#### Sample records for 4-in focal point

1. Laser skin perforator with focal point detection

Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; Cabrera, J. L.; Flores, T.

2006-02-01

The development of laser skin perforator device for obtaining blood samples is presented. The use of photoelectric proximity photoelectric sensor permits to determine the focal point eliminating any contact and them avoiding the risk of contamination. Perforation of about 0.2 mm - 0.5 mm in diameter can be obtained in order to take the sample of blood. The method permits to make the blood analysis not only avoiding the contamination risk but also diminishing the pain sensation in comparison with metal lancet.

2. Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fuson, Karen; Clements, Douglas; Beckmann, Sybilla

2010-01-01

"Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points" describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 1 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate…

3. Focal Point Inside the Vacuum Chamber for Solar Thermal Propulsion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1999-01-01

Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on an 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. This photograph is a close-up view of a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber at the MSFC Solar Thermal Propulsion Test facility. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

4. Focus in Grade 8: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schielack, Jane

2010-01-01

This book describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 8 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate understanding, stimulate productive discussions about…

5. Dendron avidity platforms with orthogonal focal point coupling site

McNerny, Daniel Quinn

This thesis explores the design and synthesis of bifunctional or modular platforms from poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrons. PAMAM dendrons with an orthogonal focal point are evaluated, testing several click chemistry reactions for high conversion and mild conditions. The orthogonal reaction chemistry used at the dendron focal point gives a precise 1:1 ratio of the attachment of multiple functionalities to a small molecular weight, chemically stable high avidity molecule. In the first component of the thesis, dendrons were synthesized with c(RGDyK) peptide on the surface to create a scaffold for cellular targeting and multivalent binding. Binary dendron-RGD conjugates were synthesized with a single imaging agent, therapeutic drug, or additional functionalized dendron at the focal point after a copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction. The targeted-dendron platform was shown to specifically target alphaVbeta3 integrin expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human glioblastoma cells (U87MG) in vitro via flow cytometry. Specific targeting of the dendron-RGD platform was further confirmed by confocal microscopy. Biological activity of the targeted drug conjugate was confirmed via XTT assay. The remainder of the thesis explores click chemistry reactions that do not require a metal catalyst, which may cause undesired toxicity for some biological applications. Thiol-based click chemistry, specifically the thiol-ene and thiol-yne reactions, is explored on dendron platforms. The thiol click reactions provide an improved efficiency, compared to CuAAC, by reaching quantitative conversion of the focal point in most cases. The thiol click reactions suffer from some setbacks: the need for a thermal or photoinitiator may prevent the conjugation of some functional ligands and the thiol chemistry is more prone to side reactions. Finally, strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloadditions are examined. The ring-strain click chemistry

6. Focal point analysis of torsional isomers of acrylic acid

Alev Çiftçioğlu, Gökçen; Trindle, Carl; Yavuz, Ilhan

2010-10-01

The thermochemistry of acrylic acid has presented challenges owing to its high reactivity, tendency to dimerize in the gas phase, and the existence of two very nearly equal energy conformational isomers. Well-tested thermochemical schemes including G2, G3, G4, and CBS-QB3 agree in the prediction that the s-cis syn structure is the most stable of the torsional isomers, with the s-cis anti form lying 3 kJ mol-1 or less higher in energy. Microwave spectra suggest a value of 0.63 kJ mol-1. The energy barrier between these forms is in the neighbourhood of 25 kJ mol-1 according to a MP2/cc-pVDZ calculation. We present estimates of the relative energies of all four torsional isomers and the rotational barrier based on a variant of the Focal Point Analysis developed by Császár and co-workers. These calculations, extending to the CCSD(T)/cc-pV5Z level, predict that the s-cis anti torsional isomer is the most stable form, in contrast to prior estimates. The s-cis syn form lies about 2.9 kJ mol-1 higher, while the s-trans syn and anti forms lie at about 21.7 and 23.3 kJ mol-1, respectively. We estimate the rotational barrier between the s-cis trans and s-cis anti structures to be about 23.9 kJ mol-1. Error ranges derived from the fit to extrapolation forms suggest that our estimates have an uncertainty of about 0.1 kJ mol-1.

7. An automated focal point positioning and emittance measurement procedure for the interaction point of the SLC

SciTech Connect

Phinney, N.; Bambade, P.; Kozanecki, W.; Koska, W.

1989-08-01

To achieve maximum luminosity at the SLC, both the electron and positron beams must reach their minimum transverse size within 1 mm of the longitudinal location where the two bunches collide. This paper describes an automated procedure for positioning the focal point of each beam at this collision plant. The technique is based on measurements of the beam size utilizing either secondary emission or bremsstrahlung signals from carbon fibers a few microns in diameter. We have achieved simultaneous and reproducible measurements of the angular speed (/approximately/200 /mu/rad) and the optimum beam spot size (/approximately/2 /mu/m), which when combined yield measurements of the beam emittance consistent with those obtained using conventional profile monitor techniques. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

8. Nonlinear optical microscopy improvement by focal-point axial modulation

Dashtabi, Mahdi Mozdoor; Massudi, Reza

2016-05-01

Among the most important challenges of microscopy-even more important than the resolution enhancement, especially in biological and neuroscience applications-is noninvasive and label-free imaging deeper into live scattering samples. However, the fundamental limitation on imaging depth is the signal-to-background ratio in scattering biological tissues. Here, using a vibrating microscope objective in conjunction with a lock-in amplifier, we demonstrate the background cancellation in imaging the samples surrounded by turbid and scattering media, which leads to more clear images deeper into the samples. Furthermore, this technique offers the localization and resolution enhancement as well as resolves ambiguities in signal interpretation, using a single-color laser. This technique is applicable to most nonlinear as well as some linear point-scanning optical microscopies.

9. Three-element zoom lens with fixed distance between focal points.

PubMed

Mikš, Antonin; Novák, Jiří; Novák, Pavel

2012-06-15

This work deals with a theoretical analysis of zoom lenses with a fixed distance between focal points. Equations are derived for the primary (paraxial) design of the basic parameters of a three-element zoom lens. It is shown that the number of optical elements for such a lens must be larger than two.

10. Focal Points, Endogenous Processes, and Exogenous Shocks in the Autism Epidemic

PubMed Central

Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

2014-01-01

Autism prevalence has increased rapidly in the United States during the past two decades. We have previously shown that the diffusion of information about autism through spatially proximate social relations has contributed significantly to the epidemic. This study expands on this finding by identifying the focal points for interaction that drive the proximity effect on subsequent diagnoses. We then consider how diffusion dynamics through interaction at critical focal points, in tandem with exogenous shocks, could have shaped the spatial dynamics of autism in California. We achieve these goals through an empirically calibrated simulation model of the whole population of 3- to 9-year-olds in California. We show that in the absence of interaction at these foci—principally malls and schools—we would not observe an autism epidemic. We also explore the idea that epigenetic changes affecting one generation in the distal past could shape the precise spatial patterns we observe among the next generation. PMID:26166907

11. Focal Points, Endogenous Processes, and Exogenous Shocks in the Autism Epidemic.

PubMed

Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S

2015-05-01

Autism prevalence has increased rapidly in the United States during the past two decades. We have previously shown that the diffusion of information about autism through spatially proximate social relations has contributed significantly to the epidemic. This study expands on this finding by identifying the focal points for interaction that drive the proximity effect on subsequent diagnoses. We then consider how diffusion dynamics through interaction at critical focal points, in tandem with exogenous shocks, could have shaped the spatial dynamics of autism in California. We achieve these goals through an empirically calibrated simulation model of the whole population of 3- to 9-year-olds in California. We show that in the absence of interaction at these foci-principally malls and schools-we would not observe an autism epidemic. We also explore the idea that epigenetic changes affecting one generation in the distal past could shape the precise spatial patterns we observe among the next generation.

12. Axial resolution enhancement of third harmonic generation microscopy by harmonic focal point axial modulation

Mozdoor Dashtabi, Mahdi; Arabanian, Atoosa Sadat; Massudi, Reza

2017-02-01

Harmonic focal point axial modulation (h-FPAM) in nonlinear optical microscopy is introduced and used to enhance the axial resolution and the signal to background ratio by modulating the focal point of a beam of femtosecond pulses train along the axial direction and phase sensitively filtering the resulting signals using a lock-in amplifier. Axial resolution enhancement factor of 2.05 is acquired in 2f detection mode for the third harmonic generation microscopy of glass-oil interfaces. This technique also resolves the image interpretation problem of the fundamental harmonic FPAM technique. Moreover, the potential of this technique for axial sectioning is demonstrated by acquiring images from a red blood cell.

13. Paraxial analysis of four-component zoom lens with fixed distance between focal points.

PubMed

Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri

2012-07-20

Zoom lenses with a fixed distance between focal points are analyzed. Formulas are derived for the primary design of basic parameters of a four-component zoom lens. It is also demonstrated that a three-component zoom lens can be analyzed using derived formulas. Zoom lenses with such a design can be used in a 4-f system with variable magnification or as a part of a double side telecentric lenses with variable magnification.

14. Aberration analysis based on pinhole-z-scan method near the focal point of refractive systems

Castro-Marín, Pablo; Garduño-Mejía, Jesús; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Bruce, Neil C.; Reid, Derryck T.; Farrell, C.; Sandoval-Romero, Gabriel E.

2016-09-01

In this work we present a method used to study the spherical and chromatic aberrations contribution near the focal point of a refractive optical system. The actual focal position is measured by scanning a pinhole attached on the front of a power detector, which are scanned along the optical axis using a motorized stage with 1 μm resolution. Spherical aberration contribution was analyzed by changing the pupil aperture, by modifying the size of the input iris diaphragm and for each case, measuring the actual laser power vs the detector position. Chromatic aberration was analyzed by performing the same procedure but in this case we used an ultra-broad-band femtosecond laser. The results between ML and CW operation were compare. Experimental results are presented.

15. Dynamics of microwave absorption by a plasma near a linear focal point

Arkhipenko, V. I.; Budnikov, V. N.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Kiselevskii, L. I.; Romanchuk, I. A.; Simonchik, L. V.

1984-11-01

The absorption of 2.35-GHz microwave radiation in an Ar plasma in a magnetic field near a focal point at which it is transformed linearly into plasma waves is investigated experimentally in the Granit plasma apparatus (Arkhipenko et al., 1981). Operating parameters include plasma density at the microwave input point 10 to the 12th/cu cm, density at the focal point 7 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm, Ar pressure 16 mtorr, and longitudinal magnetic-field strength 3 kOe. The absorption is found to follow linear theory at microwave power less than 20 mW, remaining concentrated near the focus, while at higher powers the absorption region migrates toward the beam source (by about 1 cm at t = 3 microsec), with simultaneous onset of 2-3-MHz oscillation of the reflected signal (revealing parametric instability at the focus) and further shifting of the absorption region at t greater than 3 microsec (forming a plasma burnthrough channel).

16. 9-fold Fresnel-Köhler concentrator with Fresnel lens of variable focal point.

PubMed

Mendes-Lopes, João; Benítez, Pablo; Zamora, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C

2014-06-30

Non-uniform irradiance patterns over Multi-Junction Cells gives rise to power losses, especially when considering spectral irradiance distributions over different junctions. Thermal effects on Silicone-on-Glass lenses affect spectral irradiance distributions. A new Photovoltaic Concentrator (CPV), formed by nine optical channels, each one with a Köhler configuration, has been designed to overcome these effects at high concentrations for a large acceptance angle. A Fresnel Lens with a Variable Focal Point is proposed to prevent optical crosstalk in multichannel systems. When integrated into the concentrator, improves the acceptance angle. These designs are designed to fulfill the expected requirements of four junction CPV systems.

17. Using a focal-plane array to estimate antenna pointing errors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zohar, S.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

1991-01-01

The use of extra collecting horns in the focal plane of an antenna as a means of determining the Direction of Arrival (DOA) of the signal impinging on it, provided it is within the antenna beam, is considered. Our analysis yields a relatively simple algorithm to extract the DOA from the horns' outputs. An algorithm which, in effect, measures the thermal noise of the horns' signals and determines its effect on the uncertainty of the extracted DOA parameters is developed. Both algorithms were implemented in software and tested in simulated data. Based on these tests, it is concluded that this is a viable approach to the DOA determination. Though the results obtained are of general applicability, the particular motivation for the present work is their application to the pointing of a mechanically deformed antenna. It is anticipated that the pointing algorithm developed for a deformed antenna could be obtained as a small perturbation of the algorithm developed for an undeformed antenna. In this context, it should be pointed out that, with a deformed antenna, the array of horns and its associated circuitry constitute the main part of the deformation-compensation system. In this case, the pointing system proposed may be viewed as an additional task carried out by the deformation-compensation hardware.

18. Paraxial analysis of three-component zoom lens with fixed distance between object and image points and fixed position of image-space focal point.

PubMed

Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri

2014-06-30

This work performs an analysis of basic optical properties of zoom lenses with a fixed distance between object and image points and a fixed position of the image-space focal point. Formulas for the calculation of paraxial parameters of such optical systems are derived and the calculation is presented on examples.

19. Mycelia as a focal point for horizontal gene transfer among soil bacteria

PubMed Central

Berthold, Tom; Centler, Florian; Hübschmann, Thomas; Remer, Rita; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y.

2016-01-01

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a main mechanism of bacterial evolution endowing bacteria with new genetic traits. The transfer of mobile genetic elements such as plasmids (conjugation) requires the close proximity of cells. HGT between genetically distinct bacteria largely depends on cell movement in water films, which are typically discontinuous in natural systems like soil. Using laboratory microcosms, a bacterial reporter system and flow cytometry, we here investigated if and to which degree mycelial networks facilitate contact of and HGT between spatially separated bacteria. Our study shows that the network structures of mycelia promote bacterial HGT by providing continuous liquid films in which bacterial migration and contacts are favoured. This finding was confirmed by individual-based simulations, revealing that the tendency of migrating bacteria to concentrate in the liquid film around hyphae is a key factor for improved HGT along mycelial networks. Given their ubiquity, we propose that hyphae can act as focal point for HGT and genetic adaptation in soil. PMID:27811990

20. Soluble Urokinase Receptors in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Review on the Scientific Point of View

PubMed Central

Saleem, Moin A.; Meijers, Björn

2016-01-01

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the primary glomerular disorders in both children and adults which can progress to end-stage renal failure. Although there are genetic and secondary causes, circulating factors have also been regarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of FSGS, because about 40% of the patients with FSGS have recurrence after renal transplantation. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a soluble form of uPAR, which is a membrane-bound protein linked to GPI in various immunologically active cells, including podocytes. It has recently been suggested as a potential circulating factor in FSGS by in vitro podocyte experiments, in vivo mice models, and human studies. However, there have also been controversies on this issue, because subsequent studies showed conflicting results. suPAR levels were also increased in patients with other glomerular diseases and were inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Nevertheless, there has been no balanced review on this issue. In this review, we compare the conflicting data on the involvement of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS and shed light on interpretation by taking into account many points and the potential variables and confounders influencing serum suPAR levels. PMID:27504461

1. Resilience and Recovery. Focal Point: Research, Policy, and Practice in Children's Mental Health. Volume 19, Number 1, Summer 2005

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walker, Janet S., Ed.

2005-01-01

This issue of "Focal Point" explores the concepts of resilience and recovery and what they mean in the context of mental health care for children and adolescents. From the articles, it emerges that the terminology associated with recovery and resilience (particularly the word, recovery, itself) can be confusing and even off-putting to…

2. Workforce. Focal Point: Research, Policy, and Practice in Children's Mental Health. Volume 22, Number 1, Winter 2008

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walker, Janet S., Ed.; Gowen, L. Kris, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.

2008-01-01

This issue of "Focal Point" explores how the increasing emphasis on using evidence-based practices and a "system of care" approach is driving changes in jobs and roles related to children's mental health. Articles in the issue describe how agencies and providers of services and supports have responded to these changes by creating new types of…

3. Strengthening Social Support. Focal Point: Research, Policy, and Practice in Children's Mental Health. Volume 20, Number 1, Winter 2006

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walker, Janet S., Ed.

2006-01-01

This issue of "Focal Point" explores some of what is known and unknown about strengthening social support. This introduction outlines some of the major concepts and themes in research on social support, and some implications of this research for interventions in children's mental health. This sets the stage for the rest of the issue, which…

4. Corrections. Focal Point: Research, Policy, and Practice in Children's Mental Health. Volume 20, Number 2, Summer 2006

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walker, Janet S., Ed.

2006-01-01

This issue of "Focal Point" describes the need for, and provides examples of, new strategies for meeting the mental health needs of children and adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system. Articles in this issue discuss the particular need for correction in the way that the juvenile justice system interacts with youth who have mental…

5. Focal point analysis of the singlet-triplet energy gap of octacene and larger acenes.

PubMed

Hajgató, Balázs; Huzak, Matija; Deleuze, Michael S

2011-08-25

A benchmark theoretical study of the electronic ground state and of the vertical and adiabatic singlet-triplet (ST) excitation energies of n-acenes (C(4n+2)H(2n+4)) ranging from octacene (n = 8) to undecacene (n = 11) is presented. The T1 diagnostics of coupled cluster theory and further energy-based criteria demonstrate that all investigated systems exhibit predominantly a (1)A(g) singlet closed-shell electronic ground state. Singlet-triplet (S(0)-T(1)) energy gaps can therefore be very accurately determined by applying the principle of a focal point analysis (FPA) onto the results of a series of single-point and symmetry-restricted calculations employing correlation consistent cc-pVXZ basis sets (X = D, T, Q, 5) and single-reference methods [HF, MP2, MP3, MP4SDQ, CCSD, and CCSD(T)] of improving quality. According to our best estimates, which amount to a dual extrapolation of energy differences to the level of coupled cluster theory including single, double, and perturbative estimates of connected triple excitations [CCSD(T)] in the limit of an asymptotically complete basis set (cc-pV∞Z), the S(0)-T(1) vertical (adiabatic) excitation energies of these compounds amount to 13.40 (8.21), 10.72 (6.05), 8.05 (3.67), and 7.10 (2.58) kcal/mol, respectively. In line with the absence of Peierls distortions (bond length alternations), extrapolations of results obtained at this level for benzene (n = 1) and all studied n-acenes so far (n = 2-11) indicate a vanishing S(0)-T(1) energy gap, in the limit of an infinitely large polyacene, within an uncertainty of 1.5 kcal/mol (0.06 eV). Lacking experimental values for the S(0)-T(1) energy gaps of n-acenes larger than hexacene, comparison is made with recent optical and electrochemical determinations of the HOMO-LUMO band gap. Further issues such as scalar relativistic, core correlation, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections (DBOCs) are tentatively examined.

6. Correlations among handedness, eyedness, monocular shifts from binocular focal point, and nonverbal intelligence in university mathematics students.

PubMed

Dane, Arif; Dane, Senol

2004-10-01

Relationships among hand preference, nonverbal intelligence, and the monocular shifts of binocular focal point were studied in 33 men and 12 women university mathematics students. Ocular dominance was assessed with the Miles test. The monocular shift of binocular focal point for each eye was assessed with a modified Miles test. Hand preference was assessed on the Edinburg Handedness Inventory. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed with Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test. In a prior study, the percentage of left-eye preference had been reported to be greater for mathematics students than for nonmathematics students. In the present study there were positive correlations between hand preference and the sum of the monocular shifts of two eyes. In addition, there was a negative correlation between nonverbal intelligence and the sum of the monocular shifts of two eyes. As these resultssuggest that the sum of the monocular shifts of two eyes may be related to mathematical ability and nonverbal intelligence, further research with a larger sample including non-mathematics students is needed.

7. Numerical study and ex vivo assessment of HIFU treatment time reduction through optimization of focal point trajectory

Grisey, A.; Yon, S.; Pechoux, T.; Letort, V.; Lafitte, P.

2017-03-01

Treatment time reduction is a key issue to expand the use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery, especially for benign pathologies. This study aims at quantitatively assessing the potential reduction of the treatment time arising from moving the focal point during long pulses. In this context, the optimization of the focal point trajectory is crucial to achieve a uniform thermal dose repartition and avoid boiling. At first, a numerical optimization algorithm was used to generate efficient trajectories. Thermal conduction was simulated in 3D with a finite difference code and damages to the tissue were modeled using the thermal dose formula. Given an initial trajectory, the thermal dose field was first computed, then, making use of Pontryagin's maximum principle, the trajectory was iteratively refined. Several initial trajectories were tested. Then, an ex vivo study was conducted in order to validate the efficicency of the resulting optimized strategies. Single pulses were performed at 3MHz on fresh veal liver samples with an Echopulse and the size of each unitary lesion was assessed by cutting each sample along three orthogonal planes and measuring the dimension of the whitened area based on photographs. We propose a promising approach to significantly shorten HIFU treatment time: the numerical optimization algorithm was shown to provide a reliable insight on trajectories that can improve treatment strategies. The model must now be improved in order to take in vivo conditions into account and extensively validated.

8. Paraxial analysis of zoom lens composed of three tunable-focus elements with fixed position of image-space focal point and object-image distance.

PubMed

Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri

2014-11-03

This work performs a paraxial analysis of three-component zoom lens with a fixed position of image-space focal point and a distance between object and image points, which is composed of three tunable-focus elements. Formulas for the calculation of paraxial parameters of such optical systems are derived and the calculation is presented on examples.

9. Focal points in orthopaedics.

PubMed

King, J B

1992-07-01

Orthopaedic surgeons have long had an association with sport, although it is arguable whether Galen who was the first sports medicine doctor, appointed to the Pergamum Gladiators in 157 AD was a surgeon by todays definition. This surgical role is now out of proportion to the more global aspects of sports medicine as reflected in the rest of this publication, but accurately related to the consequences of injury to the elite performer, where a minor injury may have a major consequence. As the title makes clear this chapter is a series of cameos some describing aspects of the management of common injuries and others indicating new developments.

10. Partnering with Families. Focal Point: A National Bulletin on Family Support and Children's Mental Health. Volume 18, Number 1, Summer 2004

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walker, Janet S., Ed.

2004-01-01

The articles in this issue of "Focal Point" focus on the Research and Training Center's current work, which reflects the evolution of expectations for partnering with youth and families. Partnering successfully requires not only a philosophical commitment to the value, but also intentional, specific steps to redesign services and reallocate…

11. Tautomeric equilibrium and hydrogen shifts in tetrazole and triazoles: Focal-point analysis and ab initio limit

Balabin, Roman M.

2009-10-01

High-level ab initio electronic structure calculations, including extrapolations to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, were performed, and highly precise relative energies of five-member N-heterocycles were determined. Nitrogen-containing heterocycles studied included tautomers of tetrazole (CH2N4) and triazoles (C2H3N3). Valence focal-point analysis of 1H-tetrazole, 2H-tetrazole, 5H-tetrazole, 1H-1,2,3-triazole, 2H-1,2,3-triazole, 1H-1,2,4-triazole, and 4H-1,2,4-triazole and a number of transition state (TS) calculations were performed, using energy values determined by CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ, MP3/aug-cc-pVQZ, and MP2/aug-cc-pV5Z. An accuracy of 0.10-0.25 kcal mol-1 (35-87 cm-1) was obtained for comparison of tautomer energy differences. Relative CCSD(T)/CBS energies of 2.07, 3.98, and 6.25 kcal mol-1 for 1H-tetrazole, 1H-1,2,3-triazole, and 4H-1,2,4-triazole, respectively, were calculated. Use of electron correlation methods resulted in markedly different convergence behaviors for triazole and tetrazole tautomers. Similarly, differences in convergence were observed for TSs with respect to corresponding minima structures. It was confirmed that the MP2 method predicts an acyclic structure for 5H-tetrazole. The same was not observed for the corresponding TS geometry. Comparison with density functional theory (B3LYP) and model chemistry methods (CBS-4M and CBS-QB3) is reported.

12. Focused, phased-array plane piston and spherically-shaped concave piston transducers: comparison for the same aperture and focal point.

PubMed

Warriner, Renée K; Cobbold, Richard S C

2012-04-01

It has sometimes been assumed that the phased-array plane piston transducer and the spherically-shaped concave piston transducer are equivalent structures when both have the same aperture and focal point. This assumption has not been previously examined, nor has an expression for the on-axis impulse response of the focused, phased-array plane piston transducer been derived. It is shown in this paper how such an expression can be obtained. Comparisons of the impulse response for both structures show similarities, as well as some differences that could be significant as the observation point approaches the focal point. Comparisons are also performed for wide-band pulses close to the focus as well as for sinusoidal excitation. A physical explanation for the cause of the impulse response discrepancy is shown to be due to the nature of the piston focusing delay and its effect on the Rayleigh integral.

13. Influence of focal point properties on energy transfer and plasma evolution during laser ignition process with a passively q-switched laser.

PubMed

Bärwinkel, Mark; Lorenz, Sebastian; Stäglich, Robert; Brüggemann, Dieter

2016-07-11

Miniaturized passively q-switched laser ignition systems are a promising alternative to conventional ignition sources to ensure a reliable ignition under difficult conditions. In this study the influences of focal point properties on energy transfer from laser to plasma as well as plasma formation and propagation are investigated as the first steps of the laser induced ignition process. Maximum fluence and fluence volume are introduced to characterize focal point properties for varying laser pulse energies and focusing configurations. The results show that the transferred laser energy increases with increasing maximum fluence. During laser emission plasma propagates along the beam path of the focused laser beam. Rising maximum fluence results in increased plasma volume, but expansion saturates when fluence volume reaches its maximum.

14. Results of an Australian trial using SurePath liquid-based cervical cytology with FocalPoint computer-assisted screening technology.

PubMed

Bowditch, Ron C; Clarke, Joanne M; Baird, Phillip J; Greenberg, Merle L

2012-12-01

BD FocalPoint GS™ computer-assisted screening of BD SurePath® liquid-based cervical cytology slides (SP + FP) was compared with screening an accompanying conventional cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smear (CON) in a split sample trial of 2,198 routine specimens. The rate of unsatisfactory specimens in the SP + FP arm was 0.2% compared with 4.1% in the conventional Pap smear, a significant reduction. There was no statistically significant difference between SP + FP and CON for the detection of histologically confirmed high-grade (HG) lesions in the routine split sample specimens (n = 9). To further test the sensitivity of SP + FP for HG lesions, 38 SurePath slides from confirmed HG cases, without an accompanying CON, were interpolated among the routine smears. In every one of the 47 confirmed HG cases, either HG cells were present in the microscope fields selected by FocalPointGS™ for review by the screening cytologist (46 of 47), or full screening of the slide was indicated by the FocalPointGS™ (1 of 47), confirming the effectiveness of SP + FP technology for primary screening. In a small number of cases, the screening cytologist did not recognize the abnormality even though on review HG cells were present in fields selected by FocalPointGS™. The overall detection rate was 93% for HG squamous lesions; 89% for known HG endocervical glandular lesions; and 91% for known endometrial carcinoma. In conclusion, the SP + FP detected 100% of HG abnormalities in the trial set; significantly reduced the rate of unsatisfactory specimens; and improved the overall screening rate of detection of HG abnormalities particularly of glandular lesions when compared with other screening technologies.

15. Determining the focal spot limit of 1 MeV X-ray targets: Monte Carlo simulation of the point spread function

Wang, Jiayue; Shi, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhui; Tang, Chuanxiang

2017-02-01

Among all microfocus X-ray tubes, 1 MeV has remained a "gray zone" despite its universal application in radiation therapy and non-destructive testing. One challenge existing in fabricating 1 MeV microfocus X-ray tubes is beam broadening inside metal anodes, which limits the minimum focal spot size a system can obtain. In particular, a complete understanding of the intrinsic broadening process, i.e., the point-spread function (PSF) of X-ray targets is needed. In this paper, relationships between PSF and beam energy, target thickness and electron incidence angle were investigated via Monte Carlo simulation. Focal spot limits for both transmission- and reflection-type tungsten targets at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 MeV were calculated, with target thicknesses ranging from 1 μm to 2 cm. Transmission-type targets with thickness less than 5 μ m could achieve micrometer-scale spots while reflection-type targets exhibited superiority for spots larger than 100 μm . In addition, by demonstrating the spot variation at off-normal incidence, the role of unidirectional beam was explored in microfocus X-ray systems. We expect that these results can enable alternative designs to improve the focal spot limit of X-ray tubes and benefit accurate photon source modeling.

16. On a focal point instability in (B3Πg - C3Πu)N2 optogalvanic circuit with hollow cathode

Gencheva, V.

2016-03-01

The (B3Πg, v = 0 - C3 Πu, v = 0) N2 dynamic optogalvanic signals have been registered illuminating an Al hollow cathode lamp with a pulsed N2 laser generating at the wavelength of 337.1nm. The dynamic optogalvanic signal (DOGS) at certain discharge current of 8 mA is a harmonic oscillator due to a focal point instability produced by our optogalvanic circuit. This damped harmonic oscillator can be described as a solution of linear second order homogeneous differential equation. The oscillation frequency is estimated from the registered DOGS using Fourier synthesis. The analytical description of the damped harmonic DOGS is obtained.

17. Development and Testing of a Power Trough System Using a Structurally-Efficient, High-Performance, Large-Aperture Concentrator with Thin Glass Reflector and Focal Point Rotation

SciTech Connect

May, E. K.; Forristall, R.

2005-11-01

Industrial Solar Technology has assembled a team of experts to develop a large-aperture parabolic trough for the electric power market that moves beyond cost and operating limitations of 1980's designs based on sagged glass reflectors. IST's structurally efficient space frame design will require nearly 50% less material per square meter than a Solel LS-2 concentrator and the new trough will rotate around the focal point. This feature eliminates flexhoses that increase pump power, installation and maintenance costs. IST aims to deliver a concentrator module costing less than \$100 per square meter that can produce temperatures up to 400 C. The IST concentrator is ideally suited for application of front surface film reflectors and ensures that US corporations will manufacture major components, except for the high temperature receivers.

18. [Eight-step structured decision-making process to assign criminal responsibility and seven focal points for describing relationship between psychopathology and offense].

PubMed

2013-01-01

The author suggested that it is essential for lawyers and psychiatrists to have a common understanding of the mutual division of roles between them when determining criminal responsibility (CR) and, for this purpose, proposed an 8-step structured CR decision-making process. The 8 steps are: (1) gathering of information related to mental function and condition, (2) recognition of mental function and condition,(3) psychiatric diagnosis, (4) description of the relationship between psychiatric symptom or psychopathology and index offense, (5) focus on capacities of differentiation between right and wrong and behavioral control, (6) specification of elements of cognitive/volitional prong in legal context, (7) legal evaluation of degree of cognitive/volitional prong, and (8) final interpretation of CR as a legal conclusion. The author suggested that the CR decision-making process should proceed not in a step-like pattern from (1) to (2) to (3) to (8), but in a step-like pattern from (1) to (2) to (4) to (5) to (6) to (7) to (8), and that not steps after (5), which require the interpretation or the application of section 39 of the Penal Code, but Step (4), must be the core of psychiatric expert evidence. When explaining the relationship between the mental disorder and offense described in Step (4), the Seven Focal Points (7FP) are often used. The author urged basic precautions to prevent the misuse of 7FP, which are: (a) the priority of each item is not equal and the relative importance differs from case to case; (b) each item is not exclusively independent, there may be overlap between items; (c) the criminal responsibility shall not be judged because one item is applicable or because a number of items are applicable, i. e., 7FP are not "criteria," for example, the aim is not to decide such things as 'the motive is understandable' or 'the conduct is appropriate', but should be to describe how psychopathological factors affected the offense specifically in the context of

19. Statistical Earthquake Focal Mechanism Forecasts

Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

2013-12-01

The new whole Earth focal mechanism forecast, based on the GCMT catalog, has been created. In the present forecast, the sum of normalized seismic moment tensors within 1000 km radius is calculated and the P- and T-axes for the focal mechanism are evaluated on the basis of the sum. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms. This average angle shows tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The method was originally proposed by Kagan and Jackson (1994, JGR). Recent interest by CSEP and GEM has motivated some improvements, particularly to extend the previous forecast to polar and near-polar regions. The major problem in extending the forecast is the focal mechanism calculation on a spherical surface. In the previous forecast as our average focal mechanism was computed, it was assumed that longitude lines are approximately parallel within 1000 km radius. This is largely accurate in the equatorial and near-equatorial areas. However, when one approaches the 75 degree latitude, the longitude lines are no longer parallel: the bearing (azimuthal) difference at points separated by 1000 km reach about 35 degrees. In most situations a forecast point where we calculate an average focal mechanism is surrounded by earthquakes, so a bias should not be strong due to the difference effect cancellation. But if we move into polar regions, the bearing difference could approach 180 degrees. In a modified program focal mechanisms have been projected on a plane tangent to a sphere at a forecast point. New longitude axes which are parallel in the tangent plane are corrected for the bearing difference. A comparison with the old 75S-75N forecast shows that in equatorial regions the forecasted focal mechanisms are almost the same, and the difference in the forecasted focal mechanisms rotation angle is close to zero. However, though the forecasted focal mechanisms are similar

20. Continuously variable focal length lens

DOEpatents

Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

2013-12-17

A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

1. The Teaching of Global Environmental Problems According to the Constructivist Approach: As a Focal Point of the Problem and the Availability of Concept Cartoons

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oluk, Sami; Ozalp, Isilay

2007-01-01

In this study, with selecting the focusing point of the problem as the availability of cartoons, the teaching of global environmental problems according to the constructivist theory is investigated on the 7th graders in rural areas. This study is restricted with the global warming (G), ozone depletion (O) and the acid rain (A) problems. In the…

2. Focal Choroidal Excavation

PubMed Central

Cebeci, Zafer; Bayraktar, Şerife; Oray, Merih; Kır, Nur

2016-01-01

Focal choroidal excavation is a choroidal pit that can be detected by optical coherence tomography. Central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are pathologies associated with focal choroidal excavation. In this article, we present the follow-up and treatment outcomes of three eyes of two patients with focal choroidal excavation. PMID:28050329

3. Focal Choroidal Excavation.

PubMed

Cebeci, Zafer; Bayraktar, Şerife; Oray, Merih; Kır, Nur

2016-12-01

Focal choroidal excavation is a choroidal pit that can be detected by optical coherence tomography. Central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are pathologies associated with focal choroidal excavation. In this article, we present the follow-up and treatment outcomes of three eyes of two patients with focal choroidal excavation.

4. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

2014-04-01

Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future shallow (depth 0-70 km) earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress, and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5° spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75° to +75°, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalogue. In the new forecasts we have improved the spatial resolution to 0.1° and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each gridpoint. Simultaneously, we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method of Kagan & Jackson proposed in 1994. This average angle reveals the level of tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The procedure becomes problematical where longitude lines are not approximately parallel, and where shallow earthquakes are so sparse that an adequate sample spans very large distances. North or south of 75°, the azimuths of points 1000 km away may vary by about 35°. We solved this problem by calculating focal mechanisms on a plane tangent to the Earth's surface at each forecast point, correcting for the rotation of the longitude lines at the locations of earthquakes included in the averaging. The corrections are negligible between -30° and +30° latitude, but outside that band uncorrected rotations can be significantly off. Improved forecasts at 0.5° and 0.1° resolution are posted at http://eq.ess.ucla.edu/kagan/glob_gcmt_index.html.

5. Partial (focal) seizure

MedlinePlus

... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

6. Physical Activity Performance of Focal Middle School Students

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Erfle, Stephen E.; Gelbaugh, Corey M.

2013-01-01

Histograms of push-ups and curl-ups from a sample of more than 9,000 students show periodic spikes at five and 10 unit intervals. This article argues that these spikes are related to focal points, a game theoretic concept popularized by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. Being focal on one test makes one more likely to be focal on the other. Focal…

7. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

PubMed

Vera-Iglesias, E; García-Arpa, M; Sánchez-Caminero, P; Romero-Aguilera, G; Cortina de la Calle, P

2007-11-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

8. Vitelliform focal choroidal excavation.

PubMed

Or, Chris; Forooghian, Farzin

2014-05-30

Focal choroidal excavations (FCE) are characterized by foveal or perifoveal choroid excavations seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT). The authors report a case of FCE associated with a vitelliform lesion within the excavation. A case of FCE associated with a small vitelliform lesion has been described previously, but the larger extent of the vitelliform lesion observed in the current case has not been previously reported. This may represent a novel category of FCE, vitelliform focal choroidal excavation, in which deposition of vitelliform material is associated with its development.

9. SNAP focal plane

SciTech Connect

Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

2002-07-29

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

10. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

PubMed

Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

2000-01-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

PubMed

Paluch, Ewa K; Aspalter, Irene M; Sixt, Michael

2016-10-06

Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Although this is true for cells moving on two-dimensional substrates, recent studies have demonstrated that focal adhesions are not required for cells moving in three dimensions, in which confinement is sufficient to maintain a cell in contact with its substrate. Here, we review the investigations that have led to challenging the requirement of specific adhesions for migration, discuss the physical mechanisms proposed for cell body translocation during focal adhesion-independent migration, and highlight the remaining open questions for the future.

12. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

PubMed

López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

2010-01-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

13. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

PubMed

Delgado, Yolanda; Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Zambrano, Antonio

2005-12-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferation of the oral mucosa with well defined clinical and histological characteristics. It has been associated with infection of the oral mucosa by types 13 and 32 of the human papillomavirus (HPV), and to a lesser extent, with other types. Its clinical course is variable, although it usually persists for months or years; cases with spontaneous resolution have been described, as have others with prolonged persistence. We present the case of an Ecuadorian boy whose visit was motivated by lesions in the oral mucosa consistent with a diagnosis of FEH, which were confirmed in the histological study, and in which HPV type 13 DNA was identified.

PubMed Central

Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

2010-01-01

As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

15. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

PubMed

Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

2015-12-01

Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies.

16. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia.

PubMed

2010-01-01

Heck's disease or focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32. It occurs with low frequency in the Iranian population. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple, small papules or nodules in the oral cavity, especially on the labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. In some populations, up to 39% of children are affected. Conservative surgical excision of lesions may be performed for diagnostic or aesthetic purposes. The risk of recurrence after this therapy is minimal, and there seems to be no malignant transformation potential. In the present work, we presented the clinical case of a 12-year-old Iranian girl with oral lesions that clinically and histologically correspond to Heck's disease.

17. Electromyogram-evoked focal myositis

PubMed Central

Snipes, George; Quan, Carolyn

2017-01-01

Focal myositis is a rarely reported inflammatory disease of skeletal muscle, particularly of an extremity. It is often misinterpreted as an infectious syndrome, leading to prolonged antibiotic use and a delay in immunosuppressive therapy. Without a confirmed etiology to date, we present a case of recurrent focal myositis following an electromyogram. PMID:28127151

18. Fiber-optic backreflectance method for determining the effective focal lengths of optical elements.

PubMed

Ilev, I; Uttamchandani, D; Culshaw, B

1996-02-01

An alternative and simple fiber-optic backreflectance method for indirectly determining the effective focal lengths of optical elements by the spatial location of three specific points (the focal point and two object points) is presented. The basic optical element of the method is the single-mode optical fiber. It serves simultaneously as a point light source, an object for projecting, and a point receiver that is highly sensitive to spatial displacements for focused backreflectance laser emission. The method provides high accuracy for both locating the spatial points (1 µm) and determining the effective focal length (less than 0.5%).

19. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

PubMed Central

Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

2016-01-01

Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

20. Spitzer Space Telescope: Focal Plane Survey Final Report. Appendix B:; IRAC

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios

2004-01-01

This final report summarizes the results and accuracies of the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane survey. Accuracies achieved are compared to the focal plane survey calibration requirements put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [14] and pre-flight predictions made in [2]. The results of this focal plane survey are presently being used to support in-flight precision pointing, precision incremental offsets, IRS peakup array calibration, and ground pointing reconstruction...

1. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

MedlinePlus

... Home Health Conditions focal dermal hypoplasia focal dermal hypoplasia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Focal dermal hypoplasia is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the ...

2. Laser multi-reflection confocal long focal-length measurement

Li, Zhigang; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Xiao, Yang

2016-06-01

We propose a new laser multi-reflection confocal focal-length measurement (MCFM) method to meet the requirements of a high-precision measurement for a long focal-length more than 2 m. It places an optical flat and a reflector behind the test lens for reflecting the measuring beam repeatedly, and then, uses the property that the peak points of confocal response curves precisely corresponds to the convergence points of a multi-reflected measuring beam to exactly identify the positions of the convergence points. Subsequently, it obtains the position variation of the reflector with a different number of reflections by a distance measuring instrument, and thereby achieving the high precise long focal-length measurement. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results indicate that MCFM has a relative standard uncertainty of 0.066% for a test lens with the focal-length of 9.76 m. MCFM can provide a novel approach for the high-precision focal-length measurement.

3. The Characteristics of Broad and Narrow Focal Zone Lithotripters

Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; VonDerHaar, R. Jason; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.

2008-09-01

The focal width of a lithotripter is a measure of the diameter of its focal zone, the region where acoustic pressures are at least half the maximum positive pressure generated at a given power level. Different lithotripters have different focal widths. The Dornier HM3, for example, has a focal width of ˜10-12 mm and for many years this was the widest focal zone among clinical machines. Electromagnetic lithotripters tend to have narrower focal zones, in the range of ˜4-6 mm. Recent studies suggesting that focal width plays an important role in stone breakage prompted this assessment of two electromagnetic lithotripters. Acoustical mapping using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH-500) and breakage of U-30 gypsum model stones were used to compare a conventional lithotripter (Dornier DoLi-50) and a broad focal zone device (XiXin XX-ES). FOPH mapping characterized the focal width of the DoLi to be about 5mm and that of the XX-ES to be much wider (˜18 mm). For stone breakage experiments the DoLi was fired at power level 3 (mid-range) and the XX-ES was operated at the recommended clinical setting of 9.3 kV. Both lithotripters were fired at 60 SW/min. U-30 model stones held in a 2mm mesh basket were positioned at the clinical target point on the acoustic axis and at 5mm steps laterally, and the number of SW's to complete fragmentation was counted. Breakage on-axis was similar for the two machines (DoLi 676±105 SW's versus XX-ES 644±123 SW's, p>0.6), but at 15mm the DoLi required nearly twice the number of SW's as the XX-ES (DoLi 3006±780 SW's versus 1726±972 SW's, p<0.006). This demonstrates that a broad focal zone lithotripter is more effective in breaking stones off axis and supports the idea that focal width is an important feature, likely to be relevant in the clinical setting where respiratory motion may limit the effectiveness of narrow focal zone machines.

4. Cryogenic focal plane flatness measurement with optical zone slope tracking

Edelstein, Jerry; Sirk, Martin; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Besuner, Robert W.; Hoff, Matthew; Perry, Paul; Heetderks, Henry D.; Bebek, Christopher J.; Levi, Michael E.

2011-10-01

We describe a non-contact optical measurement method used to determine the surface flatness of a cryogenic sensor array developed for the JDEM mission. Large focal planes envisioned for future visible to near infra-red astronomical large area point-source surveys such as JDEM, WFIRST, or EUCLID must operate at cryogenic temperatures while maintaining focal plane flatness within a few 10's of μm over half-meter scales. These constraints are imposed by sensitivity conditions that demand low noise observations from the sensors and the large-field, fast optical telescopes necessary to obtain the science yield. Verifying cryogenic focal plane flatness is challenging because μm level excursions need to be measured within and across many multi-cm sized sensors using no physical contact and while situated within a high-vacuum chamber. We have used an optical metrology Shack-Hartmann scheme to measure the 36x18 cm focal plane developed for the JDEM mission at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The focal plane holds a 4x8 array of CCDs and HgCdTe detectors. The flatness measurement scheme uses a telescope-fed micro-lens array that samples the focal plane to determine slope changes of individual sensor zones.

5. Genetic models of focal epilepsies.

PubMed

Boillot, Morgane; Baulac, Stéphanie

2016-02-15

Focal epilepsies were for a long time thought to be acquired disorders secondary to cerebral lesions. However, the important role of genetic factors in focal epilepsies is now well established. Several focal epilepsy syndromes are now proven to be monogenic disorders. While earlier genetic studies suggested a strong contribution of ion channel and neurotransmitter receptor genes, later work has revealed alternative pathways, among which the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway with DEPDC5. In this article, we provide an update on the mutational spectrum of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA4, CHRNB2, CHRNA2) and KCNT1 causing autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE), and of LGI1 in autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features (ADEAF). We also emphasize, through a review of the current literature, the contribution of in vitro and in vivo models developed to unveil the pathogenic mechanisms underlying these two epileptic syndromes.

6. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Case report.

PubMed

Puriene, Alina; Rimkevicius, Arunas; Gaigalas, Mindaugas

2011-01-01

The purpose of the present article is to present a 15 year-old patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia and to review the references on the subject-related etiological, pathological, diagnostic and treatment aspects. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare human papilloma virus (HPV) related to oral lesion with very low frequency within our population. Surgical treatment with a biopsy was performed, acanthosis and parakeratosis are consistent histopathological features, since the patient had no history of sexual contact and HIV infection, the virus was probably acquired from environmental sources.

7. Positive focal shift of gallium nitride high contrast grating focusing reflectors

He, Shumin; Wang, Zhenhai; Liu, Qifa

2016-09-01

We design a type of metasurfaces capable of serving as a visible-light focusing reflector based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). The wavefront of the reflected light is precisely manipulated by spatial variation of the grating periods along the subwavelength ridge array to achieve light focusing. Different from conventional negative focal shift effect, a positive focal shift is observed in such focusing reflectors. Detailed investigations of the influence of device size on the focusing performance, especially the focal length, are preformed via a finite element method . The results show that all performance parameters are greatly affected by the reflector size. A more concentrated focal point, or a better focusing capability, can be achieved by larger size. With increasing reflector size, the achieved focal length decreases and gradually approaches to the design, thus the corresponding positive focal shift decreases. Our results are helpful for understanding the visible-light control of the planar HCG-based focusing reflectors.

8. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions

PubMed Central

Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

2016-01-01

Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses. PMID:26973405

9. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions.

PubMed

Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

2016-03-07

Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses.

10. LiteBIRD: Mission Overview and Focal Plane Layout

Matsumura, T.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Borrill, J.; Chendra, R.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Dominjon, A.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fujino, T.; Fuke, H.; Goeckner-wald, N.; Halverson, N.; Harvey, P.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Hubmayr, J.; Ichiki, K.; Inatani, J.; Inoue, M.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Irwin, K.; Ishino, H.; Ishitsuka, H.; Jeong, O.; Karatsu, K.; Kashima, S.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Keating, B.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kida, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kimura, N.; Kohri, K.; Komatsu, E.; Kuo, C. L.; Kuromiya, S.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Linder, E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuoka, S.; Matsuura, S.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mizukami, K.; Morii, H.; Morishima, T.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Nagata, R.; Nakajima, M.; Nakamura, S.; Namikawa, T.; Naruse, M.; Natsume, K.; Nishibori, T.; Nishijo, K.; Nishino, H.; Nitta, T.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ogawa, H.; Oguri, S.; Ohta, I. S.; Otani, C.; Okada, N.; Okamoto, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, T.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Segawa, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Sekine, M.; Seljak, U.; Sherwin, B.; Shinozaki, K.; Shu, S.; Stompor, R.; Sugai, H.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takano, K.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Tomita, N.; Turin, P.; Utsunomiya, S.; Uzawa, Y.; Wada, T.; Watanabe, H.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Yamashita, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, Y.

2016-08-01

LiteBIRD is a proposed CMB polarization satellite project to probe the inflationary B-mode signal. The satellite is designed to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio with a 68 % confidence level uncertainty of σ _r<10^{-3}, including statistical, instrumental systematic, and foreground uncertainties. LiteBIRD will observe the full sky from the second Lagrange point for 3 years. We have a focal plane layout for observing frequency coverage that spans 40-402 GHz to characterize the galactic foregrounds. We have two detector candidates, transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors. In both cases, a telecentric focal plane consists of approximately 2× 10^3 superconducting detectors. We will present the mission overview of LiteBIRD, the project status, and the TES focal plane layout.

11. The Macedonia Conundrum - Focal Point of the Balkans

DTIC Science & Technology

1993-02-20

Europe: between reform and resignation." The World Today. London: The Oxford University Press , May, 1992. Gow, James. "The Use of Coercion in the...Yugoslav Crisis." The World Today. London: The Oxford University Press , November, 1992. Holst, Johan Jorgen. "European and Atlantic security in a period...of ambiguity." The World Today. London: The Oxford University Press , December, 1992. Larrabee, F. Stephen. "Long Memories and Short Fuzes

12. Threshold Concepts as Focal Points for Supporting Student Learning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Jordan, Katy; Tracy, Frances; Johnstone, Keith

2011-01-01

The Plant Sciences Pedagogy Project conducted research into undergraduate teaching and learning in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Cambridge and has translated the research findings into interventions to improve support for student learning. A key research objective for the project was to investigate how teachers within the…

13. TIS (Technology Information System) A Focal Point for Technology Transfer

DTIC Science & Technology

1982-09-01

3 2.1 Stevenson-Wydler Technology Inovation Act of 1980 .................................... 3 2.2 Technical Information Centers...passwords is required since none were disclosed. The DIAL command provides an equally powerful , but user-controlled, method for accessing other...a local file from TIS to a remote machine. This has particular importance when downloaded and saved information is to be transferred to more powerful

14. Variable focal length deformable mirror

DOEpatents

Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

2007-06-12

A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

15. Focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management

PubMed Central

Haider, Aamir; Solish, Nowell

2005-01-01

HYPERHIDROSIS, A CONDITION CHARACTERIZED by excessive sweating, can be generalized or focal. Generalized hyperhidrosis involves the entire body and is usually part of an underlying condition, most often an infectious, endocrine or neurologic disorder. Focal hyperhidrosis is idiopathic, occurring in otherwise healthy people. It affects 1 or more body areas, most often the palms, armpits, soles or face. Almost 3% of the general population, largely people aged between 25 and 64 years, experience hyperhidrosis. The condition carries a substantial psychological and social burden, since it interferes with daily activities. However, patients rarely seek a physician's help because many are unaware that they have a treatable medical disorder. Early detection and management of hyperhidrosis can significantly improve a patient's quality of life. There are various topical, systemic, surgical and nonsurgical treatments available with efficacy rates greater than 90%–95%. PMID:15632408

16. Stigmatic flat focal field spectrograph

Niemczyk, T. M.; Gobeli, G. W.

Advances in two dimensional detectors have created a need for a spectrograph that can produce high fidelity images. Aberrations that detract from image quality in conventional spectrographs are discussed. Ray trace and experimental results obtained for a unique spectrograph designed for use with array detectors, i.e., designed to produce high fidelity images, are presented. The spectrograph employs toroidal mirrors to achieve stigmatic imaging in a flat focal field.

17. Almost Unilateral Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

PubMed Central

Lee, Solam; Choe, Sung Jay

2017-01-01

Focal dermal hypoplasia, caused by mutations in PORCN, is an X-linked ectodermal dysplasia, also known as Goltz syndrome. Only seven cases of unilateral or almost unilateral focal dermal hypoplasia have been reported in the English literature and there have been no previously reported cases in the Republic of Korea. A 19-year-old female presented with scalp defects, skin lesions on the right leg and the right trunk, and syndactyly of the right fourth and fifth toes. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple atrophic plaques and a brown and yellow mass with fat herniation and telangiectasia that was mostly located on the lower right leg. She had syndactyly on the right foot and the scalp lesion appeared to be an atrophic, membranous, fibrotic alopecic scar. A biopsy of the calf revealed upper dermal extension of fat cells, dermal atrophy, and loss of dermal collagen. A diagnosis of almost unilateral focal dermal hypoplasia was made on the basis of physical and histologic findings. Henceforth, the patient was referred to a plastic surgeon and an orthopedics department to repair her syndactyly. PMID:28223754

18. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Erfle, Stephen E.

2014-01-01

This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for curl-ups.…

19. Simple fiber-optic autocollimation method for determining the focal lengths of optical elements.

PubMed

Ilev, I K

1995-03-15

A novel simple fiber-optic autocollimation method for determining the focal lengths of lenses and objectives is presented. This method is based on the intensity sensing of reflected light, photoelectric measurement, and the use of single-mode optical fiber. This fiber serves simultaneously as a point light source for the formation of a collimated input laser beam and as a receiver that is highly sensitive to spatial displacements for the autocollimation backreflectance. The method permits us to locate the focal point spatially and to determine the back focal length of a focusing optical element with accuracies exceeding 1 and 2 microm, respectively, which are confirmed by both experimental and analytical investigations.

20. Apparatus and method for creating a photonic densely-accumulated ray-point

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

2012-01-01

An optical apparatus includes an optical diffraction device configured for diffracting a predetermined wavelength of incident light onto adjacent optical focal points, and a photon detector for detecting a spectral characteristic of the predetermined wavelength. One of the optical focal points is a constructive interference point and the other optical focal point is a destructive interference point. The diffraction device, which may be a micro-zone plate (MZP) of micro-ring gratings or an optical lens, generates a constructive ray point using phase-contrasting of the destructive interference point. The ray point is located between adjacent optical focal points. A method of generating a densely-accumulated ray point includes directing incident light onto the optical diffraction device, diffracting the selected wavelength onto the constructive interference focal point and the destructive interference focal point, and generating the densely-accumulated ray point in a narrow region.

1. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Heck disease.

PubMed

Cohen, P R; Hebert, A A; Adler-Storthz, K

1993-09-01

Two sisters of Mexican ancestry had focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). The lesions on the oral mucosa of the older child were initially misinterpreted as representing sexual abuse. Microscopic evaluation of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained section from a lower lip papule demonstrated the histologic features of FEH. Although human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and HPV32 have been most consistently present in FEH lesions, types 6, 11, 13, and 32 were not detected in the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen of our patient using an in situ hybridization technique. The lesions persisted or recurred during management using destructive modalities; subsequently, they completely resolved spontaneously.

2. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

PubMed Central

Bayram Kayar, Nuket; Alpay, Nadir; Hamdard, Jamshid; Emegil, Sebnem; Bag Soydas, Rabia; Baysal, Birol

2016-01-01

Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet's disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon. PMID:27847659

3. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

SciTech Connect

Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

2003-07-07

The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

4. Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

PubMed Central

Lim, Beom Jin; Yang, Jae Won; Do, Woo Sung; Fogo, Agnes B.

2016-01-01

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs) has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice. PMID:27744657

5. Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

6. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

2012-01-01

A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

7. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

2016-11-01

In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

8. Digital scanner infrared focal plane technology

Ortiz, M. A.; Malone, N. R.; Harris, M.; Shin, J.; Byers, S.; Price, D.; Vampola, J.

2011-09-01

Advancements in finer geometry and technology advancements in circuit design now allow placement of digital architecture on cryogenic focal planes while using less power than heritage analog designs. These advances in technology reduce the size, weight, and power of modern focal planes. In addition, the interface to the focal plane is significantly simplified and is more immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The cost of the customer's instrument after integration with the digital scanning Focal Plane Array (FPA) has been significantly reduced by placing digital architecture such as Analog to digital convertors and Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Inputs and Outputs (I/O) on the Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC).

9. A simple focal-length measurement technique for adaptive microlenses using z-scan

Abdelaziez, Yasser; Banerjee, Partha P.

2004-10-01

A simple technique for focal length measurements of adaptive micro-lenses using z-scan is reported. Focal length is one of the most important parameters of any lens. The effective focal length is measured with reference to the principal points that are not easy to find especially for micro-lenses. In addition, variable focal length microlenses pose a different challenge that makes the process of determining their exact focal length a tedious and difficult process. Classical methods such as nodal slide and magnification have been used for focal length determination. Also, advanced Interference techniques such as Talbot, Moire, Digital Speckle, Zygo and Joint Fourier Transform were used for focal length measurements. These techniques require more elaborate setups and difficult to implement, especially for microlenses. Recently a power meter was used to find the focal length of an unknown lens. Most of the techniques mentioned above proof to be not simple for microlens characterization. The z-scan technique has been implemented, for quite sometimes, to characterize the third-order effects of a nonlinear optical material. The z-scan provides information on both the sign and magnitude of the non-linear refractive index and offer advantage of simplicity. We have used a regular lens to collimate and focus light unto the lens under test. By scanning the lens under test and measuring the on-axis intensity, one can find the focal length. This is because the on-axis intensity is proportional to the phase of the lens and therefore the focal length. In the case of an adaptive lens with its focal length is a function of the applied voltage, the scanning occurs for each voltage value that will correspond to the on-axis refractive index change and therefore the far field on-axis intensity. This described technique above is easy to implement and can achieve good accuracy due to the inherent sensitivity of the z-scan.

10. Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.

PubMed

Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R

2013-07-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant.

11. Smov Baseline Focal Plane Check

Gilmozzi, Roberto

1994-01-01

This test will be executed during the period after the servicing mission and before the extension of the COSTAR assembly. Its purpose is to verify that the FOS, HRS, and FOC focal planes have not been altered by the activities performed by Story and the Astronauts during the servicing mission. A large unknown deviation in aperture position would severly impact subsequent COSTAR alignment activities. If this test reveals a deviation, we may be able to compensate for any offsets prior to the complex and delicate COSTAR alignment calibrations. This enhanced version of the Heptathlon is designed to verify course alignments and measure relative aperture positions to within a few arcsecs. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: ***This test uses pre-servicing parameters for HRS, FOS, and FOC and the Cycle 4 parameters for WFPC2.*** ***This test requires special alignment and special guide stars.** ***This test requires special commanding for telemetry setups.**

12. Crosstalk between focal adhesions and material mechanical properties governs cell mechanics and functions.

PubMed

Fusco, Sabato; Panzetta, Valeria; Embrione, Valerio; Netti, Paolo A

2015-09-01

13. SIRTF Focal Plane Survey: A Pre-flight Error Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bayard, David S.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Kang, Bryan H.

2003-01-01

This report contains a pre-flight error analysis of the calibration accuracies expected from implementing the currently planned SIRTF focal plane survey strategy. The main purpose of this study is to verify that the planned strategy will meet focal plane survey calibration requirements (as put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [4]), and to quantify the actual accuracies expected. The error analysis was performed by running the Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter on a complete set of simulated IOC-SV survey data, and studying the resulting propagated covariances. The main conclusion of this study is that the all focal plane calibration requirements can be met with the currently planned survey strategy. The associated margins range from 3 to 95 percent, and tend to be smallest for frames having a 0.14" requirement, and largest for frames having a more generous 0.28" (or larger) requirement. The smallest margin of 3 percent is associated with the IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 micron array centers (frames 068 and 069), and the largest margin of 95 percent is associated with the MIPS 160 micron array center (frame 087). For pointing purposes, the most critical calibrations are for the IRS Peakup sweet spots and short wavelength slit centers (frames 019, 023, 052, 028, 034). Results show that these frames are meeting their 0.14" requirements with an expected accuracy of approximately 0.1", which corresponds to a 28 percent margin.

14. Causes and pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

PubMed Central

Fogo, Agnes B.

2016-01-01

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) describes both a common lesion in progressive kidney disease, and a disease characterized by marked proteinuria and podocyte injury. The initial injuries vary widely. Monogenetic forms of FSGS are largely due to alterations in structural genes of the podocyte, many of which result in early onset of disease. Genetic risk alleles in apolipoprotein L1 are especially prevalent in African Americans, and are linked not only to adult-onset FSGS but also to progression of some other kidney diseases. The recurrence of FSGS in some transplant recipients whose end-stage renal disease was caused by FSGS points to circulating factors in disease pathogenesis, which remain incompletely understood. In addition, infection, drug use, and secondary maladaptive responses after loss of nephrons from any cause may also cause FSGS. Varying phenotypes of the sclerosis are also manifest, with varying prognosis. The so-called tip lesion has the best prognosis, whereas the collapsing type of FSGS has the worst prognosis. New insights into glomerular cell injury response and repair may pave the way for possible therapeutic strategies. PMID:25447132

15. Optical measurement of focal offset in tunable lenses

PubMed Central

Annibale, Paolo; Dvornikov, Alexander; Gratton, Enrico

2016-01-01

Electrically tunable lenses are becoming a widely used optical tool, and have brought significant innovation to microscopy methods. One current limitation of such systems is the difficulty of directly monitor the focal change in real time. Affordable and reliable feedback for such lenses, compatible with any microscopy setup, represents a much-needed improvement that is still not widely available. We discuss here the implementation and technical performance of an optical device to measure with a high frequency response the displacement of the focal offset of a commercial tunable lens with a precision in the range of the axial Point Spread Function (PSF) of the microscope. The technology presented is cost effective and can be employed on any microscopy setup. PMID:26832485

16. Optical measurement of focal offset in tunable lenses.

PubMed

Annibale, Paolo; Dvornikov, Alexander; Gratton, Enrico

2016-01-25

Electrically tunable lenses are becoming a widely used optical tool, and have brought significant innovation to microscopy methods. One current limitation of such systems is the difficulty of directly monitor the focal change in real time. Affordable and reliable feedback for such lenses, compatible with any microscopy setup, represents a much-needed improvement that is still not widely available. We discuss here the implementation and technical performance of an optical device to measure with a high frequency response the displacement of the focal offset of a commercial tunable lens with a precision in the range of the axial Point Spread Function (PSF) of the microscope. The technology presented is cost effective and can be employed on any microscopy setup.

17. Focal brain inflammation and autism.

PubMed

2013-04-09

Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

18. Early vision and focal attention

Julesz, Bela

1991-07-01

At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

19. A Review of Focal Reducer Interferometer Systems

DTIC Science & Technology

1986-06-01

searches. G.Courtes has also proposed a design for a focal reducer for the E.S.O. 3.6m. Ritchey -Chretien telescope (Fig. 4b). He uses a Schmidt camera...spaced components, with a modified Wynne camera design (Fig. 7). The instrument proposed used folded optics and would operate at the F/8 Ritchey Cretien ...G.Courtes for the 3.6m Ritchey Chretien telescope . a, telescope focal plane and field lens; b, collimator; c, camera. Figure 5 The focal reducer of A.B

20. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

PubMed

Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

2014-04-01

If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

1. Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency

PubMed Central

Doğer, Emek; Köpük, Şule Y.; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Çakır, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

2013-01-01

Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

2. Mosaic focal plane for star sensors

Chang, N. C.

1981-02-01

The basic principles of star sensors are reviewed with reference to the advantages of replacing photodiodes, image dissectors, and vidicons with mosaic charge transfer device (CTD) focal planes. The desirable characteristics of CTD focal planes include: high uniformity, high transfer effect, low dark current, low hot and cold spots, low dead space, low angular misalignment, high coplanarity, and high thermal stability. An implementation of a mosaic CTD array star sensor which achieves high angular position accuracy and frequency attitude update is presented. Two focal plane packaging concepts, the planar and vertical board packagings, are examined.

3. Effect of controlled offset of focal position in cavitation-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment

Goto, Kota; Takagi, Ryo; Miyashita, Takuya; Jimbo, Hayato; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

2015-07-01

High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a noninvasive treatment for tumors such as cancer. In this method, ultrasound is generated outside the body and focused to the target tissue. Therefore, physical and mental stresses on the patient are minimal. A drawback of the HIFU treatment is a long treatment time for a large tumor due to the small therapeutic volume by a single exposure. Enhancing the heating effect of ultrasound by cavitation bubbles may solve this problem. However, this is rather difficult because cavitation clouds tend to be formed backward from the focal point while ultrasonic intensity for heating is centered at the focal point. In this study, the focal points of the trigger pulses to generate cavitation were offset forward from those of the heating ultrasound to match the cavitation clouds with the heating patterns. Results suggest that the controlled offset of focal points makes the thermal coagulation more predictable.

4. Stereo display with time-multiplexed focal adjustment

PubMed Central

Hoffman, David M.; Hands, Philip J.W.; Kirby, Andrew K.; Love, Gordon D.; Banks, Martin S.

2011-01-01

In stereo displays, binocular disparity creates a striking impression of depth. However, such displays present focus cues—blur and accommodation—that specify a different depth than disparity, thereby causing a conflict. This conflict causes several problems including misperception of the 3D layout, difficulty fusing binocular images, and visual fatigue. To address these problems, we developed a display that preserves the advantages of conventional stereo displays, while presenting correct or nearly correct focus cues. In our new stereo display each eye views a display through a lens that switches between four focal distances at very high rate. The switches are synchronized to the display, so focal distance and the distance being simulated on the display are consistent or nearly consistent with one another. Focus cues for points in-between the four focal planes are simulated by using a depth-weighted blending technique. We will describe the design of the new display, discuss the retinal images it forms under various conditions, and describe an experiment that illustrates the effectiveness of the display in maximizing visual performance while minimizing visual fatigue. PMID:21479104

5. Exhaustive linearization for robust camera pose and focal length estimation.

PubMed

2013-10-01

We propose a novel approach for the estimation of the pose and focal length of a camera from a set of 3D-to-2D point correspondences. Our method compares favorably to competing approaches in that it is both more accurate than existing closed form solutions, as well as faster and also more accurate than iterative ones. Our approach is inspired on the EPnP algorithm, a recent O(n) solution for the calibrated case. Yet we show that considering the focal length as an additional unknown renders the linearization and relinearization techniques of the original approach no longer valid, especially with large amounts of noise. We present new methodologies to circumvent this limitation termed exhaustive linearization and exhaustive relinearization which perform a systematic exploration of the solution space in closed form. The method is evaluated on both real and synthetic data, and our results show that besides producing precise focal length estimation, the retrieved camera pose is almost as accurate as the one computed using the EPnP, which assumes a calibrated camera.

6. Finding the Focal Axes of Offset Antennas

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schmidt, R. F.

1982-01-01

Focal axis of offset paraboloidal reflector antennas determined by direct measurement instead of trial and error. Two feed horns transmit sum or difference pattern to antenna under test, which reflects energy to far-field detector. When axis of feed horns coincides with focal axis of antenna reflector, far-field detector records minimum in amplitude difference and maximum in absolute-magnitude phase difference between sum and difference signals.

7. An uncommon focal epithelial hyperplasia manifestation.

PubMed

dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; Pansani, Cyneu Aguiar; Ferrari, Junia; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Spolidório, Luis Carlos

2009-01-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare, contagious disease associated with infection of the oral mucosa by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, characterized by multiple soft papules of the same color as the adjacent normal mucosa. It mainly affects the lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare verrucal lesion located in the upper gingiva that was clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia.

8. Experimental characterization, evaluation, and diagnosis of advanced hybrid infrared focal plane array electro-optical performance

Lomheim, Terrence S.; Schumann, Lee W.; Kohn, Stanley E.

1998-07-01

High performance scanning time-delay-and-integration and staring hybrid focal plane devices with very large formats, small pixel sizes, formidable frame and line rates, on-chip digital programmability, and high dynamic ranges, are being developed for a myriad of defense, civil, and commercial applications that span the spectral range from shortwave infrared (SWIR) to longwave infrared (LWIR). An essential part in the development of such new advanced hybrid infrared focal planes is empirical validation of their electro-optical (EO) performance. Many high-reliability, high-performance applications demand stringent and near flawless EO performance over a wide variety of operating conditions and environments. Verification of focal plane performance compliance over this wide range of parametric conditions requires the development and use of accurate, flexible, and statistically complete test methods and associated equipment. In this paper we review typical focal plane requirements, the ensuing measurement requirements (quantity, accuracy, repeatability, etc.), test methodologies, test equipment requirements, electronics and computer-based data acquisition requirements, statistical data analysis and display requirements, and associated issues. We also discuss special test requirements for verifying the performance of panchromatic thermal and multispectral imaging focal planes where characterization of dynamic modulation transfer function (MTF), and point-image response and optical overload is generally required. We briefly overview focal plane radiation testing. We conclude with a discussion of the technical challenges of characterizing future advanced hybrid focal plane testing where it is anticipated that analog-to- digital conversion will be included directly on focal plane devices, thus creating the scenario of 'photons-in-to-bits- out' within the focal plane itself.

9. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

DOEpatents

Crandall, David Lynn

2011-08-01

One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

10. Focal Mechanism determination of local M

Vales, Dina; Custório, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando

2015-04-01

We determine the focal mechanisms of local small (ML<3.9) earthquakes that occurred between 2013 and 2014 in mainland Portugal. These low magnitude events were recorded by several stations that provide first-motion polarity solutions. However, only few stations are located near the epicenter and record a waveform with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) high enough to allow full waveform modelling. To overcome this limitation, we used a new approach called cyclic scanning of the polarity solutions (CSPS) (Fojtíková and Zahradnik, 2014), which performs a joint inversion of full waveform and first motion polarities to retrieve the focal mechanism. This methodology has the advantage of yielding reliable focal mechanism solutions, even when high SNR waveforms are available from only a few near field stations (or in the limiting case, only with one single station). To apply the CSPS method one needs to: i) run the the FOCal MEChanism (FOCMEC) code (Snoke, 2003) to obtain a suite of the DC solutions corresponding to the first motion polarities, and then ii) perform the waveform modelling in order to decrease the uncertainty. The ISOLated Asperities (ISOLA) software (Sokos and Zahradník, 2008, 2013) is used in this second step. We applied this method to weak events recorded by a network of 30 broadband seismic stations that transmit data in real-time to Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. We interpret the obtained fault plane solutions in light of active faults and regional tectonics, and in comparison with focal mechanisms previously inferred for events in the region. The focal mechanisms obtained for small earthquakes allow us to significantly expand the database of available focal mechanisms in mainland Portugal, contributing to the understanding of active deformation in the region.

11. Transparent Meta-Analysis: Does Aging Spare Prospective Memory with Focal vs. Non-Focal Cues?

PubMed Central

Uttl, Bob

2011-01-01

Background Prospective memory (ProM) is the ability to become aware of a previously-formed plan at the right time and place. For over twenty years, researchers have been debating whether prospective memory declines with aging or whether it is spared by aging and, most recently, whether aging spares prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues. Two recent meta-analyses examining these claims did not include all relevant studies and ignored prevalent ceiling effects, age confounds, and did not distinguish between prospective memory subdomains (e.g., ProM proper, vigilance, habitual ProM) (see Uttl, 2008, PLoS ONE). The present meta-analysis focuses on the following questions: Does prospective memory decline with aging? Does prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues decline with aging? Does the size of age-related declines with focal vs. non-focal cues vary across ProM subdomains? And are age-related declines in ProM smaller than age-related declines in retrospective memory? Methods and Findings A meta-analysis of event-cued ProM using data visualization and modeling, robust count methods, and conventional meta-analysis techniques revealed that first, the size of age-related declines in ProM with both focal and non-focal cues are large. Second, age-related declines in ProM with focal cues are larger in ProM proper and smaller in vigilance. Third, age-related declines in ProM proper with focal cues are as large as age-related declines in recall measures of retrospective memory. Conclusions The results are consistent with Craik's (1983) proposal that age-related declines on ProM tasks are generally large, support the distinction between ProM proper vs. vigilance, and directly contradict widespread claims that ProM, with or without focal cues, is spared by aging. PMID:21304905

12. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

SciTech Connect

A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

2007-01-10

Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

13. Impairment of the rubber hand illusion in focal hand dystonia.

PubMed

Fiorio, Mirta; Weise, David; Önal-Hartmann, Cigdem; Zeller, Daniel; Tinazzi, Michele; Classen, Joseph

2011-05-01

Patients with dystonia display a number of disturbances in the cognitive processing of movements, such as movement simulation and prediction, but whether these deficits point to a deeper rooted disturbance of perceptual bodily representations remains unknown. A useful way to investigate the sense of body ownership is the rubber hand paradigm, in which an illusion of ownership is established by synchronous stroking of the participants' real unseen hand and a visible fake hand, whereas similar asynchronous stroking does not bring about the illusion. This paradigm allows testing of both the subjective experience of feeling ownership over the rubber hand and the proprioceptive relocation of the real unseen hand towards the viewed rubber hand. Previous studies have mapped these different aspects onto two anatomically distinct neuronal substrates, with the ventral premotor cortex processing the illusory feeling of ownership and the inferior parietal lobule and cerebellum processing proprioceptive drift. We applied the rubber hand illusion task to healthy subjects and to patients affected by two different types of focal dystonia-one specifically affecting the hand (focal hand dystonia) and one not affecting the hand (torticollis and blepharospasm). Results showed that in patients with focal hand dystonia, the proprioceptive drift was selectively disrupted on the dystonic hand while the subjective experience of the illusion was retained. In the non-dystonic hand and in the other two groups (non-hand dystonia and healthy subjects), the rubber hand illusion resembled the typical pattern with synchronous stroking eliciting the illusion. These findings provide support for the contention that the mechanisms underlying the presence of the illusory feeling of ownership and the proprioceptive drift are different. Selective impairment of the limb recalibration on the dystonic hand points to underlying deficits in integrating the visual-tactile input with the proprioceptive

14. Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kang, Bryan; Bayard, David

2006-01-01

The instrument-pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, and an algorithm that implements this filter, have been devised for calibrating the focal plane of a telescope. As used here, calibration signifies, more specifically, a combination of measurements and calculations directed toward ensuring accuracy in aiming the telescope and determining the locations of objects imaged in various arrays of photodetectors in instruments located on the focal plane. The IPF Kalman filter was originally intended for application to a spaceborne infrared astronomical telescope, but can also be applied to other spaceborne and ground-based telescopes. In the traditional approach to calibration of a telescope, (1) one team of experts concentrates on estimating parameters (e.g., pointing alignments and gyroscope drifts) that are classified as being of primarily an engineering nature, (2) another team of experts concentrates on estimating calibration parameters (e.g., plate scales and optical distortions) that are classified as being primarily of a scientific nature, and (3) the two teams repeatedly exchange data in an iterative process in which each team refines its estimates with the help of the data provided by the other team. This iterative process is inefficient and uneconomical because it is time-consuming and entails the maintenance of two survey teams and the development of computer programs specific to the requirements of each team. Moreover, theoretical analysis reveals that the engineering/ science iterative approach is not optimal in that it does not yield the best estimates of focal-plane parameters and, depending on the application, may not even enable convergence toward a set of estimates.

15. Formation of Zwitterionic Fullerodendron Using a New DBN-Focal Dendron

PubMed Central

Takaguchi, Yutaka; Hosokawa, Maki; Mayahara, Masatoshi; Tajima, Tomoyuki; Sasamori, Takahiro; Tokitoh, Norihiro

2010-01-01

A new poly(amidoamine) dendron having 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN) at the focal point was synthesized. Interestingly, formation of zwitterionic fullerodendrons (λmax = 930 nm for C60 and 795 nm for C70) were observed by Vis-NIR spectroscopy upon the reaction of C60 or C70 with the DBN-focal dendron. In particular, the C70 anion was effectively stabilized by the site isolation effect of the dendritic wedge. The half-life of fullerodendron 12b having C70 anion at the focal point reaches 7,345 min, which is 20 times longer than that of complex between C60 and pristine DBN. Furthermore, in order to confirm the structure of the zwitterionic complex, fullerodendron 12a was reprecipitated from benzonitrile/1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and was observed using IR spectroscopy and APPI-MS. PMID:22315557

16. An Integrated Optimal Estimation Approach to Spitzer Space Telescope Focal Plane Survey

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, D.

2004-01-01

This paper discusses an accurate and efficient method for focal plane survey that was used for the Spitzer Space Telescope. The approach is based on using a high-order 37-state Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter that combines both engineering parameters and science parameters into a single filter formulation. In this approach, engineering parameters such as pointing alignments, thermomechanical drift and gyro drifts are estimated along with science parameters such as plate scales and optical distortions. This integrated approach has many advantages compared to estimating the engineering and science parameters separately. The resulting focal plane survey approach is applicable to a diverse range of science instruments such as imaging cameras, spectroscopy slits, and scanning-type arrays alike. The paper will summarize results from applying the IPF Kalman Filter to calibrating the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane, containing the MIPS, IRAC, and the IRS science Instrument arrays.

17. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

SciTech Connect

Fry, David A

2009-01-01

Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

18. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

2010-01-01

The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

19. Defocus compensation system of long focal aerial camera based on auto-collimation

Zhang, Yu-ye; Zhao, Yu-liang; Xu, Zhao-lin

2010-10-01

Nowadays, novel aerial reconnaissance camera emphasizes on the shooting performance in high altitude or in long distance of oblique photography. In order to obtain the larger scale pictures which are easier for image interpretation, we need the camera has long focal length. But long focal length camera is easier to be influenced by environmental condition and lead to great change of lens' back focus which can result in the lens' resolution decreased greatly. So, we should do precise defocusing compensation to long focal aerial camera system. In order to realize defocusing compensation, a defocusing compensation system based on autocollimation is designed. Firstly, the reason which can lead to long focal camera's defocusing was discussed, then the factors such as changes of atmospheric pressure and temperature and oblique photographic distance were pointed out, and mathematical equation which could compute camera's defocusing amount was presented. Secondly, after camera's defocusing was analyzed, electro-optical autocollimation of higher automation and intelligent was adopted in the system. Before shooting , focal surface was located by electro-optical autocollimation focal detection mechanism, the data of airplane's height was imported through electronic control system. Defocusing amount was corrected by computing defocusing amount and the signal was send to focusing control motor. And an efficient improved mountain climb-searching algorithm was adopted for focal surface locating in the correction process. When confirming the direction of curve, the improved algorithm considered both twice focusing results and four points. If four points continue raised, the curve would be confirmed as rising direction. On the other hand, if four points continue decreased, the curve would be confirmed as decrease direction. In this way, we could avoid the local peak value appeared in two focusing steps. The defocusing compensation system consists of optical component and precise

20. Achromatic phase shifting focal plane masks

Newman, Kevin

1. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

PubMed

Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

2015-01-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

2. A simple method for focal length measurement

Ma, Hua; Ren, Huan; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Zhengdong; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Yi

2016-09-01

A simple method for focal length measurement based on image processing is demonstrated and discussed. The collimated beam, detector, motorized translation stage and computer make up of this test system. The two spots pass through the tested lens is accepted by detector, which is transferred twice by motorized translation stage. By acquired the difference of two spots by image processing, the focal length of the tested lens can be gained. The error sources in the measurement are analyzed. Then the results of experiment show that the relative error was 0.1%. This method can be used in workshop and labs for its convenience and low cost.

3. Natural course of symptomatic focal choroidal excavation.

PubMed

Pierro, Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Introini, Ugo; Gagliardi, Marco; Sergenti, Jessica; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Bandello, Francesco

2015-01-01

A 32-year-old man was referred to the authors' department for nonspecified macular dystrophy with persistent metamorphopsia in the right eye diagnosed 10 years before and followed using optical coherence tomography. The patient underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, including multimodal imaging evaluation and electrofunctional testing. The diagnosis was consistent with nonconforming focal choroid excavation. Over 10 years, no complications occurred, visual acuity was stable, and optical coherence tomography showed no progression of the lesion during follow-up. In this case, nonconforming symptomatic focal choroid excavation was a nonprogressive condition with good long-term visual outcome.

4. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

PubMed

Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

2016-01-01

Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed.

5. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

DOEpatents

Smither, R.K.

1991-04-02

A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element of one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities is disclosed. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels. 19 figures.

6. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

DOEpatents

Smither, Robert K.

1991-01-01

A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element o one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels.

7. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

PubMed Central

Phasukthaworn, Ruedee; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

2016-01-01

Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies. PMID:27293392

8. [Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].

PubMed

Streker, M; Kerscher, M

2012-06-01

In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions.

9. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia. An unusual clinical aspect].

PubMed

Bodokh, I; Lacour, J P; Rainero, C; Orth, G; Perrin, C; Hoffman, P; Santini, J; Ortonne, J P

1993-01-01

We report a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a child born in France of Algerian parents. The clinical appearance was unusual in that certain lesions were verrucous and pediculate. A virological study revealed the presence of papillomavirus 32, one of the two types of HPV specifically associated with this entity.

10. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

SciTech Connect

Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

1999-06-17

The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

11. Pure Gerstmann's syndrome from a focal lesion.

PubMed

Roeltgen, D P; Sevush, S; Heilman, K M

1983-01-01

It is controversial whether a focal lesion can specifically induce Gerstmann's syndrome (dyscalculia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, and agraphia). Also, Gerstmann's tetrad has been attributed to other cerebral symptoms, particularly aphasia. We examined a patient who had all four symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome, without other symptoms or signs, and who had a discrete left parietal lesion.

12. Complex source description of focal regions.

PubMed

Monzon, Cesar; Forester, Donald W; Moore, Peter

2006-04-01

Closed-form solutions of the two-dimensional homogeneous wave equation are presented that provide focal-region descriptions corresponding to a converging bundle of rays. The solutions do have evanescent wave content and can be described as a source-sink pair or particle-antiparticle pair, collocated in complex space, with the complex location being critical in the determination of beam shape and focal region size. The wave solutions are not plagued by singularities, have a finite energy, and have a limitation on how small the focal size can get, with a penalty for limiting small spot sizes in the form of impractically high associated reactive energy. The electric-field-defined spot-size limiting value is 0.35lambda x 0.35lambda, which is about 38% of the Poynting-vector-defined minimum spot size (0.8lambda x 0.4lambda) and corresponds to a condition related to the maximum possible beam angle. A multiple set of solutions is introduced, and the elementary solutions are used to produce new solutions via superposition, resulting in fields with chiral character or with increased depth of focus. We do not claim generality, as the size of focal regions exhibited by the closed-form solutions has a lower bound and hence is not able to account for Pendry's "ideal lens" scenario.

13. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

SciTech Connect

Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

2000-11-01

The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

14. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

2005-01-01

A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

15. Estimation of focal and extra-focal radiation profiles based on Gaussian modeling in medical linear accelerators.

PubMed

Anai, Shigeo; Arimura, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Araki, Fujio; Matsuki, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Nobuo

2011-07-01

16. Focal lengths of Venus Monitoring Camera from limb locations

Limaye, Sanjay S.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Krauss, R.; Ignatiev, N.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K. D.

2015-08-01

The Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) carried by European Space Agency's Venus Express orbiter (Svedhem et al., 2007) consists of four optical units, each with a separate filter casting an image on a single CCD (Markiewicz et al., 2007a, 2007b). The desire to capture as much of the planet in a single frame during the spacecraft's 24 h, 0.84 eccentricity orbit led to optics with 18° field of view. Analysis of Venus images obtained by the VMC indicated that the computed limb radius and altitude of haze layers were somewhat inconsistent with prior knowledge and expectations. Possible causes include errors in the knowledge of image geometry, misalignment of the optic axis from the pointing direction, and optical distortion. These were explored and eliminated, leaving only deviations from the ground and pre-solar damage estimate of the focal length lengths as the most likely reason. We use the location of planet's limb to estimate the focal length of each camera using images of the planet when the orbiter was more than 20,000 km from planet center. The method relies on the limb radius to be constant at least over a small range of solar zenith angles. We were able to achieve better estimates for the focal lengths for all four cameras and also estimate small offsets to the boresight alignment. An outcome of this analysis is the finding that the slant unit optical depth varies more rapidly with solar zenith angle in the afternoon as compared to morning, with lowest values at local noon. A variation of this level is also observed with latitude. Both are indicative of the presence of overlying haze above the clouds, and the morning afternoon asymmetry suggests different photochemical processes in destruction and production of the haze.

17. X-ray sources of medical linear accelerators: focal and extra-focal radiation.

PubMed

Jaffray, D A; Battista, J J; Fenster, A; Munro, P

1993-01-01

A computerized tomography (CT) reconstruction technique has been used to make quantitative measurements of the size and shape of the focal spot in medical linear accelerators. Using this technique, we have measured the focal spots in a total of nine accelerators, including (i) two Varian Clinac 2100c's, (ii) two Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) Therac-25's, (iii) two AECL Therac 6's, (iv) a Siemens KD-2, (v) a Varian Clinac 600c (4 MV), and (vi) an AECL Therac-20. Some of these focal spots were monitored for changes over a 2-yr period. It has been found that (i) the size and shape of the source spot varies greatly between accelerators of different design ranging from 0.5 to 3.4 mm in full width at half maximum (FWHM); and (ii) for accelerators of the same design, the focal spots are very similar. In addition to the measurements of the focal spot, a new technique for measuring the magnitude and distribution of extra-focal radiation originating from the linear accelerator head (flattening filter, primary collimator) has also been developed. The extra-focal radiation produced by a Varian Clinac 2100c accelerator was measured using this technique and it was found that the extra-focal radiation accounts for as much as 8% of the total photon fluence reaching the isocenter. The majority (75%) of this extra-focal radiation originates from within a circle 6 cm in diameter at the target plane. The source MTFs for each of the measured focal spots have been calculated in order to assess their influence on the spatial resolution of verification images. The limiting spatial resolution (i.e., 10% modulation) for all the source MTFs is 1.8 mm-1 or greater when used for transmission radiography at a magnification of 1.2. The extra-focal radiation, which produces a low-frequency drop in the source MTFs of up to 8%, changes with field size. As a result, the source MTFs of linear accelerators depend not only on the design of individual accelerators and image magnification, but also

18. Continuing developments in biologically inspired smart focal plane concepts

McCarley, Paul L.; Wehling, Martin F.; Massie, Mark A.

1995-05-01

The Neuromorphic IR FPA Sensor developed by Amber Engineering, Inc., Goleta, CA for the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate's Advanced Guidance Division, performs a Difference of Gaussians filtering function, similar to what occurs in the outer plexiform layer of the primate retinal system. This function requires a computationally intensive (digital-wise) spatial-temporal data smoothing operation, which is executed on the focal plane, at the seeker frame rate, while the image data is still in the analog domain. Implementation of analog operation provides great flexibility, not only in terms of the speed and power dissipation advantages, but also with the interface of other processes to the analog system. The fact that the human visual system is essentially based upon analog techniques helps to emphasize the point; nature has invested millions of years in the development of sensors and processing `wetware' which are highly tuned to their environment. Our goal is to take further advantage of the lessons which nature can teach us, and advance the state of the art in imaging detection and tracking by taking the next step to develop neuromorphic/corticomorphic focal plane devices. This paper will discuss some of the concepts the authors have been investigation in formulating advanced `smart' FPAs for future guided missile seeker applications.

19. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

2016-08-01

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

20. Focal Reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse)

Lim, Juhee; Chang, Seunghyuk; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Youngju; Park, Won-Kee; Im, Myungshin

2013-08-01

A focal reducer is developed for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse), which is a CCD imaging system on the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald observatory. It allows CQUEAN to secure a wider field of view by reducing the effective focal length by a factor of three. The optical point spread function without seeing effects is designed to be within one pixel (0.283 arcsec) over the field of view of 4.82 arcmin × 4.82 arcmin in optimum wavelength ranges of 0.8-1.1 μm. In this paper, we describe and discuss the characteristics of optical design, the lens and barrel fabrications and the alignment processes.The observation results show that the image quality of the focal reducer confirms the expectations from the design.

1. Enhanced focal-resolution of dipole sources using aeroacoustic time-reversal in a wind tunnel

Mimani, A.; Moreau, D. J.; Prime, Z.; Doolan, C. J.

2016-05-01

This paper presents the first application of the Point-Time-Reversal-Sponge-Layer (PTRSL) damping technique to enhance the focal-resolution of experimental flow-induced dipole sources obtained using the Time-Reversal (TR) source localization method. Experiments were conducted in an Anechoic Wind Tunnel for the case of a full-span cylinder located in a low Mach number cross-flow. The far-field acoustic pressure sampled using two line arrays of microphones located above and below the cylinder exhibited a dominant Aeolian tone. The aeroacoustic TR simulations were implemented using the time-reversed signals whereby the source map revealed the lift-dipole nature at the Aeolian tone frequency. A PTRSL (centred at the predicted dipole location) was shown to reduce the size of dipole focal spots to 7/20th of a wavelength as compared to one wavelength without its use, thereby dramatically enhancing the focal-resolution of the TR technique.

2. A variable-focal-length telescope

Irkaev, Bahor; Popov, Gennadiy; Nekhaeva, Svetlana

2005-04-01

A special additional optical system (AOS) to develop any telescope into a zoom or a variable-focal-length telescope (variotelescope) is proposed. This system permits the telescope optics and detector (charge-couped device) to be matched in order to obtain the best resolution. An analysis of the resolution of the system consisting of the ‘V-telescope and detector’ is performed, and it is shown that the best way to match the optics and detector is to change the focal length, that is to change the image scale. The proposed AOS consists of two spherical mirrors: a large concave mirror and a small convex mirror. The AOS is illustrated by means of figures and tables.

3. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

PubMed Central

Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

2015-01-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26351501

4. Focal region fields of distorted reflectors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buris, N. E.; Kauffman, J. F.

1988-01-01

The problem of the focal region fields scattered by an arbitrary surface reflector under uniform plane wave illumination is solved. The physical optics (PO) approximation is used to calculate the current induced on the reflector. The surface of the reflector is described by a number of triangular domain-wise 5th degree bivariate polynomials. A 2-dimensional Gaussian quadrature is employed to numerically evaluate the integral expressions of the scattered fields. No Freshnel or Fraunhofer zone approximations are made. The relation of the focal fields problem to surface compensation techniques and other applications are mentioned. Several examples of distorted parabolic reflectors are presented. The computer code developed is included, together with instructions on its usage.

5. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer.

PubMed

2016-05-01

This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years.

6. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer

PubMed Central

2016-01-01

This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years. PMID:25361760

7. Focal colors are universal after all

PubMed Central

Regier, Terry; Kay, Paul; Cook, Richard S.

2005-01-01

It is widely held that named color categories in the world's languages are organized around universal focal colors and that these focal colors tend to be chosen as the best examples of color terms across languages. However, this notion has been supported primarily by data from languages of industrialized societies. In contrast, recent research on a language from a nonindustrialized society has called this idea into question. We examine color-naming data from languages of 110 nonindustrialized societies and show that (i) best-example choices for color terms in these languages cluster near the prototypes for English white, black, red, green, yellow, and blue, and (ii) best-example choices cluster more tightly across languages than do the centers of category extensions, suggesting that universal best examples (foci) may be the source of universal tendencies in color naming. PMID:15923257

8. Error compensation research on the focal plane attitude measurement instrument

Zhou, Hongfei; Zhang, Feifan; Zhai, Chao; Zhou, Zengxiang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Jianping

2016-07-01

The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. Combined with the six DOF parallel focal plane attitude measurement instrument that had been already designed, space attitude error compensation of the attitude measurement instrument for the focal plane was studied in order to measure the deformation and surface shape of the focal plane in different space attitude accurately.

9. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a Turkish family.

PubMed

Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Canöz, Özlem

2014-12-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferative condition that is more frequently found in children of certain ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 13 and 32 genotypes has been consistently detected in these lesions. In this study a daughter, mother and father had FEH, and HPV 13 was shown by sequence analysis in the lesions of these patients. Cryotherapy was applied to the lesions and the lesions improved, but did not recover properly. In conclusion, HPV genotyping should be performed in FEH cases.

10. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia: case report.

PubMed

Durso, Braz Campos; Pinto, José Marcelo Vargas; Jorge, Jacks; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

2005-11-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare benign lesion caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in numerous populations and ethnic groups. A higher incidence in close communities and among family members indicates infectious pathogenesis. A 21-year-old woman with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for 10 years. A literature review is also presented, with emphasis on manifestations in the oral mucosa and histopathological features.

11. Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions

Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

2015-06-01

In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. We apply a conventional likelihood method to measure the skill of earthquake focal mechanism orientation forecasts. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. We measure the difference between two double-couple sources as the minimum rotation angle that transforms one into the other. We measure the uncertainty of a focal mechanism forecast (the variability), and the difference between observed and forecasted orientations (the prediction error), in terms of these minimum rotation angles. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random (or equally probable). For 3-D rotation the random rotation angle distribution is not uniform. To better understand the resulting complexities, we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two theoretical rotational distributions (Cauchy and von Mises-Fisher), which are used to approximate earthquake source orientation pattern. We then calculate the likelihood score for earthquake source forecasts and for their validation by future seismicity data. Several issues need to be explored when analyzing observational results: their dependence on forecast and data resolution, internal dependence of scores on forecasted angle and random variability of likelihood scores. Here, we propose a simple tentative solution but extensive theoretical and statistical analysis is needed.

12. High speed multi focal plane optical system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

An apparatus for eliminating beamsplitter generated optical aberrations in a pupil concentric optical system providing a plurality of spatially separated images on different focal planes or surfaces is presented. The system employs a buried surface beamsplitter having spherically curved entrance and exit faces which are concentric to a system aperture stop with the entrance face being located in the path of a converging light beam directed there from an image forming objective element which is also concentric to the aperture stop.

13. Focal epileptic seizures mimicking sleep paralysis.

PubMed

Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Ossola, Maria; Colnaghi, Silvia; Arbasino, Carla

2009-03-01

Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common parasomnia. The diagnostic criteria for SP, as reported in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, are essentially clinical, as electroencephalography (EEG)-polysomnography (PSG) is not mandatory. We describe a subject whose sleep-related events fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SP, even though her visual hallucinations were elementary, repetitive and stereotyped, thus differing from those usually reported by patients with SP. Video/EEG-PSG documented the focal epileptic nature of the SP-like episodes.

14. An improved schlieren method for measurement and automatic reconstruction of the far-field focal spot

PubMed Central

Wang, Zhengzhou; Hu, Bingliang; Yin, Qinye

2017-01-01

The schlieren method of measuring far-field focal spots offers many advantages at the Shenguang III laser facility such as low cost and automatic laser-path collimation. However, current methods of far-field focal spot measurement often suffer from low precision and efficiency when the final focal spot is merged manually, thereby reducing the accuracy of reconstruction. In this paper, we introduce an improved schlieren method to construct the high dynamic-range image of far-field focal spots and improve the reconstruction accuracy and efficiency. First, a detection method based on weak light beam sampling and magnification imaging was designed; images of the main and side lobes of the focused laser irradiance in the far field were obtained using two scientific CCD cameras. Second, using a self-correlation template matching algorithm, a circle the same size as the schlieren ball was dug from the main lobe cutting image and used to change the relative region of the main lobe cutting image within a 100×100 pixel region. The position that had the largest correlation coefficient between the side lobe cutting image and the main lobe cutting image when a circle was dug was identified as the best matching point. Finally, the least squares method was used to fit the center of the side lobe schlieren small ball, and the error was less than 1 pixel. The experimental results show that this method enables the accurate, high-dynamic-range measurement of a far-field focal spot and automatic image reconstruction. Because the best matching point is obtained through image processing rather than traditional reconstruction methods based on manual splicing, this method is less sensitive to the efficiency of focal-spot reconstruction and thus offers better experimental precision. PMID:28207758

15. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

2000-01-01

A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

16. Dynamics of Focal Fibrillation Waves during Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

PubMed

Lanters, Eva A H; Allessie, Maurits A; DE Groot, Natasja M S

2016-04-01

The incidence and appearance of focal fibrillation waves on the right and left atrial epicardial surface were visualized during 10 seconds of persistent atrial fibrillation in a 71-year-old woman with valvular heart disease. The frequent, nonrepetitive, widespread, and capricious distribution of focal waves suggests that transmural conduction of fibrillation waves is most likely the mechanism underlying focal fibrillation waves.

17. Association of the amino-terminal half of c-Src with focal adhesions alters their properties and is regulated by phosphorylation of tyrosine 527.

PubMed Central

Kaplan, K B; Bibbins, K B; Swedlow, J R; Arnaud, M; Morgan, D O; Varmus, H E

1994-01-01

We have characterized the mechanism by which the subcellular distribution of c-Src is controlled by the phosphorylation of tyrosine 527. Mutation of this tyrosine dramatically redistributes c-Src from endosomal membranes to focal adhesions. Redistribution to focal adhesions occurs independently of kinase activity and cellular transformation. In cells lacking the regulatory kinase (CSK) that phosphorylates tyrosine 527, c-Src is also found predominantly in focal adhesions, confirming that phosphorylation of tyrosine 527 affects the location of c-Src inside the cell. The first 251 amino acids of c-Src are sufficient to allow association with focal adhesions, indicating that at least one signal for positioning c-Src in focal adhesions resides in the amino-terminal half. Point mutations and deletions in the first 251 amino acids of c-Src reveal that association with focal adhesions requires the myristylation site needed for membrane attachment, as well as the SH3 domain. Expression of the amino-terminal region alters both the structural and biochemical properties of focal adhesions. Focal adhesions containing this non-catalytic portion of c-Src are larger and exhibit increased levels of phosphotyrosine staining. Our results suggest that c-Src may regulate focal adhesions and cellular adhesion by a kinase-independent mechanism. Images PMID:7525268

18. A kinetic model for RNA-interference of focal adhesions

PubMed Central

2013-01-01

19. Integrated focal-plane array /IFPA/ approach to large-area infrared focal plane architecture

Warren, R. E.

1980-01-01

A modular approach to IFPA design is presented which makes it possible to obtain a high-density infrared focal plane amendable to parallel manufacturing techniques as well as to serial plane integration and test. The percent fill factor of the design is dependent on the dimension of the individual detectors; each submodule is manufactured from identical components. The technologies including cables, interconnects, multilayer interconnect structures, and subassembly test requirements, which have direct application to scanning as well as staring integrated focal plane arrays, are discussed.

20. Efficacy of lacosamide by focal seizure subtype.

PubMed

Sperling, Michael R; Rosenow, Felix; Faught, Edward; Hebert, David; Doty, Pamela; Isojärvi, Jouko

2014-10-01

The purpose of this post hoc exploratory analysis was to determine the effects of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide, on focal (partial-onset) seizure subtypes. Patient data from the three lacosamide pivotal trials were grouped and pooled by focal seizure subtype at Baseline: simple partial seizures (SPS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPS). Both efficacy outcomes (median percent change from Baseline to Maintenance Phase in seizure frequency per 28 days and the proportion of patients experiencing at least a 50% reduction in seizures) were evaluated by lacosamide dose (200, 400, or 600 mg/day) compared to placebo for each seizure subtype. An additional analysis was performed to determine whether a shift from more severe focal seizure subtypes to less severe occurred upon treatment with lacosamide. In patients with CPS or SGPS at Baseline, lacosamide 400 mg/day (maximum recommended daily dose) and 600 mg/day reduced the frequency of CPS and SGPS compared to placebo. Likewise, a proportion of patients with CPS and SGPS at Baseline experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of CPS and SGPS (≥50% responder rate) in the lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day groups compared with placebo. For both outcomes, numerically greatest responses were observed in the lacosamide 600 mg/day group among patients with SGPS at Baseline. In patients with SPS at Baseline, no difference between placebo and lacosamide was observed for either efficacy outcome. An additional exploratory analysis suggests that in patients with SPS at Baseline, CPS and SGPS may have been shifted to less severe SPS upon treatment with lacosamide. The results of these exploratory analyses revealed reductions in CPS and SGPS frequency with adjunctive lacosamide. Reduction in CPS and SGPS may confound assessment of SPS since the CPS or SGPS may possibly change to SPS by effective treatment.

1. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

SciTech Connect

Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

2008-06-01

DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

2. The Simbol-X Focal Plane

Laurent, P.

2009-05-01

The Simbol-X focal plane is designed to detect photons focused by the mirror in the 0.5 to 100 keV energy band. Composed of two detectors, it will measure the position, energy, and arrival time of each incoming X-ray. On top of it will be a collimator to shield all photons not coming from the mirror field of view. The whole system is surrounded by an active and passive shielding in order to ensure the required very low background.

3. Kartagener syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

PubMed

2013-11-01

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is characterized by congenital impairment of mucociliary clearance. Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a clinical variant of primary ciliary dyskinesia which is involved in situs inversus associated with chronic respiratory infections. In addition, glomerular disease in KS syndrome is rare and reported cases are limited. We had a 27-year-old female patient with KS who presented with proteinuria, hematuria, normal kidney function, and a family history of systemic lupus erythematosus. Kidney biopsy showed segmental scar with adhesion to Bowman capsule, which was indicative of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

4. Liver focal lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients: from screening to diagnosis.

PubMed

Zardi, E M; Uwechie, V; Picardi, A; Costantino, S

2001-01-01

This short review aims at pointing out the role of ultrasonography (US) as a valuable means for an early detection of liver focal lesions in cirrhotic patients. Among these lesions which may be benign and malignant, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) finds its place with an incidence in cirrhotic patients becoming higher as the time passes from the onset of cirrhosis. US is of fundamental importance in the regular screening of subjects with viral cirrhosis because of its sensitivity in evaluating focal lesions (79-82%); however, it is not yet the most valuable method for the diagnosis of HCC for which other diagnostic techniques are needed such as CT (Computerized Tomography), MR (Magnetic Resonance) and the US-guided fine-needle biopsy. In fact, the echo-structure of HCC varies with its dimensions and may mimic that of one of many other liver focal lesions. Lately, some new sonographic techniques have become available that can allow a more accurate investigation of HCC. Among them, the "Tissue Harmonic" and the "Pulse Inversion Imaging" techniques provide a better definition of the grey-scale image thus improving the conspicuity of focal lesions. Color and Power Doppler techniques, while allowing an accurate observation of the lesion vascularization, integrate the sonographic appearance of HCC. The enhancement of the US color Doppler signal obtainable by using echographic contrast agents, represents a further progress for a detailed observation of the focal lesions' micro-vascularization and, thus, for the HCC identification. Further advancements in terms of improvement of the image quality and characterization of the focal lesion are to be expected from the use of "Tissue Harmonic" and "Pulse Inversion Imaging" techniques associated with echographic contrast agents. However, the diagnosis of HCC still rests on the incontrovertible histological evidence obtained by echo-guided fine-needle biopsy.

5. Near-Field Imaging Based on High Resolution Focal Spot Properties

Hillers, G.; Campillo, M.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Roux, P.; Lecointre, A.; Vernon, F.

2015-12-01

The dense spatial wavefield sampling provided by modern seismological acquisitions allows the resolution of the near-field focal spot. The large-amplitude focal spot emerges from the superposition of a collapsing, time reversed wavefront. We discuss an imaging method that is based on high resolution reconstructions of the focal spot that is obtained from cross correlation. This approach exploits the dependence of the spot's shape on local properties of the propagation medium, i.e., the distance of the first zero crossing is proportional to the wave length. We construct noise correlation functions from data collected by a highly-dense Nodal array centered on the San Jacinto fault zone south of Anza. The focal spot can be obtained from the amplitude distributions at zero lag time. We repeat this analysis using each geophone location as the collapsing point to which the wave length estimate is related. The anisotropic intensity of the converging wavefields leads to distorted focal spots. In addition, strong body and fault zone waves that are associated with the complex fault zone structure prohibit the straightforward analysis of the spatially variable zero-lag time distributions. We discuss strategies to mute the influence of the wavefield anisotropy and the removal of the body and fault zone wave components for improved reconstructions of the symmetric surface wave focal spot. The overall consistency of the local wave speed estimates from the zero crossing and images obtained with more traditional far-field travel time inversions validates the near-field approach. We discuss causes for the remaining inconsistencies and compare limits of the resolution in both cases. At higher frequencies (>3 Hz) both methods reveal a heterogeneous velocity structure that exhibits pronounced low-velocity zones. In addition, near-field based images obtained at wave lengths that are too large for the application of far-field methods suggest a strong velocity contrast across the fault.

6. UV photodetectors, focal plane arrays, and avalanche photodiodes

McClintock, Ryan

2007-12-01

The study of III-Nitride based optoelectronics devices is a maturing field, but there are still many underdeveloped areas in which to make a contribution of new and original research. This work specifically targets the goals of realizing high-efficiency back-illuminated solar-blind photodetectors, solar-blind focal plane arrays, and visible- and solar-blind Avalanche photodiodes. Achieving these goals has required systematic development of the material growth and characterization, device modeling and design, device fabrication and processing, and the device testing and qualification. This work describes the research conducted and presents relevant devices results. The AlGaN material system has a tunable direct bandgap that is ideally suited to detection of ultraviolet light, however this material system suffers from several key issues, making realization of high-efficiency photodetectors difficult: large dislocation densities, low n-type and p-type doping efficiency, and lattice and thermal expansion mismatches leading to cracking of the material. All of these problems are exacerbated by the increased aluminum compositions necessary in back-illuminated and solar-blind devices. Overcoming these obstacles has required extensive development and optimization of the material growth techniques necessary: this includes everything from the growth of the buffer and template, to the growth of the active region. The broad area devices realized in this work demonstrate a quantum efficiency that is among the highest ever reported for a back-illuminated solar-blind photodetector (responsivity of 157 mA/W at 280nm, external quantum efficiency of 68%). Taking advantage of the back illuminated nature of these detectors, we have successfully developed the technology to hybridize and test a solar-blind focal plane array camera. The initial focal plane array shows good uniformity and reasonable operability, and several images from this first camera are presented. However, in order to

7. The piriform cortex and human focal epilepsy.

PubMed

Vaughan, David N; Jackson, Graeme D

2014-01-01

It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic - being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability.

8. Phase retrieval in the focal plane

Gaessler, W.; Peter, D.; Storz, C.

Phase retrieval in the focal plane is a very appealing technique, which would simplify the optomechanics of an Adaptive Optics (AO) system a lot and could gain sensitivity under certain conditions. For conventional AO systems the limiting magnitude of the system does not depend on the diameter of the telescope, since any wave front sensor splits the light into sub-apertures, which are in number related to the telescope diameter. Having this in mind the phase retrieval technique looks promising as it breaks this paradigm in the diffraction limited case and thus yields some gain in limiting magnitude with larger telescope diameter. Until now this path was not followed deeply in astronomical AO systems, as the solution of the inversion is non unique and demands much higher calculation power as in conventional AO. This might change with state of the art computers. We give a short overview of some existing techniques and algorithms of focal plane AO and report results of other groups, which tested them in laboratory and on sky. To solve the drawback of the large computational demands and to increase the sensitivity we propose a bootstrapping process with dynamical binning.

9. The Piriform Cortex and Human Focal Epilepsy

PubMed Central

Vaughan, David N.; Jackson, Graeme D.

2014-01-01

It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic – being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability. PMID:25538678

10. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

PubMed

Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

2016-09-01

The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

11. Musical anhedonia after focal brain damage.

PubMed

Belfi, Amy M; Evans, Erin; Heskje, Jonah; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel

2017-03-01

People listen to music because it is pleasurable. However, there are individual differences in the reward value of music. At the extreme low end of this continuum, individuals who derive no pleasure from music are said to have 'musical anhedonia.' Cases of acquired musical anhedonia following focal brain damage are rare, with only a handful having been reported in the scientific literature. Here, we surveyed a large sample of patients with focal brain damage to identify the frequency, specificity, and neural correlates of acquired musical anhedonia. Participants completed the Musical anhedonia Questionnaire and the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (Mas-Herrero et al., 2013) to assess changes in musical enjoyment and reward following brain injury. Neuroanatomical data were analyzed with a proportional MAP-3 method to create voxelwise lesion proportion difference maps. No clear or consistent neuroanatomical correlates of musical anhedonia were identified. One patient with damage to the right-hemisphere putamen and internal capsule displayed specific and severe acquired musical anhedonia. These findings indicate that acquired musical anhedonia is very uncommon, a result which is consistent with the fact that only a small number of such cases have been reported in the literature. This rarity could have positive implications for the therapeutic potentialities of music in patients with severe neurological disorders.

12. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

1988-01-01

A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

13. Visual function and perinatal focal cerebral infarction.

PubMed Central

Mercuri, E; Atkinson, J; Braddick, O; Anker, S; Nokes, L; Cowan, F; Rutherford, M; Pennock, J; Dubowitz, L

1996-01-01

AIMS: To evaluate the visual function of infants with perinatal cerebral infarction in whom the site and size of the lesion has been determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Twelve infants with cerebral infarction on MRI were studied with a battery of tests specifically designed to evaluate visual function in infancy. This included tests: for visual attention (fixation shifts); of cerebral asymmetry (optokinetic nystagmus, visual fields); for assessment of acuity (forced choice preferential looking); and neurophysiological measures of vision (phase reversal and orientation reversal visual evoked potential). RESULTS: A considerable incidence of abnormalities on at least one of the tests for visual function used was observed. The presence or severity of visual abnormalities could not always be predicted by the site and extent of the lesion seen on imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Early focal lesions affecting the visual pathway can, to some extent, be compensated for by the immature developing brain. These data suggest that all the infants presenting with focal lesions need to be investigated with a detailed assessment of various aspects of vision. Images PMID:8949687

14. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

PubMed Central

Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

2015-01-01

Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

15. Phase-Scrambler Plate Spreads Point Image

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Edwards, Oliver J.; Arild, Tor

1992-01-01

Array of small prisms retrofit to imaging lens. Phase-scrambler plate essentially planar array of small prisms partitioning aperture of lens into many subapertures, and prism at each subaperture designed to divert relatively large diffraction spot formed by that subaperture to different, specific point on focal plane.

16. Focal adhesion kinase modulates tension signaling to control actin and focal adhesion dynamics.

PubMed

Schober, Markus; Raghavan, Srikala; Nikolova, Maria; Polak, Lisa; Pasolli, H Amalia; Beggs, Hilary E; Reichardt, Louis F; Fuchs, Elaine

2007-02-26

In response to alphabeta1 integrin signaling, transducers such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) become activated, relaying to specific machineries and triggering distinct cellular responses. By conditionally ablating Fak in skin epidermis and culturing Fak-null keratinocytes, we show that FAK is dispensable for epidermal adhesion and basement membrane assembly, both of which require alphabeta1 integrins. FAK is also dispensible for proliferation/survival in enriched medium. In contrast, FAK functions downstream of alphabeta1 integrin in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics and orchestrating polarized keratinocyte migration out of epidermal explants. Fak-null keratinocytes display an aberrant actin cytoskeleton, which is tightly associated with robust, peripheral focal adhesions and microtubules. We find that without FAK, Src, p190RhoGAP, and PKL-PIX-PAK, localization and/or activation at focal adhesions are impaired, leading to elevated Rho activity, phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase, and enhanced tensile stress fibers. We show that, together, these FAK-dependent activities are critical to control the turnover of focal adhesions, which is perturbed in the absence of FAK.

17. TRPM4 Is a Novel Component of the Adhesome Required for Focal Adhesion Disassembly, Migration and Contractility

PubMed Central

Cáceres, Mónica; Ortiz, Liliana; Recabarren, Tatiana; Romero, Anibal; Colombo, Alicia; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Varela, Diego; Rivas, José; Silva, Ian; Morales, Diego; Campusano, Camilo; Almarza, Oscar; Simon, Felipe; Toledo, Hector; Park, Kang-Sik; Trimmer, James S.; Cerda, Oscar

2015-01-01

Cellular migration and contractility are fundamental processes that are regulated by a variety of concerted mechanisms such as cytoskeleton rearrangements, focal adhesion turnover, and Ca2+ oscillations. TRPM4 is a Ca2+-activated non-selective cationic channel (Ca2+-NSCC) that conducts monovalent but not divalent cations. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify putative TRPM4-associated proteins. Interestingly, the largest group of these proteins has actin cytoskeleton-related functions, and among these nine are specifically annotated as focal adhesion-related proteins. Consistent with these results, we found that TRPM4 localizes to focal adhesions in cells from different cellular lineages. We show that suppression of TRPM4 in MEFs impacts turnover of focal adhesions, serum-induced Ca2+ influx, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rac activities, and results in reduced cellular spreading, migration and contractile behavior. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibition of TRPM4 activity alters cellular contractility in vivo, affecting cutaneous wound healing. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for a TRP channel specifically localized to focal adhesions, where it performs a central role in modulating cellular migration and contractility. PMID:26110647

18. TRPM4 Is a Novel Component of the Adhesome Required for Focal Adhesion Disassembly, Migration and Contractility.

PubMed

Cáceres, Mónica; Ortiz, Liliana; Recabarren, Tatiana; Romero, Anibal; Colombo, Alicia; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Varela, Diego; Rivas, José; Silva, Ian; Morales, Diego; Campusano, Camilo; Almarza, Oscar; Simon, Felipe; Toledo, Hector; Park, Kang-Sik; Trimmer, James S; Cerda, Oscar

2015-01-01

Cellular migration and contractility are fundamental processes that are regulated by a variety of concerted mechanisms such as cytoskeleton rearrangements, focal adhesion turnover, and Ca2+ oscillations. TRPM4 is a Ca2+-activated non-selective cationic channel (Ca2+-NSCC) that conducts monovalent but not divalent cations. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify putative TRPM4-associated proteins. Interestingly, the largest group of these proteins has actin cytoskeleton-related functions, and among these nine are specifically annotated as focal adhesion-related proteins. Consistent with these results, we found that TRPM4 localizes to focal adhesions in cells from different cellular lineages. We show that suppression of TRPM4 in MEFs impacts turnover of focal adhesions, serum-induced Ca2+ influx, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rac activities, and results in reduced cellular spreading, migration and contractile behavior. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibition of TRPM4 activity alters cellular contractility in vivo, affecting cutaneous wound healing. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for a TRP channel specifically localized to focal adhesions, where it performs a central role in modulating cellular migration and contractility.

19. Focal plane actuation for the development of a high resolution suborbital telescope

Duke Miller, Alex; Scowen, Paul A.; Veach, Todd

2016-01-01

We present a hexapod stabilized focal plane as the key instrument for a proposed suborbital balloon mission. Balloon gondolas currently achieve 1-2 arcsecond pointing error, but cannot correct for unavoidable jitter movements (~50μm at 20hz) caused by wind rushing over balloon surfaces, thermal variations, cryocoolers, and reaction wheels. The jitter causes image blur during exposures and is the limiting resolution of the system. To solve this, the hexapod system actuates the focal plane to counteract the jitter through real-time closed loop feedback from star-trackers. Removal of this final jitter term decreases pointing error by an order of magnitude and allows for true diffraction-limited observation. This boost in resolution will allow for Hubble-quality imaging for a fraction of the cost. Tip-tilt pointing systems have been used for these purposes in the past, but require additional optics and introduce multiple reflections. The hexapod system, rather, is compact and can be plugged into the focal point of nearly any configuration. The design also thermally isolates the hexapod from the cryogenic focal plane enabling the use of well-established non-cryogenic hexapod technology. High-resolution time domain multispectral imaging of the gas giant outer planets, especially in the UV range, is of particular interest to the planetary community, and a suborbital telescope with the hexapod stabilization in place would provide a wealth of new data. On an Antarctic ~100-day Long-Duration-Balloon mission the continued high-resolution imaging of gas giant storm systems would provide cloud formation and evolution data second to only a Flagship orbiter.

20. Correlation between P-wave morphology and origin of atrial focal tachycardia--insights from realistic models of the human atria and torso.

PubMed

Colman, Michael A; Aslanidi, Oleg V; Stott, Jonathan; Holden, Arun V; Zhang, Henggui

2011-10-01

Atrial arrhythmias resulting from abnormally rapid focal activity in the atria may be reflected in an altered P-wave morphology (PWM) in the ECG. Although clinically important, detailed relationships between PWM and origins of atrial focal excitations have not been established. To study such relationships, we developed computational models of the human atria and torso. The model simulation results were used to evaluate an extant clinical algorithm for locating the origin of atrial focal points from the ECG. The simulations showed that the algorithm was practical and could predict the atrial focal locations with 85% accuracy. We proposed a further refinement of the algorithm to distinguish between focal locations within the large atrial bundles.

1. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

SciTech Connect

Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

1982-08-01

Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination.

2. Stress analysis of the space telescope focal plane structure joint

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foster, W. A., Jr.; Shoemaker, W. L.

1985-01-01

Two major efforts were begun concerning the Space Telescope focal plane structure joint. The 3-D solid finite element modeling of the bipod flexure plate was carried out. Conceptual models were developed for the load transfer through the three major bolts to the flexure plate. The flexure plate drawings were reconstructed using DADAM for the purpose of developing a file from which the coordinates of any point on the flexure plate could be determined and also to locate the attachment points of the various components which connect with the flexure plate. For modeling convenience the CADAM drawing of the flexure plate has been divided into several regions which will be subdivided into finite elements using MSGMESH, which is a finite element mesh generator available with MSC/NASTRAN. In addition to the CADAM work on the flexure plate, an effort was also begun to develop computer aided drawings of the peripheral beam which will be used to assist in modeling the connection between it and the flexure plate.

3. Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knapmeyer, Martin; Weber, Renee C.

2011-01-01

A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation. We will examine the extent to which shear (S) and compression (P) wave amplitude ratios can constrain moonquake fault geometry by determining whether, for a given cluster, there exists a focal mechanism that can produce a radiation pattern consistent with the amplitudes measured by the Apollo instruments. Amplitudes are read in the ray coordinate frame, directly from seismograms for which the P and S arrivals are clearly identifiable on all long-period channels of the four Apollo stations. We apply an empirical station correction to account for site effects and the differences between P- and S-wave attenuation. Instead of focusing on the best fitting solution only, we formulate the inverse problem using a falsification criterion: all source orientations that do not reproduce the observed SV/P ratios within an error margin derived from the uncertainty of amplitude readings are rejected. All others are accepted as possible solutions. The inversion is carried out using an exhaustive grid search on a regular grid with predefined step size, encompassing all possible combinations of strike, dip and slip. To assess the

4. Characteristics of the pain observed in the focal vulvodynia syndrome (VVS).

PubMed

Donders, Gilbert; Bellen, Gert

2012-01-01

Symptoms and signs of patients with focal vulvodynia or vulvo-vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) are variable in location and severity. It is not known whether the location of the most severe pain in the vestibulum is linked to the complaints and perhaps a different entity. A clinical gut feeling suggests that two distinct varieties of focal vulvodynia may be either focused at 2 points (5 and 7 o' clock) or at 4 points (5, 7, 1 and 11 o' clock). A questionnaire was filled out by 30 women with focal vulvodynia during 147 visits and checked for completeness by an independent study nurse. Another investigator to evaluated the clinical signs of VVS, blinded to the patients history or complaints. The visual analogue score (VAS) of pain experienced upon attempt of sexual contact was used as a marker of severity. Focal vulvar pain was assessed using Q-tip with a score from 1 to 10 on 7 areas of the vestibulum. Besides pain during sexual contact, 47% also had pain on inserting a tampon. More than 40% of women suffer since more than 3 years, 70% had to interrupt the act of sexual intercourse mostly or always due to unbearable pain and 25% never had satisfactory sex due to this pain. Feeling deep pain, burning lasting for 12-24h after sexual contact, and stopping the attempt of intercourse were more prominent in women with high pain scores (VAS): 26% of women with VAS>7 had no sex during the last year versus 6% in the group with low pain score (p=0.004). Patients suffering from para-urethral pain zones at 1 and 11 o' clock, have more often pain upon deep penetration, and experienced more pain when inserting tampons than patients with only painful areas at 5 and 7 o' clock (p=0.001). We conclude that patients with severe disease display a different panel of complaints than women with less pain. Patients with focal pain at 1 and 11 o' clock have more deep pain sensations, but feel less pain during insertion of tampons. Hence disease with bi-focal disease may have a different

5. Quantifying tissue hemodynamics by NIRS versus DOT: global versus focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics

Boas, David A.; Cheng, Xuefeng; Marota, John A.; Mandeville, Joseph B.

1999-09-01

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to quantify changes in oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in tissue. The analysis uses the modified Beer-Lambert law, which is generally valid for quantifying global concentration changes. We examine the errors that result from analyzing focal changes in HbO and Hb concentrations. We find that the measured focal change in HbO and Hb are linearly proportional to the actual focal changes but that the proportionally constants are different. Thus relative changes in HbO and Hb cannot, in general, be quantified. However, we show that under certain circumstances it is possible to quantify these relative changes. This builds the case for diffuse optical tomography (DOT) which in general should be able to quantify focal changes in HbO and Hb through the use of image reconstruction algorithms that deconvolve the photon diffusion point-spread-function. We demonstrate the differences between NIRS and DOT using a rat model of somatosensory stimulation.

6. Botulinum toxin physiology in focal hand and cranial dystonia.

PubMed

Karp, Barbara Illowsky

2012-11-20

The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

7. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

PubMed

Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

2016-01-01

Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

8. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

DOEpatents

Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

2014-03-25

An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

9. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

2012-09-01

To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

10. Stabilized dispersive focal plane systems for space

Roming, Peter W. A.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Beebe, Chip R.; Brooks, Mark J.; Davis, Michael W.; Klar, Robert A.; Roberts, John M.; Rose, Randall J.; Winters, Gregory S.

2012-09-01

As the costs of space missions continue to rise, the demand for compact, low mass, low-cost technologies that maintain high reliability and facilitate high performance is increasing. One such technology is the stabilized dispersive focal plane system (SDFPS). This technology provides image stabilization while simultaneously delivering spectroscopic or direct imaging functionality using only a single optical path and detector. Typical systems require multiple expensive optical trains and/or detectors, sometimes at the expense of photon throughput. The SDFPS is ideal for performing wide-field low-resolution space-based spectroscopic and direct-imaging surveys. In preparation for a suborbital flight, we have built and ground tested a prototype SDFPS that will concurrently eliminate unwanted image blurring due to the lack of adequate platform stability, while producing images in both spectroscopic and direct-imaging modes. We present the overall design, testing results, and potential scientific applications.

11. Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

2012-01-01

A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon [refs]. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology [ref]. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation.

12. Pneumatic release of focal vitreomacular traction.

PubMed

Claus, M G; Feron, E; Veckeneer, M

2017-03-01

PurposeTo study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of expansile gas as a valuable alternative to current treatment options (conservative, pharmacological, and surgical) in patients with symptomatic, focal vitreomacular traction (VMT).Patients and methodsThis study comprises a retrospective, interventional case series of patients. Twenty eyes in seventeen patients with symptomatic and persisting focal VMT were treated in an outpatient setting with an intravitreal gas injection of 0.2 ml. In 19 eyes, 100% hexafluoroethane (C2F6) was used. One eye received sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). To all but three patients posturing advice was given. Patients were reviewed with a full-eye examination and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) after 14 days and later. The primary outcome measure was the release of VMT on OCT.ResultsIn 17 of the 20 (85.0%) treated eyes, a release of VMT was achieved as documented on OCT. The release of VMT was diagnosed during the first month after injection in 11 eyes of 11 patients and within 3 months in 16 eyes of 15 patients. In all but five of our patients, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) remained stable or improved. In four patients, the progression or development of cataract was the probable cause of the decrease in BCVA. One patient developed a stage II macular hole after injection and needed vitrectomy. None of the treated patients developed retinal breaks.ConclusionIntravitreal expansile gas injection could offer a minimally invasive, low-cost alternative treatment in patients with symptomatic, persisting VMT. Additional studies on a larger number of patients are required.

13. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in a goat.

PubMed

Oliveira, Diego M; Pimentel, Luciano A; Pessoa, André F; Dantas, Antônio F M; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2010-09-01

Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in sheep. However, this lesion has not been reported in goats. The current paper reports a case of FSE in a goat from the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid region. As reported by the farmer, 30, 4-48-month-old animals from a flock of 150 goats died after showing nervous signs, including blindness and recumbence, for periods varying between 1 and 14 days. The flock was grazing native pasture supplemented with wheat and corn bran. Additionally, lactating goats were supplemented with soybeans. A 4-month-old goat with nervous signs was examined clinically and then necropsied 3 days after the onset of clinical signs. Bilateral, focal, and symmetrical areas of brown discoloration were observed in the internal capsule and thalamus. Histologic lesions in these areas consisted of multifocal, bilateral malacia with a few neutrophils; endothelial cell swelling; perivascular edema; and hemorrhages. The etiology of these lesions was not determined. However, FSE is considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep, and it is speculated that this microorganism was the etiologic agent in the present case. The flock had been vaccinated against type D enterotoxemia only once, approximately 3 months before the beginning of the outbreak. Insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination protocol, low efficacy of the vaccine used, and a diet including large amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates were suspected to be predisposing factors for this outbreak.

14. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

DOEpatents

Crandall, David Lynn

2011-08-16

Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

15. Secondary Analysis of an Electronic Surveillance System Combined with Multi-focal Interventions for Early Detection of Sepsis.

PubMed

Westra, Bonnie L; Landman, Sean; Yadav, Pranjul; Steinbach, Michael

2017-01-18

To conduct an independent secondary analysis of a multi-focal intervention for early detection of sepsis that included implementation of change management strategies, electronic surveillance for sepsis, and evidence based point of care alerting using the POC AdvisorTM application.

16. Focal plane actuation to achieve ultra-high resolution on suborbital balloon payloads

Scowen, Paul A.; Miller, Alex; Challa, Priya; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Chris; Mauskopf, Phil

2014-07-01

Over the past few years there has been remarkable success flying imaging telescope systems suspended from suborbital balloon payload systems. These imaging systems have covered optical, ultraviolet, sub-­-millimeter and infrared passbands (i.e. BLAST, STO, SBI, Fireball and others). In recognition of these advances NASA is now considering ambitious programs to promote planetary imaging from high altitude at a fraction of the cost of similar fully orbital systems. The challenge with imaging from a balloon payload is delivering the full diffraction-­-limited resolution of the system from a moving payload. Good progress has been made with damping mechanisms and oscillation control to remove most macroscopic movement in the departures of the imaging focal plane from a static configuration, however a jitter component remains that is difficult to remove using external corrections. This paper reports on work to demonstrate in the laboratory the utility and performance of actuating a detector focal plane (of whatever type) to remove the final jitter terms using an agile hexapod design. The input to this demonstration is the jitter signal generated by the pointing system of a previously flown balloon mission (the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, STO). Our group has a mature jitter compensation system that thermally isolates the control head from the focal plane itself. This allows the hexapod to remain at ambient temperature in a vacuum environment with the focal plane cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Our lab design mounts the focal plane on the hexapod in a custom cryostat and delivers an active optical stimulus together with the corresponding jitter signal, using the actuation of the hexapod to correct for the departures from a static, stable configuration. We believe this demonstration will make the case for inclusion of this technological solution in future balloon-­-borne imaging systems requiring ultra-­-high resolution.

17. Focal epithelial hyperplasia caused by human papillomavirus 13.

PubMed

Saunders, Natasha R; Scolnik, Dennis; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Koelink, Eric; Craw, Lindsey; Roth, Sherryn; Aronson, Leya; Perusini, Stephen; Silverman, Michael S

2010-06-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign, papulo-nodular disease of the oral cavity. It is rare, affecting primarily Native American populations during childhood. It is closely associated with human papillomavirus 13 and 32. This report describes the diagnosis of 2 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in children from southern Guyana. The diagnosis was made using clinical criteria, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing.

18. Focal Manual for CAI Coding on the TSS/8 System.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kirbs, H. Dewey; And Others

Basic information is provided in this manual for coding drill-and-practice CAI (computer-assisted instruction) applications in the language FOCAL (Formulating On-line Calculations in Algebraic Language). This language is available on the Digital Equipment Corporation Time-Sharing 8 system (TSS/8). While FOCAL is oriented toward solution of…

19. Focally spared area of fatty liver caused by arterioportal shunt

SciTech Connect

Arita, Takeshi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Honma, Yutaka

1996-05-01

We describe a case with a focally spared area in fatty liver caused by arterioportal shunt. Furthermore, we discuss the cause of the focally spared area related to a localized dilution or reduction in portal blood flow. 13 refs., 1 fig.

20. Demonstration of an optimised focal field with long focal depth and high transmission obtained with the Extended Nijboer-Zernike theory.

PubMed

Konijnenberg, A P; Wei, L; Kumar, N; Filho, L Couto Correa Pinto; Cisotto, L; Pereira, S F; Urbach, H P

2014-01-13

In several optical systems, a specific Point Spread Function (PSF) needs to be generated. This can be achieved by shaping the complex field at the pupil. The Extended Nijboer-Zernike (ENZ) theory relates complex Zernike modes on the pupil directly to functions in the focal region. In this paper, we introduce a method to engineer a PSF using the ENZ theory. In particular, we present an optimization algorithm to design an extended depth of focus with high lateral resolution, while keeping the transmission of light high (over 60%). We also have demonstrated three outcomes of the algorithm using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM).

1. An update on focal therapy for prostate cancer.

PubMed

Perera, Marlon; Krishnananthan, Nishanth; Lindner, Uri; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

2016-11-01

Globally, the increased uptake of serum PSA level screening led to an increase in the number of diagnoses of low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Traditionally, these patients have been considered for either active surveillance programmes or radical whole-gland therapies, such as prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Focal therapy is an emerging treatment option that involves the focal ablation of prostate cancer with preservation of surrounding healthy tissue. This approach might result in reduced morbidity when compared with whole-gland therapies. In current practice, much controversy surrounds optimal patient selection and preoperative tumour localization strategies. Focal therapy modalities include cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, laser ablation, photodynamic therapy, irreversible electroporation, radiofrequency ablation and focal brachytherapy. However, as long-term oncological data for focal therapies are lacking, formal recommendations for its use cannot be made.

2. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

SciTech Connect

Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G; Lupini, Andrew R; Kubel, Christian; Slusallek, Phillip; De Jonge, Niels

2014-01-01

In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

3. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

PubMed

Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

2014-12-01

Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages.

4. Practical Application of Columbia Classification for Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

PubMed Central

Han, Man-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Jin

2016-01-01

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a heterogeneous clinicopathological entity. Two frameworks for the classification of FSGS have been described: etiologic and morphologic. The etiologic classification is distinguished among genetic, adaptive, virus-associated, drug-induced, and idiopathic types. Morphologic classification is commonly referred to as the Columbia classification published in 2004, which distinguishes five variants: collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar, and not otherwise specified (NOS). This classification is based on light microscopic patterns with rigorously defined specific criteria, which can be applied to primary and secondary forms of FSGS, and has been widely used over the past 10 years both as a diagnostic and as a prognostic clinical tool. This paper defines common histopathological features of FSGS, distinguished characters among five variants, and points out the confusion about terminology of variants, because most were proposed in the past with different definitions. Despite good interobserver reproducibility of this classification system, difficulty in its application may arise in the interpretation of lesions with mixed features of more than one variant in the same tissue specimen and with late lesions, because other variants may evolve into the NOS variant over time. PMID:27247945

5. A case of oral focal mucinosis of gingiva: Lesion in disguise

PubMed Central

Joshi, Chaitanya Pradeep; Dani, Nitin Hemchandra; Mahale, Swapna Arunkumar; Patel, Nikita Rajendrakumar

2015-01-01

Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is a rare soft tissue lesion of unknown aetiology. Clinically, it is most commonly found on the gingiva and presents as a painless, sessile or pedunculated mass. Histologically, it is characterized by focal myxoid degeneration of underlying connective tissue. Fifty-three-year-old patient reported with a painless, firm and fibrous gingival overgrowth present from 7 to 8 months. Clinical examination and patient's history pointed towards “irritation fibroma”. An excisional biopsy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was established as OFM, an uncommon and poorly characterized type of lesion. This case report stresses on the fact that prediagnosis of OFM is almost impossible. Thus though rare, OFM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue overgrowths in oral cavity. PMID:26644729

6. Multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

A multiwavelength focal plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y<1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

7. HgCdTe hybrid focal plane

Rode, J. P.

1984-09-01

Second-generation IR systems, consisting of 2-D mosaics of IR detectors, have been under intense development for the last few years. One of the most successful architectures has been a HgCdTe hybrid focal plane array (FPA), using a Si charge-coupled device (CCD) readout chip interfaced to epitaxial HgCdTe. Detection is made by backside-illuminated photovoltaic detectors with high fill factors and quantum efficiency. The detectors are coupled into the CCD by In bumps which mass bond each detector in the mosaic to a CCD input. Advances have been made in uniform, large area HgCdTe detector material that can be grown with a bandgap from less than 0.1 eV to greater than 1 eV. CCD architectures have been developed with simple, linear inputs and dynamic ranges up to 80 dB. Hybrid FPAs are currently being tested in prototype imaging systems, for detecting thermal differences as well as reflected sunlight in the IR. In the 3-5μm region, these arrays have proven capable of noise-equivalent temperature differences as low as 0.01 K, acquired at a 400 Hz frame rate. In addition to improving current imaging systems, these area arrays allow new system concepts to be brought to fruition.

8. Nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia

PubMed Central

Fan, Jingjing; Li, Yi; Fu, Xinyu; Li, Lijuan; Hao, Xiaoting; Li, Shasha

2017-01-01

Rodents have been widely used in the production of cerebral ischemia models. However, successful therapies have been proven on experimental rodent stroke model, and they have often failed to be effective when tested clinically. Therefore, nonhuman primates were recommended as the ideal alternatives, owing to their similarities with the human cerebrovascular system, brain metabolism, grey to white matter ratio and even their rich behavioral repertoire. The present review is a thorough summary of ten methods that establish nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia; electrocoagulation, endothelin-1-induced occlusion, microvascular clip occlusion, autologous blood clot embolization, balloon inflation, microcatheter embolization, coil embolization, surgical suture embolization, suture, and photochemical induction methods. This review addresses the advantages and disadvantages of each method, as well as precautions for each model, compared nonhuman primates with rodents, different species of nonhuman primates and different modeling methods. Finally it discusses various factors that need to be considered when modelling and the method of evaluation after modelling. These are critical for understanding their respective strengths and weaknesses and underlie the selection of the optimum model.

9. Advanced dynamic pyroelectric focal plane array

Unglaub, Ricardo A. G.; Celinska, Jolanta B.; McWilliams, Christopher R.; Paz de Araujo, Carlos A.; Forbes, Timothy; Pankin, Jayson D.

2010-04-01

The pyroelectric effect has been characterized for single-pixel elements consisting of strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric material as the sensing elements. These pixels have been integrated into second-generation focal plane arrays. The constituent second-generation pixels include thermal insulating layers and an infrared absorber layer. The MEMS-less arrays are operated in active mode, a technique that eliminates radiation choppers found in other passive pyroelectric IR imagers. This paper addresses the results of precursor 2x2 to 14x14 second-generation arrays of SBT elements, the active detection mechanism, and the unique read-out, interrogation signal, and the synchronization electronics. The second-generation 14x14 pixels array was implemented to demonstrate the performance of an active pyroelectric array as a precursor to larger size arrays using different pixel dimensions. The active mode detection eliminates the use of a chopper, enables the dynamic partition of the array into pixel domains in which pixel sensitivity in the domains can be adjusted independently. This unique feature in IR detection can be applied to the simultaneous tracking of diverse contrast objects. In addition, by controlling the thickness of the absorber material the arrays can be optimized for maximum response at specified wavelengths by means of quarter-wavelength interferometry.

10. Focal cerebral mantle disruption in fetal hydrocephalus.

PubMed

Humphreys, Peter; Muzumdar, Dattatraya P; Sly, Lloyd E; Michaud, Jean

2007-04-01

A variety of developmental brain anomalies have been described in individuals with fetal hydrocephalus, regardless of etiology. Examples include callosal dysgenesis, periventricular gray matter heterotopia, hippocampal and white matter hypoplasia, and cortical polygyration. The present report draws attention to another anomaly not reported in previous case series of fetal hydrocephalus: focal cerebral mantle disruption. Neonatal imaging findings (where available) and post-shunt, stable-state magnetic resonance imaging, or pathological findings were reviewed in 77 subjects with fetal hydrocephalus (55 myelomeningocele, 16 sporadic aqueductal stenosis, 6 miscellaneous). Of these, 12 subjects (15.6%) demonstrated a combination of absence of the septum pellucidum and severe thinning or absence of the posteromesial cerebral mantle. On axial sequences, this combination created the illusion of a common ventricle, as in lobar holoprosencephaly. All 12 subjects had massive hydrocephalus at birth, accompanied in 7 by posteromesial ventricular diverticula. Two subjects, and one other subject with distinct lateral ventricles, demonstrated unilateral or bilateral mantle clefts suggestive of schizencephaly. Close radiological (n = 2) or pathological (n = 1) inspection showed that the clefts were only partially lined with gray matter and contained a transverse gliotic membrane. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that massive early fetal hydrocephalus may completely disrupt cerebral mantle formation, particularly in the posteromesial hemispheres.

11. Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry.

PubMed

Nickoloff, E L; Donnelly, E; Eve, L; Atherton, J V; Asch, T

1990-01-01

The influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry upon mammographic image quality were evaluated. The modulation transfer functions (MTF's) for eight different intensity distributions were determined and plotted in a manner to eliminate the effects of magnification and focal spot dimension. The results indicated that the total cross-sectional area is important for focal spots with uniform intensity distributions and equivalent diameters. For equivalent focal spot dimensions, intensity distributions with edge bands were shown to have less spatial resolution than uniform intensity distributions. Focal spots with greater intensities towards their centers provided better resolution than either uniform intensity distributions or distributions with edge bands for equivalent sizes. The type of intensity distribution was also shown to affect the accuracy of star pattern measurements of focal spot size; this method of measurement is only precise for a uniform square intensity distribution. Errors obtained with several other intensity distributions were tabulated. The variations of the effective focal spot size with position along the anode-cathode axis were shown to be of a factor of approximately two to three. The combined effects of geometric blur and film/screen blur were present for various heights above the cassette tray on several different mammographic systems.

12. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

PubMed Central

Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

2014-01-01

Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The two-dimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems. PMID:25302004

13. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

2014-03-01

Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The twodimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

14. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector.

PubMed

Jain, Amit; Panse, A; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

2014-03-19

Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The two-dimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

15. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images

PubMed Central

Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

2016-01-01

Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject’s facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

16. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) predicts focal epileptogenicity in cavernomas

PubMed Central

Stefan, H; Scheler, G; Hummel, C; Walter, J; Romstock, J; Buchfelder, M; Blumcke, I

2004-01-01

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the irritative epileptic zone in patients with cavernomas by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). Method: Among 82 patients operated for epilepsy, whose presurgical evaluation had included MEG, histological assessment of the tissue removed had confirmed cavernomas in eight. These eight patients had epilepsy since 18.6 (SD 12.7) years on average. The monitoring lasted about 2.1 (SD 1.3) hours and a median 20.9 (SD 14.3) spikes per hour were recorded. Spontaneous brain activity was recorded by means of a 74 channel dual unit MEG system (Magnes II, 4-D Neuroimaging) with simultaneous EEG recording (31 scalp electrodes). Spike analysis was performed using different source (moving dipole, current density reconstruction) and head models (spherical shells, BEM). Co-registration of neurophysiological and imaging data (MRI) was based upon anatomical landmarks. Results: In 6/8 patients co-localisation from the cavernoma and epileptic zone was found. In two patients the focus was localised in the parieto-occipital lobe, in three patients in the frontal lobe and in three patients in the temporal lobe. In one case of temporal and one case of frontal lobe focus localisation there was no spatial relationship to the cavernoma. Conclusion: In cases of focal seizures due to a single cavernoma, MEG may precisely delineate the epileptogenic tissue bordering the lesion. In patients with multiple cavernomas or dual pathology, MSI may reveal the complexity of the case, and contribute to the decision about further invasive diagnostics and more sophisticated therapeutic measures. MEG is a promising method for prediction of the epileptic zone in cavernoma related epilepsies, and thus it can contribute to decision making about and planning of epilepsy surgery. PMID:15314122

17. Recovery of Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

2012-01-01

Deep moonquakes are clustered not only in space but also in time: their recurrence times correspond to the durations of the anomalistic and draconic months, with some clusters preferring one of the two periods, while others are active with both periods. A key constraint for the understanding of the connection between the orbital motion of the Moon and its seismic activity is the focal mechanism: the orientation of the fault surface on which failure occurs during the quake. Due to the small aperture of the Apollo seismic network and the strong scattering of seismic waves within the lunar crust, the evaluation of P wave first motions to constrain the strike and dip of the fault planes is not feasible. Instead we evaluate the amplitude ratios of P and S waves. Seismograms are rotated into the P-SV-SH coordinate frame and amplitudes are determined as averages over short time windows after the arrival to reduce the impact of the scattering coda, which is independent of the source orientation. We allow for reversals of the fault motion, as observed for some clusters in previous studies, by taking into account the absolute amplitude only, without sign. An empirical site correction factor is applied to correct for amplitude distortions in the crust. We construct ensembles of fault plane solutions using an exhaustive grid search by accepting all orientations that reproduce the measured amplitude ratios within the observed standard deviations. Since all events of a given cluster are supposed to share the same fault plane, the combination of the individual inversion results further constrains the orientation. We evaluate 106 events from 25 different moonquake clusters. The most active cluster A001 contributes 37 events, while others contribute 1 to 9 events per cluster. Comparison of fault orientations with the variation of the tidal stress results in preferred orientations.

18. Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array

Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

2011-10-01

We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A/cm2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated.

19. Focal conduction block in a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome.

PubMed

Almeida, Diogo F; Scremin, Luciano; Zúniga, Sérgio F; Oh, Shin J

2010-09-01

We report a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) with focal conduction block across the tarsal tunnel (TT). A 46-year-old woman had pain in the left foot, sensory loss on the plantar surface, and positive Tinel sign over the TT. TTS was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and surgery. Motor nerve conduction studies showed focal conduction block across the TT. Conduction block has rarely been reported in TTS. In this case, conduction block provides evidence for focal demyelination as the primary pathological process in TTS.

20. Test chamber for low-background IR focal plane testing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Staller, Craig; Capps, Richard W.; Butler, Douglas; Moss, Nancy; Norwood, Wynn

1989-01-01

A unique and versatile vacuum chamber has been designed for JPL's IR Focal Plane Technology Group. This chamber is equipped with multiple ports for cryogen and electrical vacuum feedthroughs, pumping units, vacuum gages, sources, and detector camera heads. The design incorporates a liquid-nitrogen-cooled optical table and radiation shield for low-background IR detector testing. Focal planes can be tested at temperatures ranging from 300 K to that of liquid helium. This paper describes the design and construction of this low-background IR focal plane test chamber and discusses some of its distinctive features. An analysis of the test chamber's performance is also presented.

1. Controlling the thermally induced focal shift in laser processing heads

Negel, Jan-Philipp; Abt, Felix; Blázquez-Sánchez, David; Austerschulte, Armin; Hafner, Margit; Liebig, Thomas; von Strobl-Albeg, Philipp; Weber, Rudolf; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan; Voss, Andreas; Graf, Thomas

2012-03-01

A system being able to in situ measure and control not simply the distance between the workpiece and the focusing optics, but the true focal position on the workpiece including the thermally induced focal shift in a laser processing head is presented. In order to achieve this, a bundle of astigmatic measurement beams is used following the same optical path as the welding beam. A camera and a software algorithm allow to keep the focal position constant within a range of 4 mm and with a resolution between 150 μm and 500 μm.

2. Real-time focal stack compositing for handheld mobile cameras

Solh, Mashhour

2013-03-01

Extending the depth of field using a single lens camera on a mobile device can be achieved by capturing a set of images each focused at a different depth or focal stack then combine these samples of the focal stack to form a single all-in-focus image or an image refocused at a desired depth of field. Focal stack compositing in real time for a handheld mobile camera has many challenges including capturing, processing power, handshaking, rolling shutter artifacts, occlusion, and lens zoom effect. In this paper, we describe a system for a real time focal stack compositing system for handheld mobile device with an alignment and compositing algorithms. We will also show all-in-focus images captured and processed by a cell phone camera running on Android OS.

3. [Familial Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, a vademecum for clinical nephrologist].

PubMed

Caridi, Gianluca; Lugani, Francesca; Bonanni, Elisa; Rossi, Roberta; Carrea, Alba; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

2015-01-01

The new genomic technologies (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) are opening a new era in Genomic Medicine. This simple guide gives a state-of-the-art description of the genes that cause Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome.

4. Creation of identical multiple focal spots with prescribed axial distribution.

PubMed

Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen

2015-10-01

We present a scheme for the construction of coaxially equidistant multiple focal spots with identical intensity profiles for each individual focus and a predetermined number and spacing. To achieve this, the radiation field from an antenna is reversed and then gathered by high numerical aperture objective lenses. Radiation patterns from three types of line sources, i.e., the electric current, magnetic current and electromagnetic current distributions, with cosine-squared taper are respectively employed to generate predominately longitudinally polarized bright spots, azimuthally polarized doughnuts, and focal spots with a perfect spherically symmetric intensity distribution. The required illuminations at the pupil plane of a 4Pi focusing configuration for the creation of these identical multiple focal spots can be easily derived by solving the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field. These unique focal field distributions may find potential applications in laser direct writing and optical microscopy, as well as multiple-particle trapping, alignment, and acceleration along the optical axis.

5. Oral focal mucinosis: a rare case with literature review

PubMed Central

Sowmya, G V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Nahar, Prashant; Aggarwal, Hersheal

2015-01-01

Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is an unusual disease that affects diverse localised areas of the mouth, where the connective tissue undergoes focal degeneration. It was described for the first time by Tomich in 1974. It presents as an asymptomatic pedunculated or sessile growth, commonly on the gingiva, with most cases being in women. Its pathogenesis is linked to overproduction of hyaluronic acid by fibroblasts during collagen production, ensuing in focal myxoid degeneration. It has no characteristic features and diagnosis depends on histological scrutiny. We report a rare case of oral focal mucinosis affecting a 54-year-old man who presented with a sessile gingival growth mimicking a common tumour-like lesion. PMID:25759271

6. Focal MRI and Learning Disability with Reduced Automaticity.

PubMed

Millichap, J Gordon

2015-09-01

Investigators from the Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, MA, performed a retrospective analysis of 1,587 children referred for a learning disability, and 127 had a focal deficit demonstrated on either a neurologic or neuropsychological evaluation.

7. Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind

2013-01-01

A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles

8. Drug and light dose responses to focal photodynamic therapy of single blood vessels in vivo

Khurana, Mamta; Moriyama, Eduardo H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Samkoe, Kimberley; Cramb, David; Wilson, Brian C.

2009-11-01

As part of an ongoing program to develop two-photon (2-γ) photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treatment of wet-form age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other vascular pathologies, we have evaluated the reciprocity of drug-light doses in focal-PDT. We targeted individual arteries in a murine window chamber model, using primarily the clinical photosensitizer Visudyne/liposomal-verteporfin. Shortly after administration of the photosensitizer, a small region including an arteriole was selected and irradiated with varying light doses. Targeted and nearby vessels were observed for a maximum of 17 to 25 h to assess vascular shutdown, tapering, and dye leakage/occlusion. For a given end-point metric, there was reciprocity between the drug and light doses, i.e., the response correlated with the drug-light product (DLP). These results provide the first quantification of photosensitizer and light dose relationships for localized irradiation of a single blood vessel and are compared to the DLP required for vessel closure between 1-γ and 2-γ activation, between focal and broad-beam irradiation, and between verteporfin and a porphyrin dimer with high 2-γ cross section. Demonstration of reciprocity over a wide range of DLP is important for further development of focal PDT treatments, such as the targeting of feeder vessels in 2-γ PDT of AMD.

9. FocusALL: Focal Stacking of Microscopic Images Using Modified Harris Corner Response Measure.

PubMed

Sigdel, Madhu S; Sigdel, Madhav; Dinç, Semih; Dinç, Imren; Pusey, Marc L; Aygün, Ramazan S

2016-01-01

Automated image analysis of microscopic images such as protein crystallization images and cellular images is one of the important research areas. If objects in a scene appear at different depths with respect to the camera's focal point, objects outside the depth of field usually appear blurred. Therefore, scientists capture a collection of images with different depths of field. Focal stacking is a technique of creating a single focused image from a stack of images collected with different depths of field. In this paper, we introduce a novel focal stacking technique, FocusALL, which is based on our modified Harris Corner Response Measure. We also propose enhanced FocusALL for application on images collected under high resolution and varying illumination. FocusALL resolves problems related to the assumption that focus regions have high contrast and high intensity. Especially, FocusALL generates sharper boundaries around protein crystal regions and good in focus images for high resolution images in reasonable time. FocusALL outperforms other methods on protein crystallization images and performs comparably well on other datasets such as retinal epithelial images and simulated datasets.

10. FocusALL: Focal Stacking of Microscopic Images Using Modified Harris Corner Response Measure

PubMed Central

Sigdel, Madhu S.; Sigdel, Madhav; Dinç, Semih; Dinç, Imren; Pusey, Marc L.; Aygün, Ramazan S.

2016-01-01

Automated image analysis of microscopic images such as protein crystallization images and cellular images is one of the important research areas. If objects in a scene appear at different depths with respect to the camera's focal point, objects outside the depth of field usually appear blurred. Therefore, scientists capture a collection of images with different depths of field. Focal stacking is a technique of creating a single focused image from a stack of images collected with different depths of field. In this paper, we introduce a novel focal stacking technique, FocusALL, which is based on our modified Harris Corner Response Measure. We also propose enhanced FocusALL for application on images collected under high resolution and varying illumination. FocusALL resolves problems related to the assumption that in focus regions have high contrast and high intensity. Especially, FocusALL generates sharper boundaries around protein crystal regions and good in focus images for high resolution images in reasonable time. FocusALL outperforms other methods on protein crystallization images and performs comparably well on other datasets such as retinal epithelial images and simulated datasets. PMID:27045831

11. Talin-KANK1 interaction controls the recruitment of cortical microtubule stabilizing complexes to focal adhesions

PubMed Central

Bouchet, Benjamin P; Gough, Rosemarie E; Ammon, York-Christoph; van de Willige, Dieudonnée; Post, Harm; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Heck, Albert JR; Goult, Benjamin T; Akhmanova, Anna

2016-01-01

The cross-talk between dynamic microtubules and integrin-based adhesions to the extracellular matrix plays a crucial role in cell polarity and migration. Microtubules regulate the turnover of adhesion sites, and, in turn, focal adhesions promote the cortical microtubule capture and stabilization in their vicinity, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that cortical microtubule stabilization sites containing CLASPs, KIF21A, LL5β and liprins are recruited to focal adhesions by the adaptor protein KANK1, which directly interacts with the major adhesion component, talin. Structural studies showed that the conserved KN domain in KANK1 binds to the talin rod domain R7. Perturbation of this interaction, including a single point mutation in talin, which disrupts KANK1 binding but not the talin function in adhesion, abrogates the association of microtubule-stabilizing complexes with focal adhesions. We propose that the talin-KANK1 interaction links the two macromolecular assemblies that control cortical attachment of actin fibers and microtubules. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18124.001 PMID:27410476

12. Focal epithelial hyperplasia. A rare disease in our area.

PubMed

Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael; Toro-Rojas, Mariano; Ceballos-Salobreña, Alejandro; Aparicio-Soria, Jose Luis; Fuentes-Vaamonde, Helena

2005-01-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign, asymptomatic disease, occurring with very low frequency within our population. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue, and less frequently on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. We present the clinical case of a 9-year-old Saharan girl with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to a focal epithelial hyperplasia.

13. Inflammatory pancreatic masses: problems in differentiating focal pancreatitis from carcinoma

SciTech Connect

Neff, C.C.; Simeone, J.F.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.

1984-01-01

The authors studied 19 patients with focal inflammatory masses of the pancreas over an 18-month period. In 13 cases, transhepatic cholangiography and/or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were unsuccessful in differentiating pancreatitis from carcinoma. Eighteen patients had a history of alcohol abuse, and 12 had had pancreatitis previously. Pre-existing glandular injury appears to be a prerequisite to formation of focal inflammatory pancreatic masses.

14. Traceability of high focal length cameras with diffractive optical elements

Lages Martins, L.; Silva Ribeiro, A.; Sousa, J. Alves e.

2016-11-01

This paper describes the use of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) for metrological traceable geometrical testing of high focal length cameras applied in the observation of large- scale structures. DOEs and related mathematical models are briefly explained. Laboratorial activities and results are described for the case of a high focal length camera used for longdistance displacement measurement of a long-span (2278 m) suspension bridge.

15. Multi-wavelength mid-infrared plasmonic antennas with single nanoscale focal point.

PubMed

Blanchard, Romain; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Genevet, Patrice; Kats, Mikhail A; Tetienne, Jean-Philippe; Yu, Nanfang; Scully, Marlan O; Dal Negro, Luca; Capasso, Federico

2011-10-24

We propose and demonstrate a novel photonic-plasmonic antenna capable of confining electromagnetic radiation at several mid-infrared wavelengths to a single sub-wavelength spot. The structure relies on the coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonance of a bow-tie nanoantenna with the photonic modes of surrounding multi-periodic particle arrays. Far-field measurements of the transmission through the central bow-tie demonstrate the presence of Fano-like interference effects resulting from the interaction of the bow-tie antenna with the surrounding nanoparticle arrays. The near-field of the multi-wavelength antenna is imaged using an aperture-less near-field scanning optical microscope. This antenna is relevant for the development of near-field probes for nanoimaging, spectroscopy and biosensing.

16. The keto-enol equilibrium in substituted acetaldehydes: focal-point analysis and ab initio limit

Balabin, Roman M.

2011-10-01

High-level ab initio electronic structure calculations up to the CCSD(T) theory level, including extrapolations to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, resulted in high precision energetics of the tautomeric equilibrium in 2-substituted acetaldehydes (XH2C-CHO). The CCSD(T)/CBS relative energies of the tautomers were estimated using CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ, MP3/aug-cc-pVQZ, and MP2/aug-cc-pV5Z calculations with MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ geometries. The relative enol (XHC = CHOH) stabilities (ΔE e,CCSD(T)/CBS) were found to be 5.98 ± 0.17, -1.67 ± 0.82, 7.64 ± 0.21, 8.39 ± 0.31, 2.82 ± 0.52, 10.27 ± 0.39, 9.12 ± 0.18, 5.47 ± 0.53, 7.50 ± 0.43, 10.12 ± 0.51, 8.49 ± 0.33, and 6.19 ± 0.18 kcal mol-1 for X = BeH, BH2, CH3, Cl, CN, F, H, NC, NH2, OCH3, OH, and SH, respectively. Inconsistencies between the results of complex/composite energy computations methods Gn/CBS (G2, G3, CBS-4M, and CBS-QB3) and high-level ab initio methods (CCSD(T)/CBS and MP2/CBS) were found. DFT/aug-cc-pVTZ results with B3LYP, PBE0 (PBE1PBE), TPSS, and BMK density functionals were close to the CCSD(T)/CBS levels (MAD = 1.04 kcal mol-1).

17. The nipple: a simple intersection of mammary gland and integument, but focal point of organ function.

PubMed

Koyama, Sachiko; Wu, Hsin-Jung; Easwaran, Teresa; Thopady, Sunil; Foley, John

2013-06-01

Having glands that secrete milk to nourish neonatal offspring characterizes all mammals. We provide a brief overview of the development and anatomy of nipples and mammary glands in monotremes, marsupials, and marine mammals, and focus on the nipples and mammary glands in terrestrial eutherian species. We first classify eutherians into three groups: the altricial, precocial, and arboreal types based on their rearing system. We then summarize the physiology of lactation and the cell biology of nipples with specific focus on comparing these in the mouse, cow, and human, which represent the three different groups. Finally we propose that the nipple is an example of specialized epidermis. As specialized epidermis, it is dependent the underlying stroma for development and maintenance in adult life. The development of the nipple and signaling pathways that regulate its formation are described.

18. Comprehensive Service Delivery through Senior Centers and Other Community Focal Points: Trainer's Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Council on the Aging, Inc., Washington, DC.

This guide provides instructional materials and approaches for use by continuing educators, trainers, state units, area agencies on aging, or others responsible for staff development. Section I gives an overview of the mutual needs and responsibilities of adults with learning needs and those who assist them to meet those needs. Section II assists…

19. Photonic nanojet engineering: focal point shaping with scattering phenomena of dielectric microspheres

Kim, Myun-Sik; Scharf, Toralf; Mühlig, Stefan; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Herzig, Hans Peter

2011-01-01

We experimentally engineer Nanojets produced by dielectric spheres by varying the illumination and observe the effect with a high-resolution interference microscope (HRIM). Converging and diverging spherical wavefronts and Bessel- Gauss beams are considered. We find that the diverging wavefront pushes Nanojets away from the surface of the sphere without change of the spot size. This allows earning several micrometers of working distance contrary to the Nanojet confined at the sphere's surface. When the radius of curvature of the incident wavefront is greater than about 5 times the sphere size, the Nanojet moves back to the sphere surface like it is found for plane wave incidence. On-axis Bessel- Gauss beam illumination with the central lobe covering the whole sphere leads to the same results as the plane wave case. Off-axis Bessel beam illumination can generate multiple-spot Nanojets. We demonstrate the separation of such spots of about 220 nm at 642 nm. This separation is smaller than the feature sizes defined by the diffraction limit at this wavelength. We discuss briefly applications of engineered Nanojets for nano-lithography and near-field sensing.

20. Orion: The Largest Infrared Hybrid Focal Plane in Production

Fowler, Albert M.; Merrill, Michael; Ball, William J.; Henden, Arne A.; Vrba, Frederick J.; McCreight, Craig R.

2003-03-01

Orion is a program to develop a 2048x2048 infrared focal plane using InSb PV detectors. It is the natural follow-on to the successful Aladdin 1024x1024 program, which was the largest IR focal plane of the 90's. Although the pixels are somewhat smaller than Aladdin, the overall focal plane is over 50mm in size and for the present is the largest IR focal plane of the 21st century. The work is being done by Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO but better known as SBRC) by many of the same people who created the Aladdin focal plane. The design is very similar to the successful Aladdin design with the addition of reference pixels to lower noise and drift effects in long integrations. So far we have made five focal plane modules with hybridized InSb detectors. In this paper we will discuss the unique design features of this device as well as present test data taken from these devices.

1. Focal-contact clusterization of osteoblasts under mechanical stresses

Guignandon, A.; Akhouayri, O.; Laroche, N.; Alexandre, C.; Vico, L.

We compared quantitatively vinculin-related adhesion parameters in osteoblastic cells submitted to opposite mechanical stress (i.e. low deformation and frequency strain regimens (strained condition) and microgravity exposure (relaxed condition). In both ROS 17/2.8 and rat primary osteoblastic cells, 1% cyclic deformations at 0.05 Hz during a daily 10 min episode over 7 days stimulated cell growth whereas relaxed ROS proliferated similarly to static culture (BC). We studied short term (up to 24 hrs) adaptation of focal contact re-organization in these two conditions. Strain induced a biphasic response comprising new focal contacts formation followed by their clusterization in both ROS and primary osteoblasts. Microgravity exposure induced a reduction in focal contact number and clusterization in ROS cells. To relate the proliferation (strain) or the survival (relaxed) status of ROS cells with focal contact organization, we inhibited ERKs proliferative-dependent pathway. Inhibition of proliferation by PD98059 was overcome although not fully restored by strain and strain-induced clusterization of vinculin positive contact still occurs in presence of PD98059 whereas the increase in focal contact number is abolished. In conclusion, we showed that focal contacts are mechanoeffectors and we suggested that their morphological organization might serve as a discriminant functional parameter between survival and proliferation status in ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic cells.

2. Recurrent Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Abatacept: Case Report.

PubMed

Alkandari, Omar; Nampoory, Narayanan; Nair, Prasad; Atta, Ahmed; Zakaria, Zakaria; Mossad, Ahmed; Yagan, Jude; Al-Otaibi, Torki

2016-08-01

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a common cause of end-stage renal disease in children. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recurrence in renal transplants is a challenging disease, and can cause graft dysfunction and loss. Different therapies exist with varying responses, from complete remission to resistance to all modes of treatment. Abatacept was recently introduced as a treatment for primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in native kidneys and in recurrent disease after transplant. We present a pediatric case with immunosuppression-resistant primary NPHS2-negative focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recur-rence after renal transplant. The standard therapy for recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (rituximab, plasmapheresis, high-dose cyclosporine, and corticosteroids) was tried but failed to induce remission. Abatacept (10 mg/kg) was given at 0, 2, and 4 weeks (total, 3 doses) with no good response. We conclude that abatacept may work in patients with B7-1-positive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recurrence and its efficacy is uncertain in disease with B7-1-negative or unknown staining status.

3. Focal and Ambient Processing of Built Environments: Intellectual and Atmospheric Experiences of Architecture.

PubMed

Rooney, Kevin K; Condia, Robert J; Loschky, Lester C

2017-01-01

Neuroscience has well established that human vision divides into the central and peripheral fields of view. Central vision extends from the point of gaze (where we are looking) out to about 5° of visual angle (the width of one's fist at arm's length), while peripheral vision is the vast remainder of the visual field. These visual fields project to the parvo and magno ganglion cells, which process distinctly different types of information from the world around us and project that information to the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively. Building on the dorsal/ventral stream dichotomy, we can further distinguish between focal processing of central vision, and ambient processing of peripheral vision. Thus, our visual processing of and attention to objects and scenes depends on how and where these stimuli fall on the retina. The built environment is no exception to these dependencies, specifically in terms of how focal object perception and ambient spatial perception create different types of experiences we have with built environments. We argue that these foundational mechanisms of the eye and the visual stream are limiting parameters of architectural experience. We hypothesize that people experience architecture in two basic ways based on these visual limitations; by intellectually assessing architecture consciously through focal object processing and assessing architecture in terms of atmosphere through pre-conscious ambient spatial processing. Furthermore, these separate ways of processing architectural stimuli operate in parallel throughout the visual perceptual system. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of architecture must take into account that built environments are stimuli that are treated differently by focal and ambient vision, which enable intellectual analysis of architectural experience versus the experience of architectural atmosphere, respectively. We offer this theoretical model to help advance a more precise understanding of the

4. Focal and Ambient Processing of Built Environments: Intellectual and Atmospheric Experiences of Architecture

PubMed Central

Rooney, Kevin K.; Condia, Robert J.; Loschky, Lester C.

2017-01-01

Neuroscience has well established that human vision divides into the central and peripheral fields of view. Central vision extends from the point of gaze (where we are looking) out to about 5° of visual angle (the width of one’s fist at arm’s length), while peripheral vision is the vast remainder of the visual field. These visual fields project to the parvo and magno ganglion cells, which process distinctly different types of information from the world around us and project that information to the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively. Building on the dorsal/ventral stream dichotomy, we can further distinguish between focal processing of central vision, and ambient processing of peripheral vision. Thus, our visual processing of and attention to objects and scenes depends on how and where these stimuli fall on the retina. The built environment is no exception to these dependencies, specifically in terms of how focal object perception and ambient spatial perception create different types of experiences we have with built environments. We argue that these foundational mechanisms of the eye and the visual stream are limiting parameters of architectural experience. We hypothesize that people experience architecture in two basic ways based on these visual limitations; by intellectually assessing architecture consciously through focal object processing and assessing architecture in terms of atmosphere through pre-conscious ambient spatial processing. Furthermore, these separate ways of processing architectural stimuli operate in parallel throughout the visual perceptual system. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of architecture must take into account that built environments are stimuli that are treated differently by focal and ambient vision, which enable intellectual analysis of architectural experience versus the experience of architectural atmosphere, respectively. We offer this theoretical model to help advance a more precise understanding of the

5. Hemispherical infrared focal plane arrays: a new design parameter for the instruments

Fendler, M.; Dumas, D.; Chemla, F.; Cohen, M.; Laporte, P.; Tekaya, K.; Le Coarer, E.; Primot, J.; Ribot, H.

2012-07-01

In ground based astronomy, mainly all designs of sky survey telescopes are limited by the requirement that the detecting surface is flat whereas the focal surface is curved. Two kinds of solution have been investigated up to now. The first one consists in adding optical systems to flatten the image surface; however this solution complicates the design and increases the system size. Somehow, this solution increases, in the same time, the weight and price of the instrument. The second solution consists in curving artificially the focal surface by using a mosaic of several detectors, which are positioned in a spherical shape. However, this attempt is dedicated to low curvature and is limited by the technical difficulty to control the detectors alignment and tilt between each others. Today we would like to propose an ideal solution which is to curve the focal plane array in a spherical shape, thanks to our monolithic process developed at CEA-LETI based on thinned silicon substrates which allows a 100% optical fill factor. Two infrared uncooled cameras have been performed, using 320 x 256 pixels and 25 μm pitch micro-bolometer arrays curved at a bending radius of 80 mm. These two micro-cameras illustrate the optical system simplification and miniaturization involved by curved focal plane arrays. Moreover, the advantages of curved detectors on the optical performances (Point Spreading Function), as well as on volume and cost savings have been highlighted by the simulation of the opto-mechanical architecture of the spectrometer OptiMOS-EVE for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT).

6. Botulinum toxin as treatment for focal dystonia: a systematic review of the pharmaco-therapeutic and pharmaco-economic value.

PubMed

Zoons, E; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Dijk, J M; van Schaik, I N; Tijssen, M A

2012-12-01

Focal dystonia is a common, invalidating neurologic condition characterized by involuntary, sustained muscle contractions causing twisting movements and abnormal postures in one body part. Currently, botulinum toxin is the treatment of first choice. We performed a systematic review towards the pharmaco-therapeutic and pharmaco-economic value of botulinum toxin as treatment for focal dystonia, which yielded the following results. Botulinum toxin is the most effective treatment for reducing dystonic symptoms measured with dystonia-specific and general questionnaires, and pain in patients with focal dystonia. Seventy-one percent of patients with cervical dystonia had a reduction in neck pain compared to 12 % in placebo groups. Adverse events occur in 58 % of patients during treatment with botulinum toxin compared to 46 % treated with placebo. Especially dry mouth, neck weakness, dysphagia, and voice changes are common. Adverse events are usually mild and self-limiting. Health-related quality of life, measured with the SF-36 is 20-50 points lower in patients with focal dystonia compared to controls and the effect of botulinum toxin on health-related quality of life is unclear. Botulinum toxin treatment is expensive because the drug itself is expensive. Yearly costs for treating a patient with focal dystonia with botulinum toxin range from EUR 347 to EUR 3,633 and the gain in QALYs with BTX treatment is small. Focal dystonia impairs the productivity and the ability to work. At start of botulinum toxin treatment only 47-50 % was working. Botulinum toxin partly improves this. Overall, we conclude that botulinum toxin is an expensive drug with good effects. From a societal perspective, the costs may well weigh up to the regained quality of life. However, the available literature concerning costs, health-related quality of life and labor participation is very limited. An extensive cost-effectiveness study should be performed incorporating all these aspects.

7. Monolithically integrated HgCdTe focal plane arrays

Velicu, Silviu; Lee, Tae-Seok; Ashokan, Renganathan; Grein, Christoph H.; Boieriu, Paul; Chen, Y. P.; Dinan, John H.; Lianos, Dimitrios

2003-12-01

The cost and performance of hybrid HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays are constrained by the necessity of fabricating the detector arrays on a CdZnTe substrate. These substrates are expensive, fragile, are available only in small rectangular formats, and are not a good thermal expansion match to the silicon readout integrated circuit. We discuss in this paper an infrared sensor technology based on monolithically integrated infrared focal plane arrays that could replace the conventional hybrid focal plane array technology. We have investigated the critical issues related to the growth of HgCdTe on Si read-out integrated circuits and the fabrication of monolithic focal plane arrays: (1) the design of Si read-out integrated circuits and focal plane array layouts, (2) the low temperature cleaning of Si(001) wafers, (3) growth of CdTe and HgCdTe layers on read-out integrated circuits, (4) array fabrication, interconnection between focal plane array and read-out integrated circuit input nodes and demonstration of the photovoltaic operation, and (5) maintenance of the read-out integrated circuit characteristics after substrate cleaning, molecular beam epitaxy growth and device fabrication. Crystallographic, optical and electrical properties of the grown layers are presented. Electrical properties for diodes fabricated on misoriented Si and read-out integrated circuit substrates are discussed. The fabrication of arrays with demonstrated I-V properties show that monolithic integration of HgCdTe-based infrared focal plane arrays on Si read-out integrated circuits is feasible and could be implemented in the 3rd generation of infrared systems.

8. Focal Plane Alignment Utilizing Optical CMM

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liebe, Carl Christian; Meras, Patrick L.; Clark, Gerald J.; Sedaka, Jack J.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Hirsch, Brian; Decker, Todd A.; Scholtz, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

In many applications, an optical detector has to be located relative to mechanical reference points. One solution is to specify stringent requirements on (1) mounting the optical detector relative to the chip carrier, (2) soldering the chip carrier onto the printed circuit board (PCB), and (3) installing the PCB to the mechanical structure of the subsystem. Figure 1 shows a sketch of an optical detector mounted relative to mechanical reference with high positional accuracy. The optical detector is typically a fragile wafer that cannot be physically touched by any measurement tool. An optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) can be used to position optical detectors relative to mechanical reference points. This approach will eliminate all requirements on positional tolerances. The only requirement is that the PCB is manufactured with oversized holes. An exaggerated sketch of this situation is shown in Figure 2. The sketch shows very loose tolerances on mounting the optical detector in the chip carrier, loose tolerance on soldering the chip carrier to the PCB, and finally large tolerance on where the mounting screws are located. The PCB is held with large screws and oversized holes. The PCB is mounted loosely so it can move freely around. The optical CMM measures the mechanical reference points. Based on these measurements, the required positions of the optical detector corners can be calculated. The optical CMM is commanded to go to the position where one detector corner is supposed to be. This is indicated with the cross-hairs in Figure 2(a). This figure is representative of the image of the optical CMM monitor. Using a suitable tapping tool, the PCB is manually tapped around until the corner of the optical detector is at the crosshairs of the optical CMM. The CMM is commanded to another corner, and the process is repeated a number of times until all corners of the optical detector are within a distance of 10 to 30 microns of the required position. The situation

9. The relationship between force and focal complex development

PubMed Central

Galbraith, Catherine G.; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Sheetz, Michael P.

2002-01-01

To adhere and migrate, cells must be capable of applying cytoskeletal force to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrin receptors. However, it is unclear if connections between integrins and the ECM are immediately capable of transducing cytoskeletal contraction into migration force, or whether engagement of force transmission requires maturation of the adhesion. Here, we show that initial integrin–ECM adhesions become capable of exerting migration force with the recruitment of vinculin, a marker for focal complexes, which are precursors of focal adhesions. We are able to induce the development of focal complexes by the application of mechanical force to fibronectin receptors from inside or outside the cell, and we are able to extend focal complex formation to vitronectin receptors by the removal of c-Src. These results indicate that cells use mechanical force as a signal to strengthen initial integrin–ECM adhesions into focal complexes and regulate the amount of migration force applied to individual adhesions at localized regions of the advancing lamella. PMID:12446745

10. MR imaging features of focal liver lesions in Wilson disease.

PubMed

Dohan, Anthony; Vargas, Ottavia; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Woimant, France; Hamzi, Lounis; Boudiaf, Mourad; Poujois, Aurelia; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Soyer, Philippe

2016-09-01

Hepatic involvement in Wilson disease (WD) manifests as a diffuse chronic disease in the majority of patients. However, in a subset of patients focal liver lesions may develop, presenting with a wide range of imaging features. The majority of focal liver lesions in patients with WD are benign nodules, but there are reports that have described malignant liver tumors or dysplastic nodules in these patients. Because of the possibility of malignant transformation of liver nodules, major concerns have been raised with respect to the management and follow-up of patients with WD in whom focal liver lesions have been identified. The assessment of liver involvement in patients with WD is generally performed with ultrasonography. However, ultrasonography conveys limited specificity so that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often performed to improve lesion characterization. This review was performed to illustrate the spectrum of MR imaging features of focal liver lesions that develop in patients with WD. It is assumed that familiarity with the MR imaging presentation of focal liver lesions in WD may help clarify the actual nature of hepatic nodules in patients with this condition.

11. Combined scanning transmission electron microscopy tilt- and focal series.

PubMed

Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Lupini, Andrew R; Kübel, Christian; Slusallek, Philipp; de Jonge, Niels

2014-04-01

In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt-focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller "missing wedge" artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

12. Hot spot liver scan in focal nodular hyperplasia

SciTech Connect

Piers, D.A.; Houthoff, H.J.; Krom, R.A.F.; Schuur, K.H.; Sikkens, H.; Weits, J.

1980-12-01

In scintigraphy of the liver with radiocolloid, space-occupying lesions generally are visualized as regions of decreased accumulation of radioactivity. Rarely focal areas of increased activity are depicted; most are related to altered vascular dynamics in the liver secondary to obstruction of the superior or inferior vena cava or the hepatic veins. There are reports of single cases of focally increased activity due to a hepatic hemangioma, hepatic venoocclusive disease, herniation of a part of the liver, and a liver hot spot found after radiocolloid injection via a malpositioned central venous catheter in one of the hepatic vein branches. In patients with focal nodular hyperplasia, liver scans with solitary defects as well as normal patterns are found. In some cases, increased uptake of colloid in the lesion has been documented. Pasquier and Dorta reported a patient with a palpable mass in the left liver lobe with increased accumulation of radioactivity on the radiocolloid liver scan. The histologic diagnosis was hamartoma, but reviewing the description and considering the confusion in the past concerning the nomenclature, this case is suggestive of focal nodular hyperplasia. We report a patient with focal nodular hyperplasia who had increased radiocolloid uptake in the lesion. The radionuclide studies are compared with angiography, sonography, and computed tomography. An explanation for the localized increased colloid accumulation based on histologic findings is suggested.

13. Design and performance of the eROSITA focal plane instrumentation

Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Aschauer, Florian; Elbs, Johannes; Eraerds, Tanja; Granato, Stefanie; Hälker, Olaf; Hartner, Gisela; Mießner, Danilo; Pietschner, Daniel; Predehl, Peter; Reiffers, Jonas; Strüder, Lothar; von Kienlin, Andreas; Walther, Sabine

2012-07-01

We developed and tested X-ray PNCCD focal plane detectors for the eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) space telescope. General scientific goal of the eROSITA project is the exploration of the X-ray universe in the energy band from about 0.2 keV up to 10 keV with excellent energy, time, and spatial resolution in combination with large effective telescope areas. The observational program divides into an all-sky survey and pointed observations. The mission duration is scheduled for 7.5 years. The German instrument will be launched in near future to the Lagrange point L2 on the Russian satellite SRG. The detection of single X-ray photons with precise information about their energy, angle of incidence and time is accomplished for eROSITA by an array of seven identical and independent PNCCD cameras. Each camera is assigned to a dedicated mirror system of Wolter-I type. The key component of the camera is a 5 cm • 3 cm large, back-illuminated, 450 μm thick and fully depleted frame store PNCCD chip. This chip is a further development of the sensor type that is in operation as focal plane detector on the XMMNewton satellite since launch in 1999 to date. Development and production of the CCDs for the eROSITA project were performed by the MPI Halbleiterlabor, as already in the past for the XMM-Newton project. According to the status of the project, a complete design of the seven flight cameras including the camera electronics and the filter wheel has been developed. Various functional and performance tests have been accomplished for a detailed characterization of the eROSITA camera system. We focus here especially on the focal plane detector design and the performance of the detectors, which are essential for the success of the X-ray astronomy space project.

14. Focal depth measurement of scanning helium ion microscope

SciTech Connect

Guo, Hongxuan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Han; Fujita, Daisuke

2014-07-14

When facing the challenges of critical dimension measurement of complicated nanostructures, such as of the three dimension integrated circuit, characterization of the focal depth of microscopes is important. In this Letter, we developed a method for characterizing the focal depth of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM) by using an atomic force microscope tip characterizer (ATC). The ATC was tilted in a sample chamber at an angle to the scanning plan. Secondary electron images (SEIs) were obtained at different positions of the ATC. The edge resolution of the SEIs shows the nominal diameters of the helium ion beam at different focal levels. With this method, the nominal shapes of the helium ion beams were obtained with different apertures. Our results show that a small aperture is necessary to get a high spatial resolution and high depth of field images with HIM. This work provides a method for characterizing and improving the performance of HIM.

15. Bilaterally symmetric focal cortical dysplasia in a golden retriever dog.

PubMed

Casey, K M; Bollen, A W; Winger, K M; Vernau, K M; Dickinson, P J; Higgins, R J; Sisó, S

2014-11-01

A 10-year-old golden retriever dog was referred with a 24-h history of generalized seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain found no abnormalities on 3 mm transverse sections and the dog was subsequently humanely destroyed. Microscopically there was bilaterally symmetrical focal disorganization of cortical grey matter within the tips of the right and left suprasylvian gyri of the temporal cortex. The focal abnormal cortical lamination was characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons with abnormal, irregular, angular, remaining neurons occasionally forming clusters, surrounded by fibrillary astrogliosis and microgliosis and vascular proliferation. These histological findings are consistent with focal cortical dysplasia, a cerebral cortical malformation that causes seizures in people, but not reported previously in the dog.

16. Experimental characterization of extra-focal radiation in CT scanners

Whiting, Bruce R.; Porras-Chaverri, Mariela A.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

2016-03-01

Quantitative computed tomography (CT) applications based on statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms require accurate models of the CT acquisition process, with a key component being the x-ray fan beam intensity. We present a method to experimentally determine the extra-focal radiation profile incident on individual CT detectors. Using a tungsten cylinder as a knife edge, a super-sampled signal was created from sinogram data, which traced the "occlusion" of the x-ray source as seen by a detector. By differentiating this signal and correcting for finite detector size and motion blur, the effective source profile can be recovered. Extra-focal scatter was found to be on the order of 1-3 percent of the focal beam intensity, with lower relative magnitude at the isocenter and increasing towards the edge of the fan beam, with its profile becoming asymmetric at large angles. The implications for reconstruction algorithms and QCT applications will be discussed.

PubMed Central

Dumbauld, David W.; Shin, Heungsoo; Gallant, Nathan D.; Michael, Kristin E.; Radhakrishna, Harish; García, Andrés J.

2010-01-01

18. Focal therapy in prostate cancer: the current situation

PubMed Central

Jácome-Pita, FX; Sánchez-Salas, R; Barret, E; Amaruch, N; Gonzalez-Enguita, C; Cathelineau, X

2014-01-01

Prostate cancer is one of the most significant pathologies in the field of urology. The adoption of screening strategies and improvements in biopsies have resulted in an increase in early-stage tumour detection. Radical global therapies provide very good oncological results in localised prostate cancer. However, excess treatment in low- and, in some cases, intermediate-risk groups affects the quality of life of these patients. In the case of localised prostate cancer, focal therapies offer a minimally invasive option with good results with respect to established treatments. Although this is currently not a standard treatment, it represents the therapeutic approach with the greatest potential. This literature review has the following objectives: to define selection criteria for patients who are candidates for focal therapy, to assess the current situation and results of the different therapeutic options, and to define procedures in cases of recurrence and for follow-ups. We concluded that focal therapy is a viable therapeutic alternative for localised prostate cancer, specifically cryosurgery and high-intensity targeted ultrasound, which have acceptable oncologic results and a lower comorbidity compared with global treatments. Studies with a high level of scientific evidence are still needed to validate these results. Acquisition of evidence A search was carried out on the Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases of all papers published before 31 July 2013. We included clinical studies and literature reviews that evaluated primary focal therapy for prostate cancer confirmed by biopsy and excluded focal rescue therapy studies. The keywords used were focal therapy and prostate cancer. Initially, we found 42 articles; 15 studies were excluded because they did not meet the minimum criteria for inclusion. A total of 1350 cases were treated throughout 27 studies. PMID:24944577

19. Preliminary Oklahoma Optimal Fault Orientations Determined by Focal Mechanism Solutions

Darold, A. P.; Holland, A. A.

2015-12-01

Six hundred and eighty-eight focal mechanisms were calculated between 2010 and 2015 and used to determine optimally oriented fault orientations within the contemporary stress field in Oklahoma. The contemporary stress, maximum horizontal stress (shmax) orientation of N85°E, is determined from the orientation of the P- and T-axes of the 688 focal mechanisms used. The majority of the focal mechanism solutions were computed using earthquakes occurring in central and north-central Oklahoma, a region where the greatest numbers of recent earthquakes have occurred. The focal mechanisms used in this compilation include Regional Moment Tensor solutions and first-motion focal mechanisms. We determined a mean shmax of 83.2° with a standard deviation of 21.3° azimuth. The median shmax is 84.8° with 633 observations. From the probability density functions, it is possible to define orientations of optimal, moderately optimal and sub-optimal fault strikes. The focal mechanism distribution is dominated by strike-slip motion on steeply dipping faults and thus fault strike is restricted to the range of 0° to 180°. Optimal fault strike orientation ranges between 45°-60°, 105°-120° and 135°-150° and represent fault orientations most likely for failure. Moderately optimal fault strike orientation ranges between 15°-45°, 60°-75°, 90°-105° and 120°-135° and represent fault orientations moderately likely for failure. All other orientations of fault strike are sub-optimal orientations and have a low likelihood of failure. These results do not indicate that failure cannot occur on sub-optimal fault strikes, but suggest that they are less likely. We apply these results to the most comprehensive Oklahoma fault map to date. Identifying optimal fault orientations is important for determining the potential earthquake hazard of both naturally occurring and triggered seismicity.

20. Determination of long focal length of lenses with Talbot interferometer

Jin, Xiaorong; Yu, Honglei; Bai, Jian; Hou, Xiyun

2012-10-01

In this paper, a method for high-accuracy determination of long focal length based on Talbot interferometer is presented. Through changing the angle between two gratings, systematic errors are reduced effectively by calibration. The collimation of the light is determined by a standard concave mirror. The experimental results reveal that the relative error is 0.1%, and the repeatability is better than 0.1%. As the method is simple and somewhat insensitive to environmental effects, it is especially useful for measuring long focal-length lenses.

1. Magnetic-resonance-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions.

PubMed

Smith, Ethan A; Grove, Jason J; Van Der Spek, Abraham F L; Jarboe, Marcus D

2017-03-03

Image-guided biopsy techniques are widely used in clinical practice. Commonly used methods employ either ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) for image guidance. In certain patients, US or CT guidance may be suboptimal, or even impossible, because of artifacts, suboptimal lesion visualization, or both. We recently began performing magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions in select pediatric patients with lesions that are not well visualized by US or CT. This report describes our experience performing MR-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions, with case examples to illustrate innovative techniques and novel aspects of these procedures.

2. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of five cases.

PubMed

Borborema-Santos, Cristina Maria; Castro, Maria Marta de; Santos, Paulo José Benevides dos; Talhari, Sinésio; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco

2006-01-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is a rare contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, initially described among Native American populations. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple small papules or nodules in oral cavity, especially on labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. This report describes the diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia in five Central Amazonian Indians who sought treatment at the Amazonas State Foundation of Tropical Medicine (FMT-AM), using clinical criteria, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.

3. Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays

DTIC Science & Technology

1994-02-01

AD-A276 963 1111111111 I NAWCWPNS TP 8185 Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays OTIC by ELECTE Dr. Gary Hewer MAR 151994 and...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1994 Final; 199 ,L TTLE ND SBTILE LFUNDNG UBER Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays...nonlinearity 71,(w) = sgn(w)(IwI-t). with threshold t to each empirical sample value w in the wavelet transform d scales. After thresholding the wavelet

4. Advances in Focal Plane Wavefront Estimation for Directly Imaging Exoplanets

Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler Dean

2015-01-01

To image cold exoplanets directly in visible light, an instrument on a telescope needs to suppress starlight by about 9 orders of magnitude at small separations from the star. A coronagraph changes the point spread function to create regions of high contrast where exoplanets or disks can be seen. Aberrations on the optics degrade the contrast by several orders of magnitude, so all high-contrast imaging systems incorporate one or more deformable mirrors (DMs) to recover regions of high contrast. With a coronagraphic instrument planned for the WFIRST-AFTA space telescope, there is a pressing need for faster, more robust estimation and control schemes for the DMs. Non-common path aberrations limit conventional phase conjugation schemes to medium star-to-planet contrast ratios of about 1e-6. High-contrast imaging requires estimation and control of both phase and amplitude in the same beam path as the science camera. Field estimation is a challenge since only intensity is measured; the most common approach, including that planned for WFIRST-AFTA, is to use DMs to create diversity, via pairs of small probe shapes, thereby allowing disambiguation of the electric field. Most implementations of DM Diversity require at least five images per electric field estimate and require narrowband measurements. This paper describes our new estimation algorithms that improve the speed (by using fewer images) and bandwidth of focal plane wavefront estimation. For narrowband estimation, we are testing nonlinear, recursive algorithms such as an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to use three images each iteration and build better, more robust estimates. We are also exploring the use of broadband estimation without the need for narrowband sub-filters and measurements. Here we present simulations of these algorithms with realistic noise and small signals to show how they might perform for WFIRST-AFTA. Once validated in simulations, we will test these algorithms experimentally in

5. Focal length evaluation by inverse ray-tracing Ronchi test

Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Gonzalez, Gerardo; Robledo-Sánchez, Carlos

2016-09-01

A simple method to evaluate the focal length of concave mirrors is proposed. The inverse ray-tracing approach of the Ronchi test is used in the measurement stage. The theoretical principles are given and a numerical method for ronchigram processing is proposed. The results verify the feasibility of the proposal.

6. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in a Turkish family].

PubMed

Weidner, F

1996-12-01

A 31-year-old Turkish patient and some family members suffered from multiple hyperplastic oral mucosal papules. Intralesional papilloma virus was not found but the patient had elevated levels of CD8 lymphocytes in his peripheral blood. We diagnosed focal epithelial hyperplasia of Heck.

7. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) associated with AIDS.

PubMed

Viraben, R; Aquilina, C; Brousset, P; Bazex, J

1996-01-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) of the oral mucosa occurring in a HIV-infected man is described. Molecular biology disclosed an HPV-32 type in oral lesions. The association of FEH and AIDS is uncommon although many HPV subtypes may manifest during HIV infection.

8. Extra focal convective suppressing solar collector. Final technical progress report

SciTech Connect

1996-05-01

This progress report describes work done on the Extra Focal Convective Suppressing Solar Collector. The topics of the report include sensor refinement for the tracking electronics, tracking controller refinement, system optics evaluation, absorber system material evaluation and performance, tracking hardware evaluation and refinement, and full scale prototype construction and testing.

9. The Focal Surface of the JEM-EUSO Telescope

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kawasaki, Yoshiya

2007-01-01

Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard JEM/EP (JEM-EUSO) is a space mission to study extremely high-energy cosmic rays. The JEM-EUSO instrument is a wide-angle refractive telescope in near-ultraviolet wavelength region to observe time-resolved atmospheric fluorescence images of the extensive air showers from the International Space Station. The focal surface is a spherical curved surface, and its area amounts to about 4.5 square m. The focal surface detector is covered with about 6,000 multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). The focal surface detector consists of Photo-Detector-Modules, each of which consists of 9 Elementary Cells (ECs). The EC contains 4 units of the MAPMTs. Therefore, about 1,500 ECs or about 160 PDMS are arranged on the whole of the focal surface of JEM- EUSO. The EC is a basic unit of the front-end electronics. The PDM is a, basic unit of the data acquisition system

10. Prototype focal plane assembly for multispectral remote sensing

SciTech Connect

Rienstra, J.L.; Vampola, J.A.

1995-09-01

Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing. A prototype multispectral sensor system is under development. The three major subsystems making up the prototype sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {mu}m to 10.7 {mu}m. All the linear arrays are mounted on a single motherboard and are designed to operate at 75 K. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 16.4 megapixels per second. The diverse requirements for the focal plane assembly make this a challenging, sensor to design and build.

11. Chemical-genetic attenuation of focal neocortical seizures.

PubMed

Kätzel, Dennis; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Schorge, Stephanie; Walker, Matthew C; Kullmann, Dimitri M

2014-05-27

Focal epilepsy is commonly pharmacoresistant, and resective surgery is often contraindicated by proximity to eloquent cortex. Many patients have no effective treatment options. Gene therapy allows cell-type specific inhibition of neuronal excitability, but on-demand seizure suppression has only been achieved with optogenetics, which requires invasive light delivery. Here we test a combined chemical-genetic approach to achieve localized suppression of neuronal excitability in a seizure focus, using viral expression of the modified muscarinic receptor hM4Di. hM4Di has no effect in the absence of its selective, normally inactive and orally bioavailable agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Systemic administration of CNO suppresses focal seizures evoked by two different chemoconvulsants, pilocarpine and picrotoxin. CNO also has a robust anti-seizure effect in a chronic model of focal neocortical epilepsy. Chemical-genetic seizure attenuation holds promise as a novel approach to treat intractable focal epilepsy while minimizing disruption of normal circuit function in untransduced brain regions or in the absence of the specific ligand.

12. Therapeutic epilepsy research: from pharmacological rationale to focal adenosine augmentation

PubMed Central

Boison, Detlev; Stewart, Kerry-Ann

2009-01-01

13. Spectrum of PORCN mutations in Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz syndrome (OMIM 305600), is a genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems early in development. Features of FDH include skin abnormalities, (hypoplasia, atrophy, linear pigmentation, and herniation of fat through dermal defects); papillomas...

14. Analysis of Rapid Multi-Focal Zone ARFI Imaging

PubMed Central

Rosenzweig, Stephen; Palmeri, Mark; Nightingale, Kathryn

2015-01-01

Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has shown promise for visualizing structure and pathology within multiple organs; however, because the contrast depends on the push beam excitation width, image quality suffers outside of the region of excitation. Multi-focal zone ARFI imaging has previously been used to extend the region of excitation (ROE), but the increased acquisition duration and acoustic exposure have limited its utility. Supersonic shear wave imaging has previously demonstrated that through technological improvements in ultrasound scanners and power supplies, it is possible to rapidly push at multiple locations prior to tracking displacements, facilitating extended depth of field shear wave sources. Similarly, ARFI imaging can utilize these same radiation force excitations to achieve tight pushing beams with a large depth of field. Finite element method simulations and experimental data are presented demonstrating that single- and rapid multi-focal zone ARFI have comparable image quality (less than 20% loss in contrast), but the multi-focal zone approach has an extended axial region of excitation. Additionally, as compared to single push sequences, the rapid multi-focal zone acquisitions improve the contrast to noise ratio by up to 40% in an example 4 mm diameter lesion. PMID:25643078

15. Mutations in KCNT1 cause a spectrum of focal epilepsies.

PubMed

Møller, Rikke S; Heron, Sarah E; Larsen, Line H G; Lim, Chiao Xin; Ricos, Michael G; Bayly, Marta A; van Kempen, Marjan J A; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Andrews, Ian; Kelley, Kent; Ronen, Gabriel M; Callen, David; McMahon, Jacinta M; Yendle, Simone C; Carvill, Gemma L; Mefford, Heather C; Nabbout, Rima; Poduri, Annapurna; Striano, Pasquale; Baglietto, Maria G; Zara, Federico; Smith, Nicholas J; Pridmore, Clair; Gardella, Elena; Nikanorova, Marina; Dahl, Hans Atli; Gellert, Pia; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Gunning, Boudewijn; Kragh-Olsen, Bente; Dibbens, Leanne M

2015-09-01

Autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-gated potassium channel subunit gene KCNT1 have been associated with two distinct seizure syndromes, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) and malignant migrating focal seizures of infancy (MMFSI). To further explore the phenotypic spectrum associated with KCNT1, we examined individuals affected with focal epilepsy or an epileptic encephalopathy for mutations in the gene. We identified KCNT1 mutations in 12 previously unreported patients with focal epilepsy, multifocal epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and in a family with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), in addition to patients with NFLE and MMFSI. In contrast to the 100% penetrance so far reported for KCNT1 mutations, we observed incomplete penetrance. It is notable that we report that the one KCNT1 mutation, p.Arg398Gln, can lead to either of the two distinct phenotypes, ADNFLE or MMFSI, even within the same family. This indicates that genotype-phenotype relationships for KCNT1 mutations are not straightforward. We demonstrate that KCNT1 mutations are highly pleiotropic and are associated with phenotypes other than ADNFLE and MMFSI. KCNT1 mutations are now associated with Ohtahara syndrome, MMFSI, and nocturnal focal epilepsy. They may also be associated with multifocal epilepsy and cardiac disturbances.

16. Focality, stochasticity and neuroanatomic propagation in ALS pathogenesis.

PubMed

Ravits, John

2014-12-01

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) phenotypes such as limb ALS, bulbar ALS, primary lateral sclerosis and primary muscular atrophy are highly heterogeneous and exist on a continuum. These are largely determined by the neuroanatomy of the underlying pathological changes, which can be clinically imputed. Deconstructing these early in disease, before temporal-spatial summation induces complexity, shows that ALS begins focally at a seemingly random location and progresses contiguously. This suggests that focality and anatomic propagation of pathology are significant parts of pathogenesis-disease propagates over space as well as progresses over time. Focality and neuroanatomic propagation can explain how dominant genetic traits manifest with heterogeneous phenotypes, since the anatomic site of outbreak is a prime determinant of phenotype. Focality and neuroanatomic propagation can also explain why frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegeneration closely related to ALS, has heterogeneous phenotypes, since here too the anatomic site of the outbreak is a prime determinant of phenotype. There are two distinct types of neuroanatomic propagation: contiguous propagation, which occurs side-to-side regionally through the extracellular matrix independent of synaptic connection; and network propagation, which occurs end-to-end dependent on synaptic connections and axonal transmission in connected neuronal networks. The molecular basis of neuroanatomic propagation is unknown, although prion-like misfolding and templating of pathogenic proteins is a compelling unifying hypothesis.

17. Focal plane actuation by hexapod for the development of a high-resolution suborbital telescope

Miller, Alexander D.; Scowen, Paul A.; Veach, Todd J.

2016-07-01

We present a prototype hexapod image stabilization system as the key instrument for a proposed suborbital balloon mission. The unique design thermally isolates an off-the-shelf non-cryogenic hexapod from a liquid nitrogen cooled focal plane, enabling its use in a cryogenic environment. Balloon gondolas currently achieve 1-2 arcsecond pointing error, but cannot correct for unavoidable jitter movements ( 20 micron amplitude at 20 Hz at the worst) caused by wind rushing over balloon surfaces, thermal variations, and vibrations from cryocoolers, and reaction wheels. The jitter causes image blur during exposures and limits the resolution of the system. Removal of this final jitter term decreases pointing error by an order of magnitude and allows for true diffraction-limited observation. Tip-tilt pointing systems have been used for these purposes in the past, but require additional optics and introduce multiple reflections. The hexapod system, rather, is compact and can be plugged into the focal point of nearly any configuration. For a 0.8m telescope the improvement in resolution by this system would provide 0.1" angular resolution at 300nm, which is comparable to Hubble for a fraction of the cost. On an actual balloon, the hexapod system would actuate the focal plane to counteract the jitter using position information supplied by guidestar cameras. However, in the lab, we instead simulate guide camera tracking, using a 1024 × 1024 e2v science-grade CCD to take long exposures of a target attached to an XY stage driven with the balloon jitter signal recorded during the STO mission. Further confirmation of the positional accuracy and agility of the hexapod is achieved using a laser and fast-sampling position-sensitive diode. High-resolution time domain multispectral imaging of the gas giants, especially in the UV range, is of particular interest to the planetary community, and a suborbital telescope with the hexapod stabilization in place would provide a wealth of new

18. Advantage of a Broad Focal Zone in SWL: Synergism Between Squeezing and Shear

Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Maxwell, Adam D.; MacConaghy, Brian; Cleveland, Robin O.; McAteer, James A.; Crum, Lawrence A.

2007-04-01

Objective: The focal zone width appears to be a critical factor in lithotripsy. Narrow focus machines have a higher occurrence of adverse effects, and arguably no greater comminution efficiency. Manufacturers have introduced new machines and upgrades to broaden the focus. Still, little data exists on how focal width plays a role in stone fracture. Thus, our aim was to determine if focal width interacts with established mechanisms known to contribute to stone fracture. Method: A series of experiments were undertaken with changes made to the stone in an effort to determine which is most important, the shock wave (SW) reflected from the back end of the stone (spallation), the SW ringing the stone (squeezing), the shear wave generated at surface of the stone and concentrated in the bulk of it (shear), or SWs generated from bubble collapse (cavitation). Shock waves were generated by a Dornier HM3-style lithotripter, and stones were made from U30 cement. Baffles were used to block specific waves that contribute to spallation, shear, or squeezing, and glycerol was used to suppress cavitation. Numerical simulation and high-speed imaging allowed for visualization of specific waves as they traveled within the stone. Results: For brevity, one result is explained. A reflective baffle was placed around the front edge of a cylindrical stone. The proximal baffle prevented squeezing by preventing the SW from traveling over the stone, but permitted the SW entering the stone through the proximal face and did not affect the other mechanisms. The distal baffle behaved the same as no baffle. The proximal baffle dramatically reduced the stress, and the stone did not break (stone broke after 45±10 SWs without the baffle and did not break after 400 SWs when the experiment stopped). The result implies that since removing squeezing halted comminution, squeezing is dominant. However, there is much more to the story. For example, if the cylindrical stone was pointed, it broke with the point

19. Dosimetry Modeling for Focal Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

SciTech Connect

Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Mason, Josh; Bownes, Peter; Henry, Ann; Dickinson, Louise; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Emberton, Mark; Langley, Stephen

2015-07-15

Purpose: Focal brachytherapy targeted to an individual lesion(s) within the prostate may reduce side effects experienced with whole-gland brachytherapy. The outcomes of a consensus meeting on focal prostate brachytherapy were used to investigate optimal dosimetry of focal low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy targeted using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and transperineal template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy, including the effects of random and systematic seed displacements and interseed attenuation (ISA). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were selected according to clinical characteristics and concordance of TPM and mp-MRI. Retrospectively, 3 treatment plans were analyzed for each case: whole-gland (WG), hemi-gland (hemi), and ultra-focal (UF) plans, with 145-Gy prescription dose and identical dose constraints for each plan. Plan robustness to seed displacement and ISA were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: WG plans used a mean 28 needles and 81 seeds, hemi plans used 17 needles and 56 seeds, and UF plans used 12 needles and 25 seeds. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of the target) and V100 (percentage of the target that receives 100% dose) values were 181.3 Gy and 99.8% for the prostate in WG plans, 195.7 Gy and 97.8% for the hemi-prostate in hemi plans, and 218.3 Gy and 99.8% for the focal target in UF plans. Mean urethra D10 was 205.9 Gy, 191.4 Gy, and 92.4 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Mean rectum D2 cm{sup 3} was 107.5 Gy, 77.0 Gy, and 42.7 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Focal plans were more sensitive to seed displacement errors: random shifts with a standard deviation of 4 mm reduced mean target D90 by 14.0%, 20.5%, and 32.0% for WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. ISA has a similar impact on dose-volume histogram parameters for all plan types. Conclusions: Treatment planning for focal LDR brachytherapy is feasible. Dose constraints are easily met with a notable

20. Long Focal Length Large Mirror Fabrication System

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bennett, H. E.

2003-01-01

The goals of this ambitious program are (1) to develop systems to make large superpolished optical mirrors, (2) to develop low scatter polishing techniques using centrifugal elutriation, (3) to develop a means of measuring scatter at any point on the mirror, (4) to polish a Hindle sphere to measure the optical figure of a one meter diameter convex mandrel, and (5) to fabricate low scatter, large adaptive optic graphite filled, cyanate ester replica transfer mirrors using these mandrels. Deliverables are a 30 cm diameter superpolished composite AO mirror. We fabricated a 1/3rd meter superpolished zerodur flat mandrel and with the support of our major subcontractor, Composite Mirror Applications Inc (CMA) we have demonstrated a 30 cm lightweight cyanate ester mirror with an rms microroughness between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and 8 faceplate influence function of 5 cm. The influence function was chosen to be comparable to the atmospheric correlation coefficient r(sub 0) which is about 5 cm at sea level. There was no print-thru of the graphite fibers in the cyanate ester surface (the bane of many previous efforts to use cyanate ester mirrors). Our subcontractor has devised a means for developing a 30-50 nm thick layer of graphite free pure ester resin on the surface of the mirrors. This graphite fiber filled material has a thermal expansion coefficient in the 10(exp -8) centimeter per Kelvin range (the same range of expansion coefficient as Zerodur and ULE glasses) and does not take up water and swell, so it is a nearly ideal mirror material in these areas. Unfortunately for these 0.8mm thick faceplates, the number of plies is not enough to result in isometric coverage. Isolated figure irregularities can appear, making it necessary to go to thicker faceplates. The influence function will then only approximate the length of r(sub 0), at higher altitudes or longer wavelengths. The influence function goes as the cube of the thickness, so we are now making a faceplate optimized for

1. Nanoimaging of Focal Adhesion Dynamics in 3D

PubMed Central

Chiu, Chi-Li; Aguilar, Jose S.; Tsai, Connie Y.; Wu, GuiKai; Gratton, Enrico; Digman, Michelle A.

2014-01-01

Organization and dynamics of focal adhesion proteins have been well characterized in cells grown on two-dimensional (2D) cell culture surfaces. However, much less is known about the dynamic association of these proteins in the 3D microenvironment. Limited imaging technologies capable of measuring protein interactions in real time and space for cells grown in 3D is a major impediment in understanding how proteins function under different environmental cues. In this study, we applied the nano-scale precise imaging by rapid beam oscillation (nSPIRO) technique and combined the scaning-fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (sFCS) and the number and molecular brightness (N&B) methods to investigate paxillin and actin dynamics at focal adhesions in 3D. Both MDA-MB-231 cells and U2OS cells produce elongated protrusions with high intensity regions of paxillin in cell grown in 3D collagen matrices. Using sFCS we found higher percentage of slow diffusing proteins at these focal spots, suggesting assembling/disassembling processes. In addition, the N&B analysis shows paxillin aggregated predominantly at these focal contacts which are next to collagen fibers. At those sites, actin showed slower apparent diffusion rate, which indicated that actin is either polymerizing or binding to the scaffolds in these locals. Our findings demonstrate that by multiplexing these techniques we have the ability to spatially and temporally quantify focal adhesion assembly and disassembly in 3D space and allow the understanding tumor cell invasion in a more complex relevant environment. PMID:24959851

2. Multispectral Focal Plane Assembly for Satellite Remote Sensing

SciTech Connect

Rienstra, J.; Ballard, M.

1997-12-31

Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing from space. A proof of concept multispectral sensor system is under development. The objective of building this sensor is to demonstrate and evaluate multispectral imaging technologies for various applications. The three major subsystems making up the sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding. Linear detector arrays provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for a pushbroom imager configuration. The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 microns to 10.7 microns. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. No beam splitters are used. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 15.4 megapixels per second. At the time this paper is being written, the multispectral focal plane assembly is in the fabrication phase. A thermal/mechanical mockup has been built and tested for the vibration environment and to determine the thermal load. Some of the sensor chip assemblies and filters have been built and tested. Several notable features of the design are covered in the paper as well as preliminary test data.

3. Focal mechanism of the seismic series prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption

del Fresno, C.; Buforn, E.; Cesca, S.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

2015-12-01

The onset of the submarine eruption of El Hierro (10-Oct-2011) was preceded by three months of low-magnitude seismicity (Mw<4.0) characterized by a well documented hypocenter migration from the center to the south of the island. Seismic sources of this series have been studied in order to understand the physical process of magma migration. Different methodologies were used to obtain focal mechanisms of largest shocks. Firstly, we have estimated the joint fault plane solutions for 727 shocks using first motion P polarities to infer the stress pattern of the sequence and to determine the time evolution of principle axes orientation. Results show almost vertical T-axes during the first two months of the series and horizontal P-axes on N-S direction coinciding with the migration. Secondly, a point source MT inversion was performed with data of the largest 21 earthquakes of the series (M>3.5). Amplitude spectra was fitted at local distances (<20km). Reliability and stability of the results were evaluated with synthetic data. Results show a change in the focal mechanism pattern within the first days of October, varying from complex sources of higher non-double-couple components before that date to a simpler strike-slip mechanism with horizontal tension axes on E-W direction the week prior to the eruption onset. A detailed study was carried out for the 8 October 2011 earthquake (Mw=4.0). Focal mechanism was retrieved using a MT inversion at regional and local distances. Results indicate an important component of strike-slip fault and null isotropic component. The stress pattern obtained corresponds to horizontal compression in a NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the southern ridge of the island, and a quasi-horizontal extension in an EW direction. Finally, a simple source time function of 0.3s has been estimated for this shock using the Empirical Green function methodology.

4. Postlumpectomy Focal Brachytherapy for Simultaneous Treatment of Surgical Cavity and Draining Lymph Nodes

SciTech Connect

Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Shi Chengyu; Goins, Beth; Liu Yaxi; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

2011-03-01

Purpose: The primary objective was to investigate a novel focal brachytherapy technique using lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried {beta}-emitting radionuclides (rhenium-186 [{sup 186}Re]/rhenium-188 [{sup 188}Re]) to simultaneously treat the postlumpectomy surgical cavity and draining lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Cumulative activity distributions in the lumpectomy cavity and lymph nodes were extrapolated from small animal imaging and human lymphoscintigraphy data. Absorbed dose calculations were performed for lumpectomy cavities with spherical and ellipsoidal shapes and lymph nodes within human subjects by use of the dose point kernel convolution method. Results: Dose calculations showed that therapeutic dose levels within the lumpectomy cavity wall can cover 2- and 5-mm depths for {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively. The absorbed doses at 1 cm sharply decreased to only 1.3% to 3.7% of the doses at 2 mm for {sup 186}Re liposomes and 5 mm for {sup 188}Re liposomes. Concurrently, the draining sentinel lymph nodes would receive a high focal therapeutic absorbed dose, whereas the average dose to 1 cm of surrounding tissue received less than 1% of that within the nodes. Conclusions: Focal brachytherapy by use of {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes was theoretically shown to be capable of simultaneously treating the lumpectomy cavity wall and draining sentinel lymph nodes with high absorbed doses while significantly lowering dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In turn, this allows for dose escalation to regions of higher probability of containing residual tumor cells after lumpectomy while reducing normal tissue complications.

5. ApoE and S-100 expression and its significance in the brain tissue of rats with focal contusion.

PubMed

Wang, Z L; Chai, R F; Yang, W S; Liu, Y; Qin, H; Wu, H; Zhu, X F; Wang, Y X; Dangmurenjiafu, G

2015-12-29

This study explored the effect of focal cerebral contusion on the expression of ApoE and S-100, and its significance in determining the time of brain injury. Based on a rat model of cerebral contusion, immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the expressions of S-100 and ApoE at different time points after injury. Thirty minutes following cerebral contusion, ApoE protein expression was significantly increased in cortex neurons (P < 0.01), and S-100 protein expression was significantly (P < 0.001) elevated 2 h after cerebral contusion. Over time, the number of ApoE and S-100 positively expressing cells gradually increased. Three days after injury, ApoE was widely distributed throughout the tissue and the number of ApoE-positive cells and staining intensity reached a peak. ApoE expression decreased after this time point. Five days after cerebral contusion, the number of S-100-positive cells reached a peak level of expression higher than that in the control group. Our data demonstrate that the expression of ApoE and S-100 correlated with the progression of focal cerebral contusion. This suggests that both proteins may serve as effective biomarkers of focal cerebral contusions.

6. Effect of the focal plane position on CO2 laser beam cutting of injection molded polycarbonate sheets

Moradi, Mahmoud; Mehrabi, Omid; Azdast, Taher; Benyounis, Khaled Y.

2016-11-01

In the present research, the effect of laser beam focal plane position (FPP) on the kerf quality of the polycarbonate laser cutting is investigated. Low power CO2 laser is used as the heat source of the cutting runs. In the experiments, FPP is varied from 0 to -4mm while other processing parameters (i.e. laser power, cutting speed and gas pressure) are considered constant. Upper and lower kerf width, kerf taper, upper heat affected zone and surface roughness of the kerf wall are also considered as the responses. Observations signified that reducing the position of the laser beam focal point from zero to - 3mm reduces the upper and lower kerf width. However reducing FPP below -3mm leads to an increase in the kerf width. Results also reveals that upper heat affected zone value reduces by reduction in FPP. Moreover the best kerf wall surface roughness occurred at FPP= -3mm.

7. Enchanced interference cancellation and telemetry reception in multipath environments with a single paraboic dish antenna using a focal plane array

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mukai, Ryan (Inventor); Vilnrotter, Victor A. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

An Advanced Focal Plane Array ("AFPA") for parabolic dish antennas that exploits spatial diversity to achieve better channel equalization performance in the presence of multipath (better than temporal equalization alone), and which is capable of receiving from two or more sources within a field-of-view in the presence of multipath. The AFPA uses a focal plane array of receiving elements plus a spatio-temporal filter that keeps information on the adaptive FIR filter weights, relative amplitudes and phases of the incoming signals, and which employs an Interference Cancelling Constant Modulus Algorithm (IC-CMA) that resolves multiple telemetry streams simultaneously from the respective aero-nautical platforms. This data is sent to an angle estimator to calculate the target's angular position, and then on to Kalman filters FOR smoothing and time series prediction. The resulting velocity and acceleration estimates from the time series data are sent to an antenna control unit (ACU) to be used for pointing control.

8. Real-time detection of focal position of workpiece surface during laser processing using diffractive beam samplers

Cao, Binh Xuan; Hoang, PhuongLe; Ahn, Sanghoon; Kim, Jeng-o.; Sohn, Hyonkee; Noh, Jiwhan

2016-11-01

The real-time fabrication of microgrooves on a curved surface using a laser beam, without preprogramming their shapes into the machining instructions, is a major challenge in laser processing owing to limitations associated with the real-time detection of the focal position. A new approach using a sampled fraction of the beam from a diffractive beam sampler (DBS) is therefore presented in order to overcome this limitation. By considering the sampled fraction of the beam an analysis of the results allows for precise positioning of the specimen for focal-point identification. This allows for the determination of the focus for a broad variety of laser types and laser powers, thereby providing stringent focusing conditions with high numerical apertures. This approach is easy to implement, inexpensive, independent of the roughness or granularity of the workpieces, and more importantly does not require auxiliary lasers and displacement sensors for real-time measurement during the fabrication process.

9. Denonvilliers' space expansion by transperineal injection of hydrogel: implications for focal therapy of prostate cancer.

PubMed

de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Ma, Yanling; Shoji, Sunao; Marien, Arnaud; Leslie, Scott; Gill, Inderbir; Ukimura, Osamu

2014-04-01

We developed and assessed a technique of: (i) expanding Denonvilliers' space by hydrogel (polyethylene glycol) during focal cryoabation; and (ii) temperature mapping to ensure protection of the rectal wall. In a fresh cadaver, 20 cc of hydrogel was injected transperineally into Denonvilliers' space under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Successful expansion of Denonvilliers' space was achieved with a range of 9-11 mm thickness covering the entire posterior prostate surface. Two freeze-thaw cycles were used to expand the iceball reaching the rectal wall as an end-point. Intraoperative transrectal ultrasound monitoring and temperature mapping in Denonvilliers' space by multiple thermocouples documented real-time iceball expansion up to 10 mm beyond the prostate, and safety in protecting the rectal wall from thermal injury. The lowest temperatures of the thermocouples with a distance of 0 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm from the prostate were: -35°C, -18°C and 0°C (P < 0.001), respectively. In gross and microscopic examination, the hydrogel mass measured 11 × 40 × 34 mm, which was identical to the intraoperative transrectal ultrasound measurements, there was no infiltration of the hydrogel into the rectal wall or prostate and no injury to the pelvic organs. In conclusion, the expansion of Denonvilliers' space by transperineal injection of hydrogel is feasible and a promising technique to facilitate energy-based focal therapy of prostate cancer.

10. Mine tremor focal mechanism: An essential element for recognising the process of mine working destruction

Stec, Krystyna; Drzewiecki, Jan

2012-04-01

This article presents an analysis of causes of rockburst which occurred in the Rydułtowy-Anna Mine on 24 March 2010. The seismic phenomena and the rockburst hazard connected with them have been determined by a number of natural and technical factors. The dominant factors were the mechanical strength characteristics of coal and surrounding rocks, as well as the values of stress in the surroundings of mine workings. An analysis must take into account the structure of the strata, its susceptibility to rockbursts, development and displacement of areas with high values of stress, as well as critical levels of elastic deformation of the strata. Such an approach must be supported by the results of an analysis of focal mechanisms of tremors to make it possible to recognize mining and geological factors which had the prevailing influence on tremors' location and energy. By presenting a selected example of a real event, the authors would like to point out the importance of the proper description of focal mechanisms of seismic tremors. The analysis of a chain of interacting destruction processes in the developed model of strata would give the explanation why the tremor occurred in the gallery located at a considerable distance from the tremor focus.

11. The role of focal adhesion kinase in the regulation of cellular mechanical properties

Mierke, Claudia Tanja

2013-12-01

The regulation of mechanical properties is necessary for cell invasion into connective tissue or intra- and extravasation through the endothelium of blood or lymph vessels. Cell invasion is important for the regulation of many healthy processes such as immune response reactions and wound healing. In addition, cell invasion plays a role in disease-related processes such as tumor metastasis and autoimmune responses. Until now the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in regulating mechanical properties of cells and its impact on cell invasion efficiency is still not well known. Thus, this review focuses on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. Moreover, it points out the connection between cancer cell invasion and metastasis and FAK by showing that FAK regulates cellular mechanical properties required for cellular motility. Furthermore, it sheds light on the indirect interaction of FAK with vinculin by binding to paxillin, which then impairs the binding of paxillin to vinculin. In addition, this review emphasizes whether FAK fulfills regulatory functions similar to vinculin. In particular, it discusses the differences and the similarities between FAK and vinculin in regulating the biomechanical properties of cells. Finally, this paper highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK, synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as stiffness and contractile forces. Subsequently, these mechanical properties determine cellular invasiveness into tissues and provide a source sink for future drug developments to inhibit excessive cell invasion and hence, metastases formation.

12. Closed-loop focal plane wavefront control with the SCExAO instrument

Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier

2016-09-01

Aims: This article describes the implementation of a focal plane based wavefront control loop on the high-contrast imaging instrument SCExAO (Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics). The sensor relies on the Fourier analysis of conventional focal-plane images acquired after an asymmetric mask is introduced in the pupil of the instrument. Methods: This absolute sensor is used here in a closed-loop to compensate for the non-common path errors that normally affects any imaging system relying on an upstream adaptive optics system.This specific implementation was used to control low-order modes corresponding to eight zernike modes (from focus to spherical). Results: This loop was successfully run on-sky at the Subaru Telescope and is used to offset the SCExAO deformable mirror shape used as a zero-point by the high-order wavefront sensor. The paper details the range of errors this wavefront-sensing approach can operate within and explores the impact of saturation of the data and how it can be bypassed, at a cost in performance. Conclusions: Beyond this application, because of its low hardware impact, the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) can easily be ported in a wide variety of wavefront sensing contexts, for ground- as well space-borne telescopes, and for telescope pupils that can be continuous, segmented or even sparse. The technique is powerful because it measures the wavefront where it really matters, at the level of the science detector.

13. Dipole versus distributed EEG source localization for single versus averaged spikes in focal epilepsy.

PubMed

Plummer, C; Wagner, M; Fuchs, M; Harvey, A S; Cook, M J

2010-06-01

The aim of this study is to characterize and compare dipole and distributed EEG source localization (ESL) of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in focal epilepsy. Single and averaged scalp IEDs from eight patients-four with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BFEC) and four with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE)-underwent independent component analysis (ICA) from IED onset to peak. The boundary element method forward model was applied to one of four inverse models: two dipolar-moving regularized, rotating nonregularized and two distributed-standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography with rotating cortical sources or with fixed extended sources. Solutions were studied at IED onset, midupswing, peak; ESL strength maxima; ESL residual deviation minima (best fit). From 11,040 ESL parameter points and 960 ESL maps, best-fit dipole and distributed solutions fell at the IED midupswing in BFEC and MTLE when the dominant ICA component typically peaked, localizing to the lower Rolandic sulcus in BFEC and to basolateral or anterior temporal cortex in MTLE. Single-to-averaged ESL variability was high in MTLE. Dipole and distributed ESL are complementary; best-fit solutions for both occupy the IED midupswing and not the IED peak. ICA, a "blind" statistical operation, aids clinical interpretation of ESL fit quality. Single-to-averaged IED localization discordance can be high, a problem warranting further scrutiny if ESL is to earn a place in routine epilepsy care.

14. Focal Mechanisms of Microearthquakes in the Dobra Voda Seismoactive Area in the Male Karpaty Mts., Slovakia

Vavrycuk, V.; Fojtikova, L.; Cipciar, A.; Madaras, J.

2009-12-01

We have analysed 44 microearthquakes with magnitudes between 1.2 and 3.4, which occurred in the Dobra Voda area, Slovakia, in the period 2001-2009. The epicentres of the microearthquakes form a cluster elongated in the ENE-WSW direction. This direction coincides with the orientation of the main fault systems in the area: Dobra Voda and Brezova faults. The depths of the hypocentres vary from 1 km to 14 km. Three different methods were used to calculate the focal mechanisms: (a) a method using the polarities of Pg and Pn waves, (b) the amplitude inversion of moment tensors, and (c) the waveform inversion of moment tensors. All three methods show similar results. The majority of the analysed microearthquakes have a similar left-lateral strike-slip focal mechanism with weak normal or reverse components. The moment tensors comprise significant non-double-couple (non-DC) components. The isotropic component (ISO) and the compensated linear vector dipole component (CLVD) are mostly positive and well correlated indicating that a significant part of the non-DC components probably originates in tensile faulting. Adopting the model of tensile faulting, we estimated the mean ratio of P to S wave velocities in the focal area from the values of ISO and CLVD, vP/vS = 1.5-1.6. The focal mechanisms have been inverted for the present-day tectonic stress in the Dobra Voda area. The slip shear stress component criterion was applied in the stress inversion. The orientations of the principal stresses are (azimuth/plunge): σ1 = 210-220°/5-25°, σ2 = 70-105°/55-75°, and σ3 = 305-315°/15-25°, and the shape ratio is R = 0.45-0.60. The azimuth is measured clockwise from the north and the plunge downwards from the horizontal plane. The local tectonic stress displays approximately an inverse pattern when compared with the regional middle-European tectonic stress and reflects complex tectonic conditions in the area. The presence of tensile faulting might point to an extensional stress

15. Stress Field in Brazil with Focal Mechanism: Regional and Local Patterns

Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

2013-05-01

determine focal mechanism of low magnitudes events (< 5.0 mb) using distant s seismograph stations. We find examples of stress perturbations induced by local effects (e.g. flexure and continental spreading). The results of this work should be useful for future numerical modeling of intraplate stress field. Assumpção,M.,1998.Seismicity and stresses in the Brazilian passive margin. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 88(1),160-169. Herrmann, R. B. (2002). Computer programs in seismology, St. Louis University Earthquake Center, St. Louis, Missouri, www.eas.slu .edu/eqc/eqccps.html. Lithgow-Bertelloni, C., & J.H. Guynn, 2004. Origin of the lithospheric stress field. J. Geophys. Res., 109, B01408, doi:10.1029/2003JB002467. Meijer, P.T., 1995. Dynamics of active continental margins: the Andes and the Aegean regions. PhD Thesis, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. Sokos, E., Zahradnik, J., (2008). ISOLA a Fortran code and a Matlab GUI to perform multiple-point source inversion of seismic data, Computers and Geosciences, 34, 967-97. Watts, A. B., M. Rodger, C. Peirce, C. J. Greenroyd, and R. W. Hobbs (2009). Seismic structure, gravity anomalies, and flexure of the Amazon continental margin, NE Brazil, J. Geophys. Res., 114, B07103, doi:10.1029/2008JB006259.

16. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

DOEpatents

Medecki, Hector

1998-01-01

Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams.

17. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

DOEpatents

Medecki, H.

1998-11-10

Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams. 8 figs.

18. Signal processing on the focal plane array: an overview

Graham, Roger W.; Trautfield, Walter C.; Taylor, Scott M.; Murray, Mark P.; Mesh, Frank J.; Horn, Stuart B.; Finch, James A.; Dang, Khoa V.; Caulfield, John T.

2000-12-01

Raytheon's Infrared Operations (RIO) has invented and developed a new class of focal plane arrays; the Adaptive IR Sensor (AIRS) and Thinfilm Analog Image Processor (TAIP). The AIRS FPA is based upon biologically inspired on-focal- plane circuitry, which adaptively removes detector and optic temperature drift and l/f induced fixed pattern noise. This third-generation multimode IRFPA, also called a Smart FPA, is a 256x256-array format capable of operation in four modes: 1) Direct Injection (DI), 2) Adaptive Non-uniformity Correction (NUC), 3) Motion/Edge Detection, and 4) Subframe Averaging. Also the 320x240 TAIP results have shown excellent image processing in the form of Spatial and Temporal processing.

19. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of three cases.

PubMed

2015-01-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is an infrequent asymptomatic condition caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32 affecting the mucous membrane of the mouth and is commonly seen in young individuals. Firstly, it was described in Indians and Eskimos, but it exists in various populations. We present three cases of Heck's disease in an Afghan immigrant family group living in Iran that seem to have familial predominance. The disease was identified as oral focal epithelial hyperplasia on the basis of histopathologic and clinical findings. The lesions were reduced significantly after 4 months of good oral hygiene. Dentists should be familiar with the clinical manifestations of these types of lesions that affect the oral cavity. In fact, histopathologic assessment and clinical observation are necessary to establish the diagnosis.

20. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in two Chinese females.

PubMed

Liu, N; Li, Y; Zhou, Y; Zeng, X

2012-08-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is a relatively rare virus-induced benign disease. To the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported in an ethnic Chinese population. The authors report two cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in Chinese patients, which were clinically and histologically in accord with FEH. In particular, the lesions in one case were located on the gingival mucosa, which is rarely affected by FEH. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens from the two patients was tested for the presence of human papilloma virus followed by speciﬁc polymerase chain reaction testing for 16, 18, 13, and 32 subtypes in order to conﬁrm the clinical diagnosis.

1. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

PubMed Central

Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

2010-01-01

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

2. Design of a variable-focal-length optical system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ricks, D.; Shannon, R. R.

1984-01-01

Requirements to place an entire optical system with a variable focal length ranging from 20 to 200 cm within a overall length somewhat less than 100 cm placed severe restrictions on the design of a zoom lens suitable for use on a comet explorer. The requirements of a wavelength range of 0.4 to 1.0 microns produced even greater limitations on the possibilities for a design that included a catadioptric (using mirrors and glass) front and followed by a zooming refractive portion. Capabilities available commercial zoom lenses as well as patents of optical systems are reviewed. Preliminary designs of the refractive optics zoom lens and the catadioptric system are presented and evaluated. Of the two, the latter probably has the best chance of success, so long as the shortest focal lengths are not really needed.

3. Focal choroidal excavation associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.

PubMed

Say, Emil Anthony T; Jani, Pooja D; Appenzeller, Matthew F; Houghton, Odette M

2013-01-01

A 48-year-old woman presented with blurred vision in her right eye for 6 weeks. Visual acuity was 20/300 and 20/25 in the right and left eyes, respectively. Fundus examination showed subretinal hemorrhage in the superonasal macula in the right eye, whereas the left eye was normal. Fluorescein angiography showed blocked fluorescence from hemorrhage and a round distinct hypofluorescent spot along the inferotemporal arcade. Indocyanine green angiography revealed hyperfluorescent tubular and aneurysmal dilatations consistent with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in the superior macula. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed retinal pigment epithelial irregularities and detachment. Scans through the round area of hypofluorescence revealed a conforming focal choroidal excavation and thinning of the underlying choriocapillaries. Because the pathogenesis of focal choroidal excavation is currently unclear, the authors propose the possibility of an acquired etiology related to loss of choriocapillaries from perfusion abnormalities as evidenced here.

4. Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wise, T. D.

1980-01-01

The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

5. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

Lei, Shuyu

2015-06-01

This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

6. Focal shifts in diffracted converging electromagnetic waves. I. Kirchhoff theory.

PubMed

Li, Yajun

2005-01-01

Starting with the vector formulation of the Kirchhoff diffraction theory, expressions for the total energy density distribution along the axis are presented without using any of the usual assumptions except the assumption made by Kirchhoff for the boundary conditions of a black screen. To make the Kirchhoff integral compatible with Maxwell's equations, a line integral around the edge of the aperture is added in the analysis. The consequence of ignoring the contribution of this line integral to the axial field distribution is examined numerically. The focal shift effect is investigated for both aplanatic systems and parabolic mirrors having an arbitrary numerical aperture (NA) and finite value of the Fresnel number. The combined effects of the Fresnel number and NA on the focal shift are evaluated, and the validity of the results is carefully checked by comparing the wavelength with the system dimensions.

7. Consolidation with diffuse or focal high attenuation: computed tomography findings.

PubMed

Marchiori, Edson; Franquet, Tomás; Gasparetto, Taísa Davaus; Gonçalves, Letícia Pereira; Escuissato, Dante L

2008-11-01

This pictorial essay aims to present various lesions that could present as consolidations with diffuse of focal high attenuation on computed tomography, helping to make the diagnosis more confident and specific. The radiologic literature has limited information about such findings and the role of computed tomography in the differential diagnosis. The following diseases are presented: metastatic pulmonary calcification, pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, amiodarone lung, talcosis, iodinated oil embolism, tuberculosis, silicoproteinosis, and amyloidosis. In conclusion, air-space consolidations can be seen in a wide variety of diseases affecting the lungs. The identification of the different patterns of consolidation with focal high attenuation narrows the differential diagnosis. We present a diagnostic approach based on appearance and distribution of these lesions.

8. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M.

2016-04-01

We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin is divided into nine regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the adequate station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes, out of the 494 focal mechanisms, we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in agreement with the Eastern Boundary fault on the east side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of σ1 and σ2 or the switching of σ2 and σ3 as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

9. Focal, steroid responsive myositis causing dropped head syndrome.

PubMed

Biran, I; Cohen, O; Diment, J; Peyser, A; Bahnof, R; Steiner, I

1999-06-01

The dropped head syndrome, which occurs in a variety of neuromuscular disorders, is usually not due to an inflammatory process and generally either self-limited or nonresponsive to therapy. We present an 80-year-old woman who developed progressive neck weakness over a few months due to a focal and restricted inflammatory process involving the neck extensor muscles. She responded dramatically to treatment with immunosuppressive therapy.

10. Precise annealing of focal plane arrays for optical detection

DOEpatents

Bender, Daniel A.

2015-09-22

Precise annealing of identified defective regions of a Focal Plane Array ("FPA") (e.g., exclusive of non-defective regions of the FPA) facilitates removal of defects from an FPA that has been hybridized and/or packaged with readout electronics. Radiation is optionally applied under operating conditions, such as under cryogenic temperatures, such that performance of an FPA can be evaluated before, during, and after annealing without requiring thermal cycling.

11. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a case report and literature review.

PubMed

Murakami, Christiana; de Oliveira Lira Ortega, Adriana; Guimarães, Antônio Sérgio; Gonçalves-Bittar, Daniela; Bönecker, Marcelo; Ciamponi, Ana Lídia

2011-08-01

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disease affecting tissues derived from the ectoderm and mesoderm. Knowledge and early diagnosis of the craniofacial alterations commonly found in patients with FDH provide oral health care professionals with effective preventive and therapeutic tools. This article aims to review the craniofacial characteristics present in FDH and the main systemic manifestations that have implications for dental management, while presenting a new case of the syndrome with novel oral findings.

12. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

DOEpatents

Gilbert, Hubert W.

1985-07-30

An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

13. Nonprogressive familial leukoencephalopathy with porencephalic cyst and focal seizures.

PubMed

Blumkin, Lubov; Watemberg, Nathan; Lev, Dorit; Malinger, Gustavo; Luckman, Yehudit; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

2006-02-01

Two siblings with a similar white-matter disease but different clinical symptoms are described. The first sibling suffers from nonprogressive spastic hemiparesis secondary to a congenital periventricular porencephalic cyst. Her brother has focal epilepsy. On magnetic resonance imaging, both patients show diffuse white-matter involvement predominantly of the posterior periventricular area. We suggest that this is a familial white-matter disorder with minimal symptoms and no progression in early childhood.

14. Focal adhesion kinase is involved in mechanosensing during fibroblast migration

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wang, H. B.; Dembo, M.; Hanks, S. K.; Wang, Y.

2001-01-01

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase localized at focal adhesions and is believed to mediate adhesion-stimulated effects. Although ablation of FAK impairs cell movement, it is not clear whether FAK might be involved in the guidance of cell migration, a role consistent with its putative regulatory function. We have transfected FAK-null fibroblasts with FAK gene under the control of the tetracycline repression system. Cells were cultured on flexible polyacrylamide substrates for the detection of traction forces and the application of mechanical stimulation. Compared with control cells expressing wild-type FAK, FAK-null cells showed a decrease in migration speed and directional persistence. In addition, whereas FAK-expressing cells responded to exerted forces by reorienting their movements and forming prominent focal adhesions, FAK-null cells failed to show such responses. Furthermore, FAK-null cells showed impaired responses to decreases in substrate flexibility, which causes control cells to generate weaker traction forces and migrate away from soft substrates. Cells expressing Y397F FAK, which cannot be phosphorylated at a key tyrosine site, showed similar defects in migration pattern and force-induced reorientation as did FAK-null cells. However, other aspects of F397-FAK cells, including the responses to substrate flexibility and the amplification of focal adhesions upon mechanical stimulation, were similar to that of control cells. Our results suggest that FAK plays an important role in the response of migrating cells to mechanical input. In addition, phosphorylation at Tyr-397 is required for some, but not all, of the functions of FAK in cell migration.

15. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1976-01-01

The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

16. Esophageal squamous papillomas with focal dermal hypoplasia and eosinophilic esophagitis

PubMed Central

Pasman, Eric A; Heifert, Theresa A; Nylund, Cade M

2017-01-01

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare disorder of the mesodermal and ectodermal tissues. Here we present an eight-year-old female known to have FDH who presents with poor weight gain and dysphagia. She was diagnosed with multiple esophageal papillomas and eosinophilic esophagitis. She was successfully treated with argon plasma coagulation and ingested fluticasone propionate, which has not been described previously in a child.

17. Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Autonomic Disorders: Focal Hyperhidrosis and Sialorrhea.

PubMed

Hosp, Christine; Naumann, Markus K; Hamm, Henning

2016-02-01

Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a common autonomic disorder that significantly impacts quality of life. It is characterized by excessive sweating confined to circumscribed areas, such as the axillae, palms, soles, and face. Less frequent types of focal hyperhidrosis secondary to underlying causes include gustatory sweating in Frey's syndrome and compensatory sweating in Ross' syndrome and after sympathectomy. Approval of onabotulinumtoxinA for severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis in 2004 has revolutionized the treatment of this indication. Meanwhile further type A botulinum neurotoxins like abobotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA, as well as the type B botulinum neurotoxin rimabotulinumtoxinB are successfully used off-label for axillary and various other types of focal hyperhidrosis. For unexplained reasons, the duration of effect differs considerably at different sites. Beside hyperhidrosis, botulinum neurotoxin is also highly valued for the treatment of sialorrhea affecting patients with Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, and other neurologic conditions. With correct dosing and application, side effects are manageable and transient.

18. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

PubMed Central

2016-01-01

Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

19. Long-term outcome of focal dystonia in string instrumentalists.

PubMed

Schuele, Stephan; Lederman, Richard J

2004-01-01

This study describes the clinical characteristics and long-term outcome in string instrumentalists with focal task-specific dystonia. We present the results of a follow-up telephone survey of 21 violin and viola players with focal dystonia. Eighteen musicians responded to the questionnaire. Information on long-term outcome was available on average 13.8 years after onset of symptoms. Main complaints were playing-related loss of control and involuntary movements affecting the fingering hand in 16 and the bow arm in 5 patients. In 18 patients (86%), signs of abnormal posture could be detected by watching them play their instrument. Treatment attempts included nerve decompression, physical therapy, retraining, and anticholinergic medication. In selected patients, botulinum toxin injections or splint devices were offered. Only 38% of the performing artists were able to maintain their professional careers, among them none with bow arm dystonia. Focal dystonia may affect the fingering hand or bow arm in violin and viola instrumentalists. Treatment benefit is limited and in more than half of the patients, dystonia leads to the end of their musical career.

20. Focal non granulomatous orchitis in a patient with Crohn's disease.

PubMed

Piton, Nicolas; Roquet, Marie-Laurence; Sibert, Louis; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

2015-04-28

Crohn's disease is a systemic disease and sometimes involves the testicle, usually leading to granulomatous lesions. We report herein a case of focal non-granulomatous orchitis in a 21-year-old patient with active Crohn's disease treated by an anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody. This circumscribed testicular lesion mimicked a tumor, leading to orchiectomy. Pre-operative blood tests (i.e. alpha-fetoprotein, lactate dehydrogenase and human chorionic gonadotrophin) were strictly normal Pathological examination of the testicle revealed a focal inflammatory infiltrate predominantly composed of lymphocytes accompanied by few plasma cells, lacking giant cells or granulomas. Importantly, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, atrophy or lithiasis were not observed.After discussing and excluding other plausible causes (burnt-out /regressed germ cell tumor, infection, vascular or traumatic lesions, iatrogenic effects), we concluded that this particular case of orchitis was most likely an extra-digestive manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of focal non-granulomatous orchitis associated with Crohn's disease. Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2117747284160112.

1. On-chip ADC for infrared focal plane arrays

Gao, Lei; Chen, Guo-qiang; Wang, Pan; Ding, Rui-jun

2013-09-01

2. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications

PubMed Central

Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

2016-01-01

There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported “3ω” technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with “3ω” sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of ‘k’ (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported “3ω” sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters). PMID:26916460

3. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

2013-01-01

Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

4. Writer’s cramp: is focal dystonia the best explanation?

PubMed Central

Pritchard, Michael H

2013-01-01

Often considered no more than an historical curiosity, writer’s cramp remains an important disability in the workplace and the mechanism, which has puzzled the best medical minds for generations, remains contentious. A remarkable range of hypotheses has been put forward to try and explain a disability which periodically reached epidemic and economically worrying levels, but in the end medical opinion has accepted the explanation put forward by neurologists Sheehy and Marsden in 1983 that this was caused by a form of focal dystonia. However, the majority of the historical descriptions of writer’s cramp do not fit the classical parameters of focal dystonia and are more accurately described as a progressive forearm muscle fatigue. Today’s keyboard operators continue to complain of symptoms identical to their clerical forebears demonstrating that this is a problem which has evolved but not disappeared; this has the paradoxical advantage that modern research techniques enable this complaint to be revisited. The result shows that two varieties of writer’s cramp have always existed and while focal dystonia remains a valid explanation for a minority of cases, the much more common fatigue-based complaint is better explained by chronic compartment syndrome of the forearm. PMID:23885297

5. Lacosamide: A Review in Focal Seizures in Patients with Epilepsy.

PubMed

Scott, Lesley J

2015-12-01

6. Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) lesion analysis with complex diffusion approach.

PubMed

Rajan, Jeny; Kannan, K; Kesavadas, C; Thomas, Bejoy

2009-10-01

Identification of Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) can be difficult due to the subtle MRI changes. Though sequences like FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) can detect a large majority of these lesions, there are smaller lesions without signal changes that can easily go unnoticed by the naked eye. The aim of this study is to improve the visibility of focal cortical dysplasia lesions in the T1 weighted brain MRI images. In the proposed method, we used a complex diffusion based approach for calculating the FCD affected areas. Based on the diffused image and thickness map, a complex map is created. From this complex map; FCD areas can be easily identified. MRI brains of 48 subjects selected by neuroradiologists were given to computer scientists who developed the complex map for identifying the cortical dysplasia. The scientists were blinded to the MRI interpretation result of the neuroradiologist. The FCD could be identified in all the patients in whom surgery was done, however three patients had false positive lesions. More lesions were identified in patients in whom surgery was not performed and lesions were seen in few of the controls. These were considered as false positive. This computer aided detection technique using complex diffusion approach can help detect focal cortical dysplasia in patients with epilepsy.

7. The impact of focal spot size on clinical images

Gorham, Sinead M.; Brennan, Patrick C.

2009-02-01

The physical assessment of the spatial resolution produced by broad and fine focal spot sizes has been well established. There is however an evident lack of study into the impact of focal spot selection on clinical image quality. While the excessive use of the fine focus has an impact on tube life, the benefit of its use in radiological imaging should be investigated. Cadaver images were produced in order to compare the 0.8mm and 1.8mm focal spot sizes. The range of radiographic projections assessed included the medio-lateral ankle, antero-posterior (AP) knee, AP thoracic spine and horizontal beam lateral (HBL) lumbar spine. Five clinicians analysed the images using a 1 - 4 visual grading analysis score against a reference image to assess the visibility of specific anatomical criteria. A Mann- Whitney U statistical test was employed to assess the results. No significant statistical differences between the scores for the broad and fine focus images were found, although a non-significant higher score in image quality was shown for the fine compared with the broad focus images with large object to detector distance. No difference in image quality was shown for examinations traditionally produced with a fine focus. The study results questions the wide spread usage of fine foci for specific examinations, particularly for extremity examinations. Current practice based on international guidelines can lead to a reduced life and increased cost with little clinical benefit.

8. Real-time dynamic coupling of GPC-enhanced diffraction-limited focal spots

Villangca, Mark; Bañas, Andrew; Kopylov, Oleksii; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

2015-03-01

We have previously demonstrated on-demand dynamic coupling of an optically manipulated wave-guided optical waveguide (WOW) using diffractive techniques on a "point and shoot" approach. In this work, the generation of the coupling focal spots is done in real-time following the position of the WOW. Object-tracking routine has been added in the trapping program to get the position of the WOW. This approach allows continuous coupling of light through the WOWs which may be useful in some application. In addition, we include a GPC light shaper module in the holography setup to efficiently illuminate the spatial light modulator (SLM). The ability to switch from on-demand to continuous addressing with efficient illumination leverages our WOWs for potential applications in stimulation and nonlinear optics.

9. Anisotropic forces from spatially constrained focal adhesions mediate contact guidance directed cell migration.

PubMed

Ray, Arja; Lee, Oscar; Win, Zaw; Edwards, Rachel M; Alford, Patrick W; Kim, Deok-Ho; Provenzano, Paolo P

2017-04-12

Directed migration by contact guidance is a poorly understood yet vital phenomenon, particularly for carcinoma cell invasion on aligned collagen fibres. We demonstrate that for single cells, aligned architectures providing contact guidance cues induce constrained focal adhesion maturation and associated F-actin alignment, consequently orchestrating anisotropic traction stresses that drive cell orientation and directional migration. Consistent with this understanding, relaxing spatial constraints to adhesion maturation either through reduction in substrate alignment density or reduction in adhesion size diminishes the contact guidance response. While such interactions allow single mesenchymal-like cells to spontaneously 'sense' and follow topographic alignment, intercellular interactions within epithelial clusters temper anisotropic cell-substratum forces, resulting in substantially lower directional response. Overall, these results point to the control of contact guidance by a balance of cell-substratum and cell-cell interactions, modulated by cell phenotype-specific cytoskeletal arrangements. Thus, our findings elucidate how phenotypically diverse cells perceive ECM alignment at the molecular level.

10. Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting

Berge, B.; Peseux, J.

2000-10-01

We use electrocapillarity in order to change the contact angle of a transparent drop, thus realizing a lens of variable focal length (B. Berge, J. Peseux, Patent deposited in Grenoble France, October 8th 1997, numéro d'enregistrement national 97 12781). The key point is the application of gradients of wettability, which control the shape of the drop edge, in our case a centered circle of variable radius. The quality and reversibility of the lens are surprisingly good. The optical power variation can be 5 to 10 times the one of the human eye, for a comparable diameter, with a typical response time of 0.03 s and a dissipated power of a few mW.

11. Tri-focal tensor-based multiple video synchronization with subframe optimization.

PubMed

Lei, Cheng; Yang, Yee-Hong

2006-09-01

In this paper, we present a novel method for synchronizing multiple (more than two) uncalibrated video sequences recording the same event by free-moving full-perspective cameras. Unlike previous synchronization methods, our method takes advantage of tri-view geometry constraints instead of the commonly used two-view one for their better performance in measuring geometric alignment when video frames are synchronized. In particular, the tri-ocular geometric constraint of point/line features, which is evaluated by tri-focal transfer, is enforced when building the timeline maps for sequences to be synchronized. A hierarchical approach is used to reduce the computational complexity. To achieve subframe synchronization accuracy, the Levenberg-Marquardt method-based optimization is performed. The experimental results on several synthetic and real video datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method over previous methods in synchronizing full-perspective videos.

12. Low dark current LWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays at AIM

Haiml, M.; Eich, D.; Fick, W.; Figgemeier, H.; Hanna, S.; Mahlein, M.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

2016-05-01

Cryogenically cooled HgCdTe (MCT) quantum detectors are unequalled for applications requiring high imaging as well as high radiometric performance in the infrared spectral range. Compared with other technologies, they provide several advantages, such as the highest quantum efficiency, lower power dissipation compared to photoconductive devices, and fast response times, hence outperforming micro-bolometer arrays. AIM will present its latest results on n-on-p as well as p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode focal plane detector arrays at cut-off wavelengths >11 μm at 80 K. Dark current densities below the Rule'07 have been demonstrated for n-on-p devices. Slightly higher dark current densities and excellent cosmetics with very low cluster and point defect densities have been demonstrated for p-on-n devices.

13. Absence of hypoalbuminemia despite nephrotic proteinuria in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis secondary to polycythemia vera.

PubMed

Ulusoy, Sükrü; Ozkan, Gülsüm; Sönmez, Mehmet; Mungan, Sevdegül; Kaynar, Kübra; Cansiz, Muammer; Kazaz, Nazli

2010-01-01

In addition to displaying geographic variation, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has become the commonest cause of the nephrotic syndrome seen in adults in recent years. Secondary FSGS in particular, is observed when glomerular workload is increased. Polycythemia vera (PV) is a hematological disease characterized by abnormal proliferation in the erythroid series. The number of case reports belonging to glomerulonephritis secondary to PV is limited. In the literature, there are few reports of FSGS. One study pointed out that the presence of normoalbuminemia was detected in patients with FSGS secondary to hyperfiltration when there was nephrotic proteinuria. Here, we report a case of FSGS following a course with normoalbuminemia despite nephrotic range proteinuria developing secondary to PV. Our case is the first report in the literature with thes characteristics.

14. Intraplate stress field in South America from earthquake focal mechanisms

Assumpção, Marcelo; Dias, Fábio L.; Zevallos, Ivan; Naliboff, John B.

2016-11-01

We present an updated compilation of earthquake focal mechanisms in Brazil together with focal mechanisms from the sub-Andean region (mainly from global CMT catalogs). All earthquakes in the sub-Andean region show reverse (majority) or strike-slip faulting mechanisms. Focal mechanisms in Brazil show reverse, strike-slip and normal faulting. Focal mechanisms of nearby earthquakes in the same tectonic environment were grouped and inverted for the stress tensor. In the sub-Andean region, stresses are compressional, as expected, with the principal major compression (S1) roughly E-W, on average. A slight rotation of S1 can be observed and is controlled by the orientation of the Andean plateau. In the sub-Andean region, the intermediate principal stress (S2) is also compressional (i.e., larger than the lithostatic pressure, Sv), a feature that is not always reproduced in numerical models published in the literature. In mid-plate South America stresses seem to vary in nature and orientation. In SE Brazil and the Chaco-Pantanal basins, S1 tends to be oriented roughly E-W with S2 approximately equal to S3. This stress pattern changes to purely compressional (both SHmax and Shmin larger than Sv) in the São Francisco craton. A rotation of SHmax from E-W to SE-NW is suggested towards the Amazon region. Along the Atlantic margin, the regional stresses are very much affected by coastal effects (due to continent/ocean spreading stresses as well as flexural effects from sediment load at the continental margin). This coastal effect tends to make SHmax parallel to the coastline and Shmin (usually S3) perpendicular to the coastline. Few breakout data and in-situ measurements are available in Brazil and are generally consistent with the pattern derived from the earthquake focal mechanisms. Although numerical models of global lithospheric stresses tend to reproduce the main large-scale features in most mid-plate areas, the S1 rotation from ∼E-W in SE Brazil to SE-NW in the Amazon

15. Aristotle's illusion reveals interdigit functional somatosensory alterations in focal hand dystonia.

PubMed

Tinazzi, Michele; Marotta, Angela; Fasano, Alfonso; Bove, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Squintani, Giovanna; Pozzer, Lara; Fiorio, Mirta

2013-03-01

In focal hand dystonia, the cortical somatosensory representation of the fingers is abnormal, with overlapping receptive fields and reduced interdigit separation. These abnormalities are associated with deficits in sensory perception, as previously demonstrated by applying tactile stimuli to one finger at a time. What is still unknown is whether the sensory deficits can be observed when tactile perception involves more than one finger. To address this issue, we applied 'Aristotle's illusion' to 15 patients with focal hand dystonia, 15 patients with dystonia not affecting the hand (blepharospasm and cervical dystonia) and 15 healthy control subjects. In this illusion, one object touching the contact point of two crossed fingertips is perceived as two objects by a blindfolded subject. The same object placed between two parallel fingertips is correctly perceived as one. The illusory doubling sensation is because of the fact that the contact point between the crossed fingers consists of non-adjacent and functionally unrelated skin regions, which usually send sensory signals to separate spots in the somatosensory cortex. In our study, participants were touched by one sphere between the second-third digits, the second-fourth digits and the fourth-fifth digits of both hands, either in crossed or in parallel position, and had to refer whether they felt one or two stimuli. The percentage of 'two stimuli' responses was an index of the illusory doubling. Both healthy control subjects and dystonic patients presented Aristotle's illusion when the fingers were crossed. However, patients with focal hand dystonia presented a significant reduction of the illusion when the sphere was placed between the crossed fourth and fifth digits of the affected hand. This reduction correlated with the severity of motor disease at the fingers. Similar findings were not observed in non-hand dystonia and control groups. The reduction of Aristotle's illusion in non-affected fingers and its

16. Curved-Focal-Plane Arrays Using Deformed-Membrane Photodetectors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2004-01-01

A versatile and simple approach to the design and fabrication of curved-focal-plane arrays of silicon-based photodetectors is being developed. This approach is an alternative to the one described in "Curved Focal-Plane Arrays Using Back- Illuminated High-Purity Photodetectors" (NPO-30566), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 10a. As in the cited prior article, the basic idea is to improve the performance of an imaging instrument and simplify the optics needed to obtain a given level of performance by making an image sensor (in this case, an array of photodetectors) conform to a curved focal surface, instead of designing the optics to project an image onto a flat focal surface. There is biological precedent for curved-focal-surface designs: retinas - the image sensors in eyes - conform to the naturally curved focal surfaces of eye lenses. The present approach is applicable to both front-side- and back-side-illuminated, membrane photodetector arrays and is being demonstrated on charge-coupled devices (CCDs). The very-large scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry of such a CCD or other array is fabricated on the front side of a silicon substrate, then the CCD substrate is attached temporarily to a second substrate for mechanical support, then material is removed from the back to obtain the CCD membrane, which typically has a thickness between 10 and 20 m. In the case of a CCD designed to operate in back-surface illumination, delta doping can be performed after thinning to enhance the sensitivity. This approach is independent of the design and method of fabrication of the front-side VLSI circuitry and does not involve any processing of a curved silicon substrate. In this approach, a third substrate would be prepared by polishing one of its surfaces to a required focal-surface curvature. A CCD membrane fabricated as described above would be pressed against, deformed into conformity with, and bonded to, the curved surface. The technique used to press and

17. Effect of ephrin-B2 on the expressions of angiopoietin-1 and -2 after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

PubMed Central

Xiao, Hui; Huang, Qing; Wang, Jia-qi; Deng, Qing-qing; Gu, Wen-ping

2016-01-01

Ephrin-B2 has been shown to participate in angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia was prepared by focal middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 24-hour reperfusion. Then, ephrin-B2 protein was administered intracerebroventricularly for 3 consecutive days via a micro-osmotic pump. Western blot assay and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR demonstrated the expression levels of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) mRNA and protein in the penumbra cortex of the ephrin-B2 treated group were decreased at day 4 after reperfusion, and increased at day 28, while the expression levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) were highly up-regulated at all time points tested. Double immunofluorescent staining indicated that Ang-1 and Ang-2 were both expressed in vascular endothelial cells positive for CD31. These findings indicate that ephrin-B2 influences the expressions of Ang-1 and Ang-2 during angiogenesis following transient focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:28123421

18. Point set registration: coherent point drift.

PubMed

Myronenko, Andriy; Song, Xubo

2010-12-01

Point set registration is a key component in many computer vision tasks. The goal of point set registration is to assign correspondences between two sets of points and to recover the transformation that maps one point set to the other. Multiple factors, including an unknown nonrigid spatial transformation, large dimensionality of point set, noise, and outliers, make the point set registration a challenging problem. We introduce a probabilistic method, called the Coherent Point Drift (CPD) algorithm, for both rigid and nonrigid point set registration. We consider the alignment of two point sets as a probability density estimation problem. We fit the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) centroids (representing the first point set) to the data (the second point set) by maximizing the likelihood. We force the GMM centroids to move coherently as a group to preserve the topological structure of the point sets. In the rigid case, we impose the coherence constraint by reparameterization of GMM centroid locations with rigid parameters and derive a closed form solution of the maximization step of the EM algorithm in arbitrary dimensions. In the nonrigid case, we impose the coherence constraint by regularizing the displacement field and using the variational calculus to derive the optimal transformation. We also introduce a fast algorithm that reduces the method computation complexity to linear. We test the CPD algorithm for both rigid and nonrigid transformations in the presence of noise, outliers, and missing points, where CPD shows accurate results and outperforms current state-of-the-art methods.

19. Added Value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound on Biopsies of Focal Hepatic Lesions Invisible on Fusion Imaging Guidance

PubMed Central

Kang, Tae Wook; Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Mimi; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Seong Hyun; Ha, Sang Yun

2017-01-01

Objective To assess whether contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid can improve the lesion conspicuity and feasibility of percutaneous biopsies for focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging of real-time ultrasonography (US) with computed tomography/magnetic resonance images, and evaluate its impact on clinical decision making. Materials and Methods The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study. Between June 2013 and January 2015, 711 US-guided percutaneous biopsies were performed for focal hepatic lesions. Biopsies were performed using CEUS for guidance if lesions were invisible on fusion imaging. We retrospectively evaluated the number of target lesions initially invisible on fusion imaging that became visible after applying CEUS, using a 4-point scale. Technical success rates of biopsies were evaluated based on histopathological results. In addition, the occurrence of changes in clinical decision making was assessed. Results Among 711 patients, 16 patients (2.3%) were included in the study. The median size of target lesions was 1.1 cm (range, 0.5–1.9 cm) in pre-procedural imaging. After CEUS, 15 of 16 (93.8%) focal hepatic lesions were visualized. The conspicuity score was significantly increased after adding CEUS, as compared to that on fusion imaging (p < 0.001). The technical success rate of biopsy was 87.6% (14/16). After biopsy, there were changes in clinical decision making for 11 of 16 patients (68.8%). Conclusion The addition of CEUS could improve the conspicuity of focal hepatic lesions invisible on fusion imaging. This dual guidance using CEUS and fusion imaging may affect patient management via changes in clinical decision-making. PMID:28096725

20. Dynamics of rabbit brain edema in focal lesion and perilesion area after traumatic brain injury: a MRI study.

PubMed

Wei, Xiao-Er; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Li, Yue-Hua; Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Wen-Bin

2012-09-20

To understand the dynamics of brain edema in different areas after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rabbit, we used dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to monitor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cytotoxic brain edema after weight drop-induced TBI in rabbit. The dynamics of BBB permeability and brain edema were quantified using K(trans) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the focal and perifocal lesion areas, as well as the area contralateral to the lesion. In the focal lesion area, K(trans) began to increase at 3 h post-TBI, peaked at 3 days, and decreased gradually while remaining higher than sham injury animals at 7 and 30 days. ADC was more variable, increased slightly at 3 h, decreased to its lowest value at 7 days, then increased to a peak at 30 days. In the perifocal lesion area, K(trans) began to increase at 1 day, peaked at 3-7 days, and returned to control level by 30 days. ADC showed a trend to increase at 1 day, followed by a continuous increase thereafter. In the contralateral area, no changes in K(trans) and ADC were observed at any time-point. These data demonstrate that different types of brain edema predominate in the focal and perifocal lesion areas. Specifically cytotoxic edema was predominant in the focal lesion area while vasogenic edema predominated in the perifocal area in acute phase. Furthermore, secondary opening of the BBB after TBI may appear if secondary injury is not controlled. BBB damage may be a driving force for cytotoxic brain edema and could be a new target for TBI intervention.

1. Shuttle infrared telescope facility pointing and control system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lorell, K. R.; Barrows, W. F.; Matsumoto, Y. T.

1981-01-01

The Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is being designed as a 0.85 m cryogenically cooled telescope capable of a three order of magnitude improvement over currently available infrared instruments. The SIRTF requires that the image at the focal plane be stabilized to better than 0.25 arcsec with an absolute accuracy of 1.0 arcsec. Current pointing-mount performance simulations indicate that neither of these requirements can be met without additional stabilization. The SIRTF pointing and control system will utilize gyro outputs, star field position measurements from a focal plane fine guidance sensor, and a steerable secondary mirror to provide the necessary stabilization and pointing control. The charge coupled device fine guidance sensor tracks multiple stars simultaneously and, through the use of multistar processing algorithms in a high performance microcomputer, generates three-axis attitude errors and gyro-drift estimates to correct the pointing-mount gyros. A high-bandwidth feedforward loop, driven directly from the pointing-mount gyro package, controls the steering mirror in order to correct disturbances not compensated for by the pointing-mount control system. A prototype design for the SIRTF pointing and control system is described in detail. Performance analyses made using a digital simulation of the pointing and control system as well as experimental data obtained in laboratory and field test measurements are presented.

2. Rapid Measurement of Individual Cone Photoreceptor Pointing using Focus Diversity

PubMed Central

Morris, Hugh J.; Codona, Johanan L.; Blanco, Leonardo; Doble, Nathan

2015-01-01

A novel method is presented to rapidly measure the pointing direction of individual human cone photoreceptors using adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging. For a fixed entrance pupil position, the focal plane is rapidly modulated to image the guided light in various axial planes. For cones with different pointing directions, this focus diversity will cause a shift in their apparent position, allowing for their relative pointing to be determined. For four normal human subjects, retinal images were acquired, registered and the positions of individual cones tracked throughout the dataset. Variation in cone tilt was 0.02 radians, agreeing with other objective measurements on the same subjects at the same retinal locations. PMID:26368692

3. An optoacoustic point source for acoustic scale model measurements.

PubMed

Bolaños, Javier Gómez; Pulkki, Ville; Karppinen, Pasi; Hæggström, Edward

2013-04-01

A massless acoustic source is proposed for scale model work. This source is generated by focusing a pulsed laser beam to rapidly heat the air at the focal point. This produces an expanding small plasma ball which generates a sonic impulse that may be used as an acoustic point source. Repeatability, frequency response, and directivity of the source were measured to show that it can serve as a massless point source. The impulse response of a rectangular space was determined using this type of source. A good match was found between the predicted and the measured impulse responses of the space.

4. Temperament and character properties of primary focal hyperhidrosis patients

PubMed Central

2013-01-01

Background Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a health problem, which has negative effects on the patient's quality of life and significantly affects the patients’ daily activities, social and business life. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperament and character properties of patients diagnosed with primary focal hyperhidrosis. Methods Fifty-six primary focal hyperhidrosis (22.42 ± 7.80) and 49 control subjects (24.48 ± 5.17) participated in the study. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for PFH were referred to psychiatry clinic where the subjects were evaluated through Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I and Temperament and Character Inventory. Results In order to examine the difference between the PFH and control group in terms of temperament and character properties, one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted. In terms of temperament properties, PFH group took significantly higher scores than control group in Fatigability and asthenia dimension. In terms of character properties, PFH group scored significantly lower than control group in Purposefulness , Resourcefulness , Self-Directedness and scored significantly higher than control group in Self-forgetfulness and Self-Transcendence. Conclusion Temperament and character features of PFH patients were different from healthy group and it was considered that these features were affected by many factors including genetic, biological, environmental, socio-cultural elements. During the follow-up of PFH cases, psychiatric evaluation is important and interventions, especially psychotherapeutic interventions can increase the chances of success of the dermatological treatments and can have a positive impact on the quality of life and social cohesion of chronic cases. PMID:23311945

5. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

SciTech Connect

Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

2014-12-09

A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

6. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: a multifocal oral human papillomavirus infection.

PubMed

Flaitz, C M

2000-01-01

Widespread, slightly elevated and confluent nodules are observed throughout the oral mucosa in a young Hispanic girl. Repeated irritation of the soft tissues from a compromised occlusion is an aggravating factor for the spread of these lesions. A diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia, a human papillomavirus infection, is made following histopathologic diagnosis and viral typing. Recognition of this specific type of warts is important in order to avoid the mistaken identification of condyloma acuminata, which may have significant repercussions in the life of a young child.

7. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia in a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca).

PubMed

Sá, L R; DiLoreto, C; Leite, M C; Wakamatsu, A; Santos, R T; Catão-Dias, J L

2000-09-01

Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare and seldom reported disease in animals and humans induced by a papillomavirus. The present report is the first description of this disease in a Neotropical primate, a howler monkey (Alouatta fusca). The diagnosis was based on gross and microscopic findings. The generic papillomavirus antigen was identified by immunohistochemistry and was found not to be related to any human papillomavirus DNA tested by in situ hybridization. This virus is probably a specific papillomavirus of the howler monkey (HMPV).

8. Focal Choroidal Excavation in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy: Case Report.

PubMed

Esfahani, Mohammad Riazi; Esfahani, Hamid Riazi; Mahmoudi, Alireza; Johari, Mohammad Karim; Hemati, Karim

2015-05-01

Focal choroidal excavation (FCE) was first reported as a choroidal posteriorly excavated zone without any scleral change. Choroidal excavation also divided into conforming and nonconforming type. Numerous reports demonstrated association between FCE and other disease such as choroidal neovascularization and central serous choroidoretinopathy. Here, we report a rare case of FCE in a patient with Best disease. The patient was diagnosed by spectoral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the second report of choroidal excavation in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy.

9. Multifocal projection: a multiprojector technique for increasing focal depth.

PubMed

Bimber, Oliver; Emmerling, Andreas

2006-01-01

In this paper, we describe a novel multifocal projection concept that applies conventional video projectors and camera feedback. Multiple projectors with differently adjusted focal planes, but overlapping image areas are used. They can be either differently positioned in the environment or can be integrated into a single projection unit. The defocus created on an arbitrary surface is estimated automatically for each projector pixel. If this is known, a final image with minimal defocus can be composed in real-time from individual pixel contributions of all projectors. Our technique is independent of the surfaces' geometry, color and texture, the environment light, as well as of the projectors' position, orientation, luminance, and chrominance.

10. Focal plane detectors possible detector technologies for OWL/AIRWATCH

SciTech Connect

Flyckt, Esso

1998-06-15

New satellite-born projects OWL and AIRWATCH will need single-photon focal-plane detectors of a million pixels in a design which is optimized to the focusing optics and electronics at acceptable cost. We discuss different phototube possibilities and their pros and cons with crude cost estimates. We conclude that a multichannel-photomultiplier solution is safe. A better compromise may be to adapt a 6 or 9 inch X-ray image intensifier tube or develop a 12 inch image intensifier for detecting individual photons, and adapt the optics to have many mirror modules. The possibility of developing super-large-area phototubes is also discussed.

11. Atypical traumatic craniocervical junction focal spinal subdural hematoma.

PubMed

Aydin, M Volkan; Sen, Orhan; Tufan, Kadir; Caner, Hakan

2006-01-01

Spinal subdural hematoma (SSDH) is a rare entity and post-traumatic cervical SSDH is very rare. Review of the literature revealed 8 reported cases of traumatic SSDH and only 2 were cervical. The exact mechanism and pathogenesis of SSDHs are unclear. There are still controversies about the source of bleeding and mechanisms of formation of a hematoma. Here we report a case of a unique traumatic craniocervical junction focal subdural hematoma in an 8-year-old boy and discuss the possible mechanisms of SSDHs in trauma cases.

12. Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia in the thoracic vertebra: A case report

PubMed Central

SUN, BO; ZHANG, ZHI HONG; CHEN, XUAN YING; HUANG, SHAN HU; LIU, ZHI LI

2014-01-01

Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FFCD) is a rare, paraneoplastic disease that often presents in children and teenagers. Previous studies have reported cases of lesions in the proximal tibia and distal femur, as well as lesions in the upper extremities. The present study describes a case of FFCD on the transverse process and the rib. The imaging findings were found to correspond with the typical observations of FFCD and a biopsy from the nidus revealed pathological results similar to those of previous reports. Thus, the present study demonstrated that FFCD affects tubular bones as well as flat bones. Further studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanism and treatment of FFCD. PMID:25202364

13. Analysis and modeling for thermal focal plane arrays

Tuer, T. W.; Ball, B. W.; Freeling, J. R.; Lennington, J. W.; Lindquist, G. H.

1984-07-01

The development of a first principles computer simulation of a generic pyroelectric thermal detector is described. Formulation of the pertinent equations (based on a thorough literature survey) is presented. This simulation incorporates a finite difference treatment of the transient three-dimensional thermal response of composite focal plane arrays, with treatments of the signal generation, readout and processing including all pertinent noise sources. A number of simplified problems having analytical solutions were treated to validate various portions of the simulation to within a few percent. Performance estimates were made for conceptual several configurations and materials.

14. [The focal control of malaria. Focal treatment using chemoprophylaxis and home insecticide spraying for the control of malaria in southern Mexico].

PubMed

Rodríguez López, M H; Loyola Elizondo, E G; Betanzos Reyes, A F; Villarreal Treviño, C; Bown, D N

1994-01-01

The efficacy of a focal control strategy for malaria was evaluated against a conventional scheme carried out in two groups of villages in the Soconusco, southern Chiapas, Mexico. Focal control consisted on the prophylactic administration of antimalarial drugs to people who had experienced malaria episodes two years previous to the study. Homes of these malaria patients were also sprayed indoors with DDT. The traditional strategy consisted on the treatment of all patients with antimalarial drugs as well as indoor spraying with DDT of all houses in the villages. Results from the focal control demonstrated similar efficacy as compared to conventional. However, in terms of cost, focal control was four fold more economical. Focal control had an additional advantage of incorporating community participation within the control operations.

15. Super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light by ultra-long focal length planar lens based on binary amplitude-phase modulation.

PubMed

Chen, Gang; Li, Yuyan; Yu, Anping; Wen, Zhongquan; Dai, Luru; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zhihai; Jiang, Senlin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xianyou; Lin, Feng

2016-06-29

In traditional optics, the focal spot size of a conventional lens is restricted to the diffraction limit 0.5λ/NA, where λ is the wavelength in vacuum and NA is the numerical aperture of the lens. Recently, various sub-diffraction focusing optical devices have been demonstrated, but they usually have short focal length and high numerical aperture. Moreover, they always suffer the problem of huge sidelobes near the focal spot and small field of view, especially when the focal spot size is less than the super-oscillation criteria 0.38λ/NA. To address the problem, here, we reported a far-field sub-diffraction point-focusing lens based on binary phase and amplitude modulation with ultra-long focal length 252.8 μm (399.5λ) and small numerical aperture 0.78, and experimentally demonstrated a super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light with spot size 287 nm (0.454λ), smaller than the diffraction limit 0.64λ and the super-oscillation criterion 0.487λ. What's more, on the focal plane, in the measured area within the radius of 142λ, the largest sidelobe intensity is less than 26% of the central lobe intensity. Such ultra-long distance super-oscillatory focusing with small sidelobes and large field of view has great potential applications in far-field super-resolution microscopy, ultra-high-density optical storage and nano-fabrication.

16. Super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light by ultra-long focal length planar lens based on binary amplitude-phase modulation

Chen, Gang; Li, Yuyan; Yu, Anping; Wen, Zhongquan; Dai, Luru; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zhihai; Jiang, Senlin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xianyou; Lin, Feng

2016-06-01

In traditional optics, the focal spot size of a conventional lens is restricted to the diffraction limit 0.5λ/NA, where λ is the wavelength in vacuum and NA is the numerical aperture of the lens. Recently, various sub-diffraction focusing optical devices have been demonstrated, but they usually have short focal length and high numerical aperture. Moreover, they always suffer the problem of huge sidelobes near the focal spot and small field of view, especially when the focal spot size is less than the super-oscillation criteria 0.38λ/NA. To address the problem, here, we reported a far-field sub-diffraction point-focusing lens based on binary phase and amplitude modulation with ultra-long focal length 252.8 μm (399.5λ) and small numerical aperture 0.78, and experimentally demonstrated a super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light with spot size 287 nm (0.454λ), smaller than the diffraction limit 0.64λ and the super-oscillation criterion 0.487λ. What’s more, on the focal plane, in the measured area within the radius of 142λ, the largest sidelobe intensity is less than 26% of the central lobe intensity. Such ultra-long distance super-oscillatory focusing with small sidelobes and large field of view has great potential applications in far-field super-resolution microscopy, ultra-high-density optical storage and nano-fabrication.

17. Focal performance analysis of closed-boundary cylindrical microlenses made of uniaxial crystal

Lin, Jie; Ye, Jiasheng; Liu, Jianlong; Liu, Shutian

2007-11-01

In this paper, we investigate the focal performance of closed-boundary cylindrical microlenses (CBCMs) made of anisotropic uniaxial crystal based on rigorous electromagnetic theory and the boundary element method (BEM). For both TE and TM polarizations, focal performances of the anisotropic CBCMs with different f-numbers are studied in detail. The influence of illumination type on focal performances of CBCMs are also considered. Several focal performance quantities, such as the real focal position, the focal spot size, the diffraction efficiency and the normalized transmitted power, are presented. Numerical results indicate that the focal performance of anisotropic CBCMs made of uniaxial crystal differs greatly in the case of different polarizations. Especially, there exists a large focal shift, which is due to the birefringence effect of a uniaxial crystal. In contrast, for conventional isotropic CBCMs, the focal characteristics for different polarizations are similar. Meanwhile, our analysis indicates that the focal performances of CBCMs with small f-number are sensitive to illumination type. It is expected that the CBCMs made of uniaxial crystal should be used as a micropolarization optical filter in micro-optical systems and also offer useful help in application of CBCMs with small f-number.

18. Temperature modulation of cerebral depolarization during focal cerebral ischemia in rats: correlation with ischemic injury.

PubMed

Chen, Q; Chopp, M; Bodzin, G; Chen, H

1993-05-01

The role of cerebral depolarizations in focal cerebral ischemia is unknown. We therefore measured the direct current (DC) electrical activity in the cortex of Wistar rats subjected to transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Focal ischemia was induced for 90 min by insertion of an intraluminal filament to occlude the MCA. To modulate cell damage, we subjected the rats to hypothermic (30 degrees C, n = 4), normothermic (37 degrees C, n = 4), and hyperthermic (40 degrees C, n = 6) ischemia. Controlled temperatures were also maintained during 1 h of reperfusion. Continuous cortical DC potential changes were measured using two active Ag-AgCl electrodes placed in the cortical lesion. Animals were killed 1 week after ischemia. The brains were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, for evaluation of neuronal damage, and calculation of infarct volume. All animals exhibited an initial depolarization within 30 min of ischemia, followed by a single depolarization event in hypothermic animals, and multiple periodic depolarization events in both normothermic and hyperthermic animals. Hyperthermic animals exhibited significantly more (p < 0.05) DC potential deflections (n = 6.17 +/- 0.67) than normothermic animals (n = 2.75 +/- 0.96). The ischemic infarct volume (% of hemisphere) was significantly different for the various groups; hypothermic animals exhibited no measurable infarct volume, while the ischemic infarct volume was 10.2 +/- 12.3% in normothermic animals and 36.5 +/- 3.4% in hyperthermic animals (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was detected between the volume of infarct and number of depolarization events (r = 0.90, p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

19. Focal neurological disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

PubMed

Skiest, Daniel J

2002-01-01

Focal neurological disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome may be caused by various opportunistic pathogens and malignancies, including Toxoplasma gondii, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus-related primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Diagnosis may be difficult, because the findings of lumbar puncture, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging are relatively nonspecific. Newer techniques have led to improved diagnostic accuracy of these conditions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid specimens is useful for diagnosis of PML, CNS lymphoma, and CMV encephalitis. Recent studies have indicated the diagnostic utility of new neuroimaging techniques, such as single-photon emission CT and positron emission tomography. The combination of PCR and neuroimaging techniques may obviate the need for brain biopsy in selected cases. However, stereotactic brain biopsy, which is associated with relatively low morbidity rates, remains the reference standard for diagnosis. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the prognosis of several focal CNS processes, most notably toxoplasmosis, PML, and CMV encephalitis.

20. Fast speed MWIR imager for uncooled focal plane array

Lin, Liu

2007-12-01

Recent advances of uncooled detector technology especially the development of uncooled micro-bolometer array hold promise for us to develop low-cost and compact MWIR earth observation imager. For comparative lower radiometric performance of uncooled focal plane array, fast speed optical system operating in large spectral bands is compatible. In addition, in order to exhibit advantages over imagers based on cooled detector technology, the optical system should be as compact as possible which means fewer elements, smaller size and light weight. In this article, a high speed optical design meeting these requirement is provided with 100mm focal length, F/1 F number,+/-2.5°field of view woking in 3-5um wave band. The fast speed MWIR imager has properties mentioned as follows: First, the optical system utilizes a hybrid system including refractive and diffractive elements. Second, the optical system realizes athermalization in simple passive way through distributing power among the refractive elements. It can work under typical temperature scope from -20°C to 60°C for typical space application. Third, Because of high speed aperture, the design makes use of aspheric surface to correct spherical aberration and spherochromatism .Finally, we use Ge and Si material. instead of expensive ZnS material.

1. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

PubMed

Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

2016-10-04

Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

2. Brain polyphosphoinositide metabolism during focal ischemia in rat cortex

SciTech Connect

Lin, T.N.; Liu, T.H.; Xu, J.; Hsu, C.Y.; Sun, G.Y. )

1991-04-01

Using a rat model of stroke, we examined the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the metabolism of polyphosphoinositides by injecting {sup 32}Pi into both the left and right cortices. After equilibration of the label for 2-3 hours, ischemia induced a significant decrease (p less than 0.001) in the concentrations of labeled phosphatidyl 4,5-bisphosphates (66-78%) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (64-67%) in the right middle cerebral artery cortex of four rats. The phospholipid labeling pattern in the left middle cerebral artery cortex, which sustained only mild ischemia and no permanent tissue damage, was not different from that of two sham-operated controls. However, when {sup 32}Pi was injected 1 hour after the ischemic insult, there was a significant decrease (p less than 0.01) in the incorporation of label into the phospholipids in both cortices of four ischemic rats compared with four sham-operated controls. Furthermore, differences in the phospholipid labeling pattern were observed in the left cortex compared with the sham-operated controls. The change in labeling pattern was attributed to the partial reduction in blood flow following ligation of the common carotid arteries. We provide a sensitive procedure for probing the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the polyphosphoinositide signaling pathway in the brain, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury.

3. Prostate focused ultrasound focal therapy--imaging for the future.

PubMed

Rouvière, Olivier; Gelet, Albert; Crouzet, Sébastien; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

2012-12-01

Treatment of prostate cancer using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focal therapy will become a reliable treatment option only if several conditions are fulfilled. These conditions concern patient selection, assessment of the tumour location and aggressiveness, evaluation of target tissue destruction, and detection of local recurrence or appearance of new tumours. Regarding patient selection, standard transrectal biopsies are not accurate enough and, although perineal template biopsies can detect tumours, they are invasive, expensive procedures, and there is a risk of incidental detection of insignificant cancers. In turn, multiparametric MRI is accurate for detecting and localizing high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) cancers and may provide non-invasive assessment of tumour aggressiveness. Moreover, contrast-enhanced imaging-ultrasonography or MRI-can assess post-HIFU tissue destruction and provide accurate detection of tumour recurrence, which is a key element for follow up. This Perspectives article will assess whether our current methods for cancer diagnosis, tissue targeting, and treatment follow up are accurate enough to allow the design of robust HIFU focal therapy protocols.

4. Rat model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere

PubMed Central

Zhang, Hua; Shen, Yan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Huanmin

2015-01-01

In the human brain, the dominant hemisphere is more complex than the non-dominant hemisphere. Hence, cerebral ischemia of the dominant hemisphere often leads to serious consequences. This study aims to establish a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere. The quadruped feeding test was used to screen 70 male Sprague Dawley rats. From this test, 48 rats with right paw preference were selected and randomly assigned numbers. Half were assigned to the dominant hemisphere ischemia (DHI) group, and the other half were assigned to the non-dominant hemisphere ischemia (NDHI) group. The middle cerebral artery was occluded 2 h before reperfusion. Neurological functions were tested. TTC and HE staining were performed. The volume of cerebral infarction was calculated. Rats in the DHI group had significantly worse neurological scores than rats in the NDHI group (P < 0.05). TTC staining indicated ischemia had more severe consequences in the dominant hemisphere than in the non-dominant hemisphere. The dominant hippocampus indicated severe neuronal loss and disorderly cellular arrangement. The volume of cerebral infarction was also greater in the DHI group compared to the NDHI group (P < 0.05). Compared to MCA occlusion in the non-dominant hemisphere, MCA occlusion in the dominant hemisphere caused greater impairment in neurological functions. The proposed rodent model is reliable and has high levels of reproducibility. Therefore, his model can be reliably for investigating the mechanism of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere of human brains. PMID:25785023

5. Integrin activation and focal complex formation in cardiac hypertrophy

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser, M.; Willey, C. D.; Jiang, W.; Cooper, G. 4th; Menick, D. R.; Zile, M. R.; Kuppuswamy, D.

2000-01-01

Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by both remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypertrophic growth of the cardiocytes. Here we show increased expression and cytoskeletal association of the ECM proteins fibronectin and vitronectin in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium. These changes are accompanied by cytoskeletal binding and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925, c-Src at Tyr-416, recruitment of the adapter proteins p130(Cas), Shc, and Nck, and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1/2. A synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif of fibronectin and vitronectin was used to stimulate adult feline cardiomyocytes cultured on laminin or within a type-I collagen matrix. Whereas cardiocytes under both conditions showed RGD-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, only collagen-embedded cells exhibited cytoskeletal assembly of FAK, c-Src, Nck, and Shc. In RGD-stimulated collagen-embedded cells, FAK was phosphorylated only at Tyr-397 and c-Src association occurred without Tyr-416 phosphorylation and p130(Cas) association. Therefore, c-Src activation is not required for its cytoskeletal binding but may be important for additional phosphorylation of FAK. Overall, our study suggests that multiple signaling pathways originate in pressure-overloaded heart following integrin engagement with ECM proteins, including focal complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, and many of these pathways can be activated in cardiomyocytes via RGD-stimulated integrin activation.

6. [Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: prognosis of chronic renal failure].

PubMed

Razukeviciene, Loreta; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne

2003-01-01

We analyzed 19 patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS): 11 males and 8 females (mean age 38.3 yrs. (SD 16.4), who were under observation for 39.4 months (SD 17.2). At the moment of renal biopsy 73.7% of patients had arterial hypertension, 52.6%--nephrotic proteinuria, 36.9%--chronic renal failure. Global glomerulosclerosis was present in 14 biopsies (73.7%), and intersticial fibrosis--in 13 biopsies (68.4%). The results of analysis showed multiple risk factors for progression of renal failure: initial renal failure (p=0.005), proteinuria (> or =3 g/l) (p=0.005), expressed glomerulosclerosis (p=0.005) and expressed interstitial fibrosis (p=0.034). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis were found to have a relatively bad long-term prognosis--the renal survival rate in 5 years was 77.8%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that expressed glomerulosclerosis was risk factor (logrank p=0.016, Breslov p=0.043) associated with end-stage renal disease in 5 years.

7. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

1992-01-01

This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

8. Encephalitozoon cuniculi causes focal anterior cataract and uveitis in dogs.

PubMed

Nell, B; Csokai, J; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Maaß, G

2015-01-01

Three mongrel dogs, aged 10 months (case 1), 14 months (case 2) and 7.5 years (case 3), were presented because of ophthalmologic disorders of 4 months, 6 months and 7 years duration, respectively. All three dogs were offspring of stray dogs from Hungary and Serbia and had positive serum antibody titres against Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi. The two young dogs showed unilateral, the older dog bilateral chronic anterior uveitis with posterior synechia and focal anterior cortical cataract. The fundi that could be evaluated developed focal tapetal hyporeflective lesions in the course of the disease. Dogs 1 and 2 underwent removal of the lens via phacoemulsification. PCR of the lens material was positive for E. cuniculi strains IV and II, respectively. In dog 2 findings suggestive of microsporidia were detected underneath the anterior lens capsule by immunohistochemical staining. In all cases medical treatment consisted of systemic fenbendazole, prednisolone, and topical anti-inflammatory drugs, and additional brinzolamid/timolol for dog 3. For the time being all cases (follow up 23 months, 6 months and 3 months, respectively) are still on topical anti-inflammatory therapy. It is concluded that E. cuniculi infections can cause cataract and chorioretinal lesions in dogs.

9. [Recurrence of segmental and focal glomerulosclerosis in transplanted kidneys].

PubMed

Chocair, P R; Noronha, I L; Ianhez, L E; Arap, S; Sabbaga, E

1989-01-01

The course of 16 patients with segmental and focal glomerulosclerosis (SFGS) with kidney transplantation is reported. Ten out of 16 (group I) had the diagnosis histologically confirmed in their native kidneys. In 6 (group II) the diagnosis was suggested by the early development of SFGS in the graft and was considered a recurrence of the baseline disease. The recurrence (in group I) was 40% and the main clinical parameter was proteinuria, in nephrotic level, with early development in all cases (less than 60 days). In those patients who had an early development of the baseline disease (less than 4 years) the recurrence was greater, observed in 5 out of 8 grafts with 3 grafts lost due to the recurrence of focal glomerulosclerosis. On the other hand, the patients whose baseline disease had a longer period of development presented a better course of the recurrent glomerulosclerosis and no grafts were lost in this cases. We believe that renal transplantation of a live donor must be avoided in those patients with quick developing SFGS.

10. [Sense of personal identity and focal brain lesions].

PubMed

Morin, Catherine

2009-03-01

The sense of personal identity is an element of the Jasperian definition of self-conscience. Each of us is convinced of being a unique and stable individual, different from other individuals. These properties - stability ad coherence - belong to an image of ourselves that was proposed to us by the Other's look during the mirror phase. Brain focal lesions may threaten this certitude in two ways: 1) brain lesions result in deficiency, disability or handicap, which are experienced as a narcissistic injury. The patient questions himself about the image he offers to the Other's look, and, as a result, his sense of personal identity is unsettled; 2) a variety of focal brain lesions or dysfunctions may alter the activity of areas which are necessary for maintaining a stable image of the patients' body or self. This may lead patients to experience depersonalisation, autoscopy, somatoparaphrenic "delusions" or disturbed agency. The sense of personal identity may be disturbed during brief paroxystic or psychologically traumatic phenomena. However, this is not observed in chronic sequelae of brain lesions (e.g. right hemisphere syndrome or amnesic syndrome), even though the patients may present a broken up image of themselves.

11. Basic mechanisms leading to focal emphysema in coal workers' pneumoconiosis

SciTech Connect

Rom, W.N. )

1990-10-01

Coal miners develop focal emphysema characterized by dilatation of second- and third-order respiratory bronchioles with coal mine dust-laden macrophages infiltrating the wall. A reticulin network with small amounts of collagen and atrophy of smooth muscle occurs. To evaluate the mechanisms of lung injury associated with this lesion, 17 long-term non- or ex-smoking West Virginia underground coal miners underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and were compared to healthy nonsmoker and smoker controls. The coal miners had evidence of an alveolar macrophage-neutrophil alveolitis with a significant increase in neutrophils/microliter of epithelial lining fluid and an increased gallium lung scan index (206 +/- 26 units). Alveolar macrophages lavaged from coal miners spontaneously released exaggerated amounts of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in vitro compared to nonsmoking controls. Coal workers had significantly elevated levels of neutrophil elastase in BAL fluid complexed with alpha 1-antitrypsin (P less than 0.01) and normal levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin. An accumulation of activated, dust-laden inflammatory cells with increased release of oxidants and elastase may contribute to the development of focal emphysema identified at postmortem in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

12. Implications of the focal beam profile in serial femtosecond crystallography

SciTech Connect

Galli, Lorenzo; Chapman, Henry N.; Metcalf, Peter

2015-05-12

The photon density profile of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beam at the focal position is a critical parameter for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), but is difficult to measure because of the destructive power of the beam. A novel high intensity radiation induced phasing method (HIRIP) has been proposed as a general experimental approach for protein structure determination, but has proved to be sensitive to variations of the X-ray intensity, with uniform incident fluence desired for best performance. Here we show that experimental SFX data collected at the nano-focus chamber of the Coherent X-ray Imaging end-station at the Linac Coherent Light Source using crystals with a limited size distribution suggests an average profile of the X-ray beam that has a large variation of intensity. We propose a new method to improve the quality of high fluence data for HI-RIP, by identifying and removing diffraction patterns from crystals exposed to the low intensity region of the beam. The method requires crystals of average size comparable to the width of the focal spot.

13. Ambient and focal visual processing of naturalistic activity.

PubMed

Eisenberg, Michelle L; Zacks, Jeffrey M

2016-01-01

When people inspect a picture, they progress through two distinct phases of visual processing: an ambient, or exploratory, phase that emphasizes input from peripheral vision and rapid acquisition of low-frequency information, followed by a focal phase that emphasizes central vision, salient objects, and high-frequency information. Does this qualitative shift occur during dynamic scene viewing? If so, when? One possibility is that shifts to exploratory processing are triggered at subjective event boundaries. This shift would be adaptive, because event boundaries typically occur when activity features change and when activity becomes unpredictable. Here, we used a perceptual event segmentation task, in which people identified boundaries between meaningful units of activity, to test this hypothesis. In two studies, an eye tracker recorded eye movements and pupil size while participants first watched movies of actors engaged in everyday activities and then segmented them into meaningful events. Saccade amplitudes and fixation durations during the initial viewings suggest that event boundaries function much like the onset of a new picture during static picture presentation: Viewers initiate an ambient processing phase and then progress to focal viewing as the event progresses. These studies suggest that this shift in processing mode could play a role in the formation of mental representations of the current environment.

14. Antenna coupled detectors for 2D staring focal plane arrays

Gritz, Michael A.; Kolasa, Borys; Lail, Brian; Burkholder, Robert; Chen, Leonard

2013-06-01

Millimeter-wave (mmW)/sub-mmW/THz region of the electro-magnetic spectrum enables imaging thru clothing and other obscurants such as fog, clouds, smoke, sand, and dust. Therefore considerable interest exists in developing low cost millimeter-wave imaging (MMWI) systems. Previous MMWI systems have evolved from crude mechanically scanned, single element receiver systems into very complex multiple receiver camera systems. Initial systems required many expensive mmW integrated-circuit low-noise amplifiers. In order to reduce the cost and complexity of the existing systems, attempts have been made to develop new mmW imaging sensors employing direct detection arrays. In this paper, we report on Raytheon's recent development of a unique focal plane array technology, which operates broadly from the mmW through the sub-mmW/THz region. Raytheon's innovative nano-antenna based detector enables low cost production of 2D staring mmW focal plane arrays (mmW FPA), which not only have equivalent sensitivity and performance to existing MMWI systems, but require no mechanical scanning.

15. Focal striatal dopamine may potentiate dyskinesias in parkinsonian monkeys.

PubMed

Bankiewicz, Krystof S; Daadi, Marcel; Pivirotto, Philip; Bringas, John; Sanftner, Laura; Cunningham, Janet; Forsayeth, John R; Eberling, Jamie L

2006-02-01

Striatal neurons convert L-dopa to dopamine (DA) following gene transfer of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) via adeno-associated virus (AAV) in parkinsonian monkeys. We investigated whether AAV-AADC could reduce or eliminate L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) and side effects in MPTP-treated monkeys. Five monkeys were made parkinsonian by bilateral MPTP lesions. The optimal therapeutic dose of L-dopa was determined using an acute dose response regimen. After 3 weeks of chronic L-dopa treatment, AAV-AADC or control vector was bilaterally injected into the striatum. Animals were assessed for 6 months with the same L-dopa dosing as presurgery as well as chronic oral L-dopa treatment. Presurgery LID was observed at doses greater than 5 mg/kg. The AAV-AADC-treated animals displayed an average 7.3-fold decrease in the therapeutic dose of L-dopa throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Only AAV-AADC-treated monkeys were susceptible to dyskinesias even at sub-clinical doses. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed well-delineated foci of AADC within the striatum. These results suggest that high levels of focal DA were generated in response to L-dopa administration and may be responsible for the exacerbation of dyskinesias. This may be similar to focal dopaminergic activity in PD patients that developed off-drug or "runaway" dyskinesias following fetal mesencephalic grafts.

16. Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?

PubMed Central

2011-01-01

Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to fibromyalgia, and poorly defined pain complaints in general. Can MTPs be reproducibly identified? Do MTPs have valid objective findings, such as spontaneous electromyographic activity, muscle microdialysis evidence for an inflammatory milieu or visualization with newer ultrasound techniques? Is fibromyalgia a syndrome of multiple MTPs, or is focal muscle tenderness a manifestation of central sensitization? These issues are discussed with relevance to a recent paper reporting that manual palpation of active MTPs elicits the spontaneous pain experienced by fibromyalgia patients. PMID:21722339

17. Hotspot quantification of myocardial focal tracer uptake from molecular targeted SPECT/CT images: experimental validation

Liu, Yi-Hwa; Sahul, Zakir; Weyman, Christopher A.; Ryder, William J.; Dione, Donald P.; Dobrucki, Lawrence W.; Mekkaoui, Choukri; Brennan, Matthew P.; Hu, Xiaoyue; Hawley, Christi; Sinusas, Albert J.

2008-03-01

We have developed a new single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) hotspot quantification method incorporating extra cardiac activity correction and hotspot normal limit estimation. The method was validated for estimation accuracy of myocardial tracer focal uptake in a chronic canine model of myocardial infarction (MI). Dogs (n = 4) at 2 weeks post MI were injected with Tl-201 and a Tc-99m-labeled hotspot tracer targeted at matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). An external point source filled with Tc-99m was used for a reference of absolute radioactivity. Dual-isotope (Tc-99m/Tl-201) SPECT images were acquired simultaneously followed by an X-ray CT acquisition. Dogs were sacrificed after imaging for myocardial gamma well counting. Images were reconstructed with CT-based attenuation correction (AC) and without AC (NAC) and were quantified using our quantification method. Normal limits for myocardial hotspot uptake were estimated based on 3 different schemes: maximum entropy, meansquared-error minimization (MSEM) and global minimization. Absolute myocardial hotspot uptake was quantified from SPECT images using the normal limits and compared with well-counted radioactivity on a segment-by-segment basis (n = 12 segments/dog). Radioactivity was expressed as % injected dose (%ID). There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.78-0.92) between the estimated activity (%ID) derived using the SPECT quantitative approach and well-counting, independent of AC. However, SPECT quantification without AC resulted in the significant underestimation of radioactivity. Quantification using SPECT with AC and the MSEM normal limit yielded the best results compared with well-counting. In conclusion, focal myocardial "hotspot" uptake of a targeted radiotracer can be accurately quantified in vivo using a method that incorporates SPECT imaging with AC, an external reference, background scatter compensation, and a suitable normal limit. This hybrid SPECT/CT approach allows for the serial

18. A gait paradigm reveals different patterns of abnormal cerebellar motor learning in primary focal dystonias.

PubMed

Hoffland, B S; Veugen, L C; Janssen, M M H P; Pasman, J W; Weerdesteyn, V; van de Warrenburg, B P

2014-12-01

19. Focal amplification and oncogene dependency of GAB2 in breast cancer.

PubMed

Bocanegra, M; Bergamaschi, A; Kim, Y H; Miller, M A; Rajput, A B; Kao, J; Langerød, A; Han, W; Noh, D-Y; Jeffrey, S S; Huntsman, D G; Børresen-Dale, A-L; Pollack, J R

2010-02-04

DNA amplifications in breast cancer are frequent on chromosome 11q, in which multiple driver oncogenes likely reside in addition to cyclin D1 (CCND1). One such candidate, the scaffolding adapter protein, GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2), functions in ErbB signaling and was recently shown to enhance mammary epithelial cell proliferation, and metastasis of ERBB2 (HER2/neu)-driven murine breast cancer. However, the amplification status and function of GAB2 in the context of amplification remain undefined. In this study, by genomic profiling of 172 breast tumors, and fluorescence in situ hybridization validation in an independent set of 210 scorable cases, we observed focal amplification spanning GAB2 (11q14.1) independent of CCND1 (11q13.2) amplification, consistent with a driver role. Further, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of GAB2 in breast cancer lines (SUM52, SUM44PE and MDA468) with GAB2 amplification revealed a dependency on GAB2 for cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, survival and invasion, likely mediated through altered phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. GAB2 knockdown also reduced proliferation and survival in a cell line (BT474) with ERBB2 amplification, consistent with the possibility that GAB2 can function downstream of ERBB2. Our studies implicate focal amplification of GAB2 in breast carcinogenesis, and underscore an oncogenic role of scaffolding adapter proteins, and a potential new point of therapeutic intervention.

20. Differential neuroprotective effects of carnosine, anserine, and N-acetyl carnosine against permanent focal ischemia.

PubMed

Min, Jiangyong; Senut, Marie-Claude; Rajanikant, Krishnamurthy; Greenberg, Eric; Bandagi, Ram; Zemke, Daniel; Mousa, Ahmad; Kassab, Mounzer; Farooq, Muhammad U; Gupta, Rishi; Majid, Arshad

2008-10-01

Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has been shown to exhibit neuroprotection in rodent models of cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we further characterized the effects of carnosine treatment in a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and compared them with its related peptides anserine and N-acetylated carnosine. We also evaluated the efficacy of bestatin, a carnosinase inhibitor, in ameliorating ischemic brain damage. Permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO). Mice were subsequently randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (0.9% saline), carnosine, N-acetyl carnosine, anserine, bestatin alone, or bestatin with carnosine. Infarct size was examined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining 1, 3, and 7 days following pMCAO, and neurological function was evaluated using an 18-point-based scale. Brain levels of carnosine were measured in treated mice using high-performance liquid chromatography 1 day following pMCAO. We demonstrated that treatment with carnosine, but not its analogues, was able to significantly reduce infarct volume and improve neurological function compared with those in vehicle-treated mice. These beneficial effects were maintained for 7 days post-pMCAO. In contrast, compared with the vehicle-treated group, bestatin-treated mice displayed an increase in the severity of ischemic lesion, which was prevented by the addition of carnosine. These new data further characterize the neuroprotective effects of carnosine and suggest that carnosine may be an attractive candidate for testing as a stroke therapy.

1. Differential Neuroprotective Effects of Carnosine, Anserine, and N-Acetyl Carnosine against Permanent Focal Ischemia

PubMed Central

Min, Jiangyong; Senut, Marie-Claude; Rajanikant, Krishnamurthy; Greenberg, Eric; Bandagi, Ram; Zemke, Daniel; Mousa, Ahmad; Kassab, Mounzer; Farooq, Muhammad U.; Gupta, Rishi; Majid, Arshad

2009-01-01

Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has been shown to exhibit neuroprotection in rodent models of cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we further characterized the effects of carnosine treatment in a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and compared them with its related peptides anserine and N-acetylated carnosine. We also evaluated the efficacy of bestatin, a carnosinase inhibitor, in ameliorating ischemic brain damage. Permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO). Mice were subsequently randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle (0.9% saline), carnosine, N-acetyl carnosine, anserine, bestatin alone, or bestatin with carnosine. Infarct size was examined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining 1, 3, and 7 days following pMCAO, and neurological function was evaluated using an 18-point-based scale. Brain levels of carnosine were measured in treated mice using high-performance liquid chromatography 1 day following pMCAO. We demonstrated that treatment with carnosine, but not its analogues, was able to significantly reduce infarct volume and improve neurological function compared with those in vehicle-treated mice. These beneficial effects were maintained for 7 days post-pMCAO. In contrast, compared with the vehicle-treated group, bestatin-treated mice displayed an increase in the severity of ischemic lesion, which was prevented by the addition of carnosine. These new data further characterize the neuroprotective effects of carnosine and suggest that carnosine may be an attractive candidate for testing as a stroke therapy. PMID:18543335

2. Longitudinal study of intraneural perineurioma--a benign, focal hypertrophic neuropathy of youth.

PubMed

Mauermann, Michelle L; Amrami, Kimberly K; Kuntz, Nancy L; Spinner, Robert J; Dyck, Peter J; Bosch, E Peter; Engelstad, Janean; Felmlee, Joel P; Dyck, P James B

2009-08-01

The natural history of intraneural perineurioma has been inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical presentation, electrophysiologic and imaging features and outcome of intraneural perineurioma. We ask if intraneural perineurioma is a pure motor syndrome that remains confined to one nerve and should be treated by surgical resection. We examined the nerve biopsies of cases labelled perineurioma and selected those with diagnostic features. Thirty-two patients were identified; 16 children and 16 adults; 16 males and 16 females. Median age of onset of neurological symptoms was 14 years (range 0.5-55 years) and median age at evaluation was 17 years (range 2-56 years). All patients had motor deficits; however, mild sensory symptoms or signs were experienced by 27 patients; 'prickling' or 'asleep numbness' in 20, mild pain in 13 and sensory loss in 23. The sciatic nerve or its branches was most commonly affected in 15, followed by brachial plexus, radial nerve and ulnar nerve (four each). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated nerve enlargement (29/32), T1 isointensity (27/32), T2 hyperintensity (25/32) and contrast enhancement (20/20). Diagnoses were made based on targeted biopsy of the focal nerve enlargement identified by imaging. Neurological impairment was of a moderate severity (median Neuropathy Impairment Score was 12 points, range 2-49 points). All patients had focal involvement with 27 involving one nerve and five involving a plexus (one bilateral). Long-term follow-up was possible by telephone interview for 23 patients (median 36 months, range 2-177 months). Twelve patients also had follow-up neurologic evaluation (median 45 months, range 10-247 months). The median Neuropathy Impairment Score had changed from 12.6 to 15.4 points (P = 0.19). In all cases, the distribution of neurologic findings remained unchanged. Median Dyck Disability Score was 3 (range 2-5) indicating a mild impairment without interfering with activities of

3. A Quantitative Approach to Predict Differential Effects of Anti-VEGF Treatment on Diffuse and Focal Leakage in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema: A Pilot Study

PubMed Central

Allingham, Michael J.; Mukherjee, Dibyendu; Lally, Erin B.; Rabbani, Hossein; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Cousins, Scott W.; Farsiu, Sina

2017-01-01

Purpose We use semiautomated segmentation of fluorescein angiography (FA) to determine whether anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) differentially affects microaneurysm (MA)–associated leakage, termed focal leakage, versus non-MA–associated leakage, termed diffuse leakage. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 29 subjects treated with at least three consecutive injections of anti-VEGF agents for DME (mean 4.6 injections; range, 3–10) who underwent Heidelberg FA before and after anti-VEGF therapy. Inclusion criteria were macula center involving DME and at least 3 consecutive anti-VEGF injections. Exclusion criteria were macular edema due to cause besides DME, anti-VEGF within 3 months of initial FA, concurrent treatment for DME besides anti-VEGF, and macular photocoagulation within 1 year. At each time point, total leakage was semiautomatically segmented using a modified version of our previously published software. Microaneurysms were identified by an expert grader and leakage within a 117 μm radius of each MA was classified as focal leakage. Remaining leakage was classified as diffuse leakage. The absolute and percent changes in total, diffuse, and focal leakage were calculated for each subject. Results Mean pretreatment total leakage was 8.2 mm2 and decreased by a mean of 40.1% (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], [−28.6, −52.5]) following treatment. Diffuse leakage decreased by a mean of 45.5% (P < 0.0001; 95% CI, [−31.3, −59.6]) while focal leakage decreased by 17.9% (P = 0.02; 95% CI, [−1.0, −34.8]). The difference in treatment response between focal and diffuse leakage was statistically significant (P = 0.01). Conclusions Anti-VEGF treatment for DME results in decreased diffuse leakage but had relatively little effect on focal leakage as assessed by FA. This suggests that diffuse leakage may be a marker of VEGF-mediated pathobiology. Patients with predominantly focal leakage

4. Assessing post-stroke behavior in mouse models of focal ischemia

PubMed Central

Balkaya, Mustafa; Kröber, Jan M; Rex, Andre; Endres, Matthias

2013-01-01

Experimental treatment strategies and neuroprotective drugs that showed therapeutic promise in animal models of stroke have failed to produce beneficial effects in human stroke patients. The difficulty in translating preclinical findings to humans represents a major challenge in cerebrovascular research. The reasons behind this translational road block might be explained by a number of factors, including poor quality control in various stages of the research process, the validity of experimental stroke models, and differences in drug administration and pharmacokinetics. Another major difference between animal studies and clinical trials is the choice of end point or outcome measures. Here, we discuss the necessity of poststroke behavioral testing to bridge the gap between clinical and experimental end points. We review established sensory-motor tests for outcome determination after focal ischemia based on the published literature as well as our own personal experience. Selected tests are described in more detail and good laboratory practice standards for behavioral testing are discussed. This review is intended for stroke researchers planning to use behavioral testing in mice. PMID:23232947

5. Dynamic nonlinear focal shift in amplitude modulated moderately focused acoustic beams.

PubMed

Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; González-Salido, Nuria

2017-03-01

The phenomenon of the displacement of the position of the pressure, intensity and acoustic radiation force maxima along the axis of focused acoustic beams under increasing driving amplitudes (nonlinear focal shift) is studied for the case of a moderately focused beam excited with continuous and 25kHz amplitude modulated signals, both in water and tissue. We prove that in amplitude modulated beams the linear and nonlinear propagation effects coexist in a semi-period of modulation, giving place to a complex dynamic behavior, where the singular points of the beam (peak pressure, rarefaction, intensity and acoustic radiation force) locate at different points on axis as a function of time. These entire phenomena are explained in terms of harmonic generation and absorption during the propagation in a lossy nonlinear medium both for a continuous and an amplitude modulated beam. One of the possible applications of the acoustic radiation force displacement is the generation of shear waves at different locations by using a focused mono-element transducer excited by an amplitude modulated signal.

6. [Neuropsychological development in children with focal brain injury].

PubMed

Masi, G; Marcheschi, M; Brovedani, P; Pfanner, P

1993-06-01

The study of children with focal brain injury has important implications from a clinical and theoretical perspective. Clinical data on children with congenital or early acquired lesions indicates that the cognitive sequelae are different from those resulting from similar damage sustained in adulthood. These differences depend in part on the differential effect that damage has on ongoing developmental process and in part on the different recovery capacity of the Central Nervous System of the child. From a theoretical perspective, focal lesion data is important for analyzing the issues of early neuropsychological functioning (especially in terms of early hemispheric specialization) and of plasticity and recovery of function of the CNS. This review analyzes the possible causes of this heterogeneity, that seems in part dependent on the interindividual variability of early neuropsychological organization and in part related to methodological factors such subject inclusion criteria and nature of neuropsychological measures. The review also discusses the role during development of the principal inter and intrahemispheric recovery mechanisms (special attention is given to intrahemispheric mechanisms which have been considered in the past as less determinant with respect to interhemispheric mechanisms). Furthermore, the role of lesion side as a prognostic parameter is discussed, specifically in terms of the evidence of a differential recovery capacity of left hemisphere with respect to the right. Various hypotheses have been put forward as possible interpretations of these data (maturational gradient, different neuropsychological organization of the two hemispheres), yet evidence is still controversial. If one considers the prognostic parameter--age of lesion onset--recent evidence does not confirm the hypothesis that the earlier the lesion, the greatest the recovery of function. Rather, it seems that relating age of lesion onset to other parameters, such as lesion side or

7. Editorial Commentary: Microfracture for Focal Cartilage Defects: Is the Hip Like the Knee?

PubMed

Lubowitz, James H

2016-01-01

Reading about microfracture for focal cartilage defects of the hip, we ponder whether the hip resembles the knee with regard to focal cartilage defects. Minimally invasive microfracture has been a first-line therapy for focal cartilage defects. Microfracture results in fibrous cartilage and unpredictable repair volume, which could be better than absent cartilage, particularly if knee symptoms abate. However, of late, microfracture is not recommended because destruction of subchondral anatomy may result in subchondral cyst formation.

8. Influence of focal spot on characteristics of very small diameter radiosurgical beams.

PubMed

Sham, Edwin; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan; Podgorsak, Ervin B

2008-07-01

Percentage depth dose (PDD) distributions and beam profiles of very small diameter (1.5-5 mm) megavoltage radiosurgical beams calculated with Monte Carlo (MC) technique critically depend on the diameter of the circular focal spot used in the simulation: The smaller is the field diameter, the larger is the effect. Thus, in simulations of radiosurgical fields that have diameters of the order of the focal spot size, an accurate focal spot geometry should be used. We used a simplified moving slit technique in conjunction with a diode detector for evaluation of the focal spot size and shape of a megavoltage 6 MV linac as well as for determination of the equivalent focal spot diameter of the linac for use in MC simulations. The measured total diode signal contains three components: A direct focal spot signal, a background signal, and an extra-focal radiation signal. A single profile scan of the focal spot signal is Gaussian like in shape, and its full width at half maximum is used to define the focal spot dimension for this scan. The focal spot of our 6 MV linac is approximated with a Gaussian circle, and when the geometry of the effective focal spot circle is used in MC simulations, the agreement between MC-calculated and measured PDD distributions as well as beam profiles is good even for radiosurgical fields as small as 1.5 mm in diameter. Our results also confirm that matching the penumbral areas of accurately measured large-field beam profiles to the same areas of the MC-calculated beam profiles reliably leads to a realistic effective focal spot size for use in MC simulations of very small diameter beams.

9. Micrometer accuracy method for small-scale laser focal spot centroid measurement

Liu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zhiwei; Wang, Xin; Ba, Dexin; Zhu, Chengyu

2015-03-01

The measurement of the centroid of small-scale laser focal spot is one of the most promising technologies for small-scale laser focal spot precise positioning. A method of two-dimensional scanning with CCD has been conducted to precisely measure the centroid of the small-scale laser focal spot (diameter in microns) by obtaining the change curve for gray value. The theoretical analysis is consistent with the experimental results.

10. Diffraction of high-intensity field in focal region as dynamics of nonlinear system with low-frequency dispersion

Rudenko, O. V.; Hedberg, C. M.

2015-01-01

The stationary profile in the focal region of a focused nonlinear acoustic wave is described. Three models following from the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya (KZ) equation with three independent variables are used: (i) the simplified one-dimensional Ostrovsky-Vakhnenko equation, (ii) the system of equations for paraxial series expansion of the acoustic field in powers of transverse coordinates, and (iii) the KZ equation reduced to two independent variables. The structure of the last equation is analogous to the Westervelt equation. Linearization through the Legendre transformation and reduction to the well-studied Euler-Tricomi equation is shown. At high intensities the stationary profiles are periodic sequences of arc sections having singularities of derivative in their matching points. The occurrence of arc profiles was pointed out by Makov. These appear in different nonlinear systems with low-frequency dispersion. Profiles containing discontinuities (shock fronts) change their form while passing through the focal region and are non-stationary waves. The numerical estimations of maximum pressure and intensity in the focus agree with computer calculations and experimental measurements.

11. X-4 in flight

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1951-01-01

a wealth of data, and the cost of repairing the leak could not be justified. Although the X-4 was never designed to fly at supersonic speeds, it gathered transonic data that proved that conventional tailless swept-wing configurations were unsuitable for supersonic performance. The design suffered from noticeable instability in all directions, increasing as it approached the speed of sound. It was, however, a valuable tool for dynamic stability research. Additionally low lift-to-drag data gathered with the X-4 was later beneficial to development of the X-15. On 10 March 1954, both X-4 aircraft were returned to the Air Force. The ejection seat from the second X-4 was retained by the NACA for use in the X-1E. The first X-4 is currently on display at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado. The second aircraft is displayed at the USAF Museum in Ohio. This movie clip running approximately 7 seconds shows the Northrop X-4 in an air-to-air view climbing away from its chase aircraft.

12. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

PubMed

Kim, Gyeyeop; Kim, Eunjung

2013-05-01

[Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV included rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10) as well as treadmill exercise after ischemia. At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days) Garcia's score, and the hippocampal expressions level of BDNF were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (Garcia's score) were observed and hippocampal BDNF protein expression levels increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that antecedent treadmill exercise, before permanent brain ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia brain injury by improving motor performance and increasing the level of BDNF expression. Furthermore, the antecedent treadmill exercise of appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation.

13. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of six cases from Ghana, West Africa.

PubMed

Nartey, N O; Newman, Merley A; Nyako, E A

2002-01-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a proliferative growth of the oral mucosa with distinct clinical and histopathological features. Although focal epithelial hyperplasia is frequently reported in children of American Indian and Eskimo descent, it is rarely seen in Africans. This report presents six new cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia observed in African children. The age of the patients ranged from 4 to 12 years, and all except one were females. Clinical variants, the papillary and the papular types were noted in the same patient. There was spontaneous regression of focal epithelial hyperplasia in four patients during the study period. However, the lesions still persist in two patients three years after the initial presentation.

14. Non-motor symptoms in patients with adult-onset focal dystonia: Sensory and psychiatric disturbances.

PubMed

Conte, Antonella; Berardelli, Isabella; Ferrazzano, Gina; Pasquini, Massimo; Berardelli, Alfredo; Fabbrini, Giovanni

2016-01-01

Dystonia is characterized by the presence of involuntary muscle contractions that cause abnormal movements and posture. Adult onset focal dystonia include cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, arm dystonia and laryngeal dystonia. Besides motor manifestations, patients with focal dystonia frequently also display non-motor signs and symptoms. In this paper, we review the evidence of sensory and psychiatric disturbances in adult patients with focal dystonia. Clinical studies and neurophysiological investigations consistently show that the sensory system is involved in dystonia. Several studies have also demonstrated that neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, are more frequent in patients with focal dystonia, whereas data on obsessive compulsive disorders are more contrasting.

15. Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits

PubMed Central

Lawrance Jesuraj, M.; Sharada, K.; Sridevi, C.; Narasimhan, C.

2013-01-01

Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping. PMID:23993015

16. Integrated focal plane arrays for millimeter-wave astronomy

Bock, James J.; Goldin, Alexey; Hunt, Cynthia; Lange, Andrew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

2002-02-01

We are developing focal plane arrays of bolometric detectors for sub-millimeter and millimeter-wave astrophysics. We propose a flexible array architecture using arrays of slot antennae coupled via low-loss superconducting Nb transmission line to microstrip filters and antenna-coupled bolometers. By combining imaging and filtering functions with transmission line, we are able to realize unique structures such as a multi-band polarimeter and a planar, dispersive spectrometer. Micro-strip bolometers have significantly smaller active volume than standard detectors with extended absorbers, and can realize higher sensitivity and speed of response. The integrated array has natural immunity to stray radiation or spectral leaks, and minimizes the suspended mass operating at 0.1-0.3 K. We also discuss future space-borne spectroscopy and polarimetry applications. .

17. Focally regulated endothelial proliferation and cell death in human synovium.

PubMed Central

Walsh, D. A.; Wade, M.; Mapp, P. I.; Blake, D. R.

1998-01-01

Angiogenesis and vascular insufficiency each may support the chronic synovial inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis. We have shown by quantitative immunohistochemistry and terminal uridyl deoxynucleotide nick end labeling that endothelial proliferation and cell death indices were each increased in synovia from patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with osteoarthritic and noninflamed controls, whereas endothelial fractional areas did not differ significantly among disease groups. Markers of proliferation were associated with foci immunoreactive for vascular endothelial growth factor and integrin alpha(v)beta3, whereas cell death was observed in foci in which immunoreactivities for these factors were weak or absent. No association was found with thrombospondin immunoreactivity. The balance between angiogenesis and vascular regression in rheumatoid synovitis may be determined by the focal expression of angiogenic and endothelial survival factors. Increased endothelial cell turnover may contribute to microvascular dysfunction and thereby facilitate persistent synovitis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9502411

18. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds, D. B.; Seib, D. H.; Stetson, S. B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.

1989-01-01

High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10- x 50-element Si:As blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors (cutoff wavelength = 28 microns) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity-band-conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear-radiation-hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in the present work is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increased quantum efficiency (particularly at short-wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the BIB detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Measured read noise and dark current for different temperatures are reported. The hybrid array performance achieved demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

19. Robust Approach for Nonuniformity Correction in Infrared Focal Plane Array

PubMed Central

Boutemedjet, Ayoub; Deng, Chenwei; Zhao, Baojun

2016-01-01

In this paper, we propose a new scene-based nonuniformity correction technique for infrared focal plane arrays. Our work is based on the use of two well-known scene-based methods, namely, adaptive and interframe registration-based exploiting pure translation motion model between frames. The two approaches have their benefits and drawbacks, which make them extremely effective in certain conditions and not adapted for others. Following on that, we developed a method robust to various conditions, which may slow or affect the correction process by elaborating a decision criterion that adapts the process to the most effective technique to ensure fast and reliable correction. In addition to that, problems such as bad pixels and ghosting artifacts are also dealt with to enhance the overall quality of the correction. The performance of the proposed technique is investigated and compared to the two state-of-the-art techniques cited above. PMID:27834893

20. Planck 2015 results. XII. Full focal plane simulations

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2016-09-01

We present the 8th full focal plane simulation set (FFP8), deployed in support of the Planck 2015 results. FFP8 consists of 10 fiducial mission realizations reduced to 18 144 maps, together with the most massive suite of Monte Carlo realizations of instrument noise and CMB ever generated, comprising 104 mission realizations reduced to about 106 maps. The resulting maps incorporate the dominant instrumental, scanning, and data analysis effects, and the remaining subdominant effects will be included in future updates. Generated at a cost of some 25 million CPU-hours spread across multiple high-performance-computing (HPC) platforms, FFP8 is used to validate and verify analysis algorithms and their implementations, and to remove biases from and quantify uncertainties in the results of analyses of the real data.

PubMed Central

Michael, Kristin E.; Dumbauld, David W.; Burns, Kellie L.; Hanks, Steven K.

2009-01-01

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase regulating cell migration, adhesive signaling, and mechanosensing. Using FAK-null cells expressing FAK under an inducible promoter, we demonstrate that FAK regulates the time-dependent generation of adhesive forces. During the early stages of adhesion, FAK expression in FAK-null cells enhances integrin activation to promote integrin binding and, hence, the adhesion strengthening rate. Importantly, FAK expression regulated integrin activation, and talin was required for the FAK-dependent effects. A role for FAK in integrin activation was confirmed in human fibroblasts with knocked-down FAK expression. The FAK autophosphorylation Y397 site was required for the enhancements in adhesion strengthening and integrin-binding responses. This work demonstrates a novel role for FAK in integrin activation and the time-dependent generation of cell–ECM forces. PMID:19297531

2. Focal adhesion kinase and its role in skeletal muscle

PubMed Central

Graham, Zachary A.; Gallagher, Philip M.; Cardozo, Christopher P.

2015-01-01

3. Optical-based spectral modeling of infrared focal plane arrays

Mouzali, Salima; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Ferrec, Yann; Primot, Jérôme

2016-07-01

We adopt an optical approach in order to model and predict the spectral signature of an infrared focal plane array. The modeling is based on a multilayer description of the structure and considers a one-dimensional propagation. It provides a better understanding of the physical phenomena occurring within the pixels, which is useful to perform radiometric measurements, as well as to reliably predict the spectral sensitivity of the detector. An exhaustive model is presented, covering the total spectral range of the pixel response. A heuristic model is also described, depicting a complementary approach that separates the different optical phenomena inside the pixel structure. Promising results are presented, validating the models through comparison with experimental results. Finally, advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

4. Optical design of the post-focal relay of MAORY

Lombini, M.; De Rosa, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Cortecchia, F.; Diolaiti, E.; Patti, Mauro; Bonaglia, M.; Busoni, L.; De Caprio, V.; Esposito, S.; Feautrier, P.; Rabou, P.; Riva, M.; Stadler, E.

2016-08-01

The Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics RelaY (MAORY) for the European Extremely Large Telescope is planned to be located on the straight-through port of the telescope Nasmyth platform and shall re-image the telescope focal plane to a wide field camera (MICADO) and a possible future second instrument. By means of natural and artificial (laser) reference sources for wavefront sensing, and of deformable mirrors for wavefront correction, MAORY shall be able to compensate the wavefront disturbances affecting the scientific observations, achieving high Strehl ratio and high sky coverage. A trade-off study among different design options has been carried out addressing optical performance at the exit ports (wave front error, field distortion, throughput), structure stability, interface constraints (mass, size, location and accessibility of the two client instruments), and the overall adaptive optics performance. We discuss the baseline configuration of the opto-mechanical design.

5. Focal adhesion kinase and its role in skeletal muscle.

PubMed

Graham, Zachary A; Gallagher, Philip M; Cardozo, Christopher P

2015-10-01

6. Olanzapine-related repetitive focal seizures with lingual dystonia.

PubMed

Anzellotti, Francesca; Capasso, Margherita; Frazzini, Valerio; Onofrj, Marco

2016-03-01

Olanzapine-related seizures have rarely been reported despite associated proconvulsant risk factors described in the literature: myoclonic status, increased frequency of seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, as well as fatal status epilepticus. We present a psychiatric patient who developed repetitive focal motor seizures and lingual dystonia when olanzapine was added for psychomotor agitation and aggressiveness. Olanzapine was immediately suspended and the seizures progressively disappeared. A control EEG showed no paroxysmal discharges. Olanzapine shares some pharmacological similarities with clozapine, a neuroleptic with a high risk of dose-dependent seizures. This adverse effect should be taken into account, and olanzapine should be used with caution if concomitant circumstances decrease the seizure threshold. [Published with video sequence online].

7. Characteristics of stereo images from detectors in focal plane array.

PubMed

Son, Jung-Young; Yeom, Seokwon; Chun, Joo-Hwan; Guschin, Vladmir P; Lee, Dong-Su

2011-07-01

The equivalent ray geometry of two horizontally aligned detectors at the focal plane of the main antenna in a millimeter wave imaging system is analyzed to reveal the reason why the images from the detectors are fused as an image with a depth sense. Scanning the main antenna in both horizontal and vertical directions makes each detector perform as a camera, and the two detectors can work like a stereo camera in the millimeter wave range. However, the stereo camera geometry is different from that of the stereo camera used in the visual spectral range because the detectors' viewing directions are diverging to each other and they are a certain distance apart. The depth sense is mainly induced by the distance between detectors. The images obtained from the detectors in the millimeter imaging system are perceived with a good depth sense. The disparities responsible for the depth sense are identified in the images.

8. Assessment of postexcitatory inhibition in patients with focal dystonia.

PubMed

Schwenkreis, P; Vorgerd, M; Malin, J P; Tegenthoff, M

1999-10-01

The aim of our present study was to detect whether a generalized disturbance of intracortical inhibitory mechanisms as assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be observed in a movement disorder with localized clinical expression, that is, in focal cervical dystonia. We measured motor threshold intensity, central motor conduction time and the duration of postexcitatory inhibition evoked by single and paired stimuli TMS from a small hand muscle in 20 patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia, and 21 healthy volunteers. A significant difference could not be found in any of the neurophysiological parameters between patients and controls. These findings are unlike the observations made in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, where significant changes of postexcitatory inhibition after TMS can be observed. This suggests a lack of widespread change in activity of underlying cortical inhibitory mechanisms, as seen in other diseases of the extrapyramidal system with more generalized clinical involvement.

9. Strained layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

DOEpatents

Kim, Jin K; Carroll, Malcolm S; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F; Young, Erik W; Cich, Michael J

2012-10-23

An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

10. MEG-based imaging of focal neuronal current sources

SciTech Connect

Phillips, J.W.; Leahy, R.M.; Mosher, J.C.

1996-07-01

We describe a new approach to imaging neuronal current sources from measurements of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) associated with sensory, motor, or cognitive brain activation. Previous approaches to this problem have concentrated on the use of weighted minimum norm inverse methods. While these methods ensure a unique solution, they do not introduce information specific to the MEG inverse problem, often producing overly smoothed solutions and exhibiting severe sensitivity to noise. We describe a Bayesian formulation of the inverse problem in which a Gibbs prior is constructed to reflect the sparse focal nature of neuronal current sources associated with evoked response data. The prior involves a binary process indicating active sources and a continuous Gaussian process designating associated amplitudes. An estimate of the primary current source distribution for a specific data set is formed by maximizing over the posterior probability with respect to the binary and continuous variables.

11. Asymmetric focal pericardial thickening causing physiologically significant constrictive pericarditis.

PubMed

Siddiqi, Nauman; Kern, Morton J; Patel, Pranav M

2012-04-01

A 34-year-old woman presented with refractory ascites and edema. Echocardiography revealed normal left ventricular function with a restrictive diastolic filling pattern. Tissue Doppler velocities of the mitral annulus were normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a focal region of pericardial thickening anterior to the right ventricle and normal thickness pericardium in the other segments. However, abnormal delayed enhancement MRI (consistent with inflammation) was present in both the thickened and the normal pericardial segments. Invasive hemodynamics confirmed constrictive physiology and the patient underwent successful pericardiectomy. This case highlights the utility of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis and the underappreciated fact that the pericardium need not be globally thickened to cause hemodynamically significant constrictive physiology.

12. FOCAL SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISASE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS

PubMed Central

Kiffel, Jeremy; Rahimzada, Yael; Trachtman, Howard

2011-01-01

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the most common forms of acquired glomerular disease leading to end stage kidney disease (ESKD). Its incidence is rising around the world. There is no proven therapy for those patients who do not respond to corticosteroids and it can recur in 20–25% of patients who receive a kidney transplant. The disease can be primary or secondary to various conditions including vesicoureteral reflux, obesity, medications, and infections. Recent advances have demonstrated the important role of genetic mutations in podocyte proteins as a cause of FSGS. There is an urgent need for randomized clinical trials to develop safe and effective therapy for FSGS that occurs in the native or transplanted kidney. PMID:21896374

13. Custom Fixed-Focal Length Versus Zoom Lenses

Mills, Richard; Stoltzman, David

1989-03-01

Automated optical inspection (A0I) technology has become vital in the printed wiring board (PWB) industry. AOI systems inspect automatically by scanning to acquire an image, processing the image to detect flaws, and displaying flaws to the operator for rework or rejection. AOI reduces costs by reducing scrap and improving yield. AOI systems pay for themselves by catching defects as early in the manufacturing process as possible: Before flawed artwork is used to print, before good layers are laminated with bad, before misdrilled boards are populated. The AOI-PWB industry places severe demands on optics technology. Features as small as six mils must be imaged clearly and registered exactly, and flaws as small as one mil can be fatal. We shall discuss how optics can be optimized for AOI;in particular, we shall explain the distinct advantages of fixed-focal length lenses over zoom lenses, and of custom lenses over general-purpose lenses.

14. Biomarkers of focal and diffuse traumatic brain injury.

PubMed

Vos, Pieter E

2011-08-18

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a pathologically heterogeneous disease affecting people of all ages. The highest incidence of TBI occurs in young people and the average age is 30 to 40 years. Injury grading may range from mild with a low frequency (1 per 100) of life-threatening intracranial hematoma that needs immediate neurosurgical operation and very low mortality (1 per 1,000) to severe with a high likelihood of life-threatening intracranial hematoma (up to 1 per 3), a 40% case fatality rate and a high disability rate (2 per 3) in survivors. Estimation of the prognosis in severe TBI is currently based on demographic and clinical predictors, including age, Glasgow Coma Scale, pupillary reactions, extracranial injury (hypotension and hypoxia) and computed tomography indices (brain swelling, focal mass lesions, subarachnoid hemorrhage). Biomarkers reflecting damage to neurons and astrocytes may add important complementary information to clinical predictors of outcome and provide insight into the pathophysiology of TBI.

15. Integration of IR focal plane arrays with massively parallel processor

Esfandiari, P.; Koskey, P.; Vaccaro, K.; Buchwald, W.; Clark, F.; Krejca, B.; Rekeczky, C.; Zarandy, A.

2008-04-01

The intent of this investigation is to replace the low fill factor visible sensor of a Cellular Neural Network (CNN) processor with an InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) using both bump bonding and epitaxial layer transfer techniques for use in the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) interceptor seekers. The goal is to fabricate a massively parallel digital processor with a local as well as a global interconnect architecture. Currently, this unique CNN processor is capable of processing a target scene in excess of 10,000 frames per second with its visible sensor. What makes the CNN processor so unique is that each processing element includes memory, local data storage, local and global communication devices and a visible sensor supported by a programmable analog or digital computer program.

Butler, B. J.; Sory, D. R.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

2017-01-01

In modern wars over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome of the extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions.

17. Glomerular Aging and Focal Global Glomerulosclerosis: A Podometric Perspective.

PubMed

Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Bitzer, Markus; Wickman, Larysa; Afshinnia, Farsad; Wang, Su Q; O'Connor, Christopher; Yang, Yan; Meadowbrooke, Chrysta; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Kikuchi, Masao; Wiggins, Jocelyn E; Wiggins, Roger C

2015-12-01

Kidney aging is associated with an increasing proportion of globally scarred glomeruli, decreasing renal function, and exponentially increasing ESRD prevalence. In model systems, podocyte depletion causes glomerulosclerosis, suggesting age-associated glomerulosclerosis could be caused by a similar mechanism. We measured podocyte number, size, density, and glomerular volume in 89 normal kidney samples from living and deceased kidney donors and normal poles of nephrectomies. Podocyte nuclear density decreased with age due to a combination of decreased podocyte number per glomerulus and increased glomerular volume. Compensatory podocyte cell hypertrophy prevented a change in the proportion of tuft volume occupied by podocytes. Young kidneys had high podocyte reserve (podocyte density >300 per 10(6) µm(3)), but by 70-80 years of age, average podocyte nuclear density decreased to, <100 per 10(6) µm(3), with corresponding podocyte hypertrophy. In older age podocyte detachment rate (urine podocin mRNA-to-creatinine ratio) was higher than at younger ages and podocytes were stressed (increased urine podocin-to-nephrin mRNA ratio). Moreover, in older kidneys, proteinaceous material accumulated in the Bowman space of glomeruli with low podocyte density. In a subset of these glomeruli, mass podocyte detachment events occurred in association with podocytes becoming binucleate (mitotic podocyte catastrophe) and subsequent wrinkling of glomerular capillaries, tuft collapse, and periglomerular fibrosis. In kidneys of young patients with underlying glomerular diseases similar pathologic events were identified in association with focal global glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte density reduction with age may therefore directly lead to focal global glomerulosclerosis, and all progressive glomerular diseases can be considered superimposed accelerators of this underlying process.

18. Design Aspects of Focal Beams From High-Intensity Arrays

PubMed Central

Stephens, Douglas N.; Kruse, Dustin E.; Qin, Shengping; Ferrara, Katherine W.

2011-01-01

As the applications of ultrasonic thermal therapies expand, the design of the high-intensity array must address both the energy delivery of the main beam and the character and relevance of off-target beam energy. We simulate the acoustic field performance of a selected set of circular arrays organized by array format, including flat versus curved arrays, periodic versus random arrays, and center void diameter variations. Performance metrics are based on the −3-dB focal main lobe (FML) positioning range, axial grating lobe (AGL) temperatures, and side lobe levels. Using finite-element analysis, we evaluate the relative heating of the FML and the AGLs. All arrays have a maximum diameter of 100λ, with element count ranging from 64 to 1024 and continuous wave frequency of 1.5 MHz. First, we show that a 50% spherical annulus produces focus beam side lobes which decay as a function of lateral distance at nearly 87% of the exponential rate of a full aperture. Second, for the arrays studied, the efficiency of power delivery over the −3-dB focus positioning range for spherical arrays is at least 2-fold greater than for flat arrays; the 256-element case shows a 5-fold advantage for the spherical array. Third, AGL heating can be significant as the focal target is moved to its distal half-intensity depth from the natural focus. Increasing the element count of a randomized array to 256 elements decreases the AGL-to-FML heating ratio to 0.12 at the distal half-intensity depth. Further increases in element count yield modest improvements. A 49% improvement in the AGL-to-peak heating ratio is predicted by using the Sumanaweera spiral element pattern with randomization. PMID:21859578

19. SPS antenna pointing control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hung, J. C.

1980-01-01

The pointing control of a microwave antenna of the Satellite Power System was investigated emphasizing: (1) the SPS antenna pointing error sensing method; (2) a rigid body pointing control design; and (3) approaches for modeling the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector. Accuracy requirements for the antenna pointing control consist of a mechanical pointing control accuracy of three arc-minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc-seconds. Results based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc-minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved in practice.

20. Optical Polarization Möbius Strips and Points of Purely Transverse Spin Density

Bauer, Thomas; Neugebauer, Martin; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

2016-07-01

Tightly focused light beams can exhibit complex and versatile structured electric field distributions. The local field may spin around any axis including a transverse axis perpendicular to the beams' propagation direction. At certain focal positions, the corresponding local polarization ellipse can even degenerate into a perfect circle, representing a point of circular polarization or C point. We consider the most fundamental case of a linearly polarized Gaussian beam, where—upon tight focusing—those C points created by transversely spinning fields can form the center of 3D optical polarization topologies when choosing the plane of observation appropriately. Because of the high symmetry of the focal field, these polarization topologies exhibit nontrivial structures similar to Möbius strips. We use a direct physical measure to find C points with an arbitrarily oriented spinning axis of the electric field and experimentally investigate the fully three-dimensional polarization topologies surrounding these C points by exploiting an amplitude and phase reconstruction technique.

1. Optical Polarization Möbius Strips and Points of Purely Transverse Spin Density.

PubMed

Bauer, Thomas; Neugebauer, Martin; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

2016-07-01

Tightly focused light beams can exhibit complex and versatile structured electric field distributions. The local field may spin around any axis including a transverse axis perpendicular to the beams' propagation direction. At certain focal positions, the corresponding local polarization ellipse can even degenerate into a perfect circle, representing a point of circular polarization or C point. We consider the most fundamental case of a linearly polarized Gaussian beam, where-upon tight focusing-those C points created by transversely spinning fields can form the center of 3D optical polarization topologies when choosing the plane of observation appropriately. Because of the high symmetry of the focal field, these polarization topologies exhibit nontrivial structures similar to Möbius strips. We use a direct physical measure to find C points with an arbitrarily oriented spinning axis of the electric field and experimentally investigate the fully three-dimensional polarization topologies surrounding these C points by exploiting an amplitude and phase reconstruction technique.

2. Comparing Linkage Designs Based on Land Facets to Linkage Designs Based on Focal Species

PubMed Central

Brost, Brian M.; Beier, Paul

2012-01-01

3. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects – A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

PubMed Central

Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

2015-01-01

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

4. Quasi-iso-focal hole pattern formation by Checker-Board PSM (CB-PSM)

Nakao, S.; Maejima, S.; Minamide, A.; Saitoh, H.; Hanawa, T.; Suko, K.

2008-03-01

A novel RET, which enables on-grid sub-50 nm hole pattern formation with ArF immersion lithography, has been developed. One of the authors has found quasi-iso-focal point image generation at the center of square area of high transmission embedded attenuating phase shift mask (EA-PSM), where four small openings are laid out at the corners of the area, utilizing an optimized quadrupole illumination. As an extension of continuous configuration, checker-board like mask pattern arrangement is created. In the mask, small openings and opaque pads are arranged like as checkerboard, whose base pitch is around resolution limit of targeted optical system. The mask pattern arrangement is named as "Checker-Board PSM (CB-PSM)". By eliminating any one opening from "checker-board", very fine point image is generated at the place. Because four openings around the eliminated one are necessary for the fine imaging characteristic, minimum distance between the point images is about the double of that for resolution limit. After simulation study of imaging, experiments are carried out to prove the fine imaging performance utilizing ArF immersion optics with NA=1.07 and a tri-level resist system. As a result, sub-50nm isolated hole is successfully formed with DOF larger than 200 nm. Simultaneously, ~ 60 nm semi-dense hole with pitch of 240 nm is printed with over 200 nm DOF. Moreover, application of conventional mask pattern arrangement, ultimately dense hole of 140nm pitch is well formed. As a conclusion, we believe that CB-PSM is a promising candidate for hole pattern formation at 32 nm node and beyond.

5. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

PubMed Central

Ng, Wuey Min

2016-01-01

Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

6. Measurement of MODIS optics effective focal length, distortion, and modulation transfer function

Thurlow, Paul E.; Cline, Richard W.

1993-08-01

A combination MODIS optics characteristics, short back focal length, and relatively distorting optics, has required major revisions in techniques used earlier to characterize effective focal length (EFL) and modulation transfer function (MTF) in the thematic mapper (TM) project. This paper compares measurement approaches used to characterize TM optics and revised methodology intended to characterize MODIS optics at an integration and assembly level.

7. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in three Kenyan girls: case reports.

PubMed

Chindia, M L; Awange, D O; Guthua, S W; Mwaniki, D L

1993-09-01

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

8. Focal Adhesion of Osteoblastic Cells on Titanium Surface with Amine Functionalities Formed by Plasma Polymerization

Song, Heesang; Jung, Sang Chul; Kim, Byung Hoon

2012-08-01

To enhance the focal adhesion of osteoblastic cells on a titanium surface, plasma polymerized allyl amine (AAm) thin films were deposited by plasma polymerization. This plasma polymer functionalization of titanium is advantageous for osteoblastic focal adhesion formation. Such Ti surfaces are useful for the fabrication of titanium-based dental implants for enhancement of osseointegration.

PubMed Central

Cain, Stuart A.; Mularczyk, Ewa J.; Singh, Mukti; Massam-Wu, Teresa; Kielty, Cay M.

2016-01-01

10. Clathrin mediates integrin endocytosis for focal adhesion disassembly in migrating cells.

PubMed

Ezratty, Ellen J; Bertaux, Claire; Marcantonio, Eugene E; Gundersen, Gregg G

2009-11-30

Focal adhesion disassembly is regulated by microtubules (MTs) through an unknown mechanism that involves dynamin. To test whether endocytosis may be involved, we interfered with the function of clathrin or its adaptors autosomal recessive hypercholesteremia (ARH) and Dab2 (Disabled-2) and found that both treatments prevented MT-induced focal adhesion disassembly. Surface labeling experiments showed that integrin was endocytosed in an extracellular matrix-, clathrin-, and ARH- and Dab2-dependent manner before entering Rab5 endosomes. Clathrin colocalized with a subset of focal adhesions in an ARH- and Dab2-dependent fashion. Direct imaging showed that clathrin rapidly accumulated on focal adhesions during MT-stimulated disassembly and departed from focal adhesions with integrin upon their disassembly. In migrating cells, depletion of clathrin or Dab2 and ARH inhibited focal adhesion disassembly and decreased the rate of migration. These results show that focal adhesion disassembly occurs through a targeted mechanism involving MTs, clathrin, and specific clathrin adaptors and that direct endocytosis of integrins from focal adhesions mediates their disassembly in migrating cells.

11. Fast focal zooming scheme for direct drive fusion implemented by inserting KD2PO4 crystal

Zhong, Zheqiang; Hu, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Bin

2016-06-01

The highly required uniformity of target in direct-drive fusion is difficult to achieve and maintain during the entire laser fusion implosion. To mitigate the increasing nonuniformity, the fast focal zooming scheme implemented by inserting an electro-optic (EO) crystal in the front end of beamline has been proposed. Functioning as a phase plate, the specifically designed EO crystal may add the induced spherical wavefront to the laser beam and alter its focusing characteristics. However, in order to zoom out the focal spot by half, the required voltage for KD2PO4 (DKDP) with single pair of electrodes is relatively high. In order to decrease the voltage while maintaining the zooming performance, the DKDP cylinder with multi pairs of electrodes has been presented. The continuous phase plate (CPP) is designed according to both the injected beam and the output field. However, the conventional CPP is designed based on the assumption of an injected beam without wavefront distortion, which would zoom in the focal spot variation in the focal zooming scheme. In order to zoom out the focal spot, a redesigned CPP has been proposed by adding a spherical wavefront to the phase variation of the conventional CPP and further optimizing. On the basis, the focusing characteristics of laser beam during the fast focal zooming process have been analyzed. Results indicate that the focal spot size decreases with the increasing voltage on DKDP crystal, meanwhile the uniformity maintains high during the focal zooming process.

12. Probing mechanical principles of focal contacts in cell–matrix adhesion with a coupled stochastic–elastic modelling framework

PubMed Central

Gao, Huajian; Qian, Jin; Chen, Bin

2011-01-01

Cell–matrix adhesion depends on the collective behaviours of clusters of receptor–ligand bonds called focal contacts between cell and extracellular matrix. While the behaviour of a single molecular bond is governed by statistical mechanics at the molecular scale, continuum mechanics should be valid at a larger scale. This paper presents an overview of a series of recent theoretical studies aimed at probing the basic mechanical principles of focal contacts in cell–matrix adhesion via stochastic–elastic models in which stochastic descriptions of molecular bonds and elastic descriptions of interfacial traction–separation are unified in a single modelling framework. The intention here is to illustrate these principles using simple analytical and numerical models. The aim of the discussions is to provide possible clues to the following questions: why does the size of focal adhesions (FAs) fall into a narrow range around the micrometre scale? How can cells sense and respond to substrates of varied stiffness via FAs? How do the magnitude and orientation of mechanical forces affect the binding dynamics of FAs? The effects of cluster size, cell–matrix elastic modulus, loading direction and cytoskeletal pretension on the lifetime of FA clusters have been investigated by theoretical arguments as well as Monte Carlo numerical simulations, with results showing that intermediate adhesion size, stiff substrate, cytoskeleton stiffening, low-angle pulling and moderate cytoskeletal pretension are factors that contribute to stable FAs. From a mechanistic point of view, these results provide possible explanations for a wide range of experimental observations and suggest multiple mechanisms by which cells can actively control adhesion and de-adhesion via cytoskeletal contractile machinery in response to mechanical properties of their surroundings. PMID:21632610

13. Finite-Element Stress Analysis of a Multicomponent Model of Sheared and Focally-Adhered Endothelial Cells

PubMed Central

Ferko, Michael C.; Bhatnagar, Amit; Garcia, Mariana B.; Butler, Peter J.

2011-01-01

Hemodynamic forces applied at the apical surface of vascular endothelial cells may be redistributed to and amplified at remote intracellular organelles and protein complexes where they are transduced to biochemical signals. In this study we sought to quantify the effects of cellular material inhomogeneities and discrete attachment points on intracellular stresses resulting from physiological fluid flow. Steady-state shear- and magnetic bead-induced stress, strain, and displacement distributions were determined from finite-element stress analysis of a cell-specific, multicomponent elastic continuum model developed from multimodal fluorescence images of confluent endothelial cell (EC) monolayers and their nuclei. Focal adhesion locations and areas were determined from quantitative total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and verified using green fluorescence protein–focal adhesion kinase (GFP–FAK). The model predicts that shear stress induces small heterogeneous deformations of the endothelial cell cytoplasm on the order of <100 nm. However, strain and stress were amplified 10–100-fold over apical values in and around the high-modulus nucleus and near focal adhesions (FAs) and stress distributions depended on flow direction. The presence of a 0.4 μm glycocalyx was predicted to increase intracellular stresses by ~2-fold. The model of magnetic bead twisting rheometry also predicted heterogeneous stress, strain, and displacement fields resulting from material heterogeneities and FAs. Thus, large differences in moduli between the nucleus and cytoplasm and the juxtaposition of constrained regions (e.g. FAs) and unattached regions provide two mechanisms of stress amplification in sheared endothelial cells. Such phenomena may play a role in subcellular localization of early mechanotransduction events. PMID:17160699

14. Limb remote-preconditioning protects against focal ischemia in rats and contradicts the dogma of therapeutic time windows for preconditioning.

PubMed

Ren, C; Gao, X; Steinberg, G K; Zhao, H

2008-02-19

Remote ischemic preconditioning is an emerging concept for stroke treatment, but its protection against focal stroke has not been established. We tested whether remote preconditioning, performed in the ipsilateral hind limb, protects against focal stroke and explored its protective parameters. Stroke was generated by a permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) combined with a 30 min occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA) in male rats. Limb preconditioning was generated by 5 or 15 min occlusion followed with the same period of reperfusion of the left hind femoral artery, and repeated for two or three cycles. Infarct was measured 2 days later. The results showed that rapid preconditioning with three cycles of 15 min performed immediately before stroke reduced infarct size from 47.7+/-7.6% of control ischemia to 9.8+/-8.6%; at two cycles of 15 min, infarct was reduced to 24.7+/-7.3%; at two cycles of 5 min, infarct was not reduced. Delayed preconditioning with three cycles of 15 min conducted 2 days before stroke also reduced infarct to 23.0+/-10.9%, but with two cycles of 15 min it offered no protection. The protective effects at these two therapeutic time windows of remote preconditioning are consistent with those of conventional preconditioning, in which the preconditioning ischemia is induced in the brain itself. Unexpectedly, intermediate preconditioning with three cycles of 15 min performed 12 h before stroke also reduced infarct to 24.7+/-4.7%, which contradicts the current dogma for therapeutic time windows for the conventional preconditioning that has no protection at this time point. In conclusion, remote preconditioning performed in one limb protected against ischemic damage after focal cerebral ischemia.

15. Circular common-path point diffraction interferometer.

PubMed

Du, Yongzhao; Feng, Guoying; Li, Hongru; Vargas, J; Zhou, Shouhuan

2012-10-01

A simple and compact point-diffraction interferometer with circular common-path geometry configuration is developed. The interferometer is constructed by a beam-splitter, two reflection mirrors, and a telescope system composed by two lenses. The signal and reference waves travel along the same path. Furthermore, an opaque mask containing a reference pinhole and a test object holder or test window is positioned in the common focal plane of the telescope system. The object wave is divided into two beams that take opposite paths along the interferometer. The reference wave is filtered by the reference pinhole, while the signal wave is transmitted through the object holder. The reference and signal waves are combined again in the beam-splitter and their interference is imaged in the CCD. The new design is compact, vibration insensitive, and suitable for the measurement of moving objects or dynamic processes.

DTIC Science & Technology

properly assess these trade-offs, it is important to be able to quantify the protection system in terms of injury mitigation. However, there are few...applicable test methodologies to support product development or accept testing. A preliminary injury assessment methodology for evaluating the performance of...mandible guard systems has been developed based on the mandible load sensing headform (MLSH) which was designed for the assessment of mouth guards used in American football .

17. Epidemiology, Virology, and Pathogenesis of the Zika Virus: From Neglected Tropical Disease to a Focal Point of International Attention.

PubMed

Schirmer, David A; Kawwass, Jennifer Fay

2016-09-01

Over the past year, the Zika virus, an arthropod-borne Flavivirus, has transitioned from a relatively unknown tropical disease to the cause of a public health emergency. The Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes species of mosquito as well as by sexual intercourse. Although the symptoms of acute Zika virus infection are usually mild and self-limited, it causes fetal microcephaly in pregnant women, and is associated with an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The risk of microcephaly from Zika virus infection is estimated to be highest in women who are infected during the first trimester of pregnancy. The Zika virus has been shown to have significant neurotrophism in vivo and in vitro, although further study is needed to characterize its mechanisms of pathogenesis. Zika virus has previously caused two known outbreaks in the Pacific region prior to the current epidemic in South and Central America, and the current epidemic has affected at least 440,000 to 1,300,000 people. The population of the vector for the current epidemic, Aedes aegypti, varies seasonally in the United States, however there have been few documented cases of local spread of the Zika infection in the United States and it is unclear whether epidemic spread of Zika will occur within the United States.

18. New formulas for Maslov's canonical operator in a neighborhood of focal points and caustics in two-dimensional semiclassical asymptotics

Dobrokhotov, S. Yu.; Makrakis, G. N.; Nazaikinskii, V. E.; Tudorovskii, T. Ya.

2013-12-01

We suggest a new representation of Maslov's canonical operator in a neighborhood of caustics using a special class of coordinate systems (eikonal coordinates) on Lagrangian manifolds. We present the results in the two-dimensional case and illustrate them with examples.

19. Exploring and Understanding Gender in Education: A Qualitative Research Manual for Education Practitioners and Gender Focal Points

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bernard, Anne; Armstrong, Greg; Attig, George

2005-01-01

A methodology is described for conducting qualitative research on gender issues in education. Qualitative research, a critical step for achieving the global Education For All (EFA) goals, will assist identifying the issues, analyzing the contents, and formulating viable policy. "Gender" refers to the social roles and responsibilities that belong…

20. Volume 2 - Point Sources

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Point source emission reference materials from the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP). Provides point source guidance on planning, emissions estimation, data collection, inventory documentation and reporting, and quality assurance/quality contr

1. Low cost point focus solar concentrator, phase 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1979-01-01

Design concepts and plans for mass-production facilities and equipment, field installation, and maintenance were developed and used for cost analysis of a pneumatically stabilized plastic film point focus solar concentrator which has potential application in conjunction with Brayton cycle engines or supply of thermal energy. A sub-scale reflector was fabricated and optically tested by laser ray tracing to determine focal deviations of the surface slope and best focal plane. These test data were then used for comparisons with theoretical concentrator performance modeling and predictions of full-scale design performance. Results of the economic study indicate the concentrator design will have low cost when mass-produced and has cost/performance parameters that fall within current Jet Propulsion Laboratory goals.

2. Continuous zoom calibration by tracking salient points in endoscopic video.

PubMed

Lourenço, Miguel; Barreto, João P; Fonseca, Fernando; Ferreira, Hélder; Duarte, Rui M; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

2014-01-01

Many image-based systems for aiding the surgeon during minimally invasive surgery require the endoscopic camera to be calibrated at all times. This article proposes a method for accomplishing this goal whenever the camera has optical zoom and the focal length changes during the procedure. Our solution for online calibration builds on recent developments in tracking salient points using differential image alignment, is well suited for continuous operation, and makes no assumptions about the camera motion or scene rigidity. Experimental validation using both a phantom model and in vivo data shows that the method enables accurate estimation of focal length when the zoom varies, avoiding the need to explicitly recalibrate during surgery. To the best of our knowledge this the first work proposing a practical solution for online zoom calibration in the operation room.

3. System and method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array

DOEpatents

Bixler, Jay V; Brandt, Timothy G; Conger, James L; Lawson, Janice K

2013-05-21

A method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array according to one embodiment includes gathering a data set for a focal plane array when exposed to light or radiation from a first known target; analyzing the data set for determining which pixels or subpixels of the focal plane array to add to a deselect mapping; adding the pixels or subpixels to the deselect mapping based on the analysis; and storing the deselect mapping. A method for gathering data using a focal plane array according to another embodiment includes deselecting pixels or subpixels based on a deselect mapping; gathering a data set using pixels or subpixels in a focal plane array that are not deselected upon exposure thereof to light or radiation from a target of interest; and outputting the data set.

4. Mutations in DEPDC5 cause familial focal epilepsy with variable foci.

PubMed

Dibbens, Leanne M; de Vries, Boukje; Donatello, Simona; Heron, Sarah E; Hodgson, Bree L; Chintawar, Satyan; Crompton, Douglas E; Hughes, James N; Bellows, Susannah T; Klein, Karl Martin; Callenbach, Petra M C; Corbett, Mark A; Gardner, Alison E; Kivity, Sara; Iona, Xenia; Regan, Brigid M; Weller, Claudia M; Crimmins, Denis; O'Brien, Terence J; Guerrero-López, Rosa; Mulley, John C; Dubeau, Francois; Licchetta, Laura; Bisulli, Francesca; Cossette, Patrick; Thomas, Paul Q; Gecz, Jozef; Serratosa, Jose; Brouwer, Oebele F; Andermann, Frederick; Andermann, Eva; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Pandolfo, Massimo; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E

2013-05-01

The majority of epilepsies are focal in origin, with seizures emanating from one brain region. Although focal epilepsies often arise from structural brain lesions, many affected individuals have normal brain imaging. The etiology is unknown in the majority of individuals, although genetic factors are increasingly recognized. Autosomal dominant familial focal epilepsy with variable foci (FFEVF) is notable because family members have seizures originating from different cortical regions. Using exome sequencing, we detected DEPDC5 mutations in two affected families. We subsequently identified mutations in five of six additional published large families with FFEVF. Study of families with focal epilepsy that were too small for conventional clinical diagnosis with FFEVF identified DEPDC5 mutations in approximately 12% of families (10/82). This high frequency establishes DEPDC5 mutations as a common cause of familial focal epilepsies. Shared homology with G protein signaling molecules and localization in human neurons suggest a role of DEPDC5 in neuronal signal transduction.

5. Focal chromosomal copy number aberrations in cancer-Needles in a genome haystack.

PubMed

Krijgsman, Oscar; Carvalho, Beatriz; Meijer, Gerrit A; Steenbergen, Renske D M; Ylstra, Bauke

2014-11-01

The extent of focal chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNAs) in cancer has been uncovered through technical innovations, and this discovery has been critical for the identification of new cancer driver genes in genomics projects such as TCGA and ICGC. Unlike constitutive copy number variations (CNVs), focal CNAs are the result of many selection events during the evolution of cancer genomes. Therefore, it is possible that a single gene in a focal CNA gives the tumor a selective growth advantage. This concept has been instrumental in the discovery of new cancer driver genes. However, focal CNAs lack a consensus definition; therefore, we propose one based on pragmatic considerations. We also describe different strategies to identify focal CNAs and procedures to distinguish them from large CNAs and CNVs.

6. Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions

Deschout, Hendrik; Lukes, Tomas; Sharipov, Azat; Szlag, Daniel; Feletti, Lely; Vandenberg, Wim; Dedecker, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Leutenegger, Marcel; Lasser, Theo; Radenovic, Aleksandra

2016-12-01

Live-cell imaging of focal adhesions requires a sufficiently high temporal resolution, which remains a challenge for super-resolution microscopy. Here we address this important issue by combining photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). Using simulations and fixed-cell focal adhesion images, we investigate the complementarity between PALM and SOFI in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. This PALM-SOFI framework is used to image focal adhesions in living cells, while obtaining a temporal resolution below 10 s. We visualize the dynamics of focal adhesions, and reveal local mean velocities around 190 nm min-1. The complementarity of PALM and SOFI is assessed in detail with a methodology that integrates a resolution and signal-to-noise metric. This PALM and SOFI concept provides an enlarged quantitative imaging framework, allowing unprecedented functional exploration of focal adhesions through the estimation of molecular parameters such as fluorophore densities and photoactivation or photoswitching kinetics.

7. Microscale spatiotemporal dynamics during neocortical propagation of human focal seizures.

PubMed

Wagner, Fabien B; Eskandar, Emad N; Cosgrove, G Rees; Madsen, Joseph R; Blum, Andrew S; Potter, N Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R; Cash, Sydney S; Truccolo, Wilson

2015-11-15

Some of the most clinically consequential aspects of focal epilepsy, e.g. loss of consciousness, arise from the generalization or propagation of seizures through local and large-scale neocortical networks. Yet, the dynamics of such neocortical propagation remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the microdynamics of focal seizure propagation in neocortical patches (4×4 mm) recorded via high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) implanted in people with pharmacologically resistant epilepsy. Our main findings are threefold: (1) a newly developed stage segmentation method, applied to local field potentials (LFPs) and multiunit activity (MUA), revealed a succession of discrete seizure stages, each lasting several seconds. These different stages showed characteristic evolutions in overall activity and spatial patterns, which were relatively consistent across seizures within each of the 5 patients studied. Interestingly, segmented seizure stages based on LFPs or MUA showed a dissociation of their spatiotemporal dynamics, likely reflecting different contributions of non-local synaptic inputs and local network activity. (2) As previously reported, some of the seizures showed a peak in MUA that happened several seconds after local seizure onset and slowly propagated across the MEA. However, other seizures had a more complex structure characterized by, for example, several MUA peaks, more consistent with the succession of discrete stages than the slow propagation of a simple wavefront of increased MUA. In both cases, nevertheless, seizures characterized by spike-wave discharges (SWDs, ~2-3 Hz) eventually evolved into patterns of phase-locked MUA and LFPs. (3) Individual SWDs or gamma oscillation cycles (25-60 Hz), characteristic of two different types of recorded seizures, tended to propagate with varying degrees of directionality, directions of propagation and speeds, depending on the identified seizure stage. However, no clear relationship was observed between the MUA

8. Microscale Spatiotemporal Dynamics during Neocortical Propagation of Human Focal Seizures

PubMed Central

Wagner, Fabien B.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cosgrove, G. Rees; Madsen, Joseph R.; Blum, Andrew S.; Potter, N. Stevenson; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Cash, Sydney S.; Truccolo, Wilson

2015-01-01

Some of the most clinically consequential aspects of focal epilepsy, e.g. loss of consciousness, arise from the generalization or propagation of seizures through local and large-scale neocortical networks. Yet, the dynamics of such neocortical propagation remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the microdynamics of focal seizure propagation in neocortical patches (4 × 4 mm) recorded via high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs) implanted in people with pharmacologically resistant epilepsy. Our main findings are threefold: (1) A newly developed stage segmentation method, applied to local field potentials (LFPs) and multi-unit activity (MUA), revealed a succession of discrete seizure stages, each lasting several seconds. These different stages showed characteristic evolutions in overall activity and spatial patterns, which were relatively consistent across seizures within each of the 5 patients studied. Interestingly, segmented seizure stages based on LFPs or MUA showed a dissociation of their spatiotemporal dynamics, likely reflecting different contributions of non-local synaptic inputs and local network activity. (2) As previously reported, some of the seizures showed a peak in MUA that happened several seconds after local seizure onset and slowly propagated across the MEA. However, other seizures had a more complex structure characterized by, for example, several MUA peaks, more consistent with the succession of discrete stages than the slow propagation of a simple wavefront of increased MUA. In both cases, nevertheless, seizures characterized by spike-wave discharges (SWDs, ~ 2–3Hz) eventually evolved into patterns of phase-locked MUA and LFPs. (3) Individual SWDs or gamma oscillation cycles (25–60 Hz), characteristic of two different types of recorded seizures, tended to propagate with varying degrees of directionality, directions of propagation and speeds, depending on the identified seizure stage. However, no clear relationship was observed between the

9. Comparing Point Clouds

DTIC Science & Technology

2004-04-01

Point clouds are one of the most primitive and fundamental surface representations. A popular source of point clouds are three dimensional shape...acquisition devices such as laser range scanners. Another important field where point clouds are found is in the representation of high-dimensional...framework for comparing manifolds given by point clouds is presented in this paper. The underlying theory is based on Gromov-Hausdorff distances, leading

10. Point-to-Point Multicast Communications Protocol

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Byrd, Gregory T.; Nakano, Russell; Delagi, Bruce A.

1987-01-01

This paper describes a protocol to support point-to-point interprocessor communications with multicast. Dynamic, cut-through routing with local flow control is used to provide a high-throughput, low-latency communications path between processors. In addition multicast transmissions are available, in which copies of a packet are sent to multiple destinations using common resources as much as possible. Special packet terminators and selective buffering are introduced to avoid a deadlock during multicasts. A simulated implementation of the protocol is also described.

11. Dewey's Logic as a Methodological Grounding Point for Practitioner-Based Inquiry

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demetrion, George

2012-01-01

The purpose of this essay is to draw out key insights from Dewey's important text "Logic: The Theory of Inquiry" to provide theoretical and practical support for the emergent field of teacher research. The specific focal point is the argument in Cochran-Smith and Lytle's "Inside/Outside: Teacher Research and Knowledge" on the significance of…

12. Research of aerial camera focal pane micro-displacement measurement system based on Michelson interferometer

Wang, Shu-juan; Zhao, Yu-liang; Li, Shu-jun

2014-09-01

The aerial camera focal plane in the correct position is critical to the imaging quality. In order to adjust the aerial camera focal plane displacement caused in the process of maintenance, a new micro-displacement measuring system of aerial camera focal plane in view of the Michelson interferometer has been designed in this paper, which is based on the phase modulation principle, and uses the interference effect to realize the focal plane of the micro-displacement measurement. The system takes He-Ne laser as the light source, uses the Michelson interference mechanism to produce interference fringes, changes with the motion of the aerial camera focal plane interference fringes periodically, and records the periodicity of the change of the interference fringes to obtain the aerial camera plane displacement; Taking linear CCD and its driving system as the interference fringes picking up tool, relying on the frequency conversion and differentiating system, the system determines the moving direction of the focal plane. After data collecting, filtering, amplifying, threshold comparing, counting, CCD video signals of the interference fringes are sent into the computer processed automatically, and output the focal plane micro displacement results. As a result, the focal plane micro displacement can be measured automatically by this system. This system uses linear CCD as the interference fringes picking up tool, greatly improving the counting accuracy and eliminated the artificial counting error almost, improving the measurement accuracy of the system. The results of the experiments demonstrate that: the aerial camera focal plane displacement measurement accuracy is 0.2nm. While tests in the laboratory and flight show that aerial camera focal plane positioning is accurate and can satisfy the requirement of the aerial camera imaging.

13. Focal spot motion of linear accelerators and its effect on portal image analysis.

PubMed

Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Brand, Bob; van Herk, Marcel

2003-06-01

The focal spot of a linear accelerator is often considered to have a fully stable position. In practice, however, the beam control loop of a linear accelerator needs to stabilize after the beam is turned on. As a result, some motion of the focal spot might occur during the start-up phase of irradiation. When acquiring portal images, this motion will affect the projected position of anatomy and field edges, especially when low exposures are used. In this paper, the motion of the focal spot and the effect of this motion on portal image analysis are quantified. A slightly tilted narrow slit phantom was placed at the isocenter of several linear accelerators and images were acquired (3.5 frames per second) by means of an amorphous silicon flat panel imager positioned approximately 0.7 m below the isocenter. The motion of the focal spot was determined by converting the tilted slit images to subpixel accurate line spread functions. The error in portal image analysis due to focal spot motionwas estimated by a subtraction of the relative displacement of the projected slit from the relative displacement of the field edges. It was found that the motion of the focal spot depends on the control system and design of the accelerator. The shift of the focal spot at the start of irradiation ranges between 0.05-0.7 mm in the gun-target (GT) direction. In the left-right (AB) direction the shift is generally smaller. The resulting error in portal image analysis due to focal spotmotion ranges between 0.05-1.1 mm for a dose corresponding to two monitor units (MUs). For 20 MUs, the effect of the focal spot motion reduces to 0.01-0.3 mm. The error in portal image analysis due to focal spot motion can be reduced by reducing the applied dose rate.

Hrycushko, Brian A.; Gutierrez, Alonso N.; Goins, Beth; Yan, Weiqiang; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

2011-02-01

Post-operative radiotherapy has commonly been used for early stage breast cancer to treat residual disease. The primary objective of this work was to characterize, through dosimetric and radiobiological modeling, a novel focal brachytherapy technique which uses direct intracavitary infusion of β-emitting radionuclides (186Re/188Re) carried by lipid nanoparticles (liposomes). Absorbed dose calculations were performed for a spherical lumpectomy cavity with a uniformly injected activity distribution using a dose point kernel convolution technique. Radiobiological indices were used to relate predicted therapy outcome and normal tissue complication of this technique with equivalent external beam radiotherapy treatment regimens. Modeled stromal damage was used as a measure of the inhibition of the stimulatory effect on tumor growth driven by the wound healing response. A sample treatment plan delivering 50 Gy at a therapeutic range of 2.0 mm for 186Re-liposomes and 5.0 mm for 188Re-liposomes takes advantage of the dose delivery characteristics of the β-emissions, providing significant EUD (58.2 Gy and 72.5 Gy for 186Re and 188Re, respectively) with a minimal NTCP (0.046%) of the healthy ipsilateral breast. Modeling of kidney BED and ipsilateral breast NTCP showed that large injected activity concentrations of both radionuclides could be safely administered without significant complications.

15. [Imiquimod for the topical treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) in a child].

PubMed

Maschke, Jan; Brauns, Tilmann C; Goos, Manfred

2004-10-01

Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease is a rare skin disease caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV). The case of a 9-year old boy is presented to demonstrate the successful treatment of massive FEH with 5% imiquimod cream. Initially, the patient had noticed several separate papules, which spread and developed into multiple peri- and intraoral papillomatous nodules. The lesions were treated with carbon dioxide laser destruction. However, multiple, skin-coloured papillomatous nodules were found on the tongue, buccal mucosa and lips 1.5 years later. Treatment with imiquimod was initiated, because the patient suffered tremendously from the disease. 5% imiquimod cream was applied 3 times per week. Regression of lesions was obvious after 1 month of treatment. Complete clearance was achieved after 2 additional months of treatment and no recurrence was detected over a follow-up period of 5 months. Our case points out the clinical value of imiquimod for the non-traumatic and almost painless therapy of HPV-induced skin diseases in children.

16. Lie sphere transformations and the focal sets of hyper-surfaces

SciTech Connect

1988-01-01

Isoparametric hypersurfaces of euclidean or spherical space are those with constant principal curvatures. The image of the hypersurface under a conformal transformation of the ambient space will no longer be isoparametric, but will be Dupin: the principal curvatures will be constant in the principal directions. Dupin hypersurfaces are closely related to taut hypersurfaces, for which almost every distance function is a perfect Morse function (the number of critical points is the minimum for the topology of the hypersurface). A weaker concept is tightness, for which almost every linear height function is required to be a perfect Morse function. Dupin and taut hypersurfaces are preserved not just under conformal, or Moebuius, transformations but also under the more general Lie sphere transformations. Roughly speaking, these are generated by Moebius transformations and parallel transformations. The purpose of this thesis is to study certain taut or Dupin hypersurfaces under Lie sphere transformations including the effect on the focal set. The thesis is divided into four sections. After the introduction, the method of studying hypersurfaces as Lie sphere objects is developed. The third section extends the concepts of tightness and tautness of semi-euclidean space. The final section shows that if a hypersurface is the Lie sphere image of certain standard constructions (tubes, cylinders, and rotations), the resulting family of curvature spheres is taut in the Lie quadric.

17. Reconstruction of 60 Years of Chikungunya Epidemiology in the Philippines Demonstrates Episodic and Focal Transmission

PubMed Central

Salje, Henrik; Cauchemez, Simon; Alera, Maria Theresa; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Lago, Catherine B.; Villa, Daisy; Klungthong, Chonticha; Tac-An, Ilya A.; Fernandez, Stefan; Velasco, John Mark; Roque, Vito G.; Nisalak, Ananda; Macareo, Louis R.; Levy, Jens W.; Cummings, Derek; Yoon, In-Kyu

2016-01-01

Proper understanding of the long-term epidemiology of chikungunya has been hampered by poor surveillance. Outbreak years are unpredictable and cases often misdiagnosed. Here we analyzed age-specific data from 2 serological studies (from 1973 and 2012) in Cebu, Philippines, to reconstruct both the annual probability of infection and population-level immunity over a 60-year period (1952–2012). We also explored whether seroconversions during 2012–2013 were spatially clustered. Our models identified 4 discrete outbreaks separated by an average delay of 17 years. On average, 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%–37%) of the susceptible population was infected per outbreak, with >50% of the entire population remaining susceptible at any point. Participants who seroconverted during 2012–2013 were clustered at distances of <230 m, suggesting focal transmission. Large-scale outbreaks of chikungunya did not result in sustained multiyear transmission. Nevertheless, we estimate that >350 000 infections were missed by surveillance systems. Serological studies could supplement surveillance to provide important insights on pathogen circulation. PMID:26410592

18. Interval analysis of interictal EEG: pathology of the alpha rhythm in focal epilepsy

Pyrzowski, Jan; Siemiński, Mariusz; Sarnowska, Anna; Jedrzejczak, Joanna; Nyka, Walenty M.

2015-11-01

The contemporary use of interictal scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in the context of focal epilepsy workup relies on the visual identification of interictal epileptiform discharges. The high-specificity performance of this marker comes, however, at a cost of only moderate sensitivity. Zero-crossing interval analysis is an alternative to Fourier analysis for the assessment of the rhythmic component of EEG signals. We applied this method to standard EEG recordings of 78 patients divided into 4 subgroups: temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and nonepileptic patients with headache. Interval-analysis based markers were capable of effectively discriminating patients with epilepsy from those in control subgroups (AUC~0.8) with diagnostic sensitivity potentially exceeding that of visual analysis. The identified putative epilepsy-specific markers were sensitive to the properties of the alpha rhythm and displayed weak or non-significant dependences on the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) taken by the patients. Significant AED-related effects were concentrated in the theta interval range and an associated marker allowed for identification of patients on AED polytherapy (AUC~0.9). Interval analysis may thus, in perspective, increase the diagnostic yield of interictal scalp EEG. Our findings point to the possible existence of alpha rhythm abnormalities in patients with epilepsy.

19. The focal plane assembly for the Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit instrument

Jackson, B. D.; van Weers, H.; van der Kuur, J.; den Hartog, R.; Akamatsu, H.; Argan, A.; Bandler, S. R.; Barbera, M.; Barret, D.; Bruijn, M. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Dercksen, J.; Gatti, F.; Gottardi, L.; Haas, D.; den Herder, J.-W.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kiviranta, M.; Lam-Trong, T.; van Leeuwen, B.-J.; Macculi, C.; Piro, L.; Smith, S. J.

2016-07-01

This paper summarizes a preliminary design concept for the focal plane assembly of the X-ray Integral Field Unit on the Athena spacecraft, an imaging microcalorimeter that will enable high spectral resolution imaging and point-source spectroscopy. The instrument's sensor array will be a 3840-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array, with a frequency domain multiplexed SQUID readout system allowing this large-format sensor array to be operated within the thermal constraints of the instrument's cryogenic system. A second TES detector will be operated in close proximity to the sensor array to detect cosmic rays and secondary particles passing through the sensor array for off-line coincidence detection to identify and reject events caused by the in-orbit high-energy particle background. The detectors, operating at 55 mK, or less, will be thermally isolated from the instrument cryostat's 2 K stage, while shielding and filtering within the FPA will allow the instrument's sensitive sensor array to be operated in the expected environment during both on-ground testing and in-flight operation, including straylight from the cryostat environment, low-energy photons entering through the X-ray aperture, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency electric fields.

20. Mechanical design of mounts for IGRINS focal plane arrays and field flattening lenses

Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyeong; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Pavel, Michael; Jaffe, Daniel T.

2014-07-01

IGRINS, the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer, is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG focal plane array (FPA) detectors. The mechanical mounts for these detectors and for the final (field-flattening) lens in the optical train serve a critical function in the overall instrument design: Optically, they permit the only positional compensation in the otherwise "build to print" design. Thermally, they permit setting and control of the detector operating temperature independently of the cryostat bench. We present the design and fabrication of the mechanical mount as a single module. The detector mount includes the array housing, housing for the SIDECAR ASIC, a field flattener lens holder, and a support base. The detector and ASIC housing will be kept at 65 K and the support base at 130 K. G10 supports thermally isolate the detector and ASIC housing from the support base. The field flattening lens holder attaches directly to the FPA array housing and holds the lens with a six-point kinematic mount. Fine adjustment features permit changes in axial position and in yaw and pitch angles. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the computer simulation, the designed detector mount meets the optical and thermal requirements very well.

PubMed

Valiente, Manuel; Ciceri, Gabriele; Rico, Beatriz; Marín, Oscar

2011-08-10

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an intracellular kinase and scaffold protein that regulates migration in many different cellular contexts but whose function in neuronal migration remains controversial. Here, we have analyzed the function of FAK in two populations of neurons with very distinct migratory behaviors: cortical interneurons, which migrate tangentially and independently of radial glia; and pyramidal cells, which undergo glial-dependent migration. We found that FAK is dispensable for glial-independent migration but is cell-autonomously required for the normal interaction of pyramidal cells with radial glial fibers. Loss of FAK function disrupts the normal morphology of migrating pyramidal cells, delays migration, and increases the tangential dispersion of neurons arising from the same radial unit. FAK mediates this process by regulating the assembly of Connexin-26 contact points in the membrane of migrating pyramidal cells. These results indicate that FAK plays a fundamental role in the dynamic regulation of Gap-mediated adhesions during glial-guided neuronal migration in the mouse.

2. Focal-plane electric field sensing with pupil-plane holograms

Por, Emiel H.; Keller, Christoph U.

2016-07-01

The direct detection and spectral characterization of exoplanets requires a coronagraph to suppress the diffracted star light. Amplitude and phase aberrations in the optical train fill the dark zone of the coronagraph with quasi-static speckles that limit the achievable contrast. Focal-plane electric field sensing, such as phase diversity introduced by a deformable mirror (DM), is a powerful tool to minimize this residual star light. The residual electric field can be estimated by sequentially applying phase probes on the DM to inject star light with a well-known amplitude and phase into the dark zone and analyzing the resulting intensity images. The DM can then be used to add light with the same amplitude but opposite phase to destructively interfere with this residual star light. Using a static phase-only pupil-plane element we create holographic copies of the point spread function (PSF), each superimposed with a certain pupil-plane phase probe. We therefore obtain all intensity images simultaneously while still retaining a central, unaltered science PSF. The electric field sensing method only makes use of the holographic copies, allowing for correction of the residual electric field while retaining the central PSF for uninterrupted science data collection. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of this method with numerical simulations.

3. Test facility for long-focal-length mirrors

Bennett, Harold E.; Shaffer, John J.

1993-06-01

Testing the optical figure and focal length of laser mirrors with radii of curvature in the 10 to 100 m range is difficult. If the mirror is concave, a source can be placed at the center of curvature. Air turbulence over these long path lengths makes interferometry difficult, however, and greatly reduces measurement accuracy. Convex mirrors are even more difficult to measure. A solution is to produce a slightly converging or diverging beam from a virtual source. The actual optical path in which turbulence may develop can then be made very short. A three-element test system consisting of a parabola, a transmission sphere, and a folding flat is described. It is capable of measuring both optical flats and convex or concave mirrors up to 40 cm in diameter with radii of curvature from 10 m to infinity. System accuracy is 1/20th wave rms in optical figure and 0.2% in radius of curvature. A discussion is given of the systematic errors introduced when the parabola is used in other than parallel light.

4. OLIGODENDROCYTE DEGENERATION AND RECOVERY AFTER FOCAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA

PubMed Central

McIver, Sally R.; Muccigrosso, Megan; Gonzales, Ernesto R.; Lee, Jin-Moo; Roberts, Marie S.; Sands, Mark S.; Goldberg, Mark P.

2013-01-01

The vulnerability of oligodendrocytes to ischemic injury may contribute to functional loss in diseases of central white matter. Immunocytochemical methods to identify oligodendrocyte injury in experimental models rely on epitope availability, and fail to discriminate structural changes in oligodendrocyte morphology. We previously described the use of a lentiviral vector (LV) carrying eGFP under the myelin basic protein (MBP) promoter for selective visualization of oligodendrocyte cell bodies and processes. In this study, we used LV-MBP-eGFP to label oligodendrocytes in rat cerebral white matter prior to transient focal cerebral ischemia, and examined oligodendrocyte injury 24 hours, 48 hours and one week post-reperfusion by quantifying cell survival and assaying the integrity of myelin processes. There was progressive loss of GFP+ oligodendrocytes in ischemic white matter at 24 and 48 hrs. Surviving GFP+ cells had non-pyknotic nuclear morphology and were TUNEL-negative, but there was marked fragmentation of myelin processes as early as 24 hours after stroke. One week after stroke, we observed a restoration of GFP+ oligodendrocytes in ischemic white matter, reflected both by cell counts and by structural integrity of myelin processes. Proliferating cells were not the main source of GFP+ oligodendrocytes, as revealed by BrdU incorporation. These observations identify novel transient structural changes in oligodendrocyte cell bodies and myelinating processes, which may have consequences for white matter function after stroke. PMID:20621643

5. Molecular mimicry in pauci-immune focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis

PubMed Central

Kain, Renate; Exner, Markus; Brandes, Ricarda; Ziebermayr, Reinhard; Cunningham, Dawn; Alderson, Carol A; Davidovits, Agnes; Raab, Ingrid; Jahn, Renate; Ashour, Oliver; Spitzauer, Susanne; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere; Fukuda, Minoru; Klemm, Per; Rees, Andrew J; Kerjaschki, Dontscho

2009-01-01

Pauci-immune focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis (FNGN) is a severe inflammatory disease associated with autoantibodies to neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens (ANCA). Here we characterize autoantibodies to lysosomal membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and show that they are a new ANCA subtype present in almost all individuals with FNGN. Consequently, its prevalence is nearly twice that of the classical ANCAs that recognize myeloperoxidase or proteinase-3. Furthermore, antibodies to LAMP-2 cause pauci-immune FNGN when injected into rats, and a monoclonal antibody to human LAMP-2 (H4B4) induces apoptosis of human microvascular endothelium in vitro. The autoantibodies in individuals with pauci-immune FNGN commonly recognize a human LAMP-2 epitope (designated P41–49) with 100% homology to the bacterial adhesin FimH, with which they cross-react. Rats immunized with FimH develop pauci-immune FNGN and also develop antibodies to rat and human LAMP-2. Finally, we show that infections with fimbriated pathogens are common before the onset of FNGN. Thus, FimH-triggered autoimmunity to LAMP-2 provides a previously undescribed clinically relevant molecular mechanism for the development of pauci-immune FNGN. PMID:18836458

6. Focal dystonia in musicians: linking motor symptoms to somatosensory dysfunction.

PubMed

Konczak, Jürgen; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

2013-01-01

Musician's dystonia (MD) is a neurological motor disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of those muscles involved in the play of a musical instrument. It is task-specific and initially only impairs the voluntary control of highly practiced musical motor skills. MD can lead to a severe decrement in a musician's ability to perform. While the etiology and the neurological pathomechanism of the disease remain unknown, it is known that MD like others forms of focal dystonia is associated with somatosensory deficits, specifically a decreased precision of tactile and proprioceptive perception. The sensory component of the disease becomes also evident by the patients' use of "sensory tricks" such as touching dystonic muscles to alleviate motor symptoms. The central premise of this paper is that the motor symptoms of MD have a somatosensory origin and are not fully explained as a problem of motor execution. We outline how altered proprioceptive feedback ultimately leads to a loss of voluntary motor control and propose two scenarios that explain why sensory tricks are effective. They are effective, because the sensorimotor system either recruits neural resources normally involved in tactile-proprioceptive (sensory) integration, or utilizes a fully functioning motor efference copy mechanism to align experienced with expected sensory feedback. We argue that an enhanced understanding of how a primary sensory deficit interacts with mechanisms of sensorimotor integration in MD provides helpful insights for the design of more effective behavioral therapies.

7. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

2015-01-01

The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

8. Neuronal network disturbance after focal ischemia in rats

SciTech Connect

Kataoka, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Yamada, K.; Mushiroi, T.; Kuroda, R.; Mogami, H. )

1989-09-01

We studied functional disturbances following left middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Neuronal function was evaluated by (14C)2-deoxyglucose autoradiography 1 day after occlusion. We analyzed the mechanisms of change in glucose utilization outside the infarct using Fink-Heimer silver impregnation, axonal transport of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated-horseradish peroxidase, and succinate dehydrogenase histochemistry. One day after occlusion, glucose utilization was remarkably reduced in the areas surrounding the infarct. There were many silver grains indicating degeneration of the synaptic terminals in the cortical areas surrounding the infarct and the ipsilateral cingulate cortex. Moreover, in the left thalamus where the left middle cerebral artery supplied no blood, glucose utilization significantly decreased compared with sham-operated rats. In the left thalamus, massive silver staining of degenerated synaptic terminals and decreases in succinate dehydrogenase activity were observed 4 and 5 days after occlusion. The absence of succinate dehydrogenase staining may reflect early changes in retrograde degeneration of thalamic neurons after ischemic injury of the thalamocortical pathway. Terminal degeneration even affected areas remote from the infarct: there were silver grains in the contralateral hemisphere transcallosally connected to the infarct and in the ipsilateral substantia nigra. Axonal transport study showed disruption of the corticospinal tract by subcortical ischemia; the transcallosal pathways in the cortex surrounding the infarct were preserved. The relation between neural function and the neuronal network in the area surrounding the focal cerebral infarct is discussed with regard to ischemic penumbra and diaschisis.

9. Focal dystonia in musicians: linking motor symptoms to somatosensory dysfunction

PubMed Central

Konczak, Jürgen; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

2013-01-01

Musician's dystonia (MD) is a neurological motor disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of those muscles involved in the play of a musical instrument. It is task-specific and initially only impairs the voluntary control of highly practiced musical motor skills. MD can lead to a severe decrement in a musician's ability to perform. While the etiology and the neurological pathomechanism of the disease remain unknown, it is known that MD like others forms of focal dystonia is associated with somatosensory deficits, specifically a decreased precision of tactile and proprioceptive perception. The sensory component of the disease becomes also evident by the patients' use of “sensory tricks” such as touching dystonic muscles to alleviate motor symptoms. The central premise of this paper is that the motor symptoms of MD have a somatosensory origin and are not fully explained as a problem of motor execution. We outline how altered proprioceptive feedback ultimately leads to a loss of voluntary motor control and propose two scenarios that explain why sensory tricks are effective. They are effective, because the sensorimotor system either recruits neural resources normally involved in tactile-proprioceptive (sensory) integration, or utilizes a fully functioning motor efference copy mechanism to align experienced with expected sensory feedback. We argue that an enhanced understanding of how a primary sensory deficit interacts with mechanisms of sensorimotor integration in MD provides helpful insights for the design of more effective behavioral therapies. PMID:23805090

10. Prostate cancer: state of the art imaging and focal treatment.

PubMed

Woodrum, D A; Kawashima, A; Gorny, K R; Mynderse, L A

2017-04-03

In 2016, it is estimated 180,890 men are newly diagnosed with prostate cancer and 3,306,760 men live with prostate cancer in the United States. The introduction of multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate, standardised interpretation guidelines such as Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS version 2), and MRI-based targeted biopsy has improved detection of clinically significant prostate cancer. Accurate risk stratification (Gleason grade/score and tumour stage) using imaging and image-guided targeted biopsy has become critical for the management of patients with prostate cancer. Recent advances in MRI-guided minimally invasive ablative treatment (MIAT) utilising cryoablation, laser ablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, have allowed accurate focal or regional delivery of optimal thermal energy to the biopsy proven, MRI-detected tumour, under real-time or near simultaneous MRI monitoring of the ablation zone. A contemporary review on prostate mpMRI, MRI-based targeted biopsy, and MRI-guided ablation techniques is presented.

11. Tissue microenvironments within functional cortical subdivisions adjacent to focal stroke.

PubMed

Katsman, Diana; Zheng, Jian; Spinelli, Kateri; Carmichael, S Thomas

2003-09-01

Stroke produces a region of complete cell death and areas of partial damage, injury, and gliosis. The spatial relationship of these regions of damage to the infarct core and within spared neuronal circuits has not been identified. A model of cortical stroke was developed within functional subsets of the somatosensory cortex. Infarct size, regions of apoptosis, oxidative DNA damage, heat shock protein induction, and subtypes of reactive gliosis were precisely mapped with the somatosensory body map, quantified, and interrelated. Three tissue microenvironments were recognized: zones of partial ischemic damage, heat shock protein induction, and distributed gliosis. These three zones involved progressively more distant cortical regions, each larger than the infarct core. The zone of partial ischemic damage represents an overlap region of apoptotic cell death, oxidative DNA damage, loss of synaptic connections, and local reactive gliosis. The zone of distributed gliosis occupies distinct functional areas of the somatosensory cortex. The tissue reorganization induced by stroke is much larger than the stroke site itself. Adjacent tissue microenvironments are sites of distinct reactive cellular signaling and may serve as a link between the processes of acute cell death and delayed neuronal plasticity after focal stroke.

12. Imaging Polarimetry With Polarization-Sensitive Focal Planes

Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Z.

2014-01-01

We present a compact, lightweight, snapshot imaging polarimeter designed for operation in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR). Flux, polarization and spectral energy distribution are the fundamental measurements through which we infer properties of the sources of radiation such as intensity, temperature, chemical composition, emission mechanisms and structure. In recent decades, many scientific fields that utilize radiometry and spectroscopy have benefited from revolutionary improvements in instrumentation, for example, charge-coupled devices, hybridized infrared arrays, multi-object spectrometers and adaptive optics. Advances in polarimetric instrumentation have been more modest. Recently, the fabrication of microgrid polarizer arrays (MGPAs), facilitated the development of polarization-sensitive focal planes. These devices have inherent capability to measure the degree and angle of polarization across a scene (i.e., imaging polarimetry) instantaneously, without the need for multiple exposures and moving optics or multiple detectors. MGPA-based devices are compact, lightweight, and mechanically robust and perfectly suited for deployment on space-based and airborne platforms. We describe the design, operation and expected performance of MGPA-based imaging polarimeters and identify the applications for which these polarimeters are best suited.

13. [Case report of muscle cramp versus focal epilepsy].

PubMed

Fujita, H; Muranaka, H; Osari, S; Kimura, Y; Goto, A; Koda, M; Shiotani, M; Ozaki, I

1999-09-01

We report here a boy suffering from muscle cramps in the right upper extremity. At 32 days of age, he developed purulent meningitis followed by paresis of the right upper extremity. From infancy he had intermittent episodes myoclonus-like involving the right hand. Since he also had true epileptic seizures with loss of consciousness, ocular deviation, and vomiting at 6 and 8 years of age, he was treated with anti-epileptic drugs as therapy for focal motor seizures. At 6 years of age, these episodes increased in frequency. The cramps spread from the right hand to involve the entire upper extremity with pain. At the age of 10, he was referred to Hirosaki University Hospital and was admitted. Using closed circuit television with continuous EEG and EMG monitoring we observed during his episodes repeated EMG abnormalities consisting of continuous discharges of polyphasic motor unit potentials, but no epileptic EEG discharges. We diagnosed these episodes as muscle cramp. His muscle cramps were controlled by medication with muscle relaxants and Chinese medicines. This case illustrates that the differential diagnosis between muscle cramps and epileptic seizures is important for proper treatment.

14. Advancement in 17-micron pixel pitch uncooled focal plane arrays

Li, Chuan; Skidmore, George; Howard, Christopher; Clarke, Elwood; Han, C. J.

2009-05-01

This paper provides an update of 17 micron pixel pitch uncooled microbolometer development at DRS. Since the introduction of 17 micron pitch 640x480 focal plane arrays (FPAs) in 2006, significant progress has been made in sensor performance and manufacturing processes. The FPAs are now in initial production with an FPA noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), detector thermal time constant, and pixel operability equivalent or better than that of the current 25 micron pixel pitch production FPAs. NETD improvement was achieved without compromising detector thermal response or thermal time constant by simultaneous reduction in bolometer heat capacity and thermal conductance. In addition, the DRS unique "umbrella" microbolometer cavities were optically tuned to optimize detector radiation absorption for specific spectral band applications. The 17 micron pixel pitch FPAs are currently being considered for the next generation soldier systems such as thermal weapon sights (TWS), vehicle driver vision enhancers (DVE), digitally fused enhanced night vision goggles (DENVG) and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) surveillance sensors, because of overall thermal imaging system size, weight and power advantages.

15. Infection-Related Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Children

PubMed Central

Dettmar, Anne Katrin; Oh, Jun

2016-01-01

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common cause of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in children. It describes a unique histological picture of glomerular damage resulting from several causes. In the majority of patients the causing agent is still unknown, but in some cases viral association is evident. In adults, the most established FSGS causing virus is the human immune-deficiency virus, which is related to a collapsing variant of FSGS. Nevertheless, other viruses are also suspected for causing a collapsing or noncollapsing variant, for example, hepatitis B virus, parvovirus B19, and Cytomegalovirus. Although the systemic infection mechanism is different for these viruses, there are similarities in the pathomechanism for the induction of FSGS. As the podocyte is the key structure in the pathogenesis of FSGS, a direct infection of these cells or immediate damage through the virus or viral components has to be considered. Although viral infections are a very rare cause for FSGS in children, the treating pediatric nephrologist has to be aware of a possible underlying infection, as this has a relevant impact on therapy and prognosis. PMID:27294131

16. Highly ionized xenon and volumetric weighting in restricted focal geometries

Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

2015-08-01

The ionization of xenon atoms subjected to 42 fs, 800 nm pulses of radiation from a Ti:Sapphire laser was investigated. In our experiments, a maximum laser intensity of ˜ 2 × 10 15 W / cm 2 was used. Xenon ions were measured using a time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer having an entrance slit with dimensions of 12 μ m × 400 μ m . The observed yields Xe n + ( n = 1 - 7 ) were partially free of spatial averaging. The ion yields showed sequential and nonsequential multiple ionization and dip structures following saturation. To investigate the dip structures and to perform a comparison between experimental and simulated data, with the goal of clarifying the effects of residual spatial averaging, we derived a hybrid analytical-numerical solution for the integration kernel in restricted focal geometries. We simulated xenon ionization using Ammosov-Delone-Krainov and Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev theories and obtained agreement with the results of observations. Since a large number of experiments suffer from spatial averaging, the results presented are important to correctly interpret experimental data by taking into account spatial averaging.

17. Performance overview of the Euclid infrared focal plane detector subsystems

Waczynski, A.; Barbier, R.; Cagiano, S.; Chen, J.; Cheung, S.; Cho, H.; Cillis, A.; Clémens, J.-C.; Dawson, O.; Delo, G.; Farris, M.; Feizi, A.; Foltz, R.; Hickey, M.; Holmes, W.; Hwang, T.; Israelsson, U.; Jhabvala, M.; Kahle, D.; Kan, Em.; Kan, Er.; Loose, M.; Lotkin, G.; Miko, L.; Nguyen, L.; Piquette, E.; Powers, T.; Pravdo, S.; Runkle, A.; Seiffert, M.; Strada, P.; Tucker, C.; Turck, K.; Wang, F.; Weber, C.; Williams, J.

2016-07-01

In support of the European space agency (ESA) Euclid mission, NASA is responsible for the evaluation of the H2RG mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detectors and electronics assemblies fabricated by Teledyne imaging systems. The detector evaluation is performed in the detector characterization laboratory (DCL) at the NASA Goddard space flight center (GSFC) in close collaboration with engineers and scientists from the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) and the Euclid project. The Euclid near infrared spectrometer and imaging photometer (NISP) will perform large area optical and spectroscopic sky surveys in the 0.9-2.02 μm infrared (IR) region. The NISP instrument will contain sixteen detector arrays each coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The focal plane will operate at 100K and the SIDECAR ASIC will be in close proximity operating at a slightly higher temperature of 137K. This paper will describe the test configuration, performance tests and results of the latest engineering run, also known as pilot run 3 (PR3), consisting of four H2RG detectors operating simultaneously. Performance data will be presented on; noise, spectral quantum efficiency, dark current, persistence, pixel yield, pixel to pixel uniformity, linearity, inter pixel crosstalk, full well and dynamic range, power dissipation, thermal response and unit cell input sensitivity.

18. Kalman filtering techniques for focal plane electric field estimation.

PubMed

Groff, Tyler D; Jeremy Kasdin, N

2013-01-01

For a coronagraph to detect faint exoplanets, it will require focal plane wavefront control techniques to continue reaching smaller angular separations and higher contrast levels. These correction algorithms are iterative and the control methods need an estimate of the electric field at the science camera, which requires nearly all of the images taken for the correction. The best way to make such algorithms the least disruptive to science exposures is to reduce the number required to estimate the field. We demonstrate a Kalman filter estimator that uses prior knowledge to create the estimate of the electric field, dramatically reducing the number of exposures required to estimate the image plane electric field while stabilizing the suppression against poor signal-to-noise. In addition to a significant reduction in exposures, we discuss the relative merit of this algorithm to estimation schemes that do not incorporate prior state estimate history, particularly in regard to estimate error and covariance. Ultimately the filter will lead to an adaptive algorithm which can estimate physical parameters in the laboratory for robustness to variance in the optical train.

19. Focal transmural necrotic tracheitis in commercial meat turkeys.

PubMed

Sentíes-Cué, Gabriel; Crespo, Rocio; Chin, R P

2003-01-01

This report describes an unusual presentation of severe focal necrotic tracheitis in a flock of 8-wk-old commercial turkeys. The flock was kept on a range that is located near a cotton field. The cotton field had been chemically defoliated 2 wk before the birds were submitted for necropsy. At necropsy, most of the birds had a 1-cm, yellow-white constricture in the upper third of the trachea at which the lumen was partially occluded by necrotic tissue. Microscopically, there was severe, transmural necrosis with an accumulation of inflammatory exudate in the tracheal lumen and numerous bacteria within the necrotic debris, mucosa, and lamina propria. Mixed bacteria were isolated from the trachea. No viruses were detected. Neither abnormal heavy metal concentrations in the liver nor paraquat in the respiratory tract were detected. The exact cause of this severe, necrotic tracheitis was not determined. Based on the clinical history and laboratory findings, it was concluded that a combination of a toxic irritant, possibly an aerosolized cotton defoliant, and bacterial infections were likely the cause of this lesion.

20. Non-invasive treatment options for focal cortical dysplasia

PubMed Central

WANG, TING-TING; ZHOU, DONG

2016-01-01

Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) presents a strong clinical challenge especially for the treatment of the associated epilepsy. Epilepsy in FCD is often treatment-resistant and constitutes 50% of treatment-resistant cases. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been widely used in the treatment of FCD. However, evidence to suggest their specific effect on the treatment of FCD remains to be established. In view of this resistance, several alternative treatments have been suggested. Although treatment currently involves surgical management, non-invasive treatments have been identified. The aim of the present review, was to assess non-invasive management strategies including, i) mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, ii) ketogenic diet (KD), and iii) vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). In addition, we discussed the literature available regarding the use of AEDs in FCD. Experiments conducted with mammals detailing rapamycin gene mutations in FCD have produced vital information for exploring treatment options using mTOR inhibitors. Of note is the importance of KD in children with FCD. This diet has been shown to modify disease progression by attenuating chromatin modification, a master regulator for gene expression and functional adaptation of the cell. FCD has also been studied widely with neurostimulation techniques. The outcomes of these techniques have been found to be variable. For widespread dysplasias, VNS has been shown to produce responder rates of >50%. Nevertheless, non-invasive cranial nerve stimulation techniques such as transcutaneous VNS and non-invasive VNS are gaining better patient compatibility, albeit their efficacy remains to be established. PMID:27168769

1. Porphyrin-laser photodynamic induction of focal brain necrosis

SciTech Connect

Stroop, W.G.; Battles, E.J.; Townsend, J.J.; Schaefer, D.C.; Baringer, J.R.; Straight, R.C. )

1989-09-01

2. Talin determines the nanoscale architecture of focal adhesions

PubMed Central

Liu, Jaron; Wang, Yilin; Goh, Wah Ing; Goh, Honzhen; Baird, Michelle A.; Ruehland, Svenja; Teo, Shijia; Bate, Neil; Critchley, David R.; Davidson, Michael W.; Kanchanawong, Pakorn

2015-01-01

Insight into how molecular machines perform their biological functions depends on knowledge of the spatial organization of the components, their connectivity, geometry, and organizational hierarchy. However, these parameters are difficult to determine in multicomponent assemblies such as integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs). We have previously applied 3D superresolution fluorescence microscopy to probe the spatial organization of major FA components, observing a nanoscale stratification of proteins between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. Here we combine superresolution imaging techniques with a protein engineering approach to investigate how such nanoscale architecture arises. We demonstrate that talin plays a key structural role in regulating the nanoscale architecture of FAs, akin to a molecular ruler. Talin diagonally spans the FA core, with its N terminus at the membrane and C terminus demarcating the FA/stress fiber interface. In contrast, vinculin is found to be dispensable for specification of FA nanoscale architecture. Recombinant analogs of talin with modified lengths recapitulated its polarized orientation but altered the FA/stress fiber interface in a linear manner, consistent with its modular structure, and implicating the integrin–talin–actin complex as the primary mechanical linkage in FAs. Talin was found to be ∼97 nm in length and oriented at ∼15° relative to the plasma membrane. Our results identify talin as the primary determinant of FA nanoscale organization and suggest how multiple cellular forces may be integrated at adhesion sites. PMID:26283369

3. Focal adhesion protein abnormalities in myelodysplastic mesenchymal stromal cells

SciTech Connect

Aanei, Carmen Mariana; Eloae, Florin Zugun; Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale; Tavernier, Emmanuelle; Carasevici, Eugen; Guyotat, Denis; Campos, Lydia

2011-11-01

Direct cell-cell contact between haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and their cellular microenvironment is essential to maintain 'stemness'. In cancer biology, focal adhesion (FA) proteins are involved in survival signal transduction in a wide variety of human tumours. To define the role of FA proteins in the haematopoietic microenvironment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), CD73-positive mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were immunostained for paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and p130CAS, and analysed for reactivity, intensity and cellular localisation. Immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to identify qualitative and quantitative differences, and subcellular localisation analysis revealed that in pathological MSCs, paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} formed nuclear molecular complexes. Increased expression of paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and enhanced nuclear co-localisation of these proteins correlated with a consistent proliferative advantage in MSCs from patients with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and negatively impacted clonogenicity of HPCs. These results suggest that signalling via FA proteins could be implicated in HPC-MSC interactions. Further, because FAK is an HSP90{alpha}/{beta} client protein, these results suggest the utility of HSP90{alpha}/{beta} inhibition as a target for adjuvant therapy for myelodysplasia.

4. Mechanosensing through focal adhesion-anchored intermediate filaments.

PubMed

Gregor, Martin; Osmanagic-Myers, Selma; Burgstaller, Gerald; Wolfram, Michael; Fischer, Irmgard; Walko, Gernot; Resch, Guenter P; Jörgl, Almut; Herrmann, Harald; Wiche, Gerhard

2014-02-01

Integrin-based mechanotransduction involves a complex focal adhesion (FA)-associated machinery that is able to detect and respond to forces exerted either through components of the extracellular matrix or the intracellular contractile actomyosin network. Here, we show a hitherto unrecognized regulatory role of vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs) in this process. By studying fibroblasts in which vimentin IFs were decoupled from FAs, either because of vimentin deficiency (V0) or loss of vimentin network anchorage due to deficiency in the cytolinker protein plectin (P0), we demonstrate attenuated activation of the major mechanosensor molecule FAK and its downstream targets Src, ERK1/2, and p38, as well as an up-regulation of the compensatory feedback loop acting on RhoA and myosin light chain. In line with these findings, we show strongly reduced FA turnover rates in P0 fibroblasts combined with impaired directional migration, formation of protrusions, and up-regulation of "stretched" high-affinity integrin complexes. By exploiting tension-independent conditions, we were able to mechanistically link these defects to diminished cytoskeletal tension in both P0 and V0 cells. Our data provide important new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying cytoskeleton-regulated mechanosensing, a feature that is fundamental for controlled cell movement and tumor progression.

5. Oral phenotype and variation in focal dermal hypoplasia.

PubMed

Wright, John Timothy; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Farrington, Frank

2016-03-01

Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) or Goltz Syndrome (OMIM# 305600) is an X-linked dominant ectodermal dysplasia caused by mutations in the PORCN gene. This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein that is involved in processing the embryonically critical WNT signaling proteins. Individuals diagnosed with FDH were recruited to participate in the study through the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Individuals were evaluated to characterize the FDH phenotype. Each participant completed a brief dental survey and oral evaluation using artificial light. To identify the oral soft and hard tissue findings 19 individuals (16 female and 3 male) participated with a median age of 10 years (range 2-56 years). Soft and hard tissue defects were present in 68% (13) and 94% (18) of the patients, respectively. Dental anomalies were highly prevalent with 68% (13) demonstrating vertical enamel grooving, 52% (10) having peg shaped tooth deformities, and 78% (15) having enamel hypoplasia with or without discoloration. Cleft lip and cleft palate presented in 15% (3) of the participants. Other findings included 57% (11) having intra-oral lipoma or papilloma with no site predilection. Dental malocclusions were common with 63% (12) having some degree of malocclusion with 15% (3) of participants having class III malocclusion with an anterior dental cross bite. Participants frequently reported speech problems or difficulty with chewing (73%; N = 14). This study shows there is marked variation in the oral phenotype of individuals with FDH and underscores the important role of WNT signaling in oro-facial development.

6. Microlenses with tuned focal characteristics for optical wireless imaging

Jin, Xian; Guerrero, Daniel; Klukas, Richard; Holzman, Jonathan F.

2014-07-01

Microlenses are fabricated and investigated for integrated imaging applications. The microlenses are fabricated by an in situ polymer electro-dispensing technique that enables user-controlled microlens sizes and shapes, by direct-dispensing and voltage-tuning with a metal micro-needle tip in a filler solution. Theoretical and experimental analyses are carried out for three limiting-cases of electro-dispensed microlenses: an acute-angle microlens with a 30° contact angle, a right-angle microlens with a 90° contact angle, and an obtuse-angle microlens with a 120° contact angle. It is found that the right-angle microlens, with a 500 μm diameter, yields an especially short focal length (700 μm) and exceedingly large numerical aperture (0.533). These characteristics can meet the needs of emerging applications, such as optical wireless devices, which demand compact device integration and broad field-of-view imaging. The microlenses are tested in optical wireless imaging receivers, for signal-to-noise ratio performance, and it is found that the right-angle microlens can offer significant (10 dB) performance enhancements.

7. A role for genetic susceptibility in sporadic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

PubMed Central

Yu, Haiyang; Artomov, Mykyta; Brähler, Sebastian; Stander, M. Christine; Shamsan, Ghaidan; Sampson, Matthew G.; White, J. Michael; Kretzler, Matthias; Jain, Sanjay; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Mitra, Robi D.; Daly, Mark J.; Shaw, Andrey S.

2016-01-01

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a syndrome that involves kidney podocyte dysfunction and causes chronic kidney disease. Multiple factors including chemical toxicity, inflammation, and infection underlie FSGS; however, highly penetrant disease genes have been identified in a small fraction of patients with a family history of FSGS. Variants of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) have been linked to FSGS in African Americans with HIV or hypertension, supporting the proposal that genetic factors enhance FSGS susceptibility. Here, we used sequencing to investigate whether genetics plays a role in the majority of FSGS cases that are identified as primary or sporadic FSGS and have no known cause. Given the limited number of biopsy-proven cases with ethnically matched controls, we devised an analytic strategy to identify and rank potential candidate genes and used an animal model for validation. Nine candidate FSGS susceptibility genes were identified in our patient cohort, and three were validated using a high-throughput mouse method that we developed. Specifically, we introduced a podocyte-specific, doxycycline-inducible transactivator into a murine embryonic stem cell line with an FSGS-susceptible genetic background that allows shRNA-mediated targeting of candidate genes in the adult kidney. Our analysis supports a broader role for genetic susceptibility of both sporadic and familial cases of FSGS and provides a tool to rapidly evaluate candidate FSGS-associated genes. PMID:26901816

8. Noninvasive imaging of focal atherosclerotic lesions using fluorescence molecular tomography

Maji, Dolonchampa; Solomon, Metasebya; Nguyen, Annie; Pierce, Richard A.; Woodard, Pamela K.; Akers, Walter J.; Achilefu, Samuel; Culver, Joseph P.; Abendschein, Dana R.; Shokeen, Monica

2014-11-01

Insights into the etiology of stroke and myocardial infarction suggest that rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaque is the precipitating event. Clinicians lack tools to detect lesion instability early enough to intervene, and are often left to manage patients empirically, or worse, after plaque rupture. Noninvasive imaging of the molecular events signaling prerupture plaque progression has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with myocardial infarction and stroke by allowing early intervention. Here, we demonstrate proof-of-principle in vivo molecular imaging of C-type natriuretic peptide receptor in focal atherosclerotic lesions in the femoral arteries of New Zealand white rabbits using a custom built fiber-based, fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) system. Longitudinal imaging showed changes in the fluorescence signal intensity as the plaque progressed in the air-desiccated vessel compared to the uninjured vessel, which was validated by ex vivo tissue studies. In summary, we demonstrate the potential of FMT for noninvasive detection of molecular events leading to unstable lesions heralding plaque rupture.

9. Spontaneous gesture and spatial language: Evidence from focal brain injury

PubMed Central

Göksun, Tilbe; Lehet, Matthew; Malykhina, Katsiaryna; Chatterjee, Anjan

2015-01-01

People often use spontaneous gestures when communicating spatial information. We investigated focal brain-injured individuals to test the hypotheses that (1) naming motion event components of manner-path (represented by verbs-prepositions in English) are impaired selectively, (2) gestures compensate for impaired naming. Patients with left or right hemisphere damage (LHD or RHD) and elderly control participants were asked to describe motion events (e.g., running across) depicted in brief videos. Damage to the left posterior middle frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) produced impairments in naming paths of motion; lesions to the left caudate and adjacent white matter produced impairments in naming manners of motion. While the frequency of spontaneous gestures were low, lesions to the left aSTG significantly correlated with greater production of path gestures. These suggest that producing prepositions-verbs can be separately impaired and gesture production compensates for naming impairments when damage involves left aSTG. PMID:26283001

Butler, Ben; Sory, David; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien; Curry, Richard; Clasper, Jon; Proud, William; Williams, Alun; Brown, Kate

2015-06-01

The pattern of battle injuries sustained in modern wars shows that over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome in extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions. Funding provided by the Royal British Legion.

11. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

2016-08-01

The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe ˜ 70 % of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at ˜ 10 Hz to suppress the 1/ f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

12. Focal plane mechanical design of the NISP/Euclid instrument

Bonnefoi, Anne; Bon, William; Niclas, Mathieu; Solheim, Bjarte G. B.; Torvanger, Oyvind; Schistad, Robert; Foulon, Benjamin; Garcia, José; Vives, Sébastien

2016-07-01

Currently in phase C, the Euclid mission selected by ESA in the Cosmic Vision program is dedicated to understand dark energy and dark matter. NISP (standing for Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer) is one of the two instruments of the mission. NISP will combine a photometer and a spectrometer working in the near-IR (0.9-2 microns). Its detection subsystem (called NI-DS) is based on a mosaic of 16 IR detectors cooled down to 90K which are supported by a molybdenum plate. The front-end readout electronics (working at 130K) are supported by another structure in Aluminum. The NI-DS is mounted on the rest of the instrument thanks to a panel in Silicon Carbide (SiC). Finally an optical baffle in Titanium will prevent the rogue light to reach the detectors. On top of the complexity due to the wide range of temperatures and the various materials imposed at the interfaces; the NI-DS has also to incorporate an internal adjustment capability of the position of the focal plane in tip/tilt and focus. This article will present current status of the development of the detection system of NISP.

13. [Intermittent focal cerebral ischemia in hypotension due to pacemaker syndrome].

PubMed

Hagendorff, A; Pizzulli, L; Dettmers, C; Block, A; Omran, H; Hartmann, A; Manz, M; Lüderitz, B

1994-12-01

A pacemaker syndrome manifested as transient sensoric aphasia in a 68-year-old woman with a VVI-pace-maker implanted after SA-block. The attack occurred during long-term blood pressure recording and Holter monitoring. Borderline hypotension was documented during ventricular pacing which induced a retrograde excitation of the atrium. Clinical investigations excluded any intracranial abnormality, any source of embolism or stenosis of extra- and intracranial cerebral arteries. Cerebral blood flow measurements revealed a significant increase during pacing at elevated heart rate. Therefore, a device for AV-sequential pacing was implanted and basic pacing rate was elevated. The present case report indicates that focal and not only global cerebral ischemia can be produced by an impairment of systemic hemodynamics due to hypotension and a pacemaker syndrome. Improvement of cerebral blood flow during pacing is an unexpected finding contrasting with the concept of autoregulation. In addition, pacemaker implantation should be discussed in patients with transient cerebral perfusion deficits if an improvement of cerebral blood flow is documented along with rising heart rate.

14. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides

PubMed Central

Rashid, Rafi; Veleba, Mark; Kline, Kimberly A.

2016-01-01

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs) target anionic lipids [e.g., phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipins (CL)] in the cell membrane and anionic components [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)] of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g., lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1) CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2) delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3) CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging, and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction. PMID:27376064

15. FOCAL PLANE WAVEFRONT SENSING USING RESIDUAL ADAPTIVE OPTICS SPECKLES

SciTech Connect

Codona, Johanan L.; Kenworthy, Matthew

2013-04-20

Optical imperfections, misalignments, aberrations, and even dust can significantly limit sensitivity in high-contrast imaging systems such as coronagraphs. An upstream deformable mirror (DM) in the pupil can be used to correct or compensate for these flaws, either to enhance the Strehl ratio or suppress the residual coronagraphic halo. Measurement of the phase and amplitude of the starlight halo at the science camera is essential for determining the DM shape that compensates for any non-common-path (NCP) wavefront errors. Using DM displacement ripples to create a series of probe and anti-halo speckles in the focal plane has been proposed for space-based coronagraphs and successfully demonstrated in the lab. We present the theory and first on-sky demonstration of a technique to measure the complex halo using the rapidly changing residual atmospheric speckles at the 6.5 m MMT telescope using the Clio mid-IR camera. The AO system's wavefront sensor measurements are used to estimate the residual wavefront, allowing us to approximately compute the rapidly evolving phase and amplitude of speckle halo. When combined with relatively short, synchronized science camera images, the complex speckle estimates can be used to interferometrically analyze the images, leading to an estimate of the static diffraction halo with NCP effects included. In an operational system, this information could be collected continuously and used to iteratively correct quasi-static NCP errors or suppress imperfect coronagraphic halos.

16. When alcohol narrows the field of focal attention.

PubMed

Harvey, Alistair J

2016-01-01

The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which alcohol intoxication restricts the scope of attention in the visual field. A group of intoxicated (n = 31; mean BAC ≈ .08%) and placebo control (n = 31; mean BAC ≈ .00%) participants were required to correctly identify visual probes while performing two verbal categorization tasks: one designed to widen the scope of visual attention on to each stimulus word, the other to narrow attention on to the central letter of each word. Response times to surprise probes interpolated between categorization trials were measured and these catch trials could appear in any of the stimulus word letter positions. As predicted by alcohol myopia theory (AMT), which assumes that the drug narrows focal attention, intoxicated participants made slower responses than the sober controls to probes displayed in non-central letter positions, although right-field probe reaction times (RTs) were slower than those for left-field targets. This response asymmetry and the wider theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

17. Irreversible Electroporation for Focal Ablation at the Porta Hepatis

SciTech Connect

Kasivisvanathan, Veeru; Thapar, Ankur Oskrochi, Youssof; Picard, John; Leen, Edward L. S.

2012-12-15

Patients with chemotherapy-refractory liver metastases who are not candidates for surgery may be treated with focal ablation techniques with established survival benefits. Irreversible electroporation is the newest of these and has the putative advantages of a nonthermal action, preventing damage to adjacent biliary structures and bowel. This report describes the use of irreversible electroporation in a 61-year-old man with a solitary chemoresistant liver metastasis unsuitable for radiofrequency ablation as a result of its proximity to the porta hepatis. At 3 months, tumor size was decreased on computed tomography from 28 Multiplication-Sign 19 to 20 Multiplication-Sign 17 mm, representing stable disease according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. This corresponded to a decrease in tumor volume size from 5.25 to 3.16 cm{sup 3}. There were no early or late complications. Chemoresistant liver metastases in the proximity of the porta hepatis that are considered to be too high a risk for conventional surgery or thermal ablation may be considered for treatment by the novel ablation technique of irreversible electroporation.

18. Mechanical Stability Determines Stress Fiber and Focal Adhesion Orientation.

PubMed

Stamenović, Dimitrije; Lazopoulos, Konstantinos A; Pirentis, Athanassios; Suki, Béla

2009-12-01

It is well documented in a variety of adherent cell types that in response to anisotropic signals from the microenvironment cells alter their cytoskeletal organization. Previous theoretical studies of these phenomena were focused primarily on the elasticity of cytoskeletal actin stress fibers (SFs) and of the substrate while the contribution of focal adhesions (FAs) through which the cytoskeleton is linked to the external environment has not been considered. Here we propose a mathematical model comprised of a single linearly elastic SF and two identical linearly elastic FAs of a finite size at the endpoints of the SF to investigate cytoskeletal realignment in response to uniaxial stretching of the substrate. The model also includes the contribution of the chemical potential energies of the SF and the FAs to the total potential energy of the SF-FA assembly. Using the global (Maxwell's) stability criterion, we predict stable configurations of the SF-FA assembly in response to substrate stretching. Model predictions obtained for physiologically feasible values of model parameters are consistent with experimental data from the literature. The model shows that elasticity of SFs alone can not predict their realignment during substrate stretching and that geometrical and elastic properties of SFs and FAs need to be included.

19. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver following hematopoietic SCT.

PubMed

Sudour, H; Mainard, L; Baumann, C; Clement, L; Salmon, A; Bordigoni, P

2009-01-01

Incidental hepatic regenerating nodules rarely occur after haematopoietic SCT (HSCT). Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is one of these unusual benign tumors with characteristic imaging features. To determine the incidence and the outcome of FNH of the liver and improve the understanding of its pathogenesis, we prospectively surveyed a total of 138 patients who had undergone serial prospective pre- and post-transplantation evaluations of iron biomarkers, including ferritin and liver iron concentration assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventeen patients with a median delay of 6.4 years (2.2-13.6) developed FNH of the liver. All were children at the time of transplantation. MR images were typical for FNH in 16 patients; only one patient needed a confirmatory biopsy. Sixteen had received a myeloablative conditioning; six received a BU-based preparation and 10 TBI. Three patients experienced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Neither complication nor malignant transformation has been reported to date. FNH of the liver seems to be a frequent delayed benign complication following HSCT, probably of iatrogenic vascular origin. Basic clinical and diagnostic imaging follow-up is warranted.

20. A CMOS Imager with Focal Plane Compression using Predictive Coding

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Balkir, Sina; Sayood, Khalid; Schemm, Nathan; Hoffman, Michael W.

2007-01-01

This paper presents a CMOS image sensor with focal-plane compression. The design has a column-level architecture and it is based on predictive coding techniques for image decorrelation. The prediction operations are performed in the analog domain to avoid quantization noise and to decrease the area complexity of the circuit, The prediction residuals are quantized and encoded by a joint quantizer/coder circuit. To save area resources, the joint quantizerlcoder circuit exploits common circuitry between a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a Golomb-Rice entropy coder. This combination of ADC and encoder allows the integration of the entropy coder at the column level. A prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35 pm CMOS process. The output of the chip is a compressed bit stream. The test chip occupies a silicon area of 2.60 mm x 5.96 mm which includes an 80 X 44 APS array. Tests of the fabricated chip demonstrate the validity of the design.