleophiles, e.g. ethanolamine, aromatic amines (namely: p-toluidine, p-anisidine, p-hydroxyaniline, o-hydroxyaniline, o-bromoaniline, o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylenediamine, o-tolidinediamine) p-aminobenzoic acid, glucosamine hydrochloride, 2-aminonicotinic acid, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid hydrazide, n-decanoic acid hydrazide, benzoic acid hydrazide, semicarbazide, aminoacids (e.g. D,L-alanine, L-asparagine, L-arginine) and derivatives of 2-aminothiodiazole has been investigated. The behavior of the benzoxazinone towards a selected sulfur nucleophile, L-cysteine, has also been discussed. Formation of an amidine salt as a reaction intermediate has been assumed. The effect of solvent in some reactions has been elucidated. The structures of all the novel quinazoline and quinazolinone derivatives, obtained by heterocyclic ring opening and ring closure were inferred by the IR, MS as well as 1H-NMR spectral analysis. Moreover, the antimicrobial potential of some of the new synthesized derivatives has been evaluated.

  6. Isolation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of an Endophyte of Drunken Horse Grass, Achnatherum inebrians

    PubMed Central

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  7. Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.

    PubMed

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide. PMID:24784492

  8. Ceria-Vanadia/Silica-Catalyzed Cascade for C-C and C-O Bond Activation: Green One-Pot Synthesis of 2-Amino-3-cyano-4H-pyrans.

    PubMed

    Maddila, Surya Narayana; Maddila, Suresh; van Zyl, Werner E; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2016-02-01

    We designed a ceria-vanadia/silica (Ce-V/SiO2) heterogeneous catalyst and used it for the green and efficient synthesis of 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-pyran derivatives. The green reaction was a multicomponent one-pot condensation of 5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione, aromatic aldehyde, and malononitrile in an eco-compatible solvent (ethanol). The catalyst was synthesized and fully characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The reported procedure offers a number of advantages including decreased reaction times, mild conditions, high yields, operational simplicity, and environmentally benign and simple work-up procedures. Furthermore, the catalyst is economical, fully recyclable, and reusable for over five runs while preserving its high activity. The synthesized 2-amino-3-cyano-4H-pyran products can later be used for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27308209

  9. One-pot catalyst free synthesis of novel kojic acid tagged 2-aryl/alkyl substituted-4H-chromenes and evaluation of their antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities.

    PubMed

    Bingi, Chiranjeevi; Emmadi, Narender Reddy; Chennapuram, Madhu; Poornachandra, Y; Kumar, C Ganesh; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Atmakur, Krishnaiah

    2015-05-01

    A number of 3-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-yl)-4H-pyran-4-ones (3) have been synthesized in a one pot catalyst free reaction of 2-hydroxy chalcone (1) with kojic acid (2) in toluene at reflux temperature and evaluated for antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities. Compounds 3a, 3e, 3f, 3l showed potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus MLS-16 MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 and Escherichia coli MTCC 739, whereas 3b and 3k exhibited excellent activity against Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 and Escherichia coli MTCC 739, while 3g showed promising activity against Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121 and Escherichia coli MTCC 739. On the other hand, compounds 3a, 3b and 3l showed very good anti-biofilm activity and 3g showed moderate activity against Bacillus subtilis MTCC 121. Whereas, compounds 3a and 3f showed moderate activity against Escherichia coli MTCC 739, while compounds 3a, 3b, 3k and 3l displayed similar activity against Staphylococcus aureus MLS-16 MTCC 2940. PMID:25838145

  10. Kinetic model of ethopropazine interaction with horse serum butyrylcholinesterase and its docking into the active site.

    PubMed

    Golicnik, Marko; Sinko, Goran; Simeon-Rudolf, Vera; Grubic, Zoran; Stojan, Jure

    2002-02-01

    The action of a potent tricyclic cholinesterase inhibitor ethopropazine on the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine and butyrylthiocholine by purified horse serum butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) was investigated at 25 and 37 degrees C. The enzyme activities were measured on a stopped-flow apparatus and the analysis of experimental data was done by applying a six-parameter model for substrate hydrolysis. The model, which was introduced to explain the kinetics of Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase [Stojan et al. (1998) FEBS Lett. 440, 85-88], is defined with two dissociation constants and four rate constants and can describe both cooperative phenomena, apparent activation at low substrate concentrations and substrate inhibition by excess of substrate. For the analysis of the data in the presence of ethopropazine at two temperatures, we have enlarged the reaction scheme to allow primarily its competition with the substrate at the peripheral site, but the competition at the acylation site was not excluded. The proposed reaction scheme revealed, upon analysis, competitive effects of ethopropazine at both sites; at 25 degrees C, three enzyme-inhibitor dissociation constants could be evaluated; at 37 degrees C, only two constants could be evaluated. Although the model considers both cooperative phenomena, it appears that decreased enzyme sensitivity at higher temperature, predominantly for the ligands at the peripheral binding site, makes the determination of some expected enzyme substrate and/or inhibitor complexes technically impossible. The same reason might also account for one of the paradoxes in cholinesterases: activities at 25 degrees C at low substrate concentrations are higher than at 37 degrees C. Positioning of ethopropazine in the active-site gorge by molecular dynamics simulations shows that A328, W82, D70, and Y332 amino acid residues stabilize binding of the inhibitor. PMID:11811945

  11. Quality evaluation of physical properties, antinutritional factors, and antioxidant activity of bread fortified with germinated horse gram (Dolichus uniflorus) flour.

    PubMed

    Moktan, Karishma; Ojha, Pravin

    2016-09-01

    Horse gram was germinated at 90% RH at 25°C for 72 h after 24 h soaking and then grinded to pass through 150 μm mesh size screens. The germination of horse gram result in increased protein, fiber, total polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity of horse gram flour whereas fat, ash, carbohydrate, iron, calcium, tannin, phytate, and oxalate were reduced due to germination. Bread was prepared by the incorporation of (2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) germinated horse gram flour (GHF) by a straight dough method. The loaf volume and specific volume decreased with an increased use of percentage of GHF. The sensory evaluation revealed that the incorporation of GHF up to 6% was acceptable. The protein (% db), fiber (% db), ash (% db), iron (mg/100 g), calcium (mg/100 g), tannin (mg/g), phytate (mg/g), oxalate (mg/g), total polyphenol content (GAE/g), and antioxidant activity (DPPH % inhibition) was found to be 9.08 ± 0.01, 1.23 ± 0.15, 1.36 ± 0.11, 4.07 ± 0.03, 128 ± 0.26, 2.06 ± 0.15, 2.46 ± 0.15, 0.7 ± 0.1, 12.44 ± 0.40, and 31.13 ± 0.25, respectively, in 6% GHF incorporated bread. The research concludes that 6% GHF incorporation in bread enhance the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties. PMID:27625781

  12. Kinetics and mechanism studies of p-nitroaniline adsorption on activated carbon fibers prepared from cotton stalk by NH4H2PO4 activation and subsequent gasification with steam.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunquan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng

    2010-06-15

    Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were prepared for the removal of p-nitroaniline (PNA) from cotton stalk by chemical activation with NH(4)H(2)PO(4) and subsequent physical activation with steam. Surface properties of the prepared ACFs were performed using nitrogen adsorption, FTIR spectroscopy and SEM. The influence of contact time, solution temperature and surface property on PNA adsorption onto the prepared ACFs was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. The kinetic rates at different temperatures were modeled by using the Lagergren-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Morris's intraparticle diffusion and Boyd's film-diffusion models, respectively. It was found that the maximum adsorption of PNA on the ACFs was more than 510 mg/L, and over 60% adsorption occurred in first 25 min. The effect of temperature on the adsorption was related to the contacting time and the micropore structure of the adsorbents. And the increase of micropore surface area favored the adsorption process. Kinetic rates fitted the pseudo-second-order model very well. The pore diffusion played an important role in the entire adsorption period, and intraparticle diffusion was the rate-limiting step in the beginning 20 min. The Freundlich model provided a better data fitting as compared with the Langmuir model. The surface micrograph of the ACF after adsorption showed a distinct roughness with oval patterns. The results revealed that the adsorption was in part with multimolecular layers of coverage. PMID:20202747

  13. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL AND SURGICAL VASECTOMY ON TESTICULAR ACTIVITY IN FREE-ROAMING HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS).

    PubMed

    Scully, Clare M; Lee, Rebecca L; Pielstick, Leon; Medlock, Jan; Patton, Kristin M; Collins, Gail H; Kutzler, Michelle A

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming horse (Equus caballus) management is a complex issue incorporating social, economic, emotional, political, and environmental factors. Currently, few proven field techniques exist for managing free-roaming horse population growth, which can reach 20-25% annually. Although there are several strategies available for sterilizing mares when managing free-roaming horse populations, surgical vasectomy is the only method used in the field for stallions. Some managers believe that surgically vasectomizing dominant stallions would have significant effects on reducing horse populations. However, sterilizing only dominant harem stallions results in a relatively modest reduction in population growth as substantial reproduction may occur even when 100% of the dominant harem stallions are sterilized if other males perform as little as 10% of the breeding. The overall goal of the current project was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel nonsurgical method for sterilizing free-roaming horses (chemical vasectomy). In September of 2013, stallions that had been previously surgically vasectomized (SURG, n = 25), previously chemically vasectomized (CHEM, n = 16), or untreated (CONT, n = 32) were captured and surgically castrated in preparation for adoption. When comparing both sterilization methods to CONT, serum testosterone and estrone sulfate concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05), suggesting that these methods for sterilizing free-roaming stallions would not disrupt herd social hierarchy. However, similar to the CONT, all CHEM stallions had sperm present within the vas deferens seminal fluid samples. CHEM stallions had more morphologically abnormal sperm than did CONT stallions but it is not known if this affected the actual fertility. Additional research is needed using alternative sclerosing agents for chemical vasectomy in free-roaming horse populations. PMID:26667538

  14. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  15. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak…

  16. Engaging Library Partners in 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Nia Imani; Rafferty, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    When most people think about 4-H, they remember county fairs, livestock programs, and agricultural education. While these programs are still prominent, 4-H has grown in order to meet the growing demands of today's youth. The organization has expanded services and programs to serve rural, suburban, and urban youth in every state in the U.S. 4-H is…

  17. Calcium dithionate tetrahydrate, CaS2O6ṡ4H2O, a novel SRS-active crystal for octave-spanning many-phonon Stokes and anti-Stokes combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, A. A.; Haussühl, E.; Haussühl, S.; Lux, O.; Hanuza, J.; Rhee, H.; Kaltenbach, A.; Eichler, H. J.; Yoneda, H.; Shirakawa, A.; Ueda, K.

    2013-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel SRS-active crystal, hexagonal CaS2O6ṡ4H2O, which was found to be an attractive Raman gain material and a suitable subject for the study of numerous nonlinear lasing effects. Under picosecond laser pumping in the UV, visible and near-IR spectral region we observed various manifestations of Raman induced nonlinear interactions. All registered Stokes and anti-Stokes components are identified and attributed to the participating χ(3)-promoting phonon modes. In the appendix, we present new data on the SRS properties of another dithionate, Na2S2O6ṡ2H2O.

  18. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables

    PubMed Central

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary A new web tool for equine activities, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. The aim of the safety section of the web tool was to raise awareness of safety issues in daily horse stable activities. This section contains a safety checklist, stable safety map and good practices to support human health and horse welfare and to prevent injuries in horse-related activities. Reviews of the literature and statistics, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were utilized in designing the web tool. Abstract Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  19. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of DIMBOA [2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one].

    PubMed

    Gleńsk, Michał; Gajda, Beata; Franiczek, Roman; Krzyżanowska, Barbara; Biskup, Izabela; Włodarczyk, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the natural cyclic hydroxamic acid: 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA). Antioxidant activity of the isolated DIMBOA was examined using DPPH, FRAP and ABTS tests. It was found that DIMBOA exhibits a potent free-radical scavenging activity and a weaker iron (III) ions reducing activity. Antimicrobial activity against selected G(+), G(-) bacterial strains and against yeasts-like reference strains of fungi was investigated using disk-diffusion method. It has been shown that DIMBOA possess growth inhibitory properties against many strains of studied bacteria and fungi, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli as well as against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:26166773

  20. Imidazolium Sulfonates as Environmental-Friendly Catalytic Systems for the Synthesis of Biologically Active 2-Amino-4H-chromenes: Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Jacinto; Pérez-Mayoral, Elena; Calvino-Casilda, Vanesa; López-Peinado, Antonio J; Bañares, Miguel A; Soriano, Elena

    2015-09-10

    Ionic Liquids (ILs) are valuable reaction media extremely useful in industrial sustainable organic synthesis. We describe here the study on the multicomponent reaction (MCR) between salicylaldehyde (2) and ethyl cyanoacetate (3), catalyzed by imidazolium sulfonates, to form chromenes 1, a class of heterocyclic scaffolds exhibiting relevant biological activity. We have clarified the reaction mechanism by combining the experimental results with computational studies. The results reported herein suggest that both the imidazolium core and the sulfonate anions in the selected ILs are involved in the reaction course acting as hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, respectively. Contrarily to the most widely accepted mechanism through initial Knoevenagel condensation, the most favorable reaction pathway consists of an aldolic reaction between reagents followed by heterocyclization, subsequent dehydration, and, finally, the Michael addition of the second molecule of ethyl cyanoacetate (3) to yield the chromenes 1. PMID:26301460

  1. The effects of horse riding simulation exercise on muscle activation and limits of stability in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of horse riding simulation (HRS) on balance and trunk muscle activation as well as to provide evidence of the therapeutic benefits of the exercise. Thirty elderly subjects were recruited from a medical care hospital and randomly divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group performed the HRS exercise for 20 min, 5 times a week, for 8 weeks, and conventional therapy was also provided as usual. The muscle activation and limits of stability (LOS) were measured. The LOS significantly increased in the HRS group (p<0.05) but not in the control group (p>0.05). The activation of all muscles significantly increased in the HRS group. However, in the control group, the muscle activations of the lateral low-back (external oblique and quadratus lumborum) and gluteus medius (GM) significantly decreased, and there was no significant difference in other muscles. After the intervention, the LOS and all muscle activations significantly increased in the HRS group compared with the control group. The results suggest that the HRS exercise is effective for reducing the overall risk of falling in the elderly. Thus, it is believed that horse riding exercise would help to increase dynamic stability and to prevent elderly people from falling. PMID:25465508

  2. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Energy Project. 4-H Member's E-Book, Unit 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 1 (ages 9-11) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. In this project, members are required to: (1) use energy wisely by closing doors and turning off lights; (2) inspecting homes for energy use at least once; (3) judging the best use of lighting in a home; (4) sharing ideas about energy use in a…

  3. Digestive enzymes activity in subsequent generations of Cameraria ohridella larvae harvested from horse chestnut trees after treatment with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Stygar, Dominika; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Dolezych, Bogdan; Nakonieczny, Miroslaw; Migula, Pawel; Zaak, Maria; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Karcz-Socha, Iwona; Kukla, Michal; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Buldak, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effect of chloronicotinoid pesticide (imidacloprid) on the digestive enzymes activity of the Cameraria ohridella larvae after lasting 1 year sublethal exposure to imidacloprid pesticide. Caterpillars - L4 stage (fourth instar, hyperphagic tissue-feeding phase) - were collected from chemically protected white horse chestnut trees 1 year after imidacloprid treatment, and compared with caterpillars collected from non-treated trees in a previous study. Enzymes activity of α-amylase, disaccharidases, glycosidases and proteases was assayed. The presence of pesticide in ingested food changed the digestive enzymes profile of caterpillars. The analysis of correlations between different digestive enzymes showed many significant correlations (P<0.05) among glycolytic activities like β-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activities. Statistically significant correlations for proteolytic activity were found between trypsin and chymotrypsin activity and aminopeptidase activity that occurred only in the 1st generation. PCA distinguished five primary components with eigenvalues higher than 1, from which the first two explain almost 59% of analyzed results. Surprisingly, in the pesticide treated groups significantly higher activities of sucrase and lactase in relation to control were found. In general, glycosidase (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase) activities showed a similar pattern of activity in different generations. These results contrast with those obtained with control larvae, where significant differences in activities of α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase may result from the different quantity and quality food intake by subsequent generations of larvae. No inter-generation differences in total proteolytic activity were observed in treated larvae. The absolute value of total proteolytic activity was higher than that in the control group. The pesticide present in the vascular system of the horse chestnut

  4. Fossil Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFadden, Bruce J.

    1994-06-01

    The family Equidae have an extensive fossil record spanning the past 58 million years, and the evolution of the horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution. In recent years, however, there have been many important discoveries of fossil horses, and these, in conjunction with such new methods as cladistics, and techniques such as precise geochronology, have allowed us to achieve a much greater understanding of the evolution and biology of this important group. This book synthesizes the large body of data and research relevant to an understanding of fossil horses from several disciplines including biology, geology and paleontology. Using horses as the central theme, the author weaves together in the text such topics as modern geochronology, paleobiogeography, climate change, evolution and extinction, functional morphology, and population biology during the Cenozoic period. This book will be exciting reading for researchers and graduate students in vertebrate paleontology, evolution, and zoology.

  5. The nitrite reductase activity of horse heart carboxymethylated-cytochrome c is modulated by cardiolipin.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Sbardella, Diego; Sinibaldi, Federica; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Horse heart carboxymethylated cytc (CM-cytc) displays myoglobin-like properties. Here, the effect of cardiolipin (CL) liposomes on the nitrite reductase activity of ferrous CM-cytc [CM-cytc-Fe(II)], in the presence of sodium dithionite, is reported between pH 5.5 and 7.6, at 20.0 °C. Cytc-Fe(II) displays a very low value of the apparent second-order rate constant for the NO2 (-)-mediated conversion of cytc-Fe(II) to cytc-Fe(II)-NO [k on = (7.3 ± 0.7) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1); at pH 7.4], whereas the value of k on for NO2 (-) reduction by CM-cytc-Fe(II) is 1.1 ± 0.2 M(-1) s(-1) (at pH 7.4). CL facilitates the NO2 (-)-mediated nitrosylation of CM-cytc-Fe(II) in a dose-dependent manner, the value of k on for the NO2 (-)-mediated conversion of CL-CM-cytc-Fe(II) to CL-CM-cytc-Fe(II)-NO (5.6 ± 0.6 M(-1) s(-1); at pH 7.4) being slightly higher than that for the NO2 (-)-mediated conversion of CL-cytc-Fe(II) to CL-cytc-Fe(II)-NO (2.6 ± 0.3 M(-1) s(-1); at pH 7.4). The apparent affinity of CL for CM-cytc-Fe(II) is essentially pH independent, the average value of B being (1.3 ± 0.3) × 10(-6) M. In the absence and presence of CL liposomes, the nitrite reductase activity of CM-cytc-Fe(II) increases linearly on lowering pH and the values of the slope of the linear fittings of Log k on versus pH are -1.05 ± 0.07 and -1.03 ± 0.03, respectively, reflecting the involvement of one proton for the formation of the transient ferric form, NO, and OH(-). These results indicate that Met80 carboxymethylation and CL binding cooperate in the stabilization of the highly reactive heme-Fe atom of CL-CM-cytc. PMID:27010463

  6. In vitro anticancer activity of Betulinic acid and derivatives thereof on equine melanoma cell lines from grey horses and in vivo safety assessment of the compound NVX-207 in two horses.

    PubMed

    Liebscher, G; Vanchangiri, K; Mueller, Th; Feige, K; Cavalleri, J-M V; Paschke, R

    2016-02-25

    Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, and its derivatives are promising compounds for cancer treatment in humans. Melanoma is not only a problem for humans but also for grey horses as they have a high potential of developing melanoma lesions coupled to the mutation causing their phenotype. Current chemotherapeutic treatment carries the risk of adverse health effects for the horse owner or the treating veterinarian by exposure to antineoplastic compounds. Most treatments have low prospects for systemic tumor regression. Thus, a new therapy is needed. In this in vitro study, Betulinic acid and its two derivatives B10 and NVX-207, both with an improved water solubility compared to Betulinic acid, were tested on two equine melanoma cell lines (MelDuWi and MellJess/HoMelZh) and human melanoma (A375) cell line. We could demonstrate that all three compounds especially NVX-207 show high cytotoxicity on both equine melanoma cell lines. The treatment with these compounds lead to externalization of phosphatidylserines on the cell membrane (AnnexinV-staining), DNA-fragmentation (cell cycle analysis) and activation of initiator and effector caspases (Caspase assays). Our results indicate that the apoptosis is induced in the equine melanoma cells by all three compounds. Furthermore, we succeed in encapsulating the most active compound NVX-207 in 2-Hydroxyprolyl-β-cyclodextrine without a loss of its activity. This formulation can be used as a promising antitumor agent for treating grey horse melanoma. In a first tolerability evaluation in vivo the formulation was administered every one week for 19 consecutive weeks and well tolerated in two adult melanoma affected horses. PMID:26772157

  7. Plasma myeloperoxidase level and polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation in horses suffering from large intestinal obstruction requiring surgery: preliminary results.

    PubMed Central

    Grulke, S; Benbarek, H; Caudron, I; Deby-Dupont, G; Mathy-Hartert, M; Farnir, F; Deby, C; Lamy, M; Serteyn, D

    1999-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a significantly higher plasma level of MPO in horses operated for strangulation obstruction of the large intestine (n = 6) than in horses suffering from a non-strangulating displacement of the large intestine (n = 9). For the 2 groups, 3 phases were distinguished: reception (P1), intensive care (P2) and terminal phase (P3). The mean peak values of MPO for these phases were 121.6 ng/mL (P1), 168.6 ng/mL (P2), and 107.0 ng/mL (P3) for the non-strangulating group, and 242.6 ng/mL (P1); 426.0 ng/mL (P2), and 379.5 ng/mL (P3) for the strangulation group. The variations of the mean peak values of plasma MPO were significantly different between the 2 groups and between the different phases. A significant increase of the least square means of MPO was observed between P1 and P2. A significant decrease of the least square means of the number of circulating leukocytes was observed between P1 and P3. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation could play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute abdominal disease and endotoxic shock. PMID:10369573

  8. Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationship Studies of Derivatives of the Dual Aromatase–Sulfatase Inhibitor 4-{[(4-Cyanophenyl)(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)amino]methyl}phenyl sulfamate

    PubMed Central

    Woo, L W Lawrence; Wood, Paul M; Bubert, Christian; Thomas, Mark P; Purohit, Atul; Potter, Barry V L

    2013-01-01

    4-{[(4-Cyanophenyl)(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)amino]methyl}phenyl sulfamate and its ortho-halogenated (F, Cl, Br) derivatives are first-generation dual aromatase and sulfatase inhibitors (DASIs). Structure–activity relationship studies were performed on these compounds, and various modifications were made to their structures involving relocation of the halogen atom, introduction of more halogen atoms, replacement of the halogen with another group, replacement of the methylene linker with a difluoromethylene linker, replacement of the para-cyanophenyl ring with other ring structures, and replacement of the triazolyl group with an imidazolyl group. The most potent in vitro DASI discovered is an imidazole derivative with IC50 values against aromatase and steroid sulfatase in a JEG-3 cell preparation of 0.2 and 2.5 nm, respectively. The parent phenol of this compound inhibits aromatase with an IC50 value of 0.028 nm in the same assay. PMID:23495205

  9. Community Development: A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheneman, C. Stephen

    State progress reports on the 4-H/Community Development program, a 1973 nationwide Federally sponsored program facilitating youth in community decision-making processes, indicate that the program appears to be evolving into a viable and integral part of the total 4-H program. Although the report describes unique program features of various States,…

  10. Strengthening 4-H Program Communication through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robideau, Kari; Santl, Karyn

    2011-01-01

    Advances in technology are transforming how youth and parents interact with programs. The Strengthening 4-H Communication through Technology project was implemented in eight county 4-H programs in Northwest Minnesota. This article outlines the intentional process used to effectively implement technology in program planning. The project includes:…

  11. Analysis of the potential use of red horse capabilities and training activities to perform or accelerate air force environmental cleanups. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, E.A.; Carpenter, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    There are more than 4,000 Air Force (AF) sites requiring restoration due to hazardous waste contamination. The AF goal is to completely restore all sites by 2000. One method of achieving this ambitious goal is to use in-house capabilities. This study examined the potential use of RED HORSE capabilities and training activities to assist with cleanup of contaminated sites. RED HORSE capabilities and training requirements were compared to the primary cleanup needs of the AF. One finding of this study suggests cleanup of sites contaminated by volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) is the primary need of the AF. The findings also indicate that RED HORSE can not perform remediation work on uncontrolled hazardous waste sites due to a lack of training and protective equipment required by OSHA regulations. This study suggests that if RED HORSE was provided with the required training and equipment, up to 30 technologies are within RED HORSE capabilities and offer high training benefits, and up to 39 would provide moderate or low training benefits.... Environmental management, Civil engineering, Waste treatment, Chemical contamination, Organic compounds, Air force training.

  12. Sodium diffusion in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Linnarsson, M. K. Hallén, A.

    2014-09-01

    Sodium diffusion has been studied in p-type 4H-SiC. Heat treatments have been performed from 1200 °C to 1800 °C for 1 min to 4 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has been used to measure the sodium distribution. We show that sodium has a considerable mobility at 1200 °C in p-type 4H-SiC. On the other hand for sodium atoms trapped at suitable sites the mobility is limited up to 1800 °C. Trap limited diffusion kinetics is suggested and an effective diffusivity has been extracted with an activation energy of 4 eV for sodium diffusion in p-type 4H-SiC.

  13. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 2 (ages 12-14) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) a word search of energy-related words (with definitions provided); (2) determining fuel waste; (3) reading electric/gas meters and…

  14. The Big E (Energy). 4-H Member Guide, Unit 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, William; And Others

    This activity and record book is designed for unit 3 (ages 15-19) of the Nebraska 4-H Energy Project. Aims, energy attitudes to be developed, and instructions are provided for each activity. Activities include: (1) determining ways to reduce energy waste with hot water heaters; (2) making personal choices about using appliances; (3) conducting a…

  15. Predatory activity of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans on horse cyathostomin infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Braga, Fabio R; Araújo, Jackson V; Silva, André R; Carvalho, Rogério O; Araujo, Juliana M; Ferreira, Sebastião R; Benjamin, Laércio A

    2010-08-01

    This work was performed to determine the predatory capacity in vitro of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) on cyathostomin infective larvae of horse (L(3)). The experimental assay was carried out on plates with 2% water-agar (2% WA). In the treated group, each plate contained 1.000 L(3) and 1.000 conidia of the fungus. The control group without fungus only contained 1.000 L(3) in the plates. Ten random fields (4 mm diameter) were examined per plate of treated and control groups, every 24 h for seven days under an optical microscope (10x and 40x objective lens) for non-predated L(3) counts. After 7 days, the non-predated L(3) were recovered from the Petri dishes using the Baermann method. The interaction there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) of 93.64% in the cyathostomin L(3) recovered. The results showed that the D. flagrans is a potential candidate to the biological control of horse cyathostomin L(3). PMID:20213221

  16. Identificaton of 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one isolated from Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 culture supernatants as a compound that stimulates autonomic nerve activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Yoshinori; Komura, Hajime; Izumo, Takayuki; Horii, Yuko; Shen, Jiao; Tanida, Mamoru; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Nagai, Katsuya

    2012-11-01

    Intestinal administration of various lactobacilli has been reported to affect autonomic neurotransmission, blood pressure, and body weight in rats. In this study, three molecules (peaks A, B, and C) were isolated from Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 (S-PT 84) culture supernatants. Intraduodenal (ID) injection of these molecules increased or inhibited renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats as follows: peak A, 134%; peak B, 40.1%; peak C, 408%. Furthermore, we identified peak C as 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP). ID injection of DDMP increased brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA; 118 ± 15.3%), whereas intraoral injection of DDMP increased the body temperature above the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT-T; 0.72 ± 0.13 °C) in rats. These data suggest that S-PT84 produces molecules that modulate autonomic nerve activity. In addition, DDMP increased BAT-SNA and BAT-T, and these changes in BAT-T may be caused by changes in BAT-SNA. PMID:23082723

  17. Relationships between 4-H Volunteer Leader Competencies and Skills Youth Learn in 4-H Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Ewing, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examined the relationships between 4-H volunteer leader competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Using a descriptive-correlational research, the study reported found significant relationships between leadership competencies and skills youth learn in 4-H. Regression analysis revealed that two variables--skills and…

  18. Middle Childhood: 4-H Child Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Connie M.

    Part of a series for 4-H members between 9 and 19 years of age, this age-graded guide to the development of 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds aims to help 4-H members who are children and adolescents themselves: (1) understand the physical, mental, social, and emotional development of children in middle childhood; (2) learn to care for a child in middle…

  19. Keys To The Kansas Environment. 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service.

    The 4-H Club packet for preschool and elementary school children contains nine "keys", or short learning exercises, designed to enrich science and environmental education both in and out of the classroom. Each "key" includes the purpose of the activity, the intended audience, the best time of the year for the activity, background information,…

  20. Substrate-dependent kinetic behavior of horse plasma cholinesterase: evidence for kinetically distinct populations of active sites.

    PubMed

    Söylemez, Z; Ozer, I

    1984-12-01

    The inhibition of horse plasma cholinesterase by propranolol showed characteristics which depended upon the identity of the substrate used. With butyrylthiocholine as substrate, the inhibition showed a first-order dependence on inhibitor concentration, and was characterized by a Ki of 8 microM (pH 7.4, 20 degrees C). With p-nitrophenylbutyrate as substrate, a biphasic v-1 versus [I] relationship was obtained. The biphasic curve could be resolved into two components, with apparent Ki's of 9 microM and 1.3 mM. Use of butyrylthiocholine as alternative substrate resulted in partial inhibition of p-nitrophenylbutyrate hydrolysis. Inhibition of butyrylthiocholine hydrolysis by p-nitrophenylbutyrate could be accounted for by pure competitive inhibition at two sites. The results were interpreted in terms of a four-site, low-symmetry model, in which two active sites could process both substrates, and the remaining sites could process only p-nitrophenylbutyrate. PMID:6517605

  1. Structure-catalytic activity relationships of dicyclohexylcarboxamidine analogs in phosphorylation and alkylation of nucleosides by a two-step phosphorylating agent, 2-methylthio-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide (MTBO).

    PubMed

    Eto, M; Kawasaki, S

    1986-01-01

    Adenosine borate complex was phosphorylated and o-hydroxybenzylated by 2-methylthio-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide (MTBO) in the presence of 4-morpholine-N,N'-dicyclohexylcarboxamidine (MDC) at first to give 1-(o-hydroxybenzyl)adenosine derivative followed by the rearrangement of the benzyl group to the N-6 amino group to give N6-(o-hydroxybenzyl)adenosine 5'-S-methyl phosphorothiolate. More than 20 analogs of MDC were examined for their catalytic activity in phosphorylation and o-hydroxybenzylation of ribonucleoside by MTBO. Dicyclohexylformamidine (DCF) and n-alkylamino analogs of MDC had no effect on the o-hydroxybenzylation of ribonucleoside by MTBO, but had great effect on the phosphorylation. Dialkylamino and cyclic imino analogs of MDC had high catalytic activities to the both reaction. The dicyclohexylcarboxamidine structure of MDC gave the catalytic ability for phosphorylation by MTBO, while the morpholine moiety had great effect on the selectivity of o-hydroxybenzylation by MTBO. PMID:3562278

  2. Perceptions of Missouri 4-H Youth Development Personnel Regarding Interorganizational Cooperative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Billy R.; Torres, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptions of 4-H youth development personnel regarding interorganizational cooperation were studied between the perceived and desired levels of cooperative activities between 4-H youth development personnel and secondary agriculture teachers. Results indicated that 4-H youth development personnel wanted higher levels of coordinated efforts…

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, calculational studies and in vitro antitumoral activity of 4-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süleymanoğlu, Nevin; Ustabaş, Reşat; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Ünver, Yasemin; Turan, Mustafa; Sancak, Kemal

    2011-03-01

    4-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (IPTT), C 13H 15N 5OS, was synthesized and characterized by 13C NMR, 1H NMR, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of IPTT is stabilized by three intermolecular hydrogen bonds and by intermolecular C sbnd H⋯ π interaction. The compound IPTT was modelled by using DFT method. Calculations of vibrational frequencies, gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO), 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of IPTT in the ground state, total electronic charge density map and frontier molecular orbitals were performed at B3LYP/6-31 G(d) level of theory were carried out by using DFT method with 6-31 G(d) basis set. The structural parameters obtained by geometry optimization, the theoretical vibrational frequencies and chemical shift values are in good agreement with experimental ones. FT-IR, NMR and X-ray analytical results of IPTT show that the compound exists as keto form, that was supported by DFT calculations. In addition, in vitro studies showed hopeful antitumoral activity of the title IPTT compound.

  4. Synthesis, spectral (FT-IR, UV-visible, NMR) features, biological activity prediction and theoretical studies of 4-Amino-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione and its tautomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Kumar, Abhishek; Misra, Neeraj; Manjula, P. S.; Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.

    2016-03-01

    Triazole compounds constitute an important class of organic chemistry due to their various biological and corrosion inhibition activities. The synthesis scheme of a new triazole compound namely, 4-Amino-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (4AHT) has been theoretically analyzed. Our density functional theory (DFT) based calculations show that the synthesis of 4AHT is energetically feasible at the room temperature as the reaction is exothermic, spontaneous as well as favored in forward direction. The calculated bond-lengths are found to be in good agreement with corresponding crystallographic values. We have considered two possible tautomers of 4AHT viz. thione and thiol forms. The FT-IR (KBr disc), UV-visible (ethanol) and 1H-NMR (DMSO) spectra of 4AHT have been recorded. The vibrational modes have been assigned on the basis of their potential energy distributions and scaled wavenumbers agree well with the FT-IR wavenumbers. Time dependent DFT calculations are performed to analyze the electronic transitions for various excited states which reproduce the experimental peak observed in UV-visible spectrum. Using gauge independent atomic orbital method 1H-NMR chemical shifts have been calculated and correlated with the experimental chemical shifts with the linear correlation coefficient of 0.9453. Our spectral analyses reveal the dominance of thione over thiol form of 4AHT. The chemical reactivity of 4AHT has been discussed by molecular electrostatic potential surface as well as various electronic parameters. The biological activities of 4AHT have also been explored theoretically and it has been found that the title molecule can act as a potential inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 enzyme. These findings may guide the synthesis and design of new triazole compounds with interesting biological activity.

  5. Density Functional Exploration of C4H3N Isomers.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas; Szczepaniak, Urszula; Gronowski, Marcin; Fabisiewicz, Emilia; Couturier-Tamburelli, Isabelle; Kołos, Robert

    2016-07-28

    Molecules having C4H3N stoichiometry are of astrophysical interest. Two of these, methylcyanoacetylene (CH3C3N) and its structural isomer allenyl cyanide (H2CCCHN), have been observed in interstellar space, while several more have been examined in laboratories. Here we describe, for a broad range of C4H3N isomers, density functional calculations (B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ) of molecular parameters including the energetics, geometries, rotational constants, electric dipole moments, polarizabilities, vibrational IR frequencies, IR absorption intensities, and Raman activities. Singlet-triplet splittings as well as singlet vertical electronic excitation energies are given for selected species. The identification of less stable C4H3N molecules, generated in ongoing spectroscopic experiments, relies heavily on these quantum chemical predictions. PMID:27341606

  6. Marketing Strategies for Recruiting 4-H Members in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Nestor, Cheryl; Lawrence, Layle D.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Woloshuk, Jean; Mulkeen, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    According to a survey of 174 West Virginia 4-H members aged 13-18, the Internet and word of mouth were most effective in recruiting new members. Active messages stressing camps, fun, and friendship had the most influence on retention. A statewide marketing plan was recommended. (SK)

  7. Anthelmintic activity of paste and drench formulations of oxfendazole in horses.

    PubMed

    Kingsbury, P A; Reid, J F

    1981-10-31

    Oxfendazole was administered in paste or drench formulations to groups of five horses carrying naturally acquired worm burdens. At a dose rate of 10 mg/kg the efficacy of either formulation appeared similar. One hundred per cent of the adult populations of the following genera was removed: Parascaris, Oxyuris, Strongylus (S edentatus, S vulgaris), Triodontophorus and Trichostrongylus axei. Efficacy against adult small strongyles, adult Habronema microstoma and immature Oxyuris equi was in the region of 96 to 99 per cent. The level of efficacy against immature small strongyles was at least 74 to 75 per cent, against fourth stage larvae of S vulgaris in the mesenteric arteries between 83 and 88 per cent and against fourth stage S edentatus in flank lesions between 97 and 99 per cent. Early fifth stage sheathed S vulgaris larvae in arteries were less susceptible. The drug failed to remove very young parascaris and habronema and had no effect against Anoplocephala perfoliata and various instars of Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis. Hatching tests on strongyle eggs passed in the faeces indicated that 24 hours must elapse before all become sterile. PMID:6461963

  8. Prevalence of internal parasites in horses in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983) in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Tolliver, S C; Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H

    1987-02-01

    The prevalence and number of naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites were compiled for horses used in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983). Data are presented as follows: n = number of horses examined; % = mean prevalence; number in parentheses after % = aggregate mean number of parasites in infected horses. Parasites found were: bots (n = 513) - Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd instar, 61%(58); 3rd instar, 94%(168); G. nasalis, 2nd instar, 36%(28); 3rd instar, 81%(51); stomach worms (n = 200) - Habronema muscae, 65%(179); Draschia megastoma, 29%(95); Trichostrongylus axei, 46%(3000); ascarids (n = 513) - Parascaris equorum, mature, 50%(25); immature, 23%(33); tapeworms (n = 513), Anoplocephala perfoliata, 17%(15); A. magna, 14%(10); large strongyles (n = 487), Strongylus vulgaris, 84%(80); S. edentatus, 79%(101); S. equinus, 6%(14); small strongyles (n = 210), 100%(142,000); pinworms (Oxyuris equi), immature (n = 210), 78%(9000); mature (n = 506), 40%(62); Probstmayria vivipara (n = 210), 12%(10(7]; S. vulgaris in cranial mesenteric artery (n = 472), 89%(57). The majority of the horses examined were mixed lighthorse type but several Thoroughbreds were included. Ages varied from about 4 months to 20 years old, with most being approximately 1-3 years old. They probably had either no or infrequent previous treatment with parasiticides. Most of the horses were selected for presence of certain internal parasites, usually large strongyles, prior to usage in the critical tests. PMID:3564356

  9. Multi-state 4-H energy program

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, U.B.; Garthe, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Through Agricultural Engineering 4-H Energy Programs, youth can be educated to gain knowledge, increase hands on skills, and incorporate energy-saving techniques into their lifestyle. In a pilot multi-state energy program tested by 13 states, youth increased their energy awareness.

  10. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  11. Separates. 4-H Textile Science Advanced Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This booklet, which was developed for use by 4-H club members in Pennsylvania, contains the information required to sew a two-piece nontailored outfit and/or a one-or two-piece dress. The following are among the topics covered: the difference between a fiber and a fabric; properties of different fibers and fabrics; common jacket, neckline, sleeve,…

  12. Water Worlds. 4-H Member's Guide M-5-18; 4-H Leaders Guide L-5-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; And Others

    This pocket folder of materials is designed to provide children aged 9 to 12 with an opportunity to explore and observe aquatic environments. The package includes a 4-H Leader's guide, member's guide, and supplementary materials. The leader's guide contains safety considerations, tips and techniques, and additional activities for getting started…

  13. Critical tests of the antiparasitic activity of thiabendazole and trichlorfon sequentially administered to horses via stomach tube.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C

    1977-06-01

    Thirteen critical tests were conducted in horses naturally infected with helminths and bots. Single doses of thiabendazole (44 mg/kg of body weight) and trichlorfon (40 mg/kg of body weight) powder formulations were administered as suspensions sequentially given via stomach tube to evaluate the efficacy of the combination against the large parasites of horses. Parasite removal efficacies were 100% against 2nd instar Gasterophilus intestinalis and 2nd and 3rd instar Gasterophilus nasalis and 82 to 100% against 3rd instar G intestinals. There were complete removals of mature and immature Parascaris equorum and mature Oxyuris equi. Removal efficacies against Strongylus vulgaris were 89 to 100% and against Strongylus edentatus, 82 to 100%. Of 2 horses infected with Strongylus equinus, removals were 72 and 100%. Seven of the 13 horses treated had transient, semi-liquid feces during the posttreatment hours 1 through 24. PMID:879569

  14. National 4-H Common Measures: Initial Evaluation from California 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Horrillo, Shannon J.; Widaman, Keith; Worker, Steven M.; Trzesniewski, Kali

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation is a key component to learning about the effectiveness of a program. This article provides descriptive statistics of the newly developed National 4-H Common Measures (science, healthy living, citizenship, and youth development) based on data from 721 California 4-H youth. The measures were evaluated for their reliability and validity of…

  15. Effectiveness of the 4-H Program as Perceived by Parents of 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishna, Rama; Foley, Caitlin; Ingram, Patreese; Ewing, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effectiveness of 4-H program as perceived by parents of program participants. Descriptive-correlational design was employed, with data collected using a mail survey. Parents perceived 4-H as an effective organization in teaching life skills to youth. Significant relationships were found between parents'…

  16. Kinetics, dose response, tachyphylaxis and cross-tachyphylaxis of vascular leakage induced by endotoxin, zymosan-activated plasma and platelet-activating factor in the horse.

    PubMed

    Mills, P C; Ng, J C; Seawright, A A; Auer, D E

    1995-06-01

    Vascular leakage induced by intradermal injection of endotoxin, zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) was measured in nine Thoroughbreds using 125-iodine human serum albumin (125I-HSA) as a marker in the blood. ZAP and PAF produced dose-dependent increases in vascular permeability with the maximum occurring within the first 15 min after injection. The vascular leakage induced by endotoxin was also dose-dependent, but the maximum occurred 2 h after intradermal injection. Intradermal sites previously injected with endotoxin were refractory to a second injection of endotoxin for up to 5 days. However, sites injected with endotoxin and re-injected with either ZAP or PAF remained responsive with increased vascular leakage compared to saline injected control sites re-injected with either ZAP or PAF. Diminished response to endotoxin challenge may contribute to the poor prognosis of endotoxaemia in the horse. PMID:7674456

  17. The effect of three different head-neck positions on the average EMG activity of three important neck muscles in the horse.

    PubMed

    Kienapfel, K

    2015-02-01

    The Knowledge of muscle activity in common head-neck positions (HNPs) is a necessary precondition for making judgements on HNPs. The aim of the study was to record the surface electromyography activities of important muscles of the horse's neck in various HNPs. The electrical activities of the m. splenius, brachiocephalicus and trapezius were recorded on both sides. Five horses, both with and without a rider, were examined in all three gaits on both hands in three different HNPs: a 'free' position, a 'gathered' (head higher, neck more flexed) position with the noseline in front of the vertical and a 'hyperflexed' position. Averages of ten consecutive gait cycles in each HNP were evaluated and compared by standard statistical methods. No difference between ridden and unridden horses could be detected. The m. brachiocephalicus was in the hyperflexed position in all gaits significantly (p < 0.01) more active than in the gathered and free position, which were not significantly different. By contrast, the m. splenius was in the hyperflexed position less active than in the free position (p < 0.02), in which it always showed the highest activity. In walking, the muscle activities in the free and gathered positions deviated significantly (p < 0.01). The m. trapezius was in the hyperflexed posture during walking significantly less active than in the free (p < 0.01) and gathered (p < 0.01) positions with the strongest activities in the free position. Again, the free and gathered positions differed significantly (p < 0.01). In trot, the same pattern occured, although the gathered and hyperflexed positions did not differ significantly. In the canter, the activities of the m. trapezius showed no differences between HNPs. In HNPs with the noseline in front of the vertical, the muscles of the topline (m. splenius, m. trapezius) are activated and trained. In the hyperflexed position, however, a major muscle of the lower topline (m. brachiocephalicus) is activated and trained. PMID

  18. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed. PMID:22529137

  19. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED C{sub 4}H

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksy, Andrew L.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Thaddeus, P.; Patel, Nimesh A.; Young, Ken H.; McCarthy, M. C.; Killian, T. C.

    2015-02-01

    Rotational spectra in four new excited vibrational levels of the linear carbon chain radical C{sub 4}H were observed in the millimeter band between 69 and 364 GHz in a low pressure glow discharge, and two of these were observed in a supersonic molecular beam between 19 and 38 GHz. All have rotational constants within 0.4% of the X{sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground vibrational state of C{sub 4}H and were assigned to new bending vibrational levels, two each with {sup 2}Σ and {sup 2}Π vibrational symmetry. The new levels are tentatively assigned to the 1ν{sub 6} and 1ν{sub 5} bending vibrational modes (both with {sup 2}Π symmetry), and the 1ν{sub 6}+1ν{sub 7} and 1ν{sub 5}+1ν{sub 6} combination levels ({sup 2}Σ symmetry) on the basis of the derived spectroscopic constants, relative intensities in our discharge source, and published laser spectroscopic and quantum calculations. Prior spectroscopic constants in the 1ν{sub 7} and 2ν{sub 7} levels were refined. Also presented are interferometric maps of the ground state and the 1ν{sub 7} level obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) near 257 GHz which show that C{sub 4}H is present near the central star in IRC+10216. We found no evidence with the SMA for the new vibrationally excited levels of C{sub 4}H at a peak flux density averaged over a 3{sup ′′} synthesized beam of ⩾0.15 Jy/beam in the 294–296 and 304–306 GHz range, but it is anticipated that rotational lines in the new levels might be observed in IRC+10216 when ALMA attains its full design capability.

  20. Learnings and Recommendations to Advance 4-H Science Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Carlos, Ramona; Smith, Martin H.

    2014-01-01

    The case study investigation reported here assessed California 4-H professionals' understanding of the essential components of effective 4-H Science programming as established by the National 4-H Science Mission Mandate. Using the 4-H Science Checklist as the basis for defining 4-H Science Readiness, academic and program staff were surveyed…

  1. Lysis of horse red blood cells mediated by antibody-independent activation of the alternative pathway of chicken complement.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, H; Yoshikawa, Y; Kai, C; Yamanouchi, K; Okada, H

    1984-01-01

    Horse red blood cells (HRBC) were found to be lysed when incubated with fresh normal chicken serum (NCS). By comparison of the properties of the lysis of HRBC with those of the complement-dependent lysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) sensitized with haemolytic antibody via the classical pathway, the following differences were observed between the two haemolytic phenomena. (i) The lysis of HRBC was independent on antibody in contrast to the antibody dependence of the lysis of sensitized SRBC. (ii) The lysis of HRBC was dependent on Mg but not on Ca ion, whereas the lysis of sensitized SRBC required both Mg and Ca ions. (iii) Treatment of NCS with carrageenan that acts as an inactivator of the first component of complement (C1) inhibited the lysis of sensitized SRBC but not the lysis of HRBC. (iv) C1 was consumed in the lysis of sensitized SRBC but not in the lysis of HRBC. (v) Cobra venom factor (CVF), C3 inactivator via the alternative complement pathway, inhibited the lysis of HRBC but not the lysis of sensitized SRBC. (vi) Minimal reaction times for the lysis of HRBC and for the lysis of sensitized SRBC were 90 and 60 min, respectively. These findings indicate that the lysis of HRBC was caused by the antibody-independent activation of complement via the alternative pathway. PMID:6430791

  2. Passive and active mechanical properties of the superficial and deep digital flexor muscles in the forelimbs of anesthetized Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Swanstrom, Michael D; Zarucco, Laura; Stover, Susan M; Hubbard, Mont; Hawkins, David A; Driessen, Bernd; Steffey, Eugene P

    2005-03-01

    The superficial (SDF) and deep digital flexor (DDF) muscles are critical for equine forelimb locomotion. Knowledge of their mechanical properties will enhance our understanding of limb biomechanics. Muscle contractile properties derived from architectural-based algorithms may overestimate real forces and underestimate shortening capacity because of simplistic assumptions regarding muscle architecture. Therefore, passive and active (=total - passive) force-length properties of the SDF and DDF muscles were measured directly in vivo. Muscles from the right forelimbs of four Thoroughbred horses were evaluated during general anesthesia. Limbs were fixed to an external frame with the muscle attached to a linear actuator and load cell. Each muscle was stretched from an unloaded state to a range of prefixed lengths, then stimulated while held at that length. The total force did not exceed 4000 N, the limit for the clamping device. The SDF and DDF muscles produced 716+/-192 and 1577+/-203 N maximum active isometric force (F(max)), had ascending force-length ranges (R(asc)) of 5.1+/-0.2 and 9.1+/-0.4 cm, and had passive stiffnesses of 1186+/-104 and 1132+/-51 N/cm, respectively. The values measured for F(max) were much smaller than predicted based on conservative estimates of muscle specific tension and muscle physiological cross-sectional area. R(asc) were much larger than predicted based on muscle fiber length estimates. These data suggest that accurate prediction of the active mechanical behavior of architecturally complex muscles such as the equine DDF and SDF requires more sophisticated algorithms. PMID:15652557

  3. Molecular characterization, biological activity, and in silico study of 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one as a novel selective COX-2 inhibitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rullah, Kamal; Mohd Aluwi, Mohd Fadhlizil Fasihi; Yamin, Bohari M.; Baharuddin, Mohd Syukri; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Teruna, Hilwan Yuda; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Jalil, Juriyati; Husain, Khairana; Wai, Lam Kok

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (22) as a novel selective COX-2 inhibitor. The data collected from the single X-ray crystallographic analysis and in silico study provide important insights on the molecular conformation and the binding interactions that are responsible for the COX-2 selectivity.

  4. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  5. Density functional studies on the endohedral complex of fullerene C70 with tetrahedrane (C4H4): C4H4@C70.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Yuan; Jiang, Cai-Ying

    2012-07-01

    B3LYP/6-31G(d) hybrid HF/DFT calculations were carried out to determine the structural and electronic properties of the endohedral complex of a C(70) cage with tetrahedrane (C(4)H(4)). It was demonstrated that the formation of the complex is endothermic, with a destabilization energy of 72.56 kcal mol(-1). C(4)H(4) is seated in the center of the C(70) cage and exists in molecular form inside the fullerene. C(4)H(4) endohedral doping slightly perturbs the molecular orbitals of C(70). The calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps, the electron affinity (EA), and the ionization potential (IP) indicate that C(4)H(4)@C(70) is more chemically reactive than C(70). The IR active modes and harmonic vibrational frequencies of C(4)H(4)@ C(70) are also discussed. PMID:22246288

  6. Anticomplementary activity of horse IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Marcelino, José Roberto; Ribeiro da Cunha, Luiz Eduardo; Gutiérrez, José María; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2014-03-01

    Envenomation by poisonous animals is a neglected condition according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Antivenoms are included in the WHO Essential Medicines List. It has been assumed that immunoglobulin G (IgG) antivenoms could activate the complement system through Fc and induce early adverse reactions (EARs). However, data in the literature indicate that F(ab')2 fragments can also activate the complement system. Herein, we show that several batches of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms from the Butantan, Vital Brazil, and Clodomiro Picado Institutes activated the complement classical pathway and induced the production of C3a; however, only those antivenoms from Clodomiro Picado generated C5a. Different protein profiles (IgG heavy chain, protein contaminants, and aggregates) were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analyses. Our results show that various antivenoms from different producers are able to activate the classical pathway of the complement system and generate anaphylatoxins, and these findings suggest that factors, such as composition, contaminant proteins, and aggregates, may influence the anticomplementary activity of antivenoms in vitro. Therefore, there is a need to further improve antivenom production methods to reduce their anticomplementary activity and potential to cause EARs. PMID:24445201

  7. Anticomplementary Activity of Horse IgG and F(ab')2 Antivenoms

    PubMed Central

    Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Marcelino, José Roberto; Ribeiro da Cunha, Luiz Eduardo; Gutiérrez, José María; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2014-01-01

    Envenomation by poisonous animals is a neglected condition according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Antivenoms are included in the WHO Essential Medicines List. It has been assumed that immunoglobulin G (IgG) antivenoms could activate the complement system through Fc and induce early adverse reactions (EARs). However, data in the literature indicate that F(ab')2 fragments can also activate the complement system. Herein, we show that several batches of IgG and F(ab')2 antivenoms from the Butantan, Vital Brazil, and Clodomiro Picado Institutes activated the complement classical pathway and induced the production of C3a; however, only those antivenoms from Clodomiro Picado generated C5a. Different protein profiles (IgG heavy chain, protein contaminants, and aggregates) were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analyses. Our results show that various antivenoms from different producers are able to activate the classical pathway of the complement system and generate anaphylatoxins, and these findings suggest that factors, such as composition, contaminant proteins, and aggregates, may influence the anticomplementary activity of antivenoms in vitro. Therefore, there is a need to further improve antivenom production methods to reduce their anticomplementary activity and potential to cause EARs. PMID:24445201

  8. Phosphorus implantation into 4H-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Capano, M.A.; Santhakumar, R.; Venugopal, R.; Melloch, M.R.; Cooper, J.A. Jr.

    2000-02-01

    Sheet resistances in nitrogen- and phosphorus-implanted 4H-SiC are measured to assess the time and temperature dependencies of this variable. In 4H-SiC implanted with 3 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} nitrogen ions to a depth of 2,800 {angstrom}, the minimum sheet resistance observed is 534 {Omega}/{open{underscore}square}, a record low value for any implanted element into any polytype of SiC. Time-independent sheet resistances are observed following anneals at 1,700 C for nitrogen and phosphorus samples. Lower temperature anneals produce sheet resistances which decrease monotonically with increasing time of anneal. Overall, sheet resistances from phosphorus-implanted 4H-SiC are an order of magnitude below those measured from nitrogen implanted samples. The response of phosphorus to low-temperature annealing is significant, and sheet resistances below 500 {Omega}/{open{underscore}square} are achieved at 1,200 C. Activation of phosphorus is attempted in an oxidizing atmosphere with and without prior argon annealing. A three-hour gate oxidation in wet O{sub 2} at 1,150 C, followed by a 30 min argon anneal, produced a sheet resistance of 1081 {Omega}/{open{underscore}square}. Oxidation after argon annealing caused sheet resistances to increase by about 20% compared to samples subjected solely to argon annealing. It is also found that oxide growth rates are much higher over phosphorus implanted than over unimplanted 4H-SiC. Reasons for the disparity in sheet resistances between nitrogen and phosphorus implants, and for the difference in oxide growth rates are suggested.

  9. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  10. Diversity Inclusion in 4-H Youth Programs: Examining the Perceptions among West Virginia 4-H Youth Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaVergne, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here sought to examine the perceptions of 4-H youth professionals towards diversity inclusion in 4-H youth programs. A majority of professionals positively reported that there are benefits for youth of color and youth with disabilities in 4-H youth programs. Respondents indicated that the lack of information about 4-H youth…

  11. Reductive Elimination of H2 Activates Nitrogenase to Reduce the N≡N Triple Bond: Characterization of the E4(4H) Janus Intermediate in Wild-Type Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Lukoyanov, Dmitriy; Khadka, Nimesh; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dean, Dennis R; Seefeldt, Lance C; Hoffman, Brian M

    2016-08-24

    We proposed a reductive elimination/oxidative addition (re/oa) mechanism for reduction of N2 to 2NH3 by nitrogenase, based on identification of a freeze-trapped intermediate of the α-70(Val→Ile) MoFe protein as the Janus intermediate that stores four reducing equivalents on FeMo-co as two [Fe-H-Fe] bridging hydrides (denoted E4(4H)). The mechanism postulates that obligatory re of the hydrides as H2 drives reduction of N2 to a state (denoted E4(2N2H)) with a moiety at the diazene (HN═NH) reduction level bound to the catalytic FeMo-co. EPR/ENDOR/photophysical measurements on wild type (WT) MoFe protein now establish this mechanism. They show that a state freeze-trapped during N2 reduction by WT MoFe is the same Janus intermediate, thereby establishing the α-70(Val→Ile) intermediate as a reliable guide to mechanism. Monitoring the Janus state in WT MoFe during N2 reduction under mixed-isotope condition, H2O buffer/D2, and the converse, establishes that the bridging hydrides/deuterides do not exchange with solvent during enzymatic turnover, thereby solving longstanding puzzles. Relaxation of E4(2N2H) to the WT resting-state is shown to occur via oa of H2 and release of N2 to form Janus, followed by sequential release of two H2, demonstrating the kinetic reversibility of the re/oa equilibrium. Relative populations of E4(2N2H)/E4(4H) freeze-trapped during WT turnover furthermore show that the reversible re/oa equilibrium between [E4(4H) + N2] and [E4(2N2H) + H2] is ∼ thermoneutral (ΔreG(0) ∼ -2 kcal/mol), whereas, by itself, hydrogenation of N2(g) is highly endergonic. These findings demonstrate that (i) re/oa accounts for the historical Key Constraints on mechanism, (ii) that Janus is central to N2 reduction by WT enzyme, which (iii) indeed occurs via the re/oa mechanism. Thus, emerges a picture of the central mechanistic steps by which nitrogenase carries out one of the most challenging chemical transformations in biology. PMID:27529724

  12. Increased interleukin-1beta mRNA expression in skin biopsies of horses with Culicoides hypersensitivity following challenge with Culicoides nubeculosus extract.

    PubMed

    Kolm, Gabriela; Knapp, Elzbieta; Wagner, Regina; Klein, Dieter

    2006-09-15

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a primary cytokine of the skin that has a pivotal role in keratinocyte differentiation, epidermal wound healing and host defense. Pathological increase of cutaneous IL-1beta is associated with edema formation, epidermal hyperproliferation and atopic dermatitis in humans. However, in horses the role of cutaneous IL-1beta in edema formation and allergic skin disease has not been characterised so far. Particularly in Culicoides hypersensitivity (CHS), intradermal injection of Culicoides extract may be associated with enhanced transcription of local IL-1beta. To examine the mRNA expression of IL-1beta and its receptor antagonist IL-1RA in the skin of horses, biopsy specimens of horses affected and non-affected by CHS prior and following intradermal challenge with a commercial C. nubeculosus extract were examined. Our hypothesis was that cutaneous IL-1beta mRNA was significantly upregulated in horses with CHS in response to Culicoides allergen. Biopsies were taken from sites prior to and 4 h following intradermal challenge with C. nubeculosus extract. In order to obtain reliable data, real time PCR was performed and genes of interest were normalized using three different housekeeping genes, beta-actin, GAPDH, beta-2-microglobulin. No significant difference was detected in non-challenged cutaneous IL-1beta mRNA and IL-1RA mRNA levels between CHS affected and non-affected horses. Intradermal injection of C. nubeculosus extract resulted in local upregulation of IL-1beta mRNA both in horses with typical history, characteristic clinical signs for CHS and a positive intradermal skin test (IDT), and non-affected horses with a negative IDT. However, the difference in prior and post challenged site IL-1beta mRNA levels only reached statistical significance in the affected horses (p=0.01 versus 0.7). In contrast, IL-1RA mRNA levels did not demonstrate any modification following intradermal injection with C. nubeculosus in either group. In contrast

  13. Visual Display Study: National 4-H Center. A 4-H Intern Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farwell, Sanford W.

    An internship report cites ways in which the National 4-H Center could be more effective in a visual sense. The author suggests collecting the memorabilia already at the Center to form an historical museum and coordinating the historical items with present items. Impact areas, those with a lot of traffic, are discussed individually in terms of…

  14. 4-H's Influence on Advanced Training, Careers and Leadership Roles in Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, S. Kay; And Others

    A study explored how adults felt their 4-H experience contributed to their selection of advanced education and/or a career and helped them with leadership skills in their occupations or community activities. To obtain data, a questionnaire was mailed to former 4-H members aged 25 to 35 in northeast Nebraska; 318 questionnaires were returned.…

  15. Birds in Your Backyard. 4-H Leaders Guide. L-5-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Janet E.; Held Phillips, Diane

    This pocket folder of instructional materials is designed to introduce youth aged 9 to 12 to ornithology, the study of birds. The package includes a 4-H member's guide and a Leader's guide. The illustrated 4-H member's guide contains information about attracting and feeding birds. It also includes activities for cooking for birds, making bird…

  16. Determination of the highest no-effect dose (HNED) and of the elimination pattern for cocaine in horses.

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Neto, A; Zamur, G; Lacerda-Neto, J C; Tobin, T

    2002-01-01

    Cocaine is one of the most widespread illegal stimulants utilized by the human population throughout the world. The aim of this study was to establish the highest no-effect dose (HNED) of cocaine on the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of horses in a behavior chamber, and thereby to determine the maximal acceptable threshold of the urinary drug concentration in horses. Twelve English thoroughbred mares received 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.08 or 0.12 mg kg(-1) cocaine i.v. or saline solution (control). It was noted that doses above 0.04 mg kg(-1) induced a significant increase in SLA (P < 0.05, Tukey's test). No significant increase in SLA was seen in the mares that received 0.03 mg kg(-1), but the animals showed important behavioral changes that did not occur after the 0.02 mg kg(-1) dose. It was concluded that the HNED of cocaine for horses in a behavior chamber is 0.02 mg kg(-1). After injection of this dose in five horses, urine samples were collected at predetermined intervals through vesical catheterization. The concentrations of cocaine, norcocaine, benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester were quantified by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Cocaine and norcocaine concentrations remained consistently below the level of detection. Benzoylecgonine reached a mean (+/- SEM) maximum concentration of 531.9 +/- 168.7 ng ml(-1) after 4 h, whereas ecgonine methyl ester peaked 2 h after injection at a concentration of 97.2 +/- 26.5 ng ml(-1). The maximum admissible concentration for cocaine and/or metabolites in the urine of horses is difficult to establish unequivocally because of the substantial individual variation in the drug elimination pattern observed in horses, which can be inferred by the large standard error of the means obtained. PMID:11920936

  17. Probable reason why small strongyle EPG counts are returning "early" after ivermectin treatment of horses on a farm in Central Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Collins, S S

    2009-02-01

    Critical tests were carried out in 2008 in four yearling horses (H-2, H-4, H-10, and H-11) born and raised together on a farm (MC) in Central Kentucky. These horses were treated intraorally with ivermectin paste at the dose rate of 200 microg/kg. The main interest was to try and determine more precisely, from posttreatment (PT) worm count data, the current activity of ivermectin against small strongyles in a horse herd. These horses had been treated repeatedly with this compound and counts of small strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) of these parasites have been returning sooner than previously in field tests (Lyons et al. Parasitol Res 103:209-215, 2008a). Data from the four horses revealed that a total of 3237 (nonfactored number) specimens of small strongyles was recovered from aliquot samples of feces passed PT and in the large intestinal contents at necropsy; all specimens were examined and identified. Thirteen species of adult small strongyles were recorded. Cylicocyclus (Cyc.) insigne was the predominant species. Three of the yearlings (H-2, H-4, and H-11) were necropsied at 6 days PT with ivermectin, and removals of small strongyles were: 50%, 80%, and 36% of fourth stages (L4), respectively, and 100%, 99%, and 100% of adults, respectively. As indicated, the only incomplete removal of adults from the three horses was for H-4. They consisted of two species: (1) young Cyc. insigne (those passed in the feces were fully developed); removal of this species was 89% and (2) fully developed Cylicostephanus longibursatus; 99% were removed. The fourth yearling (H-10), necropsied at 25 days PT, harbored 19,150 adult small strongyles in the large intestinal contents. Most of the species were Cyc. insigne; all were fifth stage but not sexually mature. Comparing the percentage of adult small strongyles found at necropsy relative to the total number present (those passed in the feces and at necropsy), only 0% to 1% were in the contents of the large intestines of the

  18. Circadian activity of Culicoides oxystoma (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), potential vector of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses in the Niayes area, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fall, Moussa; Fall, Assane G; Seck, Momar T; Bouyer, Jérémy; Diarra, Maryam; Balenghien, Thomas; Garros, Claire; Bakhoum, Mame T; Faye, Ousmane; Baldet, Thierry; Gimonneau, Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are important vectors of arboviruses in Africa. Culicoides oxystoma has been recently recorded in the Niayes region of Senegal (West Africa) and its high abundance on horses suggests a potential implication in the transmission of the African horse sickness virus in this region. This species is also suspected to transmit bluetongue virus to imported breeds of sheep. Little information is available on the biology and ecology of Culicoides in Africa. Therefore, understanding the circadian host-seeking activity of this putative vector is of primary importance to assess the risk of the transmission of Culicoides-borne pathogens. To achieve this objective, midges were collected using a sheep-baited trap over two consecutive 24-h periods during four seasons in 2012. A total of 441 Culicoides, belonging to nine species including 418 (94.8%) specimens of C. oxystoma, were collected. C. oxystoma presented a bimodal circadian host-seeking activity at sunrise and sunset in July and was active 3 h after sunrise in April. Daily activity appeared mainly related to time periods. Morning activity increased with the increasing temperature up to about 27 °C and then decreased with the decreasing humidity, suggesting thermal limits for C. oxystoma activity. Evening activity increased with the increasing humidity and the decreasing temperature, comprised between 20 and 27 °C according to seasons. Interestingly, males were more abundant in our sampling sessions, with similar activity periods than females, suggesting potential animal host implication in the facilitation of reproduction. Finally, the low number of C. oxystoma collected render practical vector-control recommendations difficult to provide and highlight the lack of knowledge on the bio-ecology of this species of veterinary interest. PMID:26002826

  19. CPR: Purposeful Action. Putting New Life into 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah A.; Smith, William C.

    1988-01-01

    In Ohio, 4-H professionals found that it is necessary to conduct market research to have an effective program. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training has been successful in strengthening the 4-H position in the marketplace. (JOW)

  20. Alabama 4-H Marine Pilot Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Mac; Trussell, Gale

    Brief descriptions and eight activities related to zooplankton, sharks, dune ecology, ocean currents, and sea products comprise this manual. Among the activities are harvesting seafood, making Japanese fish prints, and tracing marine currents with drift bottles. (WB)

  1. Heart rate variability after horse trekking in leading and following horses.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Masaya; Irimajiri, Mami; Yamazaki, Atusi; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Hodate, Koichi

    2010-10-01

    Horse trekking (HT) is having a stroll on a horse along a walking trail in a forest, field, and/or sandy beach. Generally in HT, horses exercise in tandem line outside the riding facilities. Because the leading horse will be confronted with stressors in the forefront, we hypothesized that the leading horse shows higher stress responses than the following one. In order to verify the hypothesis, we compared short-term stress responses between each position in six horses. Exercise consisted of 15 min of ground riding and 45 min of HT with walking and trotting. Heart rate variability was analyzed for 5 min at 30, 60, and 90 min after the exercising period. There was no significant difference in heart rate during exercise between leading and following positions. The high frequency / low frequency power band of heart rate variability, an index of sympathetic nervous activity, after exercise, tended to be higher in the leading position than following one (P < 0.1). The result in this study can suggest that the leading horse was in a higher stressed state than the following horse after HT. PMID:20887317

  2. The mechanisms of complement activation in normal bovine serum and normal horse serum against Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 strains with different outer membrane proteins content.

    PubMed

    Miętka, K; Brzostek, K; Guz-Regner, K; Bugla-Płoskońska, G

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a common zoonotic pathogen and facultative intracellular bacterium which can survive within blood cells. Cattle and horses are considered a reservoir of Y. enterocolitica which often causes several serious syndromes associated with yersiniosis such as abortions, premature births or infertility. The aim of our investigation was to determine the vitality of Y. enterocolitica O:9 strains (Ye9) in bovine and horse sera (NBS and NHrS) and explain the role of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in serum resistance of these bacteria. Our previous studies demonstrated moderate human serum (NHS) resistance of the wild type Ye9 strain, whereas mutants lacking YadA, Ail or OmpC remained sensitive to the bactericidal activity of NHS. The present study showed that the wild type of Ye9 strain was resistant to the bactericidal activity of both NHrS and NBS, while Ye9 mutants lacking the YadA, Ail and OmpC proteins were sensitive to NHrS and NBS as well as to NHS. The mechanisms of complement activation against Ye9 strains lacking Ail and YadA were distinguished, i.e. activation of the classical/lectin pathways decisive in the bactericidal mechanism of complement activation of NBS, parallel activation of the classical/lectin and alternative pathways of NHrS. In this research the mechanism of independent activation of the classical/lectin or the alternative pathway of NBS and NHrS against Ye9 lacking OmpC porin was also established. The results indicate that serum resistance of Ye9 is multifactorial, in which extracellular structures, i.e. outer membrane proteins (OMPs) such as Ail, OmpC or YadA, play the main role. PMID:27096793

  3. Hamsters?! What Does 4-H Stand for, Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundeen, Brenda

    This paper briefly traces the history of 4-H youth development programs, explains what youth development is, and shows how the experiential learning model is used in 4-H. Begun over 75 years ago as a means of extending the learning of the land-grant university to rural youth, 4-H is part of the Cooperative Extension Service. The curriculum…

  4. Using Digital Classrooms to Conduct 4-H Club Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Patricia; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Morgan, A. Christian; Duncan, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Using computer technology and digital classrooms to conduct 4-H Club meetings is an efficient way to continue delivering quality 4-H programming during times of limited resources and staff. Nineteen Junior and Senior 4-H'ers participated in seven digital classroom workshops using the Wimba Classroom application. These digital classroom…

  5. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  6. The 4-H Club Meeting: An Essential Youth Development Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassels, Alicia; Post, Liz; Nestor, Patrick I.

    2015-01-01

    The club meeting has served as a key delivery method for 4-H programming across the United States throughout its history. A survey of WV 4-H community club members reinforces the body of evidence that the 4-H club meeting is an effective vehicle for delivering positive youth learning opportunities within the umbrella of the Essential Elements of…

  7. Charley horse

    MedlinePlus

    ... calf often occur while kicking during swimming or running. They can also happen at night when you ... bed. Upper leg spasms are more common with running or jumping activities. Spasm in the neck (cervical ...

  8. Using multiple youth programming delivery modes to drive the development of social capital in 4-H participants.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Sharon

    2013-06-01

    This article focuses on how 4-H youth participants are building social capital, or connections among individuals and community members, through their 4-H experiences. These experiences can be seen through the lens of such 4-H delivery modes as the traditional 4-H club, after-school programs, and school enrichment programs. In addition, other experiences such as leadership camps and conferences or activities in the local community afford youth the opportunity to build the relationships, trust, and respect reflective of social capital. Examples are derived from 4-H program participants-urban, suburban and rural youth-in Camden County, New Jersey. PMID:23878086

  9. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Equitation science describes an approach to horse training and riding that focuses on embracing the cognitive abilities of horses, their natural behaviour, and how human riders can use signalling and rewards to best effect. This approach is concerned with both horse welfare and rider safety, and this review discusses how equitation science can minimise risk to humans around horses and enhance horse welfare. Abstract Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse’s cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare. PMID:26907354

  10. Immunodiffusion test for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Standard, P G

    1986-01-01

    A practical, sensitive, and specific immunodiffusion test was developed for diagnosing and monitoring pythiosis in horses. Culture filtrates, a soluble cell mass, and trypsinized Pythium sp. antigens were evaluated against prepared rabbit anti-Pythium sp. serum and pythiosis horse case sera. The culture filtrate antigens demonstrated the greatest capacity for detecting precipitins and the greatest stability during storage. In contrast, the trypsinized antigens had the weakest capability for detecting multiple precipitins and the poorest stability. The 13 sera from horses with proven active pythiosis were positive in immunodiffusion tests with the culture filtrate antigens. Each serum contained from three to six precipitins. Treated horses lost precipitins, and some became antibody negative. No false-positive reactions were noted in tests with sera from normal horses and humans or with sera from a variety of heterologous horse and human infections. Images PMID:3086368

  11. A pH Switch Regulates the Inverse Relationship between Membranolytic and Chaperone-like Activities of HSP-1/2, a Major Protein of Horse Seminal Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Sudheer; Swamy, Musti J

    2016-07-01

    HSP-1/2, a major protein of horse seminal plasma binds to choline phospholipids present on the sperm plasma membrane and perturbs its structure by intercalating into the hydrophobic core, which results in an efflux of choline phospholipids and cholesterol, an important event in sperm capacitation. HSP-1/2 also exhibits chaperone-like activity (CLA) in vitro and protects target proteins against various kinds of stress. In the present study we show that HSP-1/2 exhibits destabilizing activity toward model supported and cell membranes. The membranolytic activity of HSP-1/2 is found to be pH dependent, with lytic activity being high at mildly acidic pH (6.0-6.5) and low at mildly basic pH (8.0-8.5). Interestingly, the CLA is also found to be pH dependent, with high activity at mildly basic pH and low activity at mildly acidic pH. Taken together the present studies demonstrate that the membranolytic and chaperone-like activities of HSP-1/2 have an inverse relationship and are regulated via a pH switch, which is reversible. The higher CLA observed at mildly basic pH could be correlated to an increase in surface hydrophobicity of the protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting regulation of two different activities of a chaperone protein by a pH switch. PMID:27292547

  12. Hydroperoxidic inhibitor of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase activity, tightly bound to the enzyme-NAD+ complex, characteristically degrades the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Skurský, L; Rezác, M; Khan, A N; Zídek, L; Rocek, J

    1992-01-01

    The strong inhibition of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLAD) by p-methylbenzyl hydroperoxide (XyHP) is only transient, XyHP behaves also as a pseudo-substrate of the enzyme and in the presence of NAD+, is degraded by HLAD to (as yet unidentified) non-inhibiting products while the NAD+ is converted to a derivative similar to the "NADX", originally observed in an analogous reaction of HLAD with hydrogen peroxide. The apparent KM for XyHP is approximately 10(4) times smaller than that for H2O2. The catalytic constant kcat for HLAD degradation of XyHP is two orders of magnitude less than that for ethanol dehydrogenation. XyHP inhibits both directions of the alcohol-aldehyde interconversion with equal potency. The first step of the inhibition mechanism is a tight binding of XyHP to the binary HLAD-NAD+ complex. PMID:1284958

  13. The Influence of Feral Horse Activity on Water and Shellfish (Gukensia demissa) Quality Along the Western Coast of Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) inhabit portions of the Western United States and some barrier islands along the East Coast. Approximately 150 feral horses are located on Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS), Maryland, a barrier island popular with tourists and recreational fishermen. This stu...

  14. Influence of exercise on the activity and the distribution between free and bound forms of glycolytic and associated enzymes in tissues of horse mackerel.

    PubMed

    Lushchak, V I; Bagnyukova, T V; Storey, J M; Storey, K B

    2001-08-01

    The effects of short-term burst (5 min at 1.8 m/s) swimming and long-term cruiser (60 min at 1.2 m/s) swimming on maximal enzyme activities and enzyme distribution between free and bound states were assessed for nine glycolytic and associated enzymes in tissues of horse mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus. The effects of exercise were greatest in white muscle. The activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) all decreased to 47, 37, 37 and 67%, respectively, during 60-min exercise and all enzymes except phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) and PGM showed a change in the extent of binding to subcellular particulate fractions during exercise. In red muscle, exercise affected the activities of PGI, FBPase, PFK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and altered percent binding of only PK and LDH. In liver, exercise increased the PK activity 2.3-fold and reduced PGI 1.7-fold only after 5 min of exercise but altered the percent binding of seven enzymes. Fewer effects were seen in brain, with changes in the activities of aldolase and PGM and in percent binding of hexokinase, PFK and PK. Changes in enzyme activities and in binding interactions with subcellular particulate matter appear to support the altered demands of tissue energy metabolism during exercise. PMID:11471046

  15. Why 4-H Members Leave: A Study of Discontinuance through Both Current 4-H Members and Former Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilek, Kevin Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    4-H members quit. It is part of every 4-H program, and according to the research, it is even part of growing up. If only we knew why they quit, we could possibly do something about it. To date, the reasons youth join 4-H have been more thoroughly researched than the reasons they quit. This study explores why youth choose to discontinue membership…

  16. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description. Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi Canyon 778 (MC...

  17. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description. Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi Canyon 778 (MC...

  18. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description. Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi Canyon 778 (MC...

  19. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description. Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi Canyon 778 (MC...

  20. 33 CFR 147.843 - Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.843 Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible safety zone. (a) Description. Thunder Horse Semi-Submersible, Mississippi Canyon 778 (MC...

  1. Removal of sialoliths using the intraoral approach in 15 horses.

    PubMed

    Oreff, Gil L; Shiraki, Ryoji; Kelmer, Gal

    2016-06-01

    This study describes the use of an intraoral approach for sialolith removal in horses. All horses resumed their previous activity after surgery. Sialoliths were composed mainly of calcium carbonate, containing a nidus of plant material. The removal of sialoliths via an intraoral approach results in a high success rate with minimal complications. PMID:27247466

  2. Sewing Skills Progress Chart. 4-H Textile Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan F.

    This document, which was developed for use by Pennsylvania 4-H Club leaders and members, is a chart that can be used to help club members determine and document those sewing skills they already have and those they need to learn as they complete one or more 4-H Club sewing projects. The document begins with a note to club leaders and parents that…

  3. Council of Presidents: A Multifaceted Idea for 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torretta, Alayne

    2015-01-01

    Communication between 4-H professionals and the youth they work with is an important part of a successful 4-H program. By creating a Council of Presidents comprised of officers of all the clubs in your county, you can increase communication while assuring your program addresses all four essential elements. The Council is also as a vehicle for…

  4. 4-H Participation and Science Interest in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Katherine; Carlos, Ramona M.; Barnett, Cynthia; Smith, Martin H.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the impacts of participation in 4-H on young people's interest and participation in science. Survey data were collected from relatively large and ethnically diverse samples of elementary and high school-aged students in California. Results indicated that although elementary-grade 4-H members are not more…

  5. Embracing Scientific and Engineering Practices in 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worker, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    The 4-H Science Initiative has renewed efforts to strengthen 4-H programmatic and evaluation efforts in science and engineering education. A fundamental component of this initiative is to provide opportunities to youth to aid in their development of science process skills; however, emerging research stresses the importance of engaging youth in…

  6. Camping with a Purpose...A 4-H Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, John H.; And Others

    The 4-H handbook focuses on factors to consider and things to be done when developing a camping program. Since the emphasis, structure, and administration of 4-H camping varies, the booklet is flexible enough to be adapted to different state, district, and county situations. Major topics are camping's importance to extension education,…

  7. Socialization of Youth: Role of the 4-H Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freebern, John Robert

    Many professional 4-H staff members lack a sufficient background in the social sciences, fail to understand the complexity of the socialization task, and are not aware of the changes made by other socialization agents in the community. This paper is designed to help the professional 4-H adult worker improve his role as a socialization agent.…

  8. Synthesis, Polymorphism, and Insecticidal Activity of Methyl 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-iodo-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-4H-pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline-3-Carboxylate Against Anopheles arabiensis Mosquito.

    PubMed

    Venugopala, Katharigatta N; Nayak, Susanta K; Gleiser, Raquel M; Sanchez-Borzone, Mariela E; Garcia, Daniel A; Odhav, Bharti

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vectors of pathogens and parasites including those causing malaria, the most deadly vector-borne disease. The negative environmental effects of most synthetic compounds combined with widespread development of insecticide resistance encourage an interest in finding and developing alternative products against mosquitoes. In this study, pyrimido[2,1-b]quinazoline derivative DHPM3 has been synthesized by three-step chemical reaction and screened for larvicide, adulticide, and repellent properties against Anopheles arabiensis, one of the dominant vectors of malaria in Africa. The title compound emerged as potential larvicide agent for further research and development, because it exerted 100% mortality, while adulticide activity was considered moderate. PMID:26841246

  9. Identification of novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) after treatment with wooden ashes and their nutraceutical activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideto; Ogawa, Satoshi; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Kimura, Yasuo; Katsube, Takuya; Yokota, Kazushige

    2006-08-28

    Natural seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata Blume) contain large amounts of mixed triterpenoidal saponins called escins. Recent studies have shown that escins have several biological activities including anti-inflammatory action and inhibitory effects on the absorption of ethanol and glucose. For the edible utilization of the seeds, natural seeds are usually treated with wooden ashes to remove harshness. Here, we found the novel compounds derived from escins in the edible seeds after the food processing with wooden ashes. The instrumental analyses revealed the chemical structures of escins and the derivatives. These compounds are identified as four types of deacetylescins Ia, IIa, Ib, and IIb as well as two types of desacylescins I and II. To determine their biological activity, the purified compounds were tested for their potential nutraceutical activity. The oral glucose tolerance test in mice revealed that a single oral administration of the isolated components of deacetylescins at a dose of 100 mg/kg was clearly effective in attenuating the elevation of blood glucose levels. The inhibitory effects of escins and their derivatives were in the order of escins>deacetylescins>desacylescins. Moreover, we found the inhibitory activity of those compounds on pancreatic lipase. Escins were the most potent in inhibiting the enzyme activity, and followed by desacylescins and then deacetylescins. Taken together, our results suggest the potential usefulness of novel saponins including deacetylescins and desacylescins from edible seeds as novel sources for nutraceutical foods with anti-obese effects. PMID:16621416

  10. Research needs on internal parasites of horses.

    PubMed

    1984-08-01

    The importance of the horse industry to the economy of the United States and the impact of parasitic infections on the industry are well documented. However, contemporary research activity on internal parasites of horses has not kept pace with growth of the horse population. Parasitic infections are a major facet of enteritis and colic in horses. Parasites are also associated with poor growth and development, respiratory tract disease, dermatitis, and CNS lesions. Babesia infections remain a threat to horses imported from some regions of the world. Most research activity has dealt with the development of new antiparasitic drugs. Efforts must be made to integrate these studies with observations on the bionomics of parasites in different regions and under different management conditions into more effective and less costly integrated parasite control programs. Increased research activity concerning the pathogenesis and immune response to equine parasitic infections is also necessary. A better understanding of these factors will lead to improved diagnostic, treatment, and preventative measures. Specific research objectives designed to produce short-term and long-term benefits are suggested. PMID:6383147

  11. Stabilization of 4H hexagonal phase in gold nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhanxi; Bosman, Michel; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Ding; Yu, Yi; Ong, Khuong P.; Akimov, Yuriy A.; Wu, Lin; Li, Bing; Wu, Jumiati; Huang, Ying; Liu, Qing; Eng Png, Ching; Lip Gan, Chee; Yang, Peidong; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Gold, silver, platinum and palladium typically crystallize with the face-centred cubic structure. Here we report the high-yield solution synthesis of gold nanoribbons in the 4H hexagonal polytype, a previously unreported metastable phase of gold. These gold nanoribbons undergo a phase transition from the original 4H hexagonal to face-centred cubic structure on ligand exchange under ambient conditions. Using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy, the strong infrared plasmon absorption of single 4H gold nanoribbons is observed. Furthermore, the 4H hexagonal phases of silver, palladium and platinum can be readily stabilized through direct epitaxial growth of these metals on the 4H gold nanoribbon surface. Our findings may open up new strategies for the crystal phase-controlled synthesis of advanced noble metal nanomaterials. PMID:26216712

  12. Characterization of deep electron traps in 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelczuk, Ł.; Dąbrowska-Szata, M.; Sochacki, M.; Szmidt, J.

    2014-04-01

    Conventional deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique was used to study deep electron traps in 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) rectifiers. 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, doped with nitrogen and grown on standard n+-4H-SiC substrates were exposed to low-dose aluminum ion implantation process under the Schottky contact in order to form both JBS grid and junction termination extension (JTE), and assure good rectifying properties of the diodes. Several deep electron traps were revealed and attributed to impurities or intrinsic defects in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers, on the basis of comparison of their electrical parameters (i.e. activation energies, apparent capture cross sections and concentrations) with previously published results.

  13. Associated Factors in Recruitment and Retention of 4-H Members in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingenbach, Gary J.; Meighan, Terence; Lawrence, Layle D.; Gartin, Stacy A.; Woloshuk, Jean M.

    1999-01-01

    Extension agents and 4-H Club leaders (n=115) rated the following as effective recruitment techniques: an active club, word of mouth, interesting programs, and members' active role. Successful retention techniques included effective leaders; praise, motivation, and encouragement; and fun meetings, programs, and activities. (SK)

  14. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  15. Texas 4-H Agents' Perceptions of Selected Competencies in the 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Amy; Wingenbach, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    There are many competencies necessary for success as a 4-H agent. The 4-H Professional Research, Knowledge, and Competencies (PRKC) Model organizes competencies into six domains: (a) Youth Development, (b) Youth Program Development, (c) Volunteerism, (d) Partnerships, (e) Organizational Systems, and (f) Equity, Access and Opportunity (National 4-H…

  16. Flathead Lake Angler Survey; Monitoring Activities for the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Plan, 1992-1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Evarts, Les; Hansen, Barry; DosSantos, Joe

    1994-02-01

    A roving creel survey was conducted on Flathead Lake in northwestern Montana from May 17, 1992 to May 19, 1993. The primary objective of the survey was to quantify the baseline fishery and exploitation rates existing prior to Hungry Horse Dam mitigation efforts. Anglers were counted on 308 occasions, comprising 5,618 fishing boats, 515 shore anglers, and 2,191 ice anglers. The party interviews represented 4,410 anglers, made up of 2,613 boat anglers, 787 shore anglers, and 1,010 ice anglers. A total of 47,883 angler days (190,108 angler hours) of pressure and a harvest of 42,979 fish (including lake trout, lake whitefish, yellow perch, bull trout, and westslope cutthroat trout) were estimated. Pressure was distributed between shore, boat, and ice anglers as 4%, 87%, and 9%, respectively. Seventynine percent of the total effort was directed at lake trout during the study period. Limited comparisons were made to previous creel surveys on Flathead Lake due to differences in methods and radical changes in the fishery. Potential sources of bias are explained in detail. Future creel surveys must employ methods consistent with this survey to obtain estimates that are statistically distinguishable.

  17. Exercise and Rehabilitation of Older Horses.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Kenneth Harrington

    2016-08-01

    An increasing percentage of the equine population is more than 15 years old, many performing various athletic activities into their 20s. Studies of aged humans have led to a fine tuning of exercise prescription to promote fitness while preventing adverse and potentially dangerous effects of excessive exercise. However, limited data exist regarding the exercise capacity of aged horses. This article presents an overview of published studies on aging-induced decreases in physiologic function and exercise capacity in the horse. The information presented can be used as a guide for exercise prescription for the growing population of active older equine athletes. PMID:27449392

  18. Fabrication of High-Q Nanobeam Photonic Crystals in Epitaxially Grown 4H-SiC.

    PubMed

    Bracher, David O; Hu, Evelyn L

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is an intriguing material due to the presence of spin-active point defects in several polytypes, including 4H-SiC. For many quantum information and sensing applications involving such point defects, it is important to couple their emission to high quality optical cavities. Here we present the fabrication of 1D nanobeam photonic crystal cavities (PCC) in 4H-SiC using a dopant-selective etch to undercut a homoepitaxially grown epilayer of p-type 4H-SiC. These are the first PCCs demonstrated in 4H-SiC and show high quality factors (Q) of up to ∼7000 as well as low modal volumes of <0.5 (λ/n)(3). We take advantage of the high device yield of this fabrication method to characterize hundreds of devices and determine which PCC geometries are optimal. Additionally, we demonstrate two methods to tune the resonant wavelengths of the PCCs over 5 nm without significant degradation of the Q. Lastly, we characterize nanobeam PCCs coupled to luminescence from silicon vacancy point defects (V1, V2) in 4H-SiC. The fundamental modes of two such PCCs are tuned into spectral overlap with the zero phonon line (ZPL) of the V2 center, resulting in an intensity increase of up to 3-fold. These results are important steps on the path to developing 4H-SiC as a platform for quantum information and sensing. PMID:26305122

  19. Key contribution of eIF4H-mediated translational control in tumor promotion

    PubMed Central

    Vaysse, Charlotte; Philippe, Céline; Martineau, Yvan; Quelen, Cathy; Hieblot, Corinne; Renaud, Claire; Nicaise, Yvan; Desquesnes, Aurore; Pannese, Maria; Filleron, Thomas; Escourrou, Ghislaine; Lawson, Malcolm; Rintoul, Robert C.; Delisle, Marie Bernadette; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Brousset, Pierre; Prats, Hervé; Touriol, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated expression of translation initiation factors has been associated with carcinogenesis, but underlying mechanisms remains to be fully understood. Here we show that eIF4H (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H), an activator of the RNA helicase eIF4A, is overexpressed in lung carcinomas and predictive of response to chemotherapy. In lung cancer cells, depletion of eIF4H enhances sensitization to chemotherapy, decreases cell migration and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, in association with reduced translation of mRNA encoding cell-proliferation (c-Myc, cyclin D1) angiogenic (FGF-2) and anti-apoptotic factors (CIAP-1, BCL-xL). Conversely, each isoform of eIF4H acts as an oncogene in NIH3T3 cells by stimulating transformation, invasion, tumor growth and resistance to drug-induced apoptosis together with increased translation of IRES-containing or structured 5′UTR mRNAs. These results demonstrate that eIF4H plays a crucial role in translational control and can promote cellular transformation by preferentially regulating the translation of potent growth and survival factor mRNAs, indicating that eIF4H is a promising new molecular target for cancer therapy. PMID:26498689

  20. Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species. PMID:23803176

  1. Polymorphisms of the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene in Stabled Horses are Related to Differences in Behavioral Response to Frustration

    PubMed Central

    Ninomiya, Shigeru; Anjiki, Akiko; Nishide, Yudai; Mori, Minori; Deguchi, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this study, the association between behavioral responses to frustration and DRD4 polymorphisms was investigated in horses. Twenty one horses were observed for 4–4.5 h during feeding for several days. Horses were then genotyped for the DRD4 gene. Behavioral responses to frustration were recorded more frequently in horses without the A allele than in horses with the A allele. These results indicate that polymorphisms of DRD4 should be considered when assessing the welfare of stabled horses, by means of behavioral indicators of frustration. Abstract In stabled horses, behavioral responses to frustration are often observed, especially around feeding time. These behavioral responses are a useful indicator of their welfare. In this study, we investigated the association between this behavioral indicator and DRD4 gene polymorphisms in stabled horses. Twenty one horses housed in two stables were used. The horses were observed for approximately 4 h around feeding over three or more days using focal-sampling and instantaneous-sampling. Horses were genotyped for the A–G substitution in the DRD4 gene. The effects of the A–G substitution (with or without the A allele in the DRD4 gene), the stables, and their interaction on the frequency of behavioral responses to frustration were analyzed using general linear models. The total time budget of behavioral responses to frustration was higher in horses without the A allele than in those with the A allele (P = 0.007). These results indicate that the A–G substitution of the DRD4 gene is related to frustration-related behavioral responses in stabled horses. Appropriate consideration should be made for the DRD4 gene polymorphism when the welfare of stabled horses is assessed, based on this behavioral indicator. PMID:26479526

  2. Characterization of phosphorus implantation in 4H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Khemka, V.; Patel, R.; Ramungul, N.; Chow, T.P.; Ghezzo, M.; Kretchmer, J.

    1999-03-01

    Silicon carbide is expected to be a promising material for high-voltage semiconductor power devices. The authors report the characterization of phosphorus implantation in 4H-SiC. The implanted layers are characterized by analytical techniques (secondary ion mass spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy) as well as electrical and a sheet resistance value as low as 160 {Omega}/{open_square} has been measured. The authors have also studied the effect of annealing time and temperature on activation of phosphorus implants. It has been shown to be possible to obtain low sheet resistance ({approximately}260 {Omega}/{open_square}) by annealing at a temperature as low as 1,200 C. High-dose ({approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2}) implants are found to have a higher sheet resistance than that on lower dose implants which is attributed to the near-surface depletion of the dopant during high temperature anneal. Different implantation dosages were utilized for the experiments and subsequently junction rectifiers were fabricated. Forward characteristics of these diodes are observed to obey a generalized Sah-Noyce-Shockly multiple level recombination model with four shallow levels and one deep level.

  3. Assessing fitness in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  4. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Findings Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. Conclusions This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered. PMID:24180621

  5. [Occurrance of antibodies against Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Pikalo, Jutta; Sattler, Tatjana; Eichinger, Michaela; Loitsch, Angelika; Sun, Hao; Schmoll, Friedrich; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to detect antibodies and potential risk factors for an infec- tion with Leptospira in horses in Middle Germany. Serum samples of 314 horses were examined retrospectively by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against eight Leptospira serovars. In total, 17.2% (n = 54) of the horses were positive for one or more of the serovars analyzed. The most prevalent serovar was lcterohaemorrhagiae (11.1%), followed by serovar Bratislava (9.6 %) and Grippotyphosa (1.9%). Mares showed a significantly higher occurrence of antibodies (p < 0.05) than geldings or stallions. Horses used for breeding have a significantly lower risk than horses used in sport or horses used for leisure activity. There was also a significantly higher prevalence (p < 0.05) in summer than in the other seasons. No significant influence of breed, husbandry conditions and age on the antibody occurrence was observed (p > 0.05). The clinical chemical parameters did not differ significantly between horses with positive or negative Leptospira antibody result (p > 0.05). It became apparent that horses can be infected with Leptospira without developing of clinical symptoms. PMID:27344912

  6. Isomer Energy Differences for the C4H3 and C4H5 Isomers UsingDiffusion Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Domin, D.; Lester Jr., W.A.; Whitesides, R.; Frenklach, M.

    2007-12-01

    A new diffusion Monte Carlo study is performed on the isomers of C{sub 4}H{sub 3} and C{sub 4}H{sub 5} emulating the methodology of a previous study [Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 33, 808 (2001)]. Using the same trial wave function form of the previous study, substantially different isomerization energies were found owing to the use of larger walker populations in the present work. The energy differences between the E and I isomers of C{sub 4}H{sub 3} were found to be 10.5 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol and for C{sub 4}H{sub 5}, 9.7 {+-} 0.6 kcal/mol. These results are in reasonable accord with recent MRCI and CCSD(T) findings.

  7. Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of sorghum [Sorghum biocolor (L.) Moench] gene SbC4H1 restricts lignin synthesis in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first hydroxylase enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and its content and activity affects the lignin synthesis. In this study, we isolated a C4H gene SbC4H1 from the suppression subtractive hybridization library of brown midrib (bmr) mutants of Sorghum b...

  8. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  9. Reproductive Disorders in Horses.

    PubMed

    Snider, Timothy A

    2015-08-01

    Reproductive disease is relatively common in the horse, resulting in a variable, yet significant, economic impact on individual horsemen as well as the entire industry. Diverse expertise from the veterinary community ensures and improves individual and population health of the horse. From a pathology and diagnostics perspective, this review provides a comprehensive overview of pathology of the male and female equine reproductive tract. Recognition by clinical and gross features is emphasized, although some essential histologic parameters are included, as appropriate. Where relevant, discussion of ancillary diagnostic tests and approaches are included for some diseases and lesions. PMID:26210954

  10. Optimizing protease production from an isolate of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans using response surface methodology and its larvicidal activity on horse cyathostomins.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Araújo, J V; Soares, F E F; Araujo, J M; Genier, H L A; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Queiroz, J H; Ferreira, S R

    2011-06-01

    Protease production from Duddingtonia flagrans (isolate AC001) was optimized and the larvicidal activity of the enzymatic extract was evaluated on infective horse cyathostomin larvae (L3). Duddingtonia flagrans was grown in liquid medium with eight different variables: glucose, casein, bibasic potassium phosphate (K2HPO4), magnesium sulphate (MgSO4), zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), copper sulphate (CuSO4) and temperature. The Plackett-Burman analysis showed a significant influence of MgSO4, CuSO4 and casein (P < 0.05) on protease production by D. flagrans in liquid medium. Central composite design indicated that the highest proteolytic activity was 39.56 U/ml as a function of the concentrations of casein (18.409 g/l), MgSO4 (0.10 g/l) and CuSO4 (0.50 mg/l). A significant difference (P < 0.01) was found for the larval number between the treated and control groups at the end of the experiment. A reduction of 95.46% in the number of free-living larvae was found in the treated group compared with the control. The results of this study suggest that protease production by D. flagrans (AC001) in liquid medium was optimized by MgSO4, CuSO4 and casein, showing that the optimized enzymatic extract exerted larvicidal activity on cyathostomins and therefore may contribute to large-scale industrial production. PMID:20682085

  11. Self-assembly of C4H-type hydrogenated graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zilong; Xue, Qingzhong; Xing, Wei; Du, Yonggang; Han, Zhide

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate by molecular dynamic (MD) simulations that patterned partially hydrogenated graphene (C4H) can self-assemble at room temperature. The main driving force of the self-assembly of C4H is due to the one-sided distribution of hydrogen and the corresponding asymmetric orientation of sp(3) bonding, there exists strong electrostatic repulsion between the relatively close H atoms. The simulations show that C4H can self-assemble into various carbon nanoscroll (CNS) structures, this is mainly controlled by its geometry (size and aspect ratio). And the carbon nanotube (CNT) is a good candidate to activate and guide C4H to form CNS, whose core size can be controlled. Meanwhile, a novel CNT/C4H core/shell composite nanostructure is also formed. The theoretical results shed important light on a feasible approach to fabricate high-quality CNS and other novel nanostructures including core/shell structures, which hold great potential applications in optics, optoelectronic devices, hydrogen storage, sensors, and energy storage in supercapacitors or batteries. PMID:24064528

  12. More than Cows & Cooking: Newest Research Shows the Impact of 4-H.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Haynes, George W.

    2002-01-01

    A Montana survey of 2,500 students' use of out-of-school time found that only 17% reported no involvement in out-of-school activities. 4-H participants were less likely to shoplift, steal, smoke cigarettes, ride with a drunk driver, or damage property. They were more likely to develop self-confidence and social competence, demonstrate leadership,…

  13. Adult volunteerism in Pennsylvania 4-H natural resources programs for youth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sanford Sherrick

    2001-07-01

    Pennsylvania's 4-H Youth Development Program relies on adult volunteers to reach youth with educational information and opportunities. Finding adults willing to do this volunteer work is challenging. This study looks at the current status of adult volunteerism with natural resources 4-H projects, and seeks to understand potential volunteers. The literature has much to offer in regards to general volunteer trends, management, motivations, and task preferences; however, few studies focus on volunteers in natural resources or environmental education. A telephone survey conducted with county 4-H agents revealed that only 3.2% of Pennsylvania's 4-H volunteers work with natural resources projects in 56 out of 67 counties, and that very few volunteers have any formal background in natural resources. Semi-structured interviews with 41 adult volunteers currently working with natural resources projects explored volunteer demographics, history, program design preferences, and ideas for seeking more volunteers. Findings from the telephone survey and the semi-structured interviews were used to generate a mail survey with large, random samples from three population groups: (1) 4-H Volunteers, (2) 4-H Parents, and (3) Natural Resources Professionals. Confidence with youth and subject matter, and adult willingness to volunteer was explored for each of the groups in relation to background, demographic characteristics, motivational needs, past and present volunteer activity, personal interests, and program design importance. Natural resources subject matter confidence was shown to be the most significant variable determining willingness to volunteer for all three groups. The variables that contributed to subject matter and youth confidence varied for each population. Key variables effecting willingness to volunteer included outdoor activity level, personal interest in natural resources, the need to fulfill feelings of social responsibility, and confidence with youth. Program design

  14. Theme Unit. Horse Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses…

  15. Hyperelastosis in the Horse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

  16. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    PubMed

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses. PMID:24833979

  17. New potent inhibitors of tyrosinase: novel clues to binding of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thiones, and substituted hydrazides to the dicopper active site.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Usman; Ullah, Nisar

    2010-06-01

    A series of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thiones, 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thiones, and substituted hydrazides were tailored and synthesized as new potent inhibitors of tyrosinase. The rationale for inhibitor design was based on the active site structural evidence from the crystal structures of bacterial tyrosinase and potato catechol oxidase enzymes. Kinetic and active site binding studies suggested mono-dentate binding of thiadiazole, oxadiazole, and triazole rings to the active site dicopper center of tyrosinase including hydrophobicity contributing to the potent inhibition. Kinetic plots showed mixed-type of inhibition by all 25 compounds. Substitutions at C3 of the triazole ring and C5 of the thiadiazole/oxadiazole rings were found to be playing a major role in the high binding affinity to tyrosinase. The current work may help develop new potent tyrosinase inhibitors against hyperpigmentation including potential insecticides. PMID:20452224

  18. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of a new derivative of the Meldrun acid: 2,2-dimethyl-5-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylaminomethylene)-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (C9H10N4O4)

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Gillena M. M.; Teixeira, Alexandre M. R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Sena Junior, Diniz M.; Freire, Paulo T. C.; Bento, Ricardo R. F.; Silva, Luiz E.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new substances with proven antimicrobial activity is the current study goal of various researchers. Usage of synthetic products has grown considerably in the past few years due to processing agility, and capability of going through previous chemical modifications in order to enhance its biological activity. Widespread careless use of antimicrobials has made the number of resistant microorganisms rise significantly, thus demanding more efficient drugs to fight them. One of these synthetic candidates for this purpose is the substance 2,2-Dimethyl-5-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylaminomethylene)-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (C9H10N4O4), aminomethylene derivative from Meldrum's acid. This substance, alone and in association with common antibiotics, were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial activity, and had their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) towards Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, as well as multiresistant strains Escherichia coli 27, Staphylococcus aureus 358 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03 determined. The antimicrobial modulation action tests of the aminoglycosides with C9H10N4O4 were performed according to the microdilution method, and resulted in observation of a positive synergic effect. PMID:26417318

  19. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of a new derivative of the Meldrun acid: 2,2-dimethyl-5-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylaminomethylene)-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (C9H10N4O4).

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Gillena M M; Teixeira, Alexandre M R; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Sena Junior, Diniz M; Freire, Paulo T C; Bento, Ricardo R F; Silva, Luiz E

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new substances with proven antimicrobial activity is the current study goal of various researchers. Usage of synthetic products has grown considerably in the past few years due to processing agility, and capability of going through previous chemical modifications in order to enhance its biological activity. Widespread careless use of antimicrobials has made the number of resistant microorganisms rise significantly, thus demanding more efficient drugs to fight them. One of these synthetic candidates for this purpose is the substance 2,2-Dimethyl-5-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylaminomethylene)-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (C9H10N4O4), aminomethylene derivative from Meldrum's acid. This substance, alone and in association with common antibiotics, were evaluated in vitro for antimicrobial activity, and had their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) towards Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, as well as multiresistant strains Escherichia coli 27, Staphylococcus aureus 358 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 03 determined. The antimicrobial modulation action tests of the aminoglycosides with C9H10N4O4 were performed according to the microdilution method, and resulted in observation of a positive synergic effect. PMID:26417318

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of N′-[(Z)-(3-Methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazol-4-ylidene)(phenyl)methyl]benzohydrazide and Its Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Asegbeloyin, Jonnie N.; Ujam, Oguejiofo T.; Okafor, Emmanuel C.; Babahan, Ilknur; Coban, Esin Poyrazoglu; Özmen, Ali; Biyik, Halil

    2014-01-01

    Reaction of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one and benzoyl hydrazide in refluxing ethanol gave N′-[(Z)-(3-methyl-5-oxo-1-phenyl-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazol-4-ylidene)(phenyl)methyl]benzohydrazide (HL1), which was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray structure study. X-ray diffraction analyses of the crystals revealed a nonplanar molecule, existing in the keto-amine form, with intermolecular hydrogen bonding forming a seven-membered ring system. The reaction of HL1 with Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) halides gave the corresponding complexes, which were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic measurements, and infrared and electronic spectral studies. The compounds were screened for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and antimicrobial activity against some bacteria and yeasts. Results showed that the compounds are potent against HL-60 cells with the IC50 value ≤5 μM, while some of the compounds were active against few studied Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:25332694

  1. Procedure for granulokinetic studies in the horse with chromium-51

    SciTech Connect

    Carakostas, M.C.; Moore, W.E.; Smith, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    A procedure with chromium-51 (51Cr) as the cell label that maintains high-cell viability for studying granulocyte kinetics in horses is described. The procedure combines and modifies several methods for isolating leukocytes and granulocytes for use in the horse when a large volume of labeled cells is required. Also described is an improved technique for measuring granulocyte specific activity in large serial blood samples, using a Ficoll-sedimentation method. The procedure should be useful for determining granulocyte kinetics in the horse, the only major domestic species for which such data are not available.

  2. Self-Protection: A New Approach to 4-H Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sharon K. B.

    This document introduces the issue of self-protection as the Minnesota 4-H Youth Development response to self-destructive behavior among adolescents. It presents findings from a statewide survey of over 36,000 secondary school students using the Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. Responses are given in the areas of health, school attitudes,…

  3. CONSERVING OUR NATURAL RESOURCES, A 4-H LEADER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AMICK, W. ROBERT; AND OTHERS

    AN EFFECTIVE 4-H CONSERVATION PROGRAM IS DEVELOPED AROUND THE FOLLOWING BASIC CONCEPTS--(1) MAN IS A PART OF THE NATURAL WORLD, IN WHICH THERE ARE MANY VALUABLE MATERIALS, (2) MAN HAS LEARNED TO USE MANY OF THOSE MATERIALS FOR HUMAN SUSTENANCE AND BETTERMENT, AND (3) MAN'S ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND GENERAL WELFARE IS LARGELY DEPENDENT UPON THE MANNER…

  4. "Ohio 4-H CARTEENS": Peer Intervention Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropper, Rebecca J.

    1999-01-01

    Ohio 4-H's CARTEENS seeks to reduce juvenile traffic violations in a program designed and presented by teen peer educators with guidance and technical assistance from the state highway patrol. Teens examined court data to determine content, which includes defensive driving, rural road safety, and dealing with peer pressure. (SK)

  5. Effectiveness of the Indiana 4-H Tractor Program: Alumni Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrabba, James J., Jr.; Talbert, B. Allen; Field, William E.; Tormoehlen, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Responses from Indiana 4-H tractor driving contestants 1982-197 (n=139) showed that 74% were employed on farms; most felt the contests effectively taught tractor safety and made them generally aware of safety. However, many still engaged in risky behaviors such as not wearing seatbelts in tractors with rollover protective structures or allowing…

  6. A Phenomenological Look at 4-H Volunteer Motives for Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrock, Jessalyn; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Volunteers play a vital role in 4-H programs. Without their service, many programs would not be possible. Understanding volunteer motives provides Extension educators with tools for finding high-quality volunteers. The research reported here used McClelland's (1985) framework for motivation (affiliation, achievement, and power) and…

  7. Minnesota 4-H Youth Program Quality Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Margo; Grant, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension Center for Youth Development made an organizational decision in 2011 to invest in a system-wide approach to implement youth program quality into the 4-H program using the Youth Program Quality Assessment (YPQA) tool. This article describes the four key components to the Minnesota Youth Program Quality…

  8. The Evaluation Attitudes and Practices of 4-H Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Bennett, Amanda M.

    2011-01-01

    Extension educators are expected to conduct program evaluation. An Internet survey was sent to county 4-H educators in Ohio to examine their evaluation attitudes and practices, as well as barriers to conducting evaluation. Respondents indicated a range of attitudes about evaluation and limited use of different designs and methods. Having enough…

  9. Bioactive saponins and glycosides. III. Horse chestnut. (1): The structures, inhibitory effects on ethanol absorption, and hypoglycemic activity of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa from the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N; Kitagawa, I

    1996-08-01

    Five bioactive triterpene oligoglycosides named escins, Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa were isolated from the seeds of horse chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae). The chemical structures of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, and IIIa were determine on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included selective cleavage of the glucuronide linkage using photochemical reaction and lead tetraacetate decarboxylation reaction. Escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb were found to exhibit an ethanol absorption-inhibitory effect and hypoglycemic activity in the oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Some structure-activity relationships are reported. PMID:8795266

  10. Synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@M (M = Ir, Os, IrOs) Core-Shell Nanoribbons For Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Chen, Ye; Wang, Jie; Li, Bing; Zong, Yun; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The high-yield synthesis of 4H/face-centered cubic (fcc)-Au@Ir core-shell nanoribbons (NRBs) is achieved via the direct growth of Ir on 4H Au NRBs under ambient conditions. Importantly, this method can be used to synthesize 4H/fcc-Au@Os and 4H/fcc-Au@IrOs core-shell NRBs. Significantly, the obtained 4H/fcc-Au@Ir core-shell NRBs demonstrate an exceptional electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction under acidic condition, which is much higher than that of the commercial Ir/C catalyst. PMID:27345872

  11. New Jersey 4-H Goat Extravaganza: Efficiently Meeting the Educational Needs of 4-H Goat Project Members, Volunteers, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripberger, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Goat Extravaganza maximizes limited resources to help youth and adults develop knowledge and skills in goat care and management. It capitalizes on the talents and interests of volunteers to efficiently combine a goat-themed art show, team presentation contest, quiz bowl, skillathon, and adult workshop into 1 day. This article outlines the…

  12. Starting and Maintaining a Marine Aquarium: 4-H Members Guide [and] 4-H Member's Project Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Neil

    The guide and the project record book included in this document are designed for 4-H members who would like to start a salt-water aquarium project. The guide includes the following topics: (1) general requirements for salt-water aquariums; (2) directions for making an aquarium; (3) suggestions for where to locate it; (4) pros and cons of using…

  13. Horse madness (hippomania) and hippophobia.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, Yiannis G; Daras, Michael D; Liappas, Ioannis A; Markianos, Manolis

    2005-12-01

    Anthropophagic horses have been described in classical mythology. From a current perspective, two such instances are worth mentioning and describing: Glaucus of Potniae, King of Efyra, and Diomedes, King of Thrace, who were both devoured by their horses. In both cases, the horses' extreme aggression and their subsequent anthropophagic behaviour were attributed to their madness (hippomania) induced by the custom of feeding them with flesh. The current problem of 'mad cow' disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) is apparently related to a similar feed pattern. Aggressive behaviour in horses can be triggered by both biological and psychological factors. In the cases cited here, it is rather unlikely that the former were the cause. On the other hand, the multiple abuses imposed on the horses, coupled with people's fantasies and largely unconscious fears (hippophobia), may possibly explain these mythological descriptions of 'horse-monsters'. PMID:16482685

  14. The origin of ambling horses.

    PubMed

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-01

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. PMID:27505236

  15. Immune Dysfunction in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Dianne

    2016-08-01

    The aging process in people is associated with changes in adaptive and innate immune responses. Similar changes occur in aged horses. Age-related progressive impairment in the ability to respond to pathogen challenge and an increased inflammatory reactivity may predispose geriatric horses to many diseases of old age. Specific recommendations for immune modification of older horses, including an age-appropriate vaccination schedule, are not currently available. In addition, the effect of old age on risk of infectious disease is poorly documented. More work is needed to better understand the interactions of age on immunity, vaccine response, and disease risk in horses. PMID:27329495

  16. Improved activity and thermo-stability of the horse radish peroxidase with graphene quantum dots and its application in fluorometric detection of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyan, Zhou; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2016-08-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received extensive concern in many fields such as optical probe, bioimaging and biosensor. However, few reports refer on the influence of GQDs on enzyme performance. The paper reports two kinds of graphene quantum dots (termed as GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs) that were prepared by cutting of graphene oxide and pyrolysis of citric acid and L-cysteine, and their use for the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) modification. The study reveals that GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs exhibit an opposite effect on the HRP performance. Only HRP modified with GO-GQDs offers an enhanced activity (more than 1.9 times of pristine enzyme) and thermo-stability. This is because GO-GQDs offer a larger conjugate rigid plane and fewer hydrophilic groups compared to N,S-GQDs. The characteristics can make GO-GQDs induce a proper conformational change in the HRP for the catalytic performance, improving the enzyme activity and thermo-stability. The HRP modified with green luminescent GO-GQDs was also employed as a biocatalyst for sensing of H2O2 by a fluorometric sensor. The colorless tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is oxidized into blue oxidized TMB in the presence of H2O2 by the assistance of HRP/GO-GQDs, leading to an obvious fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity linearly decreases with the increase of H2O2 concentration in the range from 2 × 10 - 9 to 2 × 10 - 4 M with the detection limit of 6.8 × 10 - 10 M. The analytical method provides the advantage of sensitivity, stability and accuracy compared with present H2O2 sensors based on the pristine HRP. It has been successfully applied in the determination of H2O2 in real water samples. The study also opens a new avenue for modification of enzyme activity and stability that offers great promise in applications such as biological catalysis, biosensing and enzyme engineering.

  17. Improved activity and thermo-stability of the horse radish peroxidase with graphene quantum dots and its application in fluorometric detection of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Xiaoyan, Zhou; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2016-08-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received extensive concern in many fields such as optical probe, bioimaging and biosensor. However, few reports refer on the influence of GQDs on enzyme performance. The paper reports two kinds of graphene quantum dots (termed as GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs) that were prepared by cutting of graphene oxide and pyrolysis of citric acid and l-cysteine, and their use for the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) modification. The study reveals that GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs exhibit an opposite effect on the HRP performance. Only HRP modified with GO-GQDs offers an enhanced activity (more than 1.9 times of pristine enzyme) and thermo-stability. This is because GO-GQDs offer a larger conjugate rigid plane and fewer hydrophilic groups compared to N,S-GQDs. The characteristics can make GO-GQDs induce a proper conformational change in the HRP for the catalytic performance, improving the enzyme activity and thermo-stability. The HRP modified with green luminescent GO-GQDs was also employed as a biocatalyst for sensing of H2O2 by a fluorometric sensor. The colorless tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is oxidized into blue oxidized TMB in the presence of H2O2 by the assistance of HRP/GO-GQDs, leading to an obvious fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity linearly decreases with the increase of H2O2 concentration in the range from 2×10-9 to 2×10-4M with the detection limit of 6.8×10-10M. The analytical method provides the advantage of sensitivity, stability and accuracy compared with present H2O2 sensors based on the pristine HRP. It has been successfully applied in the determination of H2O2 in real water samples. The study also opens a new avenue for modification of enzyme activity and stability that offers great promise in applications such as biological catalysis, biosensing and enzyme engineering. PMID:27116472

  18. Towards a postural indicator of back pain in horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Lesimple, Clémence; Fureix, Carole; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Sénèque, Emilie; Menguy, Hervé; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Postures have long been used and proved useful to describe animals' behaviours and emotional states, but remains difficult to assess objectively in field conditions. A recent study performed on horses using geometric morphometrics revealed important postural differences between 2 horse populations differing in management conditions (leisure horses living in social groups used for occasional "relaxed" riding/riding school horses living in individual boxes used in daily riding lessons with more constraining techniques). It was suggested that these postural differences may reflect chronic effects of riding techniques on the horses' kinematics and muscular development. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the interest of postural measures to assess welfare in horses. This study was separated into 2 parts. First, 18 horses coming from these 2 types of populations (leisure/riding school horses) were submitted to 2 back evaluations by 1) manual examination (experienced practitioner) and 2) sEMG measures along the spine. We then measured neck roundness on 16 of these 18 horses. The results highlighted high correlations between manual and sEMG examinations over the spine. sEMG measures at the different locations were strongly correlated all over the spine. Moreover, neck postures and muscular activities were strongly correlated, horses with concave necks having higher sEMG measures both at precise locations (i.e. cervical sites) but also when comparing neck postures to the whole spine muscular activity highlighting the functioning of horses' back as a whole. Lastly, strong differences appeared between the populations, leisure horses being evaluated as having sounder spines, exhibiting lower sEMG measures and rounder neck than the riding school horses. sEMG measures and neck "roundness" seemed therefore to be reliable indicators of back disorders, easy to evaluate in field conditions. This highlights the accuracy of using postural elements to evaluate the animals

  19. A Perfect Fit: 4-H Involvement for Youth with Disabilities. A Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepf, Greg W.; And Others

    This guide for 4-H leaders and volunteers offers information to help integrate youth with disabilities into various 4-H programs. After an introduction, a section on 4-H and mainstreaming reviews the mission of 4-H; considers what 4-H has to offer youth; defines mainstreaming; notes the benefits of mainstreaming; and distinguishes among the terms…

  20. Design, spectral characterization, thermal, DFT studies and anticancer cell line activities of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B S; Yadav, Deepak

    2015-06-15

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L(1), L(2) have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and furan-2-carbaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 1:1 and 2:1. The characterization of Schiff bases and metal complexes was done by (1)H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrometry and molar conductivity studies. The in DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The effect of these complexes on proliferation of human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (Hep-G2) were studied and compared with those of free ligand. The anticancer cell line results reveal that all metal complexes show moderate to significant % cytotoxicity on cell line HepG2 and MCF-7. PMID:25770965

  1. Design, spectral characterization, thermal, DFT studies and anticancer cell line activities of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of Schiff bases derived from 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Prateek; Chandra, Sulekh; Saraswat, B. S.; Yadav, Deepak

    2015-06-01

    A series of two biologically active Schiff base ligands L1, L2 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol with thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and furan-2-carbaldehyde. The synthesized Schiff bases were used for complexation with different metal ions like Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) by using a molar ratio of ligand: metal as 1:1 and 2:1. The characterization of Schiff bases and metal complexes was done by 1H NMR, UV-Vis, TGA, IR, mass spectrometry and molar conductivity studies. The in DFT studies the geometries of Schiff bases and metal complexes were fully optimized with respect to the energy using the 6-31+g(d,p) basis set. On the basis of the spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The effect of these complexes on proliferation of human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (Hep-G2) were studied and compared with those of free ligand. The anticancer cell line results reveal that all metal complexes show moderate to significant % cytotoxicity on cell line HepG2 and MCF-7.

  2. African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Zientara, S; Weyer, C T; Lecollinet, S

    2015-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a devastating disease of equids caused by an arthropod-borne virus belonging to the Reoviridae family, genus Orbivirus. It is considered a major health threat for horses in endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) repeatedly caused large epizootics in the Mediterranean region (North Africa and southern Europe in particular) as a result of trade in infected equids. The unexpected emergence of a closely related virus, the bluetongue virus, in northern Europe in 2006 has raised fears about AHSV introduction into Europe, and more specifically into AHSV-free regions that have reported the presence of AHSV vectors, e.g. Culicoides midges. North African and European countries should be prepared to face AHSV incursions in the future, especially since two AHSV serotypes (serotypes 2 and 7) have recently spread northwards to western (e.g. Senegal, Nigeria, Gambia) and eastern Africa (Ethiopia), where historically only serotype 9 had been isolated. The authors review key elements of AHS epidemiology, surveillance and prophylaxis. PMID:26601437

  3. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  4. Bufexamac ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by targeting LTA4H

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiang; Dong, Ningning; Yao, Xue; Wu, Dang; Lu, Yanli; Mao, Fei; Zhu, Jin; Li, Jian; Huang, Jin; Chen, Aifang; Huang, Lu; Wang, Xuehai; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the occurrence and development of acute lung injury (ALI). Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a hydrolysis product of epoxide leukotriene A4 (LTA4) catalyzed by LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), is one of the most potent chemoattractants for neutrophil. Bufexamac is a drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent on the skin, however, the mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In this study, we found bufexamac was capable of specifically inhibiting LTA4H enzymatic activity and revealed the mode of interaction of bufexamac and LTA4H using X-ray crystallography. Moreover, bufexamac significantly prevented the production of LTB4 in neutrophil and inhibited the fMLP-induced neutrophil migration through inhibition of LTA4H. Finally, bufexamac significantly attenuated lung inflammation as reflected by reduced LTB4 levels and weakened neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from a lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI mouse model. In summary, our study indicates that bufexamac acts as an inhibitor of LTB4 biosynthesis and may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of ALI. PMID:27126280

  5. Immunoblot analysis of the humoral immune response to Pythium insidiosum in horses with pythiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, L; Nicholson, V; Prescott, J F

    1992-01-01

    Reactions to Pythium insidiosum by sera from horses with active pythiosis were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Five strains of P. insidiosum were grown in nutrient broth and then sonicated. After centrifugation, supernatant antigens were separated by SDS-PAGE. An exoantigen of Conidiobolus coronatus was also tested. Bands with molecular weights between 97,000 and 14,000 were identified by Coomassie blue and silver staining. After being transferred to nitrocellulose, the antigens were reacted against sera from six horses with pythiosis, sera from four horses cured a year earlier by vaccination, and sera from five healthy horses. The sera from horses with pythiosis recognized at least 20 antigens in all strains. Three antigens with molecular weights of 32,000, 30,000, and 28,000 appeared to be immunodominant and specific. Sera from horses cured by immunotherapy showed only five very weak bands, three of them the 32,000-molecular-weight (32K), 30K, and 28K antigens. No bands were observed with sera from healthy horses or sera from horses with a variety of other infections. Sera from horses with pythiosis cross-reacted with the 44K antigen of C. coronatus. The immunodominant antigens described here may be useful for diagnostic purposes and in immunotherapy for this oomycotic infection in horses. Images PMID:1452669

  6. The Contribution of Equitation Science to Minimising Horse-Related Risks to Humans.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa; McLean, Andrew; McGreevy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Equitation science is an evidence-based approach to horse training and riding that focuses on a thorough understanding of both equine ethology and learning theory. This combination leads to more effective horse training, but also plays a role in keeping horse riders and trainers safe around horses. Equitation science underpins ethical equitation, and recognises the limits of the horse's cognitive and physical abilities. Equitation is an ancient practice that has benefited from a rich tradition that sees it flourishing in contemporary sporting pursuits. Despite its history, horse-riding is an activity for which neither horses nor humans evolved, and it brings with it significant risks to the safety of both species. This review outlines the reasons horses may behave in ways that endanger humans and how training choices can exacerbate this. It then discusses the recently introduced 10 Principles of Equitation Science and explains how following these principles can minimise horse-related risk to humans and enhance horse welfare. PMID:26907354

  7. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in horses after single intravenous and intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, L; Panu, S; Pyörälä, S

    1997-09-01

    Pharmacokinetic behaviour of enrofloxacin was studied in 6 horses after intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg bwt). Concentration of enrofloxacin and ciproflaxin were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in serum. Antimicrobial activity of the samples was determined with an agar-diffusion technique. Reactions at the site of i.m. injection were monitored clinically and by determination of serum creatine kinase (CK) activity. After i.v. administration, elimination half-life of enrofloxacin was 4.4 h and volume of distribution was 2.3 1/kg bwt. Enrofloxacin was rapidly metabolised to ciprofloxacin. The half-life of ciprofloxacin parallelled that of the parent drug, its concentration in serum reached 20-35% of that of the parent drug. After i.m. administration, elimination half-life of enrofloxacin was longer (9.9 h) than after i.v. administration. Mean absorption time of enrofloxacin was also long (9.9 h). No statistically significant differences were found when half-life and mean residence time of antimicrobial activity were compared with those of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin from chemically analysed data. Intramuscular injection of enrofloxacin was found to be very irritating. After i.m. administration, CK activity in serum, compared with pre-injection levels, increased over 10-fold. CK activity also stayed high during the 32 h follow-up period. Clinical reactions, such as swelling or tenderness at the i.m. injection sites, were observed in 2 horses. PMID:9306065

  8. High efficiency 4H-SiC betavoltaic power sources using tritium radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; Portnoff, Samuel; Spencer, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Realization of an 18.6% efficient 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) large area betavoltaic power source using the radioisotope tritium is reported. A 200 nm 4H-SiC P+N junction is used to collect high-energy electrons. The electron source is a titanium tritide (TiH3x) foil, or an integrated titanium tritide region formed by the diffusion of tritium into titanium. The specific activity of the source is directly measured. Dark current measured under short circuit conditions was less than 6.1 pA/cm2. Samples measured with an external tritium foil produced an open circuit voltage of 2.09 V, short circuit current of 75.47 nA/cm2, fill factor of 0.86, and power efficiency of 18.6%. Samples measured with an integrated source produced power efficiencies of 12%. Simulations were done to determine the beta spectrum (modified by self absorption) exiting the source and the electron hole pair generation function in the 4H-SiC. The electron-hole pair generation function in 4H-SiC was modeled as a Gaussian distribution, and a closed form solution of the continuity equation was used to analyze the cell performance. The effective surface recombination velocity in our samples was found to be 105-106 cm/s. Our analysis demonstrated that the surface recombination dominates the performance of a tritium betavoltaic device but that using a thin P+N junction structure can mitigate some of the negative effects.

  9. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  10. Connecting Kids To The Universe: Partnering With 4-H Youth Development To Pilot 'Afterschool Universe' In New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Nancy

    2008-05-01

    4-H Youth Development - as the youth program of the Cooperative Extension system associated with the land grant university in every state - is an ideal partner for statewide dissemination of EPO programs. With funding from a Chandra Cycle 9 EPO grant we are piloting `Afterschool Universe’ in five urban locations in New York State. `Afterschool Universe’ is an education/outreach effort sponsored by NASA's Beyond Einstein program and was developed in partnership with the Imagine the Universe EPO program. The program is targeted at middle school students in out-of-school-time settings and explores basic astronomy concepts focused on the Universe beyond the solar system. Consisting of 12 sessions of engaging hands-on activities, the flexibly structured program can be used in a variety of settings, including astronomy days, youth groups, summer camps, and afterschool programs. Partnering with 4-H Youth Development helps us reach large numbers of underserved and underrepresented minority youth and girls in widely dispersed areas of New York and fits ideally with the current national 4-H SET (science, engineering, and technology) initiative and emphasis on 4-H afterschool programming. The pilot program provides teaching kits and workshops for program leaders. Our 4-H county partners recruit afterschool program staff, science center staff, 4-H volunteers, 4-H teens, and other youth group leaders as workshop participants. The 4-H program will house and loan the kit to trained leaders. By providing kits and training in 2008, we are gearing up for International Year of Astronomy programs in 2009 in out-of-school settings. Based on pilot results, we will seek additional funding to expand the program. The poster will discuss kit development, 4-H partnership, workshops, participating organizations, target audiences, successes, and challenges.

  11. Impact of horse traffic on trails in Rocky Mountain National Park.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summer, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Disturbances related to the impact of horses on trails in Rocky Mountain National Park vary across the landscape. Geomorphic monitoring of permanent sites suggests that horse traffic is not the single, dominant process active on trails, nor is degredation always a direct result of horse use. Instead, amounts and rates of change are a function of geomorphic and biologic characteristics of the terrain interacting with horse traffic of varying degrees. The most influential landscape factors governing trail deteriortion, rockiness, stoniness, vegetation, and drainage. - from Author

  12. Does Work Affect Personality? A Study in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as “interpersonal” conflicts or “suppressed emotions”. An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to

  13. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    PubMed

    Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work

  14. Interindividual variations in metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 3-(6-methylpyridine-3-yl-sulfanyl)-6-(4H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-yl-sulfanyl)-N-(1,3-thiazole-2-yl)-2-pyridine carboxamide, a glucokinase activator, in rats caused by the genetic polymorphism of CYP2D1.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takuro; Eiki, Jun-ichi; Chiba, Masato

    2014-09-01

    3-(6-Methylpyridine-3-yl-sulfanyl)-6-(4H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-yl-sulfanyl)-N-(1,3-thiazole-2-yl)-2-pyridine carboxamide (Cpd-D) is a novel glucokinase activator that is being developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Large interindividual variations were observed in the pharmacokinetics of Cpd-D in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, which were subsequently divided into two phenotypes; >6-fold longer terminal-phase half-life and ∼10-fold larger AUC0-∞ values were observed in slow metabolizers (SM) than in fast metabolizers (FM) after the oral administration of Cpd-D. The thiohydantoic acid analog (M2) was the predominant metabolite detected in the urine, bile, and plasma after the oral administration of [(14)C]Cpd-D to the FM phenotypes of bile-duct cannulated SD rats. The liver microsomes prepared from FM phenotyped rats extensively formed M2 with the highest affinity (Km = 0.09 μM) and largest Vmax/Km value in primary metabolism, whereas those from SM phenotypes had little capacity to form M2. Of the rat cytochrome P450 isoforms tested, the formation of M2 was only catalyzed by recombinant CYP2D1. Sequence substitutions (418A/421C and 418G/421T) were detected in the CYP2D1 gene and were designated F and S alleles, respectively. The genotype-phenotype correlation analysis indicated that two S alleles were homozygous (S/S) in the SM phenotypes, whereas the FM phenotypes were either homozygous for the F-alleles (F/F) or heterozygous (F/S). These results indicated that the CYP2D1 polymorphism caused by nucleotide substitutions (418A/421C versus 418G/421T) was responsible for interindividual variations leading to the polymorphism in the major metabolism and pharmacokinetics of Cpd-D in male SD rats. PMID:24924387

  15. Thoracic trauma in horses.

    PubMed

    Sprayberry, Kim A; Barrett, Elizabeth J

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic injuries involving the thorax can be superficial, necessitating only routine wound care, or they may extend to deeper tissue planes and disrupt structures immediately vital to respiratory and cardiac function. Diagnostic imaging, especially ultrasound, should be considered part of a comprehensive examination, both at admission and during follow-up. Horses generally respond well to diligent monitoring, intervention for complications, and appropriate medical or surgical care after sustaining traumatic wounds of the thorax. This article reviews the various types of thoracic injury and their management. PMID:25770070

  16. Horse Hoof Protectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

  17. An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB). Results This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable. Conclusions These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative

  18. Critical tests of new benzothiazole anthelmintic tioxidazole in the horse.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    1980-09-01

    The basic-dose confirmation tests of tioxidazole for removal of susceptible populations of gastrointestinal parasites of the horse were made in 10 naturally infected horses, using the critical test method (experiment A). A single dose of toxidazole, given at the rate of 11 mg/kg of body weight, was administered to 5 horses by stomach tube and to 5 horses by mixing the drug with the daily grain ration. In the 5 horses given the drug by stomach tube, aggregate average removals were 90% or more for 5 horses infected with Stronglyus vulgaris, 5 infected with S edentatus, 5 infected with small strongyles, 3 infected with Parascaris equorum, 3 infected with mature Oxyuris equi, and 5 infected with immature O equi. Bots (Gastrophilus intestinalis and G nasalis) in 5 infected horses and tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata or A magna) in 3 infected horses were not removed. Activity against stomach worms (Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema muscae, and Drashia megastoma) was not evidenced. In the 5 horses given the drug in the feed, aggregate average removals were 90% or more for 5 horses infected with S vulgaris, 5 infected with S edentatus, 1 infected with S equinus, 5 infected with small strongyles, 3 infected with P equorum, 3 infected with mature O equi, and 5 infected with immature O equi. Activity against bots, tapeworms, and stomach worms was not detected. Larval count data on fecal samples also indicated liited, if any, activity against Strongyloides westeri by tioxidazole at this dosage (11 mg/kg). In addition to experiment A, tioxidazole (11 mg/kg) was administered via stomach tube in a single dose in a critical test to a foal naturally infected with benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles (population B) and removal was only 27% (experiment B). The same 5 species of small strongyles refractory to the benzimidazoles also exhibited resistance to tioxidazole. Specimens of P equorum and S vulgaris were all removed from the foal. Untoward effects of tioxidazole treatment

  19. Transport induced inflammatory responses in horses.

    PubMed

    Wessely-Szponder, J; Bełkot, Z; Bobowiec, R; Kosior-Korzecka, U; Wójcik, M

    2015-01-01

    Deleterious response to road transport is an important problem in equine practice. It determines different physiological, immunological and metabolic changes which lead to increased susceptibility to several disorders such as pneumonia, diarrhea, colics, laminitis, injuries and rhabdomyolisis. The aim of our study was to look for possible relationships between transportation of female young and older horses over a long and short distance and an inflammatory state reflected by an increase of acute phase protein concentration, oxidative stress and muscle injury. The study was conducted on 24 cold-blooded female horses divided into four groups. Six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 550 km, six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 50 km. Plasma and serum were obtained from blood samples taken before transportation (T0), immediately after transportation (T1) and at an abattoir during slaughter (T2). In these samples fibrinogen, MDA, AST and CK were assessed. Fibrinogen increased in all studied groups especially in fillies after long distance transportation, where it reached 205±7.07 mg/dl before transportation, 625±35.35 mg/dl after transportation, and 790±14.14 mg/dl during slaughter. MDA concentrations rose after transportation and reached the maximal level during slaughter. CK activity was more elevated after short transportation in younger horses, whereas initial activity of AST was higher in older horses. We estimated that intensified responses from acute phase, oxidative stress and muscle injury parameters indicated an inflammatory state. PMID:26172192

  20. Leptospirosis in horses in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Kitson-Piggot, A W; Prescott, J F

    1987-01-01

    Sera from Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses in southwest Ontario were tested for antibody to seven Leptospira interrogans serovars (autumnalis, bratislava, canicola, grippotyphosa, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona), using the microscopic agglutination test. There was significantly higher seroprevalence of bratislava than of other serovars, in which prevalence was low. Seroprevalence of bratislava increased significantly with age; only 5% of two to three year old horses had titers greater than or equal to 1:80 compared to 52% of horses older than seven years. Eight of 16 foals from two farms seroconverted at low titers to bratislava between four and eight months of age. Leptospires were not detected by immunofluorescence and isolation techniques in 50 kidneys collected from horses at slaughter. Fetal tissues from 52 aborted horse fetuses were also examined by these methods and serovar kennewicki was identified by immunofluorescence and by isolation in one fetus. Serovar bratislava appears to be widespread in horses in Ontario but unimportant in abortion. The clinical significance of this infection in horses in Ontario is unclear. PMID:3330964

  1. Coprophilous fungi of the horse.

    PubMed

    Pointelli, E; Santa-maria, M A; Caretta, G

    1981-05-01

    A total of 1267 microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these 395 were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, 363 on 20 race-horses and 509 on 20 working horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common coprophilous fungi are in decreasing order Pilobolus kleinii, Saccobolus depauperatus, Mucor hiemalis, Lasiobolus ciliatus, Podospora curvula, Petriella guttulata, M. circinelloides, Coprinus radiatus, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Sordaria fimicola, C. miser, C. stercorariusm, Acremonium sp., Coprotus granuliformis, Graphium putredinis, Iodophanus carneus, Chaetomium murorum, Podospora communis, P. inaequalis, P. setosa, Saccobolus versicolor and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Species of Myrothecium verrucaria, Actinomucor elegans, Kernia nitida, Spiculostilbella dendritica and Mucor parvispora were found exclusively in working-horses feces. Badhamia sp., Anixiopsis stercoraria, Echinobotryum state of D. stemonitis, Geotrichum candidum and Oidiodendron sp. were found only in saddle-horses feces. Chlamidomyces palmarum, Philocopra sp. were found exclusively in race-horses feces. Notes on infrequent or interesting fungi include Thamnostylum piriforme, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Rhopalomyces elegans and Spiculostilbella dendritica. PMID:7242651

  2. Efficacy of the repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET) against tabanid flies on horses evaluated in a field test in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Herholz, C; Kopp, C; Wenger, M; Mathis, A; Wägeli, S; Roth, N

    2016-05-15

    Female tabanid flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can be a serious nuisance for horses because of their painful bites during blood feeding. They also play a primary role in mechanical transmission of a lentivirus causing Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA), a virus that has spread within Europe in recent years. According to the European law for products intended for use as a repellent on horses (recreational and sport horses), a field test is mandatory to demonstrate sufficient repellency of such a substance against the specific target fly species, but currently no agreed protocols are available for testing of potential repellents. The aim of the present study was to establish a protocol for a field test to investigate the efficacy of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET, Brum®, Huebeli-Stud Horse Care AG) in a 15-17% oil-water emulsion against tabanid flies on horses up to four hours. Between July and August 2015, four horses on three farms each were tested on two consecutive days in a cross-over design. The four horses on Farm A were used in the pre-test as well as in the main test. Two and a half hours after repellent application the horses were lunged until sweating. Tabanid fly infestations were both photographed and directly counted during five minutes 3 and 4h after repellent application on the right side of the horses in the area from the head to the flank, belly and first third of the foreleg. Without repellent application, up to 29 tabanid flies were counted on a horse, whereas the maximum for the repellent treated horses was four. In 50% of the horses treated with DEET there were no Tabanids observed (efficacy 100%), and in all horses the tabanid fly counts were lower than in the control horses with one exemption at 4h. The efficacy of the DEET repellent was at least 80% and 71% respectively, three or four hours after application (with a confidence level of 89%). A fly trap (Horse Pal) revealed the presence of the tabanid species Tabanus brominus and Haematopota

  3. Intergenerational Panels at Centennial Events: Stimulating Discussion about Continuity and Change in the 4-H Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Matthew S.; Weikert, Ben; Scholl, Jan; Rushton, Mya

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces an intergenerational strategy for organizations planning centennial celebratory events. The methods and findings from the 4-H through the Generations session conducted at the joint 4-H Leadership Conference and 4-H Leaders Forum to celebrate the Pennsylvania 4-H Centennial are reported. Youth and adult participants shared…

  4. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  5. Experimental investigations of the hypernucleus Λ4H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, P.; Schulz, F.; Aulenbacher, S.; Beričič, J.; Bleser, S.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Correa, L.; Distler, M. O.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Friščić, I.; Fujii, Y.; Fujita, M.; Gogami, T.; Kanda, H.; Kaneta, M.; Kegel, S.; Kohl, Y.; Kusaka, W.; Margaryan, A.; Merkel, H.; Mihovilovič, M.; Müller, U.; Nagao, S.; Nakamura, S. N.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez Lorente, A.; Schlimme, B. S.; Schoth, M.; Sfienti, C.; Širca, S.; Steinen, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tang, L.; Thiel, M.; Tsukada, K.; Tyukin, A.; Weber, A.

    2016-03-01

    Negatively charged pions from two-body decays of stopped Λ4H hypernuclei were studied in 2012 at the Mainz Microtron MAMI, Germany. The momenta of the decay-pions were measured with unprecedented precision by using high-resolution magnetic spectrometers. A challenge of the experiment was the tagging of kaons from associated K+∧ production off a Be target at very forward angles. In the year 2014, this experiment was continued with a better control of the systematic uncertainties, with better suppression of coincident and random background, improved particle identification, and with higher luminosities. Another key point of the progress was the improvement in the absolute momentum calibration of the magnetic spectrometers.

  6. 4H-SiC detectors for ultraviolet light monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Badalà, P.; Carbone, B.; Russo, A.; Coffa, S.

    2015-02-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) provides the unique property of near-perfect visible blindness and very high signal-to-noise ratio due to the high quantum efficiency and low dark current even at high temperature. These features make SiC the best available material for the manufacturing of visible blind semiconductor ultraviolet (UV) light detectors. Thanks to their properties, SiC detectors have been extensively used in fact for flame detection monitoring, UV sterilization and astronomy. Here we report on the electrical and optical performance of patterned thin metal film NiSi/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes with different semiconductor exposed area suitably designed for UV light monitoring.

  7. Extended defects in 4H-silicon carbide homoepitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the structure of extended defects in 4H-SIC homoepitaxial layers, and to identify their nucleation mechanisms. Characteristics of basal plane dislocations in 4H-SiC epilayers were investigated in a comprehensive manner, including their morphologies, Burgers' vectors, positions, and correlation with the extended defects propagating from the substrate. Plan-view transmission x-ray topography was the major characterization technique used in this study. Complementary data was obtained by KOH etching and optical microscopy. Trace of glide was detected on every basal plane dislocation in the entire 3-inch epilayer. In the center area of the epi-wafer, the glide can extend to macroscopic distance and form edge-type dislocations at the epilayer/surface interface. During the motion, dislocation half loop arrays were found to nucleate at the growth front. The magnitude of the resolved shear stress was estimated based on the radius of curvature of the dislocation lines. It surpassed the critical resolved shear stress at the epitaxial growth temperature. The stress was identified to be compressive in the epilayer. Its origin was studied. Nitrogen-doping-difference-induced misfit strain was excluded as the source of the stress. The structures of two morphological defects, 'carrots' and 'arrows', were studied. Cross-section x-ray topography was used to image the structure of carrot defect in whole. The defect was found to nucleate at the epilayer/substrate interface on a threading screw dislocation propagating from the substrate. Its structure was mainly composed of a prismatic stacking fault and a Frank-type basal plane stacking fault. The arrow defect was found to be produced by a spheroid shape inclusion in the volume of the epilayer. Zone axis diffraction pattern under transmission electron microscope identified the nature of the inclusion as 3C-SIC. It was determined to nucleate at the substrate surface contaminations.

  8. America's Wild Horses. Five Day Lesson Plan and Workbook--4th Grade. Legend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Arlene E.

    This document contains a teaching guide and a children's activity book about the wild horses and burros living on Nevada public lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). In 1971 Congress passed legislation to protect, manage, and control wild horses and burros on public lands. The BLM maintains 270 herd management areas in 10 states.…

  9. The effect of the NMDA receptor blocker, dextromethorphan, on cribbing in horses.

    PubMed

    Rendon, R A; Shuster, L; Dodman, N H

    2001-01-01

    Stereotypic cribbing in horses is thought to involve excess dopaminergic activity within the striatum. Various models of stress-induced stereotypies including cribbing in horses postulate that stress stimulates the release of endorphins, triggering the release of striatal dopamine. Dopamine in turn activates basal ganglia motor programs, reinforcing behavior via a reward mechanism. Furthermore, the release of dopamine by endorphins has been shown to depend on activation of NMDA receptors. In the present study, horses identified as cribbers and volunteered by their owners were treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist dextromethorphan (DM). When DM was administered via jugular injection (1 mg/kg), eight of nine horses responded with reductions in cribbing rate (CR) compared to baseline, and cribbing was suppressed completely for a period of time in almost half of the horses tested. PMID:11274707

  10. Horse-play: Survey of Accidents with Horses

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Hugh M.

    1973-01-01

    Horse-riding is increasing in popularity. During 1971 and 1972 154 patients had horse-related injuries of sufficient severity to warrant admission to the Radcliffe Infirmary. The injuries sustained are more common and more severe than generally appreciated and are comparable to those sustained by motor-cyclists. Supervision of children is often insufficient and protective leg and head gear is commonly quite inadequate, even when worn. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:4795373

  11. Demonstration of the First 4H-SiC EUV Detector with Large Detection Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xin, Xiaobin; Yan, Feng; Koeth, Timothy W.; Hu, Jun; Zhao, Jian H.

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) detectors are very attractive in astronomy, photolithography and biochemical applications. For EUV applications, most of the semiconductor detectors based on PN or PIN structures suffer from the very short penetration depth. Most of the carries are absorbed at the surface and recombined there due to the high surface recombination before reach the depletion region, resulting very low quantum efficiency. On the other hand, for Schottky structures, the active region starts from the surface and carriers generated from the surface can be efficiently collected. 4H-Sic has a bandgap of 3.26eV and is immune to visible light background noise. Also, 4H-Sic detectors usually have very good radiation hardness and very low noise, which is very important for space applications where the signal is very weak. The E W photodiodes presented in this paper are based on Schottky structures. Platinum (Pt) and Nickel (Ni) are selected as the Schottky contact metals, which have the highest electron work functions (5.65eV and 5.15eV, respectively) among all the known metals on 4H-Sic.

  12. Wetlands Are Wonderlands. Leader/Teacher Guide and Member/Youth Guide. 4-H Marine Education Series-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenen, Kimberly, Ed.; Goettel, Robin G., Ed.

    This guide, for a 4-H wetlands project, is designed for sixth to eighth grade youth and their leaders interested in learning and doing aquatic science activities that can help the environment. The project provides basic wetland information with one or more activities for each of six sections: (1) What is a wetland?; (2) value of wetlands; (3)…

  13. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.

    2006-07-12

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented.

  14. "Horses for Courses"

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Joyce E.; Frost, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This commentary considers the vexed question of whether or not we should be spending time and resources on using multifaceted interventions to undertake implementation of evidence in healthcare. A review of systematic reviews has suggested that simple interventions may be just as effective as those taking a multifaceted approach. Taking cognisance of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework this commentary takes account of the evidence, context and facilitation factors in undertaking implementation. It concludes that a ‘horses for courses’ approach is necessary meaning that the specific implementation approach should be selected to fit the implementation task in hand whether it be a single or multifaceted approach and reviewed on an individual basis. PMID:26673180

  15. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:23428378

  16. The exhausted horse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1998-04-01

    Exhaustion occurs in most equestrian sports, but it is more frequent in events that require sustained endurance work such as endurance racing, three-day eventing, trial riding, and hunting. Exhaustion is also more likely when an unfit, unacclimatized, or unsound horse is exercised. Mechanisms that contribute to exhaustion include heat retention, fluid and electrolyte loss, acid-base imbalance, and intramuscular glycogen depletion. Clinical signs include elevated temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate; depression; anorexia; unwillingness to continue to exercise; dehydration; weakness; stiffness; hypovolemic shock; exertional myopathy; synchronous diaphragmatic flutter; atrial fibrillation; diarrhea; colic; and laminitis. Treatment includes stopping exercise; rapid cooling; rapid large volume intravenous or oral fluid administration; and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration. PMID:9561696

  17. Towards a Postural Indicator of Back Pain in Horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Lesimple, Clémence; Fureix, Carole; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Sénèque, Emilie; Menguy, Hervé; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Postures have long been used and proved useful to describe animals’ behaviours and emotional states, but remains difficult to assess objectively in field conditions. A recent study performed on horses using geometric morphometrics revealed important postural differences between 2 horse populations differing in management conditions (leisure horses living in social groups used for occasional “relaxed” riding/riding school horses living in individual boxes used in daily riding lessons with more constraining techniques). It was suggested that these postural differences may reflect chronic effects of riding techniques on the horses’ kinematics and muscular development. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the interest of postural measures to assess welfare in horses. This study was separated into 2 parts. First, 18 horses coming from these 2 types of populations (leisure/riding school horses) were submitted to 2 back evaluations by 1) manual examination (experienced practitioner) and 2) sEMG measures along the spine. We then measured neck roundness on 16 of these 18 horses. The results highlighted high correlations between manual and sEMG examinations over the spine. sEMG measures at the different locations were strongly correlated all over the spine. Moreover, neck postures and muscular activities were strongly correlated, horses with concave necks having higher sEMG measures both at precise locations (i.e. cervical sites) but also when comparing neck postures to the whole spine muscular activity highlighting the functioning of horses’ back as a whole. Lastly, strong differences appeared between the populations, leisure horses being evaluated as having sounder spines, exhibiting lower sEMG measures and rounder neck than the riding school horses. sEMG measures and neck “roundness” seemed therefore to be reliable indicators of back disorders, easy to evaluate in field conditions. This highlights the accuracy of using postural elements to evaluate the

  18. My Kingdom for a Horse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

  19. The Effects of Inclination (Up and Down) of the Treadmill on the Electromyogram Activities of the Forelimb and Hind limb Muscles at a Walk and a Trot in Thoroughbred Horses

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; MATSUI, Akira; MUKAI, Kazutaka; OHMURA, Hajime; HIRAGA, Atsushi; AIDA, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is important to know the effects of the inclination of a slope on the activity of each muscle, because training by running on a sloped track is commonly used for Thoroughbred racehorses. The effects of incline (from −6 to +6%) on the forelimbs and hind limbs during walking and trotting on a treadmill were evaluated by an integrated electromyogram (iEMG). The muscle activities in the forelimbs (5 horses) and hind limbs (4 horses) were measured separately. Two stainless steel wires were inserted into each of the brachiocephalicus (Bc), biceps brachii (BB), splenius (Sp), and pectoralis descendens (PD) in the forelimb experiment and into the longissimus dorsi (LD), vastus lateralis (VL), gluteus medius (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) in the hind limb experiment. The EMG recordings were taken at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. At a walk, the iEMG values for the forelimb were not significantly different under any of the inclinations. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the GM and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. At a trot, the iEMG values for the Bc in the forelimb significantly decreased as the inclination of the treadmill decreased. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the LD, GM, and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. Uphill exercise increased the iEMG values for the Bc, LD, GM, and BF, while downhill exercise resulted in little increase in the iEMG values. It was concluded that the effects of inclination on the muscle activities were larger for the uphill exercises, and for the hind limb muscles compared with the forelimb muscles. PMID:25558180

  20. The Effects of Inclination (Up and Down) of the Treadmill on the Electromyogram Activities of the Forelimb and Hind limb Muscles at a Walk and a Trot in Thoroughbred Horses.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Matsui, Akira; Mukai, Kazutaka; Ohmura, Hajime; Hiraga, Atsushi; Aida, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    It is important to know the effects of the inclination of a slope on the activity of each muscle, because training by running on a sloped track is commonly used for Thoroughbred racehorses. The effects of incline (from -6 to +6%) on the forelimbs and hind limbs during walking and trotting on a treadmill were evaluated by an integrated electromyogram (iEMG). The muscle activities in the forelimbs (5 horses) and hind limbs (4 horses) were measured separately. Two stainless steel wires were inserted into each of the brachiocephalicus (Bc), biceps brachii (BB), splenius (Sp), and pectoralis descendens (PD) in the forelimb experiment and into the longissimus dorsi (LD), vastus lateralis (VL), gluteus medius (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) in the hind limb experiment. The EMG recordings were taken at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. At a walk, the iEMG values for the forelimb were not significantly different under any of the inclinations. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the GM and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. At a trot, the iEMG values for the Bc in the forelimb significantly decreased as the inclination of the treadmill decreased. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the LD, GM, and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. Uphill exercise increased the iEMG values for the Bc, LD, GM, and BF, while downhill exercise resulted in little increase in the iEMG values. It was concluded that the effects of inclination on the muscle activities were larger for the uphill exercises, and for the hind limb muscles compared with the forelimb muscles. PMID:25558180

  1. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper documents the dynamics of Australian thoroughbred jump racing in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with the aim of informing debate about risks to horses and the future of this activity. We conclude that the safety of Australian jump racing has improved in recent years but that steeplechases are considerably riskier for horses than hurdle races. Abstract Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396

  2. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers’ Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience

    PubMed Central

    GILLE, Claudia; KAYSER, Maike; SPILLER, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the “amateurs”, the “experienced” and the “experts”. Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the “amateur” group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside “measureable” qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the “amateur” group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses. PMID:24833979

  3. Dietary requirements and athletic performance of horses.

    PubMed

    Frape, D L

    1988-05-01

    There is no clear evidence that the chronic requirement for any non-energy yielding nutrient rises in proportion as the energy requirement increases with hard work. The need for protein, and probably that for calcium, remain a function of bodyweight daily. Some proportionality with energy may exist for certain nutrients, although the evidence has not been adduced. For example, because of an increase in both the proportion and amount of propionic acid in the volatile fatty acids of caecal contents, the tissue requirement for vitamin B12 may rise with an increase in the rate of energy metabolism. Exercise influences appetite and therefore voluntary intake, and consequently the daily intake of nutrients. Although that intake is not just a function of dietary bulk and weight, it is necessary to increase energy concentration of diets to achieve an adequate chronic intake of energy where work intensity and energy expenditure are considerable. Acute nutrient requirements paint a different picture from chronic requirements. An increase in total feed intake, or the density of that feed, would neither satisfy these requirements nor be a desirable means of doing so. The acute needs of water, electrolytes and soluble carbohydrates should be met by dosing when the need arises. The timing of the consumption of energy yielding substrates relative to that of exercise may be critical to performance. An inevitable postprandial consequence of a meal of starch or protein by the resting horse, is an increase in the activity of plasma insulin. This increase decreases blood glucose, depriving muscles of a critical substrate, but the assertion has not been resolved by experiment in horses. Experiments are required to ascertain the optimum feeding regime during the 24 h preceding extreme exertion. Whereas exhaustion in sprint work is largely a function of elevated blood lactate concentration, that of extended work is a consequence of a decline in glycogen reserves and losses of body fluid

  4. Improvements in Realizing 4H-SiC Thermal Neutron Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, F.; Vervisch, V.; Ottaviani, L.; Szalkai, D.; Vermeeren, L.; Lyoussi, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Lazar, M.; Klix, A.; Palais, O.; Hallén, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we presented two types of 4H-SiC semiconductor detectors (D1 and D2) both based on ion implantation of 10B inside the aluminum metallic contact. The first detector shows a high leakage current after the implantation and low signal to noise ratio. However, improvements concerning the implantation parameters and the distance between the implanted 10B thermal neutron converter layer and the active pn-junction have led to low leakage current and thus to higher signal to noise ratio. This proves the strength of this new method of realizing sensitive SiC-based thermal neutron detectors.

  5. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.

    2011-05-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed.

  6. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  7. Physiological and Behavioral Responses of Horses to Wither Scratching and Patting the Neck When Under Saddle.

    PubMed

    Thorbergson, Zoë W; Nielsen, Sharon G; Beaulieu, Rodney J; Doyle, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Riding is considered to be an arousing activity for horses. It has been suggested that wither scratching may be a more useful tool for relaxation compared with the common practice of neck patting. In the current study, 18 horses were exposed to 3 treatments, including control or no interaction, neck patting, and wither scratching, for 1 min each following a short obstacle course. Heart rate, heart rate variability, and a variety of behaviors were measured in the horses. Wither scratching produced a significantly longer duration of relaxed-type behaviors. Wither scratching could be a useful tool to help a horse relax while under saddle. Additionally, the study identified 2 ear positions that may be useful for future research in horse behavior. PMID:26958705

  8. Catching the spirit: a study of Bureau of Land Management wild horse adopters in New England.

    PubMed

    Koncel, Mary A; Rutberg, Allen T

    2012-01-01

    Between 1971 and 2009, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) adopted out nearly 225,000 horses and burros in the wild (wild horses and burro) who were removed from public lands (BLM, 2009). The inability of the BLM to adopt out wild horses as quickly as they are removed and recurring reports that many wild horse adoptions fail suggests that a better understanding of the adoption program is warranted. This study surveyed and interviewed 38 New Englanders who collectively adopted 68 wild horses directly from the BLM during the last 15 years. Adopters who participated in the study generally described their experiences as positive. They desired a range of horses in terms of age, gender, and color; they were flexible when deciding the activities that best suited their horses. Adopters' past knowledge of, and experience with, horses appeared not to play a major role in the success of the adoption. However, willingness to seek assistance and the availability of support were crucial for many of them. Based on the findings, the study made recommendations for better marketing of the program and improvement of the quality of adoptions. PMID:22233214

  9. [New drugs for horses and production animals in 2010].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, I U

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, three new active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for horses and food-producing animals. These were gamithromycin (Zactran®), a new macrolide antibiotic, Monepantel (Zolvix®), a broad spectrum anthelmintic with a novel mechanism, and Pergolide (Prascend®), the first dopamine receptor agonist for animals. Two substances have been approved for additional species. The tetracycline antibiotic doxycycline is now also authorized for turkeys and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug firocoxib from the group of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors is now available for horses. Furthermore, four new preparations with an interesting new pharmaceutical form, one drug with a new formulation and two drugs, which are interesting because of other criteria, were added to the market for horses and food producing animals. PMID:22167083

  10. Effects of fentanyl administration on locomotor response in horses with the G57C μ-opioid receptor polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Lois A; Pascoe, Peter J; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Lindsey, Jane C

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the locomotor response to the administration of fentanyl in horses with and without the G57C polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor. ANIMALS 20 horses of various breeds and ages (10 horses heterozygous for the G57C polymorphism and 10 age-, breed-, and sex-matched horses that did not have the G57C polymorphism). PROCEDURES The number of steps each horse took was counted over consecutive 2-minute periods for 20 minutes to determine a baseline value. The horse then received a bolus of fentanyl (20 μg/kg, IV), and the number of steps was again counted during consecutive 2-minute periods for 60 minutes. The mean baseline value was subtracted from each 2-minute period after fentanyl administration; step counts with negative values were assigned a value of 0. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS Data for 19 of 20 horses (10 horses with the G57C polymorphism and 9 control horses without the G57C polymorphism) were included in the analysis. Horses with the G57C polymorphism had a significant increase in locomotor activity, compared with results for horses without the polymorphism. There was a significant group-by-time interaction. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses heterozygous for the G57C polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor had an increased locomotor response to fentanyl administration, compared with the response for horses without this polymorphism. The clinical impact of this finding should be investigated. PMID:27463545

  11. 7 CFR 8.9 - Use in 4-H fund raising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use in 4-H fund raising. 8.9 Section 8.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture 4-H CLUB NAME AND EMBLEM § 8.9 Use in 4-H fund raising. (a) Fund-raising programs using the 4-H Name or Emblem may be carried out for specific educational purposes. Such fund-raising programs and use of the...

  12. Nationwide Participation in 4-H during the 1980s: Information from the Office of Education NELS:88 Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara M.; And Others

    A study examined national participation in 4-H Club activities during the 1980s. The study population was a carefully drawn sample of 24,500 eighth graders from more than 1,000 public and private schools throughout the country as well as their parents and teachers. The study established that, as of 1988, about one of every six eighth-grade…

  13. On the relationship between radiation-stimulated photoluminescence and nitrogen atoms in p-4 H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Ber, B. Ya.; Bogdanova, E. V.; Seredova, N. V.; Kazantsev, D. Yu.; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) appearing in p-4 H-SiC upon its electron irradiation has been studied. A model that accounts for the dependence of the PL intensity on the irradiation dose is suggested. The conclusion is drawn that nitrogen-radiation defect donor-acceptor pairs are PL activators.

  14. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  15. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553

  16. Urethrolithiasis and nephrolithiasis in a horse.

    PubMed Central

    Saam, D

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old, quarter horse gelding with obstructive urethrolithiasis was treated with a perineal urethrostomy. The horse's condition deteriorated and abdominocentesis confirmed septic uroperitonitis. The horse was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed peritonitis, a tear in the lateral wall of the bladder, and a nephrolith within the left renal pelvis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:11708209

  17. Using the Delphi Technique to Assess Educational Needs Related to Extension's 4-H Beef Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Gamon, Julia A.

    1997-01-01

    Delphi panels completing questionnaires included 32 parents of 4-H students, 16 extension beef specialists, 21 4-H field specialists, and 21 industry representatives. They identified 31 subject-matter and 30 life-skill topics useful for 4-H manuals. Emerging topics included consumer and environmental concerns. (SK)

  18. Examination of Attitude and Interest Measures for 4-H Science Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Worker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Science education research has demonstrated the influence of affect on learning. The National 4-H Science Logic Model outlines outcomes from youth participation in 4-H science programs, which includes attitude and interest outcomes. The associated measure, the National 4-H Science Common Measure, assesses these attitude constructs and not other…

  19. Perceptions of Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors on Career Development, Higher Education, and Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanolini, William F.; Rayfield, John; Ripley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Selected 4-H youth participated in the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassador program. Forty-five youth participated in the 3-day program delivered by university professors and staff, Texas AgriLife Extension faculty and industry representatives. An instrument was developed and administered to the Texas 4-H Livestock Ambassadors at the end of their first…

  20. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  1. Relationship between Participation in 4-H and Community Leadership in Rural Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Allison; Frick, Martin; Steele, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the impact of 4-H on former members generally use alumni as one cohort. In rural states, such as Montana, it is important to understand the impact of 4-H on alumni in these rural areas and the role 4-H plays in community involvement. The study reported here sought to determine the perception of current community leaders in rural Montana…

  2. Expression analysis of kenaf cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) ortholog during developmental and stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to clone and analyze the expression pattern of a C4H gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). A full-length C4H ortholog was cloned using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. The full-length C4H ortholog...

  3. Text to Speech: A 4-H Model of Accessibility and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    4-H project manuals play an integral part in a youth's ability to achieve mastery in a specific project area. For youth who struggle with reading, written 4-H materials prove inadequate in addressing the needs of the learner. This article proposes a new delivery method of 4-H educational material designed to create a more inclusive and…

  4. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  5. The ultraviolet photochemistry of diacetylene - Direct detection of primary products of the metastable C4H2* + C4H2 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Lakshminarayan, Chitra; Frost, Rex K.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    The products of diacetylene's ultraviolet photochemistry over the 245-220 nm region were directly determined in experiments where C4H2 was excited within a small reaction tube attached to a pulsed nozzle. The products formed in the collisions of C4H2* with C4H2 were subsequently ionized by vacuum UV radiation (at 118 nm) in the ion source of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It was found that the reaction of C4H2* with C4H2 produces C6H2 (+C2H2), C8H2 (+2H,H2), and C8H3 (+H), confirming the results of Glicker and Okabe (1987). Under certain conditions, secondary products were observed. Mechanisms for the observed reactions are proposed.

  6. Effectiveness of training programmes used in two stables of thoroughbred race horses.

    PubMed

    Szarska, E; Cywińska, A; Ostaszewski, P; Kowalska, A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the training methods used in two stables and their effects on selected blood parameters and race results. A total number of 36 thoroughbred race horses was examined in two groups, trained by two trainers. Twenty-four horses (group A) were trained at Sluzewiec and the remaining twelve horses (group B) were kept and trained in a private stable. The experiment lasted for five months. The activities of CPK (creatine phosphokinase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and the concentration of LA (lactic acid) were determined. The speed was controlled and recorded by a Garmin GPS system. The analysis of the General Handicap rating demonstrated that the training methods used in stable A were more effective and resulted in better classification of these horses. Training methods in both stables were evaluated and compared on the basis of maximal speeds during training sessions and related post exercise LA concentrations. The main differences between training methods used in both stables concerned the workload and the time of work with the rider. Analysis of the values measured in individual horses from stable B have shown that AST and CK activities were high not only in all young, 2-year-old horses but also in three older ones. This seems to confirm the lack of balance and proper movement coordination in these horses, resulting in high activities of muscle enzymes. PMID:25638982

  7. Ophthalmologic Disorders in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Malalana, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Ocular abnormalities are a common finding in aged horses. Although these seldom cause overt visual deficits detected by their owners, they can be a source of chronic or acute discomfort so early detection, and treatment when available, is essential. Some of these abnormalities are specific to old horses, whereas others are a result of ongoing disease or inflammation that started earlier in life but that becomes more evident when the damage sustained to the eye is advanced. If vision is significantly affected, consideration of human safety and animal welfare is paramount. PMID:27329494

  8. Skynet Junior Scholars: From Idea to Enactment--Tales from the Trenches I. Implementation in 4-H settings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnside, Jason; Feldman, Lynn; Gurton, Suzanne; Heatherly, Sue Ann; Hoette, Vivian L.; Murray, Jenny; Zastrow, Ginger

    2016-01-01

    The creators of Skynet Junior Scholars were ambitious to say the least when they set out to:- Develop online tools that enable middle school and high school aged youth to use robotic optical and radio telescopes to do astronomy- Create an inquiry-based curriculum that promotes critical thinking and scientific habits of mind- Proactively incorporate Principles of Universal Design in all SJS development tasks to ensure access by blind/low vision and deaf/hard of hearing youth- Prepare 180 adult youth leaders from diverse backgrounds including museum educators, amateur astronomers, teachers 4-H leaders to facilitate SJS activities in a variety of settings.After 3 years of development SJS is in full implementation mode. As of August, 2015, 105 youth leaders and leader supervisors from 24 states have completed professional development and many have formed SJS youth groups. In this paper we describe what it takes for a successful implementation of Skynet Junior Scholars in a 4-H setting, from the viewpoint of adult leaders in the trenches who have created novel implementation models to make SJS work in diverse environments from monthly 4-H meetings to immersive residential camps.4-H is the nation's largest positive youth development organization, with a membership of more than six million young people in the U.S. In 2003 the national organization formed a strong commitment to STEM education with the goal to "to engage one million new youth in a dynamic process of discovery and exploration in science, engineering and technology to prepare them to meet the challenges of the 21st century". Skynet Junior Scholars has formed a strong and growing partnership with state 4-H agencies in West Virginia and Wisconsin, with a goal of establishing SJS as a national 4-H curriculum.Skynet Junior Scholars is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers 1223687, 1223235 and 1223345.

  9. Toxic effects of lasalocid in horses.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L J; Eisenbeis, H G; Givens, S V

    1981-03-01

    Lasalocid was given to horses in a series of sequentially increasing single oral doses ranging between 5 and 30 mg/kg of body weight, with an appropriate washout period between treatments. One of the 5 horses died after a dosage of 15 mg/kg, 1 of 3 horses died after 21 mg/kg, 1 of 3 horses died after 22 mg/kg, and 1 of 2 horses died after 26 mg/kg. The LD50 of lasalocid for horses was estimated to be 21.5 mg/kg. Monensin was given to horses in a similar manner at dosages of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg of body weight. One of the 2 horses died after a dosage of 2 mg/kg and 1 horse died after a dosage of 3 mg/kg. The clinical signs of toxicosis observed in horses given either drug were progressive and included depression, ataxia, paresis, and paralysis with partial anorexia. Intermittent profuse sweating was observed before death in horses given monensin. PMID:7271010

  10. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Manganese (II) Complexes of Phthalic and Isophthalic Acid: X-Ray Crystal Structures of [Mn(ph)(Phen)(2)(H(2)O)]. 4H(2)O, [Mn(Phen)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](2)(Isoph)(2)(Phen). 12H(2)O and {[Mn(Isoph)(bipy)](4). 2.75biby}(n)(phH(2) = Phthalic Acid; isoph = Isophthalic Acid; phen = 1,10-Phenanthroline; bipy = 2,2-Bipyridine).

    PubMed

    Devereux, M; McCann, M; Leon, V; Geraghty, M; McKee, V; Wikaira, J

    2000-01-01

    Manganese(II) acetate reacts with phthalic acid (phH(2)) to give [Mn(ph)].0.5H(2)O (1). Reaction of 1 with 1,10-phenanthroline produces [Mn(ph)(phen)].2H(2)O (2) and [Mn(ph)(phen)(2)(H(2)O)].4H(2)O (3). Reaction of isophthalic acid (isophH(2)) with manganese(II) acetate results in the formation of [Mn(isoph)].2H(2)O (4). The addition of the N,N-donor ligands 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine to 4 leads to the formation of [Mn(2) (isoph)(2)(phen)(3))].4H(2)O (5), [(Mn(phen)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](2)(isoph)(2)(phen).12H(2)O (6) and {[Mn(isoph)(bipy)](4).2.75 biby}(n) (7), respectively. Molecular structures of 3, 6 and 7 were determined crystallographically. In 3 the phthalate ligand is bound to the manganese via just one of its carboxylate groups in a monodentate mode with the remaining coordination sites filled by four phenanthroline nitrogen and one water oxygen atoms. In 6 the isophthalates are uncoordinated with the octahedral manganese center ligated by two phenanthrolines and two waters. In 7 the Isophthalate ligands act as bridges resulting in a polymeric structure. One of the carboxylate groups is chelating a single manganese with the other binding two metal centres in a bridging bidentate mode. The phthalate and isophthalate complexes, the metal free ligands and a number of simple manganes salts were each tested for their ability, to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. Only the "metal free" 1,10-phenanthroline and its manganese complexes were found to be active. PMID:18475957

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Manganese (II) Complexes of Phthalic and Isophthalic Acid: X-Ray Crystal Structures of [Mn(ph)(Phen)2(H2O)]· 4H2O, [Mn(Phen)2(H2O)2]2(Isoph)2(Phen)· 12H2O and {[Mn(Isoph)(bipy)]4· 2.75biby}n(phH2 = Phthalic Acid; isoph = Isophthalic Acid; phen = 1,10-Phenanthroline; bipy = 2,2-Bipyridine)

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Malachy; Leon, Vanessa; Geraghty, Majella; McKee, Vickie; Wikaira, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Manganese(II) acetate reacts with phthalic acid (phH2) to give [Mn(ph)]·0.5H2O (1). Reaction of 1 with 1,10-phenanthroline produces [Mn(ph)(phen)]·2H2O (2) and [Mn(ph)(phen)2(H2O)]·4H2O (3). Reaction of isophthalic acid (isophH2) with manganese(II) acetate results in the formation of [Mn(isoph)]·2H2O (4). The addition of the N,N-donor ligands 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine to 4 leads to the formation of [Mn2 (isoph)2(phen)3)]·4H2O (5), [(Mn(phen)2(H2O)2]2(isoph)2(phen)·12H2O (6) and {[Mn(isoph)(bipy)]4·2.75 biby}n (7), respectively. Molecular structures of 3, 6 and 7 were determined crystallographically. In 3 the phthalate ligand is bound to the manganese via just one of its carboxylate groups in a monodentate mode with the remaining coordination sites filled by four phenanthroline nitrogen and one water oxygen atoms. In 6 the isophthalates are uncoordinated with the octahedral manganese center ligated by two phenanthrolines and two waters. In 7 the Isophthalate ligands act as bridges resulting in a polymeric structure. One of the carboxylate groups is chelating a single manganese with the other binding two metal centres in a bridging bidentate mode. The phthalate and isophthalate complexes, the metal free ligands and a number of simple manganes salts were each tested for their ability, to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans. Only the “metal free” 1,10-phenanthroline and its manganese complexes were found to be active. PMID:18475957

  12. Catalytic graphitization and Ohmic contact formation on 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weijie; Mitchel, W. C.; Landis, G. R.; Crenshaw, T. R.; Collins, W. Eugene

    2003-05-01

    Electrical contact properties and graphitic structures of metal/carbon/4H-SiC structures are investigated. Metals studied include Ni, Co, Cr, NiCr, Ti, W, Mo, Al, and Au. Ohmic contacts are formed on Ni/C, Co/C, Cr/C, and NiCr/C films on 4H-SiC with n-type, C-face, and a doping concentration of 1.8×1019 cm-3 . Only Ni/C and Co/C films exhibit Ohmic contact behavior on SiC with n-type, Si-face, and a doping concentration of 1.6×1018 cm-3. Ni and Co are well known as excellent graphitization catalysts. Raman spectra show that the formation of graphitic carbon is related to the formation of Ohmic contacts in the annealed metal/carbon/SiC structures. Generally accepted catalytic graphitization mechanisms are applied to explain the scanning electron microscopy images, which demonstrate a relationship between the catalytically reacted morphology and Ohmic contact behavior. This study provides evidence that the metals with better catalytic graphitization activities form better Ohmic contacts on metal/carbon/SiC structures.

  13. CYP3A in horse intestines.

    PubMed

    Tydén, Eva; Olsén, Lena; Tallkvist, Jonas; Larsson, Pia; Tjälve, Hans

    2004-12-01

    The intestinal enterocytes provide the initial site for cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism of orally absorbed xenobiotics. In man and some animal species, the CYP3A subfamily is highly expressed in the intestines and considered to be important in the first-pass metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mRNA expression, immunohistochemical localization and catalytic activity of CYP3A in the intestines of horse. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that the highest CYP3A mRNA expression was present in the duodenum with a decreasing level towards jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon. The CYP3A mRNA expression in the liver was similar as in the anterior part of the jejunum, but about 4.5 times lower than in the anterior part of the duodenum. Immunohistochemistry showed CYP3A immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm of the enterocytes, which decreased distally along the intestinal tract. CYP3A-dependent metabolic activity rose slightly from the anterior to the distal part of the duodenum and the anterior part of the jejunum and then declined to the middle and distal parts of the jejunum and the ileum, cecum, and colon. Our results suggest that CYP3A in the small intestine plays a major role in first-pass metabolism and may affect bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency of some orally administrated drugs in horse. PMID:15541751

  14. Syringohydromyelia in horses: 3 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sponseller, Brett A.; Sponseller, Beatrice T.; Alcott, Cody J.; Kline, Karen; Hostetter, Jesse; Reinertson, Eric L.; Fales-Williams, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Syringomyelia and hydromyelia are cavitary lesions of the spinal cord that may be acquired or congenital. These lesions are not frequently reported in large animal species. The presenting complaints, clinical, gross pathological, and histopathologic findings of 2 cases of syringomyelia and 1 case of hydromyelia in horses are described. PMID:21532819

  15. Skin grafting of the horse.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, J; Hanselka, D V

    1989-12-01

    Free autogenous skin grafting of the horse is indicated for wounds too large to heal by contraction and epithelization. Techniques of pinch, punch, tunnel, and sheet grafting are described. Allografting and storage of skin for delayed grafting are discussed. PMID:2691033

  16. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  17. Health Rocks! Beginning Level. 4-H Healthy Life Series. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Written for 8 to 12 year olds. The 21 activities use hands-on experience to facilitate youth learning, including concepts review and learning assessment at each chapter's end. A retrospective impact evaluation is included in the appendices along with additional resources, glossary, training outline and teaching tips. An accompanying cd-rom…

  18. Health Rocks! Intermediate Level. 4-H Healthy Life Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Written for 12 to 14 year olds. The 25 activities use hands-on experience to facilitate youth learning, including concepts review and learning assessment at each chapter's end. A retrospective impact evaluation is included in the appendices along with additional resources, glossary, training outline and teaching tips. An accompanying cd-rom…

  19. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  20. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  1. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  2. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  3. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  4. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  5. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall...

  6. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  7. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188... Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Horse Heaven Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Horse Heaven Hills” and “Horse Heaven” are...

  8. The reinvestigation of the kinetics of the metathesis reactions t-C4H9• + HBr (HI) → i-C4H10 + Br• (I•) and of the t-C4H9• free radical thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Leplat, N; Rossi, M J

    2014-07-17

    A reinvestigation of the absolute rate constant of the metathesis reactions t-C4H9• + HBr → i-C4H10 + Br• (1) and t-C4H9• + HI → i-C4H10 + I• (2) was performed thanks to a recently developed apparatus consisting of a Knudsen reactor coupled to detection based on single-photon (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (SPIMS). It enables the generation of thermalized hydrocarbon free radicals owing to a source upstream of and external to the Knudsen reactor. The following Arrhenius expressions were obtained: k1 = 5.6(±1.4) × 10(–12) exp(−6.76(±0.94)/(RT)) and k2 = 2.0(±0.6) × 10(–11) exp(−8.48(±0.94)/(RT)) with R = 8.314 J mol(–1) K(–1) over the range 293 to 623 K. The mass balance of the reaction system based on closed shell product detection (CSPD) was checked in order to ensure the accuracy of the used reaction mechanism and as an independent check of k1 and k2. The wall-loss rate constants of the t-butyl free radical, kw(C4H9), were measured and found to be low compared with the corresponding escape rate constant, ke(C4H9), for effusion of t-C4H9• out of the Knudsen reactor. On the basis of the present results, the free radical standard heat of formation ΔfH298°(t-C4H9•) = 44.3 ± 1.7 kJ mol(–1) was obtained when combined with the kinetics of the inverse halogenation reaction taken from the literature and using S298°(t-C4H9•) = 322.2 J K(–1) mol(–1) following a “Third Law” evaluation method. The standard enthalpy for t-butyl free radical is consistent for both the bromination and iodination reactions within the stated uncertainties. PMID:24942181

  9. Improvement of the lung function of horses with heaves by treatment with a botanical preparation for 14 days.

    PubMed

    Anour, R; Leinker, S; van den Hoven, R

    2005-12-01

    The effects of an oral preparation containing a mixture of extracts from yellow gentian, garden sorrel, cowslip, verbena and common elder on the lung function of nine horses suffering from heaves were determined in a longitudinal crossover study. The horses were divided at random into a group of five (group 1) and a group of four (group 2). The horses in group 1 were each given 15 tablets of the preparation twice daily, while the horses in group 2 were left untreated. Fourteen days later, the horses in group 2 were given the same course of treatment while the horses in group 1 were left untreated. On being subjected to a histamine inhalation provocation test, five of eight horses tested appeared to be hyperresponsive to histamine. The treatment decreased the histamine sensitivity of three of them; it also caused a significant decrease in maximal intrapleural pressure difference of all the horses. The treatment had no significant effects on the clinical signs, the mucociliary activity or the cytology of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the horses. PMID:16326966

  10. Effect of rider experience and evaluator expertise on subjective grading of lameness in sound and unsound sports horses under saddle.

    PubMed

    Marqués, Fernando J; Waldner, Cheryl; Reed, Stephen; Autet, Fernando; Corbeil, Louise; Campbell, John

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether rider experience influences the assessment and grading of lameness in horses based on under-saddle gait analysis. Thirteen adult sports horses in active training were included in the study. After a baseline lameness and neurologic examination by the principal investigators, horses were videotaped while being ridden by an experienced and a less experienced rider. A 3-minute video was made for each horse and rider and 26 videos were randomly ordered and compiled on a DVD. Veterinarians with different levels of experience in evaluating lameness and veterinary students viewed the DVD and assigned a lameness score to each horse/rider combination. In a model accounting for the expertise of the evaluator, there was no difference in overall lameness scores between experienced and less experienced riders. This result was consistent for both sound and unsound horses. The overall lameness scores reported by specialists and students, however, differed significantly. The lameness score reported by the study participants while the horse was ridden was significantly associated with the subjective baseline lameness assessment reported by the principal investigators for the same limb when the horse was not under saddle. Additional work is necessary to determine whether riders with even lower skill levels would further alter the balance and motion pattern of the horse and have more influence on subjective grading of lameness. PMID:24688169

  11. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  12. Decreased oxidative phosphorylation and PGAM deficiency in horses suffering from atypical myopathy associated with acquired MADD.

    PubMed

    Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; van Diggelen, O P; Schoonderwoerd, K; Bierau, J; Waterham, H R; van der Kolk, J H

    2011-11-01

    Earlier research on ten horses suffering from the frequently fatal disorder atypical myopathy showed that MADD (multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency) is the biochemical derangement behind atypical myopathy. From five horses that died as a result of this disease and seven healthy control horses, urine and plasma were collected ante mortem and muscle biopsies were obtained immediately post-mortem (2 patients and 7 control horses), to analyse creatine, purine and carbohydrate metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation. In patients, the mean creatine concentration in urine was increased 17-fold and the concentration of uric acid approximately 4-fold, compared to controls. The highest degree of depletion of glycogen was observed in the patient with the most severe myopathy clinically. In this patient, glycolysis was more active than in the other patients and controls, which may explain this depletion. One patient demonstrated very low phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) activity, less than 10% of reference values. Most respiratory chain complex activity in patients was 20-30% lower than in control horses, complex II activity was 42% lower than normal, and one patient had severely decrease ATP-synthase activity, more than 60% lower than in control horses. General markers for myopathic damage are creatine kinase (CK) and lactic acid in plasma, and creatine and uric acid in urine. To obtain more information about the cause of the myopathy analysis of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation is advised. This study expands the diagnostic possibilities of equine myopathies. PMID:21843962

  13. The problem of uniformity of properties of 4H-SiC CVD films

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. M. Strokan, N. B.; Scherbov, N. A.; Lebedev, A. A.

    2010-07-15

    Nonuniformities of electrical properties of 4H-SiC CVD films have been revealed using physicochemical reactions occurring upon introduction of radiation-induced structural defects. Primary knocked-on atoms and vacancies actively interact with impurities and defects of the starting material and thereby form the final system of radiation centers. The samples were irradiated with 900-keV electrons and 8-MeV protons at doses not leading to conductivity compensation (<7.5 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}) and a dose of 6 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} causing deep compensation. Despite their area-averaging nature, capacitance methods demonstrated that characteristics of samples {approx}3 mm in size are not identical. The nuclear spectrometry technique, which enables microprobing of samples, demonstrated individual behavior of separate parts of a film with areas of tens of square micrometers.

  14. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  15. Expression of surface platelet receptors (CD62P and CD41/61) in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

    PubMed

    Iwaszko-Simonik, Alicja; Niedzwiedz, Artur; Graczyk, Stanislaw; Slowikowska, Malwina; Pliszczak-Krol, Aleksandra

    2015-03-15

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is an allergic disease of horses similar to human asthma, which is characterized by airway inflammation and activation of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets. Platelet activation and an increase in circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates may lead to airway remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate platelet status in RAO-affected horses based on the platelet morphology and platelet surface expression of CD41/61 and CD62P. Ten RAO-affected horses and ten healthy horses were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained to determine the platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR). Expression of CD62P and CD41/61 was detected by flow cytometry on activated platelets. The median PLT was significantly reduced in horses with RAO compared to the controls. The MPV and the P-LCR values were significantly higher in RAO horses than controls. Expression of CD41/61 on platelets was increased in RAO horses, while CD62P expression was reduced. This study demonstrated the morphological changes in platelets and expression of platelet surface receptors. Despite the decrease of CD62P expression, the observed increased surface expression of CD41/61 on platelets in horses with RAO may contribute to the formation of platelet aggregates in their respiratory system. PMID:25665521

  16. Chemotaxis of horse polymorphonuclear leukocytes to N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Zinkl, J G; Brown, P D

    1982-04-01

    Horse polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) isolated from horse blood by sedimentation and isotonic lysis and having about 25% accompanying lymphocytes were as effective at chemotaxis as nearly pure PMN isolated by density gradient techniques. N-Formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP), used as a representative of the formylmethionyl peptides (produced by prokaryocytic organisms), was effective as a chemoattractant only at the high concentration of 10(-4) M. When serum was preincubated with FMLP at concentrations as low as 10(-8) M, the serum attracted horse PMN. This activity was not generated when heat-inactivated (56 to 60 C for 30 minutes) serum was used. A combination of FMLP and zymosan was no more effective than zymosan alone in generating serum chemoattractants. The results of this study indicate that the FMLP is a weak chemoattractant for horse PMN, but that FMLP has the capability similar to that of zymosan to activate complement to produce PMN chemoattractants. PMID:7073083

  17. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  18. Microstructure of heteroepitaxial GaN grown on mesa-patterned 4H-SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassim, N. D.; Twigg, M. E.; Eddy, C. R.; Henry, R. L.; Holm, R. T.; Culbertson, J. C.; Stahlbush, R. E.; Neudeck, P. G.; Trunek, A. J.; Powell, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used to study the microstructure of a thin heteroeptiaxial GaN film grown on (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces with and without atomic scale steps. Analysis of a mesa that was completely free of atomic-scale surface steps prior to III -N film deposition showed that these GaN layers had a wide variation in island height (1-3μm ) and included the presence of pit-like defects on the film surface. This sample had a low dislocation density (5×108/cm2) as compared to conventionally grown samples on unpatterned (0001) on-axis 4H-SiC (2×109/cm2), coupled with a 3-5 times increase in grain size. A comparison of a GaN film on the step-free 4H-SiC mesa region with a GaN film on a stepped 4H-SiC mesa region on the same substrate showed that the presence of surface steps reduced the overall grain size of the film from 7-10μm to a grain size of about 2-3μm. Since the GaN films grow via a Volmer-Weber mechanism, a decrease in the number of heterogeneous nucleation sites may allow the growth of large GaN islands before coalescence, thus reducing the number of threading dislocations. These results are promising for the further development of unique, low-dislocation density active regions for GaN device structures on 4H-SiC.

  19. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  20. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33607-33619, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0030), and... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse...

  1. Blood Levels of Zinc in Creole Horses Used in Sera Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Kovacs, Luciana; Freitas, M. G.; Marcelino, José R.

    2010-08-01

    Using Neutron Activation Analysis Zn concentrations were determined in blood of horses (Creole breed). No significant difference was observed between male (0.0029±.0007 gL-1) and female (0.0031±.0011 gL-1) animals. These data are an important support to understand the physiological functions of Zn in blood during the process of sera production at Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil) using horses.

  2. Blood Levels of Zinc in Creole Horses Used in Sera Production

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Kovacs, Luciana; Freitas, M. G.; Marcelino, Jose R.

    2010-08-04

    Using Neutron Activation Analysis Zn concentrations were determined in blood of horses (Creole breed). No significant difference was observed between male (0.0029{+-}.0007 gL{sup -1}) and female (0.0031{+-}.0011 gL{sup -1}) animals. These data are an important support to understand the physiological functions of Zn in blood during the process of sera production at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo, Brazil) using horses.

  3. AB INITIO CHARACTERIZATION OF C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H, AND C{sub 4}H{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Senent, M. L.

    2010-01-10

    Using state-of-the-art theoretical methods, we investigate the stable isomers of C{sup -}{sub 4}, C{sub 4}H and C{sub 4}H{sup -}. Three of them are relevant for astrophysics and astrochemistry. These computations are performed using highly correlated ab initio methods and the aug-cc-pVXZ (X = T,Q) basis sets. In addition to the linear isomers, we predict the existence of several cyclic and branched forms for these molecules. For all the molecular species of interest here, sets of spectroscopic parameters are determined with perturbation theory, which compare quite well with experiment. For l - C{sub 4}H{sup -}(X {sup 1}SIGMA{sup +}), the quartic force field is computed at the coupled cluster level of theory. This force field is derived from full nine-dimensional potential energy surface generated close to the equilibrium geometry of this anion. Finally, we treat the thermochemistry of the hydrogen attachment and the electron attachment reactions that may lead to the formation of the C{sub 4}H{sup -} from either C{sup -}{sub 4} or C{sub 4}H.

  4. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  5. Changes in intramuscular amino acid levels in submaximally exercised horses - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    van den Hoven, R; Bauer, A; Hackl, S; Zickl, M; Spona, J; Zentek, J

    2010-08-01

    The time-dependent changes in intramuscular amino acid (AA) levels caused by exercise and by feeding a protein/AA supplement were analysed in nine horses. Horses were submitted to a total of four standardized exercise tests (SETs). Amino acid concentrations were determined prior to, immediately after, 4 and 18 h after exercise. The experiment was subdivided into two consecutive periods of 3 weeks. In each period two SETs were performed. In the second period, horses were given a protein/AA supplement within 1 h after exercise. Significant changes in mean plasma AA levels similar to previous studies were noted to be time-dependent and to be associated with feeding the supplement. The intramuscular concentrations of the free AA in relation to pre-exercise levels showed significant time-dependent changes for alanine, asparagine, aspartate, citrulline, glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, serine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine and valine. Feeding the supplement significantly increased the 4 h post-exercise intramuscular concentration of alanine, isoleucine, methionine and tyrosine. At 18 h after exercise, apart from isoleucine and methionine, levels were still increased and also those of asparagine, histidine and valine in relation to none treatment. Hence, it was concluded that AA mixtures administered orally to horses within 1 h after exercise increased intramuscular AA pool. PMID:19663973

  6. Characterization of long-term memory, resistance to extinction, and influence of temperament during two instrumental tasks in horses.

    PubMed

    Valenchon, Mathilde; Lévy, Frédéric; Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Calandreau, Ludovic; Lansade, Léa

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigated the influence of temperament on long-term recall and extinction of 2 instrumental tasks in 26 horses. In the first task (backward task), horses learned to walk backward, using commands given by an experimenter, in order to obtain a food reward. In the second task (active avoidance task), horses had to cross an obstacle after a bell rang in order to avoid emission of an air puff. Twenty-two months after acquisition, horses exhibited perfect recall performance in both tasks. Accordingly, no influence of temperament on recall performance could be observed for either task. In contrast, in the absence of positive or negative outcomes, the horses' ability to extinguish their response to either task was highly variable. Resistance to extinction was related to some indicators of temperament: The most fearful horses tended to be the most resistant to extinction in the backward task, while the least sensitive horses tended to be the most resistant to extinction in the active avoidance task. These findings reveal extensive long-term memory abilities in horses and suggest an influence of temperament on learning processes other than acquisition. PMID:23743707

  7. Systematic pain assessment in horses.

    PubMed

    de Grauw, J C; van Loon, J P A M

    2016-03-01

    Accurate recognition and quantification of pain in horses is imperative for adequate pain management. The past decade has seen a much needed surge in formal development of systematic pain assessment tools for the objective monitoring of pain in equine patients. This narrative review describes parameters that can be used to detect pain in horses, provides an overview of the various pain scales developed (visual analogue scales, simple descriptive scales, numerical rating scales, time budget analysis, composite pain scales and grimace scales), and highlights their strengths and weaknesses for potential clinical implementation. The available literature on the use of each pain assessment tool in specific equine pain states (laminitis, lameness, acute synovitis, post-castration, acute colic and post-abdominal surgery) is discussed, including any problems with sensitivity, reliability or scale validation as well as translation of results to other clinical pain states. The review considers future development and further refinement of currently available equine pain scoring systems. PMID:26831169

  8. Some nutritional problems of horses.

    PubMed

    Hintz, H F; Kallfelz, F A

    1981-07-01

    The effects of overfeeding, calcium-phosphorus imbalance, misuse of supplements and false advertising on equine nutrition are discussed. Overfeeding is known to cause disorders in several species but, although a similar relationship has been suggested on clinical evidence, no controlled trials on horses have been reported. It has also been suggested that overfeeding is a problem only for those horses with a genetic predisposition to skeletal problems. The importance of adequate calcium and phosphorus levels has been known for many years but severe cases of calcium deficiency still occur. Client education is important and should not be neglected. Excessive use of supplements containing high levels of trace minerals (eg, iodine and selenium) or fat soluble vitamins (eg, vitamin A and vitamin D) can be harmful. Some manufacturers advertise supplements in terms which may inadvertently or intentionally misrepresent their products. Supplements should, therefore, be selected carefully to ensure that they meet the particular requirements of the individual. PMID:7197619

  9. Treatment of horses with chronic diarrhea: immunologic status.

    PubMed

    Targowski, S P

    1976-01-01

    All chronically diarrheal horses given (orally) 2 series of treatments with normal horse serum recovered in 2 to 4 weeks. However, mild diarrhea sometimes persisted several months in the group of horses with severe diarrhea. Weight gains were approximately 35% in horses with severe diarrhea and approximately 10% in horses with mild diarrhea. Serum specimens from 12 diarrheal and 20 normal horses were examined for immunoglobulins by single radial immunodiffusion technique. Concentration of immunoglobulin A in serum of diarrheal horses was approximately 50% lower than that in serum of normal horses. By contrast, there was more immunoglobulin G in serum of diarrheal horses than in serum of normal horses. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA-M) responsiveness of blood lymphocytes showed transient suppression during the stage of severe diarrhea. The regaining of PHA-M responsiveness of lymphocytes was observed simultaneously with the recovery process. However, the responsiveness of lymphocytes in recovered horses remained markedly lower than that in normal horses. Allergic reactions in diarrheal and normal horses were studied by observing dermal response to injections of saline extracts from some of the horse feeds. A delayed hypersensitivity reaction to streptokinase-streptodornase and PHA-M was also studied. Allergic reactions to these extracts were not induced in either diarrheal or normal horses; however, inflammatory response to the extracts was approximately 50% greater in normal than in diarrheal horses. Response to intradermal injection of either streptokinase-streptodornase or PHA-M was significantly greater in normal horses than in diarrheal horses. PMID:1247193

  10. [New drugs for horses and production animals in 2011].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, I U

    2012-10-17

    In 2011, three newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. Two of these new products represent different drug classes of antibiotics, the polypeptide antibiotic Bacitracin (Bacivet™) and the macrolide antibiotic Clorsulon (Levatum®). The third product represents an anticestodal antiparasitic (Tildipirosin, Zuprevo®). Furthermore, three established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients were modified to allow their application for additional species. Thus the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate is now additionally authorised for turkeys and both the macrolide antibiotic Tilmicosin and the anticoccidial drug Toltrazuril are currently available for sheep. Additionally, two veterinary drugs with a new formulation as well as a veterinary drug for horses and food producing animals with a resourceful new combination of active pharmaceutical ingredients have recently been released. PMID:23076759

  11. Critical tests of suspension, paste, and pellet formulations of cambendazole in the horse.

    PubMed

    Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C

    1975-04-01

    Three formulations of cambendazole were evaluated for anthelmintic activity by critical testing method in 21 horses. Cambendazole suspension was administered via stomach tube at the dose rate of 10 mg/kg to 3 horses and at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg to 3 horses. Cambendazole paste was given intraorally to 8 horses, and the pellet formulation was fed to 7 horses at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg. Anthelmintic activity of cambendazole was similar for all dose rates and formulations. Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Draschia megastoma, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and Anoplocephala magna appeared to be refractory. The 3 formulations removed (1) 100% of Parascaris equorum and mature Oxyuris equi, (2) 82 to 100% of Strongylus vulgaris, (3) 80 to 100% of Strongylus edentatus, (4) 85 to 99% of small strongyles, and (5) 79 to 100% of immature Oxyuris equi. Probstmayria vivipara was present in only 1 horse and removal was 99%. There was some evidence of activity on Habronema muscae. Toxicosis was not observed. PMID:123710

  12. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  13. The First Fifty Years of the 4-H Program (Part 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Beth E.; Flanagan, Constance A.; Thomson, Joan S.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews achievements during the first 50 years of 4-H club work, including volunteer leadership development, funding support, and response to society's needs during the war years. Demonstrates how 4-H has changed to meet societal needs while remaining true to the original mission. (SK)

  14. 4-H Healthy Living Programs with Impact: A National Environmental Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Laura H.; Peterson, Donna J.; LeMenestrel, Suzanne; Leatherman, JoAnne; Lang, James

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H youth development program of the nation's 109 land-grant universities and the Cooperative Extension System is one of the largest youth development organization in the United States serving approximately six million youth. The 4-H Healthy Living initiative began in 2008 to promote achievement of optimal physical, social, and emotional…

  15. College Transition Study Shows 4-H Helps Youth Prepare for and Succeed in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkos, Judy; Knollenberg, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many young adults enter college without the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine if 4-H helps develop life skills needed for the transition to college and overall college success. An online survey was sent to college-attending 4-H alumni and a comparison group, with a final sample size…

  16. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  17. Acquisition, Custody, and Storage of Firearms Used in 4-H Shooting Sports Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David J.; Smith, Jedediah D.

    2014-01-01

    Shooting sports has been a 4-H program offering since the 1930's. Tragic events related to the use of firearms as weapons have caused public and private entities to evaluate and consider the appropriateness of youth access to and usage of firearms. 4-H educators have the primary responsibility for managing the risk associated with shooting…

  18. Characteristics and Perceptions of 4-H Participants: Gender and Age Differences across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…

  19. Food Challenge: Serving Up 4-H to Non-Traditional Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Sara; Follmer-Reece, Holly E.; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Reyna, Roxanna

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for introducing 4-H to non-traditional/diverse audiences using 4-H Food Challenge. Set in a low SES and minority-serving rural school, Food Challenge was presented during the school day to all 7th grade students, with almost half voluntarily participating in an after-school club component. Program design…

  20. 4-H Youth Development: The Past, the Present, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Lynne M.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Hawkey, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H Program within Cooperative Extension is more than 100 years old. As we celebrate 100 years of Cooperative Extension, the foundation built by the 4-H Program serves as grounds to meet the needs of today's youth. The diversity of the youth who participate continues to grow, families continue to become less traditional, potential…

  1. Global 4-H Network: Laying the Groundwork for Global Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Jennifer; Miller, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive study examining 4-H programs in Africa, Asia, and Europe was conducted to provide understanding and direction in the establishment of a Global 4-H Network. Information regarding structure, organizational support, funding, and programming areas was gathered. Programs varied greatly by country, and many partnered with other 4-H…

  2. 4-H and Tech Ed Partnership Gets Students Geeked about STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Debra; Quam, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the 4-H Gateway Academies specifically designed to enhance science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills and knowledge in middle school youth. The innovative summer day camps partnered Project Lead the Way--trained teachers with county 4-H staff from University of Wisconsin-Extension (UW-Extension) Cooperative…

  3. Fitting the Framework: The STEM Institute and the 4-H Essential Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Jeff; Peek, Gina G.

    2014-01-01

    Extension and 4-H youth development programs are addressing a shortage of scientists, engineers, and other related professionals by promoting science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This case study illustrates how the Oklahoma 4-H Youth Development program trained youth-adult teams to design and implement STEM projects. The STEM…

  4. 4-H and Forestry Afterschool Clubs: A Collaboration to Foster Stewardship Attitudes and Behaviors in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Angela S.; Grant, Samantha; Strauss, Andrea Lorek

    2012-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Extension's 4-H and Forestry Afterschool program combined the 4-H structure and various forestry curricula to foster positive attitudes towards the environment and stewardship-related behaviors as these may serve as precursors to later choices that benefit the environment. Evaluation of third through fifth grade…

  5. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses. PMID:24091682

  6. Synthesis of 5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[d]isoxazol-7-one and 5,6-dihydro-4H-isoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-7-one derivatives as potential Hsp90 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Musso, Loana; Cincinelli, Raffaella; Giannini, Giuseppe; Manetti, Fabrizio; Dallavalle, Sabrina

    2015-11-01

    A novel class of 5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[d]isoxazol-7-ones and 5,6-dihydro-4H-isoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-7-ones was designed, synthesized, and assayed to investigate the affinity toward Hsp90 protein. The synthetic route was based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitriloxides, generated in situ from suitable benzaldoximes, with 2-bromocyclohex-2-enones or 3-bromo-5,6-dihydro-1H-pyridin-2-ones. Whereas all the compounds bearing a benzamide group on the bicyclic scaffold were devoid of activity, the derivatives carrying a resorcinol-like fragment showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on Hsp90. Docking calculations were performed to investigate the orientation of the new compounds within the binding site of the enzyme. PMID:25855505

  7. Simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Shahid, M. Y.; Iqbal, F.; Fatima, K.; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Arbi, H. M.; Tsu, R.

    2016-03-01

    In this study we report thermal evaporation technique as a simple method for the growth of 4H silicon carbide on p-type silicon substrate. A mixture of Si and C60 powder of high purity (99.99%) was evaporated from molybdenum boat. The as grown film was characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and Hall Measurements. The XRD pattern displayed four peaks at 2Θ angles 28.550, 32.700, 36.100 and 58.900 related to Si (1 1 1), 4H-SiC (1 0 0), 4H-SiC (1 1 1) and 4H-SiC (2 2 2), respectively. FTIR, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and electrical properties further strengthened the 4H-SiC growth.

  8. Tertiary amine-catalyzed (4 + 2) annulations of δ-acetoxy allenoates: synthesis of multisubstituted 4H-pyran and 4H-chromene.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yiting; Li, Falin; Hu, Pengfei; Liao, Daohua; Tong, Xiaofeng

    2015-03-01

    The DABCO-catalyzed divergent (4 + 2) annulations of δ-acetoxy allenoates 1 are reported. The chemical behavior of 1 under DABCO catalyst was found to be substrate dependent. Allenoate 1 with an aromatic group at δC preferentially reacted with salicylaldehyde derivative 2, delivering 4H-chromenes 3. On the other hand, allenoates 1 with an alkyl group at δC readily underwent (4 + 2) annulations with oxo diene 4 to afford 4H-pyrans 5. PMID:25692476

  9. Ultra high voltage MOS controlled 4H-SiC power switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, S.; Capell, C.; Van Brunt, E.; Jonas, C.; O'Loughlin, M.; Clayton, J.; Lam, K.; Pala, V.; Hull, B.; Lemma, Y.; Lichtenwalner, D.; Zhang, Q. J.; Richmond, J.; Butler, P.; Grider, D.; Casady, J.; Allen, S.; Palmour, J.; Hinojosa, M.; Tipton, C. W.; Scozzie, C.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra high voltage (UHV, >15 kV) 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have the potential to significantly improve the system performance, reliability, and cost of energy conversion systems by providing reduced part count, simplified circuit topology, and reduced switching losses. In this paper, we compare the two MOS based UHV 4H-SiC power switching devices; 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFETs and 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET shows a specific on-resistance of 204 mΩ cm2 at 25 °C, which increased to 570 mΩ cm2 at 150 °C. The 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET provides low, temperature-independent, switching losses which makes the device more attractive for applications that require higher switching frequencies. The 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT shows a significantly lower forward voltage drop (VF), along with reasonable switching performance, which make it a very attractive device for high voltage applications with lower switching frequency requirements. An electrothermal analysis showed that the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBT outperforms the 15 kV 4H-SiC MOSFET for applications with switching frequencies of less than 5 kHz. It was also shown that the use of a carrier storage layer (CSL) can significantly improve the conduction performance of the 15 kV 4H-SiC n-IGBTs.

  10. Effects of mosapride on motility of the small intestine and caecum in normal horses after jejunocaecostomy.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Kouichi; Sasaki, Naoki; Kikuchi, Takuya; Murata, Aya; Lee, Inhyung; Yamada, Haruo; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prokinetic effects of mosapride with non-invasive assessment of myoelectrical activity in the small intestine and caecum of healthy horses after jejunocaecostomy. Six horses underwent celiotomy and jejunocaecostomy, and were treated with mosapride (treated group) at 1.5 mg/kg per osos once daily for 5 days after surgery. The other six horses did not receive treatment and were used as controls (non-treated group). The electrointestinography (EIG) maximum amplitude was used to measure intestinal motility. Motility significantly decreased following surgery. In the treated group, the EIG maximum amplitude of the small intestine was significantly higher than in the controls from day 6 approximately 31 after treatment. These findings clearly indicate that mosapride could overcome the decline of intestinal motility after jejunocaecostomy in normal horses. PMID:19461212

  11. Effects of mosapride on motility of the small intestine and caecum in normal horses after jejunocaecostomy

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Kouichi; Kikuchi, Takuya; Murata, Aya; Lee, Inhyung; Yamada, Haruo; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prokinetic effects of mosapride with non-invasive assessment of myoelectrical activity in the small intestine and caecum of healthy horses after jejunocaecostomy. Six horses underwent celiotomy and jejunocaecostomy, and were treated with mosapride (treated group) at 1.5 mg/kg per osos once daily for 5 days after surgery. The other six horses did not receive treatment and were used as controls (non-treated group). The electrointestinography (EIG) maximum amplitude was used to measure intestinal motility. Motility significantly decreased following surgery. In the treated group, the EIG maximum amplitude of the small intestine was significantly higher than in the controls from day 6~31 after treatment. These findings clearly indicate that mosapride could overcome the decline of intestinal motility after jejunocaecostomy in normal horses. PMID:19461212

  12. Abnormal coagulation factor VIII transcript in a Tennessee Walking Horse colt with hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elaine M; Wooldridge, Anne A; Stewart, Allison J; Cusimano, Layla; Schwartz, Dean D; Johnson, Calvin M; Boudreaux, Mary K; Christopherson, Pete W

    2016-03-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-chromosome-linked disorder caused by a deficiency in factor VIII (FVIII). Although foals have been diagnosed with hemophilia A based on deficiency in FVIII activity, causative gene mutations have not been identified. The genomic DNA and cDNA encoding FVIII of a Tennesee Walking Horse colt affected with hemophilia A and the genomic DNA of his dam and a normal unrelated horse were analyzed with no splice site or coding sequence abnormalities identified in any of the horses. Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were then performed on hepatic cDNA from the affected colt and an unrelated normal horse, and no product was obtained for the sequence between and including exon 1 and exon 2 in the affected colt. Based on these results, suspected mutations were identified in the noncoding region of FVIII (intron 1), and genomic sequencing of intron 1 in the dam and the affected colt suggested maternal inheritance. PMID:26765501

  13. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    PubMed

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  14. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of

  15. Synthesis, spectral characterization, and pharmacological importance of new 4H-1,4-benzothiazines, their sulfone analogues, and ribofuranosides.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Naveen; Garg, Ankita; Gautam, Dinesh Chand

    2015-01-01

    The present article describes the synthesis of new 4H-1,4-benzothiazines via condensation and oxidative cyclization of substituted 2-aminobenzenethiols with compounds containing active methylene groups. It is believed that the reaction proceeds via intermediary of the enaminoketone system. The sulfone derivatives were synthesized by oxidation of 4H-1,4-benzothiazines using 30% hydrogen peroxide in glacial acetic acid. Benzothiazines were used as bases to prepare ribofuranosides by treatment with a sugar derivative (β-D-ribofuranosyl-1-acetate-2,3,5-tribenzoate). The pharmacological importance of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by their, antimicrobial properties against various bacterial strains and fungal species. The structures of the compounds have been confirmed by spectral and chemical analysis. PMID:25513863

  16. A Critical Review of Horse-Related Risk: A Research Agenda for Safer Mounts, Riders and Equestrian Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kirrilly; McGreevy, Paul; McManus, Phil

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of improving horse-related safety seems self-evident, no comprehensive study into understanding or reducing horse-related risk has been undertaken. In this paper, we discuss four dimensions of horse-related risk: the risk itself, the horse, the rider and the culture in which equestrian activities takes place. We identify how the ways in which risk is constructed in each dimension affects the applicability of four basic risk management options of avoidance, transference, mitigation and acceptance. We find the acceptance and avoidance of horse-related risk is generally high, most likely due to a common construction of horses as irrevocably unpredictable, fearful and dangerous. The transference of risk management is also high, especially in the use of protective technologies such as helmets. Of concern, the strategy least utilised is risk mitigation. We highlight the potential benefit in developing mitigation strategies directed at: (a) improving the predictability of horses (to and by humans), and (b) improving riders’ competence in the physical skills that make them more resilient to injury and falls. We conclude with the presentation of a multidisciplinary agenda for research that could reduce accident, injury and death to horse-riders around the world. PMID:26479374

  17. A Critical Review of Horse-Related Risk: A Research Agenda for Safer Mounts, Riders and Equestrian Cultures.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kirrilly; McGreevy, Paul; McManus, Phil

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of improving horse-related safety seems self-evident, no comprehensive study into understanding or reducing horse-related risk has been undertaken. In this paper, we discuss four dimensions of horse-related risk: the risk itself, the horse, the rider and the culture in which equestrian activities takes place. We identify how the ways in which risk is constructed in each dimension affects the applicability of four basic risk management options of avoidance, transference, mitigation and acceptance. We find the acceptance and avoidance of horse-related risk is generally high, most likely due to a common construction of horses as irrevocably unpredictable, fearful and dangerous. The transference of risk management is also high, especially in the use of protective technologies such as helmets. Of concern, the strategy least utilised is risk mitigation. We highlight the potential benefit in developing mitigation strategies directed at: (a) improving the predictability of horses (to and by humans), and (b) improving riders' competence in the physical skills that make them more resilient to injury and falls. We conclude with the presentation of a multidisciplinary agenda for research that could reduce accident, injury and death to horse-riders around the world. PMID:26479374

  18. Effects of oral tetrachlorvinphos fly control (Equitrol) administration in horses: physiological and behavioural findings.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Valdez, S; Puschner, B; Leutenegger, C M; Gardner, I A; Madigan, J E

    2008-01-01

    Highly reactive horses may pose risks to humans involved in equestrian activities. Among the factors that may affect horses' reactivity to external stimuli are pesticides used for fly control in equine facilities. The organophosphorus (OP) insecticide tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP) is used as a feed-through larvicide to prevent completion of the fly larval life cycle in horse manure. TCVP exerts its effect by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase (ChE) leading to the accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AChE) in synapses of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations of whole-blood ChE levels associated with feeding a commercially available product (Equitrol, Farnam Companies, Inc.) to horses for fly control. A second aim was to report neurological, physiological and behavioural findings in addition to profiles of selected immune markers (IFN-gamma, IL-12p40 and COX-2) and serum thyroid hormones during and after a 30-day treatment period of TCVP feeding. The results indicated significant decreases in whole-blood ChE activity and concomitant behavioural alterations, manifested as increased reactivity and decreased controllability in treated horses. No changes were detected in physiological or neurological parameters, immune markers or thyroid hormones in treated (n=6) or control (n=4) horses during the course of the study. PMID:17522960

  19. Investigations of 3C-SiC inclusions in 4H-SiC epilayers on 4H-SiC single crystal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Si, W.; Dudley, M.; Kong, H.S.; Sumakeris, J.; Carter, C. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and Nomarski optical microscopy (NOM) have been used to characterize 4H-SiC epilayers and to study the character of triangular inclusions therein. 4H-SiC substrates misoriented by a range of angles from (0001), as well as (1 1{bar 0}0) and (11 2{bar 0}) oriented substrates were used. No evidence was found for the nucleation of 3C-SiC inclusions at superscrew dislocations (along the [0001] axis) in the 4H-SiC substrates. Increasing the off-axis angle of the substrates from 3.5 to 6.5{degree} was found to greatly suppress the formation of the triangular inclusions. In the case of substrates misoriented by 8.0{degree} from (0001) toward [112{bar 0}], the triangular inclusions were virtually eliminated. The crystalline quality of 4H-SiC epilayers grown on the substrates misoriented by 8.0{degree} from (0001) was very good. For the (11{bar 0}0) and (112{bar 0}) samples, there is no indication of 3C-SiC inclusions in the epilayers. Possible formation mechanisms and the morphology of 3C-SiC inclusions are discussed. 17 refs., 13 figs.

  20. Using Multiple Youth Programming Delivery Modes to Drive the Development of Social Capital in 4-H Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how 4-H youth participants are building social capital, or connections among individuals and community members, through their 4-H experiences. These experiences can be seen through the lens of such 4-H delivery modes as the traditional 4-H club, after-school programs, and school enrichment programs. In addition, other…

  1. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  2. Photic headshaking in the horse: 7 cases.

    PubMed

    Madigan, J E; Kortz, G; Murphy, C; Rodger, L

    1995-07-01

    Seven horses with headshaking are described. No physical abnormalities were detected in any of the cases. Six of these horses had onset of clinical signs in the spring. The role of light was assessed by application of a blindfold or dark grey lens to the eyes, covering the eyes with a face mask and observing the horse in total darkness outdoors. Cessation of headshaking was observed with blindfolding (5/5 horses), night darkness outdoors (4/4 horses) and use of grey lenses (2/3 horses). Outdoor behaviour suggested efforts to avoid light in 4/4 cases. The photic sneeze in man is suggested as a putative mechanism for equine headshaking. Five of 7 horses had improvement with cyproheptadine treatment (0.3 mg/kg bwt b.i.d.). Headshaking developed within 2 calendar weeks of the same date for 3 consecutive years in one horse. Neuropharmacological alterations associated with photoperiod mechanisms leading to optic trigeminal summation are suggested as possible reasons for spring onset of headshaking. PMID:8536668

  3. [Ecological characteristics of horse stomach botflies in Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Enileeva, N Kh

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the flight periods and dynamics of abundance of horse botflies, life span of females and males, effect of environmental factors on the activity of flies and their behaviour, potential fecundity of different species of botflies, duration of embryonal development, preservation of viability of larvae in egg membranes, localization of different stages of botflies in the host, and methods of their control. PMID:2958767

  4. Surface Al doping of 4H-SiC via low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junbo; Kim, Ki-hwan; Park, Young-rak; Kim, Minki; Lee, Hyungseok; Jun, Chi-Hoon; Koo, Sangmo; Ko, Sang Choon

    2016-07-01

    We present a method of forming shallow p-doping on a 4H-SiC surface by depositing a thin Al layer (d = 5 nm) and then thermally annealing it at 1000 °C for 10 min. A secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the annealed Al/SiC sample reveals an Al concentration in excess of 1017 cm-3 up to a depth of d ≤ 250 nm. I-V measurements and CV characterizations of Ti-SiC Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) fabricated on a n-type SiC epi-wafer indicate that the shallow Al doping increases the built-in potential of the junction and the barrier height by Δ V b i = 0.51 eV and Δ ϕ B = 0.26 eV , respectively. Assuming a rectangular doping profile, calculations of the built-in voltage shift and the Schottky barrier height indicate that partial dopant activation (activation ratio ˜2%) can induce the observed barrier height shift. The shallow doping method was then used to fabricate junction terminations in SBDs which increased the breakdown voltage and reduced the reverse leakage current. Technology CAD simulations of the SBD with and without doping verify that a reduction of peak electric field can explain the improvement of the breakdown voltage.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of 4-aryl-4H-chromenes from H-cardanol.

    PubMed

    Rao, Hulluru Surya Prakash; Kamalraj, Mani

    2014-09-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a variety of fat-soluble, low-melting and medicinally useful 4-aryl-4H-chromenes from H-cardanol (side-chain perhydrogenated cardanol, 3-pentadecylphenol), a renewable and low-cost product from locally grown cashew nut trees (Anacardium occidentale L.). We incorporated H-cardanol into the aromatic rings of either 4H-chromene or phenol, or both. Substitution of C4SMe in N-methyl-4-(methylthio)-3-nitro-4H-chromene-2-amines with H-cardanol was regio-specific at the C6 position. PMID:25918806

  6. Exploring the virome of diseased horses.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A; Pusterla, Nicola; Delwart, Eric

    2015-09-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  7. Exploring the virome of diseased horses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S.; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Pusterla, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  8. Dietary experience modifies horses' feeding behavior and selection patterns of three macronutrient rich diets.

    PubMed

    Redgate, S E; Cooper, J J; Hall, S; Eady, P; Harris, P A

    2014-04-01

    Choice feeding is often used to investigate an animal's nutritional requirements and dietary preferences. A problem with this approach is that animals with long gut transit times, such as the horse, may find it difficult to associate a chosen food with its nutritional consequence when alternative foods are presented simultaneously. One solution is to present foods singly for a period of time before a simultaneous choice session to allow the development of learned associations. This method was used to determine if horse's voluntary intake and feeding behavior was influenced by the macronutrient composition of the diet. Seven stabled horses, maintained on a low intensity exercise regimen, were allowed, on an ad libitum basis, haylage and 3 isocaloric forage based diets that were rich in 1 of 3 macronutrients (protein, lipid, and hydrolyzable carbohydrate). Initially, diets were presented as a 3-way choice for 5 d (self-selection a [SSa]), then singly (monadic phase) with exposure to each diet for 2 separate periods of 3 d each, and finally again as a choice for 5 d (self-selection b [SSb]). The total amount of trial diet offered differed with trial phase, with 2 to 2.5% of BW during SSa and the monadic phase, increasing to ad libitum access during SSb. To control differences in the total amount of trial diet offered, 2 measurements of voluntary intake were taken at 4 and 22 h postpresentation. Daily macronutrient and energy intakes were estimated from proximate analysis of the trial diets and batches of haylage fed. Feeding behavior was observed over a single 4-h period during both self-selection phases. Horses showed no initial preference after 4 h for any 1 diet during SSa. Following the monadic phase, horses demonstrated a preference for the protein and hydrolyzable carbohydrate rich diets over the lipid rich diet (P < 0.001). Dietary experience modified foraging behavior as the total number of visits to the diets decreased during SSb (P < 0.005). Analysis of 24

  9. Kaulath, a new fungal fermented food from horse gram.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Minakshee; Vasantha, K Y; Sreerama, Y N; Haware, Devendra J; Singh, R P; Sattur, A P

    2015-12-01

    Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) is used in the traditional method for treatmentof several health complications. It is also known that fermentation of such substrates yields a number of compounds that enhance the overall activities against several disease states. Solid state fermentation of horse gram using Penicillium camemberti showed an inhibition of pancreatic lipase and alpha glucosidase activities. The fermented material, termed Kaulath, showed 60 % increase in fat content. A reduction in sodium and increased levels of potassium and calcium was observed in Kaulath. In addition, a higher free radical scavenging activity was noted in this product compared to unfermented horse gram. Anti-nutritional factors, such as phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors showed a reduction in Kaulath. Furthermore, Kaulath, upto 1 g per kg body weight, did not exhibit any mortality or toxic effects in experimental rats after 14 days of administration. The hematological and clinical parameters were within safe limits between the groups, supported by the histopathology of liver and kidney. These results indicate potential food use of Kaulath in diets and as functional ingredients in formulated foods. PMID:26604417

  10. Knowledge is key to safety; Plants that poison horses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally they are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However, there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Other plants may be eaten by some horses even though they are unpalatable...

  11. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  12. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  13. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  14. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  15. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  16. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  17. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  18. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  19. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  20. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  1. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  2. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  3. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  4. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  5. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  6. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  7. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  8. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  9. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  10. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  11. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  12. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  13. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  14. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  15. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  16. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  17. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  18. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  19. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  20. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  1. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  2. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  3. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  4. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  5. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  6. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  7. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  8. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  9. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  10. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  11. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world...

  12. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  13. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  14. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  15. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  16. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  17. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  18. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  19. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  20. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  1. Domesticated horses differ in their behavioural and physiological responses to isolated and group housing.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Kelly; Hall, Carol; Royle, Chris; Walker, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    The predominant housing system used for domestic horses is individual stabling; however, housing that limits social interaction and requires the horse to live in semi-isolation has been reported to be a concern for equine welfare. The aim of the current study was to compare behavioural and physiological responses of domestic horses in different types of housing design that provided varying levels of social contact. Horses (n = 16) were divided equally into four groups and exposed to each of four housing treatments for a period of five days per treatment in a randomized block design. The four housing treatments used were single housed no physical contact (SHNC), single housed semi-contact (SHSC), paired housed full contact (PHFC) and group housed full contact (GHFC). During each housing treatment, adrenal activity was recorded using non-invasive faecal corticosterone metabolite analysis (fGC). Thermal images of the eye were captured and eye temperature was assessed as a non-invasive measure of the stress response. Behavioural analysis of time budget was carried out and an ease of handling score was assigned to each horse in each treatment using video footage. SHNC horses had significantly higher (p = 0.01) concentrations of fGC and were significantly (p = 0.003) more difficult to handle compared to the other housing types. GHFC horses, although not significantly different, had numerically lower concentrations of fGC and were more compliant to handling when compared to all other housing treatments. Eye temperature was significantly (p = 0.0001) lower in the group housed treatment when compared to all other treatments. These results indicate that based on physiological and behavioural measures incorporating social contact into the housing design of domestic horses could improve the standard of domestic equine welfare. PMID:25725117

  2. Evidence for polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 2D50 gene in horses.

    PubMed

    Corado, C R; McKemie, D S; Young, A; Knych, H K

    2016-06-01

    Metabolism is an essential factor in the clearance of many drugs and as such plays a major role in the establishment of dosage regimens and withdrawal times. CYP2D6, the human orthologue to equine CYP2D50, is a drug-metabolizing enzyme that is highly polymorphic in humans leading to widely differing levels of metabolic activity. As CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic, in this study it was hypothesized that the gene coding for the equine orthologue, CYP2D50, may also be prone to polymorphism. Blood samples were collected from 150 horses, the CYP2D50 gene was cloned and sequenced; and full-length sequences were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), deletions, or insertions. Pharmacokinetic data were collected from a subset of horses following the administration of a single oral dose of tramadol and probit analysis used to calculate metabolic ratios. Prior to drug administration, the ability of recombinant CYP2D50 to metabolize tramadol to O-desmethyltramadol was confirmed. Sequencing of CYP2D50 identified 126 exonic SNPs, with 31 of those appearing in multiple horses. Oral administration of tramadol to a subset of these horses revealed variable metabolic ratios (tramadol: O-desmethyltramadol) in individual horses and separation into three metabolic groups. While a limited number of horses of primarily a single breed were studied, the variability in tramadol metabolism to O-desmethyltramadol between horses and preliminary evidence of what appears to be poor, extensive, and ultra-rapid metabolizers supports further study of the potential for genetic polymorphisms in the CYP2D50 gene in horses. PMID:26441153

  3. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel.

    PubMed

    Weese, J Scott

    2004-12-01

    Fortunately, MRSA infection and colonization are currently uncommon in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the increasing reports of the occurrence of MRSA infection in horses, veterinarians, and equine personnel dictate that serious consideration be given to the control of this pathogen in veterinary hospitals as well as in the equine community. It is unclear whether extrapolation from human hospitals and people in the community is appropriate; however, given the rapid increase in nosocomial MRSA in human hospitals and the recent shift of certain clones of MRSA into the community, it would be unwise to ignore this potential pathogen. If equine MRSA did, indeed, originate in the human population, complete eradication in the equine population is unlikely, regardless of the prevalence of infection in horses and the intensity of infection control measures, without concurrent eradication of MRSA in the human population, which is surely an impossible feat. Early institution of appropriate surveillance and other infection control measures should be used to attempt to limit the impact of MRSA in veterinary medicine, however. It has been stated, "The time to act is now, before the prevalence of MRSA in the community begins to rise and we end up with 50% of the community strains becoming methicillin-resistant". This statement was directed at control of MRSA in people; however, it is equally relevant in the veterinary context and should receive strong consideration. PMID:15519821

  4. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva. PMID:25700267

  5. Analysis of basal physical fitness and lumbar muscle function according to indoor horse riding exercise.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Hong, Chul Un; Kang, Seung Rok; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the effect of indoor horse riding exercise on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The subjects included were 20 healthy females, who participated in the horse riding exercise using SRider (Rider Co. & ChonbuK National Univ, Korea) for 30 minutes per day, 3 days per week, over a period of 8 weeks. The subjects were divided into 4 groups as follows, with 10 subjects in each group: Postural Balance Exercise mode (PBE), Abdomen Exercise mode (ADE), Whole body Exercise mode (WBE), and Multiple Exercise (MTE). Isokinetic muscular function test was performed before and after the horse riding exercise, to assess the effect of horse riding on basal physical exercise and lumbar muscular function. The test result on basal physical exercise and isokinetic muscular function showed improvements with variable degree in the back muscle strength, maximum joint torque, total work, and muscular acceleration time. The result signifies that the horse riding is an antagonistic exercise mainly performed on waist and abdomen area, and the machine induces persistent muscle contraction and causes myotonic induction enhancing the muscle strength. Indoor horse riding exercise proved its effectiveness for senior or the disabled people who need muscle exercises but have difficulties performing outdoor activities. PMID:25226940

  6. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-24

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

  7. Auricular chondrosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Bowers, J R; Slocombe, R F

    2009-06-01

    A 4-year-old crossbred, Welsh Mountain Pony gelding was presented with multiple, thick, round, raised, 3 to 8 mm diameter nodular lesions on the medial aspects of both ears. The nodules did not involve the epidermis and were observed to develop over several months. Punch biopsies were taken and histopathological examination returned a diagnosis of auricular chondrosis. Neither auricular chondrosis nor auricular chondritis has been reported in horses, although it has been recorded in cats, dogs, laboratory animals and humans. PMID:19489778

  8. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. PMID:27449391

  9. Genetic characterisation of the Uruguayan Creole horse and analysis of relationships among horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L; Postiglioni, A; De Andrés, D F; Vega-Plá, J L; Gagliardi, R; Biagetti, R; Franco, J

    2002-02-01

    The genetic variability within the Uruguayan Creole horse and its relationship to a group of geographically or historically related breeds (Spanish Pure-bred, Barb, Quarter horse, Paso Fino, Peruvian Paso, Arabian and Thoroughbred horse), was evaluated using 25 loci (seven of blood groups, nine of protein polymorphisms and nine microsatellites) analyzed on a total of 145 Uruguayan Creole horses. In this study, blood group and protein polymorphism variants that are considered to be breed markers of Spanish Pure-bred and Barb horses were detected in the Creole breed. Conversely, some microsatellites and protein polymorphisms alleles were found uniquely in the Creole horse. American horse breeds together with Barb and Arabian horses clearly formed a separate cluster from the Spanish pure-bred and Thoroughbred breeds, as shown by an UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's standard genetic distance. Data in this study provided evidence for considerable genetic variation within Uruguayan Creole horses and of a distinctive breed profile. Both traits were most likely inherited from the XVIth century Spanish horses, more closely related to Barb than to Spanish Pure-bred. PMID:12002640

  10. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. PMID:25376504

  11. Al4H7− is a resilient building block for aluminum hydrogen cluster materials

    PubMed Central

    Roach, P. J.; Reber, A. C.; Woodward, W. H.; Khanna, S. N.; Castleman, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    The formation and oxygen etching of AlnHm− clusters are characterized in a flow reactor experiment with first-principles theoretical investigations to demonstrate the exceptional stability of Al4H7−. The origin of the preponderance of Al4H7− in the mass spectra of hydrogenated aluminum anions and its resistance to O2 etching are discussed. Al4H7− is shown to have the ability to bond with ionic partners to form stable hydrides through addition of an alkali atom [XAl4H7 (X = Li-Cs)]. An intuitive model that can predict the existence of stable hydrogenated cluster species is proposed. The potential synthetic utility of the superatom assemblies built on these units is addressed. PMID:17823245

  12. Ohio 4-H Agents' and Volunteer Leaders' Perceptions of the Volunteer Leadership Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwarteng, Joseph A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study found that six areas of volunteer leadership development are important to volunteers and 4-H agents. The areas are (1) recruiting, (2) training, (3) motivation, (4) recognition, (5) retention, and (6) supervision. (JOW)

  13. Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC by liquid immersion excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Akihiro; Nishi, Koji; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2013-02-04

    Phosphorus doping of 4H SiC is performed by KrF excimer laser irradiation of 4H SiC immersed in phosphoric acid. Phosphorus is incorporated to a depth of a few tens of nanometers at a concentration of over 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} without generating significant crystal defects. Formation of a pn junction diode with an ideality factor of 1.06 is demonstrated.

  14. Ferromagnetism in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ren-Wei; Wang, Hua-Jie; Chen, Wei-Bin; Li, Fei; Liu, Xue-Chao Zhuo, Shi-Yi; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-04-15

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal. An initial increase in proton dose leads to pronounced ferromagnetism, accompanying with obvious increase in vacancy concentration. Further increase in irradiation dose lowers the saturation magnetization with the decrease in total vacancy defects due to the defects recombination. It is found that divacancies are the mainly defects in proton irradiated 4H-SiC and responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  15. Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gisin, N.; Fasel, S.; Kraus, B.; Zbinden, H.; Ribordy, G.

    2006-02-15

    General Trojan-horse attacks on quantum-key-distribution systems, i.e., attacks on Alice or Bob's system via the quantum channel, are analyzed. We illustrate the power of such attacks with today's technology and conclude that all systems must implement active counter measures. In particular, all systems must include an auxiliary detector that monitors any incoming light. We show that such counter measures can be efficient, provided that enough additional privacy amplification is applied to the data. We present a practical way to reduce the maximal information gain that an adversary can gain using Trojan-horse attacks. This does reduce the security analysis of the two-way plug-and-play implementation to those of the standard one-way systems.

  16. Association analysis of the LTA4H gene polymorphisms and pulmonary tuberculosis in 9115 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, James; Kopanitsa, Liliya; Stebbings, Emma; Speirs, Arran; Ignatyeva, Olga; Balabanova, Yanina; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Hoffner, Sven; Horstmann, Rolf; Drobniewski, Francis; Nejentsev, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Summary Immunoregulatory eicosanoids have been implicated in protection from mycobacterial infection in cell and animal models. Recently, a study of the zebrafish embryo demonstrated that mutants of the lta4h gene, which encodes the leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) enzyme of the eicosanoid pathway, have hypersusceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum infection. It also reported that heterozygosity at the two single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1978331 and rs2660898 located in introns of the LTA4H gene, a human homologue of lta4h, is associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis. To replicate this association we genotyped six LTA4H gene polymorphisms in samples from 3703 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 5412 healthy controls collected in Russia. We found no evidence of the protective effect of heterozygosity at the polymorphisms rs1978331 and rs2660898 (P = 0.29 and 0.49) and no association of the alleles of any of the six polymorphisms (P = 0.13–0.81). These results suggest that common polymorphisms in the LTA4H gene do not play any major role in susceptibility to clinical pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:21112816

  17. Bistable defect in mega-electron-volt proton implanted 4H silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D. M.; Kortegaard Nielsen, H.; Lévêque, P.; Hallén, A.; Alfieri, G.; Svensson, B. G.

    2004-03-01

    Epitaxial 4H-SiC n-type layers implanted at room temperature with a low fluence of mega-electron-volt protons have been measured by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The proton fluence of 1×1012cm-2 creates an estimated initial concentration of intrinsic point defects of about 1014 cm-3 of which about 10% remain after the implantation and gives rise to deep states in the upper part of the band gap. Here, we investigate the samples prior to high-temperature annealing and a very complex spectrum is revealed. In particular, a bistable defect M is discovered having two DLTS peaks, M1 and M3 at EC-0.42 and around EC-0.75 eV, respectively, in one configuration and one peak, M2 at EC-0.70 eV in the other configuration. The charge dependent thermal activation energies for the transformation between the bistable defect peaks are 0.90 and 1.40 eV.

  18. Radiation-stimulated photoluminescence in electron irradiated 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Ber, B. Ya; Seredova, N. V.; Kazantsev, D. Yu; Kozlovski, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) arising in low doped CVD grown n- and p-type 4H-SiC upon electron irradiation (0,9 MeV) has been studied. After each doze of irradiation spectrum of PL was measured. The PL spectrum was dominated by a band peaked at hv  ≈  2,45 eV, commonly observed upon irradiation of SiC. The experiments demonstrated that, for samples with both types of conduction, the PL intensity approaches a constant value with increasing irradiation dose. A model was suggested, describing the PL characteristics in terms of the radiative recombination via a donor-acceptor pair constituted by nitrogen and a structural defect formed in the course of irradiation. Also, the concentration of nitrogen atoms was measured by the SIMS method. The experimental data were used to calculate in terms of the suggested model the dependence of the PL intensity on the irradiation dose. A good agreement between the calculated and experimental dependences was observed. A conclusion is made that the PL is activated by donor—acceptor pairs constituted by a nitrogen atom and a structural defect.

  19. Silicon vacancy center in 4 H -SiC: Electronic structure and spin-photon interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soykal, Ö. O.; Dev, Pratibha; Economou, Sophia E.

    2016-02-01

    Defects in silicon carbide are of intense and increasing interest for quantum-based applications due to this material's properties and technological maturity. We calculate the multiparticle symmetry-adapted wave functions of the negatively charged silicon vacancy defect in hexagonal silicon carbide via use of group theory and density functional theory and find the effects of spin-orbit and spin-spin interactions on these states. Although we focused on VSi- in 4 H -SiC because of its unique fine structure due to the odd number of active electrons, our methods can be easily applied to other defect centers of different polytypes, especially to the 6 H -SiC. Based on these results, we identify the mechanism that polarizes the spin under optical drive, obtain the ordering of its dark doublet states, point out a path for electric field or strain sensing, and find the theoretical value of its ground-state zero-field splitting to be 68 MHz, in good agreement with experiment. Moreover, we present two distinct protocols of a spin-photon interface based on this defect. Our results pave the way toward quantum information and quantum metrology applications with silicon carbide.

  20. Discovery and analysis of 4H-pyridopyrimidines, a class of selective bacterial protein synthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ribble, Wendy; Hill, Walter E; Ochsner, Urs A; Jarvis, Thale C; Guiles, Joseph W; Janjic, Nebojsa; Bullard, James M

    2010-11-01

    Bacterial protein synthesis is the target for numerous natural and synthetic antibacterial agents. We have developed a poly(U) mRNA-directed aminoacylation/translation protein synthesis system composed of phenyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, and ribosomal factors from Escherichia coli. This system, utilizing purified components, has been used for high-throughput screening of a small-molecule chemical library. We have identified a series of compounds that inhibit protein synthesis with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) ranging from 3 to 14 μM. This series of compounds all contained the same central scaffold composed of tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ol (e.g., 4H-pyridopyrimidine). All analogs contained an ortho pyridine ring attached to the central scaffold in the 2 position and either a five- or a six-member ring tethered to the 6-methylene nitrogen atom of the central scaffold. These compounds inhibited the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, with MICs ranging from 0.25 to 32 μg/ml. Macromolecular synthesis (MMS) assays with E. coli and S. aureus confirmed that antibacterial activity resulted from specific inhibition of protein synthesis. Assays were developed for the steps performed by each component of the system in order to ascertain the target of the compounds, and the ribosome was found to be the site of inhibition. PMID:20696870

  1. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature. PMID:26354098

  2. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-09-01

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature.

  3. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature. PMID:26354098

  4. Systemic blastomycosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Julia H; Olson, Erik J; Haugen, Edward W; Hunt, Luanne M; Johnson, Jennifer L; Hayden, David W

    2006-11-01

    Progressive multisystemic disease caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was diagnosed in a 17-year-old Quarter horse broodmare. The mare had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics for mastitis 3 months postpartum. The disease progressed to exudative cutaneous lesions affecting the ventrum, pectoral region, and limbs accompanied by weight loss across several months. Yeast bodies were observed in swabs of the cutaneous exudate, suggesting a clinical diagnosis of blastomycosis. Following referral, pleural effusion, cavitated lung lesions, and hyperproteinemia were identified, and the mare was euthanized because of poor prognosis. Necropsy revealed extensive pyogranulomas in the mammary gland, skin, subcutaneous tissues, and lungs, accompanied by thrombi in major blood vessels of the lungs and hind limbs. Histologically, pyogranulomatous inflammation was evident in many tissues, and fungal organisms were seen in sections of mammary gland, skin, subcutis, pericardium, and lung. Blastomyces dermatitidis was cultured from mammary tissue, lungs, lymph node, and an inguinal abscess. Although blastomycosis is endemic in the area of origin of the mare in northwestern Wisconsin, the disease is extremely rare in horses and hence easily misdiagnosed. Unique features of this case included the extent of mammary gland involvement and the presence of thrombi in multiple sites. PMID:17121096

  5. Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.

    PubMed

    Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods. PMID:24290612

  6. Reaginic antibodies from horses with recurrent airway obstruction produce mast cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Moran, G; Folch, H; Henriquez, C; Ortloff, A; Barria, M

    2012-12-01

    Reaginic antibodies (IgE and some IgG subclasses) and mast cells play important roles in the induction of type I immediate hypersensitivity reactions. These antibodies bind through their Fc fragment to high affinity receptors (FcεRI) present in the membrane of mast cells and basophils. The cross-linking of the receptor initiates a coordinated sequence of biochemical and morphological events that results in exocytosis of secretory granules containing pre-formed inflammatory mediators, secretion of newly formed lipid mediators, and secretion of cytokines. Previously, several studies have investigated the role of reaginic antibodies in the pathogenesis of Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO). However, whereas the immunological aspects of RAO have been extensively studied, the precise sequence of events involved in the pathogenesis remains not completely understood, and the role of IgE in this disease remains controversial. Therefore, in this study, several bioassays were conducted to determine whether reaginic antibodies from RAO-affected horses have the ability to activate mast cells. These bioassays involved measuring degranulation of rat peritoneal mast cells, activation of NF-κB and morphological changes in basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3) following incubation with horse serum from RAO-affected horses that were sensitive and insensitive to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) or from unaffected horses. Our results show that reaginic antibodies from horses sensitive to A. fumigatus were able to degranulate rat peritoneal mast cells. In additon, there was an increase in the activity of the transcription factor NF-κB in RBL-2H3 cells, and morphological changes were observed in these cells once cross-linking was produced. These findings were not found in horses not sensitive to A. fumigatus and healthy horses. These bioassays demonstrate the ability of reaginic antibodies to stimulate mast cells and indicate that these antibodies could be involved in the

  7. Influence of formulation on the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen in horses.

    PubMed

    Landoni, M F; Lees, P

    1995-12-01

    The bioavailability of S(+) and R(-) ketoprofen (KTP) in six horses was investigated after oral administration of the racemic (rac) mixture. Two oral formulations were studied, an oil-based paste containing micronised rac-KTP and powder from the same source in hard gelatin capsules, each at a dose rate of 2.2 mg/kg. For the oil-based paste two feeding schedules were used; horses were either allowed free access to food or access to food was restricted for 4 h before and 5 h after dosing. The drug in hard gelatin capsules was administered to horses with restricted access to food. After intravenous administration of rac-KTP, S(+) enantiomer concentrations exceeded those of the R(-) enantiomer. For S(+) and R(-)KTP, respectively, pharmacokinetic parameters were, t1/2 beta 0.99 +/- 0.14 h, 0.70 +/- 0.13 h; ClB 0.56 +/- 0.09, 0.92 +/- 0.20 L/h/kg; Vd(ss) 0.53 +/- 0.11, 0.61 +/- 0.10 L/kg. Following oral administration of rac-KTP as the oil-based paste to horses with free access to food, there were no detectable concentrations in plasma in three animals at any sampling time, while a fourth animal showed very low concentrations at two sampling times only. In the two remaining horses very low but detectable concentrations were present for 5 h. In the horses with restricted access to food, rac-KTP paste administration produced higher concentrations in plasma. However, bioavailability was very low, 2.67 +/- 0.43 and 5.75 +/- 1.48% for R(-) and S(+)KTP, respectively. When administered as pure drug substance in hard gelatin capsules, absorption of KTP was fairly rapid, but incomplete. Bioavailability was 50.55 +/- 10.95 and 54.17 +/- 9.9% for R(-) and S(+)KTP, respectively. This study demonstrates that rac-KTP had a modest bioavailability when administered as a micronised powder in hard gelatin capsules to horses with restricted access to food. When powder from the same source was administered as an oil-based paste, it was for practical purposes not bioavailable, regardless on

  8. [New drugs for horses and production animals in 2015].

    PubMed

    Emmerich, Ilka Ute

    2016-06-16

    In 2015, four newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredients for horses and food-producing animals were released on the German market for veterinary drug products. These were the bisphosphonate Clodronic Acid (Osphos®), the 5-hydroxytryptamine (2A) receptor antagonist Ketanserin (Vulketan®), the aminoglycoside antibiotic Paromomycin (Parofor®) and the antibiotic Thiamphenicol (TAF Spray®) from the fenicole group. With Chlorphenamine, a temporary not available active ingredient was reapproved in a new drug. Furthermore, three veterinary drugs with a new formulation as well as one product with a new strength and two products with a new combination of active pharmaceutical ingredients have been launched. PMID:27223124

  9. Ivermectin as an antiparasitic agent in horses.

    PubMed

    Schröder, J; Swan, G E

    1982-06-01

    Ivermectin, described as 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1, was the compound chosen from the avermectin group of compounds for development as an antiparasitic agent in horses. A review of the literature indicates that parenteral administration in horses at 200 microgram/kg body mass is highly effective against the strongyles Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus and triodontophorus spp., and adult and immature cyathostomes, including strains resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics. Other nematodes controlled in horses include Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Trichostrongylus axei, and Habronema spp. Ivermectin is also highly effective against stomach bots (Gastrophilus spp.). PMID:6750120

  10. Coniochaetones E-I, new 4H-chromen-4-one derivatives from the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Fimetariella sp.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lianwu; Niu, Shubing; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng; Li, Erwei

    2013-09-01

    Five new 4H-chromen-4-one derivatives coniochaetones E-I (1-5), along with the known compounds coniochaetones B (6) and A (7) have been isolated from solid cultures of the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Fimetariella sp. Their structures were elucidated primarily by NMR spectroscopy and the absolute configurations of compounds 1-3 were assigned using the modified Mosher's method. Compound 4 showed weak cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 72.8 μM. The co-isolated known compound 6 showed modest inhibitory effects against Aspergilus fumigates, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium nivale. PMID:23685047

  11. Duddingtonia flagrans in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of horses.

    PubMed

    Buzatti, Andréia; de Paula Santos, Clóvis; Fernandes, Maria Angela Machado; Yoshitani, Ursula Yaeko; Sprenger, Lew Kan; dos Santos, Carolina Dallagassa; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2015-12-01

    Horses can harbor a large amount of parasites that may cause serious clinical signs even death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against infective larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes of horses in fecal culture. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treated groups (G1, G2 and G3) and one control (CG), using eight animals/group. The treated animals received G1: 1.5 × 10(5); G2: 3 × 10(5) and G3: 6 × 10(5) chlamydospores of D. flagrans/kg body weight during 21 days. The fungi preparation was given at every other three-day interval. Faecal samples were collected during 30 days, on the same interval, to perform the fecal egg counts (EPG) and fecal culture for each horse. All groups demonstrated similar results for the EPG (P > 0.05) counts. D. flagrans significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the number of infective larvae after 72 h-interval between treatments. The G2 and G3 promoted higher results (P < 0.05) of L3 reduction compared to the CG. The biological control with the predacious fungi D. flagrans is still a promising free-living parasite regulator alternative to be use in livestock. PMID:26208781

  12. Peripheral serotoninergic response to physical exercise in athletic horses

    PubMed Central

    Giannetto, Claudia; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise on plasma tryptophan (TRP) and free serotonin (f5-HT), whole blood-5-HT (WB-5-HT) and f5-HT/WB-5-HT ratio in Italian Saddle horses. Six clinically healthy Italian Saddle horses were subjected to a 450 meters obstacles course. Blood samples were collected from each horse by jugular venipuncture using vacutainer tubes with K3-EDTA at rest, immediately after exercise, and after 30 min. TRP, f5-HT and WB-5-HT were analyzed by HPLC. Immediately after exercise, statistically significant increases of f5-HT (p<0.001) and WB-5-HT (p<0.001) were observed. After 30 min, f5-HT and WB-5-HT decreased compared to immediately after exercise, but were still significantly higher than rest values (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). A significant linear regression between f5-HT and WB-5-HT was observed during experimental conditions. f5-HT and WB-5-HT modifications after exercise suggest an important role of peripheral serotoninergic markers in response to physical activity. The possible source of extra serotonin detected after show jumping should be clarified by further investigation. PMID:21113096

  13. Dietary selenate versus selenite for cattle, sheep, and horses.

    PubMed

    Podoll, K L; Bernard, J B; Ullrey, D E; DeBar, S R; Ku, P K; Magee, W T

    1992-06-01

    Food and Drug Administration regulations currently permit addition of .3 mg of Se per kilogram of diet for chickens, turkeys, ducks, swine, sheep, and cattle. However, field reports indicate that this level may not be adequate for ruminants in all situations. Because sodium selenite is the most common supplemental form and is known to be readily absorbed to particles or reduced to insoluble elemental Se or selenides in acid, anaerobic environments, studies were conducted with dairy cattle, sheep, and horses fed sodium selenate to determine whether Se from this source was more bioavailable than Se from sodium selenite. A 2-wk period of no Se supplementation was followed by 49 or 56 d of Se supplementation at .3 mg/kg of dietary DM. Serum Se concentrations and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities measured initially and periodically thereafter revealed no difference between Se forms in sheep and horses and only a small (P less than .05) advantage for selenate in supporting serum Se concentration in dairy cattle. Selenium concentrations in skeletal muscle and liver of sheep were not different between Se forms. Serum Se, but not GSHPx, increased with time, and .3 mg of supplemental Se per kilogram of dietary DM from either sodium selenate or sodium selenite supported normal serum Se concentrations in sheep, dairy cattle, and horses. PMID:1321804

  14. CVD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    SciTech Connect

    Neudeck,P.; Trunek, A.; Spry, D.; Powell, J.; Du, H.; Skowronski, M.; Huang, X.; Dudley, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM) measurements indicate non-trivial, in-plane, lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  15. Disruption of PF4/H multimolecular complex formation with a minimally anticoagulant heparin (ODSH)

    PubMed Central

    Joglekar, Manali V.; Quintana Diez, Pedro M.; Marcus, Stephen; Qi, Rui; Espinasse, Benjamin; Wiesner, Mark R.; Pempe, Elizabeth; Liu, Jian; Monroe, Dougald M.; Arepally, Gowthami M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies have shown that ultra-large complexes (ULCs) of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and heparin (H) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT), an immune-mediated disorder caused by PF4/H antibodies. Because antigenic PF4/H ULCs assemble through non-specific electrostatic interactions, we reasoned that disruption of charge-based interactions can modulate the immune response to antigen. We tested a minimally anticoagulant compound (2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin or ODSH) with preserved charge to disrupt PF4/H complex formation and immunogenicity. We show that ODSH disrupts complexes when added to pre-formed PF4/H ULCs and prevents ULC formation when incubated simultaneously with PF4 and UFH. In other studies, we show that excess ODSH reduces HIT antibody (Ab) binding in immunoassays and that PF4/ODSH complexes do not cross-react with HIT Abs. When ODSH and UFH are mixed at equimolar concentrations, we show that there is a negligible effect on amount of protamine required for heparin neutralization and reduced immunogenicity of PF4/UFH in the presence of ODSH. Taken together, these studies suggest that ODSH can be used concurrently with UFH to disrupt PF4/H charge interactions and provides a novel strategy to reduce antibody mediated complications in HIT. PMID:22318669

  16. Existence of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H: A variational Monte Carlo search

    SciTech Connect

    Shoeb, Mohammad

    2005-02-01

    A variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculation for the binding energy B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} of the lightest hypernucleus {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H has been performed in the four-body {lambda}{lambda}pn model. A range of input {lambda}{lambda} potentials of moderate strength produce a particle-stable {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H for the simulated NSC97e and f {lambda}N potentials, whereas the phenomenological Minnesota {lambda}N potential needs a much stronger {lambda}{lambda} potential to bind. The VMC results for B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} agree with the prediction of the stochastic variational model but contradict the recent Faddeev-Yakubovsky calculation. As reported earlier, B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} is sensitive to the triplet {lambda}N channel for a given {lambda}{lambda} potential. The B{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}} of {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H in the three-body {lambda}{lambda}d cluster model is consistent with but slightly lower than the Faddeev calculation. The VMC method predicts a stable {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H system in both models and thus offers the possibility of identifying {sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}{sup 4}H in a future extension of E906 or of a related experiment at KEK, provided the simulated potentials are true representations of realistic Nijmegen potentials.

  17. CFD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Spry, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Du, Hui; Skowronski, Marek; Huang, XianRong; Dudley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate non-trivial in-plane lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  18. Hemostatic studies in racing standardbred horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Hemostatic parameters at rest and after moderate exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, I B; Viel, L; Crane, S; Whiting, T

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a defect in hemostasis might be a factor in the etiology of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH). Hemostatic parameters were evaluated in 22 EIPH-positive and ten EIPH-negative racing horses while in a rested state. Nineteen EIPH-positive and ten EIPH-negative horses were further evaluated just before and immediately after a 15 min exercise period on a 260 m oval track. When EIPH-positive and EIPH-negative horses were compared at rest, there was no significant difference in any of the coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters studied. There was however, a significant difference in platelet function as assessed by aggregometry. The platelets from affected horses were significantly less responsive than those from nonaffected horses when exposed in vitro to the platelet agonists adenosine diphosphate, collagen and platelet activating factor. Exercise tended to increase the packed cell volume and factor VIII/von Willebrand factor and to decrease platelet aggregation responses to low concentrations of adenosine diphosphate. These effects of exercise however were quantitatively similar in both EIPH-positive and EIPH-negative horses. Reduced platelet function may therefore be a contributing factor in the bleeding characteristic of horses with EIPH. PMID:1909208

  19. Canine Connection: Dog 2--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08167

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Youth explore more about dog health, nutrition, and care, genetic problems, population control, showmanship, training, ethics and budgeting. Youth who engage in this curriculum will develop essential dog project skills such as selecting a dog; investigating breeds; appreciating dogs' places and roles in society; practicing grooming, fitting,…

  20. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C.

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  1. Anaphylaxis as a Manifestation of Horse Allergy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Allergic disease induced by animal exposure is a common phenomenon worldwide. Whereas cat and dog dander exposure are well recognized as causative of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, and contact urticaria, horse allergy can present with anaphylaxis. Horse allergy is induced by exposure to the major horse allergens Equ 1 through 5. The severity of the symptoms may be related to the level of exposure. Greatest risk of anaphylaxis occurs in those sensitized patients who have large amounts of animal allergen exposure, such as when in a barn, or when an animal bite occurs exposing sensitized persons to large quantities of the animal allergen that resides in the saliva. Horse allergy may be successfully treated with allergen specific immunotherapy. PMID:23283110

  2. Antimicrobial disposition in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of horses, part III. cefquinome.

    PubMed

    Winther, L; Baptiste, K E; Friis, C

    2011-10-01

    Cefquinome concentrations, following intravenous and aerosol administration to horses, in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) were examined and compared to plasma concentrations. Single dose of cefquinome sulphate (1 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to six horses followed by a single aerosol administration (225 mg) with a wash-out period of 14 days between treatments. After each drug administration, cefquinome concentrations in plasma and PELF, obtained by intrabronchial cotton swabs, were determined. After intravenous administration, cefquinome concentrations in plasma declined fast and were not detectable after 12 h. After aerosol administration, plasma concentrations were low or below limit of quantification (LOQ) during the entire sampling period. The degree of penetration of cefquinome into PELF after intravenous administration as described by the AUC(PELF) /AUC(plasma) ratio was 0.33. Following aerosol administration, cefquinome concentrations in PELF were high, but only detectable for 4 h. Based on AUC values, total cefquinome concentrations in PELF were one-third of total plasma concentrations after intravenous administration together with shorter time above Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (T > MIC) in PELF, thus twice daily dosing may be required when treating lower airway infections in horses. Lower doses of cefquinome can be administered as aerosols providing high local drug concentrations in lung, but additional optimization of formulation is needed to improve distribution and persistence in lung. PMID:21083664

  3. The lta4h Locus Modulates Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infection in Zebrafish and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, David M.; Vary, Jay C.; Ray, John P.; Walsh, Gregory S.; Dunstan, Sarah J.; Bang, Nguyen D.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Khadge, Saraswoti; King, Mary-Claire; Hawn, Thomas R.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces varied early outcomes, ranging from resistance to infection to progressive disease. Here we report results from a forward genetic screen in zebrafish larvae that identify multiple mutant classes with distinct patterns of innate susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum. A hypersusceptible mutant maps to the lta4h locus encoding leukotriene A4 hydrolase, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a potent chemoattractant and proinflammatory eicosanoid. lta4h mutations confer hypersusceptibility independent of LTB4 reduction, by redirecting eicosanoid substrates to anti-inflammatory lipoxins. The resultant anti-inflammatory state permits increased mycobacterial proliferation by limiting production of tumor necrosis factor. In humans, we find that protection from both tuberculosis and multibacillary leprosy is associated with heterozygosity for LTA4H polymorphisms that have previously been correlated with differential LTB4 production. Our results suggest conserved roles for balanced eicosanoid production in vertebrate resistance to mycobacterial infection. PMID:20211140

  4. Embryo technologies in the horse.

    PubMed

    Squires, E L; Carnevale, E M; McCue, P M; Bruemmer, J E

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that zwitterionic buffers could be used for satisfactory storage of equine embryos at 5 degrees C. The success of freezing embryos is dependent upon size and stage of development. Morulae and blastocysts <300 microm can be slowly cooled or vitrified with acceptable pregnancy rates after transfer. The majority of equine embryos are collected from single ovulating mares, as there is no commercially available product for superovulation in equine. However, pituitary extract, rich in FSH, can be used to increase embryo recovery three- to four-fold. Similar to human medicine, assisted reproductive techniques have been developed for the older, subfertile mare. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes from young, healthy mares into a recipient's oviduct results in a 70-80% pregnancy rate compared with a 30-40% pregnancy rate when the oocytes are from older, subfertile mares. This procedure can also be used to evaluate in vitro maturation systems. In vitro production of embryos is still quite difficult in the horse. However, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been used to produce several foals. Cleavage rates of 60% and blastocyst rates of 30% have been reported after ICSI of in vitro-matured oocytes. Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) is a possible treatment for subfertile stallions. Transfer of in vivo-matured oocytes with 200,000 sperm into the oviduct of normal mares resulted in a pregnancy rate of 55-82%. Oocyte freezing is a technique that has proven difficult in most species. However, equine oocytes vitrified in a solution of ethylene glycol, DMSO, and Ficoll and loaded onto a cryoloop resulted in three pregnancies of 26 transfers and two live foals produced. Production of a cloned horse appears to be likely, as several cloned pregnancies have recently been produced. PMID:12499026

  5. Reconciling Horse Welfare, Worker Safety, and Public Expectations: Horse Event Incident Management Systems in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Julie M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Although often highly rewarding, human-horse interactions can also be dangerous. Using examples from equine and other contexts, this article acknowledges the growing public awareness of animal welfare, work underway towards safer equestrian workplaces, and the potential for adapting large animal rescue skills for the purposes of horse event incident management. Additionally, we identity the need for further research into communication strategies that address animal welfare and safety issues that arise when humans and horses interact in the workplace. Abstract Human-horse interactions have a rich tradition and can be highly rewarding, particularly within sport and recreation pursuits, but they can also be dangerous or even life-threatening. In parallel, sport and recreation pursuits involving animals, including horses, are facing an increased level of public scrutiny in relation to the use of animals for these purposes. However, the challenge lies with event organisers to reconcile the expectations of the public, the need to meet legal requirements to reduce or eliminate risks to paid and volunteer workers, and address horse welfare. In this article we explore incident management at horse events as an example of a situation where volunteers and horses can be placed at risk during a rescue. We introduce large animal rescue skills as a solution to improving worker safety and improving horse welfare outcomes. Whilst there are government and horse industry initiatives to improve safety and address animal welfare, there remains a pressing need to invest in a strong communication plan which will improve the safety of workplaces in which humans and horses interact. PMID:26927189

  6. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes) from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus) were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region) were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski) using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73%) already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the time depth of the

  7. A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses

    PubMed Central

    Nappert, Germain; Vrins, André; Breton, Luc; Beauregard, Michel

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study of 19 ataxic horses admitted to the College of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Montreal during the period of January 1985 to December 1988 is presented. There were 11 cases of cervical vertebral malformation, four of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, two of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, one each of vertebral osteomyelitis and intervertebral disc protrusion. The clinical diagnosis of ataxia in horses requires neurological, radiographic, myelographic, and laboratory examinations. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17423438

  8. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  9. Measurement of bone specific alkaline phosphatase in the horse: a comparison of two techniques.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B; Eastell, R; Russell, R G; Lanyon, L E; Price, J S

    1996-09-01

    For many years total alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in serum has been used to monitor bone metabolism in different species. However, total AP lacks bone specificity because the total activity in serum is made up of several isoenzymes, of which the liver and bone isoforms predominate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an immunoradiometric assay for measuring bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) in horses. BAP, a specific marker of bone formation, was measured in sera from thoroughbred horses by using a previously characterised wheat germ lectin (WGL) precipitation assay and an immunoradiometric assay. The levels of immunoreactive BAP (iBAP) and WGL precipitated BAP (wBAP) were related to the serum levels of total AP and another marker of bone formation, the carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (PICP). In horses over one year old, iBAP correlated at least as strongly with total AP as with wBAP, which suggests that the immunoradiometric assay may partially cross-react with liver alkaline phosphatase in horse serum. This possibility was supported by the observation that there was a weaker correlation between iBAP and PICP than between wBAP and PICP. These data indicate that WGL precipitation is currently the most specific method for measuring bone specific alkaline phosphatase in horses. PMID:8880988

  10. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN 13 HORSES WITH LYMPHOMA.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Valentin; Evrard, Laurence; Cerri, Simona; Gougnard, Alexandra; Busoni, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography and radiography are commonly used for staging of lymphoma in horses, however there is little published information on imaging characteristics for horses with confirmed disease. The purpose of this retrospective, case series study was to describe ultrasonographic and radiographic findings for a group of horses with a confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma. A total of 13 horses were sampled. Lymphadenopathy (8/13), peritoneal effusion (6/13), splenic (6/13), and hepatic (5/13) lesions were the most frequently identified. The predominant splenic and hepatic ultrasonographic lesions were hypoechoic nodules, organomegaly, and changes in echogenicity. Digestive tract lesions were detected in three horses and these included focal thickening and decreased echogenicity of the small (2/13) and large intestinal (2/13) wall. Thoracic lesions were predominantly pleural effusion (4/13), lymphadenopathy (4/13), and lung parenchymal changes (3/13). Enlarged lymph nodes were detected radiographically (4/13) and/or ultrasonographically (2/13) in the thorax and ultrasonographically in the abdomen (7/13) and in the caudal cervical region (4/13). Findings supported the use of abdominal and thoracic ultrasonography for lymphoma staging in horses. Ultrasound landmarks for localizing cecal and caudal deep cervical lymph nodes were also provided. PMID:26456541

  11. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in working horses.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, M; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Esmaeili-Sani, S

    2010-01-01

    Fecal samples for detection of gastrointestinal parasites were collected from 221 working horses from September 2002 to May 2003 from 14 villages in Urmia, North West of Iran. Fecal samples of 46 horses (20.8%) were negative for parasite eggs or oocysts. One hundred and seventy five positive horses (48.9%) were infected with a single parasite type and 49 (22.2%) and 18 (8.1%) of horses had multiple infections with two and three parasites, respectively. The highest prevalence and intensity rate belonged to small strongyles. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites eggs and oocyst in the positive horses were: strongyles 72.9%, Oxyuris equi 22.6%, Parascaris equorum 12.2%, Anoplocephalidae 6.3%, Fasciola spp. 3.2% and Eimeria leuckarti 0.5%. Larval identification showed that small strongyle larvae were most frequent (97.6%) followed by Strongylus edentatus (22.6%), S. equinus (18.5%) and S. vulgaris (6.5%). This study suggests that the high rate of infection with gastrointestinal parasites could contribute to low performance and life expectancy of working horses in the region. PMID:20731187

  12. Lateral vision in horses: a behavioral investigation.

    PubMed

    Hanggi, Evelyn B; Ingersoll, Jerry F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated lateral vision in horses (Equus caballus) for the first time from a behavioral point of view. Three horses were tested using a novel experimental design to determine the range of their lateral and caudolateral vision with respect to stimulus detection and discrimination. Real-life stimuli were presented along a curvilinear wall in one of four different positions (A, B, C, D) and one of two height locations (Top, Bottom) on both sides of the horse. To test for stimulus detection, the correct stimulus was paired against a control; for stimulus discrimination, the correct stimulus was paired against another object. To indicate that the correct stimulus was detected or discriminated, the horses pushed one of two paddles. All horses scored significantly above chance on stimulus detection trials regardless of stimulus position or location. They also accurately discriminated between stimuli when objects appeared in positions A, B, and C for the top or bottom locations; however, they failed to discriminate these stimuli at position D. This study supports physiological descriptions of the equine eye and provides new behavioral data showing that horses can detect the appearance of objects within an almost fully encompassing circle and are able to identify objects within most but not all of their panoramic field of view. PMID:22698758

  13. Quantum chemical study of ternary mixtures of: HNO3:H2SO4:H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdes, M. A.; Gómez, P. C.; Gálvez, O.

    2009-04-01

    Water, nitric acid and sulfuric acid are important atmospheric species as individual species and as hydrogen-bonded aggregates involved in many physical-chemical processes both superficial and bulk. The importance of heterogeneous chemical reactions taking place on ice surfaces, either solid water or solid water plus nitric or sulfuric acid, is well established now in relation to the ozone-depleting mechanisms. Also the importance of liquid droplets formed by HNO3.H2SO4.H2O as components of PSC was soon recognized [1-3]. Finally the physical properties of finely divided aqueous systems is an interesting and active field of research in which theoretical information on the microphysical domain systems may help to understand and rationalize the wealth of experimental information. This can also be the initial step in the study of more complex mixtures with higher amounts of water or variable proportions of their constituents. This kind of calculations have been successfully performed in the past[4]. We present here our results on the structure and spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of the energy-lowest lying structures among those thermodynamically stable formed by linking the acids plus water. The calculations have been carried out by means of DFT methods (in particular the successful B3LYP) using different basis sets that contain appropriate sets of polarization and diffuse functions up to quadruple-Z quality (Dunninǵs aug-cc-pVQZ). Careful assessment of the dependability of the methodology used has been carried out. This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Projects FIS2007-61686 and CTQ2008-02578/BQU References: [1] Carslaw, K. S. et al.: Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2479-2482, 1994 [2] Drdla, K. Et al. :Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2473-2478, 1994 [3] Tabazadeh, A. et al.: Geophys. Res. Lett 21, 1619-1622, 1994 [4] Escribano, R et al.: J. J. Chem. Phys A 2003, 107, 652.

  14. Transition metal swift heavy ion implantation on 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. Ashraf; Kumar, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Asokan, K.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the realization of Quantum Ring (QR) and Quantum Dot (QD) like structures on 4H-SiC through SHI implantation and on their Raman studies. 4H-SiC is SHI implanted with Transition Metal (TM) Ni ion at different fluences. It is observed that a vibrational mode emerges as the result of Ni ion implantation. The E2 (TO) and the A1 (LO) are suppressed as the fluence increases. In this paper Raman and AFM studies have been performed at room temperature and the queer anomalies are addressed so new devices can be fabricated.

  15. Crystal and molecular structure of 2,4,4-trisubstituted 5-amino-4 H-imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellanato, J.; Avendaño, C.; Ramos, M. T.; Smith-Verdier, P.; Florencio, F.; Garcia-Blanco, S.

    Three 5-amino-4 H-imidazole derivatives 2(2-pyridyl) and 2-ethoxycarbonyl-4,4-pentamethylene-5-amino-and 2(2-pyridyl)-4,4-dimethyl-5(2-pyridylamino)4 H-imidazoles have been studied by i.r. and Raman spectroscopy. The crystal structure of one has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The tautomeric amino-imino equilibrium in different working conditions is also studied from spectroscopic data. The amino and the unconjugated imino forms are characterized.

  16. Analysis of Surface Defects on the Reverse Characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuno, Takashi; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Konishi, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takeo; Endo, Takeshi; Ishiko, Masayasu

    The good relations between the reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS diodes and the surface defects were obtained. The reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS diodes were categorized in three groups as follows: (A) low blocking voltage, (B) high leakage current and (C) low leakage current. The groups of (A) and (B) were caused by the existences of the micropipe and small particles, and the carrot-like defects on the SiC surfaces, respectively. In group (C), there was no defect on the surfaces observed by the optical microscope. The structure of carrot-like defect was analyzed by the cathode-luminescence and TEM.

  17. Flavonoids in horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seeds and powdered waste water byproducts.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Piacente, Sonia; Pizza, Cosimo; Franceschi, Federico; Franz, Chlodwig; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2007-10-17

    Horse chestnut extracts are widely used in pharmacy and cosmetic industries. The main active constituents are saponins of oleane type, but seeds of horse chestnut also contain flavonoids, being glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Their contribution to the overall activity of the extracts was not clear. In the present work, the main flavonoids from horse chestnut seeds were isolated and their structures established with spectral methods. Seven glycosides were isolated, out of which six ( 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 13) were previously reported and one ( 9) was identified as a new tamarixetin 3- O- [beta- d-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)]- O-beta- d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside. The structures of three additional compounds 1, 10, and 12, not previously reported, were deduced on the basis of their LC-ESI/MS/MS fragmentation characteristics. A new ultraperformance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method has been developed for profiling and quantitation of horse chestnut flavonoids. The method allowed good separation over 4.5 min. Thirteen compounds could be identified in the profile, out of which di- and triglycoisdes of quercetin and kaempferol were the dominant forms and their acylated forms occurred in just trace amounts. The total concentration of flavonoids in the powdered horse chestnut seed was 0.88% of dry matter. The alcohol extract contained 3.46%, and after purification on C18 solid phase, this concentration increased to 9.40% of dry matter. The flavonoid profile and their content were also measured in the horse chestnut wastewater obtained as byproduct in industrial processing of horse chestnut seeds. The total flavonoid concentration in the powder obtained after evaporation of water was 2.58%, while after purification on solid phase, this increased to 11.23% dry matter. It was concluded that flavonoids are present in a horse chestnut extract in a relatively high amount and have the potential to contribute to the overall activity of these extracts

  18. Towards the elimination of excessive cobalt supplementation in racing horses: A pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Kinobe, Robert T

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt is an essential trace element for many vital physiological functions. Cobalt is also known to stabilise hypoxia-inducible transcription factors leading to increased expression of erythropoietin which activates production of red blood cells. This implies that cobalt can be used to enhance aerobic performance in racing horses. If this becomes a pervasive practice, the welfare of racing animals would be at risk because cobalt is associated with cardiovascular, haematological, thyroid gland and reproductive toxicity as observed in laboratory animals and humans. It is expected that similar effects may manifest in horses but direct evidence on equine specific effects of cobalt and the corresponding exposure conditions leading to such effects is lacking. Available pharmacokinetic data demonstrates that intravenously administered cobalt has a long elimination half-life (42-156 h) and a large volume of distribution (0.94 L/kg) in a horse implying that repeated administration of cobalt would accumulate in tissues over time attaining equilibrium after ~9-33 days. Based on these pharmacokinetic data and surveys of horses post racing, threshold cobalt concentrations of 2-10 μg/L in plasma and 75-200 μg/L in urine have been recommended. However, there is no clearly defined, presumably normal cobalt supplementation regimen for horses and characterisation of potential adverse effects of any established threshold cobalt concentrations has not been done. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of the existing literature on the pharmacological effects of cobalt in horses with some recommendations on what gaps to bridge to enable the determination of optimal threshold cobalt concentrations in racing horses. PMID:26850547

  19. Morphologic changes associated with functional adaptation of the navicular bone of horses.

    PubMed

    Bentley, V A; Sample, S J; Livesey, M A; Scollay, M C; Radtke, C L; Frank, J D; Kalscheur, V L; Muir, P

    2007-11-01

    Failure of functional adaptation to protect the skeleton from damage is common and is often associated with targeted remodeling of bone microdamage. Horses provide a suitable model for studying loading-related skeletal disease because horses are physically active, their exercise is usually regulated, and adaptive failure of various skeletal sites is common. We performed a histologic study of the navicular bone of three groups of horses: (1) young racing Thoroughbreds (n = 10); (2) young unshod ponies (n = 10); and (3) older horses with navicular syndrome (n = 6). Navicular syndrome is a painful condition that is a common cause of lameness and is associated with extensive remodeling of the navicular bone; a sesamoid bone located within the hoof which articulates with the second and third phalanges dorsally. The following variables were quantified: volumetric bone mineral density; cortical thickness (Ct.Th); bone volume fraction, microcrack surface density; density of osteocytes and empty lacunae; and resorption space density. Birefringence of bone collagen was also determined using circularly polarized light microscopy and disruption of the lacunocanalicular network was examined using confocal microscopy. Remodeling of the navicular bone resulted in formation of transverse secondary osteons orientated in a lateral to medial direction; bone collagen was similarly orientated. In horses with navicular syndrome, remodeling often led to the formation of intracortical cysts and development of multiple tidemarks at the articular surface. These changes were associated with high microcrack surface density, low bone volume fraction, low density of osteocytes, and poor osteocyte connectivity. Empty lacunae were increased in Thoroughbreds. Resorption space density was not increased in horses with navicular syndrome. Taken together, these data suggest that the navicular bone may experience habitual bending across the sagittal plane. Consequences of cumulative cyclic loading in

  20. A Survey on Transport Management Practices Associated with Injuries and Health Problems in Horses.

    PubMed

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne L; Hall, Evelyn; Knight, Peter; Celi, Pietro; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents' demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents' details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic. The survey generated 797 responses. Traumatic injuries were the most common transport-related problem, with a reported incidence of 45.0%. Younger respondents (<40 years old) caring for large numbers of horses (>30 in a week) were more likely to report transport-related injuries. Injury risk was also linked to the use of protections and tranquilizers prior to transport, and checking horses after the journey. Diarrhoea (20.0%) and heat stroke (10.5%) were reported more by amateur than professional horse carers. Increased risk of heat stroke was linked to the restriction of hay and water prior to transportation. Muscular problems (13.0%) appeared to be exacerbated when horse health was not assessed before journey; whilst the risk of laminitis (2.9%) was around three fold greater when post transport recovery strategies were not applied. Associations were made between transport pneumonia (9.2%) and duration of journey, and with activity (horses involved in racing at greater risk). No associations were seen between the incidence of colic (10.3%) and the variables examined. Study findings should be interpreted with caution as they represent participant perceptions and recall. Nevertheless, results support many current recommendations for safe transportation of horses. They also