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Sample records for 4-in focal point

  1. Universities: A Focal Point for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maidique, Modesto A.

    1988-01-01

    Higher education can act as a focal point of economic development. The most widely recognized type of economic development entails an association between a university, its research facilities, and private industry. An example of this partnership is the one between Stanford University and the industries in the "Silicon Valley." (MLW)

  2. Focal Point Inside the Vacuum Chamber for Solar Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on an 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. This photograph is a close-up view of a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber at the MSFC Solar Thermal Propulsion Test facility. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  3. Focus in Grade 8: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schielack, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This book describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 8 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate understanding, stimulate productive discussions about…

  4. Dendron avidity platforms with orthogonal focal point coupling site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNerny, Daniel Quinn

    This thesis explores the design and synthesis of bifunctional or modular platforms from poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrons. PAMAM dendrons with an orthogonal focal point are evaluated, testing several click chemistry reactions for high conversion and mild conditions. The orthogonal reaction chemistry used at the dendron focal point gives a precise 1:1 ratio of the attachment of multiple functionalities to a small molecular weight, chemically stable high avidity molecule. In the first component of the thesis, dendrons were synthesized with c(RGDyK) peptide on the surface to create a scaffold for cellular targeting and multivalent binding. Binary dendron-RGD conjugates were synthesized with a single imaging agent, therapeutic drug, or additional functionalized dendron at the focal point after a copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction. The targeted-dendron platform was shown to specifically target alphaVbeta3 integrin expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human glioblastoma cells (U87MG) in vitro via flow cytometry. Specific targeting of the dendron-RGD platform was further confirmed by confocal microscopy. Biological activity of the targeted drug conjugate was confirmed via XTT assay. The remainder of the thesis explores click chemistry reactions that do not require a metal catalyst, which may cause undesired toxicity for some biological applications. Thiol-based click chemistry, specifically the thiol-ene and thiol-yne reactions, is explored on dendron platforms. The thiol click reactions provide an improved efficiency, compared to CuAAC, by reaching quantitative conversion of the focal point in most cases. The thiol click reactions suffer from some setbacks: the need for a thermal or photoinitiator may prevent the conjugation of some functional ligands and the thiol chemistry is more prone to side reactions. Finally, strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloadditions are examined. The ring-strain click chemistry

  5. An automated focal point positioning and emittance measurement procedure for the interaction point of the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Phinney, N.; Bambade, P.; Kozanecki, W.; Koska, W.

    1989-08-01

    To achieve maximum luminosity at the SLC, both the electron and positron beams must reach their minimum transverse size within 1 mm of the longitudinal location where the two bunches collide. This paper describes an automated procedure for positioning the focal point of each beam at this collision plant. The technique is based on measurements of the beam size utilizing either secondary emission or bremsstrahlung signals from carbon fibers a few microns in diameter. We have achieved simultaneous and reproducible measurements of the angular speed (/approximately/200 /mu/rad) and the optimum beam spot size (/approximately/2 /mu/m), which when combined yield measurements of the beam emittance consistent with those obtained using conventional profile monitor techniques. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Nonlinear optical microscopy improvement by focal-point axial modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashtabi, Mahdi Mozdoor; Massudi, Reza

    2016-05-01

    Among the most important challenges of microscopy-even more important than the resolution enhancement, especially in biological and neuroscience applications-is noninvasive and label-free imaging deeper into live scattering samples. However, the fundamental limitation on imaging depth is the signal-to-background ratio in scattering biological tissues. Here, using a vibrating microscope objective in conjunction with a lock-in amplifier, we demonstrate the background cancellation in imaging the samples surrounded by turbid and scattering media, which leads to more clear images deeper into the samples. Furthermore, this technique offers the localization and resolution enhancement as well as resolves ambiguities in signal interpretation, using a single-color laser. This technique is applicable to most nonlinear as well as some linear point-scanning optical microscopies.

  7. Focal Points, Endogenous Processes, and Exogenous Shocks in the Autism Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Autism prevalence has increased rapidly in the United States during the past two decades. We have previously shown that the diffusion of information about autism through spatially proximate social relations has contributed significantly to the epidemic. This study expands on this finding by identifying the focal points for interaction that drive the proximity effect on subsequent diagnoses. We then consider how diffusion dynamics through interaction at critical focal points, in tandem with exogenous shocks, could have shaped the spatial dynamics of autism in California. We achieve these goals through an empirically calibrated simulation model of the whole population of 3- to 9-year-olds in California. We show that in the absence of interaction at these foci—principally malls and schools—we would not observe an autism epidemic. We also explore the idea that epigenetic changes affecting one generation in the distal past could shape the precise spatial patterns we observe among the next generation. PMID:26166907

  8. Influence of the focal point position on the properties of a laser-produced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Miklaszewski, R.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Stenz, CH.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-10-15

    This paper deals with investigations of the influence of the focusing lens focal point position on the properties of a plasma produced by a defocused laser beam. The experiment was carried out at the Prague Asterix Laser System iodine laser [K. Jungwirth, A. Cejnarova, L. Juha, B. Kralikova, J. Krasa, E. Krousky, P. Krupickova, L. Laska, K. Masek, T. Mocek, M. Pfeifer, A. Prag, O. Renner, K. Rohlena, B. Rus, J. Skala, P. Straka, and J. Ullschmied, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)] by using the third harmonic of laser radiation ({lambda}=0.438 {mu}m), laser energy of 70 J, pulse duration of 250 ps (full width at half-maximum), and beam spot radii of 250 and 400 {mu}m. Cu and Ta were chosen as target materials. The experimental data were obtained by means of a three-frame interferometric system, ion collectors, and crater replica techniques. The reported results allow formulating an important hypothesis that the laser-produced plasma modifies strongly the laser intensity distribution. It is shown how such a modification depends on the relative position and distance of the focal point to the target surface. Of particular importance is whether the focal point is located inside or in front of the target. The irradiation geometry is crucial for the possibility of generating plasma jets by laser radiation. Well-formed jet-like plasma structures can be created if an initially homogeneous laser intensity distribution is transformed in the plasma to an annular one.

  9. Influence of the focal point position on the properties of a laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Badziak, J.; Miklaszewski, R.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Stenz, CH.; Ullschmied, J.; Krousky, E.; Masek, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-10-01

    This paper deals with investigations of the influence of the focusing lens focal point position on the properties of a plasma produced by a defocused laser beam. The experiment was carried out at the Prague Asterix Laser System iodine laser [K. Jungwirth, A. Cejnarova, L. Juha, B. Kralikova, J. Krasa, E. Krousky, P. Krupickova, L. Laska, K. Masek, T. Mocek, M. Pfeifer, A. Prag, O. Renner, K. Rohlena, B. Rus, J. Skala, P. Straka, and J. Ullschmied, Phys. Plasmas 8, 2495 (2001)] by using the third harmonic of laser radiation (λ=0.438μm), laser energy of 70J, pulse duration of 250ps (full width at half-maximum), and beam spot radii of 250 and 400μm. Cu and Ta were chosen as target materials. The experimental data were obtained by means of a three-frame interferometric system, ion collectors, and crater replica techniques. The reported results allow formulating an important hypothesis that the laser-produced plasma modifies strongly the laser intensity distribution. It is shown how such a modification depends on the relative position and distance of the focal point to the target surface. Of particular importance is whether the focal point is located inside or in front of the target. The irradiation geometry is crucial for the possibility of generating plasma jets by laser radiation. Well-formed jet-like plasma structures can be created if an initially homogeneous laser intensity distribution is transformed in the plasma to an annular one.

  10. Novel focal point multipass cell for absorption spectroscopy on small sized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Jörn; Hänel, Mattis; Reuter, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    A novel focal point multipass cell (FPMPC) was developed, in which all laser beams propagate through a common focal point. It is exclusively constructed from standard optical elements. Main functional elements are two 90∘ off-axis parabolic mirrors and two retroreflectors. Up to 17 laser passes are demonstrated with a near-infrared laser beam. The number of laser passes is precisely adjustable by changing the retroreflector distance. At the focal point beams are constricted to fit through an aperture of 0.8 mm. This is shown for 11 beam passes. Moreover, the fast temporal response of the cell permits investigation of transient processes with frequencies up to 10 MHz. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the FPMPC for atmospheric pressure plasma jets, laser absorption spectroscopy on the lowest excited argon state (1s5) was performed on a 1 MHz argon atmospheric pressure plasma jet. From the obtained optical depth profiles, the signal-to-noise ratio was deduced. It is shown that an elevation of the laser pass number results in an proportional increase of the signal-to-noise ratio making the FPMPC an appropriate tool for absorption spectroscopy on plasmas of small dimensions.

  11. Accounting for uncertainty in location when detecting point sources using infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. M.; Waterman, J. R.

    2016-07-01

    This work derives the modeling and detection theory required to predict the performance of an infrared focal plane array in detecting point source targets. Specifically, we focus on modeling the uncertainty associated with the location of the point source on the array. In the process we derive several new expressions related to pixel-averaged detection performance under a variety of problem assumptions. The resulting predictions are compared to standard approaches where the location is assumed fixed and known. It is further shown how to incorporate these predictions into multi-frame detection strategies.

  12. Experimental Study to Produce Multiple Focal Points of Acoustic Field for Active Path Selection of Microbubbles through Multi-bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Ren; Koido, Jun; Ito, Takumi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Masuda, Kohji; Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Chiba, Toshio

    2013-07-01

    We previously reported our attempt to propel microbubbles in a flow by a primary Bjerknes force, which is a physical phenomenon where an acoustic wave pushes an obstacle along its direction of propagation. However, when ultrasound was emitted from the surface of the body, controlling bubbles in an against-flow was necessary. It is unpractical to use multiple transducers to produce the same number of focal points because single-element transducers cannot produce more than two focal points. In this study, we introduced a complex artificial blood vessel according to a capillary model and a two-dimensional (2D) array transducer to produce multiple focal points for the active control of microbubbles in an against-flow. From the results, about 15% more microbubbles were led to the desired path with multiple focal points of ultrasound relative to the no-emission case.

  13. Using a focal-plane array to estimate antenna pointing errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1991-01-01

    The use of extra collecting horns in the focal plane of an antenna as a means of determining the Direction of Arrival (DOA) of the signal impinging on it, provided it is within the antenna beam, is considered. Our analysis yields a relatively simple algorithm to extract the DOA from the horns' outputs. An algorithm which, in effect, measures the thermal noise of the horns' signals and determines its effect on the uncertainty of the extracted DOA parameters is developed. Both algorithms were implemented in software and tested in simulated data. Based on these tests, it is concluded that this is a viable approach to the DOA determination. Though the results obtained are of general applicability, the particular motivation for the present work is their application to the pointing of a mechanically deformed antenna. It is anticipated that the pointing algorithm developed for a deformed antenna could be obtained as a small perturbation of the algorithm developed for an undeformed antenna. In this context, it should be pointed out that, with a deformed antenna, the array of horns and its associated circuitry constitute the main part of the deformation-compensation system. In this case, the pointing system proposed may be viewed as an additional task carried out by the deformation-compensation hardware.

  14. Non-uniformity correction of infrared focal plane array in point target surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wan, Qinqin

    2014-09-01

    We discuss the influence of non-uniformity and non-uniformity correction on point target detection in infrared surveillance system, and propose a non-uniformity correction approach which is based on signal intensity and sensor characteristics. Theoretical models are used to derive the combined effect of background clutter, sensor random noise, target, non-uniformity and correction error on the signal-to-noise-and-clutter ratio. From our analysis, it can be noted that background clutter intensity is successively modulated by sensor non-uniformity and non-uniformity correction, while sensor random noise is modulated by the non-uniformity correction process only. Furthermore, background clutter and sensor random noise are the key factors that affect the performance of a surveillance system, when it is used to detect point targets. The method presented in this paper takes all of the above into account, moreover, it considers the difference between scanning and staring focal plane array. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Focal Point Theory Models for Dissecting Dynamic Duality Problems of Microbial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Huang, S.-H.; Zhou, W.; Jong, A.

    2008-01-01

    Extending along the dynamic continuum from conflict to cooperation, microbial infections always involve symbiosis (Sym) and pathogenesis (Pat). There exists a dynamic Sym-Pat duality (DSPD) in microbial infection that is the most fundamental problem in infectomics. DSPD is encoded by the genomes of both the microbes and their hosts. Three focal point (FP) theory-based game models (pure cooperative, dilemma, and pure conflict) are proposed for resolving those problems. Our health is associated with the dynamic interactions of three microbial communities (nonpathogenic microbiota (NP) (Cooperation), conditional pathogens (CP) (Dilemma), and unconditional pathogens (UP) (Conflict)) with the hosts at different health statuses. Sym and Pat can be quantitated by measuring symbiotic index (SI), which is quantitative fitness for the symbiotic partnership, and pathogenic index (PI), which is quantitative damage to the symbiotic partnership, respectively. Symbiotic point (SP), which bears analogy to FP, is a function of SI and PI. SP-converting and specific pathogen-targeting strategies can be used for the rational control of microbial infections. PMID:18350122

  16. A focal domain of extreme demethylation within D4Z4 in FSHD2

    PubMed Central

    Hartweck, Lynn M.; Anderson, Lindsey J.; Lemmers, Richard J.; Dandapat, Abhijit; Toso, Erik A.; Dalton, Joline C.; Tawil, Rabi; Day, John W.; van der Maarel, Silvère M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a neuromuscular disease with an unclear genetic mechanism. Most patients have a contraction of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array at 4qter, which is thought to cause partial demethylation (FSHD1) of the contracted allele. Demethylation has been surveyed at 3 restriction enzyme sites in the first repeat and only a single site across the entire array, and current models postulate that a generalized D4Z4 chromatin alteration causes FSHD. The background of normal alleles has confounded the study of epigenetic alterations; however, rare patients (FSHD2) have a form of the disease in which demethylation is global, i.e., on all D4Z4 elements throughout the genome. Our objective was to take advantage of the global nature of FSHD2 to identify where disease-relevant methylation changes occur within D4Z4. Methods: Using bisulfite sequencing of DNA from blood and myoblast cells, methylation levels at 74 CpG sites across 3 disparate regions within D4Z4 were measured in FSHD2 patients and controls. Results: We found that rates of demethylation caused by FSHD2 are not consistent across D4Z4. We identified a focal region of extreme demethylation within a 5′ domain, which we named DR1. Other D4Z4 regions, including the DUX4 ORF, were hypomethylated but to a much lesser extent. Conclusions: These data challenge the simple view that FSHD is caused by a broad “opening” of D4Z4 and lead us to postulate that the region of focal demethylation is the site of action of the key D4Z4 chromatin regulatory factors that go awry in FSHD. PMID:23284062

  17. Direct grating writing using femtosecond laser interference fringes formed at the focal point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Sivakumar, Narayanswamy R.; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2005-04-01

    A femtosecond pulse laser has been used for the machining of gratings primarily due to its ability of direct ablation and its capability to fabricate sub-wavelength structures. In this paper, we present a direct ablation technique for the fabrication of gratings by interfering femtosecond pulses in a specially designed optical configuration. This technique ensures that gratings are formed only at the focal point. The grating line-width can be varied with minor adjustment to the optical configuration. This configuration not only simplifies the optical set-up, but also immunizes the system to extraneous and inherent vibrations, thus enabling gratings of good edge acuity. With this technique, we have successfully fabricated planar gratings of different line-widths on a silicon substrate. Methods of adjusting the grating period are demonstrated. The effects of pulse number and the laser threshold on the grating quality have been qualitatively studied using SEM analysis. This method offers a new approach of the fabrication of a grating on a surface by direct ablation. Also, the feasibility of effectively writing internal gratings in transparent materials is discussed.

  18. Soluble Urokinase Receptors in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Review on the Scientific Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Moin A.; Meijers, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the primary glomerular disorders in both children and adults which can progress to end-stage renal failure. Although there are genetic and secondary causes, circulating factors have also been regarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of FSGS, because about 40% of the patients with FSGS have recurrence after renal transplantation. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a soluble form of uPAR, which is a membrane-bound protein linked to GPI in various immunologically active cells, including podocytes. It has recently been suggested as a potential circulating factor in FSGS by in vitro podocyte experiments, in vivo mice models, and human studies. However, there have also been controversies on this issue, because subsequent studies showed conflicting results. suPAR levels were also increased in patients with other glomerular diseases and were inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Nevertheless, there has been no balanced review on this issue. In this review, we compare the conflicting data on the involvement of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS and shed light on interpretation by taking into account many points and the potential variables and confounders influencing serum suPAR levels. PMID:27504461

  19. Workforce. Focal Point: Research, Policy, and Practice in Children's Mental Health. Volume 22, Number 1, Winter 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet S., Ed.; Gowen, L. Kris, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of "Focal Point" explores how the increasing emphasis on using evidence-based practices and a "system of care" approach is driving changes in jobs and roles related to children's mental health. Articles in the issue describe how agencies and providers of services and supports have responded to these changes by creating new types of…

  20. Resilience and Recovery. Focal Point: Research, Policy, and Practice in Children's Mental Health. Volume 19, Number 1, Summer 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet S., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This issue of "Focal Point" explores the concepts of resilience and recovery and what they mean in the context of mental health care for children and adolescents. From the articles, it emerges that the terminology associated with recovery and resilience (particularly the word, recovery, itself) can be confusing and even off-putting to stakeholders…

  1. Corrections. Focal Point: Research, Policy, and Practice in Children's Mental Health. Volume 20, Number 2, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet S., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This issue of "Focal Point" describes the need for, and provides examples of, new strategies for meeting the mental health needs of children and adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system. Articles in this issue discuss the particular need for correction in the way that the juvenile justice system interacts with youth who have mental…

  2. Strengthening Social Support. Focal Point: Research, Policy, and Practice in Children's Mental Health. Volume 20, Number 1, Winter 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet S., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This issue of "Focal Point" explores some of what is known and unknown about strengthening social support. This introduction outlines some of the major concepts and themes in research on social support, and some implications of this research for interventions in children's mental health. This sets the stage for the rest of the issue, which…

  3. Barrow Ak: A Focal Point for Ice-Albedo-Transmission Feedback Processes in Arctic Sea Ice.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Perovich, D. K.; Eicken, H.

    2003-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has measurably decreased in thickness, extent, and seasonal duration over the last two decades culminating in record or near-record fluctuations in 1998 and again in 2002 followed by a further strong melt season in 2003. Seasonal changes and short-term variability in the state of the ice cover and their effect on the interaction of solar radiation with the ice cover and underlying ocean are of particular importance in this context. Positive feedback processes associated with decreases in albedo and increasing transmissivity act to accelerate these changes. The rates of spring warming and summer melt as well as the length of the melt season are strongly influenced by the albedo, which in turn decreases as the melt season progresses. At the same time, increased transmission provides more energy to the upper oceanic mixed layer further increasing the potential for melting at the bottom of the ice. This ice-albedo-transmission (IAT) feedback plays a central role in modulating the heat and mass balance of the Arctic sea ice cover. Along the coastal contact zone, the feedback processes are even more complex due to interactions with the adjacent land surfaces. Indeed, this zone appears to be a focal point where the feedbacks are amplified. To understand and model the processes involved, it is necessary to determine how shortwave radiation is distributed within the ice-ocean system and how this distribution affects heat and mass balance. Analysis of this system is complicated by spatial and temporal inhomogeneity of the spring/summer ice cover, with surface conditions varying from deep snow to bare ice to melt ponds to open leads, and with ice thickness ranging from zero (open water) to ridges tens of meters thick, all within an area that is often less than one square km. Each of these categories has a different set of physical and optical properties. Treatment of the surface as a locally homogeneous medium with effective bulk optical properties

  4. The pyruvate-tricarboxylic acid cycle node: a focal point of virulence control in the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bücker, René; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Becker, Judith; Dersch, Petra; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-10-24

    Despite our increasing knowledge of the specific pathogenicity factors in bacteria, the contribution of metabolic processes to virulence is largely unknown. Here, we elucidate a tight connection between pathogenicity and core metabolism in the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by integrated transcriptome and [(13)C]fluxome analysis of the wild type and virulence-regulator mutants. During aerobic growth on glucose, Y. pseudotuberculosis reveals an unusual flux distribution with a high level of secreted pyruvate. The absence of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators RovA, CsrA, and Crp strongly perturbs the fluxes of carbon core metabolism at the level of pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and these perturbations are accompanied by transcriptional changes in the corresponding enzymes. Knock-outs of regulators of this metabolic branch point and of its central enzyme, pyruvate kinase (ΔpykF), result in mutants with significantly reduced virulence in an oral mouse infection model. In summary, our work identifies the pyruvate-TCA cycle node as a focal point for controlling the host colonization and virulence of Yersinia.

  5. [Focal point emergency departments].

    PubMed

    Lange, R; Popp, S; Erbguth, F

    2016-06-01

    The number of patients treated in hospital emergency departments in Germany has risen in recent years to approximately 20 million. This escalation also applies to the increasing numbers of patients presenting with neurological symptoms and diseases, which occur in approximately 20 % of emergency patients. In addition to patients with stroke, inflammatory or degenerative central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) disorders who need urgent treatment, more and more patients with nonspecific complaints or conditions attend emergency departments for elective treatment, not least because timely appointments with specialist neurologists in practices could not be obtained. Neurological expertise and presence in emergency departments at the level of specialist standard are therefore indispensable for providing a professional level of treatment, which also corresponds to current legal requirements. The implementation of a generalist emergency physician in Germany, as introduced in some European countries, would mean a retrograde step for neurological expertise in emergency admission management. The discipline of neurology must work together with other emergency disciplines to improve the financing of emergency departments and provide neurologists working there with a substantive curriculum of further and continuing education in emergency-related aspects of neurology. The discipline of neurology has a responsibility to emergency patients within its range of competencies and must, therefore, strengthen and improve its role in healthcare politics and concerning organizational and personnel aspects of neurological emergencies.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial behavior of water-soluble carbosilane dendrons containing ferrocene at the focal point.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Cruz, Tania; Ortega, Paula; Batanero, Belen; Copa-Patiño, Jose Luis; Soliveri, Juan; de la Mata, Fco Javier; Gómez, Rafael

    2015-11-28

    A series of novel water-soluble ammonium-terminated carbosilane dendrons containing a ferrocene unit at the focal point were synthesized, in order to combine the unique redox activity of ferrocene and the precisely designed structure of the dendrons with the aim to evaluate them as a new class of potential organometallic-based antibacterial compounds. The synthetic route is based on the initial amination of ferrocenecarboxaldehyde with carbosilane dendrons that contain allyl groups on the surface followed by reduction of the in situ prepared imine product, and the subsequent functionalization of the periphery with terminal amine groups by hydrosilylation reactions. Systems quaternized with HCl are soluble and stable in water or other protic solvents. The obtained compounds were spectrally and electrochemically (cyclic voltammetry) characterized, and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy experiments were conducted to determine the size of the dendritic wedges in solution. The antibacterial activity of these compounds was evaluated using Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), which shows that the first and second generations of cationic dendrons are broad spectrum antibacterial agents, i.e. selective and effective in both bacterial strains.

  7. Partnering with Families. Focal Point: A National Bulletin on Family Support and Children's Mental Health. Volume 18, Number 1, Summer 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet S., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The articles in this issue of "Focal Point" focus on the Research and Training Center's current work, which reflects the evolution of expectations for partnering with youth and families. Partnering successfully requires not only a philosophical commitment to the value, but also intentional, specific steps to redesign services and reallocate…

  8. Influence of focal point properties on energy transfer and plasma evolution during laser ignition process with a passively q-switched laser.

    PubMed

    Bärwinkel, Mark; Lorenz, Sebastian; Stäglich, Robert; Brüggemann, Dieter

    2016-07-11

    Miniaturized passively q-switched laser ignition systems are a promising alternative to conventional ignition sources to ensure a reliable ignition under difficult conditions. In this study the influences of focal point properties on energy transfer from laser to plasma as well as plasma formation and propagation are investigated as the first steps of the laser induced ignition process. Maximum fluence and fluence volume are introduced to characterize focal point properties for varying laser pulse energies and focusing configurations. The results show that the transferred laser energy increases with increasing maximum fluence. During laser emission plasma propagates along the beam path of the focused laser beam. Rising maximum fluence results in increased plasma volume, but expansion saturates when fluence volume reaches its maximum. PMID:27410797

  9. Influence of focal point properties on energy transfer and plasma evolution during laser ignition process with a passively q-switched laser.

    PubMed

    Bärwinkel, Mark; Lorenz, Sebastian; Stäglich, Robert; Brüggemann, Dieter

    2016-07-11

    Miniaturized passively q-switched laser ignition systems are a promising alternative to conventional ignition sources to ensure a reliable ignition under difficult conditions. In this study the influences of focal point properties on energy transfer from laser to plasma as well as plasma formation and propagation are investigated as the first steps of the laser induced ignition process. Maximum fluence and fluence volume are introduced to characterize focal point properties for varying laser pulse energies and focusing configurations. The results show that the transferred laser energy increases with increasing maximum fluence. During laser emission plasma propagates along the beam path of the focused laser beam. Rising maximum fluence results in increased plasma volume, but expansion saturates when fluence volume reaches its maximum.

  10. Local hyperthermia with MR-guided focused ultrasound: spiral trajectory of the focal point optimized for temperature uniformity in the target region.

    PubMed

    Salomir, R; Palussière, J; Vimeux, F C; de Zwart, J A; Quesson, B; Gauchet, M; Lelong, P; Pergrale, J; Grenier, N; Moonen, C T

    2000-10-01

    The objective of hyperthermia treatment is to deliver a similar therapeutic thermal dose throughout the target volume within a minimum amount of time. We describe a noninvasive approach to this goal based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) with a spherical transducer that can be moved along two directions inside the bed of a clinical MR imager and that has an adjustable focal length in the third dimension. Absorption of FUS gives rise to a highly localized thermal buildup, which then spreads by heat diffusion and blood perfusion. A uniform temperature within a large target volume can be obtained using a double spiral trajectory of the transducer focal point together with constant and maximum FUS power. Differences between the real and target temperatures during the first spiral are evaluated in real time with temperature MRI and corrected for during the second spiral trajectory employing FUS focal point velocity modulation. Once a uniform temperature distribution is reached within the entire volume, FUS heating is applied only at the region's boundaries to maintain the raised temperature levels. Heat conduction, together with the design and timing of the trajectories, therefore ensures a similar thermal dose for the entire target region. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experimental results in vitro on gel phantoms, ex vivo on meat samples, and in vivo on rabbit thigh muscle. Edema in muscle was visible 1 hour after hyperthermia as a spatially uniform rise of the signal intensity in T(2)-weighted images. PMID:11042639

  11. On a focal point instability in (B3Πg - C3Πu)N2 optogalvanic circuit with hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencheva, V.

    2016-03-01

    The (B3Πg, v = 0 - C3 Πu, v = 0) N2 dynamic optogalvanic signals have been registered illuminating an Al hollow cathode lamp with a pulsed N2 laser generating at the wavelength of 337.1nm. The dynamic optogalvanic signal (DOGS) at certain discharge current of 8 mA is a harmonic oscillator due to a focal point instability produced by our optogalvanic circuit. This damped harmonic oscillator can be described as a solution of linear second order homogeneous differential equation. The oscillation frequency is estimated from the registered DOGS using Fourier synthesis. The analytical description of the damped harmonic DOGS is obtained.

  12. Development and Testing of a Power Trough System Using a Structurally-Efficient, High-Performance, Large-Aperture Concentrator with Thin Glass Reflector and Focal Point Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    May, E. K.; Forristall, R.

    2005-11-01

    Industrial Solar Technology has assembled a team of experts to develop a large-aperture parabolic trough for the electric power market that moves beyond cost and operating limitations of 1980's designs based on sagged glass reflectors. IST's structurally efficient space frame design will require nearly 50% less material per square meter than a Solel LS-2 concentrator and the new trough will rotate around the focal point. This feature eliminates flexhoses that increase pump power, installation and maintenance costs. IST aims to deliver a concentrator module costing less than $100 per square meter that can produce temperatures up to 400 C. The IST concentrator is ideally suited for application of front surface film reflectors and ensures that US corporations will manufacture major components, except for the high temperature receivers.

  13. Toward subchemical accuracy in computational thermochemistry: focal point analysis of the heat of formation of NCO and [H,N,C,O] isomers.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Michael S; Muir, Steven R; Allen, Wesley D; Schaefer, Henry F

    2004-06-22

    In continuing pursuit of thermochemical accuracy to the level of 0.1 kcal mol(-1), the heats of formation of NCO, HNCO, HOCN, HCNO, and HONC have been rigorously determined using state-of-the-art ab initio electronic structure theory, including conventional coupled cluster methods [coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), CCSD with perturbative triples (CCSD(T)), and full coupled cluster through triple excitations (CCSDT)] with large basis sets, conjoined in cases with explicitly correlated MP2-R12/A computations. Limits of valence and all-electron correlation energies were extrapolated via focal point analysis using correlation consistent basis sets of the form cc-pVXZ (X=2-6) and cc-pCVXZ (X=2-5), respectively. In order to reach subchemical accuracy targets, core correlation, spin-orbit coupling, special relativity, the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction, and anharmonicity in zero-point vibrational energies were accounted for. Various coupled cluster schemes for partially including connected quadruple excitations were also explored, although none of these approaches gave reliable improvements over CCSDT theory. Based on numerous, independent thermochemical paths, each designed to balance residual ab initio errors, our final proposals are DeltaH(f,0) ( composite function )(NCO)=+30.5, DeltaH(f,0) ( composite function )(HNCO)=-27.6, DeltaH(f,0) ( composite function )(HOCN)=-3.1, DeltaH(f,0) ( composite function )(HCNO)=+40.9, and DeltaH(f,0) ( composite function )(HONC)=+56.3 kcal mol(-1). The internal consistency and convergence behavior of the data suggests accuracies of +/-0.2 kcal mol(-1) in these predictions, except perhaps in the HCNO case. However, the possibility of somewhat larger systematic errors cannot be excluded, and the need for CCSDTQ [full coupled cluster through quadruple excitations] computations to eliminate remaining uncertainties is apparent. PMID:15268193

  14. Emerging infectious diseases not covered by routine vaccination in Europe in 2010-2015--the review of WHO and ECDC notifications for the National IHR Focal Point in Poland.

    PubMed

    Henszel, Łukasz; Janiec, Janusz; Izdebski, Radosław; Radziszewski, Franciszek; Polański, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The National IHR Focal Point is a center set up by each Member State of the World Health Organization (WHO) in accordance with the International Health Regulations (2005). The International Health Regulations (IHR) were adopted on 23 May 2005 at the World Health Assembly and entered into force since 15 June 2007 as the legal instrument designed to help protect all countries from uncontrolled international spread of diseases and other urgent public health threats. According to Article 2 of IHR the purpose and scope of these Regulations are to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade. Primarily, the scope of IHR is to establish a system of early warning (in accordance with Article 6 and 7) with the functioning in each country National IHR Focal Point which is available at any time to communicate with WHO IHR Contact Points and other entities. The tasks of the National IHR Fo- cal Point in Poland which was appointed by the Minister of Health and runs in the Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health--National Institute of Hygiene from 1 September 2007 are the notification of events that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern occurring in Poland or abroad and the dissemination of this information to the WHO, other National IHR Focal Points or competent authorities responsible for public health. The task of the National IHR Focal Point in Poland is also the dissemination of WHO and ECDC notifications, including recommendation and risk assessment documents. The aim of this work is the review of WHO and ECDC notifications received by National IHR Focal Point in Poland in the period from 2010 to 2015 which were related to emerging infectious diseases not covered by routine vaccination programs or for which

  15. Emerging infectious diseases not covered by routine vaccination in Europe in 2010-2015--the review of WHO and ECDC notifications for the National IHR Focal Point in Poland.

    PubMed

    Henszel, Łukasz; Janiec, Janusz; Izdebski, Radosław; Radziszewski, Franciszek; Polański, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The National IHR Focal Point is a center set up by each Member State of the World Health Organization (WHO) in accordance with the International Health Regulations (2005). The International Health Regulations (IHR) were adopted on 23 May 2005 at the World Health Assembly and entered into force since 15 June 2007 as the legal instrument designed to help protect all countries from uncontrolled international spread of diseases and other urgent public health threats. According to Article 2 of IHR the purpose and scope of these Regulations are to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade. Primarily, the scope of IHR is to establish a system of early warning (in accordance with Article 6 and 7) with the functioning in each country National IHR Focal Point which is available at any time to communicate with WHO IHR Contact Points and other entities. The tasks of the National IHR Fo- cal Point in Poland which was appointed by the Minister of Health and runs in the Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health--National Institute of Hygiene from 1 September 2007 are the notification of events that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern occurring in Poland or abroad and the dissemination of this information to the WHO, other National IHR Focal Points or competent authorities responsible for public health. The task of the National IHR Focal Point in Poland is also the dissemination of WHO and ECDC notifications, including recommendation and risk assessment documents. The aim of this work is the review of WHO and ECDC notifications received by National IHR Focal Point in Poland in the period from 2010 to 2015 which were related to emerging infectious diseases not covered by routine vaccination programs or for which

  16. Continuously variable focal length lens

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  17. The Teaching of Global Environmental Problems According to the Constructivist Approach: As a Focal Point of the Problem and the Availability of Concept Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluk, Sami; Ozalp, Isilay

    2007-01-01

    In this study, with selecting the focusing point of the problem as the availability of cartoons, the teaching of global environmental problems according to the constructivist theory is investigated on the 7th graders in rural areas. This study is restricted with the global warming (G), ozone depletion (O) and the acid rain (A) problems. In the…

  18. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2014-04-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future shallow (depth 0-70 km) earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress, and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5° spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75° to +75°, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalogue. In the new forecasts we have improved the spatial resolution to 0.1° and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each gridpoint. Simultaneously, we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method of Kagan & Jackson proposed in 1994. This average angle reveals the level of tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The procedure becomes problematical where longitude lines are not approximately parallel, and where shallow earthquakes are so sparse that an adequate sample spans very large distances. North or south of 75°, the azimuths of points 1000 km away may vary by about 35°. We solved this problem by calculating focal mechanisms on a plane tangent to the Earth's surface at each forecast point, correcting for the rotation of the longitude lines at the locations of earthquakes included in the averaging. The corrections are negligible between -30° and +30° latitude, but outside that band uncorrected rotations can be significantly off. Improved forecasts at 0.5° and 0.1° resolution are posted at http://eq.ess.ucla.edu/kagan/glob_gcmt_index.html.

  19. Focal dystonia in musicians.

    PubMed

    Lie-Nemeth, Theresa J

    2006-11-01

    In conclusion, musicians' focal dystonia is a significant and potentially career-ending neurological condition of which physiatrists and other performing arts medicine clinicians should be aware. Pathology has been identified in the somatosensory cortex, and in the motor cortex and basal ganglia. Although advances have been made in the elucidating some of the pathologic changes in focal dystonia, better understanding is needed. Current treatments such as retraining, splinting, oral medications, and botulinum toxin injections are limited. Therefore, the ultimate goal for focal dystonia is to prevent this disabling disorder of instrumental musicians.

  20. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  1. Physical Activity Performance of Focal Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.; Gelbaugh, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    Histograms of push-ups and curl-ups from a sample of more than 9,000 students show periodic spikes at five and 10 unit intervals. This article argues that these spikes are related to focal points, a game theoretic concept popularized by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. Being focal on one test makes one more likely to be focal on the other. Focal…

  2. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  3. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  4. [Focal infections in otorhinolaryngology].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T

    2016-01-01

    This publication is focused on the mechanisms underlying the clinical course of acute focal infections concomitant with ENT pathology, factors responsible for their chronization and the development of complications. Also discussed are the methods for the early adequate conservative and surgical treatment of these conditions. Special emphasis is placed on the principles of management of chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26977559

  5. Focal and generalized alopecia.

    PubMed

    O'Dair, H A; Foster, A P

    1995-07-01

    Focal or generalized alopecia is defined as hair loss affecting the ventral, lateral, perineal, and dorsal aspects of the trunk of the cat, usually in a symmetric pattern. This may be attributable to failure of hair coat production, excess loss of hair due to self trauma, or excess shedding of whole hairs. Self trauma is the most common cause of hair loss and is associated particularly with flea allergy dermatitis. Other causes of hair loss are reviewed.

  6. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  7. Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

  8. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Yolanda; Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Zambrano, Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferation of the oral mucosa with well defined clinical and histological characteristics. It has been associated with infection of the oral mucosa by types 13 and 32 of the human papillomavirus (HPV), and to a lesser extent, with other types. Its clinical course is variable, although it usually persists for months or years; cases with spontaneous resolution have been described, as have others with prolonged persistence. We present the case of an Ecuadorian boy whose visit was motivated by lesions in the oral mucosa consistent with a diagnosis of FEH, which were confirmed in the histological study, and in which HPV type 13 DNA was identified.

  9. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Carlino, P; Di Felice, R; Fiore-Donno, G; Samson, J

    1991-05-01

    Five cases of "focal epithelial hyperplasia" (FEH) of the oral mucosa observed in Switzerland are reported. The patients were of Turkish and North African extraction. The lesions of FEH were multiple, painless, located at various sites of the oral mucosa including the tongue in the form of either soft papules or hard nodules. Evidence of a human papilloma virus origin was ascertained. Among the 1067 cases reported in the literature and reviewed for this study, this condition has been described to occur among American Indians, Eskimos and North African, also in Israeli and European cases the disorder was often reported in individuals of Turkish or North African extraction.

  10. [The focal renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful.

  11. Asterixis in focal brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Degos, J D; Verroust, J; Bouchareine, A; Serdaru, M; Barbizet, J

    1979-11-01

    Asterixis was observed in 20 cases of focal brain lesions. Metabolic or toxic factors were excluded. An electromyogram study of asterixis was carried out in nine cases to establish the diagnosis. The site of the focal lesion was either parietal or mesencephalic and was always contralateral to the asterixis. "Focal asterixis" could result from a dysfunction of the sensorimotor integration in the parietal lobe and the midbrain.

  12. Focal liver lesions found incidentally.

    PubMed

    Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-03-28

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

  13. The Kepler photometer focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argabright, V. S.; VanCleve, J. E.; Bachtell, E. E.; Hegge, M. J.; McArthur, S. P.; Dumont, F. C.; Rudeen, A. C.; Pullen, J. L.; Teusch, D. A.; Tennant, D. S.; Atcheson, P. D.

    2008-07-01

    The Kepler instrument is designed to detect Earth size planets in the "habitable zone" orbiting 9focal plane array resulting in ~13° diameter FOV, so that greater than 100,000 suitable stars in the FOV are continuously monitored over a three and a half year mission. Detection of planetary transits is made possible through 20 ppm differential photometry using pixel data from a focal plane array specifically developed for Kepler. The Kepler focal plane array is suspended above the primary mirror and consists of twenty one 2K x 2K Science CCD modules mounted on a curved Invar substrate with four output taps per module. Four fine guidance sensor (FGS) CCD modules are mounted to the corners of the Invar substrate to gather additional pointing information for the Attitude Control System in order to attain the required <2.5 milli-pixel pointing accuracy. A space staring radiator and a closed loop thermal control system maintains the CCD module temperatures at -85°C with <10mK thermal stability. Low noise electronics reads out both the Science and FGS CCD modules at a 3 MHz pixel rate. In order to achieve a 4-sigma detection of an Earth-sized planet orbiting a 12th magnitude Sun-like star, the overall noise budget allocates 150 e- to the read noise of each Science CCD module output. This paper discusses key elements of the Kepler focal plane array design, development, characterization and performance results.

  14. Focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Rebecca L; Baggerly, Keith A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Kang, Yu; Sanguino, Angela M; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Dalton, Heather J; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Zand, Behrouz; Akbani, Rehan; Diao, Lixia; Nick, Alpa M; DeGeest, Koen; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L; Lutgendorf, Susan; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    This investigation describes the clinical significance of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at the major activating tyrosine site (Y397) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. FAK gene amplification as a mechanism for FAK overexpression and the effects of FAK tyrosine kinase inhibitor VS-6062 on tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis were examined. FAK and phospho-FAKY397 were quantified in tumor (FAK-T; pFAK-T) and tumor-associated endothelial (FAK-endo; pFAK-endo) cell compartments of EOCs using immunostaining and qRT-PCR. Associations between expression levels and clinical variables were evaluated. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used to correlate FAK gene copy number and expression levels in EOC specimens. The in vitro and in vivo effects of VS-6062 were assayed in preclinical models. FAK-T and pFAK-T overexpression was significantly associated with advanced stage disease and increased microvessel density (MVD). High MVD was observed in tumors with elevated endothelial cell FAK (59%) and pFAK (44%). Survival was adversely affected by FAK-T overexpression (3.03 vs 2.06 y, P = 0.004), pFAK-T (2.83 vs 1.78 y, P < 0.001), and pFAK-endo (2.33 vs 2.17 y, P = 0.005). FAK gene copy number was increased in 34% of tumors and correlated with expression levels (P < 0.001). VS-6062 significantly blocked EOC and endothelial cell migration as well as endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. VS-6062 reduced mean tumor weight by 56% (P = 0.005), tumor MVD by 40% (P = 0.0001), and extraovarian metastasis (P < 0.01) in orthotopic EOC mouse models. FAK may be a unique therapeutic target in EOC given the dual anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic potential of FAK inhibitors. PMID:24755674

  15. Focal Adhesion Induction at the Tip of a Functionalized Nanoelectrode

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Daniela E.; Bae, Chilman; Butler, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Cells dynamically interact with their physical micro-environment through the assembly of nascent focal contacts and focal adhesions. The dynamics and mechanics of these contact points are controlled by transmembrane integrins and an array of intracellular adaptor proteins. In order to study the mechanics and dynamics of focal adhesion assembly, we have developed a technique for the timed induction of a nascent focal adhesion. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were approached at the apical surface by a nanoelectrode whose position was controlled with a resolution of 10s of nanometers using changes in electrode current to monitor distance from the cell surface. Since this probe was functionalized with fibronectin, a focal contact formed at the contact location. Nascent focal adhesion assembly was confirmed using time-lapse confocal fluorescent images of red fluorescent protein (RFP) – tagged talin, an adapter protein that binds to activated integrins. Binding to the cell was verified by noting a lack of change of electrode current upon retraction of the electrode. This study demonstrates that functionalized nanoelectrodes can enable precisely-timed induction and 3-D mechanical manipulation of focal adhesions and the assay of the detailed molecular kinetics of their assembly. PMID:22247742

  16. Focal length measurement based on the wavefront difference method by a Fizeau interferometer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongming; Gao, Zhishan; Dou, Jiantai; Wang, Xinxing

    2014-09-01

    A method for measuring the focal length of the lens by a Fizeau interferometer is proposed. Based on the Gaussian imaging equation and the longitudinal displacements of the object point and image point, a precise formula for focal length calculation is deduced. The longitudinal displacement of the object points is determined by the wavefront difference method with a subnanometer resolution. An experimental system for focal length measurements is set up to verify the principle. The sources of uncertainty in measurement are discussed. Both the positive and negative lens experimental results indicate that the measurement accuracy is less than 0.16% under normal experimental environment. PMID:25321352

  17. Positive focal shift of gallium nitride high contrast grating focusing reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shumin; Wang, Zhenhai; Liu, Qifa

    2016-09-01

    We design a type of metasurfaces capable of serving as a visible-light focusing reflector based on gallium nitride (GaN) high contrast gratings (HCGs). The wavefront of the reflected light is precisely manipulated by spatial variation of the grating periods along the subwavelength ridge array to achieve light focusing. Different from conventional negative focal shift effect, a positive focal shift is observed in such focusing reflectors. Detailed investigations of the influence of device size on the focusing performance, especially the focal length, are preformed via a finite element method . The results show that all performance parameters are greatly affected by the reflector size. A more concentrated focal point, or a better focusing capability, can be achieved by larger size. With increasing reflector size, the achieved focal length decreases and gradually approaches to the design, thus the corresponding positive focal shift decreases. Our results are helpful for understanding the visible-light control of the planar HCG-based focusing reflectors.

  18. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses. PMID:26973405

  19. Small pixel oversampled IR focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir

    2015-06-01

    We report on a new high definition high charge capacity 2.1 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Array. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which is below the Nyquist limit imposed by the optical systems Point Spread Function (PSF). These smaller sub diffraction limited pixels allow spatial oversampling of the image. We show that oversampling IRFPAs enables improved fidelity in imaging including resolution improvements, advanced pixel correlation processing to reduce false alarm rates, improved detection ranges, and an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. Small pixel HD arrays are viewed as the key component enabling lower size, power and weight of the IR Sensor System. Small pixels enables a reduction in the size of the systems components from the smaller detector and ROIC array, the reduced optics focal length and overall lens size, resulting in an overall compactness in the sensor package, cooling and associated electronics. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  20. LiteBIRD: Mission Overview and Focal Plane Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, T.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Borrill, J.; Chendra, R.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Dominjon, A.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fujino, T.; Fuke, H.; Goeckner-wald, N.; Halverson, N.; Harvey, P.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Hubmayr, J.; Ichiki, K.; Inatani, J.; Inoue, M.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Irwin, K.; Ishino, H.; Ishitsuka, H.; Jeong, O.; Karatsu, K.; Kashima, S.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Keating, B.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kida, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kimura, N.; Kohri, K.; Komatsu, E.; Kuo, C. L.; Kuromiya, S.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Linder, E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuoka, S.; Matsuura, S.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mizukami, K.; Morii, H.; Morishima, T.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Nagata, R.; Nakajima, M.; Nakamura, S.; Namikawa, T.; Naruse, M.; Natsume, K.; Nishibori, T.; Nishijo, K.; Nishino, H.; Nitta, T.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ogawa, H.; Oguri, S.; Ohta, I. S.; Otani, C.; Okada, N.; Okamoto, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, T.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Segawa, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Sekine, M.; Seljak, U.; Sherwin, B.; Shinozaki, K.; Shu, S.; Stompor, R.; Sugai, H.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takano, K.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Tomita, N.; Turin, P.; Utsunomiya, S.; Uzawa, Y.; Wada, T.; Watanabe, H.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Yamashita, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, Y.

    2016-08-01

    LiteBIRD is a proposed CMB polarization satellite project to probe the inflationary B-mode signal. The satellite is designed to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio with a 68 % confidence level uncertainty of σ _r<10^{-3}, including statistical, instrumental systematic, and foreground uncertainties. LiteBIRD will observe the full sky from the second Lagrange point for 3 years. We have a focal plane layout for observing frequency coverage that spans 40-402 GHz to characterize the galactic foregrounds. We have two detector candidates, transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors. In both cases, a telecentric focal plane consists of approximately 2× 10^3 superconducting detectors. We will present the mission overview of LiteBIRD, the project status, and the TES focal plane layout.

  1. Focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Haider, Aamir; Solish, Nowell

    2005-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis, a condition characterized by excessive sweating, can be generalized or focal. Generalized hyperhidrosis involves the entire body and is usually part of an underlying condition, most often an infectious, endocrine or neurologic disorder. Focal hyperhidrosis is idiopathic, occurring in otherwise healthy people. It affects 1 or more body areas, most often the palms, armpits, soles or face. Almost 3% of the general population, largely people aged between 25 and 64 years, experience hyperhidrosis. The condition carries a substantial psychological and social burden, since it interferes with daily activities. However, patients rarely seek a physician's help because many are unaware that they have a treatable medical disorder. Early detection and management of hyperhidrosis can significantly improve a patient's quality of life. There are various topical, systemic, surgical and nonsurgical treatments available with efficacy rates greater than 90%-95%.

  2. Focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Aamir; Solish, Nowell

    2005-01-01

    HYPERHIDROSIS, A CONDITION CHARACTERIZED by excessive sweating, can be generalized or focal. Generalized hyperhidrosis involves the entire body and is usually part of an underlying condition, most often an infectious, endocrine or neurologic disorder. Focal hyperhidrosis is idiopathic, occurring in otherwise healthy people. It affects 1 or more body areas, most often the palms, armpits, soles or face. Almost 3% of the general population, largely people aged between 25 and 64 years, experience hyperhidrosis. The condition carries a substantial psychological and social burden, since it interferes with daily activities. However, patients rarely seek a physician's help because many are unaware that they have a treatable medical disorder. Early detection and management of hyperhidrosis can significantly improve a patient's quality of life. There are various topical, systemic, surgical and nonsurgical treatments available with efficacy rates greater than 90%–95%. PMID:15632408

  3. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  4. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens.

    PubMed

    Gerbase-DeLima, M; Pereira-Santos, A; Sesso, R; Temin, J; Aragão, E S; Ajzen, H

    1998-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin) with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P < 0.05). In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease. PMID:9698788

  5. [Asterixis in focal brain lesions].

    PubMed

    Velasco, F; Gomez, J C; Zarranz, J J; Lambarri, I; Ugalde, J

    2004-05-01

    Asterixis is a motor control disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal movements of the lower limbs in the vertical plane during posture maintenance. Asterixis is usually bilateral and associated with toxic-metabolic metabolic encephalopathies. Unilateral asterixis is less frequent and it normally indicates focal brain damage. We report the cases of four patients (two males/two females), aged 57 to 83 years, suffering from uni or bilateral asterixis associated with focal brain damage. All patients underwent CT brain scan and a neurophysiological study (parietal EMG and/or PES). In addition, any toxic-metabolic cause that could be produced by this clinical phenomenon was ruled out with the appropriate testing. Unilateral asterixis is a clinical symptom that may indicate the presence of focal brain damage. Often, it is ignored or overlooked during routine neurological examinations. On the other hand, the presence of a bilateral asterixis is not always indicative of a toxic-metabolic encephalopathy.Rarely, such as in one of the cases herein presented, bilateral asterixis can also appear associated with structural brain lesions. Although asterixis diagnosis is fundamentally clinical, the neurophysiological study contributes to verify the diagnosis.

  6. MIPAS focal-plane optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhove, Henk; Smorenburg, C.; Visser, H.

    1993-11-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) has been selected by ESA for the ENVISAT-Mission, scheduled for launch in 1998. The instrument will measure the concentration of a number of atmospheric trace gases in the earth atmosphere in a spectral region from 4.15 - 14.6 micrometers . Within this region measurements are performed with high spectral resolution. The MIPAS optical system consists of scan mirrors, a telescope, a Michelson interferometer, an afocal reducer and a focal plane assembly. TNO Institute of Applied Physics is involved in the design and development of the afocal reducer and the focal plane assembly. The beam reducing optics of the afocal reducer consist of 2 concave and one convex mirror. Both the housing and the mirrors are made of aluminum to ensure temperature invariance. The optics of the focal plane assembly consist of aluminum mirrors, dichroic beamsplitters and Ge lenses in front of the detectors. The optical/mechanical design is developed to the level that phase C2/D activities can start.

  7. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for…

  8. Threshold Concepts as Focal Points for Supporting Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Katy; Tracy, Frances; Johnstone, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The Plant Sciences Pedagogy Project conducted research into undergraduate teaching and learning in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Cambridge and has translated the research findings into interventions to improve support for student learning. A key research objective for the project was to investigate how teachers within the…

  9. Focal-point conformational analysis of ethanol, propanol, and isopropanol.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kalju; Bruice, Thomas C

    2005-03-01

    Conformational analysis of three small alcohols--ethanol, propanol, and isopropanol--was carried out by systematically improving the basis set and the level of electron correlation. Correlation energy contributions to conformational energies are strongly basis-set-dependent but accurate energy contributions can be obtained by extrapolation to the basis-set limit. At the basis-set limit, second- and third-order electron correlation effects play a significant role for rotations around the CC-OH, HC-CO, and CC-CO bonds. Specifically, second- and third-order correlation effects strongly stabilize structures in which the hydroxylic hydrogen eclipses with the adjacent carbon; a lesser stabilization is present in structures where the CC-OH moiety is in the gauche form. Fourth-order correlation effects to the CC-OH rotation are small due to a partial cancellation of the singles, doubles, and quadruples contribution by the triples contribution. Electron correlation significantly lowers barriers for methyl-group rotations in ethanol and isopropanol, and in these cases the fourth-order correlation effects are noticeable. The relatively large overall importance of third-order correlation energy contributions raises a concern that the inability to accurately estimate this slowly converging contribution may become a limiting factor when highly accurate conformational energies in larger molecules are sought. PMID:15799474

  10. Focal Point. Volume 1, Fall 1986--Spring/Summer 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focal Point, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The document contains three issues of the newsletter of the Research and Training Center to Improve Services for Seriously Emotionally Handicapped Children and Their Families. The first issue is introduced with an article titled "Re-Thinking Emotional Disturbances in Children," by Thomas M. Young. Topics covered include the following: issues…

  11. [Cutaneous myxoma (focal dermal mucinosis)].

    PubMed

    Senff, H; Kuhlwein, A; Jänner, M; Schäfer, R

    1988-09-01

    Two cases of cutaneous myxoma are presented. In case 1 the cutaneous myxoma was localized on the left thumb and clinically resembled a pyogenic granuloma. In case 2 it was found at the left nipple. The benign cutaneous tumor may herald a cardiac myxoma and other conditions. Thus, a cutaneous myxoma should be accepted as an indication for thorough investigation of the whole body at regular intervals. As there are neither clinically nor histologically adequate criteria for differentiation, cutaneous myxoma and focal dermal mucinosis can be considered as variants of a single entity.

  12. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Heck disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Hebert, A A; Adler-Storthz, K

    1993-09-01

    Two sisters of Mexican ancestry had focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). The lesions on the oral mucosa of the older child were initially misinterpreted as representing sexual abuse. Microscopic evaluation of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained section from a lower lip papule demonstrated the histologic features of FEH. Although human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and HPV32 have been most consistently present in FEH lesions, types 6, 11, 13, and 32 were not detected in the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen of our patient using an in situ hybridization technique. The lesions persisted or recurred during management using destructive modalities; subsequently, they completely resolved spontaneously.

  13. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Axéll, T; Hammarström, L; Larsson, A

    1981-01-01

    A prevalence of 0.11% of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) was found among 20,333 adult Swedes. There was no sex difference, the lesion was most prevalent in age groups above 45 years and the lesion was most frequent on the tongue. The frequency of FEH in 15,132 consecutive routine biopsies was 0.26%. Four FEH-cells were ultrastructurally examined. They exhibited a clear cytoplasm with scattered ribosomes, a peripheral condensation of tonofilaments, a central aggregation of chromatin clumps with loss of nuclear membrane and an accumulation of desmosome fragments. No viral particles could be identified in these FEH-cells.

  14. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  15. Apparatus and method for creating a photonic densely-accumulated ray-point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical apparatus includes an optical diffraction device configured for diffracting a predetermined wavelength of incident light onto adjacent optical focal points, and a photon detector for detecting a spectral characteristic of the predetermined wavelength. One of the optical focal points is a constructive interference point and the other optical focal point is a destructive interference point. The diffraction device, which may be a micro-zone plate (MZP) of micro-ring gratings or an optical lens, generates a constructive ray point using phase-contrasting of the destructive interference point. The ray point is located between adjacent optical focal points. A method of generating a densely-accumulated ray point includes directing incident light onto the optical diffraction device, diffracting the selected wavelength onto the constructive interference focal point and the destructive interference focal point, and generating the densely-accumulated ray point in a narrow region.

  16. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, T.; McKay, R.; Sleege, G.; Petry, D.

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1270m above see level. The array currently consists of four 12 m telescopes, structurally resembling the Davis-Cotton design of the Whipple 10 m telescope. The VERITAS focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.148 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed pre-amplifiers improving the signal to noise ratio and allow single photoelectron measurements in situ at operating voltage. Current monitor circuits in the focus box provide real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient conditions of the focus box. A charge injection system installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system by injecting pulses of variable amplitude and length into pre-amplifier stage. A detailed description of the VERITAS focal plane instruments will be given in this presentation.

  17. Multi-focal multiphoton lithography.

    PubMed

    Ritschdorff, Eric T; Nielson, Rex; Shear, Jason B

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL) provides unparalleled capabilities for creating high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) materials from a broad spectrum of building blocks and with few limitations on geometry, qualities that have been key to the design of chemically, mechanically, and biologically functional microforms. Unfortunately, the reliance of MPL on laser scanning limits the speed at which fabrication can be performed, making it impractical in many instances to produce large-scale, high-resolution objects such as complex micromachines, 3D microfluidics, etc. Previously, others have demonstrated the possibility of using multiple laser foci to simultaneously perform MPL at numerous sites in parallel, but use of a stage-scanning system to specify fabrication coordinates resulted in the production of identical features at each focal position. As a more general solution to the bottleneck problem, we demonstrate here the feasibility for performing multi-focal MPL using a dynamic mask to differentially modulate foci, an approach that enables each fabrication site to create independent (uncorrelated) features within a larger, integrated microform. In this proof-of-concept study, two simultaneously scanned foci produced the expected two-fold decrease in fabrication time, and this approach could be readily extended to many scanning foci by using a more powerful laser. Finally, we show that use of multiple foci in MPL can be exploited to assign heterogeneous properties (such as differential swelling) to micromaterials at distinct positions within a fabrication zone.

  18. Multi-focal multiphoton lithography.

    PubMed

    Ritschdorff, Eric T; Nielson, Rex; Shear, Jason B

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL) provides unparalleled capabilities for creating high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) materials from a broad spectrum of building blocks and with few limitations on geometry, qualities that have been key to the design of chemically, mechanically, and biologically functional microforms. Unfortunately, the reliance of MPL on laser scanning limits the speed at which fabrication can be performed, making it impractical in many instances to produce large-scale, high-resolution objects such as complex micromachines, 3D microfluidics, etc. Previously, others have demonstrated the possibility of using multiple laser foci to simultaneously perform MPL at numerous sites in parallel, but use of a stage-scanning system to specify fabrication coordinates resulted in the production of identical features at each focal position. As a more general solution to the bottleneck problem, we demonstrate here the feasibility for performing multi-focal MPL using a dynamic mask to differentially modulate foci, an approach that enables each fabrication site to create independent (uncorrelated) features within a larger, integrated microform. In this proof-of-concept study, two simultaneously scanned foci produced the expected two-fold decrease in fabrication time, and this approach could be readily extended to many scanning foci by using a more powerful laser. Finally, we show that use of multiple foci in MPL can be exploited to assign heterogeneous properties (such as differential swelling) to micromaterials at distinct positions within a fabrication zone. PMID:22282105

  19. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

  20. Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

  1. Ischemia independent lesion evolution during focal stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Woitzik, Johannes; Lassel, Elke; Hecht, Nils; Schneider, Ulf C; Schroeck, Helmut; Vajkoczy, Peter; Graf, Rudolf

    2009-07-01

    Lesion evolution during focal cerebral ischemia may depend on flow restrictions or on accumulation of toxic mediators within the infarct and expansion of these factors to the periinfarct region. So far, the precise contribution of flow dependent versus spreading-mediated impairment of viable periinfarct tissue has not been determined. Therefore, we measured lesion expansion, flow restrictions and glutamate distribution on serial brain sections at different time points after experimental focal ischemia. Permanent focal ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery in male rats and the flow reduction was subsequently measured at 1, 12 and 24 h using iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiography. Additionally, the necrotic volume was determined on serial brain sections and the glutamate content was measured in tissue samples from adjacent microdissections. Twelve hours after focal ischemia no noteworthy viable areas with blood flow restrictions of 20-40 ml 100 g(-1) min(-1) existed but at 24 h the necrotic tissue exceeded the hemodynamically compromised region by 40 +/- 21 mm3 (24%). Furthermore, at 12 and 24 h the glutamate content was elevated in areas surrounding the infarct. Relevant flow restrictions are detectable only during early stages of infarct maturation, whereas the propagation of secondary factors may be the predominant mechanism for delayed infarct evolution.

  2. Primary focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management. .

    PubMed

    Wang, Rena; Solish, Nowell; Murray, Christian A

    2008-12-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a common and serious medical condition that causes considerable psychosocial morbidity. Diagnostic and effective management strategies can improve patients' quality of living dramatically.

  3. Optimal focal-plane restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    Image restoration can be implemented efficiently by calculating the convolution of the digital image and a small kernel during image acquisition. Processing the image in the focal-plane in this way requires less computation than traditional Fourier-transform-based techniques such as the Wiener filter and constrained least-squares filter. Here, the values of the convolution kernel that yield the restoration with minimum expected mean-square error are determined using a frequency analysis of the end-to-end imaging system. This development accounts for constraints on the size and shape of the spatial kernel and all the components of the imaging system. Simulation results indicate the technique is effective and efficient.

  4. Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.

    PubMed

    Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R

    2013-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant.

  5. A simple focal-length measurement technique for adaptive microlenses using z-scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelaziez, Yasser; Banerjee, Partha P.

    2004-10-01

    A simple technique for focal length measurements of adaptive micro-lenses using z-scan is reported. Focal length is one of the most important parameters of any lens. The effective focal length is measured with reference to the principal points that are not easy to find especially for micro-lenses. In addition, variable focal length microlenses pose a different challenge that makes the process of determining their exact focal length a tedious and difficult process. Classical methods such as nodal slide and magnification have been used for focal length determination. Also, advanced Interference techniques such as Talbot, Moire, Digital Speckle, Zygo and Joint Fourier Transform were used for focal length measurements. These techniques require more elaborate setups and difficult to implement, especially for microlenses. Recently a power meter was used to find the focal length of an unknown lens. Most of the techniques mentioned above proof to be not simple for microlens characterization. The z-scan technique has been implemented, for quite sometimes, to characterize the third-order effects of a nonlinear optical material. The z-scan provides information on both the sign and magnitude of the non-linear refractive index and offer advantage of simplicity. We have used a regular lens to collimate and focus light unto the lens under test. By scanning the lens under test and measuring the on-axis intensity, one can find the focal length. This is because the on-axis intensity is proportional to the phase of the lens and therefore the focal length. In the case of an adaptive lens with its focal length is a function of the applied voltage, the scanning occurs for each voltage value that will correspond to the on-axis refractive index change and therefore the far field on-axis intensity. This described technique above is easy to implement and can achieve good accuracy due to the inherent sensitivity of the z-scan.

  6. Crosstalk between focal adhesions and material mechanical properties governs cell mechanics and functions.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Sabato; Panzetta, Valeria; Embrione, Valerio; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical properties of materials strongly influence cell fate and functions. Focal adhesions are involved in the extremely important processes of mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. To address the relationship between the mechanical properties of cell substrates, focal adhesion/cytoskeleton assembly and cell functions, we investigated the behavior of NIH/3T3 cells over a wide range of stiffness (3-1000kPa) using two of the most common synthetic polymers for cell cultures: polyacrylamide and polydimethylsiloxane. An overlapping stiffness region was created between them to compare focal adhesion characteristics and cell functions, taking into account their different time-dependent behavior. Indeed, from a rheological point of view, polyacrylamide behaves like a strong gel (elastically), whereas polydimethylsiloxane like a viscoelastic solid. First, focal adhesion characteristics and dynamics were addressed in terms of material stiffness, then cell spreading area, migration rate and cell mechanical properties were correlated with focal adhesion size and assembly. Focal adhesion size was found to increase in the whole range of stiffness and to be in agreement in the overlapping rigidity region for the investigated materials. Cell mechanics directly correlated with focal adhesion lengths, whereas migration rate followed an inverse correlation. Cell spreading correlated with the substrate stiffness on polyacrylamide hydrogel, while no specific trend was found on polydimethylsiloxane. Substrate mechanics can be considered as a key physical cue that regulates focal adhesion assembly, which in turn governs important cellular properties and functions. PMID:26004223

  7. Treatment of focal dystonias with botulinum neurotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Benecke, Reiner; Blitzer, Andrew; Comella, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a review on the use of injections of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal dystonias. Disorders covered include cranial dystonia, cervical dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, and focal hand dystonia. Considered are clinical aspects, alternative treatment strategies and principles of use of botulinum toxin injections. PMID:19103214

  8. SIRTF Focal Plane Survey: A Pre-flight Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Kang, Bryan H.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains a pre-flight error analysis of the calibration accuracies expected from implementing the currently planned SIRTF focal plane survey strategy. The main purpose of this study is to verify that the planned strategy will meet focal plane survey calibration requirements (as put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [4]), and to quantify the actual accuracies expected. The error analysis was performed by running the Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter on a complete set of simulated IOC-SV survey data, and studying the resulting propagated covariances. The main conclusion of this study is that the all focal plane calibration requirements can be met with the currently planned survey strategy. The associated margins range from 3 to 95 percent, and tend to be smallest for frames having a 0.14" requirement, and largest for frames having a more generous 0.28" (or larger) requirement. The smallest margin of 3 percent is associated with the IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 micron array centers (frames 068 and 069), and the largest margin of 95 percent is associated with the MIPS 160 micron array center (frame 087). For pointing purposes, the most critical calibrations are for the IRS Peakup sweet spots and short wavelength slit centers (frames 019, 023, 052, 028, 034). Results show that these frames are meeting their 0.14" requirements with an expected accuracy of approximately 0.1", which corresponds to a 28 percent margin.

  9. Causes and pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fogo, Agnes B.

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) describes both a common lesion in progressive kidney disease, and a disease characterized by marked proteinuria and podocyte injury. The initial injuries vary widely. Monogenetic forms of FSGS are largely due to alterations in structural genes of the podocyte, many of which result in early onset of disease. Genetic risk alleles in apolipoprotein L1 are especially prevalent in African Americans, and are linked not only to adult-onset FSGS but also to progression of some other kidney diseases. The recurrence of FSGS in some transplant recipients whose end-stage renal disease was caused by FSGS points to circulating factors in disease pathogenesis, which remain incompletely understood. In addition, infection, drug use, and secondary maladaptive responses after loss of nephrons from any cause may also cause FSGS. Varying phenotypes of the sclerosis are also manifest, with varying prognosis. The so-called tip lesion has the best prognosis, whereas the collapsing type of FSGS has the worst prognosis. New insights into glomerular cell injury response and repair may pave the way for possible therapeutic strategies. PMID:25447132

  10. Novel PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Froyen, G; Govaerts, K; Van Esch, H; Verbeeck, J; Tuomi, M-L; Heikkilä, H; Torniainen, S; Devriendt, K; Fryns, J-P; Marynen, P; Järvelä, I; Ala-Mello, S

    2009-12-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), Goltz or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an X-linked dominant multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system and eyes. We screened for mutations in the PORCN gene in eight patients of Belgian and Finnish origin with firm clinical suspicion of FDH. First, we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis to define the copy number at this locus. Next, we sequenced the coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of the PORCN gene. Three de novo mutations were identified in our patients with FDH: a 150-kb deletion removing six genes including PORCN, as defined by qPCR and X-array-CGH, and two heterozygous missense mutations; c.992T>G (p.L331R) in exon 11 and c.1094G>A (p.R365Q) in exon 13 of the gene. Both point mutations changed highly conserved amino acids and were not found in 300 control X chromosomes. The three patients in whom mutations were identified all present with characteristic dermal findings together with limb manifestations, which were not seen in our mutation-negative patients. The clinical characteristics of our patients with PORCN mutations were compared with the previously reported mutation-positive cases. In this report, we summarize the literature on PORCN mutations and associated phenotypes.

  11. Focal brain inflammation and autism.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Asadi, Shahrzad; Patel, Arti B

    2013-04-09

    Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

  12. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  13. Biostatistical evaluation of focal hepatic preneoplasia.

    PubMed

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Qualitative analyses of focal hepatic preneoplasia are relatively easy and fast but hypothesis tests based on these analyses often lack statistical power. Evaluating focal hepatic preneoplasia quantitatively, on the other hand, requires more effort but is rewarded by an increased ability to detect differences between treatment groups and by the possibility to investigate the mechanism of a treatment under study. Due to the stereological problems inherent in the data a statistical analysis that concentrates on the evaluation of area fraction will provide clear results whereas the analysis of focal transection density and size distribution can produce misleading results. In addition, the area fraction is a valid variable even in the presence of confluent foci. The number and size distribution of focal transections in liver sections cannot be directly translated to the number and sizes of foci in the liver. As no general statements about the relationship between focal transection density and foci density as well as between focal transection size and foci size distribution can be made, there is need for a parametric mechanistic model to link the number and size distribution of focal transections to those of the underlying foci. The stereological problem therefore can be avoided by introducing a model for foci appearance and change of volume that then can be used to conclude whether the treatment induces foci and whether it changes their volume.

  14. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  15. Advanced approaches to focal plane integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. D.; Smith, E. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Both visible and infrared focal plane assemblies have common architectural driving parameters which guide their design approaches. The key drivers for advanced focal plane assemblies (FPA) are: the detector type and performance required; the number of detector chips; the packaging density; and the geometry. The impact of these drivers is seen to determine the engineering compromises necessary to establish FPA design approach. Several new designs are discussed which show a range of applications from single detector assemblies to monolithic detector chips with on-chip signal processing. The main objective of many advanced designs is to integrate the focal plane components in order to reduce power and reduce the number of interconnections.

  16. Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Köpük, Şule Y.; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Çakır, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

  17. Focal Cortical Dysplasia in Childhood Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Tarek; Bernier, Anne; Carmant, Lionel

    2016-05-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a common cause of medication resistant epilepsy. A better understanding of its presentation, pathophysiology and consequences have helped us improved its treatment and outcome. This paper reviews the most recent classification, pathophysiology and imaging findings in clinical research as well as the knowledge gained from studying genetic and lesional animal models of focal cortical dysplasia. This review of this recently gained knowledge will most likely help develop new research models and new therapeutic targets for patients with epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia. PMID:27544467

  18. Effect of controlled offset of focal position in cavitation-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Kota; Takagi, Ryo; Miyashita, Takuya; Jimbo, Hayato; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a noninvasive treatment for tumors such as cancer. In this method, ultrasound is generated outside the body and focused to the target tissue. Therefore, physical and mental stresses on the patient are minimal. A drawback of the HIFU treatment is a long treatment time for a large tumor due to the small therapeutic volume by a single exposure. Enhancing the heating effect of ultrasound by cavitation bubbles may solve this problem. However, this is rather difficult because cavitation clouds tend to be formed backward from the focal point while ultrasonic intensity for heating is centered at the focal point. In this study, the focal points of the trigger pulses to generate cavitation were offset forward from those of the heating ultrasound to match the cavitation clouds with the heating patterns. Results suggest that the controlled offset of focal points makes the thermal coagulation more predictable.

  19. Primary focal hyperhidrosis: scope of the problem.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Dee Anna; Hebert, Adelaide A; Pariser, David M; Solish, Nowell

    2007-05-01

    Focal hyperhidrosis (HH) can cause debilitating reductions in the physical and emotional quality of life (QOL) of patients, which can result in numerous restrictions of a patient's personal and professional lifestyle and activities. A variety of treatment options are available for primary focal HH, including topical and oral agents, tap water iontophoresis (TWI), botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A), and surgery. Studies evaluating BTX-A (Botox) treatment for palmar, plantar, and facial HH reveal that BTX-A provides effective treatment of primary focal HH, with a reasonable duration of effect, and has a good safety profile. Physicians should understand the impact of focal HH and the need to stay abreast of the available treatment options to provide the best care for patients.

  20. An uncommon focal epithelial hyperplasia manifestation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; Pansani, Cyneu Aguiar; Ferrari, Junia; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Spolidório, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare, contagious disease associated with infection of the oral mucosa by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, characterized by multiple soft papules of the same color as the adjacent normal mucosa. It mainly affects the lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare verrucal lesion located in the upper gingiva that was clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. PMID:19941767

  1. Exhaustive linearization for robust camera pose and focal length estimation.

    PubMed

    Penate-Sanchez, Adrian; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    2013-10-01

    We propose a novel approach for the estimation of the pose and focal length of a camera from a set of 3D-to-2D point correspondences. Our method compares favorably to competing approaches in that it is both more accurate than existing closed form solutions, as well as faster and also more accurate than iterative ones. Our approach is inspired on the EPnP algorithm, a recent O(n) solution for the calibrated case. Yet we show that considering the focal length as an additional unknown renders the linearization and relinearization techniques of the original approach no longer valid, especially with large amounts of noise. We present new methodologies to circumvent this limitation termed exhaustive linearization and exhaustive relinearization which perform a systematic exploration of the solution space in closed form. The method is evaluated on both real and synthetic data, and our results show that besides producing precise focal length estimation, the retrieved camera pose is almost as accurate as the one computed using the EPnP, which assumes a calibrated camera.

  2. Exhaustive linearization for robust camera pose and focal length estimation.

    PubMed

    Penate-Sanchez, Adrian; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    2013-10-01

    We propose a novel approach for the estimation of the pose and focal length of a camera from a set of 3D-to-2D point correspondences. Our method compares favorably to competing approaches in that it is both more accurate than existing closed form solutions, as well as faster and also more accurate than iterative ones. Our approach is inspired on the EPnP algorithm, a recent O(n) solution for the calibrated case. Yet we show that considering the focal length as an additional unknown renders the linearization and relinearization techniques of the original approach no longer valid, especially with large amounts of noise. We present new methodologies to circumvent this limitation termed exhaustive linearization and exhaustive relinearization which perform a systematic exploration of the solution space in closed form. The method is evaluated on both real and synthetic data, and our results show that besides producing precise focal length estimation, the retrieved camera pose is almost as accurate as the one computed using the EPnP, which assumes a calibrated camera. PMID:23969384

  3. Experimental characterization, evaluation, and diagnosis of advanced hybrid infrared focal plane array electro-optical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomheim, Terrence S.; Schumann, Lee W.; Kohn, Stanley E.

    1998-07-01

    High performance scanning time-delay-and-integration and staring hybrid focal plane devices with very large formats, small pixel sizes, formidable frame and line rates, on-chip digital programmability, and high dynamic ranges, are being developed for a myriad of defense, civil, and commercial applications that span the spectral range from shortwave infrared (SWIR) to longwave infrared (LWIR). An essential part in the development of such new advanced hybrid infrared focal planes is empirical validation of their electro-optical (EO) performance. Many high-reliability, high-performance applications demand stringent and near flawless EO performance over a wide variety of operating conditions and environments. Verification of focal plane performance compliance over this wide range of parametric conditions requires the development and use of accurate, flexible, and statistically complete test methods and associated equipment. In this paper we review typical focal plane requirements, the ensuing measurement requirements (quantity, accuracy, repeatability, etc.), test methodologies, test equipment requirements, electronics and computer-based data acquisition requirements, statistical data analysis and display requirements, and associated issues. We also discuss special test requirements for verifying the performance of panchromatic thermal and multispectral imaging focal planes where characterization of dynamic modulation transfer function (MTF), and point-image response and optical overload is generally required. We briefly overview focal plane radiation testing. We conclude with a discussion of the technical challenges of characterizing future advanced hybrid focal plane testing where it is anticipated that analog-to- digital conversion will be included directly on focal plane devices, thus creating the scenario of 'photons-in-to-bits- out' within the focal plane itself.

  4. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  5. NMDA receptor binding in focal epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    McGinnity, C J; Koepp, M J; Hammers, A; Riaño Barros, D A; Pressler, R M; Luthra, S; Jones, P A; Trigg, W; Micallef, C; Symms, M R; Brooks, D J; Duncan, J S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate altered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor availability in patients with focal epilepsies using positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]GE-179, a ligand that selectively binds to the open NMDA receptor ion channel, which is thought to be overactive in epilepsy. Methods Eleven patients (median age 33 years, 6 males) with known frequent interictal epileptiform discharges had an [18F]GE-179 PET scan, in a cross-sectional study. MRI showed a focal lesion but discordant EEG changes in two, was non-localising with multifocal EEG abnormalities in two, and was normal in the remaining seven patients who all had multifocal EEG changes. Individual patient [18F]GE-179 volume-of-distribution (VT) images were compared between individual patients and a group of 10 healthy controls (47 years, 7 males) using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Results Individual analyses revealed a single cluster of focal VT increase in four patients; one with a single and one with multifocal MRI lesions, and two with normal MRIs. Post hoc analysis revealed that, relative to controls, patients not taking antidepressants had globally increased [18F]GE-179 VT (+28%; p<0.002), and the three patients taking an antidepressant drug had globally reduced [18F]GE-179 VT (−29%; p<0.002). There were no focal abnormalities common to the epilepsy group. Conclusions In patients with focal epilepsies, we detected primarily global increases of [18F]GE-179 VT consistent with increased NMDA channel activation, but reduced availability in those taking antidepressant drugs, consistent with a possible mode of action of this class of drugs. [18F]GE-179 PET showed focal accentuations of NMDA binding in 4 out of 11 patients, with difficult to localise and treat focal epilepsy. PMID:25991402

  6. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  7. Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Bryan; Bayard, David

    2006-01-01

    The instrument-pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, and an algorithm that implements this filter, have been devised for calibrating the focal plane of a telescope. As used here, calibration signifies, more specifically, a combination of measurements and calculations directed toward ensuring accuracy in aiming the telescope and determining the locations of objects imaged in various arrays of photodetectors in instruments located on the focal plane. The IPF Kalman filter was originally intended for application to a spaceborne infrared astronomical telescope, but can also be applied to other spaceborne and ground-based telescopes. In the traditional approach to calibration of a telescope, (1) one team of experts concentrates on estimating parameters (e.g., pointing alignments and gyroscope drifts) that are classified as being of primarily an engineering nature, (2) another team of experts concentrates on estimating calibration parameters (e.g., plate scales and optical distortions) that are classified as being primarily of a scientific nature, and (3) the two teams repeatedly exchange data in an iterative process in which each team refines its estimates with the help of the data provided by the other team. This iterative process is inefficient and uneconomical because it is time-consuming and entails the maintenance of two survey teams and the development of computer programs specific to the requirements of each team. Moreover, theoretical analysis reveals that the engineering/ science iterative approach is not optimal in that it does not yield the best estimates of focal-plane parameters and, depending on the application, may not even enable convergence toward a set of estimates.

  8. An Integrated Optimal Estimation Approach to Spitzer Space Telescope Focal Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses an accurate and efficient method for focal plane survey that was used for the Spitzer Space Telescope. The approach is based on using a high-order 37-state Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter that combines both engineering parameters and science parameters into a single filter formulation. In this approach, engineering parameters such as pointing alignments, thermomechanical drift and gyro drifts are estimated along with science parameters such as plate scales and optical distortions. This integrated approach has many advantages compared to estimating the engineering and science parameters separately. The resulting focal plane survey approach is applicable to a diverse range of science instruments such as imaging cameras, spectroscopy slits, and scanning-type arrays alike. The paper will summarize results from applying the IPF Kalman Filter to calibrating the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane, containing the MIPS, IRAC, and the IRS science Instrument arrays.

  9. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  10. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  11. Nonuniformity compensation for IR focal plane array sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Er, Meng H.; Gan, Yu H.; Fong, Yew C.

    1997-08-01

    Recent reports indicate that cooled and uncooled IR focal plane array sensors are progressing to a field-worthy level for commercial and defense applications. They offer higher sensitivity, amenability to signal processing and mechanical simplicity. However these sensors contain large detector-to- detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations. These variations result in a severe problem called fixed pattern noise that can mask/distort the image obtained from the sensor. The correction process is generally termed as nonuniformity compensation. Conventional two-point compensation techniques are accurate enough, but require built-in controllable temperature references along with mechanical and electro-optical shutters. Therefore this compensation technique detracts the mechanical simplicity of using IR focal plane arrays. Scene-based nonuniformity techniques dispenses with the requirement of temperature references and shutters, but are not accurate enough for certain applications. This paper discusses two-point and scene-based nonuniformity compensation algorithms and proposes an empirical formula to automatically calculate the scene constants, which is an essential step towards practical applications. This paper reports the analyzed results of testing the algorithms on a number of IR images. A practical problem of 'artifacts' which arise when using scene-based nonuniformity compensation is also discussed. A common hardware scheme to implement both the algorithms is also presented in this paper.

  12. Defocus compensation system of long focal aerial camera based on auto-collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-ye; Zhao, Yu-liang; Xu, Zhao-lin

    2010-10-01

    Nowadays, novel aerial reconnaissance camera emphasizes on the shooting performance in high altitude or in long distance of oblique photography. In order to obtain the larger scale pictures which are easier for image interpretation, we need the camera has long focal length. But long focal length camera is easier to be influenced by environmental condition and lead to great change of lens' back focus which can result in the lens' resolution decreased greatly. So, we should do precise defocusing compensation to long focal aerial camera system. In order to realize defocusing compensation, a defocusing compensation system based on autocollimation is designed. Firstly, the reason which can lead to long focal camera's defocusing was discussed, then the factors such as changes of atmospheric pressure and temperature and oblique photographic distance were pointed out, and mathematical equation which could compute camera's defocusing amount was presented. Secondly, after camera's defocusing was analyzed, electro-optical autocollimation of higher automation and intelligent was adopted in the system. Before shooting , focal surface was located by electro-optical autocollimation focal detection mechanism, the data of airplane's height was imported through electronic control system. Defocusing amount was corrected by computing defocusing amount and the signal was send to focusing control motor. And an efficient improved mountain climb-searching algorithm was adopted for focal surface locating in the correction process. When confirming the direction of curve, the improved algorithm considered both twice focusing results and four points. If four points continue raised, the curve would be confirmed as rising direction. On the other hand, if four points continue decreased, the curve would be confirmed as decrease direction. In this way, we could avoid the local peak value appeared in two focusing steps. The defocusing compensation system consists of optical component and precise

  13. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Phasukthaworn, Ruedee; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies. PMID:27293392

  14. Hybrid Extrinsic Silicon Focal Plane Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerrenig, D. H.; Meinhardt, T.; Lowe, J.

    1981-02-01

    Large-area focal planes require mechanical assembly techniques which must be compatible with optical alignment, minimum deadspace, and cryogenic requirements in order to achieve optimum performance. Hybrid extrinsic silicon has been found particularly suitable for such an application. It will be shown that by choosing a large-area extrinsic silicon detector array which is hybrid-mated to a multiplicity of multiplexers a very cost-effective and high-density focal plane module can be assembled. Other advantages of this approach are inherent optical alignment and excellent performance.

  15. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed.

  16. [Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Streker, M; Kerscher, M

    2012-06-01

    In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions. PMID:22653180

  17. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, D J; Bergin, A; Rotenberg, A; Peters, J; Gorman, M; Poduri, A; Cryan, J; Lidov, H; Madsen, J; Harini, C

    2014-01-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and discuss the literature on this topic. PMID:25667877

  18. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  19. Computer Model Of Focal Plane Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thvedt, Tom A.; Willoughby, Charles T.; Salcido, Michael M.; Dereniak, Eustace L.

    1987-11-01

    This paper presents a computer program for simulation of an infrared focal plane array. Standard equations are used to support a menu driven program developed for an IBM personal computer. The terms and equations for each section are presented and samples of actual screen displays of a currently available device are also included. The program is intended to provide the user with a better capability to understand and to study the tradeoffs of fabrication parameters versus the focal plane array performance (i.e. CTE, both spatial and temporal dynamic range, MTF, and noise) used for an optical sensor system analysis. Only surface channel devices are considered in the simulation.

  20. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient.

  1. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element o one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels.

  2. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOEpatents

    Smither, R.K.

    1991-04-02

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element of one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities is disclosed. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels. 19 figures.

  3. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

  4. Focal myositis of the perioral musculature.

    PubMed

    Ellis, G L; Brannon, R B

    1979-10-01

    Focal myositis, a benign inflammatory pseudotumor, is a relatively newly defined clinicopathologic entity which arises as a rapidly enlarging swelling within an isolated skeletal muscle. It occurs most often in the lower extremity, and we are reporting what we believe to be the first cases of perioral involvement. There is no apparent age or sex preference. Focal myositis must be differentiated from neoplasm, nodular pseudosarcomatous fascilitis, proliferative myositis, myositis ossificans, polymyositis, and, in the oral region, salivary gland lesions and hypertrophic branchial myopathy. No lesions have recurred.

  5. Complex source description of focal regions.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Cesar; Forester, Donald W; Moore, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Closed-form solutions of the two-dimensional homogeneous wave equation are presented that provide focal-region descriptions corresponding to a converging bundle of rays. The solutions do have evanescent wave content and can be described as a source-sink pair or particle-antiparticle pair, collocated in complex space, with the complex location being critical in the determination of beam shape and focal region size. The wave solutions are not plagued by singularities, have a finite energy, and have a limitation on how small the focal size can get, with a penalty for limiting small spot sizes in the form of impractically high associated reactive energy. The electric-field-defined spot-size limiting value is 0.35lambda x 0.35lambda, which is about 38% of the Poynting-vector-defined minimum spot size (0.8lambda x 0.4lambda) and corresponds to a condition related to the maximum possible beam angle. A multiple set of solutions is introduced, and the elementary solutions are used to produce new solutions via superposition, resulting in fields with chiral character or with increased depth of focus. We do not claim generality, as the size of focal regions exhibited by the closed-form solutions has a lower bound and hence is not able to account for Pendry's "ideal lens" scenario. PMID:16604758

  6. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

  7. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  8. Large Format Multicolor QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soibel, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Nguyen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) multicolor focal plane array (FPA) cameras are essential for many DoD and NASA applications including Earth and planetary remote sensing. In this paper we summarize our recent development of large format multicolor QWIP FPA that cover MWIR and LWIR bands.

  9. Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

  10. Complex source description of focal regions.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Cesar; Forester, Donald W; Moore, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Closed-form solutions of the two-dimensional homogeneous wave equation are presented that provide focal-region descriptions corresponding to a converging bundle of rays. The solutions do have evanescent wave content and can be described as a source-sink pair or particle-antiparticle pair, collocated in complex space, with the complex location being critical in the determination of beam shape and focal region size. The wave solutions are not plagued by singularities, have a finite energy, and have a limitation on how small the focal size can get, with a penalty for limiting small spot sizes in the form of impractically high associated reactive energy. The electric-field-defined spot-size limiting value is 0.35lambda x 0.35lambda, which is about 38% of the Poynting-vector-defined minimum spot size (0.8lambda x 0.4lambda) and corresponds to a condition related to the maximum possible beam angle. A multiple set of solutions is introduced, and the elementary solutions are used to produce new solutions via superposition, resulting in fields with chiral character or with increased depth of focus. We do not claim generality, as the size of focal regions exhibited by the closed-form solutions has a lower bound and hence is not able to account for Pendry's "ideal lens" scenario.

  11. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome) is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome. PMID:25657436

  12. Estimation of focal and extra-focal radiation profiles based on Gaussian modeling in medical linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Anai, Shigeo; Arimura, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Araki, Fujio; Matsuki, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Nobuo

    2011-07-01

    The X-ray source or focal radiation is one of the factors that can degrade the conformal field edge in stereotactic body radiotherapy. For that reason, it is very important to estimate the total focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators, which consists of X-ray focal-spot radiation and extra-focal radiation profiles. Our purpose in this study was to propose an experimental method for estimating the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators based on triple Gaussian functions. We measured the total X-ray focal radiation profiles of the accelerators by moving a slit in conjunction with a photon field p-type silicon diode. The slit width was changed so that the extra-focal radiation could be optimally included in the total focal radiation. The total focal radiation profiles of an accelerator at 4-MV and 10-MV energies were approximated with a combination of triple Gaussian functions, which correspond to the focal-spot radiation, extra-focal radiation, and radiation transmitted through the slit assembly. As a result, the ratios of the Gaussian peak value of the extra-focal radiation to that of the focal spot for 4 and 10 MV were 0.077 and 0.159, respectively. The peak widths of the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles were 0.57 and 25.0 mm for 4 MV, respectively, and 0.60 and 22.0 mm for 10 MV, respectively. We concluded that the proposed focal radiation profile model based on the triple Gaussian functions may be feasible for estimating the X-ray focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles.

  13. Focal-plane pixel-energy redistribution and concentration by use of microlens arrays.

    PubMed

    Southwell, W H

    1994-06-01

    A physical-optics calculation was performed to study the effects of a microlens array placed over a focal-plane detector array. In certain conditions the light is further concentrated to a spot size that is smaller than the point-spread function of the receiver optics. It is also shown that the microlens refocuses a sinc-squared point-spread function to a shape that is more uniform as well as narrower. Numerical examples were made for the far IR.

  14. Zinc translocation accelerates infarction after mild transient focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-M; Zipfel, G J; Park, K H; He, Y Y; Hsu, C Y; Choi, D W

    2002-01-01

    Excess release of chelatable zinc (Zn(2+)) from central synaptic vesicles may contribute to the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia, but a role in neurodegeneration after focal ischemia has not been defined. Adult male Long-Evans rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min followed by reperfusion developed delayed cerebral infarction reaching completion 3 days after the insult. One day after the insult, many degenerating cerebral neurons exhibited increased intracellular Zn(2+), and some labeled with the antibody against activated caspase-3. I.c.v. administration of the Zn(2+) chelator, EDTA saturated with equimolar Ca(2+) (CaEDTA), 15 min prior to ischemia attenuated subsequent Zn(2+) translocation into cortical neurons, and reduced infarct volume measured 3 days after ischemia. Although the protective effect of CaEDTA at this endpoint was substantial (about 70% infarct reduction), it was lost when insult severity was increased (from 30 to 60 min MCAO), or when infarct volume was measured at a much later time point (14 days instead of 3 days after ischemia). These data suggest that toxic Zn(2+) translocation, from presynaptic terminals to post-synaptic cell bodies, may accelerate the development of cerebral infarction following mild transient focal ischemia.

  15. Enhanced focal-resolution of dipole sources using aeroacoustic time-reversal in a wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimani, A.; Moreau, D. J.; Prime, Z.; Doolan, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the first application of the Point-Time-Reversal-Sponge-Layer (PTRSL) damping technique to enhance the focal-resolution of experimental flow-induced dipole sources obtained using the Time-Reversal (TR) source localization method. Experiments were conducted in an Anechoic Wind Tunnel for the case of a full-span cylinder located in a low Mach number cross-flow. The far-field acoustic pressure sampled using two line arrays of microphones located above and below the cylinder exhibited a dominant Aeolian tone. The aeroacoustic TR simulations were implemented using the time-reversed signals whereby the source map revealed the lift-dipole nature at the Aeolian tone frequency. A PTRSL (centred at the predicted dipole location) was shown to reduce the size of dipole focal spots to 7/20th of a wavelength as compared to one wavelength without its use, thereby dramatically enhancing the focal-resolution of the TR technique.

  16. Focal Reducer for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Juhee; Chang, Seunghyuk; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Youngju; Park, Won-Kee; Im, Myungshin

    2013-08-01

    A focal reducer is developed for CQUEAN (Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse), which is a CCD imaging system on the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald observatory. It allows CQUEAN to secure a wider field of view by reducing the effective focal length by a factor of three. The optical point spread function without seeing effects is designed to be within one pixel (0.283 arcsec) over the field of view of 4.82 arcmin × 4.82 arcmin in optimum wavelength ranges of 0.8-1.1 μm. In this paper, we describe and discuss the characteristics of optical design, the lens and barrel fabrications and the alignment processes.The observation results show that the image quality of the focal reducer confirms the expectations from the design.

  17. Focal colors are universal after all

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Terry; Kay, Paul; Cook, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely held that named color categories in the world's languages are organized around universal focal colors and that these focal colors tend to be chosen as the best examples of color terms across languages. However, this notion has been supported primarily by data from languages of industrialized societies. In contrast, recent research on a language from a nonindustrialized society has called this idea into question. We examine color-naming data from languages of 110 nonindustrialized societies and show that (i) best-example choices for color terms in these languages cluster near the prototypes for English white, black, red, green, yellow, and blue, and (ii) best-example choices cluster more tightly across languages than do the centers of category extensions, suggesting that universal best examples (foci) may be the source of universal tendencies in color naming. PMID:15923257

  18. Focal region fields of distorted reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buris, N. E.; Kauffman, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the focal region fields scattered by an arbitrary surface reflector under uniform plane wave illumination is solved. The physical optics (PO) approximation is used to calculate the current induced on the reflector. The surface of the reflector is described by a number of triangular domain-wise 5th degree bivariate polynomials. A 2-dimensional Gaussian quadrature is employed to numerically evaluate the integral expressions of the scattered fields. No Freshnel or Fraunhofer zone approximations are made. The relation of the focal fields problem to surface compensation techniques and other applications are mentioned. Several examples of distorted parabolic reflectors are presented. The computer code developed is included, together with instructions on its usage.

  19. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26351501

  20. The Focal Plane Package for Solar B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A.; Tsuneta, S.

    The Focal Plane Package (FPP) of the JAXA Solar B Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) combines an advanced version of Stokes Polarimeter, a tunable birefringent filter, and a set of narrow spectral filters. The Stokes Polarimeter and the filter systems can operate simultaneously allowing the construction of precise vector magnetograms and images in a range of spectral lines. Both the Stokes Polarimeter and the filter systems have controllable fields of view and cadence. A local correlation tracker in the FFP operates a high speed tip-tilt mirror to stabilize the image in all focal planes. The time sequences of precise vector magnetic maps uncompromised by seeing will enable new understanding of how flux emerges through and disappears from the solar surface. The tunable filter can measure the flows in the atmosphere from the lower photosphere through the Chromosphere enabling new insights in the magneto-hydrodynamics of magnetic evolution.

  1. Improvements of the Focal Plane of SASSYER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, Danielle; Heinz, Andreas; Winkler, Ryan; Frank, Daniel; Qian, Jing; Fetea, Mirela

    2007-10-01

    The Small Angle Separator System at Yale for Evaporation Residues (SASSYER) at Yale University is a gas-filled recoil separator, specializing in the investigation of the production and the structure of nuclei heavier than ^208Pb. New instrumentation for the focal plane of SASSYER under development at WNSL at Yale will replace the previous equipment with a compact chamber for double-sided silicon detectors (DSSD). Here we are reporting on improvements of the focal plane of SASSYER, including DSSD electronics, a detector cooling system, and ion optics tests. MUX-16 boards from MESYTEC, 16 channel multiplexed amplifiers, were tested and quantified. An alcohol cooling system, related to the DSSD, was characterized. The ion optics tests extracted effective magnetic rigidities of the separator. Results of the tests will be presented. This work was supported by the NSF grant PHY 0555665, Jeffress Fund J-809, and USDOE grant DE-FG02-91ER-40609.

  2. Isolation of focal contact membrane using saponin.

    PubMed

    Neyfakh, A A; Svitkina, T M

    1983-12-01

    The fragments of lower cell surface remained attached to the substrate after incubation of mouse or chick fibroblasts in 0.2% saponin solution and subsequent removal of cells under the action of shearing force. These fragments corresponded exactly to the cellular focal contacts seen by interference reflection microscopy. Ultrastructurally they were membrane fragments with typical three-layered structure. No cytoskeletal components were found in saponin-isolated focal contact membranes either by immunofluorescence or electron microscopy. Only one major cell-derived protein with an apparent molecular weight (MW) of 51 kD (chick embryo fibroblasts) or 47 kD (mouse embryo fibroblasts) remained on the substrate after saponin treatment and removal of cells.

  3. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia in lepromatous leprosy].

    PubMed

    Jacyk, W; Lechner, W

    1983-10-15

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck (FEH) is most likely caused by human papilloma virus. It mainly occurs in children and young people showing no associated diseases. For the first time, we describe a case of FEH in a patient with lepromatous leprosy who due to persistent erythema nodosum leprosum has been treated with a lang-term glucocorticoid therapy. The question of the competence of lepromatous patients in resisting certain viral infections arises.

  4. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Canöz, Özlem

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferative condition that is more frequently found in children of certain ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 13 and 32 genotypes has been consistently detected in these lesions. In this study a daughter, mother and father had FEH, and HPV 13 was shown by sequence analysis in the lesions of these patients. Cryotherapy was applied to the lesions and the lesions improved, but did not recover properly. In conclusion, HPV genotyping should be performed in FEH cases.

  5. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Durso, Braz Campos; Pinto, José Marcelo Vargas; Jorge, Jacks; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2005-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare benign lesion caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in numerous populations and ethnic groups. A higher incidence in close communities and among family members indicates infectious pathogenesis. A 21-year-old woman with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for 10 years. A literature review is also presented, with emphasis on manifestations in the oral mucosa and histopathological features.

  6. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  7. Mechanism of Focal Adhesion Kinase Mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Sebastian; Bullerjahn, Jakob Tómas; Bronowska, Agnieszka; Gräter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensing at focal adhesions regulates vital cellular processes. Here, we present results from molecular dynamics (MD) and mechano-biochemical network simulations that suggest a direct role of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) as a mechano-sensor. Tensile forces, propagating from the membrane through the PIP2 binding site of the FERM domain and from the cytoskeleton-anchored FAT domain, activate FAK by unlocking its central phosphorylation site (Tyr576/577) from the autoinhibitory FERM domain. Varying loading rates, pulling directions, and membrane PIP2 concentrations corroborate the specific opening of the FERM-kinase domain interface, due to its remarkably lower mechanical stability compared to the individual alpha-helical domains and the PIP2-FERM link. Analyzing downstream signaling networks provides further evidence for an intrinsic mechano-signaling role of FAK in broadcasting force signals through Ras to the nucleus. This distinguishes FAK from hitherto identified focal adhesion mechano-responsive molecules, allowing a new interpretation of cell stretching experiments. PMID:26544178

  8. Infrared fiber optic focal plane dispersers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Far infrared transmissive fiber optics as a component in the design of integrated far infrared focal plane array utilization is discussed. A tightly packed bundle of fibers is placed at the focal plane, where an array of infrared detectors would normally reside, and then fanned out in two or three dimensions to individual detectors. Subsequently, the detectors are multiplexed by cryogenic electronics for relay of the data. A second possible application is frequency up-conversion (v sub 1 + v sub 2 = v sub 3), which takes advantage of the nonlinear optical index of refraction of certain infrared transmissive materials in fiber form. Again, a fiber bundle is utilized as above, but now a laser of frequency v sub 1 is mixed with the incoming radiation of frequency v sub 1 within the nonlinear fiber material. The sum, v sub 2 is then detected by near infrared or visible detectors which are more sensitive than those available at v sub 2. Due to the geometrical size limitations of detectors such as photomultipliers, the focal plane dispersal technique is advantageous for imaging up-conversion.

  9. Prostate cancer recurrence after Focal Therapy: Treatment options.

    PubMed

    Hamid, S; Guillaumier, S; Shah, T; Arya, M; Ahmed, H U

    2016-07-01

    Focal therapy is a novel treatment option in localised prostate cancer with or without a visible lesion on MRI. Treatment for low to intermediate risk prostate cancer with focal therapy has demonstrated good short to medium term outcomes with fewer undesirable genitourinary side effects. This has made focal therapy more appealing to men who find the implications of radical treatment unacceptable or are unable to tolerate active surveillance. In this paper we review the literature for treatment options in prostate cancer recurrence post focal therapy. We also cover the different definitions of failure agreed upon in previous consensus meetings, as well as their implications on future management focal therapy patients. PMID:27416641

  10. Management of Localized Prostate Cancer by Focal Transurethral Resection of Prostate Cancer: An Application of Radical TUR-PCa to Focal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Masaru; Matsuura, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Background. We analyzed radical TUR-PCa against localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods. Seventy-nine out of 209 patients with prostate cancer in one lobe were studied. Patients' age ranged from 58 to 91 years and preoperative PSA, 0.70 to 17.30 ng/mL. In other 16 additional patients we performed focal TUR-PCa. Patients' age ranged from 51 to 87 years and preoperative PSA, 1.51 to 25.74 ng/mL. Results. PSA failure in radical TUR-PCa was 5.1% during the mean follow-up period of 58.9 months. The actuarial biochemical non-recurrence rate was 98.2% for pT2a and 90.5% for pT2b. Bladder neck contracture occurred in 28 patients (35.4%). In 209 patients, pathological study revealed prostate cancer of the peripheral zone near the neurovascular bundle bilaterally in 25%, unilaterally in 39% and no cancer bilaterally in 35%, suggesting the possibility of focal TUR-PCa. Postoperative PSA of 16 patients treated by focal TUR-PCa was stable between 0.007 and 0.406 ng/mL at 24.2 months' follow-up. No patients suffered from urinary incontinence. Bladder neck contracture developed in only 1 patient and all 5 patients underwent nerve-preserving TUR-PCa did not show erectile dysfunction. Conclusion. Focal TUR-PCa was considered to be a promising option among focal therapies against localized prostate cancer. PMID:22675347

  11. A kinetic model for RNA-interference of focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Focal adhesions are integrin-based cell-matrix contacts that transduce and integrate mechanical and biochemical cues from the environment. They develop from smaller and more numerous focal complexes under the influence of mechanical force and are key elements for many physiological and disease-related processes, including wound healing and metastasis. More than 150 different proteins localize to focal adhesions and have been systematically classified in the adhesome project (http://www.adhesome.org). First RNAi-screens have been performed for focal adhesions and the effect of knockdown of many of these components on the number, size, shape and location of focal adhesions has been reported. Results We have developed a kinetic model for RNA interference of focal adhesions which represents some of its main elements: a spatially layered structure, signaling through the small GTPases Rac and Rho, and maturation from focal complexes to focal adhesions under force. The response to force is described by two complementary scenarios corresponding to slip and catch bond behavior, respectively. Using estimated and literature values for the model parameters, three time scales of the dynamics of RNAi-influenced focal adhesions are identified: a sub-minute time scale for the assembly of focal complexes, a sub-hour time scale for the maturation to focal adhesions, and a time scale of days that controls the siRNA-mediated knockdown. Our model shows bistability between states dominated by focal complexes and focal adhesions, respectively. Catch bonding strongly extends the range of stability of the state dominated by focal adhesions. A sensitivity analysis predicts that knockdown of focal adhesion components is more efficient for focal adhesions with slip bonds or if the system is in a state dominated by focal complexes. Knockdown of Rho leads to an increase of focal complexes. Conclusions The suggested model provides a kinetic description of the effect of RNA

  12. The Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, J. Ashley; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a histological pattern of injury on renal biopsy that can arise from a diverse range of causes and mechanisms. Although primary and secondary forms are described based on the underlying cause, there are many common factors that underlie the development of this segmental injury. In this review we will describe the currently accepted model for the pathogenesis of classic FSGS and review the data supporting this model. Although the podocyte is considered the major target of injury in FSGS, we will also highlight the contributions of other resident glomerular cells in the development of FSGS. PMID:25168829

  13. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  14. Ictal body turning in focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mercan, Metin; Yıldırım, İrem; Akdemir, Özgür; Bilir, Erhan

    2015-03-01

    Despite the explanations of many lateralization findings, body turning in focal epilepsy has been rarely investigated. One of the aims of this study was to evaluate the role of ictal body turning in the lateralization of focal epilepsies. The records of 263 patients with focal epilepsy (temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), n=178; extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE), n=85) who underwent prolonged video-EEG monitoring during presurgical epilepsy evaluation were reviewed. Preoperative findings (TLE, n=16; ETLE, n=6) and postoperative outcomes (TLE, n=7) of patients with focal epilepsy with ictal body turning were assessed. For the evaluation of ictal body turning, two definitions were proposed. Nonversive body turning (NVBT) was used to denote at least a 90° nonforced (without tonic or clonic component) rotation of the upper (shoulder) and lower (hip) parts of the body around the body axis for a minimum of 3s. Versive body turning (VBT) was used to denote at least a 90° forced (with tonic or clonic component) rotation of the upper (shoulder) and lower (hip) parts of the body around the body axis for a minimum of 3s. Nonversive body turning was observed in 6% (n=11) of patients with TLE and 2% (n=2) of patients with ETLE. For VBT, these ratios were 5% (n=8) and 7% (n=6) for patients with TLE and ETLE, respectively. Nonversive body turning was frequently oriented to the same side as the epileptogenic zone (EZ) in TLE and ETLE seizures (76% and 80%, respectively). If the amount of NVBT was greater than 180°, then it was 80% to the same side in TLE seizures. Versive body turning was observed in 86% of the TLE seizures, and 55% of the ETLE seizures were found to be contralateral to the EZ. When present with head turning, NVBT ipsilateral to the EZ and VBT contralateral to the EZ were more valuable for lateralization. In TLE seizures, a significant correlation was found between the head turning and body turning onsets and durations. Our study demonstrated that ictal body turning

  15. Focal-plane architectures and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayadev, T. S.

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of focal plane architectures and signal processing functions currently used in infrared sensors. It then discusses the development of an algorithm derived from the models developed by biologists to explain the functions of insect eyes and the hardware realization of this algorithm using commercially available silicon chips. The conclusion of this study is that there are important lessons to be learned from the architecture of biological sensors, which may lead to new techniques in electro-optic sensor design.

  16. Near-Field Imaging Based on High Resolution Focal Spot Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, G.; Campillo, M.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Roux, P.; Lecointre, A.; Vernon, F.

    2015-12-01

    The dense spatial wavefield sampling provided by modern seismological acquisitions allows the resolution of the near-field focal spot. The large-amplitude focal spot emerges from the superposition of a collapsing, time reversed wavefront. We discuss an imaging method that is based on high resolution reconstructions of the focal spot that is obtained from cross correlation. This approach exploits the dependence of the spot's shape on local properties of the propagation medium, i.e., the distance of the first zero crossing is proportional to the wave length. We construct noise correlation functions from data collected by a highly-dense Nodal array centered on the San Jacinto fault zone south of Anza. The focal spot can be obtained from the amplitude distributions at zero lag time. We repeat this analysis using each geophone location as the collapsing point to which the wave length estimate is related. The anisotropic intensity of the converging wavefields leads to distorted focal spots. In addition, strong body and fault zone waves that are associated with the complex fault zone structure prohibit the straightforward analysis of the spatially variable zero-lag time distributions. We discuss strategies to mute the influence of the wavefield anisotropy and the removal of the body and fault zone wave components for improved reconstructions of the symmetric surface wave focal spot. The overall consistency of the local wave speed estimates from the zero crossing and images obtained with more traditional far-field travel time inversions validates the near-field approach. We discuss causes for the remaining inconsistencies and compare limits of the resolution in both cases. At higher frequencies (>3 Hz) both methods reveal a heterogeneous velocity structure that exhibits pronounced low-velocity zones. In addition, near-field based images obtained at wave lengths that are too large for the application of far-field methods suggest a strong velocity contrast across the fault.

  17. Characterization of the KATRIN Focal Plane Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodine, Laura; Leber, Michelle; Myers, Allan; Tolich, Kazumi; Vandevender, Brent; Wall, Brandon

    2008-10-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) Experiment is a next generation tritium beta decay experiment designed to measure directly the electron neutrino mass with a sensitivity of 0.2 eV. In the experiment, electrons from tritium decay of a gaseous source are magnetically guided through analyzing solenoidal retarding electrostatic spectrometers and detected via a focal plane detector. The focal plane detector is a 90mm diameter, 500 micron thick monolithic silicon pin-diode array with 148 pixels. The diode contacts have a titanium nitride overlayer and are connected to preamplifiers via an array of spring-loaded pogo pins. This novel connection scheme minimizes backgrounds from radioactive materials near the detector, facilitates characterization and replacement of the detector wafer, but requires a unique mounting design. The force of the pins strains the silicon, possibly altering the detector properties and performance. Results on the mechanical, thermal and electrical performance of a prototype detector under stress from pogo pin readouts will be presented.

  18. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    PubMed

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  19. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

  20. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

  1. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    PubMed

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  2. Multiple molecular penumbras after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Sharp, F R; Lu, A; Tang, Y; Millhorn, D E

    2000-07-01

    Though the ischemic penumbra has been classically described on the basis of blood flow and physiologic parameters, a variety of ischemic penumbras can be described in molecular terms. Apoptosis-related genes induced after focal ischemia may contribute to cell death in the core and the selective cell death adjacent to an infarct. The HSP70 heat shock protein is induced in glia at the edges of an infarct and in neurons often at some distance from the infarct. HSP70 proteins are induced in cells in response to denatured proteins that occur as a result of temporary energy failure. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is also induced after focal ischemia in regions that can extend beyond the HSP70 induction. The region of HIF induction is proposed to represent the areas of decreased cerebral blood flow and decreased oxygen delivery. Immediate early genes are induced in cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and other brain regions. These distant changes in gene expression occur because of ischemia-induced spreading depression or depolarization and could contribute to plastic changes in brain after stroke. PMID:10908035

  3. Can biologic treatment induce cutaneous focal mucinosis?

    PubMed Central

    Włodarczyk, Marcin; Sobolewska, Aleksandra; Sieniawska, Joanna; Rogowski-Tylman, Michał; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Olejniczak-Staruch, Irmina; Narbutt, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Skin mucinosis is a rare skin disease which clinically manifests as firm papules and waxy nodules. We report a case of a 66-year-old female psoriatic patient who developed skin mucinosis during biological therapy. Because of a previous lack of response to the local and conventional systemic treatment of psoriasis, the patient received biological therapy (infliximab from June 2008 to May 2009 – initial clinical improvement and loss of treatment effectiveness in the 36th week of the therapy; adalimumab from June 2009 to January 2010 – lack effectiveness; ustekinumab from March 2012 to the present). Throughout 2 months we observed a manifestation of the skin mucinosis as well-demarcated, yellow and brown, papulo-nodular lesions of 5–10 mm in diameter, localized on the back. Histopathological examination with alcian blue staining demonstrated mucin deposits in the dermis. On the basis of clinical and histopathological findings, the diagnosis of cutaneous focal mucinosis was established. We present the case because of the extremely rare occurrence of the disease. Scarce literature and data suggest that there is an association between focal mucinosis and thyroid dysfunction, as well as possible adverse effects of biological therapy with TNF-α antagonists. PMID:25610359

  4. TRPM4 Is a Novel Component of the Adhesome Required for Focal Adhesion Disassembly, Migration and Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Cáceres, Mónica; Ortiz, Liliana; Recabarren, Tatiana; Romero, Anibal; Colombo, Alicia; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Varela, Diego; Rivas, José; Silva, Ian; Morales, Diego; Campusano, Camilo; Almarza, Oscar; Simon, Felipe; Toledo, Hector; Park, Kang-Sik; Trimmer, James S.; Cerda, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Cellular migration and contractility are fundamental processes that are regulated by a variety of concerted mechanisms such as cytoskeleton rearrangements, focal adhesion turnover, and Ca2+ oscillations. TRPM4 is a Ca2+-activated non-selective cationic channel (Ca2+-NSCC) that conducts monovalent but not divalent cations. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach to identify putative TRPM4-associated proteins. Interestingly, the largest group of these proteins has actin cytoskeleton-related functions, and among these nine are specifically annotated as focal adhesion-related proteins. Consistent with these results, we found that TRPM4 localizes to focal adhesions in cells from different cellular lineages. We show that suppression of TRPM4 in MEFs impacts turnover of focal adhesions, serum-induced Ca2+ influx, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rac activities, and results in reduced cellular spreading, migration and contractile behavior. Finally, we demonstrate that the inhibition of TRPM4 activity alters cellular contractility in vivo, affecting cutaneous wound healing. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for a TRP channel specifically localized to focal adhesions, where it performs a central role in modulating cellular migration and contractility. PMID:26110647

  5. Focal plane actuation for the development of a high resolution suborbital telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke Miller, Alex; Scowen, Paul A.; Veach, Todd

    2016-01-01

    We present a hexapod stabilized focal plane as the key instrument for a proposed suborbital balloon mission. Balloon gondolas currently achieve 1-2 arcsecond pointing error, but cannot correct for unavoidable jitter movements (~50μm at 20hz) caused by wind rushing over balloon surfaces, thermal variations, cryocoolers, and reaction wheels. The jitter causes image blur during exposures and is the limiting resolution of the system. To solve this, the hexapod system actuates the focal plane to counteract the jitter through real-time closed loop feedback from star-trackers. Removal of this final jitter term decreases pointing error by an order of magnitude and allows for true diffraction-limited observation. This boost in resolution will allow for Hubble-quality imaging for a fraction of the cost. Tip-tilt pointing systems have been used for these purposes in the past, but require additional optics and introduce multiple reflections. The hexapod system, rather, is compact and can be plugged into the focal point of nearly any configuration. The design also thermally isolates the hexapod from the cryogenic focal plane enabling the use of well-established non-cryogenic hexapod technology. High-resolution time domain multispectral imaging of the gas giant outer planets, especially in the UV range, is of particular interest to the planetary community, and a suborbital telescope with the hexapod stabilization in place would provide a wealth of new data. On an Antarctic ~100-day Long-Duration-Balloon mission the continued high-resolution imaging of gas giant storm systems would provide cloud formation and evolution data second to only a Flagship orbiter.

  6. Pupil imaging with a high sensitivity, LWIR focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeVan, Paul D.; Hubbs, John E.; Pratt, Quinn T.

    2014-10-01

    We describe an integrated sensor assembly serving as both a component technology demonstration and a potential means of detecting distant point sources of infrared radiation. The objective of the demonstration was to show that usefully long integration times could be achieved with a low-background and well capacity, LWIR focal plane array optimized for use with cooled optics in space. The system controls extraneous background radiation with a small (150 μm) cooled pinhole that nevertheless transmits all the radiation of a point source collected by the fore-optic. Broad waveband response (~3 to 12 μm) results from optimization of the fore-optic for both MW and LWIR, as well as from a broadband anti-reflection coating on the field lens that is used at the pinhole to reimage the entrance aperture and its surrounding cold stop. Integration times in excess of 10 msec have been achieved for room temperature backgrounds with the FPA cold stage operated at 50 Kelvin, and noise performance has been bracketed with single frames of data collected over several integration times and over several minutes duration. However, anomalous signal behavior has been observed as the temperature of a remote blackbody increases. Although operation to date has been with a lower operability, engineering grade FPA, plans are to eventually upgrade to a higher quality device.

  7. Stress analysis of the space telescope focal plane structure joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, W. A., Jr.; Shoemaker, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Two major efforts were begun concerning the Space Telescope focal plane structure joint. The 3-D solid finite element modeling of the bipod flexure plate was carried out. Conceptual models were developed for the load transfer through the three major bolts to the flexure plate. The flexure plate drawings were reconstructed using DADAM for the purpose of developing a file from which the coordinates of any point on the flexure plate could be determined and also to locate the attachment points of the various components which connect with the flexure plate. For modeling convenience the CADAM drawing of the flexure plate has been divided into several regions which will be subdivided into finite elements using MSGMESH, which is a finite element mesh generator available with MSC/NASTRAN. In addition to the CADAM work on the flexure plate, an effort was also begun to develop computer aided drawings of the peripheral beam which will be used to assist in modeling the connection between it and the flexure plate.

  8. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  9. Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapmeyer, Martin; Weber, Renee C.

    2011-01-01

    A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation. We will examine the extent to which shear (S) and compression (P) wave amplitude ratios can constrain moonquake fault geometry by determining whether, for a given cluster, there exists a focal mechanism that can produce a radiation pattern consistent with the amplitudes measured by the Apollo instruments. Amplitudes are read in the ray coordinate frame, directly from seismograms for which the P and S arrivals are clearly identifiable on all long-period channels of the four Apollo stations. We apply an empirical station correction to account for site effects and the differences between P- and S-wave attenuation. Instead of focusing on the best fitting solution only, we formulate the inverse problem using a falsification criterion: all source orientations that do not reproduce the observed SV/P ratios within an error margin derived from the uncertainty of amplitude readings are rejected. All others are accepted as possible solutions. The inversion is carried out using an exhaustive grid search on a regular grid with predefined step size, encompassing all possible combinations of strike, dip and slip. To assess the

  10. Focal field interactions from cylindrical vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David Paul

    In optical imaging there is always a push to improve image quality or find methods to gain new imaging information. This is apparent in the optical lithography and semiconductor inspection industries, where optical metrology and imaging systems are using larger numerical aperture systems and finding new imaging methods, such as immersion imaging, to shrink focal fields. At high numerical apertures, scalar diffraction theories break down and polarization effects play a large role in focal field interactions. With this interest in polarization, new models for local polarization effects are needed. Along with new models, cylindrically-symmetric polarized beams known as cylindrical vector (CV) beams, can provide new methods of imaging in this high NA regime. In this thesis, we examine the modeling of radially and azimuthally polarized beams focused at high numerical aperture in the presence of a planar interface. These focal fields are also modeled with primary spherical, coma, and astigmatism wavefront aberrations in the entrance pupil of the focusing system. Particular attention is given to the longitudinal field component generated by the focused radial beam, and the correlation between the magnetic and electric fields of radial and azimuthal beams. A scanning edge test using linearly polarized beams is modeled using a rigorous coupled wave (RCW) method and is compared to experimental data. The ability of the scanning edge test to predict spot asymmetry is investigated though the comparison of the RCW scanning edge model with free space vector diffraction theories. This RCW model is extended to include CV beam illumination and mode filtering of the system's exit pupil fields. This extension provides a model to accurately predict the performance of a dark-field imaging modality using radially and azimuthally polarized beams. Predictions from this model are compared to experimental results with attention given to defocus effects and the ability to accurately measure

  11. Evolution of the concept of focal therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsivian, Matvey; Abern, Michael R; Polascik, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    The landscape of prostate cancer has been rapidly evolving, and technological advances in imaging and biopsy tools offer novel approaches to focal therapy. In this dynamic environment, the role of focal therapy for prostate cancer is being shaped both by advances in technology and by reconsidering the epidemiological and outcomes data for available treatments. Here we focus on the evolution of the concept of focal therapy and its potential roles in the management of prostate cancer.

  12. Phase-Scrambler Plate Spreads Point Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Oliver J.; Arild, Tor

    1992-01-01

    Array of small prisms retrofit to imaging lens. Phase-scrambler plate essentially planar array of small prisms partitioning aperture of lens into many subapertures, and prism at each subaperture designed to divert relatively large diffraction spot formed by that subaperture to different, specific point on focal plane.

  13. In vivo evidence of global and focal brain alterations in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Boghi, Andrea; Sterpone, Sara; Sales, Stefano; D'Agata, Federico; Bradac, Gianni Boris; Zullo, Giuseppina; Munno, Donato

    2011-06-30

    Brain alterations are known to be associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) and tend to be distributed across brain structures, with only a few reports describing focal damage. Magnetic resonance images of 21 anorexic patients with different disease duration and 27 control subjects were acquired and compared using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Patients had a significant reduction of total white matter (WM) volume and focal gray matter (GM) atrophy in cerebellum, hypothalamus, caudate nucleus and frontal, parietal and temporal areas. The cerebellum was more affected in patients with longer disease duration, whereas the hypothalamic alterations were more pronounced in patients with shorter food restriction. A correlation with body mass index (BMI) and GM was found in the hypothalamus. Our data demonstrate a diffuse reduction of WM together with focal areas of GM atrophy in AN. The finding of a hypothalamic focal atrophy points to hormonal dysfunction and opens the possibility for a central dysregulation of homeostasis. The involvement of temporoparietal areas could account for body image distortion. Finally, the cerebellar GM atrophy confirms previous findings and seems to be a late consequence of AN that could play a role in the chronic phase of the disease.

  14. Botulinum toxin physiology in focal hand and cranial dystonia.

    PubMed

    Karp, Barbara Illowsky

    2012-11-20

    The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  15. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    PubMed

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  16. Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon [refs]. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology [ref]. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation.

  17. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  18. Focal epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Morency, R; Laliberte, H; Delamarre, R

    1982-02-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) of the oral mucosa has been reported mainly among American Indians, Eskimos, and south Africans. Our investigation is the first among Canadian Indians and combines an epidemiological study of FEH in a Cree Indian population living in Fort Georges. P.Q., and a description of its histologic and ultrastructural features. The sample consists of 150 individuals divided into six age groups. The prevalence rate for all groups is 18.6%. Clinically the lesions are nodular, sessile, and tend to merge with the adjoining mucosa upon stretching. Histologically the hyperplasia is limited to the epithelium. E.M. shows papova-virus-like particles. Otolaryngologists' awareness of this lesion could possibly lead to its recognition on a larger scale.

  19. Focal cerebral lesions and painting abilities.

    PubMed

    Mazzucchi, Anna; Sinforiani, Elena; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    Focal lesions such as strokes significantly affect painting production in the vast majority of artists. In particular, painters, when they resume painting, show changes in their painting style. In exceptional cases, there may be an apparent improvement in style, but in most cases, the changes represent nothing short of deterioration. This, however, varies according to the hemisphere affected. Painters with left-hemisphere lesions tend to show an inability to deal adequately with perspective and also tend to use simplified colors with fewer nuances. One often witnesses an evolution toward simpler, often "naïve" techniques, and at times rigid geometric repetitive features. Painters with right-hemisphere lesions also become unable to represent tridimensionality. In addition, their figures are often drawn in very summary fashion, with lack of coordination between volumes and space and a chromatic impoverishment; their main problem, however, is visuospatial, leading to neglect of the left side of the canvas.

  20. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia of mandible.

    PubMed

    Cankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Olgac, Vakur; Firat, Deniz Refia

    2012-09-03

    Fibro-osseous lesions are disturbances in bone metabolism in which normal bone is replaced by a connective tissue matrix that then gradually develops into cemento-osseous tissue. Typically, the lesion is asymptomatic and is detected on routine radiographic examination. Radiologically, this lesion has three stages of maturation: pure radiolucent, radiopaque/mixed radiolucent, and radiopaque appearance. During these stages the lesion can be misdiagnosed. In this case report a 69-year- old patient with a a complaint of painless swelling of the left mandibular molar and premolar area is presented along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  1. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  2. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  3. Focal plane actuation to achieve ultra-high resolution on suborbital balloon payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Miller, Alex; Challa, Priya; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Chris; Mauskopf, Phil

    2014-07-01

    Over the past few years there has been remarkable success flying imaging telescope systems suspended from suborbital balloon payload systems. These imaging systems have covered optical, ultraviolet, sub-­-millimeter and infrared passbands (i.e. BLAST, STO, SBI, Fireball and others). In recognition of these advances NASA is now considering ambitious programs to promote planetary imaging from high altitude at a fraction of the cost of similar fully orbital systems. The challenge with imaging from a balloon payload is delivering the full diffraction-­-limited resolution of the system from a moving payload. Good progress has been made with damping mechanisms and oscillation control to remove most macroscopic movement in the departures of the imaging focal plane from a static configuration, however a jitter component remains that is difficult to remove using external corrections. This paper reports on work to demonstrate in the laboratory the utility and performance of actuating a detector focal plane (of whatever type) to remove the final jitter terms using an agile hexapod design. The input to this demonstration is the jitter signal generated by the pointing system of a previously flown balloon mission (the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, STO). Our group has a mature jitter compensation system that thermally isolates the control head from the focal plane itself. This allows the hexapod to remain at ambient temperature in a vacuum environment with the focal plane cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Our lab design mounts the focal plane on the hexapod in a custom cryostat and delivers an active optical stimulus together with the corresponding jitter signal, using the actuation of the hexapod to correct for the departures from a static, stable configuration. We believe this demonstration will make the case for inclusion of this technological solution in future balloon-­-borne imaging systems requiring ultra-­-high resolution.

  4. Focal mechanism and depth of the 1956 Amorgos twin earthquakes from waveform matching of analogue seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüstle, A.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.; Gross, C.

    2013-11-01

    Historic analogue seismograms of the large 1956 Amorgos twin earthquakes which occurred in the volcanic arc of the Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) were collected, digitized and reanalyzed to obtain refined estimates of their depth and focal mechanism. In total, 80 records of the events from 29 European stations were collected and, if possible, digitized. In addition, bulletins were searched for instrument parameters required to calculate transfer functions for instrument correction. A grid search based on matching the digitized historic waveforms to complete synthetic seismograms was then carried out to infer optimal estimates for depth and focal mechanism. Owing to incomplete or unreliable information on instrument parameters and frequently occurring technical problems during recording such as writing needles jumping off mechanical recording systems, much less seismograms than collected proved suitable for waveform matching. For the first earthquake, only 7 seismograms from three different stations (STU, GTT, COP) could be used. Nevertheless, the grid search produces stable optimal values for both source depth and focal mechanism. Our results indicate a shallow hypocenter at about 25 km depth. The best-fitting focal mechanism is a SW-NE-trending normal fault dipping either by 30° towards SE or 60° towards NW. This finding is consistent with the local structure of the Santorini-Amorgos graben. For the second earthquake, 4 seismograms from three different stations (JEN, GTT, COP) proved suitable for waveform matching. Whereas it was impossible to obtain meaningful results for the focal mechanism owing to surface wave coda of the first event overlapping body wave phases of the second event, waveform matching and time-frequency analysis point to a considerably deeper hypocenter located within the Wadati-Benioff-zone of the subducting African plate at about 120-160 km depth.

  5. Compact reconnaissance imaging spectrometer for Mars (CRISM): characterization results for instrument and focal plane subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverglate, Peter R.; Heffernan, Kevin J.; Bedini, Peter D.; Boldt, John D.; Cavender, Peter J.; Choo, Tech H.; Darlington, Edward H.; Donald, Erik T.; Fasold, Melissa J.; Fort, Dennis E.; Gurnee, Reid S.; Hayes, Allen T.; Hayes, John R.; Hemler, James B.; Humm, David C.; Izenberg, Noam R.; Lee, Robert E.; Lees, William J.; Lohr, David A.; Murchie, Scott L.; Murphy, Graham A.; Reiter, Ralph A.; Rossano, Edigio; Seagrave, Gordon G.; Schaefer, Edward D.; Strohbehn, Kim; Taylor, Howard W.; Thompson, Patrick L.; Tossman, Barry E.; Wilson, Paul, IV; Robinson, Mark S.; Green, Robert; Mitchell, Steven E.

    2004-10-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) will launch in 2005 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, with its primary science objective to characterize sites with aqueous mineral deposits hyperspectrally at high spatial resolution. CRISM"s two Offner relay spectrometers share a single entrance slit with a dichroic beamsplitter. The IR focal plane contains a 640 (spatial) x 480 (spectral) HgCdTe FPA with a 980 nm to 3960 nm spectral bandpass. It is cooled to 110 K to minimize dark current, and coupled to a 28 mm long cold shield to minimize thermal background. The spectrometer housing is cooled to -90 C for the same reason. A three-zone IR filter consisting of two broadband filters and a linear variable filter overlays the IR focal plane, eliminating multiple grating orders and providing additional attenuation of the thermal background. The visible focal plane contains a 640 (spatial) x 480 (spectral) silicon photodiode array, with a 380-1050 nm spectral bandpass occupying approximately 106 rows of the detector. A two-zone filter comprised of two different Schott glasses eliminates multiple grating orders. The two focal planes together cover 544 spectral channels with a dispersion of 6.55 nm/channel in the VNIR and 6.63 nm/channel in the IR. The optics and focal planes are gimbaled, and a pre-programmed slew can be used to remove groundtrack motion while superimposing a scan across a target. CRISM will operate in two basic modes: a scanning, high resolution mode to hyperspectrally map small, targeted areas of high scientific interest, and a fixed, nadir-pointed, lower resolution pixel-binned mode using selected wavelength channels to obtain near-global coverage to find targets. Preliminary performance of the CRISM instrument is presented, and is compared with prior system design predictions.

  6. A novel autocollimating method for measuring the focal distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Alexandr G.

    2015-06-01

    A novel autocollimating method for measuring the focal distances is presented. It may be used for measuring the focal distances of lenses and single optical elements in the visible, infrared and ultraviolet range. The relative uncertainty of this method is about 0.1%. The limited uncertainty is over 0.03%.

  7. Differences between diffuse and focal autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Taku; Kamisawa, Terumi; Takuma, Kensuke; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Inaba, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate differences in clinical features between diffuse- and focal-type autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). METHODS: Based on radiological findings by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, we divided 67 AIP patients into diffuse type (D type) and focal type (F type). We further divided F type into head type (H type) and body and/or tail type (B/T type) according to the location of enlargement. Finally, we classified the 67 AIP patients into three groups: D type, H type and B/T type. We compared the three types of AIP in terms of clinical, laboratory, radiological, functional and histological findings and clinical course. RESULTS: There were 34 patients with D-type, 19 with H-type and 14 with B/T-type AIP. Although obstructive jaundice was frequently detected in D-type patients (88%) and H-type patients (68%), no B/T-type patients showed jaundice as an initial symptom (P < 0.001). There were no differences in frequency of abdominal pain, but acute pancreatitis was associated more frequently in B/T-type patients (36%) than in D-type patients (3%) (P = 0.017). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG)4 levels were significantly higher in D-type patients (median 309 mg/dL) than in B/T-type patients (133.5 mg/dL) (P = 0.042). Serum amylase levels in B/T-type patients (median: 114 IU/L) were significantly greater than in H-type patients (72 IU/L) (P = 0.049). Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) was histologically confirmed in 6 D-type, 7 H-type and 4 B/T-type patients; idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis was observed in no patients. Marked fibrosis and abundant infiltration of CD20-positive B lymphocytes with few IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected in 2 B/T-type patients. Steroid therapy was effective in all 50 patients (31 D type, 13 H type and 6 B/T type). Although AIP relapsed during tapering or after stopping steroids in 3 D-type and 3 H-type patients, no patients relapsed in B/T type. During follow-up, radiological features of 6 B

  8. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    PubMed

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  9. Mutations of DEPDC5 cause autosomal dominant focal epilepsies

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Saeko; Picard, Fabienne; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Noé, Eric; Achaz, Guillaume; Thomas, Pierre; Genton, Pierre; Mundwiller, Emeline; Wolff, Markus; Marescaux, Christian; Miles, Richard; Baulac, Michel; Hirsch, Edouard; Leguern, Eric; Baulac, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    The main familial focal epilepsies of childhood are autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, familial temporal lobe epilepsy and familial focal epilepsy with variable foci. A frameshift mutation in the DEPDC5 (DEP domain containing protein 5) gene was identified in a family with focal epilepsy with variable foci, by linkage analysis and exome sequencing. Subsequent pyrosequencing of DEPDC5 in a cohort of 15 additional families with focal epilepsies revealed four nonsense and one missense mutations. Our findings provided evidence for frequent (37%) loss-of-function mutations in DEPDC5 associated with a broad spectrum of focal epilepsies. The implication of a DEP domain (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin domain)-containing protein that may be involved in membrane trafficking and/or G-protein signaling, opens new avenues for research. PMID:23542701

  10. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G; Lupini, Andrew R; Kubel, Christian; Slusallek, Phillip; De Jonge, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  11. Microtubules Regulate Focal Adhesion Dynamics through MAP4K4

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jiping; Xie, Min; Gou, Xuewen; Lee, Philbert; Schneider, Michael D; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-01-01

    Disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs) allows cell retraction and integrin detachment from the ECM, processes critical for cell movement. Growth of MT (microtubule) can promote FA turnover by serving as tracks to deliver proteins essential for FA disassembly. The molecular nature of this FA “disassembly factor”, however, remains elusive. By quantitative proteomics, we identified MAP4K4 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4) as a FA regulator that associates with MTs. Conditional knockout (cKO) of MAP4K4 in skin stabilizes FAs and impairs epidermal migration. By exploring underlying mechanisms, we further show that MAP4K4 associates with EB2, a MT binding protein, and IQSEC1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) specific for Arf6, whose activation promotes integrin internalization. Together, our findings provide critical insights into FA disassembly, suggesting that MTs can deliver MAP4K4 toward FAs through EB2, where MAP4K4 can in turn activate Arf6 via IQSEC1 and enhance FA dissolution. PMID:25490267

  12. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages.

  13. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages. PMID:25048948

  14. Practical Application of Columbia Classification for Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Man-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a heterogeneous clinicopathological entity. Two frameworks for the classification of FSGS have been described: etiologic and morphologic. The etiologic classification is distinguished among genetic, adaptive, virus-associated, drug-induced, and idiopathic types. Morphologic classification is commonly referred to as the Columbia classification published in 2004, which distinguishes five variants: collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar, and not otherwise specified (NOS). This classification is based on light microscopic patterns with rigorously defined specific criteria, which can be applied to primary and secondary forms of FSGS, and has been widely used over the past 10 years both as a diagnostic and as a prognostic clinical tool. This paper defines common histopathological features of FSGS, distinguished characters among five variants, and points out the confusion about terminology of variants, because most were proposed in the past with different definitions. Despite good interobserver reproducibility of this classification system, difficulty in its application may arise in the interpretation of lesions with mixed features of more than one variant in the same tissue specimen and with late lesions, because other variants may evolve into the NOS variant over time. PMID:27247945

  15. Tohoku University Focal Plane Array Controller (TUFPAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Matsumoto, Daigo; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Katsuno, Yuka; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Asai, Ken'ichiro; Nishimura, Tetsuo

    2003-03-01

    TUFPAC (Tohoku University Focal Plane Array Controller) is an array control system originally designed for flexible control and efficient data acquisition of 2048 x 2048 HgCdTe (HAWAII-2) array. A personal computer operated by Linux OS controls mosaic HAWAII-2s with commercially available DSP boards installed on the PCI bus. Triggered by PC, DSP sends clock data to front-end electronics, which is isolated from the DSP board by photo-couplers. Front-end electronics supply powers, biases and clock signals to HAWAII2. Pixel data are read from four outputs of each HAWAII2 simultaneously by way of four channel preamps and ADCs. Pixel data converted to 16 bit digital data are stored in the frame memory on the DSP board. Data are processed in the memory when necessary. PC receives the frame data and stores it in the hard disk of PC in FITS format. A set of the DSP board and front-end electronics is responsible for controlling each HAWAII-2. One PC can operate eight mosaic arrays at most. TUFPAC is applicable to the control of CCDs with minor changes of front-end electronics.

  16. Focal Atrial Tachycardia Surrounding the Anterior Septum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zulu; Ouyang, Jinge; Liang, Yanchun; Jin, Zhiqing; Yang, Guitang; Liang, Ming; Li, Shibei; Yu, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background— Focal atrial tachycardias (ATs) surrounding the anterior atrial septum (AAS) have been successfully ablated from the right atrial septum (RAS), the aortic cusps, and the aortic mitral junction. However, the strategy for mapping and ablation of AAS-ATs has not been well defined. Methods and Results— Of 227 consecutive patients with AT, 47 (20.7%; mean age, 56.3±11.6 years) with AAS-ATs were studied; among them, initial ablation was successful at RAS in only 5 of 14 patients and at noncoronary cusp (NCC) in 28 of 33 patients. In 45 of the 47 patients, the 46 of 48 AAS-ATs were eliminated at RAS in 8 patients, NCC in 35 patients (earliest activation time at NCC was later than that at RAS by 5–10 ms in 6 patients), and aortic mitral junction in 3 patients (all with negative P wave in lead aVL and positive P wave in the inferior leads), including 1 patient whose 2 ATs were eliminated separately from the NCC and the aortic mitral junction. Conclusions— Most of the ATs surrounding the AAS can be eliminated from within the NCC, which is usually the preferential ablation site. Ablation at the RAS and aortic mitral junction should be considered when supported by P-wave morphologies on surface ECG and results of activation mapping and ablation. PMID:25908691

  17. Mosaic near-infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Itoh, Nobunari; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Asai, Kenichirou; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kimata, Masafumi

    1998-08-01

    To built a 3K X 3K pixel near-IR FPA, we have made a package and a multi-chip module for Mitsubishi 1040 X 1040 PtSi CSD, which is one of the largest SWIR FPAs. Mosaicing demands smallest gaps between chips to achieve a large fill-factor and controlled flatness to fit a camera focal plane. The package of 52-pin half-pitch PGA has been designed to be smaller than the bear chip. After the chip is glued on the package and wire-bonded, nine packages with the chip are arrayed in three by three on a multi chip module (MCM) of 6 cm X 6 cm area. The fill-factor of the imaging area is 89 percent. The package and MCM are made of AlN ceramic of high thermal conductivity. MCM, therefore, plays a role of an efficient heat sink. The surface of the package, with which the chip is in contact, has been polished with accurate flatness as well as MCM. As the result, the height of nine chips built on MCM are uniform within approximately 20 micrometers in 6 cm X 6 cm area. The mosaic array will be equipped in a near-IR camera for astronomical observations of a wide field view.

  18. Dynamic MEG imaging of focal neuronal sources

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.W.; Leahy R.M.; Mosher, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    We describe inverse methods for using the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) to image neural current sources associated with functional activation in the cerebral cortex. A Bayesian formulation is presented that is based on a Gibbs prior which reflects the sparse, focal nature of neural activation. The model includes a dynamic component so that we can utilize the full spatio-temporal data record to reconstruct a sequence of images reflecting changes in the current source amplitudes during activation. The model consists of the product of a binary field, representing the areas of activation in the cerebral cortex, and a time series at each site which represents the dynamic changes in the source amplitudes at the active sites. Our estimation methods are based on the optimization of three different functions of the posterior density. Each of these methods requires the estimation of a binary field which we compute using a mean field annealing method. We demonstrate and compare our methods in application to computer generated and experimental phantom data.

  19. Integrin Molecular Tension within Motile Focal Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Sun, Jie; Xu, Qian; Chowdhury, Farhan; Roein-Peikar, Mehdi; Wang, Yingxiao; Ha, Taekjip

    2015-12-01

    Forces transmitted by integrins regulate many important cellular functions. Previously, we developed tension gauge tether (TGT) as a molecular force sensor and determined the threshold tension across a single integrin-ligand bond, termed integrin tension, required for initial cell adhesion. Here, we used fluorescently labeled TGTs to study the magnitude and spatial distribution of integrin tension on the cell-substratum interface. We observed two distinct levels of integrin tension. A >54 pN molecular tension is transmitted by clustered integrins in motile focal adhesions (FAs) and such force is generated by actomyosin, whereas the previously reported ∼40 pN integrin tension is transmitted by integrins before FA formation and is independent of actomyosin. We then studied FA motility using a TGT-coated surface as a fluorescent canvas, which records the history of integrin force activity. Our data suggest that the region of the strongest integrin force overlaps with the center of a motile FA within 0.2 μm resolution. We also found that FAs move in pairs and that the asymmetry in the motility of an FA pair is dependent on the initial FA locations on the cell-substratum interface.

  20. Terahertz detectors and focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.; Sizov, F.

    2011-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is one of emerging technologies that will change our life. A lot of attractive applications in security, medicine, biology, astronomy, and non-destructive materials testing have been demonstrated already. However, the realization of THz emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. As a result, THz radiation is resistant to the techniques commonly employed in these well established neighbouring bands. In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of THz radiation detectors and focal plane arrays are discussed. Historical impressive progress in THz detector sensitivity in a period of more than half century is analyzed. More attention is put on the basic physical phenomena and the recent progress in both direct and heterodyne detectors. After short description of general classification of THz detectors, more details concern Schottky barrier diodes, pair braking detectors, hot electron mixers and field-effect transistor detectors, where links between THz devices and modern technologies such as micromachining are underlined. Also, the operational conditions of THz detectors and their upper performance limits are reviewed. Finally, recent advances in novel nanoelectronic materials and technologies are described. It is expected that applications of nanoscale materials and devices will open the door for further performance improvement in THz detectors.

  1. Acquired agraphia caused by focal brain damage.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S W; Saver, J; Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1993-03-01

    Motor and linguistic aspects of writing were evaluated in 31 subjects with focal damage in 1 of 3 regions of the left hemisphere: (1) dorsolateral frontal lobe sparing primary motor cortex (group FL), (2) parietal lobe (group PL), or (3) temporal lobe (group TL). A standard procedure was used to evaluate writing for grapheme formation, spatial arrangement, spelling, word selection, grammar, and perseveration. It was predicted that agraphia would be observed in all 3 groups, and that the most severe impairments would be associated with frontal lobe damage, particularly in aspects of writing dependent on sequencing (grapheme formation, spelling, and grammar). It was found that agraphia was common in all groups, particularly in the acute epoch, and that all groups showed considerable recovery of writing by the chronic epoch. Few differences were found between groups. However, the FL group was impaired on spelling and grammar relative to the PL group in the acute epoch and impaired on grammar relative to the TL group in the chronic epoch. The findings are consistent with the notion that writing relies on a distributed neuroanatomical network, which acts in concert to link fragments of visuomotor activity with component linguistic elements.

  2. Antenna-coupled infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Francisco Javier

    In this dissertation a new type of infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) was investigated, consisting of antenna-coupled microbolometers fabricated using electron-beam lithography. Four different antenna designs were experimentally demonstrated at 10-micron wavelength: dipole, bowtie, square-spiral, and log-periodic. The main differences between these antenna types were their bandwidth, collection area, angular reception pattern, and polarization. To provide pixel collection areas commensurate with typical IR FPA requirements, two configurations were investigated: a two-dimensional serpentine interconnection of individual IR antennas, and a Fresnel-zone-plate (FZP) coupled to a single-element antenna. Optimum spacing conditions for the two-dimensional interconnect were developed. Increased sensitivity was demonstrated using a FZP-coupled design. In general, it was found that the configuration of the antenna substrate material was critical for optimization of sensitivity. The best results were obtained using thin membranes of silicon nitride to enhance the thermal isolation of the antenna-coupled bolometers. In addition, choice of the bolometer material was also important, with the best results obtained using vanadium oxide. Using optimum choices for all parameters, normalized sensitivity (D*) values in the range of mid 108 [cm Hz /W] were demonstrated for antenna-coupled IR sensors, and directions for further improvements were identified. Successful integration of antenna-coupled pixels with commercial readout integrated circuits was also demonstrated.

  3. Digital-pixel focal plane array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew G.; Baker, Justin; Colonero, Curtis; Costa, Joe; Gardner, Tom; Kelly, Mike; Schultz, Ken; Tyrrell, Brian; Wey, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been developing Digital-pixel Focal Plane Array (DFPA) readout integrated circuits (ROICs). To date, four 256 × 256 30 μm pitch DFPA designs with in-pixel analog to digital conversion have been fabricated using IBM 90 nm CMOS processes. The DFPA ROICs are compatible with a wide range of detector materials and cutoff wavelengths; HgCdTe, QWIP, and InGaAs photo-detectors with cutoff wavelengths ranging from 1.6 to 14.5 μm have been hybridized to the same digital-pixel readout. The digital-pixel readout architecture offers high dynamic range, A/C or D/C coupled integration, and on-chip image processing with low power orthogonal transfer operations. The newest ROIC designs support two-color operation with a single Indium bump connection. Development and characterization of the two-color DFPA designs is presented along with applications for this new digital readout technology.

  4. Multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiwavelength focal plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y<1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

  5. A case of oral focal mucinosis of gingiva: Lesion in disguise

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Chaitanya Pradeep; Dani, Nitin Hemchandra; Mahale, Swapna Arunkumar; Patel, Nikita Rajendrakumar

    2015-01-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is a rare soft tissue lesion of unknown aetiology. Clinically, it is most commonly found on the gingiva and presents as a painless, sessile or pedunculated mass. Histologically, it is characterized by focal myxoid degeneration of underlying connective tissue. Fifty-three-year-old patient reported with a painless, firm and fibrous gingival overgrowth present from 7 to 8 months. Clinical examination and patient's history pointed towards “irritation fibroma”. An excisional biopsy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was established as OFM, an uncommon and poorly characterized type of lesion. This case report stresses on the fact that prediagnosis of OFM is almost impossible. Thus though rare, OFM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue overgrowths in oral cavity. PMID:26644729

  6. A case of oral focal mucinosis of gingiva: Lesion in disguise.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Chaitanya Pradeep; Dani, Nitin Hemchandra; Mahale, Swapna Arunkumar; Patel, Nikita Rajendrakumar

    2015-01-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is a rare soft tissue lesion of unknown aetiology. Clinically, it is most commonly found on the gingiva and presents as a painless, sessile or pedunculated mass. Histologically, it is characterized by focal myxoid degeneration of underlying connective tissue. Fifty-three-year-old patient reported with a painless, firm and fibrous gingival overgrowth present from 7 to 8 months. Clinical examination and patient's history pointed towards "irritation fibroma". An excisional biopsy was performed. The histopathologic diagnosis was established as OFM, an uncommon and poorly characterized type of lesion. This case report stresses on the fact that prediagnosis of OFM is almost impossible. Thus though rare, OFM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue overgrowths in oral cavity. PMID:26644729

  7. Tipping Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.

    2007-12-01

    A climate tipping point, at least as I have used the phrase, refers to a situation in which a changing climate forcing has reached a point such that little additional forcing (or global temperature change) is needed to cause large, relatively rapid, climate change. Present examples include potential loss of all Arctic sea ice and instability of the West Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Tipping points are characterized by ready feedbacks that amplify the effect of forcings. The notion that these may be runaway feedbacks is a misconception. However, present "unrealized" global warming, due to the climate system's thermal inertia, exacerbates the difficulty of avoiding global warming tipping points. I argue that prompt efforts to slow CO2 emissions and absolutely reduce non-CO2 forcings are both essential if we are to avoid tipping points that would be disastrous for humanity and creation, the planet as civilization knows it.

  8. The dispersion-focalization theory of sound systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Abry, Christian; Boë, Louis-Jean; Vallée, Nathalie; Ménard, Lucie

    2005-04-01

    The Dispersion-Focalization Theory states that sound systems in human languages are shaped by two major perceptual constraints: dispersion driving auditory contrast towards maximal or sufficient values [B. Lindblom, J. Phonetics 18, 135-152 (1990)] and focalization driving auditory spectra towards patterns with close neighboring formants. Dispersion is computed from the sum of the inverse squared inter-spectra distances in the (F1, F2, F3, F4) space, using a non-linear process based on the 3.5 Bark critical distance to estimate F2'. Focalization is based on the idea that close neighboring formants produce vowel spectra with marked peaks, easier to process and memorize in the auditory system. Evidence for increased stability of focal vowels in short-term memory was provided in a discrimination experiment on adult French subjects [J. L. Schwartz and P. Escudier, Speech Comm. 8, 235-259 (1989)]. A reanalysis of infant discrimination data shows that focalization could well be the responsible for recurrent discrimination asymmetries [J. L. Schwartz et al., Speech Comm. (in press)]. Recent data about children vowel production indicate that focalization seems to be part of the perceptual templates driving speech development. The Dispersion-Focalization Theory produces valid predictions for both vowel and consonant systems, in relation with available databases of human languages inventories.

  9. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    PubMed

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  10. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images

    PubMed Central

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject’s facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  11. Tipping Point

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash format. Almost weekly, we see ...

  12. Far-Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.; Sivananthan, S.; Zhou, Y. D.

    The development of focal plane arrays has dramatically increased the sensitivity and efficiency of optical and infrared telescopes. The versatility of HgCdTe alloy technology has been demonstrated by detector arrays with cutoff wavelengths tailored between λc = 1-10 μm. Although the cutoff wavelength can theoretically be extended to infinity (zero gap) by increasing the HgTe mole fraction, the required accuracy of the alloy composition is difficult to achieve with conventional liquid-phase-epitaxy (LPE). The more recent technique of molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE), on the other hand, provides the necessary precision, and detector arrays appear feasible out to λc = 100 μm. Although the alloy approach should work, an alternate device structure may prove superior. Rather than alloying HgTe and CdTe, one can deposit alternating layers of the two materials in a composite structure called a superlattice (SL). Because layer thickness (rather than alloy composition) determines the cutoff wavelength in a SL, this approach should prove easier for fabricating an Eg = 0.01 eV semiconductor. Photodiodes made from SL material should also have lower tunneling currents, which are the dominant source of noise in low gap devices. This talk will describe a NASA-funded project to develop HgCdTe detectors for FIR wavelengths. Work is now in progress on the fabrication of discrete detectors, with emphasis on the superlattice approach. Within 3 years we hope to have a 32 x 32 element array for λ = 50-60 μm. The ultimate goal is a 128 x 128 element array for λ = 50-100 μm that could be used on a SOFIA instrument.

  13. Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2011-10-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A/cm2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated.

  14. Microlenses with focal length controlled by chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muric, B. D.; Panic, B. M.

    2012-05-01

    The influence of chemical processing on the optical properties of microlenses formed on a gelatin-sensitized layer was investigated. The gelatin is sensitized with tot'hema and eosin, irradiated with a Gaussian profile laser beam and subsequently chemically processed. Microlenses with a focal length of 400 μm were obtained after alcohol processing. Additionally, focal lengths could be controlled by varying the alum concentration, and lenses with focal length up to 1.2 mm were obtained. The microlenses become stable after alum processing. Their optical properties remain unchanged.

  15. Scanning Characteristics of Metamirror Antennas With Subwavelength Focal Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcvetkova, Svetlana N.; Asadchy, Viktar S.; Tretyakov, Sergei A.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate beam scanning by lateral feed displacement in novel metasurface based reflector antennas with extremely short focal distances. Electric field distributions of the waves reflected from the antenna are studied numerically and experimentally for defocusing angles up to 24 degrees. The results show that despite extremely small focal distances, the scanning ability of metamirrors is similar to that of comparable reflectarrays. In addition to offering a possibility to realize extremely small focal distances, metamirror antennas are practically penetrable and invisible for any radiation outside of the operating frequency range.

  16. Thermal analysis of the DES camera focal plate.

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.; High Energy Physics

    2008-02-13

    A design specification for the DES Camera focal plate is to keep the deformation of the plate to less than 30 microns under operating conditions. Figure 1 shows the assembly of the focal plate, the support bipods and support ring, and the copper braid assemblies. Several studies were done to examine the deformation of the focal plate under different thermal and structural constraints. Simple hand calculations were also performed as a check of the finite element model and results. The main goal of this analysis was to determine the deformation of the plate and to understand what thermal and structural conditions are causing the deformation.

  17. Intermediate filaments and the regulation of focal adhesion.

    PubMed

    Leube, Rudolf E; Moch, Marcin; Windoffer, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Focal adhesions are localized actin filament-anchoring signalling centres at the cell-extracellular matrix interface. The currently emerging view is that they fulfil an all-embracing coordinating function for the entire cytoskeleton. This review highlights the tight relationship between focal adhesions and the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. We summarize the accumulating evidence for direct binding of intermediate filaments to focal adhesion components and their mutual cross-talk through signalling molecules. Examples are presented to emphasize the high degree of complexity of these interactions equipping cells with a precisely controlled machinery for context-dependent adjustment of their biomechanical properties.

  18. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia: review and a case report.

    PubMed

    Salem, Y M Y; Osman, Y I; Norval, E J G

    2010-10-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous condition that can be seen in dentate and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however follow-up is essential due to the possibility that focal cemento-osseous dysplasia can progress to a condition called florid osseous dysplasia that involves multiple sites. A case report is presented here, along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  19. A practical approach to management of focal hand dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia can be focal, segmental, multifocal, generalized, or hemidystonia. Focal dystonia is localized to a specific part of the body. Overall upper limb is more commonly involved in focal dystonia than lower limb and since it starts from hand, focal hand dystonia (FHD) is a more accepted terminology. Writer's cramp and musician dystonia are commonest types of FHD. Typically this dystonia is task specific, but in some patients this specificity may be lost over a period of time. Segmental or generalized dystonia may also start as FHD, so a detailed clinical assessment is required, which should be supplemented by relevant investigations. Treatment includes oral medications, injection botulinum toxin, neurosurgery including neurostimulation, and rehabilitation. Role of injection botulinum toxin has been extensively studied in writer's cramp patients and found to be effective; however, selection of muscles and techniques of injection are crucial in getting best results. PMID:26019409

  20. Real-time focal stack compositing for handheld mobile cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solh, Mashhour

    2013-03-01

    Extending the depth of field using a single lens camera on a mobile device can be achieved by capturing a set of images each focused at a different depth or focal stack then combine these samples of the focal stack to form a single all-in-focus image or an image refocused at a desired depth of field. Focal stack compositing in real time for a handheld mobile camera has many challenges including capturing, processing power, handshaking, rolling shutter artifacts, occlusion, and lens zoom effect. In this paper, we describe a system for a real time focal stack compositing system for handheld mobile device with an alignment and compositing algorithms. We will also show all-in-focus images captured and processed by a cell phone camera running on Android OS.

  1. Focal Therapy of Prostate Cancer Using Irreversible Electroporation.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Massimo; Ahmed, Hashim U; Emberton, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Focal therapy is a novel strategy that attempts to enhance the therapeutic ratio of standard radical treatment in prostate cancer. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has some inherent characteristics that may be ideal for focal therapy. Precise confined ablation in the treatment area obtained via nonthermal damage with potential for minimal toxicity to surrounding structures may lead to optimal treatment with improved preservation of continence and erectile function. Initial data of focal IRE of the prostate are encouraging although further assessment is awaited to confirm these findings using robust methodology. In this article, we provide a comprehensive step-by-step description of our technique to deliver focal IRE in selected men with localized prostate cancer located in a discrete area of the prostate.

  2. "Focal" Color Areas and the Development of Color Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heider, Eleanor Rosch

    1971-01-01

    Three experiments using 3- and 4-year-olds as subjects tested the hypothesis that focal colors are more salient than nonfocal colors for young children and are the areas to which color names initially become attached. (NH)

  3. Creation of identical multiple focal spots with prescribed axial distribution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for the construction of coaxially equidistant multiple focal spots with identical intensity profiles for each individual focus and a predetermined number and spacing. To achieve this, the radiation field from an antenna is reversed and then gathered by high numerical aperture objective lenses. Radiation patterns from three types of line sources, i.e., the electric current, magnetic current and electromagnetic current distributions, with cosine-squared taper are respectively employed to generate predominately longitudinally polarized bright spots, azimuthally polarized doughnuts, and focal spots with a perfect spherically symmetric intensity distribution. The required illuminations at the pupil plane of a 4Pi focusing configuration for the creation of these identical multiple focal spots can be easily derived by solving the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field. These unique focal field distributions may find potential applications in laser direct writing and optical microscopy, as well as multiple-particle trapping, alignment, and acceleration along the optical axis. PMID:26424051

  4. Creation of identical multiple focal spots with prescribed axial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme for the construction of coaxially equidistant multiple focal spots with identical intensity profiles for each individual focus and a predetermined number and spacing. To achieve this, the radiation field from an antenna is reversed and then gathered by high numerical aperture objective lenses. Radiation patterns from three types of line sources, i.e., the electric current, magnetic current and electromagnetic current distributions, with cosine-squared taper are respectively employed to generate predominately longitudinally polarized bright spots, azimuthally polarized doughnuts, and focal spots with a perfect spherically symmetric intensity distribution. The required illuminations at the pupil plane of a 4Pi focusing configuration for the creation of these identical multiple focal spots can be easily derived by solving the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field. These unique focal field distributions may find potential applications in laser direct writing and optical microscopy, as well as multiple-particle trapping, alignment, and acceleration along the optical axis.

  5. Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles

  6. Inflammatory pancreatic masses: problems in differentiating focal pancreatitis from carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, C.C.; Simeone, J.F.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The authors studied 19 patients with focal inflammatory masses of the pancreas over an 18-month period. In 13 cases, transhepatic cholangiography and/or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were unsuccessful in differentiating pancreatitis from carcinoma. Eighteen patients had a history of alcohol abuse, and 12 had had pancreatitis previously. Pre-existing glandular injury appears to be a prerequisite to formation of focal inflammatory pancreatic masses.

  7. [Histoplasmin skin test and focal hemorrhagic chorioiditis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schildberg, P; Wessing, A; Eller, B

    1975-02-01

    A histoplasmin skin test was performed on 56 patients with focal hemorrhagic choroiditis. The test was negative in 53 choroiditis patients and positive in three patients. The three patients with posi-ive skin test had been living for a long time in the eastern part of the U.S.A. where histoplasma capsulatum occurs endemically. The results of this study suggest that the infection with histoplasmin capsulatum is not the cause of focal hemorrhagic choroiditis in our area.

  8. Effects of glucocorticoid treatment on focal and systemic bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Di Munno, O; Delle Sedie, A

    2008-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by an extensive dysregulation in skeletal homeostasis recognized as 1) focal articular bone erosions, 2) iuxta-articular osteopenia, 3) systemic osteoporosis (OP) and fractures, as is well documented in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. The disease activity, as a consequence of new insights into the complex interaction between bone cells and a variety of cells of the immune system, has emerged as the main responsible for both focal and systemic bone loss. Given this background, the therapeutic approach to RA has become more aggressive, and a more widespread use of low-dose glucocorticoids (GC), recently categorized as disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) because of their additional joint sparing effect on the long-term, has also been recommended from the early stages. Addressing the effects of GC on systemic bone loss in RA, GC are considered, in addition to inflammation and inactivity, the major risk factors for OP and fractures. As a consequence, among the most recent recommendations (i.e. dosing, timing, and tapering strategies) for patients receiving GC for more than 3 months, prevention and treatment of GC-induced OP (i.e. calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates) are included. However, innovative GC, characterized by a more favorable risk/benefit profile such as selective GC receptor agonists (SEGRA), are currently in the pipeline. This article reviews the major points of evidence so far available, regarding the effects of GC on focal and systemic bone loss.

  9. FocusALL: Focal Stacking of Microscopic Images Using Modified Harris Corner Response Measure.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, Madhu S; Sigdel, Madhav; Dinç, Semih; Dinç, Imren; Pusey, Marc L; Aygün, Ramazan S

    2016-01-01

    Automated image analysis of microscopic images such as protein crystallization images and cellular images is one of the important research areas. If objects in a scene appear at different depths with respect to the camera's focal point, objects outside the depth of field usually appear blurred. Therefore, scientists capture a collection of images with different depths of field. Focal stacking is a technique of creating a single focused image from a stack of images collected with different depths of field. In this paper, we introduce a novel focal stacking technique, FocusALL, which is based on our modified Harris Corner Response Measure. We also propose enhanced FocusALL for application on images collected under high resolution and varying illumination. FocusALL resolves problems related to the assumption that focus regions have high contrast and high intensity. Especially, FocusALL generates sharper boundaries around protein crystal regions and good in focus images for high resolution images in reasonable time. FocusALL outperforms other methods on protein crystallization images and performs comparably well on other datasets such as retinal epithelial images and simulated datasets.

  10. Penalized maximum-likelihood sinogram restoration for dual focal spot computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Forthmann, P; Köhler, T; Begemann, P G C; Defrise, M

    2007-08-01

    Due to various system non-idealities, the raw data generated by a computed tomography (CT) machine are not readily usable for reconstruction. Although the deterministic nature of corruption effects such as crosstalk and afterglow permits correction by deconvolution, there is a drawback because deconvolution usually amplifies noise. Methods that perform raw data correction combined with noise suppression are commonly termed sinogram restoration methods. The need for sinogram restoration arises, for example, when photon counts are low and non-statistical reconstruction algorithms such as filtered backprojection are used. Many modern CT machines offer a dual focal spot (DFS) mode, which serves the goal of increased radial sampling by alternating the focal spot between two positions on the anode plate during the scan. Although the focal spot mode does not play a role with respect to how the data are affected by the above-mentioned corruption effects, it needs to be taken into account if regularized sinogram restoration is to be applied to the data. This work points out the subtle difference in processing that sinogram restoration for DFS requires, how it is correctly employed within the penalized maximum-likelihood sinogram restoration algorithm and what impact it has on image quality.

  11. Talin-KANK1 interaction controls the recruitment of cortical microtubule stabilizing complexes to focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Benjamin P; Gough, Rosemarie E; Ammon, York-Christoph; van de Willige, Dieudonnée; Post, Harm; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Altelaar, AF Maarten; Heck, Albert JR; Goult, Benjamin T; Akhmanova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The cross-talk between dynamic microtubules and integrin-based adhesions to the extracellular matrix plays a crucial role in cell polarity and migration. Microtubules regulate the turnover of adhesion sites, and, in turn, focal adhesions promote the cortical microtubule capture and stabilization in their vicinity, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that cortical microtubule stabilization sites containing CLASPs, KIF21A, LL5β and liprins are recruited to focal adhesions by the adaptor protein KANK1, which directly interacts with the major adhesion component, talin. Structural studies showed that the conserved KN domain in KANK1 binds to the talin rod domain R7. Perturbation of this interaction, including a single point mutation in talin, which disrupts KANK1 binding but not the talin function in adhesion, abrogates the association of microtubule-stabilizing complexes with focal adhesions. We propose that the talin-KANK1 interaction links the two macromolecular assemblies that control cortical attachment of actin fibers and microtubules. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18124.001 PMID:27410476

  12. Effect of mild hypothermia on focal cerebral ischemia. Review of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Takahito; Tamura, Akira; Fukui, Shinji; Hossmann, Konstantin-Alexander

    2003-07-01

    The purposes of this review are to clarify the effect of hypothermia therapy on focal cerebral ischemia in rats, and to consider the relevancy of its application to human focal cerebral ischemia. Since 1990, 26 reports confirming the brain-protecting effect of hypothermia in rat focal cerebral ischemia models have been published. Seventy-four experimental groups in these 26 reports were classified as having transient middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO) with mild hypothermia (group A; 43 groups), permanent MCAO with mild hypothermia (group B; 14 groups), permanent MCAO with deep hypothermia (group C; 8 groups) and transient or permanent MCAO with mild hyperthermia (group D; 9 groups). The results were evaluated as the % infarct volume change caused by hypothermia or hyperthermia compared with the infarct volume in normothermic animals. The effectiveness was confirmed in 36 (83%) of the 43 groups in group A, 10 (71%) of the 14 in group B, and six (75%) of the eight in group C. The infarct volume of eight of the nine groups in group D was markedly aggravated. The percent infarct volume change was 55.3% +/- 27.1% in group A, 57.6% +/- 24.7% in group B, 60.8% +/- 45.5% in group C, and 189.7% +/- 89.4% in group D. For effective reduction of the infarct volume, hypothermia should be started during ischemia or within 1 h, at latest, after the beginning of reperfusion in the rat transient MCAO model. However, it is not clear whether this neuroprotective effect of hypothermia can also be observed in the chronic stage, such as several months later. Keeping the body temperature normothermic in order to avoid mild hyperthermia seems to be rather important for not aggravating cerebral infarction. Clinical randomized studies on the efficacy of mild hypothermia for focal cerebral ischemia and sophisticated mild hypothermia therapy techniques are mandatory.

  13. Thermomechanical architecture of the VIS focal plane for Euclid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martignac, Jérôme; Carty, Michaël.; Tourette, Thierry; Bachet, Damien; Berthé, Michel; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Amiaux, Jérôme; Fontignie, Jean; Horeau, Benoît; Renaud, Diana; Pottinger, Sabrina; Denniston, James; Winter, Berend; Guttridge, Phillip; Cole, Richard; Cropper, Mark; Niemi, Sami; Coker, John; Hunt, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    One of the main challenges for current and near future space experiments is the increase of focal plane complexity in terms of amount of pixels. In the frame work of the ESA Euclid mission to be launched in 2020, the Euclid Consortium is developing an extremely large and stable focal plane for the VIS instrument. CEA has developed the thermomechanical architecture of that Focal Plane taking into account all the very stringent performance and mission related requirements. The VIS Focal Plane Assembly integrates 36 CCDs (operated at 150K) connected to their front end electronics (operated at 280K) as to obtain one of the largest focal plane (˜0.6 billion pixels) ever built for space application after the GAIA one. The CCDs are CCD273 type specially designed and provided by the e2v company under ESA contract, front end electronics is studied and provided by MSSL. In this paper we first recall the specific requirements that have driven the overall architecture of the VIS-FPA and especially the solutions proposed to cope with the scientific needs of an extremely stable focal plane, both mechanically and thermally. The mechanical structure based on SiC material used for the cold sub assembly supporting the CCDs is detailed. We describe also the modular architecture concept that we have selected taking into account AIT-AIV and programmatic constraints.

  14. Recurrent Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Abatacept: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Alkandari, Omar; Nampoory, Narayanan; Nair, Prasad; Atta, Ahmed; Zakaria, Zakaria; Mossad, Ahmed; Yagan, Jude; Al-Otaibi, Torki

    2016-08-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is a common cause of end-stage renal disease in children. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recurrence in renal transplants is a challenging disease, and can cause graft dysfunction and loss. Different therapies exist with varying responses, from complete remission to resistance to all modes of treatment. Abatacept was recently introduced as a treatment for primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in native kidneys and in recurrent disease after transplant. We present a pediatric case with immunosuppression-resistant primary NPHS2-negative focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recur-rence after renal transplant. The standard therapy for recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (rituximab, plasmapheresis, high-dose cyclosporine, and corticosteroids) was tried but failed to induce remission. Abatacept (10 mg/kg) was given at 0, 2, and 4 weeks (total, 3 doses) with no good response. We conclude that abatacept may work in patients with B7-1-positive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recurrence and its efficacy is uncertain in disease with B7-1-negative or unknown staining status. PMID:25432003

  15. [Localized prostate cancer Focal Therapy: "A la carte" Model].

    PubMed

    Linares Espinós, E; Barret, E; Sivaraman, A; Pérez-Reggeti, J I; Sánchez-Salas, R; Rozet, F; Galiano, M; Cathelineau, X

    2016-07-01

    Focal therapy has settled as an alternative to radical treatment in selected cases of localized prostate cancer. The selection of patients who are candidates for focal therapy is based on imaging diagnosis relying on multiparametric MRI and image fusion techniques. Thanks to the oncological results and safety profiles of initial series, various energy sources have been developed over the last years. The availability of multiple types of energy sources for focal therapy, commits us to evaluate what type of energy would be the optimal depending on patient's profile and type of lesion. A unique energy for focal therapy would be ideal, but facing the research of the various types of energy we must identify which one is recommended for each lesion. With the experience of our center in different approaches of focal therapy we propose the "A LA CARTE" MODEL based on localization of the lesion. We present the criteria the "a la carte" model is based on, supported by the published evidence on the use of different ablative therapies for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Lesion localization, technical characteristics of each type of energy, patient's profile and secondary effects must be considered in every choice of focal therapy. PMID:27416638

  16. mTOR signaling pathway genes in focal epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Baulac, S

    2016-01-01

    Focal epilepsies, where seizures initiate in spatially limited networks, are the most frequent epilepsy type, accounting for two-thirds of patients. Focal epilepsies have long been thought to be acquired disorders; several focal epilepsy syndromes are now proven to be (genetically heterogeneous) monogenic disorders. While earlier genetic studies have demonstrated a strong contribution of ion channel and neurotransmitter receptor genes, or synaptic secreted protein genes, later work has revealed a new class of genes encoding components of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway. The mTOR pathway controls a myriad of biological processes among which cell growth and protein synthesis in response to several extracellular and intracellular. Recently, germline mutations have been found in genes encoding the components of the GATOR1 complex (DEPDC5, NPRL2, NPRL3), a repressor of mTORC1. These mutations are increasingly recognized as causing a wide and yet evolving spectrum of focal epilepsy syndromes, with and without cortical structural abnormalities (usually focal cortical dysplasia). Brain somatic mutations in the gene encoding mTOR (MTOR) have recently been linked to focal cortical dysplasia and other associated brain pathologies including hemimegalencephaly. This chapter reviews the genetics and neurobiology of DEPDC5, NPRL2, and NPRL3, and summarizes the clinical and molecular spectrum of GATOR1-related epilepsies. PMID:27323939

  17. Focal length precise measurement method for optics system based on lunar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Yiyun; Li, Haichao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper an accurate measurement method for optics system based on the lunar imaging is presented, and this method has the following steps. Firstly, the optical imaging system observes the lunar and acquires the image on the ground or in orbit, and records the position and the time simultaneously, with which the distance to the lunar can be computed. Secondly, the initial region of the lunar in the acquired image is decided by the gray value threshold, and the Canny edge detection method with parabola fitting is used to acquire the sub-pixel image edge points. Thirdly, the extracted edge points are used to preliminary fit the lunar disc, and the lunar ring is formed based on the fitted lunar disc expanded two pixels, then the initial coarse fitting disc is acquired according to the maximum number of edge points located in the lunar ring. Fourthly, the sub-pixel lunar disk can be obtained via the least squares fitting on the base of the initial coarse fitting disc. At last, the focal length of the optical imaging system can be computed with the position relationship between the optical imaging system and the lunar. Experiments show that this method has the ability to focal length measurement with high accuracy and frequency. By the means of imaging to the lunar, taking advantage of the long distance, sub-pixel edge detection and fitting for the lunar disc diameter, etc, whether in the full lunar and the waning lunar - the focal length could be measured accurately. It has a wide application prospects both in the developing and in orbit operating stage for optical imaging system.

  18. The nipple: a simple intersection of mammary gland and integument, but focal point of organ function.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Sachiko; Wu, Hsin-Jung; Easwaran, Teresa; Thopady, Sunil; Foley, John

    2013-06-01

    Having glands that secrete milk to nourish neonatal offspring characterizes all mammals. We provide a brief overview of the development and anatomy of nipples and mammary glands in monotremes, marsupials, and marine mammals, and focus on the nipples and mammary glands in terrestrial eutherian species. We first classify eutherians into three groups: the altricial, precocial, and arboreal types based on their rearing system. We then summarize the physiology of lactation and the cell biology of nipples with specific focus on comparing these in the mouse, cow, and human, which represent the three different groups. Finally we propose that the nipple is an example of specialized epidermis. As specialized epidermis, it is dependent the underlying stroma for development and maintenance in adult life. The development of the nipple and signaling pathways that regulate its formation are described. PMID:23674217

  19. How decisions happen: focal points and blind spots in interdependent decision making.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir; Chou, Eileen Y

    2014-03-01

    Decision makers often simplify decision problems by ignoring readily available information. The current multimethod research investigated which types of information about interdependence situations are psychologically prominent to decision makers and which tend to go unnoticed. Study 1 used eye-tracking measures to investigate how decision makers allocate their attention in interdependence situations and revealed that individuals fixated on mutual cooperation earlier and longer as compared with alternative combinations of strategies and outcomes. In addition, participants' behavioral cooperation was consistent with their attention allocation. Study 2 introduced a novel information-search paradigm: Participants exchanged yes/no questions and answers to discover which of 25 different games their counterpart chose. Analyzing the contents of participants' questions showed that, consistent with Study 1, participants focused primarily on desirable outcomes and symmetric behavioral choices. Study 3 revealed that outcome desirability is a robust basis of psychological prominence across different types of social relations; in contrast, the psychological prominence of symmetry was moderated by the nature of social relations. Study 4 revealed that whether different bases of psychological prominence directed individuals' attention to the same aspects of the decision-making task moderated the effect of information availability on decision latency and cooperation rates. Taken together, these findings contribute to the mapping of bounded rationality, demonstrate how people think about their interdependence, and enhance our understanding of how decisions happen. PMID:24377356

  20. Is There a Need for a Library Twinning Focal Point? The IFLA Twinning Project and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Pauline

    This paper discusses the experiences of the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) Twinning Project, an international twinning database developed and maintained by the IFLA Programme for Universal Availability of Publications, which acts as a kind of "dating agency" aiming to match partner libraries as closely as…

  1. Comprehensive Service Delivery through Senior Centers and Other Community Focal Points: Trainer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Aging, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide provides instructional materials and approaches for use by continuing educators, trainers, state units, area agencies on aging, or others responsible for staff development. Section I gives an overview of the mutual needs and responsibilities of adults with learning needs and those who assist them to meet those needs. Section II assists…

  2. The nipple: a simple intersection of mammary gland and integument, but focal point of organ function.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Sachiko; Wu, Hsin-Jung; Easwaran, Teresa; Thopady, Sunil; Foley, John

    2013-06-01

    Having glands that secrete milk to nourish neonatal offspring characterizes all mammals. We provide a brief overview of the development and anatomy of nipples and mammary glands in monotremes, marsupials, and marine mammals, and focus on the nipples and mammary glands in terrestrial eutherian species. We first classify eutherians into three groups: the altricial, precocial, and arboreal types based on their rearing system. We then summarize the physiology of lactation and the cell biology of nipples with specific focus on comparing these in the mouse, cow, and human, which represent the three different groups. Finally we propose that the nipple is an example of specialized epidermis. As specialized epidermis, it is dependent the underlying stroma for development and maintenance in adult life. The development of the nipple and signaling pathways that regulate its formation are described.

  3. Multi-wavelength mid-infrared plasmonic antennas with single nanoscale focal point.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Romain; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Genevet, Patrice; Kats, Mikhail A; Tetienne, Jean-Philippe; Yu, Nanfang; Scully, Marlan O; Dal Negro, Luca; Capasso, Federico

    2011-10-24

    We propose and demonstrate a novel photonic-plasmonic antenna capable of confining electromagnetic radiation at several mid-infrared wavelengths to a single sub-wavelength spot. The structure relies on the coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonance of a bow-tie nanoantenna with the photonic modes of surrounding multi-periodic particle arrays. Far-field measurements of the transmission through the central bow-tie demonstrate the presence of Fano-like interference effects resulting from the interaction of the bow-tie antenna with the surrounding nanoparticle arrays. The near-field of the multi-wavelength antenna is imaged using an aperture-less near-field scanning optical microscope. This antenna is relevant for the development of near-field probes for nanoimaging, spectroscopy and biosensing.

  4. The lysosomal membrane complex. Focal point of primary steroid hormone action

    PubMed Central

    Szego, Clara M.; Seeler, Barbara J.; Steadman, Rosemarie A.; Hill, Diane F.; Kimura, Arthur K.; Roberts, James A.

    1971-01-01

    At short intervals after the intravenous administration of oestradiol-17β, diethylstilboestrol, testosterone or saline control solution to ovariectomized rats, highly purified lysosome samples were prepared in substantial yield from preputial glands, sex accessory organs rich in these organelles. The preparations were essentially devoid of mitochondrial contamination. Exposure in vivo to doses of these hormones varying from 0.1 to 5μg/100g body wt. provoked dose-dependent labilization of the lysosomal membrane surface, as evidenced by significantly diminished structural latency of several characteristic acid hydrolases, including acid phosphatase, β-glucuronidase and acid ribonuclease II, when such preparations were subsequently challenged in vitro with autolytic conditions, detergent or mechanical stress. Enhanced lytic susceptibility induced by hormone pretreatment was occasionally detectable in the initial preparation without further provocative stimuli in vitro. Comparable results were obtained with the corresponding fractions of uterus, despite the more limited concentration of lysosomes in this steroidal target organ. By the present criteria oestradiol-17α was essentially inert, even in a dose 25 times that effective for its active β-epimer (<0.1μg/100g body wt.). Pretreatment with diethylstilboestrol exerted substantial membrane-destabilizing influence in preputial-gland lysosome samples from orchidectomized rats. Moreover, administration of testosterone to gonadectomized animals resulted in essentially equivalent dose-dependent augmentation of lysosomal enzyme release in preputial-gland preparations of either sex. The membrane stability of lysosome-enriched preparations from uterus, on the other hand, was unaffected by testosterone pretreatment. The sensitivity, specificity and selectivity of the lysosomal response to sex steroids provide evidence for the physiological significance of this phenomenon as a general mechanism for mediation of secondary biochemical transformations in the hormone-stimulated target cell. PMID:5126905

  5. Focal mechanism solutions and nature of plate movements in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, R. K.; Chandra Sekhar, Ch.

    1986-09-01

    From the seismic point of view, the territory of Pakistan which lies between latitude 23°-37° N and longitude 61°-75° E is one of the most active zones in the world. The importance of this area lies in terms of movements of the Indian plate with respect to Eurasia on the west. Seismicity, as well as focal mechanism- solutions, throws a considerable light on the nature of forces acting in the area. All the available solutions, along with 12 new ones, have been considered for the present study. Their relationship to major faults in the area is discussed. The majority of the solutions in the central and northern parts show strike-slip faulting with a left-lateral sense of motion, followed by thrust faulting; few show normal faulting. This suggests that the Indian plate is moving with respect to the Eurasian plate along the Chaman fault, Quetta transverse zone, Sulaiman Ranges and the Hazara thrusts region joining the Hazara/Kashmir syntaxis. The orientations of P and T axes have been studied. It is seen that in a large number of cases compressive stress is acting nearly in NNW-SSE to N-S directions. The Hazara thrust region appears to be the most complex. Here, the influence of the Himalayan thrust front is evident to a large extent. The nature of faulting along the Chaman fault and Quetta transverse zone is to some extent similar to that of the San Andreas fault system of California. So far as the energy release is concerned, the maximum energy is being released in the form of strike-slip movements close to the Chaman fault and Quetta transverse ranges.

  6. Beam control for LINC-NIRVANA: from the binocular entrance pupil to the combined focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, T.; Trowitzsch, J.; Herbst, T. M.; Ragazzoni, R.

    2012-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the near-infrared interferometric imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Once operational, it will provide an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity and field of view. To meet the tight requirements that result from long exposure interferometric imaging over a large field of view, active control beyond fringe tracking and adaptive optics has to be in place in the telescope and in the instrument domain. The incoming beams of the binocular telescope have to be controlled along the entire optical path, from the entrance pupil to the combined focal plane. The beams have to coincide in the focal plane of the science detector, their pointing origins, offsets, orientations, plate scales, and distortions have to match each other and must not change during the observation. Non-common path effects between AO and science channel, flexure and thermal effects have to be compensated and offioading requests from the adaptive optics and fringe tracking systems have to be arbitrated without introducing unwanted optical path length differences or changes in the geometry of the binocular entrance pupil. Beam Control aspects include pointing, co-pointing and field derotation, active optics and collimation control. In this presentation, the constraints for coherent imaging over a 1.5 arcminute field of view are discussed together with a concept for a distributed control scheme.

  7. Neuroprotection by the PGE2 EP2 receptor in permanent focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Wu, Liejun; Breyer, Richard; Mattson, Mark P; Andreasson, Katrin

    2005-05-01

    Recent studies suggest a neuroprotective function of the PGE2 EP2 receptor in excitotoxic neuronal injury. The function of the EP2 receptor was examined at time points after excitotoxicity in an organotypic hippocampal model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) challenge and in a permanent model of focal forebrain ischemia. Activation of EP2 led to significant neuroprotection in hippocampal slices up to 3 hours after a toxic NMDA stimulus. Genetic deletion of EP2 resulted in a marked increase in stroke volume in the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model. These findings support further investigation into therapeutic strategies targeting the EP2 receptor in stroke.

  8. Comparison of focal properties of square-channel and meridional lobster-eye lenses.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Samuel; Erwin, Daniel A

    2014-12-01

    The lobster-eye telescope with square cross-section channels has been suggested as a possible candidate for a wide-field-of-view x-ray all-sky monitor. However, due to the difficult construction, especially with metals, variations of lobster-eye lenses have been proposed as possible alternatives. This work is a computational comparison of the focal properties of one variant, the meridional lens, with the square-channel lens. For both types of lens, the efficiency of focusing for imaged photons as well as the point-spread function in one dimension is studied for collimated sources.

  9. Comparison of focal properties of square-channel and meridional lobster-eye lenses.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Samuel; Erwin, Daniel A

    2014-12-01

    The lobster-eye telescope with square cross-section channels has been suggested as a possible candidate for a wide-field-of-view x-ray all-sky monitor. However, due to the difficult construction, especially with metals, variations of lobster-eye lenses have been proposed as possible alternatives. This work is a computational comparison of the focal properties of one variant, the meridional lens, with the square-channel lens. For both types of lens, the efficiency of focusing for imaged photons as well as the point-spread function in one dimension is studied for collimated sources. PMID:25606746

  10. Focal Plane Alignment Utilizing Optical CMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Meras, Patrick L.; Clark, Gerald J.; Sedaka, Jack J.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Hirsch, Brian; Decker, Todd A.; Scholtz, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    In many applications, an optical detector has to be located relative to mechanical reference points. One solution is to specify stringent requirements on (1) mounting the optical detector relative to the chip carrier, (2) soldering the chip carrier onto the printed circuit board (PCB), and (3) installing the PCB to the mechanical structure of the subsystem. Figure 1 shows a sketch of an optical detector mounted relative to mechanical reference with high positional accuracy. The optical detector is typically a fragile wafer that cannot be physically touched by any measurement tool. An optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) can be used to position optical detectors relative to mechanical reference points. This approach will eliminate all requirements on positional tolerances. The only requirement is that the PCB is manufactured with oversized holes. An exaggerated sketch of this situation is shown in Figure 2. The sketch shows very loose tolerances on mounting the optical detector in the chip carrier, loose tolerance on soldering the chip carrier to the PCB, and finally large tolerance on where the mounting screws are located. The PCB is held with large screws and oversized holes. The PCB is mounted loosely so it can move freely around. The optical CMM measures the mechanical reference points. Based on these measurements, the required positions of the optical detector corners can be calculated. The optical CMM is commanded to go to the position where one detector corner is supposed to be. This is indicated with the cross-hairs in Figure 2(a). This figure is representative of the image of the optical CMM monitor. Using a suitable tapping tool, the PCB is manually tapped around until the corner of the optical detector is at the crosshairs of the optical CMM. The CMM is commanded to another corner, and the process is repeated a number of times until all corners of the optical detector are within a distance of 10 to 30 microns of the required position. The situation

  11. Prospective Trial with Optical Molecular Imaging for Percutaneous Interventions in Focal Hepatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Rahul A.; Arellano, Ronald S.; Uppot, Raul N.; Samir, Anthony E.; Goyal, Lipika; Zhu, Andrew X.; Gervais, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the clinical translation of optical molecular imaging (OMI) for the localization of focal hepatic lesions during percutaneous hepatic interventions. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this prospective, single-center, HIPAA-compliant trial. Patients who were suspected of having hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases from colorectal cancer and were scheduled for percutaneous liver biopsy or thermal ablation were eligible for this study. Patients (n = 5) received 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight of indocyanine green (ICG) intravenously 24 hours prior to their scheduled procedure in this study. Intraprocedurally, a handheld device composed of an endoscope that fits coaxially through a standard 17-gauge introducer needle was advanced into the liver, and real-time measurements of ICG fluorescence were obtained. A point-of-care fluorescence imaging system was used to image ICG fluorescence in biopsy samples. Target-to-background ratios (TBRs) were calculated by dividing the mean fluorescence intensity in the lesion by the mean fluorescence intensity in the adjacent liver parenchyma. The reference standard for determination of proper needle positioning in patients undergoing biopsy was final pathologic analysis of biopsy specimens or follow-up imaging. Results Intraprocedural OMI was successfully performed in six lesions (two lesions in patient 3) in five patients. The median size of the targeted lesions was 16 mm (range, 10–21 mm). Four of five biopsies (80%) yielded an accurate pathologic diagnosis, and one biopsy specimen showed benign liver parenchyma; both ablated lesions showed no residual disease 1 month after the procedure. The median overall added procedure time to perform OMI was 2 minutes. ICG was found to localize with TBRs greater than 2.0 (median, 7.9; range, 2.4–13.4) in all target lesions. No trial-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion The clinical translation of OMI to

  12. MR imaging features of focal liver lesions in Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Dohan, Anthony; Vargas, Ottavia; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Woimant, France; Hamzi, Lounis; Boudiaf, Mourad; Poujois, Aurelia; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic involvement in Wilson disease (WD) manifests as a diffuse chronic disease in the majority of patients. However, in a subset of patients focal liver lesions may develop, presenting with a wide range of imaging features. The majority of focal liver lesions in patients with WD are benign nodules, but there are reports that have described malignant liver tumors or dysplastic nodules in these patients. Because of the possibility of malignant transformation of liver nodules, major concerns have been raised with respect to the management and follow-up of patients with WD in whom focal liver lesions have been identified. The assessment of liver involvement in patients with WD is generally performed with ultrasonography. However, ultrasonography conveys limited specificity so that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often performed to improve lesion characterization. This review was performed to illustrate the spectrum of MR imaging features of focal liver lesions that develop in patients with WD. It is assumed that familiarity with the MR imaging presentation of focal liver lesions in WD may help clarify the actual nature of hepatic nodules in patients with this condition. PMID:27116011

  13. MR imaging features of focal liver lesions in Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Dohan, Anthony; Vargas, Ottavia; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Woimant, France; Hamzi, Lounis; Boudiaf, Mourad; Poujois, Aurelia; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic involvement in Wilson disease (WD) manifests as a diffuse chronic disease in the majority of patients. However, in a subset of patients focal liver lesions may develop, presenting with a wide range of imaging features. The majority of focal liver lesions in patients with WD are benign nodules, but there are reports that have described malignant liver tumors or dysplastic nodules in these patients. Because of the possibility of malignant transformation of liver nodules, major concerns have been raised with respect to the management and follow-up of patients with WD in whom focal liver lesions have been identified. The assessment of liver involvement in patients with WD is generally performed with ultrasonography. However, ultrasonography conveys limited specificity so that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often performed to improve lesion characterization. This review was performed to illustrate the spectrum of MR imaging features of focal liver lesions that develop in patients with WD. It is assumed that familiarity with the MR imaging presentation of focal liver lesions in WD may help clarify the actual nature of hepatic nodules in patients with this condition.

  14. Hot spot liver scan in focal nodular hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Piers, D.A.; Houthoff, H.J.; Krom, R.A.F.; Schuur, K.H.; Sikkens, H.; Weits, J.

    1980-12-01

    In scintigraphy of the liver with radiocolloid, space-occupying lesions generally are visualized as regions of decreased accumulation of radioactivity. Rarely focal areas of increased activity are depicted; most are related to altered vascular dynamics in the liver secondary to obstruction of the superior or inferior vena cava or the hepatic veins. There are reports of single cases of focally increased activity due to a hepatic hemangioma, hepatic venoocclusive disease, herniation of a part of the liver, and a liver hot spot found after radiocolloid injection via a malpositioned central venous catheter in one of the hepatic vein branches. In patients with focal nodular hyperplasia, liver scans with solitary defects as well as normal patterns are found. In some cases, increased uptake of colloid in the lesion has been documented. Pasquier and Dorta reported a patient with a palpable mass in the left liver lobe with increased accumulation of radioactivity on the radiocolloid liver scan. The histologic diagnosis was hamartoma, but reviewing the description and considering the confusion in the past concerning the nomenclature, this case is suggestive of focal nodular hyperplasia. We report a patient with focal nodular hyperplasia who had increased radiocolloid uptake in the lesion. The radionuclide studies are compared with angiography, sonography, and computed tomography. An explanation for the localized increased colloid accumulation based on histologic findings is suggested.

  15. Focal organizing pneumonia mimicking lung cancer: a surgeon's view.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Pan, Youmin; Song, Chaoguo; Wei, Hao; Wu, Shimin; Wei, Xiang; Pan, Tiecheng; Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Focal organizing pneumonia is a unique form of organizing pneumonia. Little is known regarding its clinical and radiological feature, diagnosis, management, and outcome. Twenty patients with focal organizing pneumonia were investigated and compared with 40 patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. There were 38 men (63.3%) and 22 women (36.7%). The mean age was 55 ± 9.9 years. No specific feature in clinical and radiological manifestation was found to distinguish between focal organizing pneumonia and bronchogenic carcinoma. In patients with focal organizing pneumonia, wedge resection was performed in 12 cases and lobectomy in eight cases. Follow-up was complete with a median period of 26 months (range, 6 to 104 months). All patients were free from recurrence of organizing pneumonia. Clinical and radiologic findings of focal organizing pneumonia are nonspecific, and this unique form of organizing pneumonia is difficult to differentiate from lung cancer. Surgical resection allows both diagnosis and cure. However, considering the benign nature of this disease, major pulmonary resections should be avoided.

  16. Combined scanning transmission electron microscopy tilt- and focal series.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Lupini, Andrew R; Kübel, Christian; Slusallek, Philipp; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt-focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller "missing wedge" artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  17. Variable-focal lens using electroactive polymer actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vunder, V.; Punning, A.; Aabloo, A.

    2011-03-01

    The paper describes a simple and cost-effective design and fabrication process of a liquid-filled variable-focal lens. The lens was made of soft polymer material, its shape and curvature can be controlled by hydraulic pressure. An electroactive polymer is used as an actuator. A carbon-polymer composite (CPC) was used. The device is composed of elastic membrane upon a circular lens chamber, a reservoir of liquid, and a channel between them. It was made of three layers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), bonded using the partial curing technique. The channels and reservoir were filled with incompressible liquid after curing process. A CPC actuator was mechanically attached to reservoir to compress or decompress the liquid. Squeezing the liquid between the reservoir and the lens chamber will push the membrane inward or outward resulting in the change of the shape of the lens and alteration of its focal length. Depending on the pressure the lens can be plano-convex or plano-concave or even switch between the two configurations. With only a few minor modifications it is possible to fabricate bi-convex and bi-concave lenses. The lens with a 1 mm diameter and the focal length from infinity to 17 mm is reported. The 5x15mm CPC actuator with the working voltage of only up to +/-2.5 V was capable to alter the focal length within the full range of the focal length in 10 seconds.

  18. Design and fabrication of long focal length microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Hsin-Ta; Lin, Vinna; Hsieh, Jo-Lan; Su, Guo-Dung John

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we present microlens arrays (MLA) with long focal length (in millimeter range) based on thermal reflow process. The focal length of microlens is usually in the same order of lens diameter or several hundred microns. To extend focal length, we made a photoresist (SU-8) MLA covered by a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film on a glass substrate. Because the refractive index difference between PDMS and photoresist interface is lower than that of air and MLA interface, light is less bended when passing through MLA and is focused at longer distance. Microlenses of diameters from 50 μm to 240 μm were successfully fabricated. The longest focal length was 2.1 mm from the microlens of 240 μm diameter. The numerical aperture (NA) was reduced 0.06, which is much lower than the smallest NA (~ 0.15) by regular thermal reflow processes. Cured PDMS has high transmittance and becomes parts of MLA without too much optical power loss. Besides, other focal lengths can be realized by modifying the refractive index different between two adjacent materials as described in this paper.

  19. Imaging techniques for prostate cancer: implications for focal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Turkbey, Baris; Pinto, Peter A.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    The multifocal nature of prostate cancer has necessitated whole-gland therapy in the past; however, since the widespread use of PSA screening, patients frequently present with less-advanced disease. Many men with localized disease wish to avoid the adverse effects of whole-gland therapy; therefore, focal therapy for prostate cancer is being considered as a treatment option. For focal treatment to be viable, accurate imaging is required for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of treatment. Developments in MRI and PET have brought more attention to prostate imaging and the possibility of improving the accuracy of focal therapy. In this Review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of conventional methods for imaging the prostate, new developments for targeted imaging, and the possible role of image-guided biopsy and therapy for localized prostate cancer. PMID:19352394

  20. Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cerminara, Caterina; El Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain is an unusual partial epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal episodes of abdominal or visceral pain, disturbance of awareness and electroencephalographic abnormalities. We describe a new case of ictal abdominal pain in which gastrointestinal complaints were the only manifestation of seizures and review the previously described pediatric patients. In our patient clinical findings, ictal EEG abnormalities, and a good response to antiepileptic drugs allowed us to make a diagnosis of focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain. This is a rare epileptic phenomenon that should be suspected in patients with unexplained paroxysmal abdominal pain and migraine-like symptoms. We suggest that, after the exclusion of more common etiologies, focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain should be considered in patients with paroxysmal abdominal pain and ictal EEG abnormalities. PMID:24321431

  1. Bilaterally symmetric focal cortical dysplasia in a golden retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Casey, K M; Bollen, A W; Winger, K M; Vernau, K M; Dickinson, P J; Higgins, R J; Sisó, S

    2014-11-01

    A 10-year-old golden retriever dog was referred with a 24-h history of generalized seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain found no abnormalities on 3 mm transverse sections and the dog was subsequently humanely destroyed. Microscopically there was bilaterally symmetrical focal disorganization of cortical grey matter within the tips of the right and left suprasylvian gyri of the temporal cortex. The focal abnormal cortical lamination was characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons with abnormal, irregular, angular, remaining neurons occasionally forming clusters, surrounded by fibrillary astrogliosis and microgliosis and vascular proliferation. These histological findings are consistent with focal cortical dysplasia, a cerebral cortical malformation that causes seizures in people, but not reported previously in the dog. PMID:25246180

  2. Focal depth measurement of scanning helium ion microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongxuan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Han; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-07-14

    When facing the challenges of critical dimension measurement of complicated nanostructures, such as of the three dimension integrated circuit, characterization of the focal depth of microscopes is important. In this Letter, we developed a method for characterizing the focal depth of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM) by using an atomic force microscope tip characterizer (ATC). The ATC was tilted in a sample chamber at an angle to the scanning plan. Secondary electron images (SEIs) were obtained at different positions of the ATC. The edge resolution of the SEIs shows the nominal diameters of the helium ion beam at different focal levels. With this method, the nominal shapes of the helium ion beams were obtained with different apertures. Our results show that a small aperture is necessary to get a high spatial resolution and high depth of field images with HIM. This work provides a method for characterizing and improving the performance of HIM.

  3. Focal brain atrophy in gastric bypass patients with cognitive complaints.

    PubMed

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Trenerry, Max R; Ahlskog, J Eric; Jensen, Michael D; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2011-12-01

    Recently, we have identified a series of patients presenting with cognitive complaints after gastric bypass, without any identifiable etiology. We aimed to determine if focal brain atrophy could account for the complaints. A retrospective case series was performed to identify patients with cognitive complaints following gastric bypass who had a volumetric MRI. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess patterns of grey matter loss in all 10 patients identified, compared to 10 age and gender-matched controls. All patients had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery at a median age of 54 (range: 46-64). Cognitive complaints developed at a median age of 57 (52-69). Formal neuropsychometric testing revealed only minor deficits. No nutritional abnormalities were identified. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated focal thalamic atrophy in the gastric bypass patients when compared to controls. Patients with cognitive complaints after gastric bypass surgery may have focal thalamic brain atrophy that could result in cognitive impairment.

  4. Variation of focal switch with spectrum of a broadband laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biyu; Peng, Runwu; Xie, Haiqing; Zhang, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Effects of the spectrum on focal switch of a broadband laser in a dispersion dual-focus system are presented in this paper. The numerical results show that the two maximum intensities of the broadband laser on the z-axis vary when the central frequency of the broadband laser shifts and the spectrum shape changes, and the variations affect the generation of the focal switch. It is also found that difference of the two maximum intensities tends to increase when the absolute value of central wavelength increases. According to the results in this paper, the generation of the focal switch can be controlled by choosing the shift of the central frequency, the bandwidth, the distance between the two lenses, and the spectrum shape of the broadband laser.

  5. The cheating liver: imaging of focal steatosis and fatty sparing.

    PubMed

    Dioguardi Burgio, Marco; Bruno, Onorina; Agnello, Francesco; Torrisi, Chiara; Vernuccio, Federica; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Soresi, Maurizio; Petta, Salvatore; Calamia, Mauro; Papia, Giovanni; Gambino, Angelo; Ricceri, Viola; Midiri, Massimo; Lagalla, Roberto; Brancatelli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Focal steatosis and fatty sparing are a frequent finding in liver imaging, and can mimic solid lesions. Liver regional variations in the degree of fat accumulation can be related to vascular anomalies, metabolic disorders, use of certain drugs or coexistence of hepatic masses. CT and MRI are the modalities of choice for the noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. Knowledge of CT and MRI appearance of focal steatosis and fatty sparing is crucial for an accurate diagnosis, and to rule-out other pathologic processes. This paper will review the CT and MRI techniques for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis and the CT and MRI features of common and uncommon causes of focal steatosis and fatty sparing.

  6. Focal therapy in prostate cancer: the current situation

    PubMed Central

    Jácome-Pita, FX; Sánchez-Salas, R; Barret, E; Amaruch, N; Gonzalez-Enguita, C; Cathelineau, X

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most significant pathologies in the field of urology. The adoption of screening strategies and improvements in biopsies have resulted in an increase in early-stage tumour detection. Radical global therapies provide very good oncological results in localised prostate cancer. However, excess treatment in low- and, in some cases, intermediate-risk groups affects the quality of life of these patients. In the case of localised prostate cancer, focal therapies offer a minimally invasive option with good results with respect to established treatments. Although this is currently not a standard treatment, it represents the therapeutic approach with the greatest potential. This literature review has the following objectives: to define selection criteria for patients who are candidates for focal therapy, to assess the current situation and results of the different therapeutic options, and to define procedures in cases of recurrence and for follow-ups. We concluded that focal therapy is a viable therapeutic alternative for localised prostate cancer, specifically cryosurgery and high-intensity targeted ultrasound, which have acceptable oncologic results and a lower comorbidity compared with global treatments. Studies with a high level of scientific evidence are still needed to validate these results. Acquisition of evidence A search was carried out on the Medline (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases of all papers published before 31 July 2013. We included clinical studies and literature reviews that evaluated primary focal therapy for prostate cancer confirmed by biopsy and excluded focal rescue therapy studies. The keywords used were focal therapy and prostate cancer. Initially, we found 42 articles; 15 studies were excluded because they did not meet the minimum criteria for inclusion. A total of 1350 cases were treated throughout 27 studies. PMID:24944577

  7. Focal properties of a plane grating in a convergent beam.

    PubMed

    Hall, J T

    1966-06-01

    Focusing from a plane grating can be accomplished by using convergent radiation incident on the grating in such a manner that any incident angle alpha(n), the resulting diffraction angle beta(n), will be on the same side of the grating normal. The theory for the focal properties is developed by applying Fermat's principle of least time to selected terms resulting from a finite series expansion of the system's distance function. Derivations are given for finding the focal curve equation, astigmatism, and coma, of the most usable configuration of the optical components. Discussions of the aberrations disclose methods for eliminating the astigmatism and reducing the coma. PMID:20049009

  8. Focal stent collapse in a patient with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, L; Finci, L; Reimers, B; Di Mario, C; Colombo, A

    1998-05-01

    We report a patient with systemic sclerosis having implantation of a 35 mm beStent with immediate success but developing angina at follow-up. A focal stent collapse with focal hyperplasia in and outside the stent was documented by ultrasound after 2 mos. A 14mm Palmaz-Schatz stent was successfully deployed into the collapsed beStent, with good 6-mo angiographic result. The stent collapse was probably due to unequal distribution of radial forces and possibly reactive hyperplasia in this unique patient with systemic sclerosis.

  9. Sonic boom focal zones due to tactical aircraft maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    1990-10-01

    A study has been conducted of the focal zone 'superbooms' associated with tactical maneuvers of military supersonic aircraft. Focal zone footprints were computed for 21 tactical maneuvers: two for the SR-71 and 19 for fighters engaged in air combat maneuver (ACM) training. These footprints provide quantitative results which may be used for environmental planning. A key finding of this study is that focus factors and footprint areas for high-g fighter maneuvers are substantially smaller than those for gentle maneuvers associated with larger aircraft.

  10. [Two-dimensional echoencephalography in focal brain pathology].

    PubMed

    Shokurov, N N; Likhterman, L B

    1976-01-01

    Two-dimentional echoencephalographic examinations were conducted in 35 patients with focal lesions of the brain of different etiology. Normal tomoechoencephalogramme and ultrasonic semiotics of transverse sections of the brain in different pathology is described with reference to its nature and interrelationships with the meninges and brain matter (tumours, abscesses, emningeal and intracerebral haematomas, hydroma, brain confusion, intracranial foreign bodies). The authors believe that two-dimentional echoencephalography is a promising method of diagnosis, free of contraindications, combinding safety and promptness of the examination. direct visualization of focal pathology of the brain through an intact skull.

  11. The Focal Surface of the JEM-EUSO Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawasaki, Yoshiya

    2007-01-01

    Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard JEM/EP (JEM-EUSO) is a space mission to study extremely high-energy cosmic rays. The JEM-EUSO instrument is a wide-angle refractive telescope in near-ultraviolet wavelength region to observe time-resolved atmospheric fluorescence images of the extensive air showers from the International Space Station. The focal surface is a spherical curved surface, and its area amounts to about 4.5 square m. The focal surface detector is covered with about 6,000 multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs). The focal surface detector consists of Photo-Detector-Modules, each of which consists of 9 Elementary Cells (ECs). The EC contains 4 units of the MAPMTs. Therefore, about 1,500 ECs or about 160 PDMS are arranged on the whole of the focal surface of JEM- EUSO. The EC is a basic unit of the front-end electronics. The PDM is a, basic unit of the data acquisition system

  12. Unilateral asterixis: motor integrative dysfunction in focal vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Massey, E W; Goodman, J C; Stewart, C; Brannon, W L

    1979-08-01

    In three patients we found unilateral asterixis in limbs contralateral to a discrete lesion adjacent to the internal capsule. Etiology was vascular in each, with no metabolic or toxic disturbance. Unilateral asterixis bespeaks focal disease arising from lesions in the thalamus or internal capsule and is a sign of motor integrative dysfunction.

  13. Spectrum of PORCN mutations in Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz syndrome (OMIM 305600), is a genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems early in development. Features of FDH include skin abnormalities, (hypoplasia, atrophy, linear pigmentation, and herniation of fat through dermal defects); papillomas...

  14. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare association.

    PubMed

    Radha, S; Tameem, A; Rao, B S

    2014-03-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) is a rare form of, progressive chronic interstitial nephritis. We present a case of KIN in a child, who was also found to have nephrotic syndrome because of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of KIN associated with glomerulopathy.

  15. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare association

    PubMed Central

    Radha, S.; Tameem, A.; Rao, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) is a rare form of, progressive chronic interstitial nephritis. We present a case of KIN in a child, who was also found to have nephrotic syndrome because of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of KIN associated with glomerulopathy. PMID:24701046

  16. Focal cone ERGs of rhodopsin Pro347Leu transgenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Shinji; Koyasu, Toshiyuki; Kominami, Taro; Sakai, Takao; Kondo, Mineo; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2013-10-18

    A rhodopsin P347L transgenic (Tg) rabbit, a model of retinitis pigmentosa, has been generated in our laboratory. The purpose of this study was to determine the properties of focal areas of the retina in this rabbit model during the course of retinal degeneration. To accomplish this, we recorded focal ERGs from wild-type (WT) and Tg rabbits at ages 3, 6, and 12 months. A 15° stimulus spot was used to elicit the focal ERGs from the center of the visual streak and from four surrounding areas. We found that the amplitudes of the focal cone ERG b-waves and oscillatory potentials (OPs) of the Tg rabbits in the five areas decreased progressively with increasing age and became almost non-recordable at 12 months. There were no significant regional differences in the b-waves of Tg rabbits recorded from the 5 areas. The amplitudes of the OPs were better preserved than the b-waves and the OPs/b-wave ratio was higher than that in WT rabbits at every recording area. The summed OPs amplitudes, which most likely originate from the amacrine and/or ganglion cells, recorded from the area superior to the optic disc was significantly larger than that from other areas at 3- and 6-months-old. This indicated that the inner retinal neurons were not altered equally after photoreceptor degeneration in this rabbit model.

  17. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia removed with CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Luomanen, M

    1990-08-01

    A case of oral focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) treated with CO2 laser surgery is presented. Histological diagnosis is discussed. The association of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 32 with the lesions is demonstrated with DNA in situ hybridization technique. Laser surgery is suggested as a treatment of choice.

  18. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) associated with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viraben, R; Aquilina, C; Brousset, P; Bazex, J

    1996-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) of the oral mucosa occurring in a HIV-infected man is described. Molecular biology disclosed an HPV-32 type in oral lesions. The association of FEH and AIDS is uncommon although many HPV subtypes may manifest during HIV infection.

  19. Infrared lens thermal effect: equivalent focal shift and calculating model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng-shuo; Shi, Zelin; Feng, Bin; Xu, Bao-shu

    2014-11-01

    It's well-know that the focal shift of infrared lens is the major factor in degeneration of imaging quality when temperature change. In order to figure out the connection between temperature change and focal shift, partial differential equations of thermal effect on light path are obtained by raytrace method, to begin with. The approximately solution of the PDEs show that focal shift is proportional to temperature change. And a formula to compute the proportional factor is given. In order to understand infrared lens thermal effect deeply, we use defocus by image plane shift at constant temperature to equivalently represent thermal effect on infrared lens. So equivalent focal shift (EFS) is defined and its calculating model is proposed at last. In order to verify EFS and its calculating model, Physical experimental platform including a motorized linear stage with built-in controller, blackbody, target, collimator, IR detector, computer and other devices is developed. The experimental results indicate that EFS make the image plane shift at constant temperature have the same influence on infrared lens as thermal effect and its calculating model is correct.

  20. Analysis of Rapid Multi-Focal Zone ARFI Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Stephen; Palmeri, Mark; Nightingale, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has shown promise for visualizing structure and pathology within multiple organs; however, because the contrast depends on the push beam excitation width, image quality suffers outside of the region of excitation. Multi-focal zone ARFI imaging has previously been used to extend the region of excitation (ROE), but the increased acquisition duration and acoustic exposure have limited its utility. Supersonic shear wave imaging has previously demonstrated that through technological improvements in ultrasound scanners and power supplies, it is possible to rapidly push at multiple locations prior to tracking displacements, facilitating extended depth of field shear wave sources. Similarly, ARFI imaging can utilize these same radiation force excitations to achieve tight pushing beams with a large depth of field. Finite element method simulations and experimental data are presented demonstrating that single- and rapid multi-focal zone ARFI have comparable image quality (less than 20% loss in contrast), but the multi-focal zone approach has an extended axial region of excitation. Additionally, as compared to single push sequences, the rapid multi-focal zone acquisitions improve the contrast to noise ratio by up to 40% in an example 4 mm diameter lesion. PMID:25643078

  1. Stromal myofibroblasts in focal reactive overgrowths of the gingiva.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Leonardo Silveira; Gonçalves, Fernanda da Silva; Costa e Silva, Edson; Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Souza, Paulo Eduardo Alencar; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello

    2012-01-01

    Focal reactive overgrowths are among the most common oral mucosal lesions. The gingiva is a significant site affected by these lesions, when triggered by chronic inflammation in response to microorganisms in dental plaque. Myofibroblasts are differentiated fibroblasts that actively participate in diseases characterized by tissue fibrosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of stromal myofibroblasts in the main focal reactive overgrowths of the gingiva: focal fibrous hyperplasia (FFH), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), pyogenic granuloma (PG), and peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG). A total of 10 FFHs, 10 POFs, 10 PGs, and 10 PGCGs from archival specimens were evaluated. Samples of gingival mucosa were used as negative controls for stromal myofibroblasts. Oral squamous cell carcinoma samples, in which stromal myofibroblasts have been previously detected, were used as positive controls. Myofibroblasts were identified by immunohistochemical detection of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma). Myofibroblast immunostaining was qualitatively classified as negative, scanty, or dense. Differences in the presence of myofibroblasts among FFH, POF, PG, and PGCG were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Stromal myofibroblasts were not detected in FFH, POF, PG, or PGCG. Consequently, no differences were observed in the presence of myofibroblasts among FFH, POF, PG, or PGCG (p > 0.05). In conclusion, stromal myofibroblasts were not detected in the focal reactive overgrowths of the gingiva that were evaluated, suggesting that these cells do not play a significant role in their pathogenesis.

  2. Extra focal convective suppressing solar collector. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This progress report describes work done on the Extra Focal Convective Suppressing Solar Collector. The topics of the report include sensor refinement for the tracking electronics, tracking controller refinement, system optics evaluation, absorber system material evaluation and performance, tracking hardware evaluation and refinement, and full scale prototype construction and testing.

  3. The challenge of diagnosing focal hand dystonia in musicians

    PubMed Central

    Rosset-Llobet, J.; Candia, V.; Molas, S. Fàbregas i; Dolors Rosinés i Cubells, D.; Pascual-Leone, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose To most clinicians, medical problems in musicians, particularly those concerning focal hand dystonia, constitute an unfamiliar domain difficult to manage. The latter can importantly influence diagnostics and the course of treatment. The purpose of this study was to enlighten the issue and to identify possible problems in diagnosing musicians’ cramp within the Spanish medical community. Methods We used a brief questions’ catalog and clinical histories of 665 musicians seen at our clinic for performing artists. We analyzed patients’ diagnosis records in 87 cases of focal hand dystonia (13.1%). In so doing, we surveyed previous diagnoses and diverse treatments prescriptions prior to referral to our clinic. Results Referrals came primarily from orthopaedists and neurologists. The 52.9% arrived at our clinic without a diagnosis or a suspicion of suffering from focal dystonia. The most frequently attempted diagnoses other than musicians’ dystonia included nerve compression, tendonitis and trigger fingers. Commonly prescribed treatments included rest, various surgical procedures, physiotherapy and oral anti-inflammatory medication. Conclusions This data depicts the diagnostic challenges of medical professionals may encounter when confronted with musician’s focal dystonia. PMID:19473363

  4. Dosimetry Modeling for Focal Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Mason, Josh; Bownes, Peter; Henry, Ann; Dickinson, Louise; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Emberton, Mark; Langley, Stephen

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Focal brachytherapy targeted to an individual lesion(s) within the prostate may reduce side effects experienced with whole-gland brachytherapy. The outcomes of a consensus meeting on focal prostate brachytherapy were used to investigate optimal dosimetry of focal low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy targeted using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and transperineal template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy, including the effects of random and systematic seed displacements and interseed attenuation (ISA). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were selected according to clinical characteristics and concordance of TPM and mp-MRI. Retrospectively, 3 treatment plans were analyzed for each case: whole-gland (WG), hemi-gland (hemi), and ultra-focal (UF) plans, with 145-Gy prescription dose and identical dose constraints for each plan. Plan robustness to seed displacement and ISA were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: WG plans used a mean 28 needles and 81 seeds, hemi plans used 17 needles and 56 seeds, and UF plans used 12 needles and 25 seeds. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of the target) and V100 (percentage of the target that receives 100% dose) values were 181.3 Gy and 99.8% for the prostate in WG plans, 195.7 Gy and 97.8% for the hemi-prostate in hemi plans, and 218.3 Gy and 99.8% for the focal target in UF plans. Mean urethra D10 was 205.9 Gy, 191.4 Gy, and 92.4 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Mean rectum D2 cm{sup 3} was 107.5 Gy, 77.0 Gy, and 42.7 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Focal plans were more sensitive to seed displacement errors: random shifts with a standard deviation of 4 mm reduced mean target D90 by 14.0%, 20.5%, and 32.0% for WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. ISA has a similar impact on dose-volume histogram parameters for all plan types. Conclusions: Treatment planning for focal LDR brachytherapy is feasible. Dose constraints are easily met with a notable

  5. Long Focal Length Large Mirror Fabrication System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, H. E.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this ambitious program are (1) to develop systems to make large superpolished optical mirrors, (2) to develop low scatter polishing techniques using centrifugal elutriation, (3) to develop a means of measuring scatter at any point on the mirror, (4) to polish a Hindle sphere to measure the optical figure of a one meter diameter convex mandrel, and (5) to fabricate low scatter, large adaptive optic graphite filled, cyanate ester replica transfer mirrors using these mandrels. Deliverables are a 30 cm diameter superpolished composite AO mirror. We fabricated a 1/3rd meter superpolished zerodur flat mandrel and with the support of our major subcontractor, Composite Mirror Applications Inc (CMA) we have demonstrated a 30 cm lightweight cyanate ester mirror with an rms microroughness between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and 8 faceplate influence function of 5 cm. The influence function was chosen to be comparable to the atmospheric correlation coefficient r(sub 0) which is about 5 cm at sea level. There was no print-thru of the graphite fibers in the cyanate ester surface (the bane of many previous efforts to use cyanate ester mirrors). Our subcontractor has devised a means for developing a 30-50 nm thick layer of graphite free pure ester resin on the surface of the mirrors. This graphite fiber filled material has a thermal expansion coefficient in the 10(exp -8) centimeter per Kelvin range (the same range of expansion coefficient as Zerodur and ULE glasses) and does not take up water and swell, so it is a nearly ideal mirror material in these areas. Unfortunately for these 0.8mm thick faceplates, the number of plies is not enough to result in isometric coverage. Isolated figure irregularities can appear, making it necessary to go to thicker faceplates. The influence function will then only approximate the length of r(sub 0), at higher altitudes or longer wavelengths. The influence function goes as the cube of the thickness, so we are now making a faceplate optimized for

  6. Multispectral Focal Plane Assembly for Satellite Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.; Ballard, M.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing from space. A proof of concept multispectral sensor system is under development. The objective of building this sensor is to demonstrate and evaluate multispectral imaging technologies for various applications. The three major subsystems making up the sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding. Linear detector arrays provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for a pushbroom imager configuration. The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 microns to 10.7 microns. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. No beam splitters are used. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 15.4 megapixels per second. At the time this paper is being written, the multispectral focal plane assembly is in the fabrication phase. A thermal/mechanical mockup has been built and tested for the vibration environment and to determine the thermal load. Some of the sensor chip assemblies and filters have been built and tested. Several notable features of the design are covered in the paper as well as preliminary test data.

  7. Focal Ablation of Prostate Cancer: Four Roles for MRI Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Graham; Bouley, Donna; Gill, Harcharan; Daniel, Bruce; Pauly, Kim Butts; Diederich, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is currently a great deal of interest in the possible use of focal therapies for prostate cancer, since such treatments offer the prospect for control or cure of the primary disease with minimal side effects. Many forms of thermal therapy have been proposed for focal ablation of prostate cancer, including laser, high intensity ultrasound and cryotherapy. This review will demonstrate the important roles that MRI guidance can offer to such focal ablation, focusing on the use of high intensity ultrasonic applicators as an example of one promising technique. Materials and Methods Transurethral and interstitial high intensity ultrasonic applicators, designed specifically for ablation of prostate tissue were tested extensively in vivo in a canine model. The roles of MRI in positioning the devices, monitoring prostate ablation, and depicting ablated tissue were assessed using appropriate MRI sequences. Results MRI guidance provides a very effective tool for the positioning of ablative devices in the prostate, and thermal monitoring successfully predicted ablation of prostate tissue when a threshold of 52°C was achieved. Contrast enhanced MRI accurately depicted the distribution of ablated prostate tissue, which is resorbed at 30 days. Conclusions Guidance of thermal therapies for focal ablation of prostate cancer will likely prove critically dependent on MRI functioning in four separate roles. Our studies indicate that in 3 roles: device positioning; thermal monitoring of prostate ablation; and depiction of ablated prostate tissue, MR techniques are highly accurate and likely to be of great benefit in focal prostate cancer ablation. A fourth critical role, identification of cancer within the gland for targeting of thermal therapy, is more problematic at present, but will likely become practical with further technological advances. PMID:23587506

  8. Focal mechanism of the seismic series prior to the 2011 El Hierro eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Fresno, C.; Buforn, E.; Cesca, S.; Domínguez Cerdeña, I.

    2015-12-01

    The onset of the submarine eruption of El Hierro (10-Oct-2011) was preceded by three months of low-magnitude seismicity (Mw<4.0) characterized by a well documented hypocenter migration from the center to the south of the island. Seismic sources of this series have been studied in order to understand the physical process of magma migration. Different methodologies were used to obtain focal mechanisms of largest shocks. Firstly, we have estimated the joint fault plane solutions for 727 shocks using first motion P polarities to infer the stress pattern of the sequence and to determine the time evolution of principle axes orientation. Results show almost vertical T-axes during the first two months of the series and horizontal P-axes on N-S direction coinciding with the migration. Secondly, a point source MT inversion was performed with data of the largest 21 earthquakes of the series (M>3.5). Amplitude spectra was fitted at local distances (<20km). Reliability and stability of the results were evaluated with synthetic data. Results show a change in the focal mechanism pattern within the first days of October, varying from complex sources of higher non-double-couple components before that date to a simpler strike-slip mechanism with horizontal tension axes on E-W direction the week prior to the eruption onset. A detailed study was carried out for the 8 October 2011 earthquake (Mw=4.0). Focal mechanism was retrieved using a MT inversion at regional and local distances. Results indicate an important component of strike-slip fault and null isotropic component. The stress pattern obtained corresponds to horizontal compression in a NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the southern ridge of the island, and a quasi-horizontal extension in an EW direction. Finally, a simple source time function of 0.3s has been estimated for this shock using the Empirical Green function methodology.

  9. Transatlantic Consensus Group on active surveillance and focal therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hashim U.; Akin, Oguz; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Crane, Sarah; Emberton, Mark; Goldenberg, Larry; Hricak, Hedvig; Kattan, Mike W.; Kurhanewicz, John; Moore, Caroline M.; Parker, Chris; Polascik, Thomas J.; Scardino, Peter; van As, Nicholas; Villers, Arnauld

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To reach consensus on key issues for clinical practice and future research in active surveillance and focal therapy in managing localized prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS A group of expert urologists, oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and computer scientists from North America and Europe met to discuss issues in patient population, interventions, comparators and outcome measures to use in both tissue-preserving strategies of active surveillance and focal therapy. Break-out sessions were formed to provide agreement or highlight areas of disagreement on individual topics which were then collated by a writing group into statements that formed the basis of this report and agreed upon by the whole Transatlantic Consensus Group. RESULTS The Transatlantic group propose that emerging diagnostic tools such as precision imaging and transperineal prostate mapping biopsy can improve prostate cancer care. These tools should be integrated into prostate cancer management and research so that better risk stratification and more effective treatment allocation can be applied. The group envisaged a process of care in which active surveillance, focal therapy, and radical treatments lie on a continuum of complementary therapies for men with a range of disease grades and burdens, rather than being applied in the mutually exclusive and competitive way they are now. CONCLUSION The changing landscape of prostate cancer epidemiology requires the medical community to re-evaluate the entire prostate cancer diagnostic and treatment pathway in order to minimize harms resulting from over-diagnosis and over-treatment. Precise risk stratification at every point in this pathway is required alongside paradigm shifts in our thinking about what constitutes cancer in the prostate. PMID:22077593

  10. Postlumpectomy Focal Brachytherapy for Simultaneous Treatment of Surgical Cavity and Draining Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Shi Chengyu; Goins, Beth; Liu Yaxi; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The primary objective was to investigate a novel focal brachytherapy technique using lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried {beta}-emitting radionuclides (rhenium-186 [{sup 186}Re]/rhenium-188 [{sup 188}Re]) to simultaneously treat the postlumpectomy surgical cavity and draining lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Cumulative activity distributions in the lumpectomy cavity and lymph nodes were extrapolated from small animal imaging and human lymphoscintigraphy data. Absorbed dose calculations were performed for lumpectomy cavities with spherical and ellipsoidal shapes and lymph nodes within human subjects by use of the dose point kernel convolution method. Results: Dose calculations showed that therapeutic dose levels within the lumpectomy cavity wall can cover 2- and 5-mm depths for {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively. The absorbed doses at 1 cm sharply decreased to only 1.3% to 3.7% of the doses at 2 mm for {sup 186}Re liposomes and 5 mm for {sup 188}Re liposomes. Concurrently, the draining sentinel lymph nodes would receive a high focal therapeutic absorbed dose, whereas the average dose to 1 cm of surrounding tissue received less than 1% of that within the nodes. Conclusions: Focal brachytherapy by use of {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes was theoretically shown to be capable of simultaneously treating the lumpectomy cavity wall and draining sentinel lymph nodes with high absorbed doses while significantly lowering dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In turn, this allows for dose escalation to regions of higher probability of containing residual tumor cells after lumpectomy while reducing normal tissue complications.

  11. Real-time detection of focal position of workpiece surface during laser processing using diffractive beam samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Binh Xuan; Hoang, PhuongLe; Ahn, Sanghoon; Kim, Jeng-o.; Sohn, Hyonkee; Noh, Jiwhan

    2016-11-01

    The real-time fabrication of microgrooves on a curved surface using a laser beam, without preprogramming their shapes into the machining instructions, is a major challenge in laser processing owing to limitations associated with the real-time detection of the focal position. A new approach using a sampled fraction of the beam from a diffractive beam sampler (DBS) is therefore presented in order to overcome this limitation. By considering the sampled fraction of the beam an analysis of the results allows for precise positioning of the specimen for focal-point identification. This allows for the determination of the focus for a broad variety of laser types and laser powers, thereby providing stringent focusing conditions with high numerical apertures. This approach is easy to implement, inexpensive, independent of the roughness or granularity of the workpieces, and more importantly does not require auxiliary lasers and displacement sensors for real-time measurement during the fabrication process.

  12. Enchanced interference cancellation and telemetry reception in multipath environments with a single paraboic dish antenna using a focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Ryan (Inventor); Vilnrotter, Victor A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Advanced Focal Plane Array ("AFPA") for parabolic dish antennas that exploits spatial diversity to achieve better channel equalization performance in the presence of multipath (better than temporal equalization alone), and which is capable of receiving from two or more sources within a field-of-view in the presence of multipath. The AFPA uses a focal plane array of receiving elements plus a spatio-temporal filter that keeps information on the adaptive FIR filter weights, relative amplitudes and phases of the incoming signals, and which employs an Interference Cancelling Constant Modulus Algorithm (IC-CMA) that resolves multiple telemetry streams simultaneously from the respective aero-nautical platforms. This data is sent to an angle estimator to calculate the target's angular position, and then on to Kalman filters FOR smoothing and time series prediction. The resulting velocity and acceleration estimates from the time series data are sent to an antenna control unit (ACU) to be used for pointing control.

  13. Closed-loop focal plane wavefront control with the SCExAO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Aims: This article describes the implementation of a focal plane based wavefront control loop on the high-contrast imaging instrument SCExAO (Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics). The sensor relies on the Fourier analysis of conventional focal-plane images acquired after an asymmetric mask is introduced in the pupil of the instrument. Methods: This absolute sensor is used here in a closed-loop to compensate for the non-common path errors that normally affects any imaging system relying on an upstream adaptive optics system.This specific implementation was used to control low-order modes corresponding to eight zernike modes (from focus to spherical). Results: This loop was successfully run on-sky at the Subaru Telescope and is used to offset the SCExAO deformable mirror shape used as a zero-point by the high-order wavefront sensor. The paper details the range of errors this wavefront-sensing approach can operate within and explores the impact of saturation of the data and how it can be bypassed, at a cost in performance. Conclusions: Beyond this application, because of its low hardware impact, the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) can easily be ported in a wide variety of wavefront sensing contexts, for ground- as well space-borne telescopes, and for telescope pupils that can be continuous, segmented or even sparse. The technique is powerful because it measures the wavefront where it really matters, at the level of the science detector.

  14. A focal plane detector design for a wide-band Laue-lens telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroli, Ezio; Auricchio, Natalia; Amati, Lorenzo; Bezsmolnyy, Yuriy; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; da Silva, Rui M. Curado; Frontera, Filippo; Pisa, Alessandro; del Sordo, Stefano; Stephen, John B.; Ventura, Giulio

    2005-12-01

    The energy range above 60 keV is important for the study of many open problems in high energy astrophysics such as the role of Inverse Compton with respect to synchrotron or thermal processes in GRBs, non thermal mechanisms in SNR, the study of the high energy cut-offs in AGN spectra, and the detection of nuclear and annihilation lines. Recently the development of high energy Laue lenses with broad energy bandpasses from 60 to 600keV have been proposed for a Hard X ray focusing Telescope (HAXTEL) in order to study the X-ray continuum of celestial sources. The required focal plane detector should have high detection efficiency over the entire operative range, a spatial resolution of about 1mm, an energy resolution of a few keV at 500keV and a sensitivity to linear polarization. We describe a possible configuration of the focal plane detector based on several CdTe/CZT pixelated layers stacked together to achieve the required detection efficiency at high energy. Each layer can operate both as a separate position sensitive detector and polarimeter or work with other layers to increase the overall photopeak efficiency. Each layer has a hexagonal shape in order to minimize the detector surface required to cover the lens field of view. The pixels would have the same geometry so as to provide the best coupling with the lens point spread function and to increase the symmetry for polarimetric studies.

  15. Lasting pure-motor deficits after focal posterior internal capsule white-matter infarcts in rats

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, Francesco; Whalen, Michael J; Ayata, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    Small white-matter infarcts of the internal capsule are clinically prevalent but underrepresented among currently available animal models of ischemic stroke. In particular, the assessment of long-term outcome, a primary end point in clinical practice, has been challenging due to mild deficits and the rapid and often complete recovery in most experimental models. We, therefore, sought to develop a focal white-matter infarction model that can mimic the lasting neurologic deficits commonly observed in stroke patients. The potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (n=24) or vehicle (n=9) was stereotactically injected into the internal capsule at one of three antero-posterior levels (1, 2, or 3 mm posterior to bregma) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Endothelin-injected animals showed highly focal (~1 mm3) and reproducible ischemic infarcts, with severe axonal and myelin loss accompanied by cellular infiltration when examined 2 and 4 weeks after injection. Only those rats injected with endothelin-1 at the most posterior location developed robust and pure-motor deficits in adhesive removal, cylinder and foot-fault tests that persisted at 1 month, without detectable sensory impairments. In summary, we present an internal capsule stroke model optimized to produce lasting pure-motor deficits in rats that may be suitable to study neurologic recovery and rehabilitation after white-matter injury. PMID:25649992

  16. Stress Field in Brazil with Focal Mechanism: Regional and Local Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    determine focal mechanism of low magnitudes events (< 5.0 mb) using distant s seismograph stations. We find examples of stress perturbations induced by local effects (e.g. flexure and continental spreading). The results of this work should be useful for future numerical modeling of intraplate stress field. Assumpção,M.,1998.Seismicity and stresses in the Brazilian passive margin. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 88(1),160-169. Herrmann, R. B. (2002). Computer programs in seismology, St. Louis University Earthquake Center, St. Louis, Missouri, www.eas.slu .edu/eqc/eqccps.html. Lithgow-Bertelloni, C., & J.H. Guynn, 2004. Origin of the lithospheric stress field. J. Geophys. Res., 109, B01408, doi:10.1029/2003JB002467. Meijer, P.T., 1995. Dynamics of active continental margins: the Andes and the Aegean regions. PhD Thesis, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. Sokos, E., Zahradnik, J., (2008). ISOLA a Fortran code and a Matlab GUI to perform multiple-point source inversion of seismic data, Computers and Geosciences, 34, 967-97. Watts, A. B., M. Rodger, C. Peirce, C. J. Greenroyd, and R. W. Hobbs (2009). Seismic structure, gravity anomalies, and flexure of the Amazon continental margin, NE Brazil, J. Geophys. Res., 114, B07103, doi:10.1029/2008JB006259.

  17. Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

  18. Oral focal mucinosis: a rare case report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ena, Sharma; Nadellamanjari; Chatterjeeanirban; Ramesh, Alampalli

    2013-07-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is a rare soft tissue lesion of unknown etiology. Clinically, it is most commonly found on the gingiva and presents as a painless, sessile or pedunculated mass of the same colour as the surrounding mucosa. Histologically, it is characterized by focal myxoid degeneration of connective tissue. OFM occurs predominantly in adults during the fourth and fifth decade of life, although it has been reported infrequently in children and adolescents. Its diagnosis mainly relies on histological analysis and the treatment involves complete surgical excision. Its recurrence is unreported. The aim of this report of two cases is to describe the clinical and histological presentation and subsequent management of OFM. The cause of OFM remains unknown. The cases presented in this report bring OFM to the attention of anatomical pathologists while considering the differential diagnosis of myxoid lesions of the oral cavity.

  19. Focal Plane Phase Masks for PIAA: Design and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, K.; Conway, J.; Belikov, R.; Guyon, O.

    2016-05-01

    The Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) is a coronagraph architecture for the direct detection of extrasolar planets, which can achieve close to the theoretical performance limit of any direct detection system. The primary components of a PIAACMC system are the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) optics and the complex phase-shifting focal plane mask. PIAA optics have been produced and demonstrated with high coronagraph performance. In this paper, we describe the design process for the phase-shifting focal plane mask, and strategies for smoothing the mask profile. We describe the mask manufacturing process and show manufacturing results. Errors in the fabricated mask profile degrade the system performance, but we can recover performance by refining the manufacturing process and implementing wavefront control.

  20. How electrodiagnosis predicts clinical outcome of focal peripheral nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lawrence R

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the electrodiagnostic (EDX) prognostic factors for focal traumatic and nontraumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Referring physicians and patients often benefit from general and nerve-specific prognostic information from the EDX consultant. Knowing the probable outcome from a nerve injury allows the referring physician to choose the best treatment options for his/her patients. Nerve injuries are variable in their mechanism, location, and pathophysiology. The general effects of the injuries on nerve and muscle are well known, but more research is needed for nerve-specific information. Several factors currently known to influence prognosis include: nature of the nerve trauma, amount of axon loss, recruitment in muscles supplied by the nerve, the extent of demyelination, and the distance to reinnervate functional muscles. This article reviews these general concepts and also nerve-specific EDX measures that predict outcome after focal neuropathies.

  1. Focal neuromyotonia as a presenting feature of lumbosacral radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Tushar Premraj; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Chaudhari, Tejendra Singh; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Singh, Maneesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Neuromyotonia is characterized by motor, sensory, and autonomic features along with characteristic electrophysiologic findings, resulting from hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerves. We describe the case of a 36-year-old man, who presented with the disabling symptoms suggestive of focal neuromyotonia involving both the lower limbs. His neurological examination revealed continuous rippling of both the calf muscles with normal power, reflexes, and sensory examination. Electrophysiology revealed spontaneous activity in the form of doublets, triplets, and neuromyotonic discharges along with the neurogenic motor unit potentials in bilateral L5, S1 innervated muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging lumbosacral spine revealed lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion with severe foraminal and spinal canal stenosis. Patient had good response to steroids and carbamazepine. The disabling focal neuromyotonia, occurring as a result of chronic active radiculopathy, brought the patient to medical attention. Patient responded to medical management. PMID:24339612

  2. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in two Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Li, Y; Zhou, Y; Zeng, X

    2012-08-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is a relatively rare virus-induced benign disease. To the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported in an ethnic Chinese population. The authors report two cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in Chinese patients, which were clinically and histologically in accord with FEH. In particular, the lesions in one case were located on the gingival mucosa, which is rarely affected by FEH. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens from the two patients was tested for the presence of human papilloma virus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 16, 18, 13, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

  3. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  4. Design and alignment of the MIPAS focal plane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorenburg, C.; Visser, Huib; Moddemeijer, K.

    1996-08-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) is selected by ESA for the ENVISAT-mission, scheduled for launch in 1999. The instrument will measure the concentration of atmospheric trace gases in the earth atmosphere in a spectral region from 4.15 - 14.6 micrometers . MIPAS consists of scan mirrors, a telescope, a Michelson Interferometer, an optical reducer and a focal plane assembly. The optical reducer consists of a 2 concave and 1 convex mirror system. The focal plane assembly consists of a configuration of mirrors and dichroics, with which the spectral range is divided in 4 spectral bands. TNO Institute of Applied Physics has designed the optical/mechanical system and after manufacturing of the components has aligned the system with high accuracy. The design and alignment of this system is described.

  5. Optofluidic lens with tunable focal length and asphericity

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kartikeya; Murade, Chandrashekhar; Carreel, Bruno; Roghair, Ivo; Oh, Jung Min; Manukyan, Gor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive micro-lenses enable the design of very compact optical systems with tunable imaging properties. Conventional adaptive micro-lenses suffer from substantial spherical aberration that compromises the optical performance of the system. Here, we introduce a novel concept of liquid micro-lenses with superior imaging performance that allows for simultaneous and independent tuning of both focal length and asphericity. This is achieved by varying both hydrostatic pressures and electric fields to control the shape of the refracting interface between an electrically conductive lens fluid and a non-conductive ambient fluid. Continuous variation from spherical interfaces at zero electric field to hyperbolic ones with variable ellipticity for finite fields gives access to lenses with positive, zero, and negative spherical aberration (while the focal length can be tuned via the hydrostatic pressure). PMID:25224851

  6. Design of a variable-focal-length optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, D.; Shannon, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements to place an entire optical system with a variable focal length ranging from 20 to 200 cm within a overall length somewhat less than 100 cm placed severe restrictions on the design of a zoom lens suitable for use on a comet explorer. The requirements of a wavelength range of 0.4 to 1.0 microns produced even greater limitations on the possibilities for a design that included a catadioptric (using mirrors and glass) front and followed by a zooming refractive portion. Capabilities available commercial zoom lenses as well as patents of optical systems are reviewed. Preliminary designs of the refractive optics zoom lens and the catadioptric system are presented and evaluated. Of the two, the latter probably has the best chance of success, so long as the shortest focal lengths are not really needed.

  7. Image-guided focal therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sankineni, Sandeep; Wood, Bradford J.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Diaz, Annerleim Walton; Hoang, Anthony N.; Pinto, Peter A.; Choyke, Peter L.; Türkbey, Barış

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of routine prostate specific antigen screening has led to the discovery of many small and low-grade prostate cancers which have a low probability of causing mortality. These cancers, however, are often treated with radical therapies resulting in long-term side effects. There has been increasing interest in minimally invasive focal therapies to treat these tumors. While imaging modalities have improved rapidly over the past decade, similar advances in image-guided therapy are now starting to emerge—potentially achieving equivalent oncologic efficacy while avoiding the side effects of conventional radical surgery. The purpose of this article is to review the existing literature regarding the basis of various focal therapy techniques such as cryotherapy, microwave, laser, and high intensity focused ultrasound, and to discuss the results of recent clinical trials that demonstrate early outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. PMID:25205025

  8. Shallow gas cloud illumination analysis by the focal beam method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latiff, Abdul Halim Abdul

    2016-02-01

    This research will address the illumination issue of seismic data below a shallow gas cloud, also known as shallow gas accumulation. In general, poor and distorted seismic data underneath gas zones depend on four major factors; namely the velocity of the gas zones, the depth of the target reflector, the location of the source and the receiver during seismic acquisition, and the frequency of the seismic signals. These factors will be scrutinized in detail by using the focal beam method. The focal beam method incorporates the double focusing concept in order to obtain two important attributes for illumination analysis: (i) Resolution function beam, (ii) amplitude versus ray parameter (AVP) imprint, which is obtained by transforming the modelled data into the radon domain. Both illumination attributes are then applied to a gas-affected field in the Malaysia Basin. The results show well-defined illumination beneath the shallow anomalies and provide a better representation of the subsurface.

  9. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

    PubMed Central

    Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

  10. Simultaneous imaging of multiple focal planes using a two-photon scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, W.; Carriles, R.; Hoover, E. E.; Planchon, T. A.; Durfee, C. G.; Squier, J. A.

    2007-06-01

    Despite all the advances in nonlinear microscopy, all existing instruments are constrained to obtain images of one focal plane at a time. In this Letter we demonstrate a two-photon absorption fluorescence scanning microscope capable of imaging two focal planes simultaneously. This is accomplished by temporally demultiplexing the signal coming from two focal volumes at different sample depths. The scheme can be extended to three or more focal planes.

  11. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  12. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin is divided into nine regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the adequate station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes, out of the 494 focal mechanisms, we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in agreement with the Eastern Boundary fault on the east side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of σ1 and σ2 or the switching of σ2 and σ3 as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  13. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, Hubert W.

    1985-07-30

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  14. Focal adhesion kinase is involved in mechanosensing during fibroblast migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, H. B.; Dembo, M.; Hanks, S. K.; Wang, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase localized at focal adhesions and is believed to mediate adhesion-stimulated effects. Although ablation of FAK impairs cell movement, it is not clear whether FAK might be involved in the guidance of cell migration, a role consistent with its putative regulatory function. We have transfected FAK-null fibroblasts with FAK gene under the control of the tetracycline repression system. Cells were cultured on flexible polyacrylamide substrates for the detection of traction forces and the application of mechanical stimulation. Compared with control cells expressing wild-type FAK, FAK-null cells showed a decrease in migration speed and directional persistence. In addition, whereas FAK-expressing cells responded to exerted forces by reorienting their movements and forming prominent focal adhesions, FAK-null cells failed to show such responses. Furthermore, FAK-null cells showed impaired responses to decreases in substrate flexibility, which causes control cells to generate weaker traction forces and migrate away from soft substrates. Cells expressing Y397F FAK, which cannot be phosphorylated at a key tyrosine site, showed similar defects in migration pattern and force-induced reorientation as did FAK-null cells. However, other aspects of F397-FAK cells, including the responses to substrate flexibility and the amplification of focal adhesions upon mechanical stimulation, were similar to that of control cells. Our results suggest that FAK plays an important role in the response of migrating cells to mechanical input. In addition, phosphorylation at Tyr-397 is required for some, but not all, of the functions of FAK in cell migration.

  15. Eyespot development on butterfly wings: the focal signal.

    PubMed

    French, V; Brakefield, P M

    1995-03-01

    The eyespot colour pattern on butterfly wings is specified in the early pupal epidermis by signals from a central "focus." In Bicyclus anynana we show that a small square of focal epidermis, grafted to a range of distal wing sites, induces eyespot formation in surrounding host tissue. Signaling is limited to the focus, and even an adjacent (parafocal) graft does not maintain its normal fate (of contributing to the eyespot) and does not influence its surroundings. Along the wing, there is an abrupt change in the epidermis, as a focus grafted to a proximal site provokes no host response. The results of several grafting experiments demonstrate that their different response properties are autonomous to small areas of the distal and proximal epidermis and that the nonresponding proximal tissue can nonetheless transmit the focal sign. The Bicyclus dorsal forewing has a small anterior and a large posterior eyespot, and we show that this results mainly from a difference in focal signals, not in the epidermal response. A grafted posterior focus induces a large eyespot, whereas an anterior focus induces a small eyespot. Furthermore, the anterior and posterior eyespots differ in proportions, and this difference also depends on the identity of the focus, not on the responding epidermis. Eyespots are specified over many cell diameters from the focus by a mechanism which could consist of one long-range signal, such as a morphogen gradient or of a cascade of short-range interactions initiated by the focus. Focal control of the difference in size and proportion between the anterior and posterior eyespot is more readily compatible with a gradient mechanism. Neither model, however, readily explains why the pattern induced by a grafted focus is smaller, but its peripheral gold annulus is broader than in the corresponding control eyespot. Also, there is no direct evidence for long-range gradients, in the butterfly wing or any other insect epithelium. PMID:7883067

  16. Precise annealing of focal plane arrays for optical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Daniel A.

    2015-09-22

    Precise annealing of identified defective regions of a Focal Plane Array ("FPA") (e.g., exclusive of non-defective regions of the FPA) facilitates removal of defects from an FPA that has been hybridized and/or packaged with readout electronics. Radiation is optionally applied under operating conditions, such as under cryogenic temperatures, such that performance of an FPA can be evaluated before, during, and after annealing without requiring thermal cycling.

  17. Focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes in the Southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Chan; Kim, Woohan; Chung, Tae Woong; Baag, Chang-Eob; Ree, Jin-Han

    2007-06-01

    We evaluate the stress field in and around the southern Korean Peninsula with focal mechanism solutions, using the data collected from 71 earthquakes (ML = 1.9-5.2) between 1999 and 2004. For this, the hypocentres were relocated and well-constrained fault plane solutions were obtained from the data set of 1270 clear P-wave polarities and 46 SH/P amplitude ratios. The focal mechanism solutions indicate that the prevailing faulting types in South Korea are strike-slip-dominant-oblique-slip faultings with minor reverse-slip component. The maximum principal stresses (σ1) estimated from fault-slip inversion analysis of the focal mechanism solutions show a similar orientation with E-W trend (269° -275°) and low-angle plunge (10° -25°) for all tectonic provinces in South Korea, consistent with the E-W trending maximum horizontal stress (σHmax) of the Amurian microplate reported from in situ stress measurements and earthquake focal mechanisms. The directions of the intermediate (σ2) and minimum (σ3) principal stresses of the Gyeongsang Basin are, however, about 90 deg off from those of the other tectonic provinces on a common σ2-σ3 plane, suggesting a permutation of σ2 and σ3. Our results incorporated with those from the kinematic studies of the Quaternary faults imply that NNW- to NE-striking faults (dextral strike-slip or oblique-slip with a reverse-slip component) are highly likely to generate earthquakes in South Korea.

  18. Eyespot development on butterfly wings: the focal signal.

    PubMed

    French, V; Brakefield, P M

    1995-03-01

    The eyespot colour pattern on butterfly wings is specified in the early pupal epidermis by signals from a central "focus." In Bicyclus anynana we show that a small square of focal epidermis, grafted to a range of distal wing sites, induces eyespot formation in surrounding host tissue. Signaling is limited to the focus, and even an adjacent (parafocal) graft does not maintain its normal fate (of contributing to the eyespot) and does not influence its surroundings. Along the wing, there is an abrupt change in the epidermis, as a focus grafted to a proximal site provokes no host response. The results of several grafting experiments demonstrate that their different response properties are autonomous to small areas of the distal and proximal epidermis and that the nonresponding proximal tissue can nonetheless transmit the focal sign. The Bicyclus dorsal forewing has a small anterior and a large posterior eyespot, and we show that this results mainly from a difference in focal signals, not in the epidermal response. A grafted posterior focus induces a large eyespot, whereas an anterior focus induces a small eyespot. Furthermore, the anterior and posterior eyespots differ in proportions, and this difference also depends on the identity of the focus, not on the responding epidermis. Eyespots are specified over many cell diameters from the focus by a mechanism which could consist of one long-range signal, such as a morphogen gradient or of a cascade of short-range interactions initiated by the focus. Focal control of the difference in size and proportion between the anterior and posterior eyespot is more readily compatible with a gradient mechanism. Neither model, however, readily explains why the pattern induced by a grafted focus is smaller, but its peripheral gold annulus is broader than in the corresponding control eyespot. Also, there is no direct evidence for long-range gradients, in the butterfly wing or any other insect epithelium.

  19. Studies on design of 351  nm focal plane diagnostic system prototype and focusing characteristic of SGII-upgraded facility at half achievable energy performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong; Ji, Lailin; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Dongfeng; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dong; Zhu, Baoqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain the intensity distribution of a 351 nm focal spot and smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) focal plane profile of a SGII-upgraded facility, a type of off-axis imaging system with three spherical mirrors, suitable for a finite distance source point to be imaged near the diffraction limit has been designed. The quality factor of the image system is 1.6 times of the diffraction limit tested by a 1053 nm point source. Because of the absence of a 351 nm point source, we can use a Collins diffraction imaging integral with respect to λ=351  nm, corresponding to a quality factor that is 3.8 times the diffraction limit at 351 nm. The calibration results show that at least the range of ±10  mrad of view field angle and ±50  mm along the axial direction around the optimum object distance can be satisfied with near diffraction limited image that is consistent with the design value. Using this image system, the No. 2 beam of the SGII-upgraded facility has been tested. The test result of the focal spot of final optics assembly (FOA) at 351 nm indicates that about 80% of energy is encompassed in 14.1 times the diffraction limit, while the output energy of the No. 2 beam is 908 J at 1053 nm. According to convolution theorem, the true value of a 351 nm focal spot of FOA is about 12 times the diffraction limit because of the influence of the quality factor. Further experimental studies indicate that the RMS value along the smoothing direction is less than 15.98% in the SSD spot test experiment. Computer simulations show that the quality factor of the image system used in the experiment has almost no effect on the SSD focal spot test. The image system can remarkably distort the SSD focal spot distribution under the circumstance of the quality factor 15 times worse than the diffraction limit. The distorted image shows a steep slope in the contour of the SSD focal spot along the smoothing direction that otherwise has a relatively flat top region

  20. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications.

    PubMed

    Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

    2016-02-26

    There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported "3ω" technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with "3ω" sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of 'k' (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported "3ω" sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters).

  1. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

    2016-02-01

    There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported “3ω” technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with “3ω” sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of ‘k’ (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported “3ω” sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters).

  2. Rituximab in adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kronbichler, Andreas; Bruchfeld, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis remains a challenge since steroid dependence, steroid resistance and a relapsing disease course exhibits a high cumulative steroid dosage. The necessity of using alternative steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents with potential toxic side effects also restricts their long-term use. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting CD20, has been increasingly used in the therapy of difficult-to-treat nephrotic syndrome. A clinical response has been shown for patients with steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome, whereas the benefit seems to be limited in steroid-resistant patients, especially those with underlying focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. No potentially life-threatening adverse events have been observed in the treatment of adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis following rituximab administration. Since most reports are retrospective and evidence of efficacy is derived from small case series, more prospective trials in a controlled, randomized manner are highly desirable to delineate the use of rituximab or other B cell-depleting agents in steroid-dependent, frequently relapsing or steroid-resistant patients.

  3. Functional Interrogation of Adult Hypothalamic Neurogenesis with Focal Radiological Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Salvatierra, Juan; Velarde, Esteban; Wong, John; Ford, Eric C.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2013-01-01

    The functional characterization of adult-born neurons remains a significant challenge. Approaches to inhibit adult neurogenesis via invasive viral delivery or transgenic animals have potential confounds that make interpretation of results from these studies difficult. New radiological tools are emerging, however, that allow one to noninvasively investigate the function of select groups of adult-born neurons through accurate and precise anatomical targeting in small animals. Focal ionizing radiation inhibits the birth and differentiation of new neurons, and allows targeting of specific neural progenitor regions. In order to illuminate the potential functional role that adult hypothalamic neurogenesis plays in the regulation of physiological processes, we developed a noninvasive focal irradiation technique to selectively inhibit the birth of adult-born neurons in the hypothalamic median eminence. We describe a method for Computer tomography-guided focal irradiation (CFIR) delivery to enable precise and accurate anatomical targeting in small animals. CFIR uses three-dimensional volumetric image guidance for localization and targeting of the radiation dose, minimizes radiation exposure to nontargeted brain regions, and allows for conformal dose distribution with sharp beam boundaries. This protocol allows one to ask questions regarding the function of adult-born neurons, but also opens areas to questions in areas of radiobiology, tumor biology, and immunology. These radiological tools will facilitate the translation of discoveries at the bench to the bedside. PMID:24300415

  4. [A case of focal epilepsy manifesting multiple psychiatric auras].

    PubMed

    Ezura, Michinori; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jin, Kazutaka; Kato, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Masaki; Fujikawa, Mayu; Aoki, Masashi; Nakasato, Nobukazu

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of epilepsy with multiple types of focal seizures that were misdiagnosed as psychiatric disorders. A 20-year-old female patient presented with a variety of episodes, including loss of consciousness, deja vu, fear, delusion of possession, violent movements, and generalized convulsions. Each of these symptoms appeared in a stereotypic manner. She was initially diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder and treated with psychoactive medications, which had no effect. Long-term video electroencephalography revealed that her episodes of violent movement with impaired consciousness and secondarily generalized seizure were epileptic events originating in the right hemisphere. High-field brain magnetic resonance imaging for detecting subtle lesions revealed bilateral lesions from periventricular nodular heterotopia. Her final diagnosis was right hemispheric focal epilepsy. Carbamazepine administration was started, which successfully controlled all seizures. The present case demonstrates the pitfall of diagnosing focal epilepsy when it presents with multiple types of psychiatric aura. Epilepsy should thus be included in differential diagnoses, considering the stereotypic nature of symptoms, to avoid misdiagnosis.

  5. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications

    PubMed Central

    Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported “3ω” technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with “3ω” sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of ‘k’ (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported “3ω” sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters). PMID:26916460

  6. Reduplicative paramnesia in patients with focal brain damage.

    PubMed

    Murai, T; Toichi, M; Sengoku, A; Miyoshi, K; Morimune, S

    1997-07-01

    Reduplicative paramnesia (RP) has drawn attention as a distinct behavioral syndrome caused by focal brain damage. To elucidate the pathogenesis of RP, we assessed its prevalence among patients with focal brain damage and followed those patients with typical RP. Seventy-seven patients with focal brain damage (47 with left hemispheric, 21 with right hemispheric, and 9 with bilateral damage) were assessed for the presence of RP using a questionnaire intended to elucidate this condition. Two patients showed typical RP for place, and four patients showed atypical RP (three for place and one for person); altogether, these six patients constituted 7.8% of the sample. In three patients, the lesions were situated in the right hemisphere; in two, the lesions were bilateral (right dominant); and in one, the lesions were in the left hemisphere, indicating the relative importance of right hemispheric damage and a possible contributory role of additional left hemispheric damage in RP. The case studies of patients with typical RP suggest the heterogeneity of the underlying cognitive factors in RP.

  7. Focal and abnormally persistent paralysis associated with congenital paramyotonia.

    PubMed

    Magot, Armelle; David, Albert; Sternberg, Damien; Péréon, Yann

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.4) are an established cause of several clinically distinct forms of periodic paralysis and myotonia. Focal paresis has sometimes already been described. We report a case with atypical clinical manifestation comprising paramyotonia and cold-induced persistent and focal paralysis. A 27-year-old woman presented with paramyotonia congenita since her childhood. She experienced during her childhood one brief episode of generalised weakness. At the age of 27, she experienced a focal paresis lasting for several months. The known mutation p.Val1293Ile was found in the muscle sodium channel gene (SCN4A). Channel inactivation is involved in most Na(+) channelopathies. Fast inactivation is known to be responsible for the myotonia phenotype. We hypothesise that the V1293I mutation may also alter the slow inactivation in specific conditions, for example, prolonged cold exposure or prolonged and intensive exercise. This observation broadens the spectrum of clinical manifestations of this sodium channel mutation. PMID:24939454

  8. Focal brain atrophy in gastric bypass patients with cognitive complaints

    PubMed Central

    Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Whitwell, Jennifer L.; Trenerry, Max R.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Jensen, Michael D.; Jack, Clifford R.; Josephs, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we have noticed a series of patients presenting for cognitive complaints after gastric bypass, without any identifiable etiology. We set out to determine whether any focal brain atrophy could account for the complaints. A retrospective case series was performed to identify patients with cognitive complaints following gastric bypass that had a volumetric MRI. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess patterns of grey matter loss in all 10 patients identified, compared to ten age and gender-matched controls. All patients had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at a median age of 54 (range: 46–64). Cognitive complaints began at a median age of 57 (52–69). Formal neuropsychometric testing revealed only minor deficits. No nutritional abnormalities were identified. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated focal thalamic atrophy in the gastric bypass patients when compared to controls. Patients with cognitive complaints after gastric bypass surgery have focal thalamic brain atrophy that could account for the cognitive impairment. PMID:22088949

  9. Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Autonomic Disorders: Focal Hyperhidrosis and Sialorrhea.

    PubMed

    Hosp, Christine; Naumann, Markus K; Hamm, Henning

    2016-02-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a common autonomic disorder that significantly impacts quality of life. It is characterized by excessive sweating confined to circumscribed areas, such as the axillae, palms, soles, and face. Less frequent types of focal hyperhidrosis secondary to underlying causes include gustatory sweating in Frey's syndrome and compensatory sweating in Ross' syndrome and after sympathectomy. Approval of onabotulinumtoxinA for severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis in 2004 has revolutionized the treatment of this indication. Meanwhile further type A botulinum neurotoxins like abobotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA, as well as the type B botulinum neurotoxin rimabotulinumtoxinB are successfully used off-label for axillary and various other types of focal hyperhidrosis. For unexplained reasons, the duration of effect differs considerably at different sites. Beside hyperhidrosis, botulinum neurotoxin is also highly valued for the treatment of sialorrhea affecting patients with Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, and other neurologic conditions. With correct dosing and application, side effects are manageable and transient. PMID:26866492

  10. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Dina; Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  11. Focal Adhesion Assembly Induces Phenotypic Changes and Dedifferentiation in Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyunjun; Lee, Mi Nam; Choung, Jin Seung; Kim, Sanghee; Choi, Byung Hyune; Noh, Minsoo; Shin, Jennifer H

    2016-08-01

    The expansion of autologous chondrocytes in vitro is used to generate sufficient populations for cell-based therapies. However, during monolayer culture, chondrocytes lose inherent characteristics and shift to fibroblast-like cells as passage number increase. Here, we investigated passage-dependent changes in cellular physiology, including cellular morphology, motility, and gene and protein expression, as well as the role of focal adhesion and cytoskeletal regulation in the dedifferentiation process. We found that the gene and protein expression levels of both the focal adhesion complex and small Rho GTPases are upregulated with increasing passage number and are closely linked to chondrocyte dedifferentiation. The inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) but not small Rho GTPases induced the loss of fibroblastic traits and the recovery of collagen type II, aggrecan, and SOX9 expression levels in dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Based on these findings, we propose a strategy to suppress chondrogenic dedifferentiation by inhibiting the identified FAK or Src pathways while maintaining the expansion capability of chondrocytes in a 2D environment. These results highlight a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of skeletal diseases and the generation of cartilage in tissue-engineering approaches. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1822-1831, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26661891

  12. Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) lesion analysis with complex diffusion approach.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Jeny; Kannan, K; Kesavadas, C; Thomas, Bejoy

    2009-10-01

    Identification of Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) can be difficult due to the subtle MRI changes. Though sequences like FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) can detect a large majority of these lesions, there are smaller lesions without signal changes that can easily go unnoticed by the naked eye. The aim of this study is to improve the visibility of focal cortical dysplasia lesions in the T1 weighted brain MRI images. In the proposed method, we used a complex diffusion based approach for calculating the FCD affected areas. Based on the diffused image and thickness map, a complex map is created. From this complex map; FCD areas can be easily identified. MRI brains of 48 subjects selected by neuroradiologists were given to computer scientists who developed the complex map for identifying the cortical dysplasia. The scientists were blinded to the MRI interpretation result of the neuroradiologist. The FCD could be identified in all the patients in whom surgery was done, however three patients had false positive lesions. More lesions were identified in patients in whom surgery was not performed and lesions were seen in few of the controls. These were considered as false positive. This computer aided detection technique using complex diffusion approach can help detect focal cortical dysplasia in patients with epilepsy. PMID:19560319

  13. Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Autonomic Disorders: Focal Hyperhidrosis and Sialorrhea.

    PubMed

    Hosp, Christine; Naumann, Markus K; Hamm, Henning

    2016-02-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a common autonomic disorder that significantly impacts quality of life. It is characterized by excessive sweating confined to circumscribed areas, such as the axillae, palms, soles, and face. Less frequent types of focal hyperhidrosis secondary to underlying causes include gustatory sweating in Frey's syndrome and compensatory sweating in Ross' syndrome and after sympathectomy. Approval of onabotulinumtoxinA for severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis in 2004 has revolutionized the treatment of this indication. Meanwhile further type A botulinum neurotoxins like abobotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA, as well as the type B botulinum neurotoxin rimabotulinumtoxinB are successfully used off-label for axillary and various other types of focal hyperhidrosis. For unexplained reasons, the duration of effect differs considerably at different sites. Beside hyperhidrosis, botulinum neurotoxin is also highly valued for the treatment of sialorrhea affecting patients with Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, and other neurologic conditions. With correct dosing and application, side effects are manageable and transient.

  14. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  15. The impact of focal spot size on clinical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Sinead M.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2009-02-01

    The physical assessment of the spatial resolution produced by broad and fine focal spot sizes has been well established. There is however an evident lack of study into the impact of focal spot selection on clinical image quality. While the excessive use of the fine focus has an impact on tube life, the benefit of its use in radiological imaging should be investigated. Cadaver images were produced in order to compare the 0.8mm and 1.8mm focal spot sizes. The range of radiographic projections assessed included the medio-lateral ankle, antero-posterior (AP) knee, AP thoracic spine and horizontal beam lateral (HBL) lumbar spine. Five clinicians analysed the images using a 1 - 4 visual grading analysis score against a reference image to assess the visibility of specific anatomical criteria. A Mann- Whitney U statistical test was employed to assess the results. No significant statistical differences between the scores for the broad and fine focus images were found, although a non-significant higher score in image quality was shown for the fine compared with the broad focus images with large object to detector distance. No difference in image quality was shown for examinations traditionally produced with a fine focus. The study results questions the wide spread usage of fine foci for specific examinations, particularly for extremity examinations. Current practice based on international guidelines can lead to a reduced life and increased cost with little clinical benefit.

  16. Neuronal polarity selection by topography-induced focal adhesion control.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Aldo; Cecchini, Marco; Serresi, Michela; Faraci, Paolo; Pisignano, Dario; Beltram, Fabio

    2010-06-01

    Interaction between differentiating neurons and the extracellular environment guides the establishment of cell polarity during nervous system development. Developing neurons read the physical properties of the local substrate in a contact-dependent manner and retrieve essential guidance cues. In previous works we demonstrated that PC12 cell interaction with nanogratings (alternating lines of ridges and grooves of submicron size) promotes bipolarity and alignment to the substrate topography. Here, we investigate the role of focal adhesions, cell contractility, and actin dynamics in this process. Exploiting nanoimprint lithography techniques and a cyclic olefin copolymer, we engineered biocompatible nanostructured substrates designed for high-resolution live-cell microscopy. Our results reveal that neuronal polarization and contact guidance are based on a geometrical constraint of focal adhesions resulting in an angular modulation of their maturation and persistence. We report on ROCK1/2-myosin-II pathway activity and demonstrate that ROCK-mediated contractility contributes to polarity selection during neuronal differentiation. Importantly, the selection process confined the generation of actin-supported membrane protrusions and the initiation of new neurites at the poles. Maintenance of the established polarity was independent from NGF stimulation. Altogether our results imply that focal adhesions and cell contractility stably link the topographical configuration of the extracellular environment to a corresponding neuronal polarity state. PMID:20304485

  17. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  18. Spatial noise limited NETD performance of a HgCdTe hybrid focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Vishnu

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a model for theoretically estimating the residual spatial noise in a direct injection readout hybrid focal plane array (FPA) consisting of photovoltaic detectors. The procedure consists of computing the response of the pixels after taking into account the nonlinearity induced by the transfer function in the hybrid configuration and the estimated r.m.s. response nonuniformity from the known input parameters of the detector and readout arrays. A linear two point nonuniformity compensation algorithm is applied to the computed pixel responses to calculate the residual spatial noise. Signal-to-spatial noise ratio is then used to estimate the spatial noise limited NETD performance of MWIR and LWIR Hg 1- x Cd x Te hybrid FPAs.

  19. Measurement of optical modulation functions in sparsely sampled mosaic focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. B.; Thurlow, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of optical modulation functions for detectors in focal plane arrays may be somewhat more difficult under 'full-up' systems conditions as compared to ideal laboratory conditions. An idealized optical modulation test arrangement is considered along with a full-up scanned system involving an earth mapper in polar orbit. In testing the system in full-up condition, a problem arises with respect to the acquisition of knife edge response data. In order to overcome this problem, a preferred method is developed for obtaining KER data on a single scan. A special 'phased edge' reticle is developed for use in the test set-up. Attention is given to aspects of knife edge reconstruction.

  20. Low dark current LWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiml, M.; Eich, D.; Fick, W.; Figgemeier, H.; Hanna, S.; Mahlein, M.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenically cooled HgCdTe (MCT) quantum detectors are unequalled for applications requiring high imaging as well as high radiometric performance in the infrared spectral range. Compared with other technologies, they provide several advantages, such as the highest quantum efficiency, lower power dissipation compared to photoconductive devices, and fast response times, hence outperforming micro-bolometer arrays. AIM will present its latest results on n-on-p as well as p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode focal plane detector arrays at cut-off wavelengths >11 μm at 80 K. Dark current densities below the Rule'07 have been demonstrated for n-on-p devices. Slightly higher dark current densities and excellent cosmetics with very low cluster and point defect densities have been demonstrated for p-on-n devices.

  1. Case Presentation of Concomitant and Contiguous Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor and Focal Cemento-Ossifying Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Gita; Donoghue, Mandana; Reichart, Peter A; Pazuhi, Neda

    2015-01-01

    A 24 year-old male was presented for the diagnosis of an asymptomatic bony expansion in relation to the right maxillary canine and first premolar. The unilocular radiolucent lesion with central foci of calcification had caused divergence of canine and first premolar roots without any resorption. This case report details a diagnosis of two distinct disease processes of different cellular origin namely, focal cemento-ossifying dysplasia and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in a previously unreported concomitant and contiguous relationship. The diagnosis was determined by a combination of clinical, radiographic, histopathological and surgical evidence. This case highlights two points, first the need to examine all mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions with advanced imaging techniques to assess the number and extent of the lesions prior to treatment planning. Second a likely role of periodontal ligament as the tissue source for odontogenic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells required for the development of odontogenic tumors and cemento-osseous dysplasias. PMID:26464605

  2. Case Presentation of Concomitant and Contiguous Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor and Focal Cemento-Ossifying Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Gita; Donoghue, Mandana; Reichart, Peter A; Pazuhi, Neda

    2015-01-01

    A 24 year-old male was presented for the diagnosis of an asymptomatic bony expansion in relation to the right maxillary canine and first premolar. The unilocular radiolucent lesion with central foci of calcification had caused divergence of canine and first premolar roots without any resorption. This case report details a diagnosis of two distinct disease processes of different cellular origin namely, focal cemento-ossifying dysplasia and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor in a previously unreported concomitant and contiguous relationship. The diagnosis was determined by a combination of clinical, radiographic, histopathological and surgical evidence. This case highlights two points, first the need to examine all mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions with advanced imaging techniques to assess the number and extent of the lesions prior to treatment planning. Second a likely role of periodontal ligament as the tissue source for odontogenic epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells required for the development of odontogenic tumors and cemento-osseous dysplasias.

  3. Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hua; Redo-Sanchez, Albert; Zhang, X.-C.

    2006-10-01

    We present terahertz (THz) reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging of four explosive and bio-chemical materials (2, 4-DNT, Theophylline, RDX and Glutamic Acid) at a standoff imaging distance of 0.4 m. The 2 dimension (2-D) nature of this technique enables a fast acquisition time and is very close to a camera-like operation, compared to the most commonly used point emission-detection and raster scanning configuration. The samples are identified by their absorption peaks extracted from the negative derivative of the reflection coefficient respect to the frequency (-dr/dv) of each pixel. Classification of the samples is achieved by using minimum distance classifier and neural network methods with a rate of accuracy above 80% and a false alarm rate below 8%. This result supports the future application of THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) in standoff distance sensing, imaging, and identification.

  4. Intraplate stress field in South America from earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Dias, Fábio L.; Zevallos, Ivan; Naliboff, John B.

    2016-11-01

    We present an updated compilation of earthquake focal mechanisms in Brazil together with focal mechanisms from the sub-Andean region (mainly from global CMT catalogs). All earthquakes in the sub-Andean region show reverse (majority) or strike-slip faulting mechanisms. Focal mechanisms in Brazil show reverse, strike-slip and normal faulting. Focal mechanisms of nearby earthquakes in the same tectonic environment were grouped and inverted for the stress tensor. In the sub-Andean region, stresses are compressional, as expected, with the principal major compression (S1) roughly E-W, on average. A slight rotation of S1 can be observed and is controlled by the orientation of the Andean plateau. In the sub-Andean region, the intermediate principal stress (S2) is also compressional (i.e., larger than the lithostatic pressure, Sv), a feature that is not always reproduced in numerical models published in the literature. In mid-plate South America stresses seem to vary in nature and orientation. In SE Brazil and the Chaco-Pantanal basins, S1 tends to be oriented roughly E-W with S2 approximately equal to S3. This stress pattern changes to purely compressional (both SHmax and Shmin larger than Sv) in the São Francisco craton. A rotation of SHmax from E-W to SE-NW is suggested towards the Amazon region. Along the Atlantic margin, the regional stresses are very much affected by coastal effects (due to continent/ocean spreading stresses as well as flexural effects from sediment load at the continental margin). This coastal effect tends to make SHmax parallel to the coastline and Shmin (usually S3) perpendicular to the coastline. Few breakout data and in-situ measurements are available in Brazil and are generally consistent with the pattern derived from the earthquake focal mechanisms. Although numerical models of global lithospheric stresses tend to reproduce the main large-scale features in most mid-plate areas, the S1 rotation from ∼E-W in SE Brazil to SE-NW in the Amazon

  5. Measurement of the migration of a focal knee resurfacing implant with radiostereometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Articular resurfacing metal implants have been developed to treat full-thickness localized articular cartilage defects. Evaluation of the fixation of these devices is mandatory. Standard radiostereometry (RSA) is a validated method for evaluation of prosthetic migration, but it requires that tantalum beads are inserted into the implant. For technical reasons, this is not possible for focal articular resurfacing components. In this study, we therefore modified the tip of an articular knee implant and used it as a marker for RSA, and then validated the method. Material and methods We modified the tip of a resurfacing component into a hemisphere with a radius of 3 mm, marked it with a 1.0-mm tantalum marker, and implanted it into a sawbone marked with 6 tantalum beads. Point-motion RSA of the “hemisphere bead” using standard automated RSA as the gold standard was compared to manual measurement of the tip hemisphere. 20 repeated stereograms with gradual shifts of position of the specimen between each double exposure were used for the analysis. The tip motion was compared to the point motion of the hemisphere bead to determine the accuracy and precision. Results The accuracy of the manual tip hemisphere method was 0.08–0.19 mm and the precision ranged from 0.12 mm to 0.33 mm. Interpretation The accuracy and precision for translations is acceptable when using a small hemisphere at the tip of a focal articular knee resurfacing implant instead of tantalum marker beads. Rotations of the implant cannot be evaluated. The method is accurate and precise enough to allow detection of relevant migration, and it will be used for future clinical trials with the new implant. PMID:24286562

  6. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Medecki, Hector

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams.

  7. Phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Medecki, H.

    1998-11-10

    Disclosed is a point diffraction interferometer for evaluating the quality of a test optic. In operation, the point diffraction interferometer includes a source of radiation, the test optic, a beam divider, a reference wave pinhole located at an image plane downstream from the test optic, and a detector for detecting an interference pattern produced between a reference wave emitted by the pinhole and a test wave emitted from the test optic. The beam divider produces separate reference and test beams which focus at different laterally separated positions on the image plane. The reference wave pinhole is placed at a region of high intensity (e.g., the focal point) for the reference beam. This allows reference wave to be produced at a relatively high intensity. Also, the beam divider may include elements for phase shifting one or both of the reference and test beams. 8 figs.

  8. Curved-Focal-Plane Arrays Using Deformed-Membrane Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Jones, Todd

    2004-01-01

    A versatile and simple approach to the design and fabrication of curved-focal-plane arrays of silicon-based photodetectors is being developed. This approach is an alternative to the one described in "Curved Focal-Plane Arrays Using Back- Illuminated High-Purity Photodetectors" (NPO-30566), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 10a. As in the cited prior article, the basic idea is to improve the performance of an imaging instrument and simplify the optics needed to obtain a given level of performance by making an image sensor (in this case, an array of photodetectors) conform to a curved focal surface, instead of designing the optics to project an image onto a flat focal surface. There is biological precedent for curved-focal-surface designs: retinas - the image sensors in eyes - conform to the naturally curved focal surfaces of eye lenses. The present approach is applicable to both front-side- and back-side-illuminated, membrane photodetector arrays and is being demonstrated on charge-coupled devices (CCDs). The very-large scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry of such a CCD or other array is fabricated on the front side of a silicon substrate, then the CCD substrate is attached temporarily to a second substrate for mechanical support, then material is removed from the back to obtain the CCD membrane, which typically has a thickness between 10 and 20 m. In the case of a CCD designed to operate in back-surface illumination, delta doping can be performed after thinning to enhance the sensitivity. This approach is independent of the design and method of fabrication of the front-side VLSI circuitry and does not involve any processing of a curved silicon substrate. In this approach, a third substrate would be prepared by polishing one of its surfaces to a required focal-surface curvature. A CCD membrane fabricated as described above would be pressed against, deformed into conformity with, and bonded to, the curved surface. The technique used to press and

  9. Evaluating localized prostate cancer and identifying candidates for focal therapy.

    PubMed

    Sartor, A Oliver; Hricak, Hedvig; Wheeler, Thomas M; Coleman, Jonathan; Penson, David F; Carroll, Peter R; Rubin, Mark A; Scardino, Peter T

    2008-12-01

    Can focal therapy successfully control prostate cancer? Also, if so, which patients should be considered eligible? With limited data available from relatively few patients, these questions are difficult to answer. At this writing, the most likely candidates for focal therapy are patients with low-risk, small-volume tumors, located in 1 region or sector of the prostate, who would benefit from early intervention. The difficulty lies in reliably identifying these men. The larger number of cores obtained in each needle biopsy session has increased both the detection of prostate cancer and the potential risk of overtreating many patients whose cancers pose very little risk to life or health. Urologists typically perform at least a 12-core template biopsy. Although the debate continues about the optimal template, laterally and peripherally directed biopsies have been shown to improve the diagnostic yield. However, as many as 25% of tumors arise anteriorly and can be missed with peripherally directed techniques. Prostate cancer tends to be multifocal, even in its earliest stages. However, the secondary cancers are usually smaller and less aggressive than the index cancer. They appear similar to the incidental cancers found in cystoprostatectomy specimens and appear to have little effect on prognosis in surgical series. When a single focus of cancer is found in 1 core, physicians rightly suspect that more foci of cancer are present in the prostate. Assessing the risk in these patients is challenging when determined by the biopsy data alone. To predict the presence of a very low-risk or "indolent" cancer, nomograms have been developed to incorporate clinical stage, Gleason grade, prostate-specific antigen levels, and prostate volume, along with the quantitative analysis of the biopsy results. Transperineal "mapping" or "saturation" biopsies have been advocated to detect cancers missed or underestimated by previous transrectal biopsies. This approach could provide the

  10. Myxococcus xanthus Gliding Motors Are Elastically Coupled to the Substrate as Predicted by the Focal Adhesion Model of Gliding Motility

    PubMed Central

    Balagam, Rajesh; Litwin, Douglas B.; Czerwinski, Fabian; Sun, Mingzhai; Kaplan, Heidi B.; Shaevitz, Joshua W.; Igoshin, Oleg A.

    2014-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus is a model organism for studying bacterial social behaviors due to its ability to form complex multi-cellular structures. Knowledge of M. xanthus surface gliding motility and the mechanisms that coordinated it are critically important to our understanding of collective cell behaviors. Although the mechanism of gliding motility is still under investigation, recent experiments suggest that there are two possible mechanisms underlying force production for cell motility: the focal adhesion mechanism and the helical rotor mechanism, which differ in the biophysics of the cell–substrate interactions. Whereas the focal adhesion model predicts an elastic coupling, the helical rotor model predicts a viscous coupling. Using a combination of computational modeling, imaging, and force microscopy, we find evidence for elastic coupling in support of the focal adhesion model. Using a biophysical model of the M. xanthus cell, we investigated how the mechanical interactions between cells are affected by interactions with the substrate. Comparison of modeling results with experimental data for cell-cell collision events pointed to a strong, elastic attachment between the cell and substrate. These results are robust to variations in the mechanical and geometrical parameters of the model. We then directly measured the motor-substrate coupling by monitoring the motion of optically trapped beads and find that motor velocity decreases exponentially with opposing load. At high loads, motor velocity approaches zero velocity asymptotically and motors remain bound to beads indicating a strong, elastic attachment. PMID:24810164

  11. Intermittent rhythmic delta activity (IRDA) morphology cannot distinguish between focal and diffuse brain disturbances.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, M Y; Chistik, V; Chapman, J; Korczyn, A D

    1999-03-15

    IRDA (intermittent rhythmic delta activity) is an abnormal generalized EEG pattern that is not specific to any single etiology and can occur with diffuse or focal cerebral disturbances. To determine whether different electrographic features of IRDA and associated EEG findings can differentiate underlying focal from diffuse brain disturbances, we performed a blind analysis of 58 consecutive EEGs with an IRDA pattern, recorded from 1993 until 1996, in which we evaluated posterior background activity, focal slowing and IRDA characteristics (frequency, distribution, duration, symmetry and abundance). The clinical diagnosis, state of consciousness and CT brain findings were retrieved from the patients' hospital records. There were 58 patients (33 females; mean age, 58+/-21 years). Twelve (21%) had only focal brain lesions, while 46 (79%) had diffuse brain abnormalities, (15 diffuse structural, 19 metabolic abnormalities, 12 postictal). Normal consciousness and focal EEG slowing were more frequent in patients with focal abnormalities, however, this was not statistically significant. Of the patients with focal abnormality, 11 (92%) had normal posterior background activity either bilaterally (n=4) or contralateral to the focal lesion (n=7). Bilaterally normal posterior background activity was observed in about 30% in both groups. Bilaterally abnormal posterior background activity was apparent in one patient (8%) with focal brain lesion and in 31 patients (67%) with diffuse brain abnormalities (P<0.0001). There were no significant differences in IRDA electrographic features between the focal group and the group with diffuse brain disturbances. We conclude that IRDA morphology cannot distinguish between focal and diffuse brain abnormalities.

  12. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes that occurred in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin was divided into 9 regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the good station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes out of the 494 mechanisms we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in good agreement with the Arava fault on the eastern side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of sigma1 and sigma2 or the switching of sigma2 and sigma3as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  13. Temperament and character properties of primary focal hyperhidrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a health problem, which has negative effects on the patient's quality of life and significantly affects the patients’ daily activities, social and business life. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperament and character properties of patients diagnosed with primary focal hyperhidrosis. Methods Fifty-six primary focal hyperhidrosis (22.42 ± 7.80) and 49 control subjects (24.48 ± 5.17) participated in the study. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for PFH were referred to psychiatry clinic where the subjects were evaluated through Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I and Temperament and Character Inventory. Results In order to examine the difference between the PFH and control group in terms of temperament and character properties, one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted. In terms of temperament properties, PFH group took significantly higher scores than control group in Fatigability and asthenia dimension. In terms of character properties, PFH group scored significantly lower than control group in Purposefulness , Resourcefulness , Self-Directedness and scored significantly higher than control group in Self-forgetfulness and Self-Transcendence. Conclusion Temperament and character features of PFH patients were different from healthy group and it was considered that these features were affected by many factors including genetic, biological, environmental, socio-cultural elements. During the follow-up of PFH cases, psychiatric evaluation is important and interventions, especially psychotherapeutic interventions can increase the chances of success of the dermatological treatments and can have a positive impact on the quality of life and social cohesion of chronic cases. PMID:23311945

  14. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H.; Bodine, L. I.; Bonn, J.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, T. H.; Chaoui, Z.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, P. J.; Dunmore, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F. M.; Furse, D.; Gemmeke, H.; Glück, F.; Harms, F.; Harper, G. C.; Hartmann, J.; Howe, M. A.; Kaboth, A.; Kelsey, J.; Knauer, M.; Kopmann, A.; Leber, M. L.; Martin, E. L.; Middleman, K. J.; Myers, A. W.; Oblath, N. S.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, D. A.; Petzold, L.; Phillips, D. G.; Renschler, P.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thümmler, T.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, B. A.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wüstling, S.

    2015-04-01

    The focal-plane detector system for the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high-vacuum system, a high-vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system. It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation.

  15. Steroid-responsive polyradiculopathy in association with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Andrew R.; Gamble, Paul; Pollock, Anne Marie; Joss, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with simultaneous increasing muscle weakness and nephrotic syndrome. A renal biopsy confirmed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Her neurological diagnosis best fitted with a Guillain–Barre-like syndrome. There have been several cases of FSGS in combination with both conventional and atypical Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS). Our patient was treated with high-dose steroids and resolution of both nephrotic syndrome and neurological symptoms occurred over 6 months. This article reviews all previously published presentations of this nature and discusses putative mechanisms for the development of concurrent FSGS and GBS. PMID:26069832

  16. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    DOEpatents

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  17. Focal plane detectors possible detector technologies for OWL/AIRWATCH

    SciTech Connect

    Flyckt, Esso

    1998-06-15

    New satellite-born projects OWL and AIRWATCH will need single-photon focal-plane detectors of a million pixels in a design which is optimized to the focusing optics and electronics at acceptable cost. We discuss different phototube possibilities and their pros and cons with crude cost estimates. We conclude that a multichannel-photomultiplier solution is safe. A better compromise may be to adapt a 6 or 9 inch X-ray image intensifier tube or develop a 12 inch image intensifier for detecting individual photons, and adapt the optics to have many mirror modules. The possibility of developing super-large-area phototubes is also discussed.

  18. Innovative focal plane design for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Wilfried; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Future large drift-scan space telescopes, providing high angular resolution and sensitive observations, require long linear focal planes covering large fields of view. In order to reach higher on-earth spatial resolution while keeping a large field of view, the use of homothetic imaging systems is prohibitive for VIS/IR applications. Based on Integral Field Unit technology developed for ground based instrumentation, we present an innovative optical system reorganizing a 1D field of view on a 2D detector array. Such a solution presents a high gain in terms of volume and weight, allowing compact cryogenic systems for IR observations.

  19. Assembly and mechanosensory function of focal adhesions: experiments and models.

    PubMed

    Bershadsky, Alexander D; Ballestrem, Christoph; Carramusa, Letizia; Zilberman, Yuliya; Gilquin, Benoit; Khochbin, Saadi; Alexandrova, Antonina Y; Verkhovsky, Alexander B; Shemesh, Tom; Kozlov, Michael M

    2006-04-01

    Initial integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions (focal complexes) appear underneath the lamellipodia, in the regions of the "fast" centripetal flow driven by actin polymerization. Once formed, these adhesions convert the flow behind them into a "slow", myosin II-driven mode. Some focal complexes then turn into elongated focal adhesions (FAs) associated with contractile actomyosin bundles (stress fibers). Myosin II inhibition does not suppress formation of focal complexes but blocks their conversion into mature FAs and further FA growth. Application of external pulling force promotes FA growth even under conditions when myosin II activity is blocked. Thus, individual FAs behave as mechanosensors responding to the application of force by directional assembly. We proposed a thermodynamic model for the mechanosensitivity of FAs, taking into account that an elastic molecular aggregate subject to pulling forces tends to grow in the direction of force application by incorporating additional subunits. This simple model can explain a variety of processes typical of FA behavior. Assembly of FAs is triggered by the small G-protein Rho via activation of two major targets, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and the formin homology protein, Dia1. ROCK controls creation of myosin II-driven forces, while Dia1 is involved in the response of FAs to these forces. Expression of the active form of Dia1, allows the external force-induced assembly of mature FAs, even in conditions when Rho is inhibited. Conversely, downregulation of Dia1 by siRNA prevents FA maturation even if Rho is activated. Dia1 and other formins cap barbed (fast growing) ends of actin filaments, allowing insertion of the new actin monomers. We suggested a novel mechanism of such "leaky" capping based on an assumption of elasticity of the formin/barbed end complex. Our model predicts that formin-mediated actin polymerization should be greatly enhanced by application of external pulling force. Thus, the formin-actin complex

  20. Assembly and mechanosensory function of focal adhesions: experiments and models.

    PubMed

    Bershadsky, Alexander D; Ballestrem, Christoph; Carramusa, Letizia; Zilberman, Yuliya; Gilquin, Benoit; Khochbin, Saadi; Alexandrova, Antonina Y; Verkhovsky, Alexander B; Shemesh, Tom; Kozlov, Michael M

    2006-04-01

    Initial integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions (focal complexes) appear underneath the lamellipodia, in the regions of the "fast" centripetal flow driven by actin polymerization. Once formed, these adhesions convert the flow behind them into a "slow", myosin II-driven mode. Some focal complexes then turn into elongated focal adhesions (FAs) associated with contractile actomyosin bundles (stress fibers). Myosin II inhibition does not suppress formation of focal complexes but blocks their conversion into mature FAs and further FA growth. Application of external pulling force promotes FA growth even under conditions when myosin II activity is blocked. Thus, individual FAs behave as mechanosensors responding to the application of force by directional assembly. We proposed a thermodynamic model for the mechanosensitivity of FAs, taking into account that an elastic molecular aggregate subject to pulling forces tends to grow in the direction of force application by incorporating additional subunits. This simple model can explain a variety of processes typical of FA behavior. Assembly of FAs is triggered by the small G-protein Rho via activation of two major targets, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and the formin homology protein, Dia1. ROCK controls creation of myosin II-driven forces, while Dia1 is involved in the response of FAs to these forces. Expression of the active form of Dia1, allows the external force-induced assembly of mature FAs, even in conditions when Rho is inhibited. Conversely, downregulation of Dia1 by siRNA prevents FA maturation even if Rho is activated. Dia1 and other formins cap barbed (fast growing) ends of actin filaments, allowing insertion of the new actin monomers. We suggested a novel mechanism of such "leaky" capping based on an assumption of elasticity of the formin/barbed end complex. Our model predicts that formin-mediated actin polymerization should be greatly enhanced by application of external pulling force. Thus, the formin-actin complex

  1. Initiation, Propagation, and Termination of Partial (Focal) Seizures

    PubMed Central

    de Curtis, Marco; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The neurophysiological patterns that correlate with partial (focal) seizures are well defined in humans by standard electroencephalogram (EEG) and presurgical depth electrode recordings. Seizure patterns with similar features are reproduced in animal models of partial seizures and epilepsy. However, the network determinants that support interictal spikes, as well as the initiation, progression, and termination of seizures, are still elusive. Recent findings show that inhibitory networks are prominently involved at the onset of these seizures, and that extracellular changes in potassium contribute to initiate and sustain seizure progression. The end of a partial seizure correlates with an increase in network synchronization, which possibly involves both excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:26134843

  2. Focal thinning of the cerebral cortex in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sailer, Michael; Fischl, Bruce; Salat, David; Tempelmann, Claus; Schönfeld, Mircea Ariel; Busa, Evelina; Bodammer, Nils; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dale, Anders

    2003-08-01

    Brain atrophy as determined by quantitative MRI can be used to characterize disease progression in multiple sclerosis. Many studies have addressed white matter (WM) alterations leading to atrophy, while changes of the cerebral cortex have been studied to a lesser extent. In vivo, the cerebral cortex has been difficult to study due to its complex structure and regional variability. Measurement of cerebral cortex thickness at different disease stages may provide new insights into grey matter (GM) pathology. In the present investigation, we evaluated in vivo cortical thickness and its relationship to disability, disease duration, WM T2 hyper-intense and T1 hypo-intense lesion volumes. High-resolution MRI brain scans were obtained in 20 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis and 15 age-matched normal subjects. A novel method of automated surface reconstruction yielded measurements of the cortical thickness for each subject's entire brain and computed cross-subject statistics based on the cortical anatomy. Statistical thickness difference maps were generated by performing t-tests between patient and control groups and individual thickness measures were submitted to analyses of variance to investigate the relationship between cortical thickness and clinical variables. The mean overall thickness of the cortical ribbon was reduced in multiple sclerosis patients compared with controls [2.30 mm (SD 0.14) versus 2.48 mm (SD 0.11)], showing a significant main effect of group (controls versus patients). In patients, we found significant main effects for disability, disease duration, T2 and T1 lesion volumes. The visualization of statistical difference maps of the cortical GM thickness on inflated brains across the cortical surface revealed a distinct distribution of significant focal thinning of the cerebral cortex in addition to the diffuse cortical atrophy. Focal cortical thinning in frontal [2.37 mm (SD 0.17) versus 2.73 mm (SD 0.25)] and in temporal [2.65 mm

  3. Laser beacon wave-front sensing without focal anisoplanatism.

    PubMed

    Buscher, D F; Love, G D; Myers, R M

    2002-02-01

    Wave-front sensing from artificial beacons is normally performed by formation of a focused spot in the atmosphere and sensing of the wave-front distortions produced during the beam's return passage. We propose an alternative method that senses the distortions produced during the outgoing path by forming an intensity pattern in the atmosphere that is then viewed from the ground. A key advantage of this method is that a parallel beam is used, and therefore the wave-front measurements will not suffer from the effects of focal anisoplanatism. We also envisage other geometries, all based on the concept of projecting a pupil pattern onto the atmosphere.

  4. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia masquerading as a residual cyst.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Rajat; Sandhu, Simarpreet V; Bansal, Himanta; Behl, Rashi; Bhullar, Ramanpreet Kaur

    2012-04-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a benign fibroosseous condition that can be seen in dentulous and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however, follow-up is essential due to the possibility that it can progress to a condition called florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. We report a case of FCOD of mandible in a 25-year-old female. Clinically, the lesion resembled periapical pathosis of odontogenic origin. An attempt has been made to discuss the clinical and histopathologic features along with differential diagnosis of cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  5. Super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light by ultra-long focal length planar lens based on binary amplitude-phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Li, Yuyan; Yu, Anping; Wen, Zhongquan; Dai, Luru; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zhihai; Jiang, Senlin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xianyou; Lin, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In traditional optics, the focal spot size of a conventional lens is restricted to the diffraction limit 0.5λ/NA, where λ is the wavelength in vacuum and NA is the numerical aperture of the lens. Recently, various sub-diffraction focusing optical devices have been demonstrated, but they usually have short focal length and high numerical aperture. Moreover, they always suffer the problem of huge sidelobes near the focal spot and small field of view, especially when the focal spot size is less than the super-oscillation criteria 0.38λ/NA. To address the problem, here, we reported a far-field sub-diffraction point-focusing lens based on binary phase and amplitude modulation with ultra-long focal length 252.8 μm (399.5λ) and small numerical aperture 0.78, and experimentally demonstrated a super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light with spot size 287 nm (0.454λ), smaller than the diffraction limit 0.64λ and the super-oscillation criterion 0.487λ. What's more, on the focal plane, in the measured area within the radius of 142λ, the largest sidelobe intensity is less than 26% of the central lobe intensity. Such ultra-long distance super-oscillatory focusing with small sidelobes and large field of view has great potential applications in far-field super-resolution microscopy, ultra-high-density optical storage and nano-fabrication. PMID:27353239

  6. Super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light by ultra-long focal length planar lens based on binary amplitude-phase modulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Li, Yuyan; Yu, Anping; Wen, Zhongquan; Dai, Luru; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zhihai; Jiang, Senlin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xianyou; Lin, Feng

    2016-01-01

    In traditional optics, the focal spot size of a conventional lens is restricted to the diffraction limit 0.5λ/NA, where λ is the wavelength in vacuum and NA is the numerical aperture of the lens. Recently, various sub-diffraction focusing optical devices have been demonstrated, but they usually have short focal length and high numerical aperture. Moreover, they always suffer the problem of huge sidelobes near the focal spot and small field of view, especially when the focal spot size is less than the super-oscillation criteria 0.38λ/NA. To address the problem, here, we reported a far-field sub-diffraction point-focusing lens based on binary phase and amplitude modulation with ultra-long focal length 252.8 μm (399.5λ) and small numerical aperture 0.78, and experimentally demonstrated a super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light with spot size 287 nm (0.454λ), smaller than the diffraction limit 0.64λ and the super-oscillation criterion 0.487λ. What’s more, on the focal plane, in the measured area within the radius of 142λ, the largest sidelobe intensity is less than 26% of the central lobe intensity. Such ultra-long distance super-oscillatory focusing with small sidelobes and large field of view has great potential applications in far-field super-resolution microscopy, ultra-high-density optical storage and nano-fabrication. PMID:27353239

  7. Focal contacts as mechanosensors: externally applied local mechanical force induces growth of focal contacts by an mDia1-dependent and ROCK-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Riveline, D; Zamir, E; Balaban, N Q; Schwarz, U S; Ishizaki, T; Narumiya, S; Kam, Z; Geiger, B; Bershadsky, A D

    2001-06-11

    The transition of cell-matrix adhesions from the initial punctate focal complexes into the mature elongated form, known as focal contacts, requires GTPase Rho activity. In particular, activation of myosin II-driven contractility by a Rho target known as Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) was shown to be essential for focal contact formation. To dissect the mechanism of Rho-dependent induction of focal contacts and to elucidate the role of cell contractility, we applied mechanical force to vinculin-containing dot-like adhesions at the cell edge using a micropipette. Local centripetal pulling led to local assembly and elongation of these structures and to their development into streak-like focal contacts, as revealed by the dynamics of green fluorescent protein-tagged vinculin or paxillin and interference reflection microscopy. Inhibition of Rho activity by C3 transferase suppressed this force-induced focal contact formation. However, constitutively active mutants of another Rho target, the formin homology protein mDia1 (Watanabe, N., T. Kato, A. Fujita, T. Ishizaki, and S. Narumiya. 1999. Nat. Cell Biol. 1:136-143), were sufficient to restore force-induced focal contact formation in C3 transferase-treated cells. Force-induced formation of the focal contacts still occurred in cells subjected to myosin II and ROCK inhibition. Thus, as long as mDia1 is active, external tension force bypasses the requirement for ROCK-mediated myosin II contractility in the induction of focal contacts. Our experiments show that integrin-containing focal complexes behave as individual mechanosensors exhibiting directional assembly in response to local force. PMID:11402062

  8. An optoacoustic point source for acoustic scale model measurements.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Javier Gómez; Pulkki, Ville; Karppinen, Pasi; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-04-01

    A massless acoustic source is proposed for scale model work. This source is generated by focusing a pulsed laser beam to rapidly heat the air at the focal point. This produces an expanding small plasma ball which generates a sonic impulse that may be used as an acoustic point source. Repeatability, frequency response, and directivity of the source were measured to show that it can serve as a massless point source. The impulse response of a rectangular space was determined using this type of source. A good match was found between the predicted and the measured impulse responses of the space.

  9. Basic mechanisms leading to focal emphysema in coal workers' pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N. )

    1990-10-01

    Coal miners develop focal emphysema characterized by dilatation of second- and third-order respiratory bronchioles with coal mine dust-laden macrophages infiltrating the wall. A reticulin network with small amounts of collagen and atrophy of smooth muscle occurs. To evaluate the mechanisms of lung injury associated with this lesion, 17 long-term non- or ex-smoking West Virginia underground coal miners underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and were compared to healthy nonsmoker and smoker controls. The coal miners had evidence of an alveolar macrophage-neutrophil alveolitis with a significant increase in neutrophils/microliter of epithelial lining fluid and an increased gallium lung scan index (206 +/- 26 units). Alveolar macrophages lavaged from coal miners spontaneously released exaggerated amounts of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in vitro compared to nonsmoking controls. Coal workers had significantly elevated levels of neutrophil elastase in BAL fluid complexed with alpha 1-antitrypsin (P less than 0.01) and normal levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin. An accumulation of activated, dust-laden inflammatory cells with increased release of oxidants and elastase may contribute to the development of focal emphysema identified at postmortem in miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

  10. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S.

    2014-08-04

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7 μm, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10 × 10{sup −7} A/cm{sup 2} at −5 mV and 150 K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320 × 256 IC focal plane array up to 180 K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120 K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications.

  11. Implications of the focal beam profile in serial femtosecond crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Lorenzo; Chapman, Henry N.; Metcalf, Peter

    2015-05-12

    The photon density profile of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) beam at the focal position is a critical parameter for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), but is difficult to measure because of the destructive power of the beam. A novel high intensity radiation induced phasing method (HIRIP) has been proposed as a general experimental approach for protein structure determination, but has proved to be sensitive to variations of the X-ray intensity, with uniform incident fluence desired for best performance. Here we show that experimental SFX data collected at the nano-focus chamber of the Coherent X-ray Imaging end-station at the Linac Coherent Light Source using crystals with a limited size distribution suggests an average profile of the X-ray beam that has a large variation of intensity. We propose a new method to improve the quality of high fluence data for HI-RIP, by identifying and removing diffraction patterns from crystals exposed to the low intensity region of the beam. The method requires crystals of average size comparable to the width of the focal spot.

  12. Antenna coupled detectors for 2D staring focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritz, Michael A.; Kolasa, Borys; Lail, Brian; Burkholder, Robert; Chen, Leonard

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmW)/sub-mmW/THz region of the electro-magnetic spectrum enables imaging thru clothing and other obscurants such as fog, clouds, smoke, sand, and dust. Therefore considerable interest exists in developing low cost millimeter-wave imaging (MMWI) systems. Previous MMWI systems have evolved from crude mechanically scanned, single element receiver systems into very complex multiple receiver camera systems. Initial systems required many expensive mmW integrated-circuit low-noise amplifiers. In order to reduce the cost and complexity of the existing systems, attempts have been made to develop new mmW imaging sensors employing direct detection arrays. In this paper, we report on Raytheon's recent development of a unique focal plane array technology, which operates broadly from the mmW through the sub-mmW/THz region. Raytheon's innovative nano-antenna based detector enables low cost production of 2D staring mmW focal plane arrays (mmW FPA), which not only have equivalent sensitivity and performance to existing MMWI systems, but require no mechanical scanning.

  13. Human Neuroma-in-Continuity Contains Focal Deficits in Myelination.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Arie C; Tannemaat, Martijn R; van Duinen, Sjoerd G; Verhaagen, Joost; Malessy, Martijn J A; De Winter, Fred

    2015-09-01

    Functional recovery does not occur in 10% of patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. In these patients, resection of a neuroma-in-continuity (NIC) and surgical nerve reconstruction are required. The formation of a NIC seems to prohibit functional recovery, but the underlying biologic mechanisms for this failure are poorly understood. We systematically analyzed a large series of NIC tissue samples from 17 neonatal and 3 adult patients using an array of immunohistochemical techniques. In a large proportion of patients (74%), the NIC contained multiple focal globular areas with markedly diminished myelination. These focal myelin deficits (FMDs) contain Schwann cells that enwrap axons in an apparently normal configuration but do not form myelin. Biomathematical analysis of a 2-cm neuroma predicted a higher-than-95% probability that an axon would encounter 10 FMDs. Axon segments in FMDs also had disturbed nodes of Ranvier (i.e., FMDs contained significantly fewer clustered Na(v)1.6 channels and decreased Caspr and ankyrin G). These observations indicate that axons in NIC course through multiple FMDs and that this may be the pathobiologic basis for conduction blocks in patients with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. These observations indicate the need for novel strategies to promote functional recovery after neonatal brachial plexus palsy by improving myelination in the NIC.

  14. Performance characterization of a PIAA complex focal plane mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Pluzhnik, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    The Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) is an architecture for directly observing extrasolar planets, and can achieve performance near the theoretical limits for any direct-detection instrument. PIAACMC can be designed for centrally-obscured and segmented apertures, which is particularly useful for next-generation telescopes. The PIAACMC architecture includes aspheric PIAA optics, and a complex phase-shifting focal plane mask that provides a pi phase shift to a portion of the on-axis starlight. The phase-shifted starlight is forced to interfere destructively with the un-shifted starlight, causing the starlight to be eliminated, and allowing a region for high-contrast imaging near the star.The main challenge in designing the complex focal plane mask is to achieve deep contrast over a wide spectral band. Another challenge for the mask design is to avoid sharp features, which can be difficult to manufacture. We present a solution to the design challenge by dividing the mask into sections and optimizing the phase shift produced by each section. We also demonstrate a method to design the mask with a smooth profile. One remaining challenge is to measure the performance of the mask. We present a method to compute the phase profile of the mask based on measurements of the diffraction pattern. The computed phase profile is used to simulate the expected coronagraph performance.

  15. A model of task-specific focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Müller, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    Task-specific focal dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. The condition is most frequent in musicians. Until today, the aetiology of focal hand dystonia is not completely understood, but there is growing evidence for an abnormal cortical processing of sensory information, as well as degraded representation of motor functions. It was demonstrated that in the somatosensory cortex the topographical location of sensory inputs from individual fingers is corrupted. Occasionally, a change in sensory information of the hand may at least temporarily improve the condition. This phenomenon is called sensory trick. In this paper, we propose a model of encoding of sensory stimuli which could explain the task specificity of cortical representations of the fingers or other effectors in the context of dystonia. In the framework of this model a sensory stimulus is encoded as a signal vector of higher dimension. A part of its components directly represents the sensory stimulus, while the remaining components describe the context. This model does not only account for the task specificity, but may also explain some characteristics of the retraining process in this disorder.

  16. Prostate focused ultrasound focal therapy--imaging for the future.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Gelet, Albert; Crouzet, Sébastien; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2012-12-01

    Treatment of prostate cancer using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focal therapy will become a reliable treatment option only if several conditions are fulfilled. These conditions concern patient selection, assessment of the tumour location and aggressiveness, evaluation of target tissue destruction, and detection of local recurrence or appearance of new tumours. Regarding patient selection, standard transrectal biopsies are not accurate enough and, although perineal template biopsies can detect tumours, they are invasive, expensive procedures, and there is a risk of incidental detection of insignificant cancers. In turn, multiparametric MRI is accurate for detecting and localizing high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) cancers and may provide non-invasive assessment of tumour aggressiveness. Moreover, contrast-enhanced imaging-ultrasonography or MRI-can assess post-HIFU tissue destruction and provide accurate detection of tumour recurrence, which is a key element for follow up. This Perspectives article will assess whether our current methods for cancer diagnosis, tissue targeting, and treatment follow up are accurate enough to allow the design of robust HIFU focal therapy protocols.

  17. Ambient and focal visual processing of naturalistic activity.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Michelle L; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    When people inspect a picture, they progress through two distinct phases of visual processing: an ambient, or exploratory, phase that emphasizes input from peripheral vision and rapid acquisition of low-frequency information, followed by a focal phase that emphasizes central vision, salient objects, and high-frequency information. Does this qualitative shift occur during dynamic scene viewing? If so, when? One possibility is that shifts to exploratory processing are triggered at subjective event boundaries. This shift would be adaptive, because event boundaries typically occur when activity features change and when activity becomes unpredictable. Here, we used a perceptual event segmentation task, in which people identified boundaries between meaningful units of activity, to test this hypothesis. In two studies, an eye tracker recorded eye movements and pupil size while participants first watched movies of actors engaged in everyday activities and then segmented them into meaningful events. Saccade amplitudes and fixation durations during the initial viewings suggest that event boundaries function much like the onset of a new picture during static picture presentation: Viewers initiate an ambient processing phase and then progress to focal viewing as the event progresses. These studies suggest that this shift in processing mode could play a role in the formation of mental representations of the current environment. PMID:27002550

  18. Brain polyphosphoinositide metabolism during focal ischemia in rat cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.N.; Liu, T.H.; Xu, J.; Hsu, C.Y.; Sun, G.Y. )

    1991-04-01

    Using a rat model of stroke, we examined the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the metabolism of polyphosphoinositides by injecting {sup 32}Pi into both the left and right cortices. After equilibration of the label for 2-3 hours, ischemia induced a significant decrease (p less than 0.001) in the concentrations of labeled phosphatidyl 4,5-bisphosphates (66-78%) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (64-67%) in the right middle cerebral artery cortex of four rats. The phospholipid labeling pattern in the left middle cerebral artery cortex, which sustained only mild ischemia and no permanent tissue damage, was not different from that of two sham-operated controls. However, when {sup 32}Pi was injected 1 hour after the ischemic insult, there was a significant decrease (p less than 0.01) in the incorporation of label into the phospholipids in both cortices of four ischemic rats compared with four sham-operated controls. Furthermore, differences in the phospholipid labeling pattern were observed in the left cortex compared with the sham-operated controls. The change in labeling pattern was attributed to the partial reduction in blood flow following ligation of the common carotid arteries. We provide a sensitive procedure for probing the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the polyphosphoinositide signaling pathway in the brain, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury.

  19. Changes in Neurofilament and Microtubule Distribution following Focal Axon Compression

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Adam J.; Hogan, James D.; Rajbhandari, Labchan; Shrestha, Shiva; Venkatesan, Arun; Ramesh, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of cytoskeletal derangements have been described in the setting of traumatic axonal injury (TAI), little is known of early structural changes that may serve to initiate a cascade of further axonal degeneration. Recent work by the authors has examined conformational changes in cytoskeletal constituents of neuronal axons undergoing traumatic axonal injury (TAI) following focal compression through confocal imaging data taken in vitro and in situ. The present study uses electron microscopy to understand and quantify in vitro alterations in the ultrastructural composition of microtubules and neurofilaments within neuronal axons of rats following focal compression. Standard transmission electron microscopy processing methods are used to identify microtubules, while neurofilament identification is performed using antibody labeling through gold nanoparticles. The number, density, and spacing of microtubules and neurofilaments are quantified for specimens in sham Control and Crushed groups with fixation at <1min following load. Our results indicate that the axon caliber dependency known to exist for microtubule and neurofilament metrics extends to axons undergoing TAI, with the exception of neurofilament spacing, which appears to remain constant across all Crushed axon diameters. Confidence interval comparisons between Control and Crushed cytoskeletal measures suggests early changes in the neurofilament spatial distributions within axons undergoing TAI may precede microtubule changes in response to applied loads. This may serve as a trigger for further secondary damage to the axon, representing a key insight into the temporal aspects of cytoskeletal degeneration at the component level, and suggests the rapid removal of neurofilament sidearms as one possible mechanism. PMID:26111004

  20. Abnormal sensorimotor processing in pianists with focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Vanessa K; Bradshaw, John L; Nicholls, Michael E; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2004-01-01

    Focal dystonia is a task-specific sensorimotor disorder that is characterized by sustained muscle contractions, which may cause twisting, repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. In the current study, the contingent negative variation was recorded in a group of professional pianists with focal dystonia (musicians' cramp) and compared to pianist controls. The CNV is composed of an early stimulus processing component and a later response preparation component. The CNV can be elicited in tasks that require movement and nonmovement. A subtractive analysis with a nonmovement condition was used to minimize effects of the CNV not related to response preparation. The current results revealed no group differences for the early CNV (processing of stimulus properties). In contrast, a significant group difference was found in the late CNV (movement preparation) between patients and controls, with the patients showing significantly higher activation prior to movement. The current study demonstrates an increase in overall sensorimotor activity prior to movement in patients with musicians' cramp. This overexcitation of the cortex may be the result of a dysfunction in the globus pallidus, resulting in a lack of inhibition and/or an increase in excitation.

  1. Integrin activation and focal complex formation in cardiac hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laser, M.; Willey, C. D.; Jiang, W.; Cooper, G. 4th; Menick, D. R.; Zile, M. R.; Kuppuswamy, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by both remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypertrophic growth of the cardiocytes. Here we show increased expression and cytoskeletal association of the ECM proteins fibronectin and vitronectin in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium. These changes are accompanied by cytoskeletal binding and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925, c-Src at Tyr-416, recruitment of the adapter proteins p130(Cas), Shc, and Nck, and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1/2. A synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif of fibronectin and vitronectin was used to stimulate adult feline cardiomyocytes cultured on laminin or within a type-I collagen matrix. Whereas cardiocytes under both conditions showed RGD-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, only collagen-embedded cells exhibited cytoskeletal assembly of FAK, c-Src, Nck, and Shc. In RGD-stimulated collagen-embedded cells, FAK was phosphorylated only at Tyr-397 and c-Src association occurred without Tyr-416 phosphorylation and p130(Cas) association. Therefore, c-Src activation is not required for its cytoskeletal binding but may be important for additional phosphorylation of FAK. Overall, our study suggests that multiple signaling pathways originate in pressure-overloaded heart following integrin engagement with ECM proteins, including focal complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, and many of these pathways can be activated in cardiomyocytes via RGD-stimulated integrin activation.

  2. Application of cooled IR focal plane arrays in thermographic cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollheim, B.; Gaertner, M.; Dammass, G.; Krausz, M.

    2016-05-01

    The usage of cooled IR Focal Plane Array detectors in thermographic or radiometric thermal imaging cameras, respectively, leads to special demands on these detectors, which are discussed in this paper. For a radiometric calibration of wide temperature measuring ranges from -40 up to 2,000 °C, a linear and time-stable response of the photodiode array has to be ensured for low as well as high radiation intensities. The maximum detectable photon flux is limited by the allowed shift of the photodiode's bias that should remain in the linear part of the photodiode's I(V) curve even for the highest photocurrent. This limits the measurable highest object temperature in practice earlier than the minimum possible integration time. Higher temperature measuring ranges are realized by means of neutral or spectral filters. Defense and Security applications normally provide images at the given ambient temperature with small hot spots. The usage of radiometric thermal imagers for thermography often feature larger objects with a high temperature contrast to the background. This should not generate artifacts in the image, like pixel patterns or stripes. Further issues concern the clock regime or the sub-frame capabilities of the Read-Out-Circuit and the frame rate dependency of the signal. We will briefly describe the demands on the lens design for thermal imaging cameras when using cooled IR Focal Plane Array detectors with large apertures.

  3. Curved Focal Plane Wide Field of View Telescope Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Timothy P.

    2002-12-01

    Ground-based surveillance of deep space has traditionally been the purview of optical telescope systems. Unlike their imaging counterparts, space surveillance telescopes emphasize wide field of view (FOV) over resolution, permitted the most rapid survey of the entire sky. At the same time there is a constant push to detect ever fainter objects, such as small pieces of space debris or small, distant asteroids. Unfortunately increased sensitivity requires very large aperture diameters, which when combined with the requirement for wide FOV results in very fast f/# telescopes. How far this set of requirements can be expanded is typically limited by large, complex, and costly corrector optics to flatten the wavefront. An alternative approach is to design the telescope to a curved focal plane. This is an approach that was once taken with film, but it has not been feasible with electronic focal plane arrays (FPA). A major break-through in FPA design may open up a new range of telescope design options. A new array fabrication technique now provides the ability to produce FPAs with a specified degree of curvature while preserving required electro-optical characteristics. This paper presents a design for a new space surveillance telescope utilizing these curved FPAs.

  4. Intracranial Cortical Calcifications in a Focal Epilepsy Patient with Pseudohypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye Sel; Park, Jihyung; Park, Yoonkyung; Hwang, KyoungJin; Koo, Dae Lim; Kim, Daeyoung; Seo, Dae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Patients with chronic parathyroid dysfunction often have intracranial calcification in deep gray matter (GM) and subcortical white matter (WM) of their brain. Some of them are also epilepsy patients. Although cortical etiologies are main cause of epileptic seizure, cortical calcification has not been reported in these patients. We report a newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patient whose brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed intracranial calcifications in cortical as well as subcortical areas. Blood lab revealed that he had hypocalcemia due to pseudohypoparathyroidism. Video EEG monitoring revealed the ictal EEG mainly consist of polymorphic delta to theta waves with maximum at right temporal area followed by background attenuation and muscle artifacts. The interictal EEG showed multiple focal spike-wave discharges. After given oral calcium and calcitriol supplement, his calcium and phosphorous level normalized and he remains seizure free. This is the first case to show cortical calcification in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism. Cortical calcification could be an important measure of seizure burden in these patients and thus sophisticated imaging protocols should be used to visualize the extent of calcium deposits. PMID:27390678

  5. Infrared focal plane array modeling for aerospace and automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Alain; de Borniol, Eric; Guerineau, Nicolas; Cathala, Thierry; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Ouvrier-Buffet, Jean-Louis; Castelein, Pierre; Tronel, Robert; Bisotto, Sylvette; Destefanis, Gerard L.; Chamonal, Jean-Paul

    2004-08-01

    To simulate an Enhanced Vision System (EVS), CEA/LETI Infrared Laboratory has developed two behavioural models of infrared focal plane arrays : one in the Short Wave IR and the other in the Long Wave IR band. These Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) models will be implemented on simulation platform aimed at evaluating the impact and use of infrared sensors in automotive and aeronautic applications. To be realistic, model parameters are extracted from electro-optical characterization of real components. The SWIR detector is calibrated with a 320x256 HgCdTe cooled FPA component from SOFRADIR, and the LWIR one with an uncooled micro-bolometer array from ULIS (a_Si technology from LETI). The flexibility of the models allows to simulate cameras based on these components and to forecast future ones based on different read-out circuit or detector technologies. In this paper we present the IRFPAs models, the main electro-optical characterization results and we compare some experimental measurements with simulations.

  6. Focal gap junction uncoupling and spontaneous ventricular ectopy.

    PubMed

    Gutstein, David E; Danik, Stephan B; Lewitton, Steve; France, David; Liu, Fangyu; Chen, Franklin L; Zhang, Jie; Ghodsi, Newsha; Morley, Gregory E; Fishman, Glenn I

    2005-09-01

    Genetic studies in the mouse have demonstrated that conditional cardiac-restricted loss of connexin43 (Cx43), the major ventricular gap junction protein, is highly arrhythmogenic. However, whether more focal gap junction remodeling, as is commonly seen in acquired cardiomyopathies, influences the propensity for arrhythmogenesis is not known. We examined electrophysiological properties and the frequency of spontaneous and inducible arrhythmias in genetically engineered chimeric mice derived from injection of Cx43-deficient embryonic stem cells into wild-type recipient blastocysts. Chimeric mice had numerous well-circumscribed microscopic Cx43-negative foci in their hearts, comprising approximately 15% of the total surface area as determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Systolic function in the chimeric mice was significantly depressed as measured echocardiographically (19.0% decline in fractional shortening compared with controls, P < 0.05) and by invasive hemodynamics (17.6% reduction in change of pressure over time, P < 0.01). Chimeras had significantly more spontaneous arrhythmic events than controls (P < 0.01), including frequent runs of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in some of the chimeric mice. However, in contrast to mice with conditional cardiac-resricted loss of Cx43 in the heart, no sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias were observed. We conclude that focal areas of uncoupling in the myocardium increase the likelihood of arrhythmic triggers, but more widespread uncoupling is required to support sustained arrhythmias. PMID:15894579

  7. Focal gap junction uncoupling and spontaneous ventricular ectopy

    PubMed Central

    Gutstein, David E.; Danik, Stephan B.; Lewitton, Steve; France, David; Liu, Fangyu; Chen, Franklin L.; Zhang, Jie; Ghodsi, Newsha; Morley, Gregory E.; Fishman, Glenn I.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic studies in the mouse have demonstrated that conditional cardiac-restricted loss of connexin43 (Cx43), the major ventricular gap junction protein, is highly arrhythmogenic. However, whether more focal gap junction remodeling, as is commonly seen in acquired cardiomyopathies, influences the propensity for arrhythmogenesis is not known. We examined electrophysiological properties and the frequency of spontaneous and inducible arrhythmias in genetically engineered chimeric mice derived from injection of Cx43-deficient embryonic stem cells into wild-type recipient blastocysts. Chimeric mice had numerous well-circumscribed microscopic Cx43-negative foci in their hearts, comprising ~15% of the total surface area as determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Systolic function in the chimeric mice was significantly depressed as measured echocardiographically (19.0% decline in fractional shortening compared with controls, P < 0.05) and by invasive hemodynamics (17.6% reduction in change of pressure over time, P < 0.01). Chimeras had significantly more spontaneous arrhythmic events than controls (P < 0.01), including frequent runs of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in some of the chimeric mice. However, in contrast to mice with conditional cardiac-resticted loss of Cx43 in the heart, no sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias were observed. We conclude that focal areas of uncoupling in the myocardium increase the likelihood of arrhythmic triggers, but more widespread uncoupling is required to support sustained arrhythmias. PMID:15894579

  8. Focal accumulation of defences at sites of fungal pathogen attack

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, William; Somerville, Shauna C.

    2008-01-01

    Plants resist attack by haustorium-forming biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic fungi through fortification of the cell wall to prevent penetration through the wall and the subsequent establishment of haustorial feeding structures by the fungus. While the existence of cell wall-based defences has been known for many years, only recently have the molecular components contributing to such defences been identified. Forward genetic screens identified Arabidopsis mutants impaired in penetration resistance to powdery mildew fungi that were normally halted at the cell wall. Several loci contributing to penetration resistance have been identified and a common feature is the striking focal accumulation of proteins associated with penetration resistance at sites of interaction with fungal appressoria and penetration pegs. The focal accumulation of defence-related proteins and the deposition of cell wall reinforcements at sites of attempted fungal penetration represent an example of cell polarization and raise many questions of relevance, not only to plant pathology but also to general cell biology. PMID:18703493

  9. Focal liver lesions: Practical magnetic resonance imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Matos, António P; Velloni, Fernanda; Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Rajapaksha, Aruna; Semelka, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread of cross-sectional imaging, a growth of incidentally detected focal liver lesions (FLL) has been observed. A reliable detection and characterization of FLL is critical for optimal patient management. Maximizing accuracy of imaging in the context of FLL is paramount in avoiding unnecessary biopsies, which may result in post-procedural complications. A tremendous development of new imaging techniques has taken place during these last years. Nowadays, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in management of liver lesions, using a radiation-free technique and a safe contrast agent profile. MRI plays a key role in the non-invasive correct characterization of FLL. MRI is capable of providing comprehensive and highly accurate diagnostic information, with the additional advantage of lack of harmful ionizing radiation. These properties make MRI the mainstay for the noninvasive evaluation of focal liver lesions. In this paper we review the state-of-the-art MRI liver protocol, briefly discussing different sequence types, the unique characteristics of imaging non-cooperative patients and discuss the role of hepatocyte-specific contrast agents. A review of the imaging features of the most common benign and malignant FLL is presented, supplemented by a schematic representation of a simplistic practical approach on MRI. PMID:26261689

  10. Intracranial Cortical Calcifications in a Focal Epilepsy Patient with Pseudohypoparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ye Sel; Park, Jihyung; Park, Yoonkyung; Hwang, KyoungJin; Koo, Dae Lim; Kim, Daeyoung; Seo, Dae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic parathyroid dysfunction often have intracranial calcification in deep gray matter (GM) and subcortical white matter (WM) of their brain. Some of them are also epilepsy patients. Although cortical etiologies are main cause of epileptic seizure, cortical calcification has not been reported in these patients. We report a newly diagnosed focal epilepsy patient whose brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed intracranial calcifications in cortical as well as subcortical areas. Blood lab revealed that he had hypocalcemia due to pseudohypoparathyroidism. Video EEG monitoring revealed the ictal EEG mainly consist of polymorphic delta to theta waves with maximum at right temporal area followed by background attenuation and muscle artifacts. The interictal EEG showed multiple focal spike-wave discharges. After given oral calcium and calcitriol supplement, his calcium and phosphorous level normalized and he remains seizure free. This is the first case to show cortical calcification in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism. Cortical calcification could be an important measure of seizure burden in these patients and thus sophisticated imaging protocols should be used to visualize the extent of calcium deposits. PMID:27390678

  11. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  12. Unusual focal keratin expression in plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Quero, Giuseppe; Musarra, Teresa; Carrato, Alfredo; Fici, Michelangelo; Martini, Maurizio; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo; Alfieri, Sergio; Ricci, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor (PAMT), also known as plexiform fibromyxoma, is a rare distinctive benign intramural tumor, typical of gastric antrum, commonly causing mucosal ulceration with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia, effectively treated by complete surgical resection usually accomplished by distal gastrectomy. Methods and Results: We herein report a 47-year-old man presenting with a syncopal episode, regurgitation and epigastric discomfort, bearing a gastric antral myxoid plexiform tumor positive for α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin and, partially, for caldesmon, desmin, and CD10; CD117, DOG1, CD34, S100, CAM5.2, CK20, CK7, EMA, p53, CDX2, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, Melan-A, and HMB-45 were all negative. All these features are typical of PAMT. Of note, focal positivity for AE1/AE3 and pan-CK KL1 was also present. Conclusions: The finding of a focal keratin expression in PAMT contributes to enlarge the immunophenotypic spectrum of this tumor type and is relevant for avoiding presurgical misdiagnoses which could ultimately lead to inappropriate overtreatment of patients with PAMT. PMID:27428222

  13. A gait paradigm reveals different patterns of abnormal cerebellar motor learning in primary focal dystonias.

    PubMed

    Hoffland, B S; Veugen, L C; Janssen, M M H P; Pasman, J W; Weerdesteyn, V; van de Warrenburg, B P

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence points to a role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the abnormalities of cerebellar motor learning in primary dystonia are solely detectable in more pure forms of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning paradigms, or whether these are also present in other motor learning paradigms that rely heavily on the cerebellum but in addition require a more widespread sensorimotor network. Twenty-six patients with various forms of focal dystonia and 10 age-matched healthy controls participated in a motor learning paradigm on a split-belt treadmill. By using reflective markers, three-dimensional kinematics were recorded using a 6-camera motion analysis system. Adaptation walking parameters were analyzed offline, comparing the different dystonia groups and healthy controls. Patients with blepharospasm and writer's cramp were significantly impaired on various adaptation walking parameters. Whereas results of cervical dystonia patients did not differ from healthy controls in terms of adaptation walking parameters, differences in parameters of normal gait were found. We have here demonstrated abnormal sensorimotor adaptation with the split-belt paradigm in patients with blepharospasm and writer's cramp. This reinforces the current concept of cerebellar dysfunction in primary dystonia, and that this extends beyond more pure forms of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning paradigms. However, the finding of normal adaptation in cervical dystonia patients indicates that the pattern of cerebellar dysfunction may be slightly different for the various forms of primary focal dystonia, suggesting that actual cerebellar pathology may not be a primary driving force in dystonia.

  14. Melting point, boiling point, and symmetry.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, R; Yalkowsky, S H

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between the melting point of a compound and its chemical structure remains poorly understood. The melting point of a compound can be related to certain of its other physical chemical properties. The boiling point of a compound can be determined from additive constitutive properties, but the melting point can be estimated only with the aid of nonadditive constitutive parameters. The melting point of some non-hydrogen-bonding, rigid compounds can be estimated by the equation MP = 0.772 * BP + 110.8 * SIGMAL + 11.56 * ORTHO + 31.9 * EXPAN - 240.7 where MP is the melting point of the compound in Kelvin, BP is the boiling point, SIGMAL is the logarithm of the symmetry number, EXPAN is the cube of the eccentricity of the compound, and ORTHO indicates the number of groups that are ortho to another group.

  15. X-4 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    a wealth of data, and the cost of repairing the leak could not be justified. Although the X-4 was never designed to fly at supersonic speeds, it gathered transonic data that proved that conventional tailless swept-wing configurations were unsuitable for supersonic performance. The design suffered from noticeable instability in all directions, increasing as it approached the speed of sound. It was, however, a valuable tool for dynamic stability research. Additionally low lift-to-drag data gathered with the X-4 was later beneficial to development of the X-15. On 10 March 1954, both X-4 aircraft were returned to the Air Force. The ejection seat from the second X-4 was retained by the NACA for use in the X-1E. The first X-4 is currently on display at the United States Air Force Academy in Colorado. The second aircraft is displayed at the USAF Museum in Ohio. This movie clip running approximately 7 seconds shows the Northrop X-4 in an air-to-air view climbing away from its chase aircraft.

  16. High resolution depth-resolved imaging from multi-focal images for medical ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Konstantinos; Dalgarno, Paul A; Greenaway, Alan H; Anderson, Tom; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Sboros, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging technique providing sub-diffraction limit axial resolution for point sources is proposed. It is based on simultaneously acquired multi-focal images of the same object, and on the image metric of sharpness. The sharpness is extracted by image data and presents higher values for in-focus images. The technique is derived from biological microscopy and is validated here with simulated ultrasound data. A linear array probe is used to scan a point scatterer phantom that moves in depth with a controlled step. From the beamformed responses of each scatterer position the image sharpness is assessed. Values from all positions plotted together form a curve that peaks at the receive focus, which is set during the beamforming. Selection of three different receive foci for each acquired dataset will result in the generation of three overlapping sharpness curves. A set of three calibration curves combined with the use of a maximum-likelihood algorithm is then able to estimate, with high precision, the depth location of any emitter fron each single image. Estimated values are compared with the ground truth demonstrating that an accuracy of 28.6 μm (0.13λ) is achieved for a 4 mm depth range. PMID:26737920

  17. Single-cell resolution mapping of neuronal damage in acute focal cerebral ischemia using thallium autometallography.

    PubMed

    Stöber, Franziska; Baldauf, Kathrin; Ziabreva, Iryna; Harhausen, Denise; Zille, Marietta; Neubert, Jenni; Reymann, Klaus G; Scheich, Henning; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Schröder, Ulrich H; Wunder, Andreas; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal damage shortly after onset or after brief episodes of cerebral ischemia has remained difficult to assess with clinical and preclinical imaging techniques as well as with microscopical methods. We here show, in rodent models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), that neuronal damage in acute focal cerebral ischemia can be mapped with single-cell resolution using thallium autometallography (TlAMG), a histochemical technique for the detection of the K(+)-probe thallium (Tl(+)) in the brain. We intravenously injected rats and mice with thallium diethyldithiocarbamate (TlDDC), a lipophilic chelate complex that releases Tl(+) after crossing the blood-brain barrier. We found, within the territories of the affected arteries, areas of markedly reduced neuronal Tl(+) uptake in all animals at all time points studied ranging from 15 minutes to 24 hours after MCAO. In large lesions at early time points, areas with neuronal and astrocytic Tl(+) uptake below thresholds of detection were surrounded by putative penumbral zones with preserved but diminished Tl(+) uptake. At 24 hours, the areas of reduced Tl(+)uptake matched with areas delineated by established markers of neuronal damage. The results suggest the use of (201)TlDDC for preclinical and clinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of hyperacute alterations in brain K(+) metabolism and prediction of tissue viability in cerebral ischemia.

  18. Virtual MOONS: a focal plane simulator for the MOONS thousand-fiber NIR spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Causi, G.; Cabral, A.; Ferruzzi, Debora; Finger, G.; Giacalone, G.; Guinouard, I.; Lorenzetti, D.; Oliva, E.; Pedichini, F.; Royer, F.; Todd, S.; Vitali, F.

    2014-08-01

    MOONS will be the next near infrared fiber fed multi-object spectrograph for the Very Large Telescope, that will offer a one thousand multiplexing capability and a simultaneous coverage of the wavelength range from 0.8 to 1.8 μm. With the aim of quantitatively i) assessing the instrument performances with respect to sensitivity and OH subtraction, ii) blind-testing the 1D spectra extraction and calibration, provided by the data reduction pipeline, and iii) testing the technical solutions adopted for reaching the outstanding instrument requirements, we have developed "Virtual MOONS", an end-to-end software simulator, which quantitatively computes high fidelity focal plane raw images, emulating the output of the detector electronics. Starting from an ideal photon image derived from the geometrical optics propagation and Point Spread Function (PSF) variations computed by the ZEMAX optical design, the end-to-end optical budget is introduced along with the stray light contributions, resulting in the expected photon counts impinging the detector pixels. Then the photon image plus photon noise is converted to digital counts by means of a detailed detector simulation, including pixel-to-pixel response variation, dark, bias, read-out noise, cosmetics, charge diffusion, flatness and read-out schemes. Critical points like fiber differential response, PSF haloes and sky emission variations have been also taken into account. The current status of this work is presented with an example simulated image and numerical results.

  19. Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to fibromyalgia, and poorly defined pain complaints in general. Can MTPs be reproducibly identified? Do MTPs have valid objective findings, such as spontaneous electromyographic activity, muscle microdialysis evidence for an inflammatory milieu or visualization with newer ultrasound techniques? Is fibromyalgia a syndrome of multiple MTPs, or is focal muscle tenderness a manifestation of central sensitization? These issues are discussed with relevance to a recent paper reporting that manual palpation of active MTPs elicits the spontaneous pain experienced by fibromyalgia patients. PMID:21722339

  20. Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?

    PubMed

    Bennett, Robert M; Goldenberg, Don L

    2011-06-30

    Myofascial trigger points (MTPs) have long been a contentious issue in relation to fibromyalgia, and poorly defined pain complaints in general. Can MTPs be reproducibly identified? Do MTPs have valid objective findings, such as spontaneous electromyographic activity, muscle microdialysis evidence for an inflammatory milieu or visualization with newer ultrasound techniques? Is fibromyalgia a syndrome of multiple MTPs, or is focal muscle tenderness a manifestation of central sensitization? These issues are discussed with relevance to a recent paper reporting that manual palpation of active MTPs elicits the spontaneous pain experienced by fibromyalgia patients.

  1. Friction coefficient of faults inferred from earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Ranalli, Giorgio; Andreis, Daniele; Martin, Silvana; Rigon, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    In earthquake mechanics and structural geology the static friction coefficient is usually assumed to have the laboratory value (μ = 0.6-0.8) according to the Coulomb-Byerlee's law. Estimates from deep boreholes and/or natural faults generally confirm this hypothesis but in some cases friction coefficients can be significantly lower, suggesting the existence of weak faults able to be activated by lower effective stress than theoretically expected. We apply a modified version of the method proposed by Yin and Ranalli (1995, Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 17, pp. 1327-1335), where the average friction coefficient of a set of n faults is estimated. This method is based on minimization of the sum of squares of the misfit ratios, where the misfit ratio of each fault is given dividing the misfit stress difference (i.e. the misfit between normalized stress difference and average normalized stress difference) by the average normalized stress difference. The normalized stress difference is defined as the critical stress difference divided by the effective overburden pressure, while the average stress difference is obtained considering the entire fault dataset. Input data are (i) the orientation of faults, (ii) the stress field orientation, and (iii) the stress ratio. The latter two must be independently estimated. A uniform stress field and a similar normalized critical stress difference for the fault dataset are assumed. The procedure has been extended to apply to fault plane solutions by considering both nodal planes of a set of n focal mechanisms and estimating the range of acceptable average friction coefficients from all possible combination of planes (2n number of combinations). The amount of calculation can be considerably reduced if independent information makes it possible to select which one of the nodal planes of each focal mechanism is the true fault plane (for example when aftershocks delineate the fault geometry at depth), resulting in only n combinations

  2. [Neuropsychological development in children with focal brain injury].

    PubMed

    Masi, G; Marcheschi, M; Brovedani, P; Pfanner, P

    1993-06-01

    The study of children with focal brain injury has important implications from a clinical and theoretical perspective. Clinical data on children with congenital or early acquired lesions indicates that the cognitive sequelae are different from those resulting from similar damage sustained in adulthood. These differences depend in part on the differential effect that damage has on ongoing developmental process and in part on the different recovery capacity of the Central Nervous System of the child. From a theoretical perspective, focal lesion data is important for analyzing the issues of early neuropsychological functioning (especially in terms of early hemispheric specialization) and of plasticity and recovery of function of the CNS. This review analyzes the possible causes of this heterogeneity, that seems in part dependent on the interindividual variability of early neuropsychological organization and in part related to methodological factors such subject inclusion criteria and nature of neuropsychological measures. The review also discusses the role during development of the principal inter and intrahemispheric recovery mechanisms (special attention is given to intrahemispheric mechanisms which have been considered in the past as less determinant with respect to interhemispheric mechanisms). Furthermore, the role of lesion side as a prognostic parameter is discussed, specifically in terms of the evidence of a differential recovery capacity of left hemisphere with respect to the right. Various hypotheses have been put forward as possible interpretations of these data (maturational gradient, different neuropsychological organization of the two hemispheres), yet evidence is still controversial. If one considers the prognostic parameter--age of lesion onset--recent evidence does not confirm the hypothesis that the earlier the lesion, the greatest the recovery of function. Rather, it seems that relating age of lesion onset to other parameters, such as lesion side or

  3. Mid-Wave and Long-Wave Infrared Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Ting, D. Z.; Kurth, E.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2008-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024x1024 pixel InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs based quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes and a 320x256 pixel dual-band pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array have been demonstrated as pathfinders. In this paper, we discuss the development of 1024x1024 MWIR/LWIR dual-band pixel co-registered simultaneous QWIP focal plane array.

  4. The Effects of Antecedent Exercise on Motor Function Recovery and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyeyeop; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effect of antecedent exercise on functional recovery and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following focal cerebral ischemia injury. [Subjects] The rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was employed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group I included untreated normal rats (n=10); Group II included untreated rats with focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); Group III included rats that performed treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training after focal cerebral ischemia (n=10); and Group IV included rats that performed antecedent treadmill exercise (20 m/min) training before focal cerebral ischemia (n=10) as well as treadmill exercise after ischemia. At different time points (1, 7, 14, and 21 days) Garcia’s score, and the hippocampal expressions level of BDNF were examined. [Results] In the antecedent exercise group, improvements in the motor behavior index (Garcia’s score) were observed and hippocampal BDNF protein expression levels increased. [Conclusion] These results indicate that antecedent treadmill exercise, before permanent brain ischemia exerts a neuroprotective effect against ischemia brain injury by improving motor performance and increasing the level of BDNF expression. Furthermore, the antecedent treadmill exercise of appropriate intensity is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24259800

  5. Induction of focal adhesions and motility in Drosophila S2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Susana A; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Vale, Ronald D

    2014-12-01

    Focal adhesions are dynamic structures that interact with the extracellular matrix on the cell exterior and actin filaments on the cell interior, enabling cells to adhere and crawl along surfaces. We describe a system for inducing the formation of focal adhesions in normally non-ECM-adherent, nonmotile Drosophila S2 cells. These focal adhesions contain the expected molecular markers such as talin, vinculin, and p130Cas, and they require talin for their formation. The S2 cells with induced focal adhesions also display a nonpolarized form of motility on vitronectin-coated substrates. Consistent with findings in mammalian cells, the degree of motility can be tuned by changing the stiffness of the substrate and was increased after the depletion of PAK3, a p21-activated kinase. A subset of nonmotile, nonpolarized cells also exhibited focal adhesions that rapidly assembled and disassembled around the cell perimeter. Such cooperative and dynamic fluctuations of focal adhesions were decreased by RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of myosin II and focal adhesion kinase, suggesting that this behavior requires force and focal adhesion maturation. These results demonstrate that S2 cells, a cell line that is well studied for cytoskeletal dynamics and readily amenable to protein manipulation by RNAi, can be used to study the assembly and dynamics of focal adhesions and mechanosensitive cell motility.

  6. Future directions in focal-plane signal processing for space-borne scientific imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1991-11-01

    The potential of focal-plane signal processing for space-borne scientific imagers is discussed. Significant improvement in image quality and consequent scientific return may be enabled through the utilization of focal-plane signal processing techniques. The possible application of focal-plane signal processing to readout noise reduction, cosmic ray circumvention, non-uniformity correction, and throughput enhancement is described. On-focal-plane analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion and micromotion stabilization are also discussed. It is the intention of this paper to stimulate further thought and efforts in this field.

  7. Calculation of focal positions in an optical head using a four-beam laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Kime, Kenjiro

    1998-10-01

    Calculation method for focal positions in a multi-beam optical head using a multi-beam laser diode is introduced. In this calculation model, focal positions were so calculated that a light source of each laser beam with a specific source height and an astigmatic difference was imaged by optical lenses and a beam shaping prism. Calculated results show that four focal positions are located each other with defocus along the optical axis due to the curvature of field of lenses. Astigmatic differences in focal spots caused by the laser diode characteristics can be decreased by almost zero with a displacement of a collimator lens along the optical axis.

  8. Experimental realization of a metamaterial detector focal plane array.

    PubMed

    Shrekenhamer, David; Xu, Wangren; Venkatesh, Suresh; Schurig, David; Sonkusale, Sameer; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-10-26

    We present a metamaterial absorber detector array that enables room-temperature, narrow-band detection of gigahertz (GHz) radiation in the S band (2-4 GHz). The system is implemented in a commercial printed circuit board process and we characterize the detector sensitivity and angular dependence. A modified metamaterial absorber geometry allows for each unit cell to act as an isolated detector pixel and to collectively form a focal plane array . Each pixel can have a dedicated microwave receiver chain and functions together as a hybrid device tuned to maximize the efficiency of detected power. The demonstrated subwavelength pixel shows detected sensitivity of -77 dBm, corresponding to a radiation power density of 27 nW/m(2), with pixel to pixel coupling interference below -14 dB at 2.5 GHz.

  9. Calibration methods for division-of-focal-plane polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Powell, S Bear; Gruev, Viktor

    2013-09-01

    Division-of-focal plane (DoFP) imaging polarimeters are useful instruments for measuring polarization information for a variety of applications. Recent advances in nanofabrication have enabled the practical manufacture of DoFP sensors for the visible spectrum. These sensors are made by integrating nanowire polarization filters directly with an imaging array, and size variations of the nanowires due to fabrication can cause the optical properties of the filters to vary up to 20% across the imaging array. If left unchecked, these variations introduce significant errors when reconstructing the polarization image. Calibration methods offer a means to correct these errors. This work evaluates a scalar and matrix calibration derived from a mathematical model of the polarimeter behavior. The methods are evaluated quantitatively with an existing DoFP polarimeter under varying illumination intensity and angle of linear polarization. PMID:24103976

  10. Uniformity compensation for high-quantum-efficiency focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horman, Stephen R.; Zurasky, Matthew W.; Talamonti, James J.; Hepfer, Kenneth C.

    1997-08-01

    NSWCDD has developed a new nonuniformity correction (NUC) technique that has been demonstrated to significantly reduce both fixed pattern and temporal noise in sensors using high quantum efficiency (QE) infrared (IR) staring focal plane arrays (FPA). Sensors using this technique have been shown to have good response in every pixel, i.e., there are no dead or anomalously noisy pixels anywhere in the field of view (FOV). This technique will also enable development of sensors with very small apertures as well as those which can dynamically trade off sensitivity, resolution and frame rate. In addition, effective yield of detector production will be enhanced, since these benefits can be obtained using arrays that would be rejected for most applications, were conventional NUC used. This technique has been demonstrated to work as specified through analysis of real time data. A high performance, concept demonstration sensor, is in the final stages of acceptance testing, with delivery planned for April 1997.

  11. Fixed Pattern Noise Compensation Techniques For Staring Infrared Focal Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrison, C. L.; Foss, N. A.

    1980-10-01

    To utilize the full performance advantages of staring infrared imaging systems currently under development, it is necessary to compensate for the characteristic fixed pattern "noise" which is present at the output from these infrared focal planes. Since many of the applications for staring sensor systems require low power dissipation configurations, it is necessary to develop automatic nonuniformity compensation electronics which have much lower power dissipation requirements than conventional digital compensation techniques. This paper discusses the sources of the nonuniformities and describes the typical characteristics of elevated temperature staring arrays. An analysis is given which shows how detector/charge-coupled device electrical coupling techniques strongly influence the compensation implementation, and finally a review of circuit configurations for the compensation function will be given which shows that very low power dissipation circuitry can be developed which meets the performance power dissipation requirements.

  12. Uniformity compensation for high-quantum-efficiency focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horman, Stephen R.; Hepfer, Kenneth C.; Zurasky, Matthew W.

    1996-06-01

    NSWCDD has developed a new nonuniformity correction (NUC) technique that promises to significantly reduce both fixed pattern and temporal noise in sensors using high quantum efficiency (QE) infrared (IR) staring focal plane arrays (FPA). Sensors using this technique will also have good response in every pixel. There will be no dead or anomalously noisy pixels anywhere in the field of view (FOV). This technique will also enable development of sensors with very small apertures as well as those which can dynamically trade off sensitivity, resolution and frame rate. In addition, effective yield of detector production will be enhanced, since these benefits can be obtained using arrays that would be rejected for most applications, were conventional NUC used. This technique has been demonstrated to work as claimed through non-real time post-processing of field data. A high performance, concept demonstration sensor, is being developed, with delivery planned for August 1996.

  13. Thrombin exacerbates brain edema in focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hua, Y; Wu, J; Keep, R F; Hoff, J T; Xi, G

    2003-01-01

    Thrombin contributes to edema formation after intracerebral hemorrhage. Recent studies suggest that thrombin may also play a role in ischemic brain damage. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded using the suture method. We found that brain thrombin activity was elevated after permanent MCA occlusion as was prothrombin messenger RNA expression. Intracerebral injection of a thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, reduced neurological deficits following cerebral ischemia. In contrast, intracerebral administration of exogenous thrombin (at a dose that is non-toxic to normal brain), markedly exacerbated brain edema after transient focal cerebral ischemia. These results indicate that extravascular thrombin inhibition may be a new therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia.

  14. Probing anterior segment kinetics with focally applied mydriatics.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, H J; Lustgarten, M

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of convectional flow and anterior segment configuration on drug kinetics. Mydriatics were applied focally at the limbus in order to produce sector dilation of the pupil. Subjects were tested with either tropicamide or phenylephrine, applied at the superior, temporal, inferior, or nasal limbus (or as a conventional drop). Changes in pupil form were analyzed by means of photography, digitization, and circular Fourier series representation. Both tropicamide and phenylephrine were found to produce sector dilation; however, phenylephrine was approximately twice as effective. Applications at the superior limbus were significantly less effective than applications at the inferior limbus. The results are interpreted in terms of anterior segment convectional flow, which is believed to play a substantial role in pharmacokinetics of the anterior segment. PMID:11765151

  15. Focal para-hisian atrial tachycardia with dual exits

    PubMed Central

    Lawrance Jesuraj, M.; Sharada, K.; Sridevi, C.; Narasimhan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Focal atrial tachycardias (AT) in the right atrium (RA) tend to cluster around the crista terminalis, coronary sinus (CS) region, tricuspid annulus, and para-hisian region. In most cases, the AT focus can be identified by careful activation mapping, and completely eliminated by radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. However, RF ablation near the His bundle (HB) carries a risk of inadvertent damage to the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system. Here we describe a patient with an AT originating in the vicinity of the AV node, which was successfully ablated earlier from non-coronary aortic cusp (NCC), and recurred with an exit from para-hisian location. Respiratory excursions of the catheter were associated with migration to the area of HIs. This was successfully ablated during controlled apnoea, using 3D electroanatomic mapping. PMID:23993015

  16. Optical design of the Post Focal Relay of MAORY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombini, M.; Diolaiti, E.

    The Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics Relay (MAORY) for the European Extremely Large Telescope shall re-image the telescope focal plane for the client instruments installed on two exit ports. By means of natural and artificial (laser) reference sources for wavefront sensing, and of deformable mirrors for wavefront correction, MAORY shall be able to compensate the wavefront disturbances affecting the scientific observations, achieving high Strehl ratio and high sky coverage. The optical interfaces to the client instruments must replicate the telescope one while the volume allocation on the Nasmyth platform is under definition at the moment of this writing. We show the latest version of the optical design that matches the current requests and its optical performance. The laser guide stars channel, separated from the science path by means of a dichroic beam-splitter, is also presented.

  17. MEG-based imaging of focal neuronal current sources.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J W; Leahy, R M; Mosher, J C

    1997-06-01

    We describe a new approach to imaging neural current sources from measurements of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) associated with sensory, motor, or cognitive brain activation. Many previous approaches to this problem have concentrated on the use of weighted minimum norm (WMN) inverse methods. While these methods ensure a unique solution, they do not introduce information specific to the MEG inverse problem, often producing overly smoothed solutions and exhibiting severe sensitivity to noise. We describe a Bayesian formulation of the inverse problem in which a Gibbs prior is constructed to reflect the sparse focal nature of neural current sources associated with evoked response data. We demonstrate the method with simulated and experimental phantom data, comparing its performance with several WMN methods.

  18. Optical-based spectral modeling of infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouzali, Salima; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Ferrec, Yann; Primot, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    We adopt an optical approach in order to model and predict the spectral signature of an infrared focal plane array. The modeling is based on a multilayer description of the structure and considers a one-dimensional propagation. It provides a better understanding of the physical phenomena occurring within the pixels, which is useful to perform radiometric measurements, as well as to reliably predict the spectral sensitivity of the detector. An exhaustive model is presented, covering the total spectral range of the pixel response. A heuristic model is also described, depicting a complementary approach that separates the different optical phenomena inside the pixel structure. Promising results are presented, validating the models through comparison with experimental results. Finally, advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  19. Characterising the Kepler Survey Completeness: First Full Focal Plane Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jessie; Science Office, Kepler; Science Operations Center, Kepler

    2012-10-01

    The primary goal of the Kepler mission is to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in the habitable zones of solar-like stars. The mission has published a growing catalogue of planet candidates, but there are two key attributes of the catalogue that we need to understand before we can determine the underlying planet population - the rate of false negatives (completeness) and the rate of false positives (reliability). I will discuss our efforts towards determining the completeness of the survey, in particular characterising the behaviour of the automated transit detection software. I will present results from the first characterisation of the software across the full focal plane. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Planck 2015 results. XII. Full focal plane simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the 8th full focal plane simulation set (FFP8), deployed in support of the Planck 2015 results. FFP8 consists of 10 fiducial mission realizations reduced to 18 144 maps, together with the most massive suite of Monte Carlo realizations of instrument noise and CMB ever generated, comprising 104 mission realizations reduced to about 106 maps. The resulting maps incorporate the dominant instrumental, scanning, and data analysis effects, and the remaining subdominant effects will be included in future updates. Generated at a cost of some 25 million CPU-hours spread across multiple high-performance-computing (HPC) platforms, FFP8 is used to validate and verify analysis algorithms and their implementations, and to remove biases from and quantify uncertainties in the results of analyses of the real data.

  1. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis recurrence in the renal allograft.

    PubMed

    Leca, Nicolae

    2014-09-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represents a common histologic pattern of glomerular injury associated with a multitude of disease mechanisms. The etiology of FSGS is often classified into primary (idiopathic) and secondary forms in response to genetic abnormalities, infections, toxins, and systemic disorders that lead to adaptive changes, glomerular hyperfiltration, and proteinuria. Our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for FSGS was substantially enhanced in recent years because of major advances in the cell biology of the podocyte and parietal epithelial cell. Recurrence of FSGS occurs mainly in its primary form and is only rarely described in secondary forms. The re-enactment of pathologic mechanisms of FSGS as recurrent disease after kidney transplantation represents a biologic experiment that can provide unique insight. Nonetheless, recurrent FSGS remains a notable clinical problem that correlates with poorer renal allograft outcomes. This is the focus of this particular review, concentrating on the most recent developments.

  2. Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Garlick, J A; Calderon, S; Buchner, A; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, S

    1989-03-01

    Five focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) specimens from four patients were examined by Southern blot hybridization analysis to determine the specific human papillomavirus (HPV) types present. The histomorphologic features of these specimens were also evaluated and a broad variety of changes including koilocytes, mitosoid cells, ballooning cells and cells showing individual cell keratinization were noted. FEH lesions from the three patients sharing a familial relationship demonstrated HPV DNA sequences that were either the prototype HPV-13 or a very closely related HPV-13 subtype. These patients also showed similar clinical features. Lesional tissue from the other patient was found to harbor HPV DNA sequences similar to HPV-32. In view of these findings it is suggested that these specific HPV types are associated with the characteristic FEH histomorphology described.

  3. MEG-based imaging of focal neuronal current sources

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.W.; Leahy, R.M.; Mosher, J.C.

    1996-07-01

    We describe a new approach to imaging neuronal current sources from measurements of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) associated with sensory, motor, or cognitive brain activation. Previous approaches to this problem have concentrated on the use of weighted minimum norm inverse methods. While these methods ensure a unique solution, they do not introduce information specific to the MEG inverse problem, often producing overly smoothed solutions and exhibiting severe sensitivity to noise. We describe a Bayesian formulation of the inverse problem in which a Gibbs prior is constructed to reflect the sparse focal nature of neuronal current sources associated with evoked response data. The prior involves a binary process indicating active sources and a continuous Gaussian process designating associated amplitudes. An estimate of the primary current source distribution for a specific data set is formed by maximizing over the posterior probability with respect to the binary and continuous variables.

  4. MEG-based imaging of focal neuronal current sources

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.W.; Leahy, R.M.; Mosher, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    The authors describe a new approach to imaging neural current sources from measurements of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) associated with sensory, motor, or cognitive brain activation. Many previous approaches to this problem have concentrated on the use of weighted minimum norm (WMN) inverse methods. While these methods ensure a unique solution, they do not introduce information specific to the MEG inverse problem, often producing overly smoothed solutions and exhibiting severe sensitivity to noise. The authors describe a Bayesian formulation of the inverse problem in which a Gibbs prior is constructed to reflect the sparse focal nature of neural current sources associated with evoked response data. They demonstrate the method with simulated and experimental phantom data, comparing its performance with several WMN methods.

  5. Vision and Wide-Field Imagers with Curved Focal Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianpour, Ashkan

    This dissertation provides details regarding the implementation of curved-focal surface fiber coupled imaging for medical and wide-field applications. An optomechanical fluid-filled eye model with visual acuity better than 20/20 vision was design and characterized. A wearable telescopic contact lens was worn on the optomechanical eye model and the performance characterized. Measurements of the contact lens surfaces were modeled to quantify the impact of contact lens fabrication on end-result resolution. Separately, the limitations of the field of view in fiber coupled monocentric imaging are analyzed. This dissertation describes a novel technique to address this based on conformal micro-optics. The design, simulation, and fabrication of an embossed surface relief micro-prism that increases the field of view are demonstrated.

  6. Infrared focal plane detector modules for space applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Dominique; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard; Gassmann, Kai-Uwe; Haiml, Markus; Weber, Andreas; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Ziegler, Johann; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Fick, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of this paper, AIM presents the actual status of some of its currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments for space applications covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP will be elaborated. Additionally dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC will be addressed.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Focal Prostate Ablation.

    PubMed

    Nour, Sherif G

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer (other than skin cancer) in American men, with one in seven men being diagnosed with this disease during his lifetime. The estimated number of new prostate cancer cases in 2016 is 180,890. For the first time, imaging has become the center of the search for contained, intraglandular, small-volume, and unifocal disease, and an increasing number of academic institutions as well as private practices are implementing programs for prostate multiplanar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as parts of their routine offerings. This article reviews the role of MRI-guided focal prostate ablation, as well as opportunities for further growth in this minimally invasive therapy of prostate cancer. PMID:27582608

  8. Focal dermal hypoplasia: ultrastructural abnormalities of the connective tissue.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Boente, María; Asial, Raúl A; Winik, Beatriz C

    2007-02-01

    We followed over 10 years three girls with focal dermal hypoplasia syndrome. The histopathological changes demonstrated at the optical level an hypoplastic dermis with thin and scarce collagen bundles and a marked diminution of elastic fibers. Mature adipose tissue was found scattered within the papillary and reticular dermis. No alterations in the basal membrane were observed by immunocytochemical or ultrastructural techniques. Ultrastructurally, in the skin-affected areas, loosely arranged collagen bundles composed of few fibrils were seen scattered in the extracellular matrix. Scarce elastic fibers of normal morphology were also observed. Fibroblasts were smaller, oval-shaped, and diminished in number with a poorly developed cytoplasm. In these fibroblasts, the most conspicuous feature was a remarkable and irregular thickening of the nuclear fibrous lamina. Taking into account that a common link between all laminopaties may be a failure of stem cells to regenerate mesenchymal tissue, this failure would induce the dermal hypoplasia observed in our patients presenting Goltz syndrome.

  9. Focal surfaces of offset dual-reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sletten, C. J.; Shore, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical technique is described for finding the best focal surfaces for offset-fed dual-reflector antennas. A ray tracing procedure traces the loci of rays incident on the main reflector onto a plane or 'screen' situated perpendicular to a central ray of the antenna system. Given, then, by computer graphics, the best feed locations for azimuth and elevation plane patterns, an aperture diffraction method is used which can compute the sidelobe levels and beamwidths resulting from aperture phase errors on scanned or multibeam patterns. High-magnification Cassegrain or Gregorian antennas, with tilt angles optimised according to Japanese criteria, produce excellent radiation diagrams many beamwidths from the central, unaberrated pattern direction.

  10. Strained layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K; Carroll, Malcolm S; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F; Young, Erik W; Cich, Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  11. Large area III-V infrared focal planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Nguyen, J.; Soibel, A.; Rafol, S. B.; Keo, S. A.; Mumolo, J. M.; Lee, M. C.; Liu, J. K.; Yang, B.; Liao, A.

    2011-05-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory is actively developing the III-V based infrared detector and focal plane arrays (FPAs) for remote sensing and imaging applications. Currently, we are working on Superlattice detectors, multi-band quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), and quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIPs) technologies suitable for high pixel-pixel uniformity and high pixel operability large area imaging arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the demonstration of long-wavelength 1 K × 1 K QDIP FPA, 1 K × 1K QWIP FPA, the first demonstration of the megapixel-simultaneously-readable and pixel-co-registered dual-band QWIP FPA, and demonstration of the first mid-wave and long-wave 1K × 1K superlattice FPA. In addition, we will discuss the advantages of III-V material system in the context of large format infrared FPAs.

  12. Third-generation intelligent IR focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, H. John; Jack, Michael D.; Pettijohn, Kevin L.; Schlesselmann, John D.; Norworth, Joe

    1998-03-01

    SBRC is at the forefront of industry in developing IR focal plane arrays including multi-spectral technology and '3rd generation' functions that mimic the human eye. 3rd generation devices conduct advanced processing on or near the FPA that serve to reduce bandwidth while performing needed functions such as automatic target recognition, uniformity correction and dynamic range enhancement. These devices represent a solution for processing the exorbitantly high bandwidth coming off large area FPAs without sacrificing systems sensitivity. SBRC's two-color approach leverages the company's HgCdTe technology to provide simultaneous multiband coverage, from short through long wave IR, with near theoretical performance. IR systems that are sensitive to different spectral bands achieve enhanced capabilities for target identification and advanced discrimination. This paper will provide a summary of the issues, the technology and the benefits of SBRC's third generation smart and two-color FPAs.

  13. Integration of IR focal plane arrays with massively parallel processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiari, P.; Koskey, P.; Vaccaro, K.; Buchwald, W.; Clark, F.; Krejca, B.; Rekeczky, C.; Zarandy, A.

    2008-04-01

    The intent of this investigation is to replace the low fill factor visible sensor of a Cellular Neural Network (CNN) processor with an InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) using both bump bonding and epitaxial layer transfer techniques for use in the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) interceptor seekers. The goal is to fabricate a massively parallel digital processor with a local as well as a global interconnect architecture. Currently, this unique CNN processor is capable of processing a target scene in excess of 10,000 frames per second with its visible sensor. What makes the CNN processor so unique is that each processing element includes memory, local data storage, local and global communication devices and a visible sensor supported by a programmable analog or digital computer program.

  14. Mediastinal and retroperitoneal teratoma with focal gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y-L; Wu, C-T; Lee, Y-C

    2006-09-01

    We report an unusual case of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma arising in a giant posterior mediastinal mature cystic teratoma extending into the retroperitoneum, which was treated by complete excision with a good outcome for more than 2 years. Teratomas with malignant transformation are rare non-germ cell malignant tumors arising from a preexisting mature teratoma. Histological examination revealed that the cyst wall was composed of mature ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal elements. Neoplastic glands with a cribriform pattern were found in a small, solid nodule. Strong cytokeratin 20 cytoplasmic immunostaining of the tumor cells supported the diagnosis of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. In this report, we describe the potential aggressiveness of a giant mature cystic teratoma with adenocarcinoma and suggest that complete surgical resection without adjuvant chemotherapy be considered as a therapy in the treatment of teratoma with focal malignant transformation.

  15. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Seib, D. H.; Stetson, S. B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.

    1989-01-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10- x 50-element Si:As blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors (cutoff wavelength = 28 microns) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity-band-conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear-radiation-hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in the present work is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increased quantum efficiency (particularly at short-wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the BIB detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Measured read noise and dark current for different temperatures are reported. The hybrid array performance achieved demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  16. Nanotopographical modification: a regulator of cellular function through focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Manus Jonathan Paul; Richards, R. Geoff; Dalby, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of biomedical engineering advances, the role of cellular mechanisms, in particular adhesive interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device design has evolved from the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to topographical features or chemical stimuli, a process that has led to the development of next-generation biomaterials for a wide variety of clinical disorders. In vitro studies have identified nanoscale features as potent modulators of cellular behavior through the onset of focal adhesion formation. The focus of this review is on the recent developments concerning the role of nanoscale structures on integrin-mediated adhesion and cellular function with an emphasis on the generation of medical constructs with regenerative applications. PMID:20138244

  17. Direct simulation Monte Carlo method with a focal mechanism algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachman, Asep Nur; Chung, Tae Woong; Yoshimoto, Kazuo; Yun, Sukyoung

    2015-01-01

    To simulate the observation of the radiation pattern of an earthquake, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is modified by implanting a focal mechanism algorithm. We compare the results of the modified DSMC method (DSMC-2) with those of the original DSMC method (DSMC-1). DSMC-2 shows more or similarly reliable results compared to those of DSMC-1, for events with 12 or more recorded stations, by weighting twice for hypocentral distance of less than 80 km. Not only the number of stations, but also other factors such as rough topography, magnitude of event, and the analysis method influence the reliability of DSMC-2. The most reliable result by DSMC-2 is obtained by the best azimuthal coverage by the largest number of stations. The DSMC-2 method requires shorter time steps and a larger number of particles than those of DSMC-1 to capture a sufficient number of arrived particles in the small-sized receiver.

  18. Biomechanical abnormalities in musicians with occupational cramp/focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, F R; Wagner, C; Hömberg, V

    1993-01-01

    Occupational factors and peripheral injuries are frequently implicated in the development of hand cramps and the syndrome of persistent manual incoordination among musicians and others most commonly given a diagnosis of focal limb dystonia. In an attempt to gain insight into the character and influence of risk factors in the evolution of this disorder, the authors conducted detailed evaluations of 33 individuals who responded to a questionnaire sent to university- and conservatory-level music schools in Germany in September 1989. Response was invited from any musician with complaints of impaired hand control. Of the 33 individuals accepted for evaluation, 18 were musicians who met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of occupational cramp/focal dystonia (OC/FD). Nineteen of the original 33 subjects underwent a quantitative biochemical assessment, comparing active and passive ranges of motion at all joints below the shoulder with those for cohorts of unimpaired musicians, matched for gender and musical instrument. Of the 19 tested biomechanically, 14 had OC/FD and the remaining five had either persistent pain or nonspecific movement idiosyncracies interfering with playing. Compared with the matched groups of normals, no consistent biomechanical abnormality was found in the non-OC/FD group; in the OC/FD group two thirds had marked limitation of passive and/or active abduction range between the central digits of both hands. Based on detailed training and performance histories in these subjects, the authors conclude that a specific biomechanical condition in the hand can interfere with certain high-speed digital movements required in musical instrument performance. Unintended muscle synergies, postures, and movement patterns can develop as attempts are made to increase the speed and fluency of such movements. As rehearsal is intensified, degraded movements are stabilized ("programmed"). In this situation, OC/FD appears to represent an aberrant outcome of normal motor

  19. Requirement of focal adhesion kinase in branching tubulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei-Chun; Kopec, Anna K; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that alpha3beta1 integrins are essential to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-independent branching tubulogenesis in Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. However, the involvement of integrin downstream signaling molecules remains unclear. In the present study, we successfully isolated cell lines possessing different tubulogenic potentials from the MDCK cells; cyst clones (CA4, CA6) forming cystic structures when cultured in 0.3% type I collagen gel and mass clones (M610, M611, M612) forming aggregated masses. Cyst clones maintained cystic structure in 0.1% collagen gel, whereas mass clones spontaneously developed into tubules. Both clones exhibited various morphologies when cultured on a dish: cyst clones formed aggregated islands, while mass clones were more scattered and exhibited higher migration capacity. Among several focal adhesion machinery proteins examined, only the expression and phosphorylation level of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in mass clones was higher than in cyst clones, while other proteins showed no obvious differences. However, overexpression of wild type FAK in CA6 cells did not facilitate branching tubule formation in 0.1% collagen gel. Targeted decrease in the expression level of FAK in M610 cells with the application of antisense cDNA resulted in a marked reduction of branching tubule formation in 0.1% collagen gel and showed a down-regulation of fibronectin assembly, which is known to promote tubulogenesis. In contrast, overexpression of wild type FAK in CA6 cells had no effect on fibronectin assembly. Taken together, our data demonstrates that FAK is required, but not sufficient for HGF-independent branching tubulogenesis in MDCK cells. PMID:19272169

  20. Comparing Linkage Designs Based on Land Facets to Linkage Designs Based on Focal Species

    PubMed Central

    Brost, Brian M.; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5–16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches. PMID

  1. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects – A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  2. Evidence for an actin-containing cytoplasmic precursor of the focal contact and the timing of incorporation of vinculin at the focal contact

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of F-actin and vinculin in chicken embryo fibroblasts has been examined by nitrobenzoxadiazol (NBD)-phallacidin and indirect immunofluorescent staining, respectively, and related to the process of focal contact formation by recording the motility of the cell with differential interference contrast (DIC) or interference reflection microscopy (IRM) before fixation for staining. Linear cytoplasmic precursors of the focal contact, present within unattached lamellipodia, stained intensely with NBD-phallacidin. Without exception new focal contacts, 8 s and older at fixation, were associated with either a longer F-actin rib in the lamellipodium or, in older contacts, an F-actin structure of similar dimensions to the contact. This change in distribution of F-actin over the new contacts was accounted for by the segregation of the structural precursor into an attached part over the focal contact and a separate motile part. These results show that F- actin accumulates in the precursor adjacent to areas of the membrane competent to form the focal contact, and are consistent with the interpretation that this F-actin contributes to the initial adhesion plaque associated with the new contact. Vinculin was essentially absent from motile lamellipodia, showed no preferential association with F- actin rich precursors or very young focal contacts, but accumulated over new contacts during a 90-s period. Therefore, the association of F- actin with the membrane that precedes and persists in the initial focal contact is independent of vinculin, and the role of vinculin in development of the focal contact remains unclear. PMID:3121637

  3. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

  4. Floating Point Control Library

    2007-08-02

    Floating Point Control is a Library that allows for the manipulation of floating point unit exception masking funtions control exceptions in both the Streaming "Single Instruction, Multiple Data" Extension 2 (SSE2) unit and the floating point unit simultaneously. FPC also provides macros to set floating point rounding and precision control.

  5. SPS antenna pointing control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The pointing control of a microwave antenna of the Satellite Power System was investigated emphasizing: (1) the SPS antenna pointing error sensing method; (2) a rigid body pointing control design; and (3) approaches for modeling the flexible body characteristics of the solar collector. Accuracy requirements for the antenna pointing control consist of a mechanical pointing control accuracy of three arc-minutes and an electronic phased array pointing accuracy of three arc-seconds. Results based on the factors considered in current analysis, show that the three arc-minute overall pointing control accuracy can be achieved in practice.

  6. Measurement of MODIS optics effective focal length, distortion, and modulation transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurlow, Paul E.; Cline, Richard W.

    1993-08-01

    A combination MODIS optics characteristics, short back focal length, and relatively distorting optics, has required major revisions in techniques used earlier to characterize effective focal length (EFL) and modulation transfer function (MTF) in the thematic mapper (TM) project. This paper compares measurement approaches used to characterize TM optics and revised methodology intended to characterize MODIS optics at an integration and assembly level.

  7. A study on reducing of the focal spot size using spatial filtering and phase apodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelyev, D.

    2016-08-01

    The resizing of focal spot using an annular diaphragm with phase jump in the scalar paraxial case was investigated numerically. Due to the apodization optical system, we succeeded in reducing the size of the focal spot in 2.3 times.

  8. ADAMTS-10 and -6 differentially regulate cell-cell junctions and focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Stuart A.; Mularczyk, Ewa J.; Singh, Mukti; Massam-Wu, Teresa; Kielty, Cay M.

    2016-01-01

    ADAMTS10 and ADAMTS6 are homologous metalloproteinases with ill-defined roles. ADAMTS10 mutations cause Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS), implicating it in fibrillin microfibril biology since some fibrillin-1 mutations also cause WMS. However little is known about ADAMTS6 function. ADAMTS10 is resistant to furin cleavage, however we show that ADAMTS6 is effectively processed and active. Using siRNA, over-expression and mutagenesis, it was found ADAMTS6 inhibits and ADAMTS10 is required for focal adhesions, epithelial cell-cell junction formation, and microfibril deposition. Either knockdown of ADAMTS6, or disruption of its furin processing or catalytic sites restores focal adhesions, implicating its enzyme activity acts on targets in the focal adhesion complex. In ADAMTS10-depleted cultures, expression of syndecan-4 rescues focal adhesions and cell-cell junctions. Recombinant C-termini of ADAMTS10 and ADAMTS6, both of which induce focal adhesions, bind heparin and syndecan-4. However, cells overexpressing full-length ADAMTS6 lack heparan sulphate and focal adhesions, whilst depletion of ADAMTS6 induces a prominent glycocalyx. Thus ADAMTS10 and ADAMTS6 oppositely affect heparan sulphate-rich interfaces including focal adhesions. We previously showed that microfibril deposition requires fibronectin-induced focal adhesions, and cell-cell junctions in epithelial cultures. Here we reveal that ADAMTS6 causes a reduction in heparan sulphate-rich interfaces, and its expression is regulated by ADAMTS10. PMID:27779234

  9. Surgically intractable epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia and congenital cutaneous hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Anna; Cruz, Vincent B; Prayson, Richard A

    2014-11-01

    We describe a 6-month-old girl with medically intractable seizures, multiple congenital hemangiomas, and developmental delay. The patient underwent two surgical resections. Pathological findings at both the first and second resections were consistent with focal cortical dysplasia. The literature was reviewed on focal cortical dysplasia associated with cutaneous hemangiomas.

  10. Fast focal zooming scheme for direct drive fusion implemented by inserting KD2PO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zheqiang; Hu, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    The highly required uniformity of target in direct-drive fusion is difficult to achieve and maintain during the entire laser fusion implosion. To mitigate the increasing nonuniformity, the fast focal zooming scheme implemented by inserting an electro-optic (EO) crystal in the front end of beamline has been proposed. Functioning as a phase plate, the specifically designed EO crystal may add the induced spherical wavefront to the laser beam and alter its focusing characteristics. However, in order to zoom out the focal spot by half, the required voltage for KD2PO4 (DKDP) with single pair of electrodes is relatively high. In order to decrease the voltage while maintaining the zooming performance, the DKDP cylinder with multi pairs of electrodes has been presented. The continuous phase plate (CPP) is designed according to both the injected beam and the output field. However, the conventional CPP is designed based on the assumption of an injected beam without wavefront distortion, which would zoom in the focal spot variation in the focal zooming scheme. In order to zoom out the focal spot, a redesigned CPP has been proposed by adding a spherical wavefront to the phase variation of the conventional CPP and further optimizing. On the basis, the focusing characteristics of laser beam during the fast focal zooming process have been analyzed. Results indicate that the focal spot size decreases with the increasing voltage on DKDP crystal, meanwhile the uniformity maintains high during the focal zooming process.

  11. Focal shift for a gaussian beam by an aperture written in terms of matrix optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xuanhui; Wang, Shaomin; Ronchi, Laura

    1992-05-01

    The focal shift in a gaussian beam focussed by an optical system with an aperture is generalized by applying Collin's diffraction integral. By this implementation, the field distribution on axis is given. The method may be useful to determine the focal shift of a thin lens and of an optical focusing system as well.

  12. Optical Polarization Möbius Strips and Points of Purely Transverse Spin Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas; Neugebauer, Martin; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Tightly focused light beams can exhibit complex and versatile structured electric field distributions. The local field may spin around any axis including a transverse axis perpendicular to the beams' propagation direction. At certain focal positions, the corresponding local polarization ellipse can even degenerate into a perfect circle, representing a point of circular polarization or C point. We consider the most fundamental case of a linearly polarized Gaussian beam, where—upon tight focusing—those C points created by transversely spinning fields can form the center of 3D optical polarization topologies when choosing the plane of observation appropriately. Because of the high symmetry of the focal field, these polarization topologies exhibit nontrivial structures similar to Möbius strips. We use a direct physical measure to find C points with an arbitrarily oriented spinning axis of the electric field and experimentally investigate the fully three-dimensional polarization topologies surrounding these C points by exploiting an amplitude and phase reconstruction technique.

  13. Distributions of Irritative Zones Are Related to Individual Alterations of Resting-State Networks in Focal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yinchen; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Lin, Wei-Chiang; Riera, Jorge J.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the connectivity patterns of the fMRI-based resting-state networks (RSNs) have been reported in several types of epilepsies. Evidence pointed out these alterations might be associated with the genesis and propagation of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). IEDs also evoke blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) responses, which have been used to delineate irritative zones during preoperative work-up. Therefore, one may expect a relationship between the topology of the IED-evoked BOLD response network and the altered spatial patterns of the RSNs. In this study, we used EEG recordings and fMRI data obtained simultaneously from a chronic model of focal epilepsy in Wistar rats to verify our hypothesis. We found that IED-evoked BOLD response networks comprise both cortical and subcortical structures with a rat-dependent topology. In all rats, IEDs evoke both activation and deactivation types of BOLD responses. Using a Granger causality method, we found that in many cases areas with BOLD deactivation have directed influences on areas with activation (p<0.05). We were able to predict topological properties (i.e., focal/diffused, unilateral/bilateral) of the IED-evoked BOLD response network by performing hierarchical clustering analysis on major spatial features of the RSNs. All these results suggest that IEDs and disruptions in the RSNs found previously in humans may be different manifestations of the same transient events, probably reflecting altered consciousness. In our opinion, the shutdown of specific nodes of the default mode network may cause uncontrollable excitability in other functionally connected brain areas. We conclude that IED-evoked BOLD responses (i.e., activation and deactivation) and alterations of RSNs are intrinsically related, and speculate that an understanding of their interplay is necessary to discriminate focal epileptogenesis and network propagation phenomena across different brain modules via hub-based connectivity. PMID

  14. Probing mechanical principles of focal contacts in cell–matrix adhesion with a coupled stochastic–elastic modelling framework

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Huajian; Qian, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Cell–matrix adhesion depends on the collective behaviours of clusters of receptor–ligand bonds called focal contacts between cell and extracellular matrix. While the behaviour of a single molecular bond is governed by statistical mechanics at the molecular scale, continuum mechanics should be valid at a larger scale. This paper presents an overview of a series of recent theoretical studies aimed at probing the basic mechanical principles of focal contacts in cell–matrix adhesion via stochastic–elastic models in which stochastic descriptions of molecular bonds and elastic descriptions of interfacial traction–separation are unified in a single modelling framework. The intention here is to illustrate these principles using simple analytical and numerical models. The aim of the discussions is to provide possible clues to the following questions: why does the size of focal adhesions (FAs) fall into a narrow range around the micrometre scale? How can cells sense and respond to substrates of varied stiffness via FAs? How do the magnitude and orientation of mechanical forces affect the binding dynamics of FAs? The effects of cluster size, cell–matrix elastic modulus, loading direction and cytoskeletal pretension on the lifetime of FA clusters have been investigated by theoretical arguments as well as Monte Carlo numerical simulations, with results showing that intermediate adhesion size, stiff substrate, cytoskeleton stiffening, low-angle pulling and moderate cytoskeletal pretension are factors that contribute to stable FAs. From a mechanistic point of view, these results provide possible explanations for a wide range of experimental observations and suggest multiple mechanisms by which cells can actively control adhesion and de-adhesion via cytoskeletal contractile machinery in response to mechanical properties of their surroundings. PMID:21632610

  15. Mutations in DEPDC5 cause familial focal epilepsy with variable foci.

    PubMed

    Dibbens, Leanne M; de Vries, Boukje; Donatello, Simona; Heron, Sarah E; Hodgson, Bree L; Chintawar, Satyan; Crompton, Douglas E; Hughes, James N; Bellows, Susannah T; Klein, Karl Martin; Callenbach, Petra M C; Corbett, Mark A; Gardner, Alison E; Kivity, Sara; Iona, Xenia; Regan, Brigid M; Weller, Claudia M; Crimmins, Denis; O'Brien, Terence J; Guerrero-López, Rosa; Mulley, John C; Dubeau, Francois; Licchetta, Laura; Bisulli, Francesca; Cossette, Patrick; Thomas, Paul Q; Gecz, Jozef; Serratosa, Jose; Brouwer, Oebele F; Andermann, Frederick; Andermann, Eva; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Pandolfo, Massimo; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2013-05-01

    The majority of epilepsies are focal in origin, with seizures emanating from one brain region. Although focal epilepsies often arise from structural brain lesions, many affected individuals have normal brain imaging. The etiology is unknown in the majority of individuals, although genetic factors are increasingly recognized. Autosomal dominant familial focal epilepsy with variable foci (FFEVF) is notable because family members have seizures originating from different cortical regions. Using exome sequencing, we detected DEPDC5 mutations in two affected families. We subsequently identified mutations in five of six additional published large families with FFEVF. Study of families with focal epilepsy that were too small for conventional clinical diagnosis with FFEVF identified DEPDC5 mutations in approximately 12% of families (10/82). This high frequency establishes DEPDC5 mutations as a common cause of familial focal epilepsies. Shared homology with G protein signaling molecules and localization in human neurons suggest a role of DEPDC5 in neuronal signal transduction.

  16. Description of focal liver lesions with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    CARAIANI, COSMIN-NICOLAE; DAN, MARIAN; FENESAN, DIANA-IOANA; BADEA, RADU

    2015-01-01

    Imaging procedures play a fundamental role in the therapeutic management of focal liver lesions. The goals of imaging are to detect and correctly characterize focal liver lesions. This review highlights the performances of newer, liver-specific, contrast media in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions, particularly Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist), the most frequently used liver specific contrast media. It has been shown, in different papers, that Gd-EOB-DTPA has better performances compared to either triphasic contrast enhanced computed tomography or dynamic MRI in both detection and characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma on the cirrhotic liver. Therefore liver MRI with Primovist is considered, in many centers, the “state-of-the-art” imaging examination of the liver before surgery or liver transplantation. Gd-EOB-DTPA is also useful in the differential diagnosis of benign hypervascular focal liver lesions such as adenomas or focal nodular hyperplasias. PMID:26733231

  17. Perfusion Imaging of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Using Arterial Spin Labeling: Correlation With Histopathological Vascular Density

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Pia; Lechpammer, Mirna; Warfield, Simon K.; Kosaras, Bela; Takeoka, Masanori; Poduri, Annapurna; Madsen, Joseph R.; Bergin, Ann M.; Whalen, Stephen; Jensen, Frances E.

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common malformation of cortical development, causing intractable epilepsy. This study investigated the relationship between brain perfusion and microvessel density in 7 children with focal cortical dysplasia. The authors analyzed brain perfusion measurements obtained by magnetic resonance imaging of 2 of the children and the microvessel density of brain tissue specimens obtained by epilepsy surgery on all of the children. Brain perfusion was approximately 2 times higher in the area of focal cortical dysplasia compared to the contralateral side. The microvessel density was nearly double in the area of focal cortical dysplasia compared to the surrounding cortex that did not have morphological abnormalities. These findings suggest that hyperperfusion can be related to increased microvessel density in focal cortical dysplasia rather than only to seizures. Further investigations are needed to determine the relationship between brain perfusion, microvessel density, and seizure activity. PMID:23696629

  18. System and method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, Jay V; Brandt, Timothy G; Conger, James L; Lawson, Janice K

    2013-05-21

    A method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array according to one embodiment includes gathering a data set for a focal plane array when exposed to light or radiation from a first known target; analyzing the data set for determining which pixels or subpixels of the focal plane array to add to a deselect mapping; adding the pixels or subpixels to the deselect mapping based on the analysis; and storing the deselect mapping. A method for gathering data using a focal plane array according to another embodiment includes deselecting pixels or subpixels based on a deselect mapping; gathering a data set using pixels or subpixels in a focal plane array that are not deselected upon exposure thereof to light or radiation from a target of interest; and outputting the data set.

  19. Research of aerial camera focal pane micro-displacement measurement system based on Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-juan; Zhao, Yu-liang; Li, Shu-jun

    2014-09-01

    The aerial camera focal plane in the correct position is critical to the imaging quality. In order to adjust the aerial camera focal plane displacement caused in the process of maintenance, a new micro-displacement measuring system of aerial camera focal plane in view of the Michelson interferometer has been designed in this paper, which is based on the phase modulation principle, and uses the interference effect to realize the focal plane of the micro-displacement measurement. The system takes He-Ne laser as the light source, uses the Michelson interference mechanism to produce interference fringes, changes with the motion of the aerial camera focal plane interference fringes periodically, and records the periodicity of the change of the interference fringes to obtain the aerial camera plane displacement; Taking linear CCD and its driving system as the interference fringes picking up tool, relying on the frequency conversion and differentiating system, the system determines the moving direction of the focal plane. After data collecting, filtering, amplifying, threshold comparing, counting, CCD video signals of the interference fringes are sent into the computer processed automatically, and output the focal plane micro displacement results. As a result, the focal plane micro displacement can be measured automatically by this system. This system uses linear CCD as the interference fringes picking up tool, greatly improving the counting accuracy and eliminated the artificial counting error almost, improving the measurement accuracy of the system. The results of the experiments demonstrate that: the aerial camera focal plane displacement measurement accuracy is 0.2nm. While tests in the laboratory and flight show that aerial camera focal plane positioning is accurate and can satisfy the requirement of the aerial camera imaging.

  20. Focal spot motion of linear accelerators and its effect on portal image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Brand, Bob; van Herk, Marcel

    2003-06-01

    The focal spot of a linear accelerator is often considered to have a fully stable position. In practice, however, the beam control loop of a linear accelerator needs to stabilize after the beam is turned on. As a result, some motion of the focal spot might occur during the start-up phase of irradiation. When acquiring portal images, this motion will affect the projected position of anatomy and field edges, especially when low exposures are used. In this paper, the motion of the focal spot and the effect of this motion on portal image analysis are quantified. A slightly tilted narrow slit phantom was placed at the isocenter of several linear accelerators and images were acquired (3.5 frames per second) by means of an amorphous silicon flat panel imager positioned approximately 0.7 m below the isocenter. The motion of the focal spot was determined by converting the tilted slit images to subpixel accurate line spread functions. The error in portal image analysis due to focal spot motionwas estimated by a subtraction of the relative displacement of the projected slit from the relative displacement of the field edges. It was found that the motion of the focal spot depends on the control system and design of the accelerator. The shift of the focal spot at the start of irradiation ranges between 0.05-0.7 mm in the gun-target (GT) direction. In the left-right (AB) direction the shift is generally smaller. The resulting error in portal image analysis due to focal spotmotion ranges between 0.05-1.1 mm for a dose corresponding to two monitor units (MUs). For 20 MUs, the effect of the focal spot motion reduces to 0.01-0.3 mm. The error in portal image analysis due to focal spot motion can be reduced by reducing the applied dose rate.

  1. Individual Assessment of Brain Tissue Changes in MS and the Effect of Focal Lesions on Short-Term Focal Atrophy Development in MS: A Voxel-Guided Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Jan; Kraemer, Matthias; Schormann, Thorsten; Dabringhaus, Andreas; Hirsch, Jochen; Eisele, Philipp; Szabo, Kristina; Weiss, Christel; Amann, Michael; Weier, Katrin; Naegelin, Yvonne; Kappos, Ludwig; Gass, Achim

    2016-01-01

    We performed voxel-guided morphometry (VGM) investigating the mechanisms of brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) related to focal lesions. VGM maps detect regional brain changes when comparing 2 time points on high resolution T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonace imaging (MRI). Two T1w MR datasets from 92 relapsing-remitting MS patients obtained 12 months apart were analysed with VGM. New lesions and volume changes of focal MS lesions as well as in the surrounding tissue were identified by visual inspection on colour coded VGM maps. Lesions were dichotomized in active and inactive lesions. Active lesions, defined by either new lesions (NL) (volume increase > 5% in VGM), chronic enlarging lesions (CEL) (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume increase > 5%), or chronic shrinking lesions (CSL) (pre-existent T1w lesions with volume reduction > 5%) in VGM, were accompanied by tissue shrinkage in surrounding and/or functionally related regions. Volume loss within the corpus callosum was highly correlated with the number of lesions in its close proximity. Volume loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus was correlated with lesions along the optic radiation. VGM analysis provides strong evidence that all active lesion types (NL, CEL, and CSL) contribute to brain volume reduction in the vicinity of lesions and/or in anatomically and functionally related areas of the brain. PMID:27043553

  2. Required composition uniformity of Hg1-xCdxTe substrate for focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Vishnu

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a comparison of theoretically predicted spatial NETD and mean temporal NETD as a function of the composition uniformity of Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te substrate used in the fabrication of IR detector arrays. The prediction of the spatial NETD is based on the residual spatial noise left behind in the FPA after implementing a linear two point nonuniformity compensation algorithm. The effect of using an optical filter on the spatial NETD is also included to show that the specifications on the composition uniformity of the Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te substrate can be partially relaxed by using an optical filter whose cut-off wavelength is less than the cutoff wavelength of the photodiodes of mean response. The composition uniformity leading to temporal noise rather than the spatial noise limited performances are suggested to be indicating the required composition uniformity of Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te substrate for focal plane arrays (FPA). The results are presented for both MWIR and LWIR HgCdTe hybrid FPAs.

  3. Reconstruction of 60 Years of Chikungunya Epidemiology in the Philippines Demonstrates Episodic and Focal Transmission.

    PubMed

    Salje, Henrik; Cauchemez, Simon; Alera, Maria Theresa; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Lago, Catherine B; Villa, Daisy; Klungthong, Chonticha; Tac-An, Ilya A; Fernandez, Stefan; Velasco, John Mark; Roque, Vito G; Nisalak, Ananda; Macareo, Louis R; Levy, Jens W; Cummings, Derek; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-02-15

    Proper understanding of the long-term epidemiology of chikungunya has been hampered by poor surveillance. Outbreak years are unpredictable and cases often misdiagnosed. Here we analyzed age-specific data from 2 serological studies (from 1973 and 2012) in Cebu, Philippines, to reconstruct both the annual probability of infection and population-level immunity over a 60-year period (1952-2012). We also explored whether seroconversions during 2012-2013 were spatially clustered. Our models identified 4 discrete outbreaks separated by an average delay of 17 years. On average, 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-37%) of the susceptible population was infected per outbreak, with >50% of the entire population remaining susceptible at any point. Participants who seroconverted during 2012-2013 were clustered at distances of <230 m, suggesting focal transmission. Large-scale outbreaks of chikungunya did not result in sustained multiyear transmission. Nevertheless, we estimate that >350 000 infections were missed by surveillance systems. Serological studies could supplement surveillance to provide important insights on pathogen circulation.

  4. Why do receptor-ligand bonds in cell adhesion cluster into discrete focal-adhesion sites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiwen; Gao, Yanfei

    2016-10-01

    Cell adhesion often exhibits the clustering of the receptor-ligand bonds into discrete focal-adhesion sites near the contact edge, thus resembling a rosette shape or a contracting membrane anchored by a small number of peripheral forces. The ligands on the extracellular matrix are immobile, and the receptors in the cell plasma membrane consist of two types: high-affinity integrins (that bond to the substrate ligands and are immobile) and low-affinity integrins (that are mobile and not bonded to the ligands). Thus the adhesion energy density is proportional to the high-affinity integrin density. This paper provides a mechanistic explanation for the clustering/assembling of the receptor-ligand bonds from two main points: (1) the cellular contractile force leads to the density evolution of these two types of integrins, and results into a large high-affinity integrin density near the contact edge and (2) the front of a propagating crack into a decreasing toughness field will be unstable and wavy. From this fracture mechanics perspective, the chemomechanical equilibrium is reached when a small number of patches with large receptor-ligand bond density are anticipated to form at the cell periphery, as opposed to a uniform distribution of bonds on the entire interface. Cohesive fracture simulations show that the de-adhesion force can be significantly enhanced by this nonuniform bond density field, but the de-adhesion force anisotropy due to the substrate elastic anisotropy is significantly reduced.

  5. Mechanical design of mounts for IGRINS focal plane arrays and field flattening lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyeong; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Pavel, Michael; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    IGRINS, the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer, is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG focal plane array (FPA) detectors. The mechanical mounts for these detectors and for the final (field-flattening) lens in the optical train serve a critical function in the overall instrument design: Optically, they permit the only positional compensation in the otherwise "build to print" design. Thermally, they permit setting and control of the detector operating temperature independently of the cryostat bench. We present the design and fabrication of the mechanical mount as a single module. The detector mount includes the array housing, housing for the SIDECAR ASIC, a field flattener lens holder, and a support base. The detector and ASIC housing will be kept at 65 K and the support base at 130 K. G10 supports thermally isolate the detector and ASIC housing from the support base. The field flattening lens holder attaches directly to the FPA array housing and holds the lens with a six-point kinematic mount. Fine adjustment features permit changes in axial position and in yaw and pitch angles. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the computer simulation, the designed detector mount meets the optical and thermal requirements very well.

  6. The calibration stand for thermal camera module with infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnowski, Tomasz; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Madura, Henryk; Kastek, Mariusz; Firmanty, Krzysztof

    2010-04-01

    In areas like military systems, surveillance systems, or industrial process control, more and more often there is a need to operate in limited visibility conditions or even in complete darkness. In such conditions vision systems can benefit by using thermal vision cameras. In thermal imaging an infrared radiation detector arrays are used. Contemporary infrared detector arrays suffers from technological imprecision which causes that the response to uniform radiation results in nonuniform image with superimposed fixed pattern noise (FPN). In order to compensate this noise there is a need to evaluate detectors characteristics like responsivity and offset of every detector in array. Some of the detectors in cooled detector arrays can be also defective. Signal from defective pixels has to be in such system replaced. In order to replace defective pixels, there is a need to detect them. Identification of so-called blinking pixels needs long time measurement, which in designed calibration stand is also possible. The paper presents the design of infrared detector array measurement stand allowing measurement of mentioned parameters. Measurement stand was also used to evaluate temporal noise of infrared detection modules. In article there is a description of optical system design and parameters of used reference blackbodies. To capture images from camera modules a specially designed digital image interface was used. Measurement control and calculations were made in specially written IRDiag software. Stand was used to measure parameters for cameras based on cooled focal plane arrays from Sofradir. Results of two-point nonuniformity correction are also presented.

  7. Reconstruction of 60 Years of Chikungunya Epidemiology in the Philippines Demonstrates Episodic and Focal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Salje, Henrik; Cauchemez, Simon; Alera, Maria Theresa; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Lago, Catherine B.; Villa, Daisy; Klungthong, Chonticha; Tac-An, Ilya A.; Fernandez, Stefan; Velasco, John Mark; Roque, Vito G.; Nisalak, Ananda; Macareo, Louis R.; Levy, Jens W.; Cummings, Derek; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Proper understanding of the long-term epidemiology of chikungunya has been hampered by poor surveillance. Outbreak years are unpredictable and cases often misdiagnosed. Here we analyzed age-specific data from 2 serological studies (from 1973 and 2012) in Cebu, Philippines, to reconstruct both the annual probability of infection and population-level immunity over a 60-year period (1952–2012). We also explored whether seroconversions during 2012–2013 were spatially clustered. Our models identified 4 discrete outbreaks separated by an average delay of 17 years. On average, 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%–37%) of the susceptible population was infected per outbreak, with >50% of the entire population remaining susceptible at any point. Participants who seroconverted during 2012–2013 were clustered at distances of <230 m, suggesting focal transmission. Large-scale outbreaks of chikungunya did not result in sustained multiyear transmission. Nevertheless, we estimate that >350 000 infections were missed by surveillance systems. Serological studies could supplement surveillance to provide important insights on pathogen circulation. PMID:26410592

  8. Impacts of N-Butylphthalide on expression of growth factors in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Sun, Leyu; Xuan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of n-butylphthalide (NBP) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. The thread embolization method was used to prepare the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR). The animals were divided into a sham operation group, a model control group and NBP treatment group. The NBP group was orally administered 25 mg/kg NBP twice a day after the surgery. The immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed to observe the protein and mRNA expressions of VEGF and TGF-β 16 hours, 1 day and 2 days after inducing CIR. The mRNA and protein expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 in the model control group and the NBP treatment group were all increased after CIR, and those of the NBP treatment group at each post-CIR time point were higher than the model control group (p < 0.01). After CIR, the expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 increased, suggesting that VEGF and TGF-β1 exhibited protective effects towards the ischemic brain injuries, and that NBP could upregulate the expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 in the peri-infarcted area, thus possibly protecting the ischemic brain tissues through this mechanism. PMID:26773175

  9. [Imiquimod for the topical treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) in a child].

    PubMed

    Maschke, Jan; Brauns, Tilmann C; Goos, Manfred

    2004-10-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease is a rare skin disease caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV). The case of a 9-year old boy is presented to demonstrate the successful treatment of massive FEH with 5% imiquimod cream. Initially, the patient had noticed several separate papules, which spread and developed into multiple peri- and intraoral papillomatous nodules. The lesions were treated with carbon dioxide laser destruction. However, multiple, skin-coloured papillomatous nodules were found on the tongue, buccal mucosa and lips 1.5 years later. Treatment with imiquimod was initiated, because the patient suffered tremendously from the disease. 5% imiquimod cream was applied 3 times per week. Regression of lesions was obvious after 1 month of treatment. Complete clearance was achieved after 2 additional months of treatment and no recurrence was detected over a follow-up period of 5 months. Our case points out the clinical value of imiquimod for the non-traumatic and almost painless therapy of HPV-induced skin diseases in children.

  10. Radiobiological characterization of post-lumpectomy focal brachytherapy with lipid nanoparticle-carried radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Gutierrez, Alonso N.; Goins, Beth; Yan, Weiqiang; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

    2011-02-01

    Post-operative radiotherapy has commonly been used for early stage breast cancer to treat residual disease. The primary objective of this work was to characterize, through dosimetric and radiobiological modeling, a novel focal brachytherapy technique which uses direct intracavitary infusion of β-emitting radionuclides (186Re/188Re) carried by lipid nanoparticles (liposomes). Absorbed dose calculations were performed for a spherical lumpectomy cavity with a uniformly injected activity distribution using a dose point kernel convolution technique. Radiobiological indices were used to relate predicted therapy outcome and normal tissue complication of this technique with equivalent external beam radiotherapy treatment regimens. Modeled stromal damage was used as a measure of the inhibition of the stimulatory effect on tumor growth driven by the wound healing response. A sample treatment plan delivering 50 Gy at a therapeutic range of 2.0 mm for 186Re-liposomes and 5.0 mm for 188Re-liposomes takes advantage of the dose delivery characteristics of the β-emissions, providing significant EUD (58.2 Gy and 72.5 Gy for 186Re and 188Re, respectively) with a minimal NTCP (0.046%) of the healthy ipsilateral breast. Modeling of kidney BED and ipsilateral breast NTCP showed that large injected activity concentrations of both radionuclides could be safely administered without significant complications.

  11. Interval analysis of interictal EEG: pathology of the alpha rhythm in focal epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrzowski, Jan; Siemiński, Mariusz; Sarnowska, Anna; Jedrzejczak, Joanna; Nyka, Walenty M.

    2015-11-01

    The contemporary use of interictal scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in the context of focal epilepsy workup relies on the visual identification of interictal epileptiform discharges. The high-specificity performance of this marker comes, however, at a cost of only moderate sensitivity. Zero-crossing interval analysis is an alternative to Fourier analysis for the assessment of the rhythmic component of EEG signals. We applied this method to standard EEG recordings of 78 patients divided into 4 subgroups: temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and nonepileptic patients with headache. Interval-analysis based markers were capable of effectively discriminating patients with epilepsy from those in control subgroups (AUC~0.8) with diagnostic sensitivity potentially exceeding that of visual analysis. The identified putative epilepsy-specific markers were sensitive to the properties of the alpha rhythm and displayed weak or non-significant dependences on the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) taken by the patients. Significant AED-related effects were concentrated in the theta interval range and an associated marker allowed for identification of patients on AED polytherapy (AUC~0.9). Interval analysis may thus, in perspective, increase the diagnostic yield of interictal scalp EEG. Our findings point to the possible existence of alpha rhythm abnormalities in patients with epilepsy.

  12. Interval analysis of interictal EEG: pathology of the alpha rhythm in focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pyrzowski, Jan; Siemiński, Mariusz; Sarnowska, Anna; Jedrzejczak, Joanna; Nyka, Walenty M

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary use of interictal scalp electroencephalography (EEG) in the context of focal epilepsy workup relies on the visual identification of interictal epileptiform discharges. The high-specificity performance of this marker comes, however, at a cost of only moderate sensitivity. Zero-crossing interval analysis is an alternative to Fourier analysis for the assessment of the rhythmic component of EEG signals. We applied this method to standard EEG recordings of 78 patients divided into 4 subgroups: temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and nonepileptic patients with headache. Interval-analysis based markers were capable of effectively discriminating patients with epilepsy from those in control subgroups (AUC~0.8) with diagnostic sensitivity potentially exceeding that of visual analysis. The identified putative epilepsy-specific markers were sensitive to the properties of the alpha rhythm and displayed weak or non-significant dependences on the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) taken by the patients. Significant AED-related effects were concentrated in the theta interval range and an associated marker allowed for identification of patients on AED polytherapy (AUC~0.9). Interval analysis may thus, in perspective, increase the diagnostic yield of interictal scalp EEG. Our findings point to the possible existence of alpha rhythm abnormalities in patients with epilepsy. PMID:26553287

  13. The Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers for Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nafar, Mohsen; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Rutishuser, Dorothea; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a glomerular injury with various pathogenic mechanisms. Urine proteome panel might help in noninvasive diagnosis and better understanding of pathogenesis of FSGS. Method. We have analyzed the urine sample of 11 biopsy-proven FSGS subjects, 8 healthy controls, and 6 patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (disease controls) by means of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). Multivariate analysis of quantified proteins was performed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). Results. Of the total number of 389 proteins, after multivariate analysis and additional filter criterion and comparing FSGS versus IgA nephropathy and healthy subjects, 77 proteins were considered as putative biomarkers of FSGS. CD59, CD44, IBP7, Robo4, and DPEP1 were the most significant differentially expressed proteins. These proteins are involved in pathogenic pathways: complement pathway, sclerosis, cell proliferation, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and activity of TRPC6.There was complete absence of DPEP1 in urine proteome of FSGS subjects compared with healthy and disease controls. DPEP1 acts via leukotrienes on TRPC6 and results in increased podocyte motility and proteinuria. Conclusion. The results suggest a panel of candidate biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of FSGS, while complete absence of DPEP1 might represent a novel marker of FSGS. PMID:24790760

  14. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe ˜ 70 % of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at ˜ 10 Hz to suppress the 1/ f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  15. Research on focal nodular hyperplasia with MSCT and postprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan-Jian; Fan, Wei-Jun; Yuan, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Rong; Yan, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Su-Mei; Chen, Jun-Hui; Liu, Zheng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate and evaluate the pathological features and diagnostic value of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) with multi-section spiral computed tomography (MSCT) and postprocessing. METHODS: A total of 25 patients with FNH who had undergone MSCT and postprocessing were included in the investigation. All patients had been pathologically or clinically confirmed with FNH. A number of 75 cases of hepatic carcinomas, hemangiomas and adenomas were randomly selected at a same period for a comparative study. RESULTS: There was a single focus in 22 cases and multiple foci in 3 cases. On the plain scan, 17 lesions showed hypodensity, 7 isodensity and 4 hyperdensity (the case with fatty liver). With contrast, 28 lesions were enhanced evenly or in the nodules in the arterial phase; 13 lesions still showed hyperdensity, 11 lesions isodensity and 4 lesions hypodensity in the parenchymatous phase; in the delayed phase only 5 lesions showed hyperdensity but 9 lesions showed isodensity or slight hypodensity and 14 lesions showed hypodensity. Twelve lesions of 28 had central asteroid scars. Thickened feeding arteries in postprocessing were seen in 24 lesions, and were integrated into the parenchymatous lesions with a gradual and smooth course. On the contrary, there were no artery penetrated into the lesion found in any of comparative hepatic tumors. CONCLUSION: Doctors could make a correct diagnosis and differentiation of FNH on evaluation of the characteristic appearance on MSCT with postprocessing. PMID:19824121

  16. Talin determines the nanoscale architecture of focal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jaron; Wang, Yilin; Goh, Wah Ing; Goh, Honzhen; Baird, Michelle A; Ruehland, Svenja; Teo, Shijia; Bate, Neil; Critchley, David R; Davidson, Michael W; Kanchanawong, Pakorn

    2015-09-01

    Insight into how molecular machines perform their biological functions depends on knowledge of the spatial organization of the components, their connectivity, geometry, and organizational hierarchy. However, these parameters are difficult to determine in multicomponent assemblies such as integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs). We have previously applied 3D superresolution fluorescence microscopy to probe the spatial organization of major FA components, observing a nanoscale stratification of proteins between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. Here we combine superresolution imaging techniques with a protein engineering approach to investigate how such nanoscale architecture arises. We demonstrate that talin plays a key structural role in regulating the nanoscale architecture of FAs, akin to a molecular ruler. Talin diagonally spans the FA core, with its N terminus at the membrane and C terminus demarcating the FA/stress fiber interface. In contrast, vinculin is found to be dispensable for specification of FA nanoscale architecture. Recombinant analogs of talin with modified lengths recapitulated its polarized orientation but altered the FA/stress fiber interface in a linear manner, consistent with its modular structure, and implicating the integrin-talin-actin complex as the primary mechanical linkage in FAs. Talin was found to be ∼97 nm in length and oriented at ∼15° relative to the plasma membrane. Our results identify talin as the primary determinant of FA nanoscale organization and suggest how multiple cellular forces may be integrated at adhesion sites. PMID:26283369

  17. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rafi; Veleba, Mark; Kline, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs) target anionic lipids [e.g., phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipins (CL)] in the cell membrane and anionic components [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)] of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g., lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1) CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2) delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3) CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging, and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction. PMID:27376064

  18. Phagocytosis executes delayed neuronal death after focal brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Neher, Jonas J; Emmrich, Julius V; Fricker, Michael; Mander, Palwinder K; Théry, Clotilde; Brown, Guy C

    2013-10-22

    Delayed neuronal loss and brain atrophy after cerebral ischemia contribute to stroke and dementia pathology, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Phagocytic removal of neurons is generally assumed to be beneficial and to occur only after neuronal death. However, we report herein that inhibition of phagocytosis can prevent delayed loss and death of functional neurons after transient brain ischemia. Two phagocytic proteins, Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) and Milk fat globule EGF-like factor 8 (MFG-E8), were transiently up-regulated by macrophages/microglia after focal brain ischemia in vivo. Strikingly, deficiency in either protein completely prevented long-term functional motor deficits after cerebral ischemia and strongly reduced brain atrophy as a result of inhibiting phagocytosis of neurons. Correspondingly, in vitro glutamate-stressed neurons reversibly exposed the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine, leading to their phagocytosis by microglia; this neuronal loss was prevented in the absence of microglia and reduced if microglia were genetically deficient in MerTK or MFG-E8, both of which mediate phosphatidylserine-recognition. Thus, phagocytosis of viable neurons contributes to brain pathology and, surprisingly, blocking this process is strongly beneficial. Therefore, inhibition of specific phagocytic pathways may present therapeutic targets for preventing delayed neuronal loss after transient cerebral ischemia.

  19. Talin determines the nanoscale architecture of focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jaron; Wang, Yilin; Goh, Wah Ing; Goh, Honzhen; Baird, Michelle A.; Ruehland, Svenja; Teo, Shijia; Bate, Neil; Critchley, David R.; Davidson, Michael W.; Kanchanawong, Pakorn

    2015-01-01

    Insight into how molecular machines perform their biological functions depends on knowledge of the spatial organization of the components, their connectivity, geometry, and organizational hierarchy. However, these parameters are difficult to determine in multicomponent assemblies such as integrin-based focal adhesions (FAs). We have previously applied 3D superresolution fluorescence microscopy to probe the spatial organization of major FA components, observing a nanoscale stratification of proteins between integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. Here we combine superresolution imaging techniques with a protein engineering approach to investigate how such nanoscale architecture arises. We demonstrate that talin plays a key structural role in regulating the nanoscale architecture of FAs, akin to a molecular ruler. Talin diagonally spans the FA core, with its N terminus at the membrane and C terminus demarcating the FA/stress fiber interface. In contrast, vinculin is found to be dispensable for specification of FA nanoscale architecture. Recombinant analogs of talin with modified lengths recapitulated its polarized orientation but altered the FA/stress fiber interface in a linear manner, consistent with its modular structure, and implicating the integrin–talin–actin complex as the primary mechanical linkage in FAs. Talin was found to be ∼97 nm in length and oriented at ∼15° relative to the plasma membrane. Our results identify talin as the primary determinant of FA nanoscale organization and suggest how multiple cellular forces may be integrated at adhesion sites. PMID:26283369

  20. Multiple lesions of cutaneous focal mucinosis in a teenager.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Claudia; Fowler, Ashley; Gandhi, Mona Y

    2007-01-01

    A 19-year-old Hispanic woman presented to our clinic with a chief complaint of multiple pink papules on her face (Figure 1). The lesions were asymptomatic, had appeared several years before her consultation, and had remained stable in size. Similar lesions on her trunk and extremities had spontaneously resolved before presentation. She had no significant medical history and was not on any medications. Cutaneous examination was remarkable for a few scattered, well-demarcated, slightly raised pink papules and plaques with no scale, ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter. The lesions were distributed on the right cheek, right temple, left lower eyelid, and neck area. The rest of the cutaneous examination was unremarkable. A punch biopsy was performed from a lesion near the left premandibular area. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of the biopsy specimen revealed superficial perivascular dermatitis with a slight increase in the number of fibroblasts (Figure 2). Colloidal iron staining was diffusely positive with replacement of collagen with mucinous material in the dermal layer (Figure 3). Laboratory values for a complete blood cell count, metabolic panel, serum protein electrophoresis, urine protein electrophoresis, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and antinuclear antibody were within normal limits. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous focal mucinosis. Because of cosmetic concerns, the patient declined surgical excision and intralesional corticosteroid injections. A 4-month trial of topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment was ineffective. PMID:17975357

  1. Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

  2. MTF comparisons between mesa and planar focal plane detector structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perley, Mitchell; Wehner, Justin; Buell, Dave; Micali, Jason; McCorkle, Joe; Rehfield, Mark; Williams, Dave; Dixon, Andrew; Malone, Neil

    2013-09-01

    Raytheon Vision Systems (RVS) has developed scanning, high-speed (<3klps), all digital, with on-chip Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC), mid-wave infrared (MWIR 3-5mm) focal plane arrays (FPA) with excellent modulation transfer function (MTF) performance. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data and detailed models of the mesa geometry, RVS modeled the predicted detector MTF performance of detectors. These detectors have a mesa structure and geometry for improved MTF performance compared to planar HgCdTe and InSb detector structures and other similar detector structures such as nBn. The modeled data is compared to measured MTF data obtained from edge spread measurements and shows good agreement, Figure 1. The measured data was obtained using a custom advanced test set with 1µm precision alignment and automatic data acquisition for report generation in less than five minutes per FPA. The measured MTF values of 83 unique parts, Figure 2, had a standard deviation of 0.0094 and a mean absolute deviation of 0.0066 at half Nyquist frequency, showing excellent process repeatability and a design that supports high MTF with good repeatability.

  3. Functional focal retrograde amnesia: lost access to abstract autobiographical knowledge?

    PubMed

    Stracciari, Andrea; Mattarozzi, Katia; Fonti, Cristina; Guarino, Maria

    2005-10-01

    We describe three patients exhibiting an acute reversible amnesia characterised by an impaired recollection of past events with preserved anterograde memory, thus consistent with a focal retrograde amnesia (FRA). This occurred after variable events: state of fugue, road accident, post-traumatic headache. Retrograde amnesia affected autobiographical memory so severely as to cover all of the patients' lives and to erase knowledge of their own identity. The retrieval of public events was variably affected, ranging from normality to severe impairment. No lesions were found on neuroimaging, and neurophysiological findings were unimpressive. FRA subsided in a few days, leaving a gap for the onset. The hypothesis of a psychogenic amnesia is considered, but overcoming the organic/psychogenic dichotomy the episodes appear as examples of "functional" memory inhibition, potentially triggered by different conditions, including events classifiable as psychic trauma. The clinical and neuropsychological traits of functional FRA are discussed. According to a current theory of autobiographical memory, the memory profile may be explained by a lost access to abstract autobiographical knowledge. Given some analogies with the more common transient global amnesia, a mechanism of spreading depression may also be hypothesised for functional FRA. PMID:16191819

  4. NBR1 enables autophagy-dependent focal adhesion turnover

    PubMed Central

    Kenific, Candia M.; Stehbens, Samantha J.; Goldsmith, Juliet; Leidal, Andrew M.; Faure, Nathalie; Ye, Jordan; Wittmann, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic pathway involving the sequestration of cellular contents into a double-membrane vesicle, the autophagosome. Although recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy supports cell migration, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using live-cell imaging, we uncover that autophagy promotes optimal migratory rate and facilitates the dynamic assembly and disassembly of cell-matrix focal adhesions (FAs), which is essential for efficient motility. Additionally, our studies reveal that autophagosomes associate with FAs primarily during disassembly, suggesting autophagy locally facilitates the destabilization of cell-matrix contact sites. Furthermore, we identify the selective autophagy cargo receptor neighbor of BRCA1 (NBR1) as a key mediator of autophagy-dependent FA remodeling. NBR1 depletion impairs FA turnover and decreases targeting of autophagosomes to FAs, whereas ectopic expression of autophagy-competent, but not autophagy-defective, NBR1 enhances FA disassembly and reduces FA lifetime during migration. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into how autophagy promotes migration by revealing a requirement for NBR1-mediated selective autophagy in enabling FA disassembly in motile cells. PMID:26903539

  5. Non-invasive treatment options for focal cortical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TING-TING; ZHOU, DONG

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) presents a strong clinical challenge especially for the treatment of the associated epilepsy. Epilepsy in FCD is often treatment-resistant and constitutes 50% of treatment-resistant cases. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been widely used in the treatment of FCD. However, evidence to suggest their specific effect on the treatment of FCD remains to be established. In view of this resistance, several alternative treatments have been suggested. Although treatment currently involves surgical management, non-invasive treatments have been identified. The aim of the present review, was to assess non-invasive management strategies including, i) mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, ii) ketogenic diet (KD), and iii) vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). In addition, we discussed the literature available regarding the use of AEDs in FCD. Experiments conducted with mammals detailing rapamycin gene mutations in FCD have produced vital information for exploring treatment options using mTOR inhibitors. Of note is the importance of KD in children with FCD. This diet has been shown to modify disease progression by attenuating chromatin modification, a master regulator for gene expression and functional adaptation of the cell. FCD has also been studied widely with neurostimulation techniques. The outcomes of these techniques have been found to be variable. For widespread dysplasias, VNS has been shown to produce responder rates of >50%. Nevertheless, non-invasive cranial nerve stimulation techniques such as transcutaneous VNS and non-invasive VNS are gaining better patient compatibility, albeit their efficacy remains to be established. PMID:27168769

  6. Focal transmural necrotic tracheitis in commercial meat turkeys.

    PubMed

    Sentíes-Cué, Gabriel; Crespo, Rocio; Chin, R P

    2003-01-01

    This report describes an unusual presentation of severe focal necrotic tracheitis in a flock of 8-wk-old commercial turkeys. The flock was kept on a range that is located near a cotton field. The cotton field had been chemically defoliated 2 wk before the birds were submitted for necropsy. At necropsy, most of the birds had a 1-cm, yellow-white constricture in the upper third of the trachea at which the lumen was partially occluded by necrotic tissue. Microscopically, there was severe, transmural necrosis with an accumulation of inflammatory exudate in the tracheal lumen and numerous bacteria within the necrotic debris, mucosa, and lamina propria. Mixed bacteria were isolated from the trachea. No viruses were detected. Neither abnormal heavy metal concentrations in the liver nor paraquat in the respiratory tract were detected. The exact cause of this severe, necrotic tracheitis was not determined. Based on the clinical history and laboratory findings, it was concluded that a combination of a toxic irritant, possibly an aerosolized cotton defoliant, and bacterial infections were likely the cause of this lesion. PMID:12713185

  7. Focal plane mechanical design of the NISP/Euclid instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefoi, Anne; Bon, William; Niclas, Mathieu; Solheim, Bjarte G. B.; Torvanger, Oyvind; Schistad, Robert; Foulon, Benjamin; Garcia, José; Vives, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    Currently in phase C, the Euclid mission selected by ESA in the Cosmic Vision program is dedicated to understand dark energy and dark matter. NISP (standing for Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer) is one of the two instruments of the mission. NISP will combine a photometer and a spectrometer working in the near-IR (0.9-2 microns). Its detection subsystem (called NI-DS) is based on a mosaic of 16 IR detectors cooled down to 90K which are supported by a molybdenum plate. The front-end readout electronics (working at 130K) are supported by another structure in Aluminum. The NI-DS is mounted on the rest of the instrument thanks to a panel in Silicon Carbide (SiC). Finally an optical baffle in Titanium will prevent the rogue light to reach the detectors. On top of the complexity due to the wide range of temperatures and the various materials imposed at the interfaces; the NI-DS has also to incorporate an internal adjustment capability of the position of the focal plane in tip/tilt and focus. This article will present current status of the development of the detection system of NISP.

  8. COMMUNICATION: Electrophysiological response dynamics during focal cortical infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiganos, Terry C., Jr.; Jensen, Winnie; Rousche, Patrick J.

    2006-12-01

    While the intracellular processes of hypoxia-induced necrosis and the intercellular mechanisms of post-ischemic neurotoxicity associated with stroke are well documented, the dynamic electrophysiological (EP) response of neurons within the core or periinfarct zone remains unclear. The present study validates a method for continuous measurement of the local EP responses during focal cortical infarction induced via photothrombosis. Single microwire electrodes were acutely implanted into the primary auditory cortex of eight rats. Multi-unit neural activity, evoked via a continuous 2 Hz click stimulus, was recorded before, during and after infarction to assess neuronal function in response to local, permanent ischemia. During sham infarction, the average stimulus-evoked peak firing rate over 20 min remained stable at 495.5 ± 14.5 spikes s-1, indicating temporal stability of neural function under normal conditions. Stimulus-evoked peak firing was reliably reduced to background levels (firing frequency in the absence of stimulus) following initiation of photothrombosis over a period of 439 ± 92 s. The post-infarction firing patterns exhibited unique temporal degradation of the peak firing rate, suggesting a variable response to ischemic challenge. Despite the inherent complexity of cerebral ischemia secondary to microvascular occlusion, complete loss of EP function consistently occurred 300-600 s after photothrombosis. The results suggest that microwire recording during photothrombosis provides a simple and highly efficacious strategy for assessing the electrophysiological dynamics of cortical infarction.

  9. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Rafi; Veleba, Mark; Kline, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs) target anionic lipids [e.g., phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and cardiolipins (CL)] in the cell membrane and anionic components [e.g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)] of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g., lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1) CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2) delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3) CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging, and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction. PMID:27376064

  10. Spontaneous gesture and spatial language: Evidence from focal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Göksun, Tilbe; Lehet, Matthew; Malykhina, Katsiaryna; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-11-01

    People often use spontaneous gestures when communicating spatial information. We investigated focal brain-injured individuals to test the hypotheses that (1) naming motion event components of manner-path (represented by verbs-prepositions in English) are impaired selectively, (2) gestures compensate for impaired naming. Patients with left or right hemisphere damage (LHD or RHD) and elderly control participants were asked to describe motion events (e.g., running across) depicted in brief videos. Damage to the left posterior middle frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) produced impairments in naming paths of motion; lesions to the left caudate and adjacent white matter produced impairments in naming manners of motion. While the frequency of spontaneous gestures were low, lesions to the left aSTG significantly correlated with greater production of path gestures. These suggest that producing prepositions-verbs can be separately impaired and gesture production compensates for naming impairments when damage involves left aSTG. PMID:26283001

  11. Essential role for focal adhesion kinase in regulating stress hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Ramdas, Baskar; Hanneman, Philip; Martin, Joseph; Beggs, Hilary E.

    2010-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that has been extensively studied in fibroblasts; however its function in hematopoiesis remains an enigma. FAK is thought to be expressed in myeloid and erythroid progenitors, and its expression is enhanced in response to cytokines such as granu-locyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, bone marrow cells cultured in granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor show active migration and chemoattractant-induced polarization, which correlates with FAK induction. While loss of FAK in mice results in embryonic lethality, we have deleted FAK in the adult bone marrow. We show an essential role for FAK in regulating hemolytic, myelotoxic, as well as acute inflammatory stress responses in vivo. In vitro, loss of FAK in erythroid and myeloid progenitor's results in impaired cytokine induced growth and survival, as well as defects in the activation and expression of antiapoptotic proteins caspase 3 and Bcl-xL. Additionally, reduced migration and adhesion of myeloid cells on extracellular matrix proteins, as well as impaired activation of Rac GTPase is also observed in the absence of FAK. Our studies reveal an essential role for FAK in integrating growth/survival and adhesion based functions in myeloid and erythroid cells predominantly under conditions of stress. PMID:20664055

  12. Progression of experimental focal glomerulosclerosis in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Sato, H; Obara, K; Yamakage, K; Abe, K; Furuyama, T; Yoshinaga, K

    1990-02-01

    To study the influence of hypertension on the progression of focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS), we produced an experimental model of FGS in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) by the combined administration of puromycinaminonucleoside (AMNS) and protamine sulfate (PS). SHRs and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats as a control strain were given daily injections of subcutaneous AMNS (1 mg/100 gm body weight) and intravenous PS (two separated doses of 2.5 mg/100 mg body weight) for 4 days; they were killed on day 80 after three series of injections at 10-day intervals. The levels of urinary protein, serum creatinine, and urea nitrogen in SHRs given AMNS and PS were elevated throughout the experiment and were significantly higher than these levels in other control groups on day 80. Histology in SHRs given AMNS and PS showed advanced FGS associated with glomerular hypertrophy and widespread interstitial fibrosis. Most small arteries and arterioles showed "onion peel" thickening and fibrinoid necrosis of the intima, which is characteristic of malignant arteriosclerosis. We observed that the gradient of glomerulosclerosis increased from superficial to deep cortical zones; this phenomenon had often been reported in human FGS. However, these distinguished lesions were not found in control groups. Therefore, it is suggested that systemic hypertension is one of the deleterious factors enhancing histologic and functional deterioration in FGS. PMID:2299264

  13. Some ecological criteria of natural focality of mycotic zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Otcenásek, M; Rosický, B

    1979-01-01

    Mycotic zoonoses sensu stricto and mycotic infections acquired from animal polluted environment belong to diseases characterized by the phenomenon of natural focality. On a global scale they comprise 16 different diseases caused by yeast-like organisms, dematophytes, dimorphous agents of systemic mycoses and primarily saprophytic fungi as well. Prevalence of mentioned diseases is influenced by a number of factors concerning not only biology and ecology of pathogenic agents and particular hosts, but also character of specific extra-animal substrates which make possible long-term maintenance or active propagation of agents in the environment. On the basis of their experience and published data as well, the authors present a survey and analysis of these factors, with particular emphasis on very frequent dermatophytozoonoses and some systemic mycoses. They pay attention to different conditions in urbanized and rural areas and to specific situations encountered by man and food producing animals in these areas. They note different ways of heterotrophy of particular agents and their association with vertebrate hosts which they divide into six ecologically different groups. The authors also characterize the environment in which a portion of saproparatrophic circulation of the agent takes place. They also give a survey of animal-connected human mycoses, which may arise due to occupational hazards.

  14. Focal transmural necrotic tracheitis in commercial meat turkeys.

    PubMed

    Sentíes-Cué, Gabriel; Crespo, Rocio; Chin, R P

    2003-01-01

    This report describes an unusual presentation of severe focal necrotic tracheitis in a flock of 8-wk-old commercial turkeys. The flock was kept on a range that is located near a cotton field. The cotton field had been chemically defoliated 2 wk before the birds were submitted for necropsy. At necropsy, most of the birds had a 1-cm, yellow-white constricture in the upper third of the trachea at which the lumen was partially occluded by necrotic tissue. Microscopically, there was severe, transmural necrosis with an accumulation of inflammatory exudate in the tracheal lumen and numerous bacteria within the necrotic debris, mucosa, and lamina propria. Mixed bacteria were isolated from the trachea. No viruses were detected. Neither abnormal heavy metal concentrations in the liver nor paraquat in the respiratory tract were detected. The exact cause of this severe, necrotic tracheitis was not determined. Based on the clinical history and laboratory findings, it was concluded that a combination of a toxic irritant, possibly an aerosolized cotton defoliant, and bacterial infections were likely the cause of this lesion.

  15. Characterization of Focal Muscle Compression Under Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Ben; Sory, David; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien; Curry, Richard; Clasper, Jon; Proud, William; Williams, Alun; Brown, Kate

    2015-06-01

    The pattern of battle injuries sustained in modern wars shows that over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome in extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions. Funding provided by the Royal British Legion.

  16. Noninvasive imaging of focal atherosclerotic lesions using fluorescence molecular tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Dolonchampa; Solomon, Metasebya; Nguyen, Annie; Pierce, Richard A.; Woodard, Pamela K.; Akers, Walter J.; Achilefu, Samuel; Culver, Joseph P.; Abendschein, Dana R.; Shokeen, Monica

    2014-11-01

    Insights into the etiology of stroke and myocardial infarction suggest that rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaque is the precipitating event. Clinicians lack tools to detect lesion instability early enough to intervene, and are often left to manage patients empirically, or worse, after plaque rupture. Noninvasive imaging of the molecular events signaling prerupture plaque progression has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with myocardial infarction and stroke by allowing early intervention. Here, we demonstrate proof-of-principle in vivo molecular imaging of C-type natriuretic peptide receptor in focal atherosclerotic lesions in the femoral arteries of New Zealand white rabbits using a custom built fiber-based, fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) system. Longitudinal imaging showed changes in the fluorescence signal intensity as the plaque progressed in the air-desiccated vessel compared to the uninjured vessel, which was validated by ex vivo tissue studies. In summary, we demonstrate the potential of FMT for noninvasive detection of molecular events leading to unstable lesions heralding plaque rupture.

  17. Regulation of Cell Adhesion Strength by Peripheral Focal Adhesion Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Elineni, Kranthi Kumar; Gallant, Nathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrices is a tightly regulated process that involves the complex interplay between biochemical and mechanical events at the cell-adhesive interface. Previous work established the spatiotemporal contributions of adhesive components to adhesion strength and identified a nonlinear dependence on cell spreading. This study was designed to investigate the regulation of cell-adhesion strength by the size and position of focal adhesions (FA). The cell-adhesive interface was engineered to direct FA assembly to the periphery of the cell-spreading area to delineate the cell-adhesive area from the cell-spreading area. It was observed that redistributing the same adhesive area over a larger cell-spreading area significantly enhanced cell-adhesion strength, but only up to a threshold area. Moreover, the size of the peripheral FAs, which was interpreted as an adhesive patch, did not directly govern the adhesion strength. Interestingly, this is in contrast to the previously reported functional role of FAs in regulating cellular traction where sizes of the peripheral FAs play a critical role. These findings demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that two spatial regimes in cell-spreading area exist that uniquely govern the structure-function role of FAs in regulating cell-adhesion strength. PMID:22208188

  18. Microtubules regulate focal adhesion dynamics through MAP4K4.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jiping; Xie, Min; Gou, Xuewen; Lee, Philbert; Schneider, Michael D; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-01

    Disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs) allows cell retraction and integrin detachment from the extracellular matrix, processes critical for cell movement. Growth of microtubules (MTs) can promote FA turnover by serving as tracks to deliver proteins essential for FA disassembly. The molecular nature of this FA "disassembly factor," however, remains elusive. By quantitative proteomics, we identified mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) as an FA regulator that associates with MTs. Knockout of MAP4K4 stabilizes FAs and impairs cell migration. By exploring underlying mechanisms, we further show that MAP4K4 associates with ending binding 2 (EB2) and IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing protein 1 (IQSEC1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor specific for Arf6, whose activation promotes integrin internalization. Together, our findings provide critical insight into FA disassembly, suggesting that MTs can deliver MAP4K4 toward FAs through EB2, where MAP4K4 can, in turn, activate Arf6 via IQSEC1 and enhance FA dissolution. PMID:25490267

  19. A CMOS Imager with Focal Plane Compression using Predictive Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Balkir, Sina; Sayood, Khalid; Schemm, Nathan; Hoffman, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS image sensor with focal-plane compression. The design has a column-level architecture and it is based on predictive coding techniques for image decorrelation. The prediction operations are performed in the analog domain to avoid quantization noise and to decrease the area complexity of the circuit, The prediction residuals are quantized and encoded by a joint quantizer/coder circuit. To save area resources, the joint quantizerlcoder circuit exploits common circuitry between a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a Golomb-Rice entropy coder. This combination of ADC and encoder allows the integration of the entropy coder at the column level. A prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35 pm CMOS process. The output of the chip is a compressed bit stream. The test chip occupies a silicon area of 2.60 mm x 5.96 mm which includes an 80 X 44 APS array. Tests of the fabricated chip demonstrate the validity of the design.

  20. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.