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Sample records for 4-kinase iii beta

  1. Type III phosphatidylinositol 4 kinases: structure, function, regulation, signalling and involvement in disease.

    PubMed

    Dornan, Gillian L; McPhail, Jacob A; Burke, John E

    2016-02-01

    Many important cellular functions are regulated by the selective recruitment of proteins to intracellular membranes mediated by specific interactions with lipid phosphoinositides. The enzymes that generate lipid phosphoinositides therefore must be properly positioned and regulated at their correct cellular locations. Phosphatidylinositol 4 kinases (PI4Ks) are key lipid signalling enzymes, and they generate the lipid species phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), which plays important roles in regulating physiological processes including membrane trafficking, cytokinesis and organelle identity. PI4P also acts as the substrate for the generation of the signalling phosphoinositides phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PI4Ks also play critical roles in a number of pathological processes including mediating replication of a number of pathogenic RNA viruses, and in the development of the parasite responsible for malaria. Key to the regulation of PI4Ks is their regulation by a variety of both host and viral protein-binding partners. We review herein our current understanding of the structure, regulatory interactions and role in disease of the type III PI4Ks.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta is required for vitamin D receptor-dependent E-cadherin expression in SW480 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kouchi, Zen; Fujiwara, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Fukami, Kiyoko

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} We analyzed Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate kinase II{beta} (PIPKII{beta}) function in cancer. {yields} PIPKII{beta} is required for vitamin D receptor-mediated E-cadherin upregulation in SW480. {yields} PIPKII{beta} suppresses cellular motility through E-cadherin induction in SW480 cells. {yields} Nuclear PIP{sub 2} but not plasma membrane-localized PIP{sub 2} mediates E-cadherin upregulation. -- Abstract: Numerous epidemiological data indicate that vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling induced by its ligand or active metabolite 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) has anti-cancer activity in several colon cancers. 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} induces the epithelial differentiation of SW480 colon cancer cells expressing VDR (SW480-ADH) by upregulating E-cadherin expression; however, its precise mechanism remains unknown. We found that phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta (PIPKII{beta}) but not PIPKII{alpha} is required for VDR-mediated E-cadherin induction in SW480-ADH cells. The syntenin-2 postsynaptic density protein/disc large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain and pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-delta1 (PLC{delta}1 PHD) possess high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P{sub 2}) mainly localized to the nucleus and plasma membrane, respectively. The expression of syntenin-2 PDZ but not PLC{delta}1 PHD inhibited 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}-induced E-cadherin upregulation, suggesting that nuclear PI(4,5)P{sub 2} production mediates E-cadherin expression through PIPKII{beta} in a VDR-dependent manner. PIPKII{beta} is also involved in the suppression of the cell motility induced by 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. These results indicate that PIPKII{beta}-mediated PI(4,5)P{sub 2} signaling is important for E-cadherin upregulation and inhibition of cellular motility induced by VDR activation.

  3. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system....5440 Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein III... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system....5440 Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. (a) Identification. A beta-2-glycoprotein III... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of...

  5. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases: Function, structure, and inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Boura, Evzen Nencka, Radim

    2015-10-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key member of the phosphoinositide family. PI4P defines the membranes of Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) and regulates trafficking to and from the Golgi. Humans have two type II PI4Ks (α and β) and two type III enzymes (α and β). Recently, the crystal structures were solved for both type II and type III kinase revealing atomic details of their function. Importantly, the type III PI4Ks are hijacked by +RNA viruses to create so-called membranous web, an extensively phosphorylated and modified membrane system dedicated to their replication. Therefore, selective and potent inhibitors of PI4Ks have been developed as potential antiviral agents. Here we focus on the structure and function of PI4Ks and their potential in human medicine.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... worsen slowly over time. Individuals with mucolipidosis III alpha/beta grow slowly and have short stature. They also have stiff joints and dysostosis multiplex, which refers to multiple skeletal abnormalities seen on x-ray. Many affected individuals develop low bone mineral density ( ...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the beta-2-glycoprotein III (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of beta-2-glycoprotein III aids in the diagnosis of an inherited deficiency of this serum protein and a variety of...

  8. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eun Jee; Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah; Cho, Jin Won; Lee, Joon H.

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  9. Luminescence spectroscopy of europium(III) and terbium(III) penta-, octa- and nonanuclear clusters with beta-diketonate ligands.

    PubMed

    Petit, Sarah; Baril-Robert, François; Pilet, Guillaume; Reber, Christian; Luneau, Dominique

    2009-09-14

    A series of Eu(III) and Tb(III) clusters as well as their Y(III) analogues with increasing nuclearities of 5, 8 and 9 have been synthesised using beta-diketonate ligands with decreasing steric hindrance. Their molecular structures have been established from X-ray diffraction on single crystals for most clusters and studied by luminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra have distinctive patterns for each nuclearity in accordance with their crystal structure. The luminescence spectra of the Eu(III) and Tb(III) clusters also show distinctive features.

  10. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-09-30

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1-40 peptide on the basis of their emission response.

  11. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1–40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1–40 peptide on the basis of their emission response. PMID:26419607

  12. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-09-01

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1-40 peptide on the basis of their emission response.

  13. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5440 - Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beta-2-glycoprotein III immunological test system. 866.5440 Section 866.5440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  15. [Synthesis, characterization and luminescence properties of novel beta-diketone and Eu(III) ternary complex].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guo; Wei, Chang-Ping; Ren, Xiao-Ming; Wang, He; Wei, Wen-Tao

    2011-09-01

    The novel beta-diketone 1-(4-bromophenyl)-3-phenylpropane-1, 3-dione (L) was synthesized at room temperature by classical Claisen condensation reaction. With the beta-diketone L as the first ligand and phen as the secondary ligand, and a new rare-earth Eu (III) ternary complex was prepared. The ligand L and ternary complex were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV spectra and fluorescence spectra. IR spectra indicated that: the novel ligand L contained the structure of beta-diketone, where the content of enol was high; the Eu3+ ion in the ternary complex was coordinated with six oxygen atoms of three L ligands and two nitrogen atoms of the second ligand phen. UV spectra showed that the main absorption was from the first ligand L in the Eu (III) ternary complex. The excitation and emission spectra of the ternary complex were measured and investigated. Fluorescence spectra demonstrated that the ternary complex could emit characteristic fluorescence of rare earth Eu3+ ion and the strongest emission band was narrow which was attributed to the 5 D0 --> 7 F2 transitions of the 4f electrons of the central Eu3+ ions. So, the new Eu(III) ternary complex is an excellent red-emitter which would be regarded as a valuable material with bright red fluorescence because it presents good monochromaticity.

  16. Improvement of pseudoelasticity and ductility of Beta III titanium alloy--application to orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Laheurte, P; Eberhardt, A; Philippe, Mj; Deblock, L

    2007-02-01

    The pseudoelasticity of metastable Beta III titanium alloy (TMAtrade mark) used for orthodontic applications is obtained by cold wiredrawing. This wire has higher rigidity than cold-drawn NiTi (Nitinoltrade mark, superelastic NiTi SE) and lower recoverable deformation. The low ductility value of Beta III is due to the deformation imposed by wiredrawing. The aim of this research was to improve the behaviour of this alloy by modifying the microstructural parameters to decrease the rigidity and increase the recoverable deformation and ductility of the alloy. The effects of second phase precipitate, grain size, and deformation on the wire mechanical properties were also examined. The isothermal precipitation of alpha (alpha) or omega (omega(isoth)) phases precludes the expression of the pseudoelastic effect. The presence of an omega(isoth) phase considerably increases fracture strength, whereas the alpha phase strongly decreases the ductility and adversely affects the strain recovery (epsilon(r)). To control the grain size, the growth of the recrystallized grains was studied by considering several parameters, which are known to have an influence on grain size, including the cold rolled strain, the temperature, the time of annealing, and the initial grain size. A structure with coarse grains, quenched from a temperature higher than the beta transus (T(beta)), associated with a plastic pre-deformation, contributed to an improved pseudoelastic behaviour, due to the presence of a reversible martensite phase (alpha'') induced by the pre-deformation.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescence properties of Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes with novel mono-substituted beta-diketone ligands and 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Li, Jun; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Tang, Rui-Ren; Tang, Xin-Cun

    2009-05-01

    Two novel pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid derivatives of mono-beta-diketone, methyl 6-benzoylacetyl-2-pyridinecarboxylate (MBAP) and 6-benzoylacetyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (BAPA) and their Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and TG-DTG. Moreover, their Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes using 1,10-phenanthroline as a secondary ligand were prepared and characterized. The luminescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated in detail. The results suggested that Tb(III) complexes exhibit more efficient luminescence than Eu(III) complexes, the fluorescence intensity of Ln(III) complexes with BAPA is about twice as strong as that of Ln(III) complexes with MBAP, the fluorescence of mono-beta-diketone complexes using 1,10-phenanthroline as a secondary ligand was prominently higher than that of complexes without adding 1,10-phenanthroline, and the ligand BAPA is an excellent sensitizer to Eu(III) and Tb(III) ion.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and biodistribution of tris(beta-diketonato)technetium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Leesmeister, K; Schwochau, K

    1992-01-01

    New tris(beta-diketonato) complexes of trivalent 99Tc/99mTc with the ligands hexane-2,4-dione, heptane-2,4-dione, heptane-3,5-dione, and octane-3,5-dione were synthesized by reduction of pertechnetate with dithionite in the presence of excess beta-diketone. The complexes were purified by HPLC, identified by elemental analysis and FAB mass spectrometry, and characterized by vis./u.v./i.r. spectrophotometry. The hexane-2,4-dionato complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, isostructurally with pentane-2,4-dionatotechnetium(III). Biodistribution measurements in mice showed the neutral and lipophilic 99mTc-diketonato complexes to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. However, increasing lipophilicity decreased the brain uptake except for the heptane-2,4-dionato complex, which displayed the highest uptake of 0.82% injected dose/g.

  19. Biodistribution of the Radiolabeled Anti III {beta}-Tubulin scFv Fragment in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinova, Veronika; Svecova, H.; Chaloupkova, H.; Kranda, K.; Fiser, M.

    2007-11-26

    For studies of new potential radiopharmaceutical such as radiolabeled compound, the biodistribution exoeriments are essential to describe behavior of the substance in organism. The specific binding of the scFv fragment of the monoclonal antibody TU-20 to the C-end of the class III {beta}-tubulin makes this substance useful as a potential diagnostics for in vivo neurodegenerative diseases determination. To examine this hypothesis, scFv was radio-labeled with {sup 125}I and {sup 123}I, and its biochemical properties were studied. The in vivo bio-distribution confirmed the expected elimination behavior of the radio-labeled scFv TU-20 in mice. The bi-exponential model for two-phase clearance to determine short phase half-life t{sub 1/2{alpha}} and long phase half-life t{sub 1/2{beta}} values was used to evaluate the experimental data.

  20. Rapid Ti(III) reduction of perchlorate in the presence of beta-alanine: kinetics, pH effect, complex formation, and beta-alanine effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zhengdao; Lippincott, Lee; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2010-03-15

    Ti(III) reduction of perchlorate might be a useful method for the treatment of highly perchlorate-contaminated water. Though the reaction rate was usually low, we observed that beta-alanine (HOOCCH(2)CH(2)NH(2)) could significantly promote the reaction. A complete (>99.9%) perchlorate removal was obtained in a solution containing [ClO(4)(-)]=1.0mM, [Ti(III)]=40 mM, and [beta-alanine]=120 mM after 2.5h of reaction under 50 degrees C. The effects of both pH and complex formation on the reaction were then studied. The results showed that without beta-alanine the optimal pH was 2.3. When pH increased from 1.6 to 2.3, the reduction rate increased remarkably. In the pH range >2.3, however, the reduction was significantly inhibited, attributed to the formation of Ti(III) precipitate. The presence of beta-alanine at a molar ratio of [beta-alanine]:[Ti(III)]=3:1 significantly increased the reduction rate of perchlorate even at near neutral pH. This is because beta-alanine formed complexes with Ti(III), which greatly improved the total soluble [Ti(III)] in the pH range between 3.5 and 6. The findings may lead to the development of rapid treatment methods for intermittent and small stream of highly perchlorate-contaminated water, which are resulted from the manufacturing, storage, handling, use and/or disposal of large quantities of perchlorate salts.

  1. Investigations into the synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) complexes of a novel bis-beta-diketone-type ligand.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Rui-Ren; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Peng, Hong-Jian

    2008-02-01

    A novel bis-beta-diketon ligand, 1,1'-(2,6-bispyridyl)bis-3-phenyl-1,3-propane-dione (L), was designed and synthesized and its complexes with Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) ions were successfully prepared. The ligand and the corresponding metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, and infrared, mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the IR spectra suggested that each of the lanthanide metal ions coordinated to the ligand via the carbonyl oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The fluorescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated and it was discovered that all of the lanthanide ions could be sensitized by the ligand (L) to some extent. In particular, the Tb(III) complex was an excellent green-emitter and would be a potential candidate material for applications in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and medical diagnosis.

  2. Fibronectin type III5 repeat contains a novel cell adhesion sequence, KLDAPT, which binds activated alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins.

    PubMed

    Moyano, J V; Carnemolla, B; Domínguez-Jiménez, C; García-Gila, M; Albar, J P; Sánchez-Aparicio, P; Leprini, A; Querzé, G; Zardi, L; Garcia-Pardo, A

    1997-10-03

    The region of fibronectin encompassing type III repeats 4-6 contains a low affinity heparin binding domain, but its physiological significance is not clear. We have studied whether this domain is able to interact with cells as already shown for other heparin binding domains of fibronectin. A computer search based on homologies with known active sites in fibronectin revealed the sequence KLDAPT located in FN-III5. A synthetic peptide containing this sequence induced lymphoid cell adhesion upon treatment with the activating anti-beta1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) TS2/16 or with Mn2+, indicating that KLDAPT was binding to an integrin. A recombinant fragment containing repeat III5 (FN-III5) also mediated adhesion of TS2/16/Mn2+-treated cells while the FN-III6 fragment did not. Soluble KLDAPT peptide inhibited cell adhesion to FN-III5 as well as to a 38-kDa fibronectin fragment and VCAM-1, two previously known ligands for alpha4beta1 integrin. KLDAPT also competed with the binding of soluble alkaline phosphatase-coupled VCAM-Ig to Mn2+-treated alpha4beta1. Furthermore, mAbs anti-alpha4 and anti-alpha4beta7, but not mAbs to other integrins, inhibited cell adhesion to FN-III5 and KLDAPT. These results therefore establish a cell adhesive function for the FN-III5 repeat and show that KLDAPT is a novel fibronectin ligand for activated alpha4 integrins.

  3. [Changes introduced into the recent International Classification of Headache Disorders: ICHD-III beta classification].

    PubMed

    Belvis, Robert; Mas, Natàlia; Roig, Carles

    2015-01-16

    Introduccion. La Sociedad Internacional de Cefaleas (IHS) ha publicado la tercera edicion de la Clasificacion Internacional de las Cefaleas (ICHD-III beta), la guia diagnostica de las cefaleas mas utilizada en el mundo. Objetivo. Revisar las recientes aportaciones de la guia, explicando las nuevas entidades que en ella aparecen y comparando las entidades que han matizado sus criterios con sus criterios de la edicion precedente. Desarrollo. Hemos registrado multitud de matices en los criterios de practicamente todas las cefaleas y neuralgias de la clasificacion, pero las entidades que han experimentado mas matizaciones trascendentales son la migraña cronica, la cefalea asociada exclusivamente a la actividad sexual, las cefaleas neuralgiformes unilaterales de breve duracion, la cefalea diaria persistente de novo, la cefalea por abuso de medicacion sintomatica, el sindrome de cefalea y deficits neurologicos transitorios con pleocitosis linfocitaria. Las entidades nuevas mas destacables que se han incorporado son las cefaleas por presion externa, las cefaleas por crioestimulo, la cefalea numular, la cefalea atribuida a vuelos de avion y la cefalea atribuida a disreflexia autonomica. Tambien cabe destacar las nuevas cefaleas, aun no consideradas como entidades, que se incorporan al apendice, entre las que destacan la epicranea fugax, la migraña vestibular y los colicos infantiles. Conclusiones. La IHS recomienda utilizar ya la nueva clasificacion (ICHD-III beta), prescindiendo de la anterior clasificacion, en la asistencia, la docencia y la investigacion, asi como hacer la maxima difusion de esta nueva guia.

  4. Dual roles for the Drosophila PI 4-kinase four wheel drive in localizing Rab11 during cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Polevoy, Gordon; Wei, Ho-Chun; Wong, Raymond; Szentpetery, Zsofia; Kim, Yeun Ju; Goldbach, Philip; Steinbach, Sarah K; Balla, Tamas; Brill, Julie A

    2009-12-14

    Successful completion of cytokinesis relies on addition of new membrane, and requires the recycling endosome regulator Rab11, which localizes to the midzone. Despite the critical role of Rab11 in this process, little is known about the formation and composition of Rab11-containing organelles. Here, we identify the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase III beta four wheel drive (Fwd) as a key regulator of Rab11 during cytokinesis in Drosophila melanogaster spermatocytes. We show Fwd is required for synthesis of PI 4-phosphate (PI4P) on Golgi membranes and for formation of PI4P-containing secretory organelles that localize to the midzone. Fwd binds and colocalizes with Rab11 on Golgi membranes, and is required for localization of Rab11 in dividing cells. A kinase-dead version of Fwd also binds Rab11 and partially restores cytokinesis to fwd mutant flies. Moreover, activated Rab11 partially suppresses loss of fwd. Our data suggest Fwd plays catalytic and noncatalytic roles in regulating Rab11 during cytokinesis.

  5. The dnaN gene codes for the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, P M; Kornberg, A; Sakakibara, Y

    1981-01-01

    An Escherichia coli mutant, dnaN59, stops DNA synthesis promptly upon a shift to a high temperature; the wild-type dnaN gene carried in a transducing phage encodes a polypeptide of about 41,000 daltons [Sakakibara, Y. & Mizukami, T. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 178, 541-553; Yuasa, S. & Sakakibara, Y. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 180, 267-273]. We now find that the product of dnaN gene is the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the principal DNA synthetic multipolypeptide complex in E. coli. The conclusion is based on the following observations: (i) Extracts from dnaN59 cells were defective in phage phi X174 and G4 DNA synthesis after the mutant cells had been exposed to the increased temperature. (ii) The enzymatic defect was overcome by addition of purified beta subunit but not by other subunits of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme or by other replication proteins required for phi X174 DNA synthesis. (iii) Partially purified beta subunit from the dnaN mutant, unlike that from the wild type, was inactive in reconstituting the holoenzyme when mixed with the other purified subunits. (iv) Increased dosage of the dnaN gene provided by a plasmid carrying the gene raised cellular levels of the beta subunit 5- to 6-fold. PMID:6458041

  6. The dnaN gene codes for the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Burgers, P M; Kornberg, A; Sakakibara, Y

    1981-09-01

    An Escherichia coli mutant, dnaN59, stops DNA synthesis promptly upon a shift to a high temperature; the wild-type dnaN gene carried in a transducing phage encodes a polypeptide of about 41,000 daltons [Sakakibara, Y. & Mizukami, T. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 178, 541-553; Yuasa, S. & Sakakibara, Y. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 180, 267-273]. We now find that the product of dnaN gene is the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the principal DNA synthetic multipolypeptide complex in E. coli. The conclusion is based on the following observations: (i) Extracts from dnaN59 cells were defective in phage phi X174 and G4 DNA synthesis after the mutant cells had been exposed to the increased temperature. (ii) The enzymatic defect was overcome by addition of purified beta subunit but not by other subunits of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme or by other replication proteins required for phi X174 DNA synthesis. (iii) Partially purified beta subunit from the dnaN mutant, unlike that from the wild type, was inactive in reconstituting the holoenzyme when mixed with the other purified subunits. (iv) Increased dosage of the dnaN gene provided by a plasmid carrying the gene raised cellular levels of the beta subunit 5- to 6-fold.

  7. Inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by gold compounds. I. beta-Glucuronidase and acid phosphatase by sodium tetrachloroaurate (III) and potassium tetrabromoaurate (III).

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; Ahmed, T; Friedman, M E

    1989-01-01

    Purified bovine liver beta-glucuronidase (beta-D-glucuronide glucuronohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.32) and wheat germ acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoesterphosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) were inhibited with freshly dissolved and 24 h aquated tetrahaloaurate (III) compounds. Rate and equilibrium inhibition constants were measured. From this data two acid phosphatases species were observed. Equilibrium inhibition constants ranged from 1 to 12.5 microM for the various gold compounds toward both enzymes. The first order rate constants ranged between 0.005 and 0.04 min.-1 for most reactions with the exception of the fast reacting acid phosphatase which had values as high as 2.6 and 2.8 min.-1. It is observed that the beta-glucuronidase is rapidly inhibited during the equilibrium phase before the more slower reaction covalent bond formation takes place. The acid phosphatases form the covalent bonds more rapidly, especially the faster reacting species suggesting a unique difference in the active site geometry to that of the more slowly reacting species. The tightly bonded gold (III)-enzyme complex is probably the reason for its toxicity and non-anti-inflammatory use as a drug.

  8. Preparation of an eight-membered sesquiterpene lactone resulting from sequential Gif System GoAgg(III) and MCPBA oxidation of (+)-10beta,14-dihydroxy-allo-aromadendrane.

    PubMed

    de Bodas, Márcia M L; Marques, Maria Rita; Beatriz, Adilson; de Lima, Dênis P

    2005-08-31

    Studies aimed at a comparison of chemical, biomimetic (Gif system GoAgg(III))and enzymatic (CHMO) transformations of natural (+)-10beta,14-dihydroxy-allo-aromadendrane have led to preparation of an eight-member sesquiterpene lactone.

  9. Design and Structural Characterization of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Phosphatidylinositol 4 Kinase IIIβ.

    PubMed

    Rutaganira, Florentine U; Fowler, Melissa L; McPhail, Jacob A; Gelman, Michael A; Nguyen, Khanh; Xiong, Anming; Dornan, Gillian L; Tavshanjian, Brandon; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Shokat, Kevan M; Burke, John E

    2016-03-10

    Type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KIIIβ) is an essential enzyme in mediating membrane trafficking and is implicated in a variety of pathogenic processes. It is a key host factor mediating replication of RNA viruses. The design of potent and specific inhibitors of this enzyme will be essential to define its cellular roles and may lead to novel antiviral therapeutics. We previously reported the PI4K inhibitor PIK93, and this compound has defined key functions of PI4KIIIβ. However, this compound showed high cross reactivity with class I and III PI3Ks. Using structure-based drug design, we have designed novel potent and selective (>1000-fold over class I and class III PI3Ks) PI4KIIIβ inhibitors. These compounds showed antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus. The co-crystal structure of PI4KIIIβ bound to one of the most potent compounds reveals the molecular basis of specificity. This work will be vital in the design of novel PI4KIIIβ inhibitors, which may play significant roles as antiviral therapeutics.

  10. Incorporation of gemcitabine and cytarabine into DNA by DNA polymerase beta and ligase III/XRCC1.

    PubMed

    Prakasha Gowda, A S; Polizzi, Joanna M; Eckert, Kristin A; Spratt, Thomas E

    2010-06-15

    1-Beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (cytarabine, araC) and 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (gemcitabine, dFdC), are effective cancer chemotherapeutic agents due to their ability to become incorporated into DNA and then subsequently inhibit DNA synthesis by replicative DNA polymerases. However, the impact of these 3'-modified nucleotides on the activity of specialized DNA polymerases has not been investigated. The role of polymerase beta and base excision repair may be of particular importance due to the increased oxidative stress in tumors, increased oxidative stress caused by chemotherapy treatment, and the variable amounts of polymerase beta in tumors. Here we directly investigate the incorporation of the 5'-triphosphorylated form of araC, dFdC, 2'-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (FdC), and cytidine into two nicked DNA substrates and the subsequent ligation. Opposite template dG, the relative k(pol)/K(d) for incorporation was dCTP > araCTP, dFdCTP > rCTP. The relative k(pol)/K(d) for FdCTP depended on sequence. The effect on k(pol)/K(d) was due largely to changes in k(pol) with no differences in the affinity of the nucleoside triphosphates to the polymerase. Ligation efficiency by T4 ligase and ligase III/XRCC1 was largely unaffected by the nucleotide analogues. Our results show that BER is capable of incorporating araC and dFdC into the genome.

  11. Folding of beta-sandwich proteins: three-state transition of a fibronectin type III module.

    PubMed Central

    Cota, E.; Clarke, J.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the folding of the 94 residue tenth fibronectin type III (fnIII) domain of human fibronectin (FNfn10) is presented. Use of guanidine isothiocyanate as a denaturant allows us to obtain equilibrium and kinetic data across a broad range of denaturant concentrations that are unavailable in guanidine hydrochloride. Equilibrium unfolding experiments show that FNfn10 is significantly more stable than has been reported previously. Comparison of equilibrium and kinetic parameters reveals the presence of an intermediate that accumulates at low denaturant concentrations. This is the first demonstration of three-state folding kinetics for a fnIII domain. We have previously shown that a homologous domain from human tenascin (TNfn3) folds by a two-state mechanism, but this does not necessarily indicate that the two proteins fold by different folding pathways. PMID:10739253

  12. The chemical composition of algol systems. III - Beta Lyrae-nucleosynthesis revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, S.; Lambert, D. L.; Tomkin, J.; Parthasarathy, M.

    1986-04-01

    The B8 primary of the eclipsing binary star Beta Lyr is subjected to high S/N ratio Reticon observations of the visible and near-IR lines of He, C, N, O, Ne, and Fe, in order to determine their abundances. N is noted to be extremely overabundant (20 times more so than in the sun); C and O are very overabundant relative to N. The resulting C/N and O/N ratios of respectively 5 and 8 are sufficiently close to the equilibrium ratios of the CNO cycle as to leave little doubt that the material has been fully processed by the CNO cycle. The spectroscopic evidence found for He enrichment and extreme CNO cycling confirms the major compositional changes demanded by the theory of nuclear burning, thereby supporting current understanding of Beta Lyr.

  13. Optical properties of a tetradentate bis(beta-diketonate) europium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Biao; Luo, Yanhua; Liang, Hao; Xu, Jie; Guo, Fuquan; Zhang, Yizhong; Lin, Aibin; Liu, Xuan

    2008-10-01

    Eu2(BPOPB)3H2O, an europium complex chelated with bis(beta-diketone), was synthesized. Its properties have been investigated by absorption spectrum, emission spectrum and luminescence lifetime measurement. The complex displays strong red luminescence upon irradiation at the ligand band around 355 nm, which indicates that the bis-beta-diketonate ligand BPOPB is an efficient sensitizer. The Judd-Ofelt parameters obtained from the emission spectrum of Eu2(BPOPB)3H2O have been used to calculate the total spontaneous emission probabilities (A), the radiative lifetime (tau(rad)), the fluorescence branching ratio (beta) and the stimulated emission cross-sections (sigma). The luminescence lifetimes are determined to be 402 and 169 micros for Eu2(BPOPB)3H2O and Eu(DBM)3(H2O)2, respectively. The relationship between the structures of rare-earth complexes and luminescence lifetimes was analyzed. The radiative properties reveal that Eu2(BPOPB)3H2O is potential to be an efficient luminescent material.

  14. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) causes a persistent increase in steady-state amounts of type I and type III collagen and fibronectin mRNAs in normal human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Varga, J; Rosenbloom, J; Jimenez, S A

    1987-01-01

    It has been previously shown that transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is capable of stimulating fibroblast collagen and fibronectin biosynthesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms involved in TGF beta stimulation of fibroblast biosynthetic activity. Our results indicate that TGF beta causes a marked enhancement of the production of types I and III collagens and fibronectin by cultured normal human dermal fibroblasts. The rate of collagen production by fibroblasts exposed to TGF beta was 2-3-fold greater than that of control cells. These effects were associated with a 2-3-fold increase in the steady-state amounts of types I and III collagen mRNAs and a 5-8-fold increase in the amounts of fibronectin mRNAs as determined by dot-blot hybridization with specific cloned cDNA probes. In addition, the increased production of collagen and fibronectin and the increased amounts of their corresponding mRNAs remained elevated for at least 72 h after removal of TGF beta. These findings suggest that TGF beta may play a major role in the normal regulation of extracellular matrix production in vivo and may contribute to the development of pathological states of fibrosis. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:3501287

  15. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  16. Cellular distribution of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and procollagen types I, III, and IV transcripts in carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsukasa, H; Nagy, P; Evarts, R P; Hsia, C C; Marsden, E; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1990-01-01

    The cellular distribution and temporal expression of transcripts from transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and procollagen alpha 1(I), alpha 1(III), and alpha 1(IV) genes were studied in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced rat liver fibrosis by using in situ hybridization technique. During the fibrotic process, TGF-beta 1 and procollagen genes were similarly and predominantly expressed in Desmin-positive perisinusoidal cells (e.g., fat-storing cells and myofibroblasts) and fibroblasts and their expression continued to be higher than those observed in control rats. These transcripts were also observed in inflammatory cells mainly granulocytes and macrophage-like cells at the early stages of liver fibrosis. The production of extracellular matrix along small blood vessels and fibrous septa coincided with the expression of these genes. Expression of TGF-beta 1 and procollagen genes were not detected in hepatocytes throughout the experiment. No significant differences in cellular distribution or time course of gene expression among procollagen alpha 1(I), alpha 1(III), and alpha 1(IV) were observed. Desmin-positive perisinusoidal cells and fibroblasts appeared to play the principal role in synthesis of collagens in CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The simultaneous expression of TGF-beta 1 and procollagen genes in mesenchymal cells, including Desmin-positive perisinusoidal cells, during hepatic fibrosis suggests the possibility that TGF-beta 1 may have an important role in the production of fibrosis. Images PMID:1693377

  17. Type III polyketide synthase beta-ketoacyl-ACP starter unit and ethylmalonyl-CoA extender unit selectivity discovered by Streptomyces coelicolor genome mining.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijiang; Barona-Gomez, Francisco; Corre, Christophe; Xiang, Longkuan; Udwary, Daniel W; Austin, Michael B; Noel, Joseph P; Moore, Bradley S; Challis, Gregory L

    2006-11-22

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are involved in the biosynthesis of many important natural products. In bacteria, type III PKSs typically catalyze iterative decarboxylation and condensation reactions of malonyl-CoA building blocks in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyaromatic products. Here it is shown that Gcs, a type III PKS encoded by the sco7221 ORF of the bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor, is required for biosynthesis of the germicidin family of 3,6-dialkyl-4-hydroxypyran-2-one natural products. Evidence consistent with Gcs-catalyzed elongation of specific beta-ketoacyl-ACP products of the fatty acid synthase FabH with ethyl- or methylmalonyl-CoA in the biosynthesis of germicidins is presented. Selectivity for beta-ketoacyl-ACP starter units and ethylmalonyl-CoA as an extender unit is unprecedented for type III PKSs, suggesting these enzymes may be capable of utilizing a far wider range of starter and extender units for natural product assembly than believed until now.

  18. [beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase in sporeforming microorganisms. III. Substrate specificity and action patterns of some Bacillus-beta-glucan-hydrolases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Borriss, R; Zemek, J

    1980-01-01

    Comparative investigations were carried out concerning substrate specificity and action patterns of seven Bacillus-endo-beta-glucanases produced by the species, B. subtilis, B. macerans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. circulans, B. laterosporus, B. pumilus and B. polymyxa. All enzymes with the exception of beta-glucanase from B. macerans hydrolyze lichenan and barley-beta-glucan only and were without action on laminaran and CM-cellulose. It was suggested that hydrolysis products of beta-glucanase produced by B. macerans were markedly different from the products of the other enzymes. We conclude that B. macerans enzyme, which cleaves laminaran and beta-1,3-1,4-glucans, represents "laminarinase" type (1-3-beta-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.6). On the other hand the glucanases produced by the other Bacillus strains belong to "licheninases" 1-3,1-4-beta-D-glucan glucanohydrolases, E.C. 3.2.1.73).

  19. Specific interactions among transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) proteins and phosphoinositide 4-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Yauch, R L; Hemler, M E

    2000-01-01

    In earlier work we established that phosphoinositide 4-kinase (PI 4-kinase) may associate with transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF, tetraspanin) proteins, but critical specificity issues were not addressed. Here we demonstrate that at least five different TM4SF proteins (CD9, CD63, CD81, CD151 and A15/TALLA1) can associate with a similar or identical 55 kDa type II PI 4-kinase. These associations were specific, since we found no evidence for other phosphoinositide kinases (e.g. phosphoinositide 3-kinase and phosphoinositide-4-phosphate 5-kinase) associating with TM4SF proteins, and many other TM4SF proteins (including CD82 and CD53) did not associate with PI 4-kinase. CD63-PI 4-kinase complexes were almost entirely intracellular, and thus are distinct from other TM4SF-PI 4-kinase complexes (e.g. involving CD9), which are largely located in the plasma membrane. These results suggest that a specific subset of TM4SF proteins may recruit PI 4-kinase to specific membrane locations, and thereby influence phosphoinositide-dependent signalling. PMID:11042117

  20. Structural dynamic analysis of apo and ATP-bound IRAK4 kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

    2014-07-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases that play an important role as signaling mediators in the signal transduction facilitated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor families. Among IRAK family members, IRAK4 is one of the drug targets for diseases related to the TLR and IL-1R signaling pathways. Experimental evidence suggests that the IRAK4 kinase domain is phosphorylated in its activation loop at T342, T345, and S346 in the fully activated state. However, the molecular interactions of subdomains within the active and inactive IRAK4 kinase domain are poorly understood. Hence, we employed a long-range molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to compare apo IRAK4 kinase domains (phosphorylated and unphosphorylated) and ATP-bound phosphorylated IRAK4 kinase domains. The MD results strongly suggested that lobe uncoupling occurs in apo unphosphorylated IRAK4 kinase via the disruption of the R334/T345 and R310/T345 interaction. In addition, apo unphosphorylated trajectory result in high mobility, particularly in the N lobe, activation segment, helix αG, and its adjoining loops. The Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) and His-Arg-Asp (HRD) conserved kinase motif analysis showed the importance of these motifs in IRAK4 kinase activation. This study provides important information on the structural dynamics of IRAK4 kinase, which will aid in inhibitor development.

  1. Effect of different alkyl groups at the N-position on the luminescence of carbazole-based beta-diketonate europium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    He, Pei; Wang, Huihui; Liu, Shenggui; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Gang; Gong, Menglian

    2009-11-19

    A series of carbazole-based beta-diketone derivatives and their europium(III) ternary complexes Eu(N-Cx)(3)phen were designed and synthesized, where N-Cx denotes carbazole-based beta-diketonates with different alkyl substituents at N-position of the carbazole ring and phen is 1,10-phenethroline. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the decomposition temperature of the complexes is over 360 degrees C. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and the luminescence quantum yield of the Eu(III) complexes were measured and compared with each other, and the effect of different substituted-alkyls at N-position in the carbazole ring on the photoluminescence was discussed in details, indicating there exists a competition between the absorption capacity and the energy transfer efficiency for the complexes when the structure of the substituted-alkyls changes. The triplet state energy levels of the beta-diketonate ligands in the complexes are higher than that of the lowest excited level of Eu(3+) ion, (5)D(0), so the photoluminescence mechanism of the Eu(III) complexes was proposed as a ligand-sensitized luminescence process. Red LEDs were fabricated by precoating the complexes onto 395 nm emitting InGaN chips. All the results show that this series of Eu(III) complexes is a promising candidate as a red component in fabrication of NUV-based white LEDs.

  2. Inhibition of protein interactions with the beta 2 sliding clamp of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III by peptides from beta 2-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Wijffels, Gene; Dalrymple, Brian P; Prosselkov, Pavel; Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Epa, V Chandana; Lilley, Penelope E; Jergic, Slobodan; Buchardt, Jens; Brown, Susan E; Alewood, Paul F; Jennings, Philip A; Dixon, Nicholas E

    2004-05-18

    The sliding clamp of the Escherichia coli replisome is now understood to interact with many proteins involved in DNA synthesis and repair. A universal interaction motif is proposed to be one mechanism by which those proteins bind the E. coli sliding clamp, a homodimer of the beta subunit, at a single site on the dimer. The numerous beta(2)-binding proteins have various versions of the consensus interaction motif, including a related hexameric sequence. To determine if the variants of the motif could contribute to the competition of the beta-binding proteins for the beta(2) site, synthetic peptides derived from the putative beta(2)-binding motifs were assessed for their abilities to inhibit protein-beta(2) interactions, to bind directly to beta(2), and to inhibit DNA synthesis in vitro. A hierarchy emerged, which was consistent with sequence similarity to the pentameric consensus motif, QL(S/D)LF, and peptides containing proposed hexameric motifs were shown to have activities comparable to those containing the consensus sequence. The hierarchy of peptide binding may be indicative of a competitive hierarchy for the binding of proteins to beta(2) in various stages or circumstances of DNA replication and repair.

  3. The integrin alpha 9 beta 1 mediates cell attachment to a non-RGD site in the third fibronectin type III repeat of tenascin.

    PubMed

    Yokosaki, Y; Palmer, E L; Prieto, A L; Crossin, K L; Bourdon, M A; Pytela, R; Sheppard, D

    1994-10-28

    We have previously reported the sequence of the integrin alpha 9 subunit, a partner of the beta 1 subunit that is expressed in basal keratinocytes, hepatocytes, airway epithelial cells, and smooth and skeletal muscle. In the present study, we have stably expressed alpha 9 beta 1 on the surface of the human embryonic kidney cell line 293 and the human colon carcinoma cell line SW480 and used these transfected cells lines to identify ligand(s) for this integrin. Transfected cells did not appear to utilize alpha 9 beta 1 for attachment to the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin, fibrinogen, thrombospondin, or type I or IV collagen. However, in contrast to mock transfectants, both 293 cells and SW480 cells expressing alpha 9 beta 1 adhered to intact chicken tenascin. By utilizing a variety of recombinant fragments of tenascin, we were able to localize the binding site for alpha 9 beta 1 to the third type III repeat. This repeat contains the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide that has been shown to serve as a binding site in tenascin for alpha v-integrins. However, the RGD site does not appear to be the binding site for alpha 9 beta 1, as the attachment of alpha 9 transfectants to this fragment was not inhibited by RGD peptide, nor by changing the RGD site to RAD or RAA.

  4. Highly efficient luminescent hybrid materials covalently linking with europium(III) complexes via a novel fluorinated beta-diketonate ligand: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Francis, Biju; Ambili Raj, D B; Reddy, M L P

    2010-09-14

    A novel highly fluorinated beta-diketonate ligand, 1-(3,5-bis(benzyloxy)phenyl)-4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoropentane-1,3-dione (HBBPPF) and its corresponding europium(III) ternary complex, Eu(BBPPF)(3)(DDXPO) [DDXPO = 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene oxide] were synthesized via a dexterously designed routine, characterized and its photophysical properties (PL) investigated. PL measurement results indicated that the europium(III) ternary complex exhibits intense red emission under UV light excitation with a solid-state quantum yield of 39%. An organic-inorganic mesoporous luminescent hybrid material was also constructed by linking the ternary europium(III) complex to the functionalized hexagonal mesoporous MCM-41 through the modified beta-diketonate ligand (SiBBPPF-Na). Beta-diketonate grafted to the coupling agent 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate was used as the precursor for the preparation of mesoporous materials. A modified MCM-41 mesoporous material containing ternary europium(iii) complex covalently bonded to the silica-based network, designated as Eu(BBPPF-Si)(3)(DDXPO)/MCM-41, was obtained by interacting SiBBPPF-Na with europium nitrate, DDXPO and MCM-41 via a ligand-exchange reaction. The new mesoporous hybrid material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, FT-IR, (29)Si CP MAS NMR and (13)C NMR solid-state techniques, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Eu(BBPPF-Si)(3)(DDXPO)/MCM-41 exhibits an efficient intramolecular energy transfer process from the silylated beta-diketonate to the central Eu(3+), namely, the "antenna effect", which favours a strong luminescent intensity (quantum yield = 43%). Thermogravimetric analysis on Eu(BBPPF-Si)(3)(DDXPO)/MCM-41 demonstrated that the thermal stability of the lanthanide complex was evidently improved as it was covalently bonded to the mesoporous MCM-41 matrix.

  5. Distribution of GAP-43, beta-III tubulin and F-actin in developing and regenerating axons and their growth cones in vitro, following neurotrophin treatment.

    PubMed

    Avwenagha, Ovokeloye; Campbell, Gregor; Bird, Margaret M

    2003-11-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) when added to explant cultures of both embryonic and adult retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons exerted a marked effect on their growth cone size and complexity and also on the intensity of GAP-43, beta-III tubulin and F-actin immunoreaction product in their axons. GAP-43 was distributed in axons, lamellipodia, and filopodia whereas beta-III tubulin was distributed along the length of developing and adult regenerating axons and also in the C-domain of their growth cones. BDNF-treated developing RGC growth cones were larger and displayed increased numbers of GAP-43 and microtubule-containing branches. Although filopodia and lamellipodia were lost from both developing and adult RGC growth cones following trkB-IgG treatment, the intensity of the immunoreaction product of all these molecules was reduced and trkB-IgGs had no effect on the axonal distribution of betas-III tubulin and GAP-43. BDNF-treated growth cones also displayed increased numbers of F-actin containing filopodia and axonal protrusions. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that trkB-IgG treatment causes the loss of F-actin in the P-domain of growth cone tips in developing and regenerating RGC axons. Although microtubules and F-actin domains normally remained distinct in cultured growth cones, beta-III tubulin and F-actin overlapped within the growth cone C-domain, and within axonal protrusions of adult RGC axons, under higher concentrations of BDNF. The collapse of RGC growth cones appeared to correlate with the loss of F-actin. In vitro, trkB signalling may therefore be involved in the maintenance and stabilisation of RGC axons, by influencing F-actin polymerisation, stabilisation and distribution.

  6. Nuclear and nucleolar localization signals and their targeting function in phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4K230

    SciTech Connect

    Kakuk, Annamaria; Friedlaender, Elza; Vereb, Gyoergy; Lisboa, Duarte; Bagossi, Peter; Toth, Gabor; Gergely, Pal; Vereb, Gyoergy

    2008-08-01

    PI4K230, an isoform of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, known primarily as a cytoplasmic membrane-bound enzyme, was detected recently also in the nucleolus of several cells. Here we provide mechanistic insight on the targeting function of its putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences using molecular modeling, digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells and binding to various importins. The synthetic sequence {sup 916}NFNHIHKRIRRVADKYLSG{sup 934} comprising a putative monopartite NLS (NLS1), targeted covalently bound fluorescent BSA to the nucleoplasm via classical importin {alpha}/{beta} mechanism employing importins {alpha}1 and {alpha}3 but not {alpha}5. This transport was inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin and GTP{gamma}S. The sequence {sup 1414}SKKTNRGSQLHKYYMKRRTL{sup 1433}, a putative bipartite NLS (NLS2) proved ineffective in nuclear targeting if conjugated to fluorescently labeled BSA. Nonetheless, NLS2 or either of its basic clusters directed to the nucleolus soybean trypsin inhibitor that can pass the nuclear pore complex passively; moreover, an expressed 58 kDa fragment of PI4K230 (AA1166-1667) comprising NLS2 was also imported into the nucleus by import factors of reticulocyte lysate or by importin {alpha}1/{beta} or {alpha}3/{beta} complexes and localized to the nucleolus. We conclude that the putative bipartite NLS itself is a nucleolar targeting signal, and for nuclear import PI4K230 requires a larger sequence around it or, alternatively, the monopartite NLS.

  7. Differential RNA Expression of ßm1 during Late Seed Development in Cultivated and Wild Barleys Carrying Different ßmy1 Intron III Alleles and the Association with Beta-Amylase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four genotypes carrying different beta-amylase 1 (Bmy1) intron III alleles (Bmy1.a, Bmy1.b, Bmy1.c, and Bmy1.d) were analyzed for differences in Bmy1 mRNA accumulation, beta-amylase activity and protein, and total protein during late seed development. Wild barleys (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) ...

  8. Evidence That the [beta] Subunit of Chlamydia trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase Is Active with the Manganese Ion of Its Manganese(IV)/Iron(III) Cofactor in Site 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dassama, Laura M.K.; Boal, Amie K.; Krebs, Carsten; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Bollinger, Jr., J. Martin

    2014-10-02

    The reaction of a class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) begins when a cofactor in the {beta} subunit oxidizes a cysteine residue {approx}35 {angstrom} away in the {alpha} subunit, generating a thiyl radical. In the class Ic enzyme from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), the cysteine oxidant is the Mn{sup IV} ion of a Mn{sup IV}/Fe{sup III} cluster, which assembles in a reaction between O{sub 2} and the Mn{sup II}/Fe{sup II} complex of {beta}. The heterodinuclear nature of the cofactor raises the question of which site, 1 or 2, contains the Mn{sup IV} ion. Because site 1 is closer to the conserved location of the cysteine-oxidizing tyrosyl radical of class Ia and Ib RNRs, we suggested that the Mn{sup IV} ion most likely resides in this site (i.e., {sup 1}Mn{sup IV}/{sup 2}Fe{sup III}), but a subsequent computational study favored its occupation of site 2 ({sup 1}Fe{sup III}/{sup 2}Mn{sup IV}). In this work, we have sought to resolve the location of the Mn{sup IV} ion in Ct RNR-{beta} by correlating X-ray crystallographic anomalous scattering intensities with catalytic activity for samples of the protein reconstituted in vitro by two different procedures. In samples containing primarily Mn{sup IV}/Fe{sup III} clusters, Mn preferentially occupies site 1, but some anomalous scattering from site 2 is observed, implying that both {sup 1}Mn{sup II}/{sup 2}Fe{sup II} and {sup 1}Fe{sup II}/{sup 2}Mn{sup II} complexes are competent to react with O{sub 2} to produce the corresponding oxidized states. However, with diminished Mn{sup II} loading in the reconstitution, there is no evidence for Mn occupancy of site 2, and the greater activity of these 'low-Mn' samples on a per-Mn basis implies that the {sup 1}Mn{sup IV}/{sup 2}Fe{sup III}-{beta} is at least the more active of the two oxidized forms and may be the only active form.

  9. Preparation and photoluminescence of a novel beta-diketone ligand containing electro-transporting group and its europium(III) ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Neng-Jun; Leung, Louis M; So, Shu-Kong; Gong, Meng-Lian

    2006-11-01

    A novel beta-diketone with an electro-transporting oxadiazole group, 1-(4'-(5-(4-methylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione (MPBDTFA), was prepared with high yield. With this synthesized ligand as the first ligand and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as the secondary ligand, a new europium(III) ternary complex, Eu(MPBDTFA)(3)Phen, was synthesized. The new beta-diketone and its europium(III) ternary complex were characteristized by elemental analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, IR and UV-visible spectroscopies. Photoluminescence measurements indicated that the energy absorbed by the organic ligands was efficiently transfered to the central Eu(3+) ions, and the complex showed intensely and characteristically red emissions due to the (5)D(0)-->(7)F(j) transitions of the central Eu(3+) ions. With an electro-transporting group in molecule and highly thermal stability, the synthesized Eu(III) ternary complex is expected as a red-emitting candidate material for fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  10. The reactions of palladium(II), thallium(III) and lead(IV) trifluoroacetates with 3beta-acetoxyandrost-5-en-17-one: crystal structure of the first trifluoroacetate bridged 5,6,7-pi-allyl steroid palladium dimer.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Peter L; Williams, David J; Reese, Paul B

    2004-03-01

    A number of metal trifluoroacetates were reacted with the olefin 3beta-acetoxyandrost-5-en-17-one (6). Palladium(II) trifluoroacetate afforded bis[micro-trifluoroacetato(alpha-5,7-eta-3beta-acetoxyandrostenyl-17-one)palladium(II)] (20), a new ring B pi-allyl steroid-palladium complex, in quantitative yield. Thallium(III) trifluoroacetate gave 3beta-acetoxy-5alpha-hydroxy-6beta-trifluoroacetoxyandrostan-17-one (16), 3beta-acetoxy-6beta-trifluoroacetoxyandrost-4-en-17-one (9), 3beta-acetoxy-4beta-trifluoroacetoxyandrost-5-en-17-one (10), and 3beta-acetoxy-5alpha,6beta-dihydroxyandrostan-17-one (17). Lead(IV) trifluoroacetate yielded 9, 10 and 16. 3beta-Acetoxy-5alpha,6beta-bis(trifluoroacetoxy)androstan-17-one (15), a new compound, was also formed in this reaction. During the course of the lead(IV) studies the dichlorosteroid 21 and the rearranged allylic oxidation product 24 were formed. Their formation was attributed to the generation of lead(IV) chloride in the reaction. Silver(I) and copper(II) trifluoroacetates proved to be unreactive towards 6.

  11. Investigations into the synthesis and fluorescence properties of Tb(III) complexes of a novel bis-beta-diketone-type ligand and a novel bispyrazole ligand.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Luo, Yi-Ming; Chen, Zhe; Li, Jun; Tang, Rui-Ren

    2008-11-15

    A novel bis-beta-diketone organic ligand, 1,1'-(2,6-bispyridyl)bis-3-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanedione (L1) and its derivatives, a novel bispyrazole ligand, 2,6-bis(5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine (L2) were designed and synthesized and their complexes with Tb(III) ion were successfully prepared. The ligands and the corresponding metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and TG-DTA. Analysis of the IR spectra suggested that the lanthanide metal ion Tb(III) coordinated to the ligands via the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring and the carbonyl oxygen atoms for ligand L1 and the nitrogen atom of the pyrazole ring for ligand L2. The fluorescence properties of the two complexes in solid state were investigated and it was discovered that the Tb(III) ions could be sensitized by both the ligand (L1) and ligand (L2) to some extent. In particular, the complex of ligand (L2) is a better green luminescent material that could be used as a candidate material in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) since it could be much better sensitized by the ligand (L2), and the fluorescence intensity of Tb(III) complex of L2 are almost as twice strong as L1's.

  12. Solving a case of allelic dropout in the GNPTAB gene: implications in the molecular diagnosis of mucolipidosis type III alpha/beta.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Encarnação, Marisa; Laranjeira, Francisco; Lacerda, Lúcia; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    While being well known that the diagnosis of many genetic disorders relies on a combination of clinical suspicion and confirmatory genetic testing, not rarely, however, genetic testing needs much perseverance and cunning strategies to identify the causative mutation(s). Here we present a case of a thorny molecular diagnosis of mucolipidosis type III alpha/beta, which is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, caused by a defect in the GNPTAB gene that codes for the α/β-subunits of the GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase. We used both cDNA and gDNA analyses to characterize a mucolipidosis type III alpha/beta patient whose clinical diagnosis was already confirmed biochemically. In a first stage only one causal mutation was identified in heterozygosity, the already described missense mutation c.1196C>T(p.S399F), both at cDNA and gDNA levels. Only after conducting inhibition of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) assays and after the utilization of another pair of primers the second mutation, the c.3503_3504delTC deletion, was identified. Our findings illustrate that allelic dropout due to the presence of polymorphisms and/or of mutations that trigger the NMD pathway can cause difficulties in current molecular diagnosis tests.

  13. The Microtubule Network and Cell Death are Regulated by a miR-34a/Stathmin 1/betaIII-tubulin Axis.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Nancy S; Kolb, E Anders; Sampson, Valerie B; Mills, Christopher

    2017-03-08

    MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) is a master regulator of signaling networks that maintain normal physiology and disease and is currently in development as a miRNA-based therapy for cancer. Prior studies have reported low miR-34a expression in osteosarcoma (OS); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying miR-34a activity in OS are not well defined. Therefore, this study evaluated the role of miR-34a in regulating signal transduction pathways that influence cell death in OS. Levels of miR-34a were attenuated in human OS cells and xenografts of the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Consortium (PPTC). Bioinformatics predictions identified stathmin 1 (STMN1) as a potential miR-34a target. Biotin pulldown assay and luciferase reporter analysis confirmed miR-34a target interactions within the STMN1 mRNA 3'UTR. Overexpression of miR-34a in OS cells suppressed STMN1 expression and reduced cell growth in vitro. Restoration of miR-34a led to microtubule destabilization and increased betaIII-tubulin expression, with corresponding G1/G2 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Knockdown of the Sp1 transcription factor, by siRNA silencing, also upregulated βIII-tubulin expression in OS cells, suggesting miR-34a indirectly affects Sp1. Validating the coordinating role of miR-34a in microtubule destabilization, when miR-34a was combined with either microtubule inhibitors or chemotherapy, STMN1 phosphorylation was suppressed and there was greater cytotoxicity in OS cells. These results demonstrate that miR-34a directly represses STMN1 gene and protein expression and upregulates betaIII-tubulin, leading to disruption of the microtubule network and cell death.

  14. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (FabH) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Kim Hung; Natarajan, Sampath; Song, Na Hyun; Ngo, Phuong Thuy Ho; Ahn, Yeh Jin; Kim, Jeong Gu; Lee, Byoung Moo; Eo, Yang Dam; Kang, Lin Woo

    2009-05-01

    The bacterial beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (KASIII) encoded by the gene fabH (Xoo4209) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, a plant pathogen, is an important enzyme in the elongation steps of fatty-acid biosynthesis. It is expected to be one of the enzymes responsible for bacterial blight (BB), a serious disease that results in huge production losses of rice. As it represents an important target for the development of new antibacterial drugs against BB, determination of the crystal structure of the KAS III enzyme is essential in order to understand its reaction mechanism. In order to analyze the structure and function of KAS III, the fabH (Xoo4209) gene was cloned and the enzyme was expressed and purified. The KASIII crystal diffracted to 2.05 A resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.8, b = 79.5, c = 62.3 A. The unit-cell volume of the crystal is compatible with the presence of a single monomer in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding Matthews coefficient V(M) of 2.27 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 45.8%.

  15. The distant future of solar activity: A case study of Beta Hydri. III - Transition region, corona, and stellar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dravins, D.; Linde, P.; Ayres, T. R.; Linsky, J. L.; Monsignori-Fossi, B.; Simon, T.; Wallinder, F.

    1993-01-01

    The paper investigates the secular decay of solar-type activity through a detailed comparison of the present sun with the very old solar-type star, Beta Hyi, taken as a proxy of the future sun. Analyses of successive atmospheric layers are presented, with emphasis of the outermost parts. The FUV emission lines for the transition zone are among the faintest so far seen in any solar-type star. The coronal soft X-ray spectrum was measured through different filters on EXOSAT and compared to simulated X-ray observations of the sun seen as a star. The flux from Beta Hyi is weaker than that from the solar corona and has a different spectrum. It is inferred that a thermally driven stellar wind can no longer be supported, which removes the mechanism from further rotational braking of the star through a magnetic stellar wind.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase III (mtFabH) assay: principles and method.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Sarbjot; Reynolds, Kevin A

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is one of the relatively newer targets in antibacterial drug discovery. The presence of distinct fatty acid synthases (FAS) in mammals and bacteria and the fact that most bacterial FAS enzymes are essential for viability make this a very attractive antimicrobial drug target. The enzyme beta-ketoacyl ACP synthase (KASIII or FabH) is the key enzyme that initiates fatty acid biosynthesis in a type II dissociated FAS. This enzyme catalyzes the condensation of acyl CoA and malonyl ACP (acyl carrier protein) to form a beta-ketoacyl ACP product, which is further processed to form mature fatty acids that are involved in various essential cellular processes and structures like phospholipid biosynthesis, cell wall formation, etc. Herein we describe a new assay for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis FabH (mtFabH) enzyme involved in a key initiation step in the synthesis of mycolic acids, which are an integral component of the cell wall. The assay eliminates the need for the cumbersome washing steps or specialty scintillation proximity assay beads and the preparation of acyl carrier proteins required in other assay formats. This discontinuous assay involves the reduction of radiolabled long-chain beta-ketoacyl CoA product to its dihydroxy derivative, which partitions into a nonpolar phase for quantitation, while the reduced radiolabeled substrate derivative remains in the aqueous phase.

  17. Mechanism of Activation and Inhibition of the HER4/ErbB4 Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu,C.; Tarrant, M.; Choi, S.; Sathyamurthy, A.; Bose, R.; Banjade, S.; Pal, A.; Bornmann, W.; Lemmon, M.; et al

    2008-01-01

    HER4/ErbB4 is a ubiquitously expressed member of the EGF/ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases that is essential for normal development of the heart, nervous system, and mammary gland. We report here crystal structures of the ErbB4 kinase domain in active and lapatinib-inhibited forms. Active ErbB4 kinase adopts an asymmetric dimer conformation essentially identical to that observed to be important for activation of the EGF receptor/ErbB1 kinase. Mutagenesis studies of intact ErbB4 in Ba/F3 cells confirm the importance of this asymmetric dimer for activation of intact ErbB4. Lapatinib binds to an inactive form of the ErbB4 kinase in a mode equivalent to its interaction with the EGF receptor. All ErbB4 residues contacted by lapatinib are conserved in the EGF receptor and HER2/ErbB2, which lapatinib also targets. These results demonstrate that key elements of kinase activation and inhibition are conserved among ErbB family members.

  18. Effects of pressure drawdown and recovery on the Cerro Prieto beta reservoir in the CP-III area

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1998-02-01

    The production characteristics of wells in the northwestern Cerro Prieto III area changed greatly when the Cp-III power plant went on line in 1986. Fluid extraction in the field more than doubled and reservoir-wide boiling started immediately, greatly increasing the enthalpy of produced fluids. Some well fluids showed a decrease in chloride due to adiabatic steam condensation in the well and separator, and others were enriched in chloride due to boiling. As reservoir drawdown increased, entrance of cooler and more dilute groundwaters into the reservoir became evident (i.e., condensation stopped, and there was a decrease in enthalpy and chloride in produced fluids). Although some groundwater inflow was from the leaky western margin of the reservoir, the majority is in the northeast, inferred to be local and downward, possibly through more permeable zones associated with the normal fault H. This natural recharge and some reinjection have slowed and possibly reversed pressure drawdown throughout CP-III. Enthalpy has decreased and liquid saturation has increased as the steam-rich zone in the upper part of the reservoir has either disappeared or become thinner.

  19. Repositioning of charged I-II loop amino acid residues within the electric field by beta subunit as a novel working hypothesis for the control of fast P/Q calcium channel inactivation.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Guillaume; Lopez-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Stamboulian, Séverine; Weiss, Norbert; Arnoult, Christophe; De Waard, Michel

    2004-04-01

    We have investigated the contribution of the Ca(v)beta subunits to the process of inactivation dependent of the I-II loop of Ca(v)alpha(2.1). Two amino acid residues located in the alpha1 interaction domain (AID) of the I-II loop of Ca(v)alpha(2.1) (Arg(387) and Glu(388)) have been directly implicated in voltage-dependent inactivation of this channel. Various point mutations of these residues disrupt the interaction between the I-II loop and the III-IV loop, and thereby modify the inactivation properties of the channel by accelerating its kinetics and shifting the steady-state inactivation curve towards hyperpolarized potentials. A similar disruption is produced by Ca(v)beta(4) subunit association with the I-II loop. Moreover, in the presence of Ca(v)beta(4) subunit, introducing negatively charged residues at positions 387 or 388 slows inactivation kinetics down, whereas introducing positive charges has the opposite effect. The shift of the steady-state inactivation curve is also amino acid charge-dependent. In contrast, mutation of Arg(387) or Glu(388) does not alter the differential regulation of the different Ca(v)beta isoforms on inactivation. These results suggest that the expression of Ca(v)beta(4) alters the contribution of charged residues at positions 387 and 388 to inactivation. We discuss these results with regard to the actual hypotheses on the mechanisms of calcium channel inactivation. We introduce the working concept that Ca(v)beta-subunits produce a conformational repositioning of charged AID residues within the electric field.

  20. Synthesis and luminescent properties of novel lanthanide(III) beta-diketone complexes with nitrogen p,p'-disubstituted aromatic ligands.

    PubMed

    Bellusci, Anna; Barberio, Giovanna; Crispini, Alessandra; Ghedini, Mauro; La Deda, Massimo; Pucci, Daniela

    2005-03-21

    Tris-beta-diketonate lanthanide(III) complexes (Ln = Eu, Er, Yb, Tb), of general formula [Ln(acac)3 L(m)], with chelating ligands such as 4,7-disubstituted-1,10-phenanthrolines and 4,4'-disubstituted-2,2'-bipyridines, have been synthesized and fully characterized. The inductive effects of the para-substituents on the aromatic N-donor ligands have been investigated both in the solid and in the solution states. Single-crystal X-ray structures have been determined for the diethyl 1,10-phenanthroline-4,7-dicarboxylate europium and 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine erbium derivatives, revealing a distorted square antiprismatic geometry around the lanthanide atom in both cases. The influence exerted by the p,p'-substituents with respect to the nitrogen coordinating atoms on the Ln-N bond distances is discussed comparing the geometrical parameters with those found for the crystal structures containing the fragments [Ln(III)(phen)] and [Ln(III)(bipy)] obtained from the Cambridge Structural Database. The influence exerted by the electron-attracting groups on the coordination ability of the ligands, that in some cases becomes lack of coordination of the lanthanide ions, has been also detected in solution where the loss of the ligand has been followed by UV-vis spectroscopy. Moreover, the use of relatively long alkoxy chains as substituents on the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand led to the formation of a promesogenic lanthanide complex, whose thermal behavior is encouraging for the synthesis of new lanthanide liquid-crystalline species.

  1. On decay constants and orbital distance to the Sun—part III: beta plus and electron capture decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.; Stroh, H.; Paepen, J.; Van Ammel, R.; Marouli, M.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Hult, M.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Schrader, H.; Juget, F.; Bailat, C.; Nedjadi, Y.; Bochud, F.; Buchillier, T.; Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; van Rooy, M. W.; van Staden, M. J.; Lubbe, J.; Simpson, B. R. S.; Fazio, A.; De Felice, P.; Jackson, T. W.; Van Wyngaardt, W. M.; Reinhard, M. I.; Golya, J.; Bourke, S.; Roy, T.; Galea, R.; Keightley, J. D.; Ferreira, K. M.; Collins, S. M.; Ceccatelli, A.; Verheyen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Vodenik, B.; Korun, M.; Chisté, V.; Amiot, M.-N.

    2017-02-01

    The hypothesis that seasonal changes in proximity to the Sun cause variation of decay constants at permille level has been tested for radionuclides disintegrating through electron capture and beta plus decay. Activity measurements of 22Na, 54Mn, 55Fe, 57Co, 65Zn, 82+85Sr, 90Sr, 109Cd, 124Sb, 133Ba, 152Eu, and 207Bi sources were repeated over periods from 200 d up to more than four decades at 14 laboratories across the globe. Residuals from the exponential nuclear decay curves were inspected for annual oscillations. Systematic deviations from a purely exponential decay curve differ from one data set to another and appear attributable to instabilities in the instrumentation and measurement conditions. Oscillations in phase with Earth’s orbital distance to the sun could not be observed within 10-4-10-5 range precision. The most stable activity measurements of β + and EC decaying sources set an upper limit of 0.006% or less to the amplitude of annual oscillations in the decay rate. There are no apparent indications for systematic oscillations at a level of weeks or months.

  2. A specific tryptophan in the I-II linker is a key determinant of beta-subunit binding and modulation in Ca(V)2.3 calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Berrou, L; Klein, H; Bernatchez, G; Parent, L

    2002-01-01

    The ancillary beta subunits modulate the activation and inactivation properties of high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca(2+) channels in an isoform-specific manner. The beta subunits bind to a high-affinity interaction site, alpha-interaction domain (AID), located in the I-II linker of HVA alpha1 subunits. Nine residues in the AID motif are absolutely conserved in all HVA channels (QQxExxLxGYxxWIxxxE), but their contribution to beta-subunit binding and modulation remains to be established in Ca(V)2.3. Mutations of W386 to either A, G, Q, R, E, F, or Y in Ca(V)2.3 disrupted [(35)S]beta3-subunit overlay binding to glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the mutated I-II linker, whereas mutations (single or multiple) of nonconserved residues did not affect the protein-protein interaction with beta3. The tryptophan residue at position 386 appears to be an essential determinant as substitutions with hydrophobic (A and G), hydrophilic (Q, R, and E), or aromatic (F and Y) residues yielded the same results. beta-Subunit modulation of W386 (A, G, Q, R, E, F, and Y) and Y383 (A and S) mutants was investigated after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. All mutant channels expressed large inward Ba(2+) currents with typical current-voltage properties. Nonetheless, the typical hallmarks of beta-subunit modulation, namely the increase in peak currents, the hyperpolarization of peak voltages, and the modulation of the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation, were eliminated in all W386 mutants, although they were preserved in part in Y383 (A and S) mutants. Altogether these results suggest that W386 is critical for beta-subunit binding and modulation of HVA Ca(2+) channels. PMID:12202369

  3. Probing the Mechanism of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis [beta]-Ketoacyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase III mtFabH: Factors Influencing Catalysis and Substrate Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alistair K.; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Kremer, Laurent; Lindenberg, Sandra; Dover, Lynn G.; Sacchettini, James C.; Besra, Gurdyal S.

    2010-11-30

    Mycolic acids are the dominant feature of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall. These {alpha}-alkyl, {beta}-hydroxy fatty acids are formed by the condensation of two fatty acids, a long meromycolic acid and a shorter C{sub 24}-C{sub 26} fatty acid. The component fatty acids are produced via a combination of type I and II fatty acid synthases (FAS) with FAS-I products being elongated by FAS-II toward meromycolic acids. The {beta}-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III encoded by mtfabH (mtFabH) links FAS-I and FAS-II, catalyzing the condensation of FAS-I-derived acyl-CoAs with malonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP). The acyl-CoA chain length specificity of mtFabH was assessed in vitro; the enzyme extended longer, physiologically relevant acyl-CoA primers when paired with AcpM, its natural partner, than with Escherichia coli ACP. The ability of the enzyme to use E. coli ACP suggests that a similar mode of binding is likely with both ACPs, yet it is clear that unique factors inherent to AcpM modulate the substrate specificity of mtFabH. Mutation of proposed key mtFabH residues was used to define their catalytic roles. Substitution of supposed acyl-CoA binding residues reduced transacylation, with double substitutions totally abrogating activity. Mutation of Arg{sup 46} revealed its more critical role in malonyl-AcpM decarboxylation than in the acyl-CoA binding role. Interestingly, this effect was suppressed intragenically by Arg{sup 161} {yields} Ala substitution. Our structural studies suggested that His{sup 258}, previously implicated in malonyl-ACP decarboxylation, also acts as an anchor point for a network of water molecules that we propose promotes deprotonation and transacylation of Cys{sup 122}.

  4. New cyclometalated Iridium(III) beta-dicetone complex as phosphorescent dopant in Organic light emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Tomova, R.

    2017-01-01

    A new Bis[4-(benzothiazolato-N,C2‧-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylaniline]Iridium(III) acetylacetonate (Me2N-bt) 2Ir(acac) was synthesized and identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The application of the new compound as a dopant in the hole transporting layer (HTL) of Organic light emitting diode (OLED) structure: HTL/EL/ETL, where HTL was N,N’-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), incorporated in Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix, EL - electroluminescent layer of Bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylpheno-xy)aluminum (BAlq) and ETL - electron-transporting layer of Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) or Bis[2-(2-benzothiazoly) phenolato]zinc (Zn(btz)2). We established that the electroluminescent spectra of OLEDs at different concentrations of the dopant were basically the sum of the greenish-blue emission of BAlq and yellowish-green emission of Ir complex. It was found that with increasing of the dopant concentration the relative electroluminescent intensity of Iridium complex emission increased and this of BAlq decreased and as a result the fine tuning of OLED color was observed.

  5. Charged lepton flavour violcxmation and neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric models with type I+II seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2016-07-01

    We study the new physics contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) half-life and lepton flavour violation (LFV) amplitude within the framework of the minimal left-right symmetric model (MLRSM). Considering all possible new physics contributions to 0 νββ and charged lepton flavour violation μ → eγ , μ → 3 e in MLRSM, we constrain the parameter space of the model from the requirement of satisfying existing experimental bounds. Assuming the breaking scale of the left-right symmetry to be O (1) TeV accessible at ongoing and near future collider experiments, we consider the most general type I+II seesaw mechanism for the origin of tiny neutrino masses. Choosing the relative contribution of the type II seesaw term allows us to calculate the right handed neutrino mass matrix as well as Dirac neutrino mass matrix as a function of the model parameters, required for the calculation of 0νββ and LFV amplitudes. We show that such a general type I+II seesaw structure results in more allowed parameter space compared to individual type I or type II seesaw cases considered in earlier works. In particular, we show that the doubly charged scalar masses M Δ are allowed to be smaller than the heaviest right handed neutrino mass M N from the present experimental bounds in these scenarios which is in contrast to earlier results with individual type I or type II seesaw showing M Δ > M N .

  6. Herman Feshbach Prize in Theoretical Nuclear Physics Xiangdong Ji, University of Maryland PandaX-III: high-pressure gas TPC for Xe136 neutrinoless double beta decay at CJPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiangdong; PandaX-III Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PandaX-III in China's Jinping Underground Lab is a new neutrinoless double beta decay experiment using Xe136 high-pressure gas TPC. The first phase of the experiment uses a 4 m3 gas detector with symmetric Micromegas charge readout planes. The gas TPC allows full reconstruction of the event topology, capable of distinguishing the two electron events from gamma background with high confidence level. The energy resolution can reach about 3% FWHM at the beta decay Q-value. The detector construction and the experimental lab is currently under active development. In this talk, the current status and future plan are reported.

  7. Crystal structure and substrate specificity of the [beta]-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (FabH) from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Xiayang; Choudhry, Anthony E.; Janson, Cheryl A.; Grooms, Michael; Daines, Robert A.; Lonsdale, John T.; Khandekar, Sanjay S.

    2010-07-20

    {beta}-Ketoacyl-ACP synthase III (FabH), an essential enzyme for bacterial viability, catalyzes the initiation of fatty acid elongation by condensing malonyl-ACP with acetyl-CoA. We have determined the crystal structure of FabH from Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive human pathogen, to 2 {angstrom} resolution. Although the overall structure of S. aureus FabH is similar to that of Escherichia coli FabH, the primer binding pocket in S. aureus FabH is significantly larger than that present in E. coli FabH. The structural differences, which agree with kinetic parameters, provide explanation for the observed varying substrate specificity for E. coli and S. aureus FabH. The rank order of activity of S. aureus FabH with various acyl-CoA primers was as follows: isobutyryl- > hexanoyl- > butyryl- > isovaleryl- >> acetyl-CoA. The availability of crystal structure may aid in designing potent, selective inhibitors of S. aureus FabH.

  8. Human Gastric Cancer Kinase Profile and Prognostic Significance of MKK4 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chew-Wun; Li, Anna F.-Y.; Chi, Chin-Wen; Huang, Chen Lung; Shen, King-Han; Liu, Wing-Yiu; Lin, Wen-chang

    2000-01-01

    Alterations of protein tyrosine kinase are often associated with uncontrolled cell growth and tumor progression. Knowledge of the overall expression pattern of tyrosine kinases should prove beneficial in understanding the signaling pathways involved in gastric cancer oncogenesis and in providing possible biomarkers for gastric cancer progression. To establish a general tyrosine-kinase expression profile, degenerated polymerase chain reaction primers designed from the consensus catalytic kinase motifs were used to amplify protein tyrosine kinase molecules from gastric cancer tissues. We observed more than 50 tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases from matching pairs of gastric cancer tissue and normal mucosa. Based on this new kinase profile information, we selected the MKK4 gene for further immunohistochemical studies. Statistical analysis of MKK4 protein expression and clinicopathological features indicated that MKK4 kinase expression could serve as a significant prognostic factor for relapse-free survival and for overall survival. We demonstrated a simple and sensitive method for establishing protein tyrosine-kinase expression profiles of human gastric cancer tissues as well as for discovering novel and useful clinical biomarkers from such kinase expression profiles. PMID:10854223

  9. Kin4 kinase delays mitotic exit in response to spindle alignment defects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gislene; Schiebel, Elmar

    2005-07-22

    For many polarized cells, it is critical that the mitotic spindle becomes positioned relative to the polarity axis. This is especially important in yeast, where the site of cytokinesis is predetermined. The spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) therefore delays mitotic exit of cells with a mispositioned spindle. One component of the SPOC is the Bub2-Bfa1 complex, an inhibitor of the mitotic exit network (MEN). Here, we show that the Kin4 kinase is a component of the SPOC and as such is essential to delay cell cycle progression of cells with a misaligned spindle. When spindles are correctly oriented, Kin4 and Bub2-Bfa1 are asymmetrically localized to opposite spindle pole bodies (SPBs). Bub2-Bfa1 then becomes inhibited by Cdc5 polo kinase with anaphase onset, a prerequisite for mitotic exit. In response to spindle misalignment, Kin4 and Bub2-Bfa1 are brought together at both SPBs. Kin4 now maintains Bub2-Bfa1 activity by counteracting Cdc5, thereby inhibiting mitotic exit.

  10. Axonal transport of class II and III beta-tubulin: evidence that the slow component wave represents the movement of only a small fraction of the tubulin in mature motor axons

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Pulse-labeling studies demonstrate that tubulin synthesized in the neuron cell body (soma) moves somatofugally within the axon (at a rate of several millimeters per day) as a well-defined wave corresponding to the slow component of axonal transport. A major goal of the present study was to determine what proportion of the tubulin in mature motor axons is transported in this wave. Lumbar motor neurons in 9-wk-old rats were labeled by injecting [35S]methionine into the spinal cord 2 wk after motor axons were injured (axotomized) by crushing the sciatic nerve. Immunoprecipitation with mAbs which recognize either class II or III beta-tubulin were used to analyze the distributions of radioactivity in these isotypes in intact and axotomized motor fibers 5 d after labeling. We found that both isotypes were associated with the slow component wave, and that the leading edge of this wave was enriched in the class III isotype. Axotomy resulted in significant increases in the labeling and transport rates of both isotypes. Immunohistochemical examination of peripheral nerve fibers demonstrated that nearly all of the class II and III beta-tubulin in nerve fibers is located within axons. Although the amounts of radioactivity per millimeter of nerve in class II and III beta-tubulin were significantly greater in axotomized than in control nerves (with increases of +160% and +58%, respectively), immunoassay revealed no differences in the amounts of these isotypes in axotomized and control motor fibers. We consider several explanations for this paradox; these include the possibility that the total tubulin content is relatively insensitive to changes in the amount of tubulin transported in the slow component wave because this wave represents the movement of only a small fraction of the tubulin in these motor fibers. PMID:1383234

  11. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIβ negatively regulates invadopodia formation and suppresses an invasive cellular phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Alli-Balogun, Ganiyu Olabanji; Gewinner, Christina A.; Jacobs, Ruth; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Waugh, Mark G.; Minogue, Shane

    2016-01-01

    The type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KII) enzymes synthesize the lipid phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P), which has been detected at the Golgi complex and endosomal compartments and recruits clathrin adaptors. Despite common mechanistic similarities between the isoforms, the extent of their redundancy is unclear. We found that depletion of PI4KIIα and PI4KIIβ using small interfering RNA led to actin remodeling. Depletion of PI4KIIβ also induced the formation of invadopodia containing membrane type I matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). Depletion of PI4KII isoforms also differentially affected trans-Golgi network (TGN) pools of PI(4)P and post-TGN traffic. PI4KIIβ depletion caused increased MT1-MMP trafficking to invasive structures at the plasma membrane and was accompanied by reduced colocalization of MT1-MMP with membranes containing the endosomal markers Rab5 and Rab7 but increased localization with the exocytic Rab8. Depletion of PI4KIIβ was sufficient to confer an aggressive invasive phenotype on minimally invasive HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. Mining oncogenomic databases revealed that loss of the PI4K2B allele and underexpression of PI4KIIβ mRNA are associated with human cancers. This finding supports the cell data and suggests that PI4KIIβ may be a clinically significant suppressor of invasion. We propose that PI4KIIβ synthesizes a pool of PI(4)P that maintains MT1-MMP traffic in the degradative pathway and suppresses the formation of invadopodia. PMID:27798239

  12. Cleavage of the peptide bond of beta-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) induced by a Co(III)-amine complexes: reaction, structure and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Saha, Manas K; Mukhopadhyay, Uday; Bernal, Ivan

    2004-05-07

    Cleavage of the peptide bond occurs when beta]-alanyl-L-histidine (carnosine) reacts with [Co(tren)Cl2]+ (tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) to give [Co(tren)(histidine)](2+) 1 and [Co(tren)(beta-alanine)](2+) 2. [Co(tren)(histidine)](2+) 1 crystallizes in the enantiomorphic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) and 2 crystallizes in the P2(1)/c space group. The mechanism of the cleavage reactions were studied in detail for the precursor [Co(tren)Cl2]+ and [Co(trien)Cl2]+, which convert into [Co(tren)(OH)2]+/[Co(tren)(OH)(OH2)]2+ and [Co(trien)(OH)2]+/[Co(trien)(OH)(OH2)]2+ in water at basic pH (trien = 1,4,7,10-tetraazadecane). At a slightly basic pH, the initial coordination of the substrate (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) is by the carboxylate group for the reaction with [Co(tren)Cl2]+. This is followed by a rate-limiting nucleophilic attack of the hydroxide group at the beta-alanyl-L-histidine carbonyl group. In a strongly basic reaction medium substrate, binding of the metal was through carboxylate and amine terminals. On the other hand, for the reaction between [cis-beta-Co(trien)Cl2]+ and beta-alanyl-L-histidine, the initial coordination of the substrate takes place via an imidazole ring nitrogen, independently, and followed by a nucleophilic attack of the hydroxide group at the beta-alanyl-L-histidine carbonyl group. The circular dichroism spectrum for 1 suggests that a very small extent of racemization of the amino acid (L-histidine) takes place during the cleavage reaction between [Co(tren)Cl2]+ and beta-alanyl-L-histidine. Reaction between [cis-beta-Co(trien)Cl2]+ and beta-alanyl-L-histidine also causes cleavage of the peptide bond, producing a free beta-alanyl molecule and a cationic fragment [cis-alpha-Co(trien)(histidine)](2+) 3 that crystallizes in the optically active space group P2(1)2(1)2(1). Unlike the previous case an appreciable degree of racemization of the L-histidine takes place during the reaction between [cis-beta-Co(trien)Cl2]+ and beta

  13. Genomic tagging reveals a random association of endogenous PtdIns5P 4-kinases IIα and IIβ and a partial nuclear localization of the IIα isoform

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minchuan; Bond, Nicholas J.; Letcher, Andrew J.; Richardson, Jonathan P.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Irvine, Robin F.; Clarke, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    PtdIns5P 4-kinases IIα and IIβ are cytosolic and nuclear respectively when transfected into cells, including DT40 cells [Richardson, Wang, Clarke, Patel and Irvine (2007) Cell. Signalling 19, 1309–1314]. In the present study we have genomically tagged both type II PtdIns5P 4-kinase isoforms in DT40 cells. Immunoprecipitation of either isoform from tagged cells, followed by MS, revealed that they are associated directly with each other, probably by heterodimerization. We quantified the cellular levels of the type II PtdIns5P 4-kinase mRNAs by real-time quantitative PCR and the absolute amount of each isoform in immunoprecipitates by MS using selective reaction monitoring with 14N,13C-labelled internal standard peptides. The results suggest that the dimerization is complete and random, governed solely by the relative concentrations of the two isoforms. Whereas PtdIns5P 4-kinase IIβ is >95% nuclear, as expected, the distribution of PtdIns4P 4-kinase IIα is 60% cytoplasmic (all bound to membranes) and 40% nuclear. In vitro, PtdIns5P 4-kinase IIα was 2000-fold more active as a PtdIns5P 4-kinase than the IIβ isoform. Overall the results suggest a function of PtdIns5P 4-kinase IIβ may be to target the more active IIα isoform into the nucleus. PMID:20569199

  14. Prevention of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy by Suppression of Phosphatidylinositol 5-Phosphate 4-Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gaoen; Duan, Yajian; Huang, Xionggao; Qian, Cynthia X.; Chee, Yewlin; Mukai, Shizuo; Cui, Jing; Samad, Arif; Matsubara, Joanne Aiko; Kazlauskas, Andrius; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Gu, Shuyan; Lei, Hetian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have shown that vitreous stimulates degradation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and that knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinases (PI5P4Kα and -β) abrogates proliferation of p53-deficient cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether vitreous stimulated expression of PI5P4Kα and -β and whether suppression of PI5P4Kα and -β would inhibit vitreous-induced cellular responses and experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Methods PI5P4Kα and -β encoded by PIP4K2A and 2B, respectively, in human ARPE-19 cells were knocked down by stably expressing short hairpin (sh)RNA directed at human PIP4K2A and -2B. In addition, we rescued expression of PI5P4Kα and -β by re-expressing mouse PIP4K2A and -2B in the PI5P4Kα and -β knocked-down ARPE-19 cells. Expression of PI5P4Kα and -β was determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The following cellular responses were monitored: cell proliferation, survival, migration, and contraction. Moreover, the cell potential of inducing PVR was examined in a rabbit model of PVR effected by intravitreal cell injection. Results We found that vitreous enhanced expression of PI5P4Kα and -β in RPE cells and that knocking down PI5P4Kα and -β abrogated vitreous-stimulated cell proliferation, survival, migration, and contraction. Re-expression of mouse PIP4Kα and -β in the human PI5P4Kα and -β knocked-down cells recovered the loss of vitreous-induced cell contraction. Importantly, suppression of PI5P4Kα and -β abrogated the pathogenesis of PVR induced by intravitreal cell injection in rabbits. Moreover, we revealed that expression of PI5P4Kα and -β was abundant in epiretinal membranes from PVR grade C patients. Conclusions The findings from this study indicate that PI5P4Kα and -β could be novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of PVR. PMID:27472081

  15. Dissociation energies and charge distribution of the Co-NO bond for nitrosyl-alpha,beta,gamma,delta-tetraphenylporphinatocobalt(II) and nitrosyl-alpha,beta,gamma,delta-tetraphenylporphinatocobalt(III) in benzonitrile solution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Li, Qian; Hao, Wei-Fang; Cheng, Jin-Pei

    2002-08-21

    The first two series of Co-NO bond dissociation enthalpies in benzonitrile solution were determined for 12 cobalt(II) nitrosyl porphyrins and for 12 cobalt(III) nitrosyl porphyrins by titration calorimetry with suitable thermodynamic cycles. The results display that the energy scales of the heterolytic Co(III)-NO bond dissociation, the homolytic Co(III)-NO bond dissociation, and the homolytic Co(II)-NO bond dissociation are 14.7-23.2, 15.1-17.5, and 20.8-24.6 kcal/mol in benzonitrile solution, respectively, which not only indicates that the thermodynamic stability of cobalt(II) nitrosyl porphyrins is larger than that of the corresponding cobalt(III) nitrosyl porphyrins for homolysis in benzonitrile solution but also suggests that both cobalt(III) nitrosyl porphyrins and cobalt(II) nitrosyl porphyrins are excellent NO donors, and in addition, cobalt(III) nitrosyl porphyrins are also excellent NO(+) contributors. Hammett-type linear free energy analyses suggest that the nitrosyl group carries negative charges of 0.49 +/- 0.06 and 0.27 +/- 0.04 in T(G)PPCo(II)NO and in T(G)PPCo(III)NO, respectively, which indicates that nitric oxide is an electron-withdrawing group both in T(G)PPCo(II)NO and in T(G)PPCo(III)NO, behaving in a manner similar to Lewis acids rather than to Lewis bases. The energetic and structural information disclosed in the present work is believed to furnish hints to the understanding of cobalt nitrosyl porphyrins' biological functions in vivo.

  16. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling down-regulates N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III expression: the implications of two mutually exclusive pathways for regulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingsong; Akama, Ryota; Isaji, Tomoya; Lu, Yingying; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Kariya, Yoshinobu; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Du, Yuguang; Gu, Jianguo

    2011-02-11

    In previous studies, we reported that N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III) activity and the enzyme product, bisected N-glycans, both were induced in cells cultured under dense conditions in an E-cadherin-dependent manner (Iijima, J., Zhao, Y., Isaji, T., Kameyama, A., Nakaya, S., Wang, X., Ihara, H., Cheng, X., Nakagawa, T., Miyoshi, E., Kondo, A., Narimatsu, H., Taniguchi, N., and Gu, J. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 13038-13046). Furthermore, we found that α-catenin, a component of the E-cadherin-catenin complex, was also required for this induction (Akama, R., Sato, Y., Kariya, Y., Isaji, T., Fukuda, T., Lu, L., Taniguchi, N., Ozawa, M., and Gu, J. (2008) Proteomics 8, 3221-3228). To further explore the molecular mechanism of this regulation, the roles of β-catenin, an essential molecule in both cadherin-mediated cell adhesion and canonical Wnt signaling, were investigated. Unexpectedly, shRNA knockdown of β-catenin resulted in a dramatic increase in GnT-III expression and its product, the bisected N-glycans, which was confirmed by RT-PCR and GnT-III activity and by E4-PHA lectin blot analysis. The induction of GnT-III expression increased bisecting GlcNAc residues on β1 integrin, which led to down-regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion and cell migration. Immunostaining showed that nuclear localization of β-catenin was greatly suppressed; intriguingly, the knockdown of β-catenin in the nuclei was more effective than that in cell-cell contacts in the knockdown cells, which was also confirmed by Western blot analysis. Stimulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the addition of exogenous Wnt3a or BIO, a GSK-3β inhibitor, consistently and significantly inhibited GnT-III expression and its products. Conversely, the inhibition of β-catenin translocation into the nuclei increased GnT-III activation. Taken together, the results of the present study are the first to clearly demonstrate that GnT-III expression may be precisely regulated by the

  17. Enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles with alkylidene malonates catalyzed by N,N'-dioxide-scandium(III) complexes: asymmetric synthesis of beta-carbolines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Shang, Deju; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    An efficient catalytic asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indoles with alkylidene malonates has been developed by using a chiral N,N'-dioxide-Sc(OTf)(3) complex as the catalyst (see scheme). Some optically active intermediates containing the indole skeleton have been synthesized, such as indolepropionic acid, tryptamines, and beta-carbolines. The coordination between the scandium atom and the chiral N,N'-dioxide compound has been revealed by X-ray structure analysis.

  18. Fe(III) halides as effective catalysts in carbon-carbon bond formation: synthesis of 1,5-dihalo-1,4-dienes, alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, and cyclic ethers.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Pedro O; Díaz, David D; Padrón, Juan I; Ramírez, Miguel A; Martín, Víctor S

    2005-01-07

    Iron(III) halides have proven to be excellent catalysts in the coupling of acetylenes and aldehydes. When terminal acetylenes were used the main products obtained were 1,5-dihalo-1,4-dienes with (E,Z)-stereochemistry contaminated in some cases with (E)-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones. The former carbonyl derivatives were the sole products isolated when nonterminal aromatic alkynes were used. When homopropargylic alcohols were used, a Prins-type cyclization occurred yielding 2-alkyl-4-halo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyrans. In addition, anhydrous ferric halides are also shown to be excellent catalysts for the standard Prins cyclization with homoallylic alcohols. Isolation of an intermediate acetal, calculations, and alkyne hydration studies provide substantiation of a proposed mechanism.

  19. Neutral (bis-beta-diketonato) iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) metallocycles: structural, electrochemical and solvent extraction studies.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Jack K; Bray, David J; Gloe, Kerstin; Gloe, Karsten; Hayter, Michael J; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Lawrance, Geoffrey A; Meehan, George V; McMurtrie, John C; Lindoy, Leonard F; Wenzel, Marco

    2007-05-07

    Neutral dimeric metallocyclic complexes of type [M(2)(L(1))(2)B(n)] (where M = cobalt(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II), L(1) is the doubly deprotonated form of a 1,3-aryl linked bis-beta-diketone ligand of type 1,3-bis(RC(O)CH(2)C(O))C(6)H(4) (R=Me, n-Pr, t-Bu) and B is pyridine (Py) or 4-ethylpyridine (EtPy)) have been synthesised, adding to similar complexes already reported for copper(II). New lipophilic ligand derivatives with R = octyl or nonyl were also prepared for use in solvent extraction experiments. Structural, electrochemical and solvent extraction investigations of selected metal complex systems from the above series are reported, with the X-ray structures of [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)] x 2.25CHCl(3) x 0.5H(2)O (R=Pr), [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu), [Ni(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu), [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(2)] (R=Me) and [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu) being presented. The electrochemistry of H(2)L(1) (R=t-Bu) and of [Fe(2)(L(1))(3)], [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)], [Ni(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)], [Cu(2)(L(1))(2)] and [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(2)] has been examined. Oxidative processes for the complexes are dominantly irreversible, but several examples of quasireversible behaviour were observed and support the assignment of an anodic process, seen between +1.0 and +1.6 V, as a metal-centred oxidation. The reduction processes for the respective metal complexes are not simple, and irreversible in most cases. Solvent extraction studies (water/chloroform) involving variable concentrations of metal, bis-beta-diketone and heterocyclic base have been performed for cobalt(II) and zinc(II) using a radiotracer technique to probe the stoichiometries of the extracted species in each case. Synergism was observed when 4-ethylpyridine was added to the bis-beta-diketone ligand in the chloroform phase. Competitive extraction studies show a clear uptake preference for copper(II) over cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II).

  20. Solution structure of (Cr/sup III/(L)(O-O))/sup n/ complexes (L = nitrilotriacetate, N,N-. beta. -alaninediacetate; O-O = malonate, oxalate, acetylacetonate, 2H/sub 2/O) and characterization of (Cr(nta)(OH))/sub 2//sup 2 -/ by deuteron NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Koine, N.; Bianchini, R.J.; Legg, J.I.

    1986-07-30

    The complexes (Cr/sup III/(L)(O-O))/sup n/ (L = nitrilotriacetate (nta), N,N-..beta..-alaninediacetate (..beta..-alada); O-O = malonate (mal), oxalate (ox), acetylacetonate (acac), 2H/sub 2/O) have been synthesized, chromatographically purified, and characterized by deuteron NMR, infrared and electronic absorption spectroscopy. The two possible isomers, symmetrical (sym) and unsymmetrical (unsym), for (Cr(..beta..-alada)(acac))/sup -/ and (Cr(..beta..-alada)(mal))/sup 2 -/ were isolated, but only the unsym isomer for (Cr(..beta..-alada)(ox))/sup 2 -/ was found. The starting materials for the synthesis of these complexes, (Cr(nta)(OH))/sub 2//sup 2 -/ and unsym-(Cr(..beta..-alada)(H/sub 2/O)/sub 2/), were also characterized. Both species were shown to be in equilibrium with the corresponding monomer and dimer, respectively. The chemistry of the various species investigated differs, to some extent, from what has been previously reported. The recent availability of a readily applicable NMR technique for the study of Cr(III) chemistry (/sup 2/H NMR) has greatly facilitated these studies.

  1. Synthesis, spectral, crystallography and thermal investigations of novel Schiff base complexes of manganese (III) derived from heterocyclic beta-diketone with aromatic and aliphatic diamine.

    PubMed

    Surati, Kiran R; Thaker, B T

    2010-01-01

    The Schiff base tetradentate ligands N,N-bis-(3,5-dimethyl-1-p-tolyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene)-ethane-1,2-diamine (H(2)L(1)), N,N-bis-(3,5-dimethyl-1-p-sulfonyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene)-ethane-1,2-diamine (H(2)L(2)), N,N-bis-(3,5-dimethyl-1-p-tolyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene)-benzene-1,2-diamine (H(2)L(3)) and N,N-bis-(3,5-dimethyl-1-p-sulfonyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene)-benzene-1,2-diamine (H(2)L(4)) were prepared from the reaction between 5-oxo-3-methyl-1-p-tolyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde or 4-(4-formyl-5-oxo-3-methyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-benzenesulfonic acid and o-phenylenediamine or ethylenediamine. And these are characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and GC-MS. The corresponding Schiff base complexes of Mn(III) were prepared by condensation of [Mn(3)(mu(3)-O)(OAc)(6)(H(2)O)(3)].3H(2)O with ligands H(2)L(1), H(2)L(2), H(2)L(3) and H(2)L(4). All these complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, X-ray crystallography, conductometry measurement, FT-IR, electronic spectra and mass (FAB) spectrometry. Thermal behaviour of the complexes has been studied by TGA, DTA and DSC. Electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate octahedral stereochemistry of manganese (III) complexes, while non-electrolytic behaviour complexes indicate the absence of counter ion.

  2. Cadmium sulfate application to sludge-amended soils: III. Relationship between treatment and plant available cadmium, zinc, and manganese. [Beta vulgaris, Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, R.J. ); Ryan, J.A. )

    1988-01-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) and corn (Zea mays L.) were used as biological indicators of Cd, Zn, and Mn availability in 12 soils amended with and without sludge, CdSO{sub 4} and CaCO{sub 3}. Soil Cd, Zn and Mn were partitioned into six fractions: soluble, exchangeable, adsorbed, organically bound, carbonate bound and sulfide bound, by the use of H{sub 2}O, KNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, NaOH, EDTA and HNO{sub 3}, respectively. The data indicate that the major portion of total Cd was found in the carbonate, residual and organic fractions. Addition of CaCO{sub 3} caused an increase in the soluble and exchangeable fractions of Cd in the soils. The concentrations of Cd in the saturation extracts of the limed soils were significantly greater than those of the unlimed soils; however, this was not reflected in greater plant uptake of Cd from limed soils.

  3. Overexpression of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIIα is associated with undifferentiated status and poor prognosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a particularly severe disease characterized by a high rate of recurrence and death even after surgical resection. Molecular characterization of HCC helps refine prognosis and may facilitate the development of improved therapy. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases have recently been identified as cellular factors associated with cancer. Also, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIIα (PI4KA) is necessary for the propagation of the hepatitis C virus, a major etiological factor for HCC. Methods Reverse transcription, quantitative real-time PCR was used to assay PI4KA mRNA. The expression levels were investigated both in a collection of molecularly and clinically characterized hepatic tissues from 344 patients with diverse liver diseases and in human hepatocyte cell lines whose proliferative and differentiation status was controlled by specific culture conditions. Analytical microarray data for 60 HCC and six normal liver tissue samples were exploited to study correlations between PI4KA mRNA levels and cell proliferation markers in vivo. Postoperative disease-specific survival and time to recurrence in a set of 214 patients with HCC were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results PI4KA mRNA was more abundant in HCC than normal healthy tissues. This upregulation correlated significantly with both poor differentiation and the active proliferation rate in HCC. These associations were confirmed with in vitro models. Moreover, patients with HCC who had been treated by surgical resection and had higher PI4KA mRNA concentrations in their tumor tissue exhibited a higher risk of tumor recurrence (median time: 20 months versus 49 months, P = 0.0012) and shorter disease-specific survival (first quartile time: 16 months versus 48 months, P = 0.0004). Finally, the abundance of PI4KA mRNA proved to be an independent prognostic marker of survival for cases of HCC (hazard ratio = 2.36, P = 0.0064). Conclusions PI4

  4. Optical absorption and NMR spectroscopic studies on paramagnetic neodymium(III) complexes with beta-diketone and heterocyclic amines. The environment effect on 4f-4f hypersensitive transitions.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A A; Irfanullah, M; Iftikhar, K

    2007-08-01

    The optical absorption spectra of [Nd(acac)3(H2O)2].H2O, [Nd(acac)3bpy] and [Nd(acac)3phen(H2O)2] (where acac=acetylacetone, bpy=2,2'-bipyridyl and phen=1,10-phenanthroline) complexes in the visible region, in a series of non-aqueous solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, chloroform, acetonitrile, pyridine, nitrobenzene and dimethylsulphoxide) have been analyzed. The transition 4G(5/2)<--4I(9/2) (Nd-VI) located near the middle of the visible region (17,500 cm(-1)) is hypersensitive. Its behavior is in sharp contrast to many other typically weak and consistently unvaried, normal 4f-4f transitions. The oscillator strength of this transition for the chelate as well as its adducts with phen and bpy in any of the solvent employed is larger than the oscillator strength of Nd3+ aqua-ion. It is most intense in pyridine for all the complexes studied and, therefore, pyridine is the most effective in promoting f-f spectral intensity. The band shape and oscillator strength of the hypersensitive transitions display pronounced changes as compared to Nd3+ aqua-ion. The band shapes of the hypersensitive transitions show remarkable changes on passing from aqueous solution to various non-aqueous solutions, which is the result of change in the environment about the Nd(III) ion in the various solutions and suggests change in the environment about the Nd(III) ion in the various solutions and suggests coordination of solvent molecule(s), in some cases. A comparative account of hypersensitivity in the present complexes with those of other adducts of Nd(beta-diketoenolate)3 with heterocyclic amines is discussed. The NMR signals of heterocyclic amines have been shifted to high fields while the resonances due to acetylacetone moiety have moved to low fields. The paramagnetic shift in the complexes is dipolar in nature.

  5. Beta Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Beta blockers, also called beta-adrenergic blocking agents, treat a variety of conditions, such as high blood pressure and migraines. Find out more about this ...

  6. Modulation of membrane phosphoinositide dynamics by the phosphatidylinositide 4-kinase activity of the Legionella LepB effector.

    PubMed

    Dong, Na; Niu, Miao; Hu, Liyan; Yao, Qing; Zhou, Rui; Shao, Feng

    2016-12-12

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative bacterium for Legionnaires' disease, hijacks host membrane trafficking for the maturation of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). The LCV membrane mainly contains PtdIns4P, which is important for anchoring many secreted Legionella effectors onto the LCV. Here, we identify a cryptic functional domain (LepB_NTD) preceding the well-characterized RabGAP domain in the Legionella Dot/Icm type IV secretion system effector LepB. LepB_NTD alone is toxic to yeast and can disrupt the Golgi in mammalian cells. The crystal structure reveals an unexpected kinase fold and catalytic motif important for LepB_NTD function in eukaryotes. Cell biology-guided biochemical analyses uncovered a lipid kinase activity in LepB_NTD that specifically converts PtdIns3P into PtdIns(3,4)P2. PtdIns(3,4)P2 is efficiently hydrolysed into PtdIns4P by another Dot/Icm effector SidF that is known to possess phosphoinositide phosphatase activity. Consistently, SidF is capable of counteracting the cellular functions of LepB_NTD. Genetic analyses show a requirement for LepB kinase activity as well as lipid phosphatase activity of SidF for PtdIns4P biosynthesis on the LCV membrane. Our study identifies an unprecedented phosphatidylinositide 4-kinase activity from bacteria and highlights a sophisticated manipulation of host phosphoinositide metabolism by a bacterial pathogen.

  7. Type II PI4-kinases control Weibel-Palade body biogenesis and von Willebrand factor structure in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lopes da Silva, Mafalda; O'Connor, Marie N.; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; White, Ian J.; Al-Shawi, Raya; Simons, J. Paul; Mössinger, Julia; Haucke, Volker

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are endothelial storage organelles that mediate the release of molecules involved in thrombosis, inflammation and angiogenesis, including the pro-thrombotic glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (VWF). Although many protein components required for WPB formation and function have been identified, the role of lipids is almost unknown. We examined two key phosphatidylinositol kinases that control phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate levels at the trans-Golgi network, the site of WPB biogenesis. RNA interference of the type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases PI4KIIα and PI4KIIβ in primary human endothelial cells leads to formation of an increased proportion of short WPB with perturbed packing of VWF, as exemplified by increased exposure of antibody-binding sites. When stimulated with histamine, these cells release normal levels of VWF yet, under flow, form very few platelet-catching VWF strings. In PI4KIIα-deficient mice, immuno-microscopy revealed that VWF packaging is also perturbed and these mice exhibit increased blood loss after tail cut compared to controls. This is the first demonstration that lipid kinases can control the biosynthesis of VWF and the formation of WPBs that are capable of full haemostatic function. PMID:27068535

  8. Cloning of a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase gene based on fiber strength transcriptome QTL mapping in the cotton species Gossypium barbadense.

    PubMed

    Liu, H W; Shi, R F; Wang, X F; Pan, Y X; Zang, G Y; Ma, Z Y

    2012-09-25

    Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is highly valued for its superior fiber qualities, especially fiber strength. Based on a transcript-derived fragment originated from transcriptome QTL mapping, a fiber strength related candidate gene of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase cDNA, designated as GbPI4K, was first cloned, and its expression was characterized in the secondary cell wall thickening stage of G. barbadense fibers. The ORF of GbPI4K was found to be 1926 bp in length and encoded a predicted protein of 641 amino acid residues. The putative protein contained a clear PI3/4K kinase catalytic domain and fell into the plant type II PI4K cluster in phylogenetic analysis. In this study, the expression of cotton PI4K protein was also induced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) as a fused protein. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene expressed in the root, hypocotyl and leaf of the cotton plants. Real-time RT-PCR indicated that this gene in Sea Island cotton fibers expressed 10 days longer than that in Upland cotton fibers, and the main expression difference of PI4K between Sea Island cotton and Upland cotton in fibers was located in the secondary cell wall thickening stage of the fiber. Further analysis indicated that PI4K is a crucial factor in the ability of Rac proteins to regulate phospholipid signaling pathways.

  9. Association of protein kinase Cmu with type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Toker, A; Wong, K; Marignani, P A; Johannes, F J; Cantley, L C

    1998-09-04

    Protein kinase Cmu (PKCmu), also named protein kinase D, is an unusual member of the PKC family that has a putative transmembrane domain and pleckstrin homology domain. This enzyme has a substrate specificity distinct from other PKC isoforms (Nishikawa, K., Toker, A., Johannes, F. J., Songyang, Z., and Cantley, L. C. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 952-960), and its mechanism of regulation is not yet clear. Here we show that PKCmu forms a complex in vivo with a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. A region of PKCmu between the amino-terminal transmembrane domain and the pleckstrin homology domain is shown to be involved in the association with the lipid kinases. Interestingly, a kinase-dead point mutant of PKCmu failed to associate with either lipid kinase activity, indicating that autophosphorylation may be required to expose the lipid kinase interaction domain. Furthermore, the subcellular distribution of the PKCmu-associated lipid kinases to the particulate fraction depends on the presence of the amino-terminal region of PKCmu including the predicted transmembrane region. These results suggest a novel model in which the non-catalytic region of PKCmu acts as a scaffold for assembly of enzymes involved in phosphoinositide synthesis at specific membrane locations.

  10. PI4 Kinase Is a Prophylactic but Not Radical Curative Target in Plasmodium vivax-Type Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; van der Werff, Nicole; Klooster, Els J.; Voorberg-van der Wel, Annemarie; Kondreddi, Ravinder R.; Bodenreider, Christophe; Simon, Oliver; Sauerwein, Robert; Yeung, Bryan K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Two Plasmodium PI4 kinase (PI4K) inhibitors, KDU691 and LMV599, were selected for in vivo testing as causal prophylactic and radical-cure agents for Plasmodium cynomolgi sporozoite-infected rhesus macaques, based on their in vitro activity against liver stages. Animals were infected with P. cynomolgi sporozoites, and compounds were dosed orally. Both the KDU691 and LMV599 compounds were fully protective when administered prophylactically, and the more potent compound LMV599 achieved protection as a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight. In contrast, when tested for radical cure, five daily doses of 20 mg/kg of KDU691 or 25 mg/kg of LMV599 did not prevent relapse, as all animals experienced a secondary infection due to the reactivation of hypnozoites in the liver. Pharmacokinetic data show that LMV599 achieved plasma exposure that was sufficient to achieve efficacy based on our in vitro data. These findings indicate that Plasmodium PI4K is a potential drug target for malaria prophylaxis but not radical cure. Longer in vitro culture systems will be required to assess these compounds' activity on established hypnozoites and predict radical cure in vivo. PMID:26926645

  11. Type II PI4-kinases control Weibel-Palade body biogenesis and von Willebrand factor structure in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lopes da Silva, Mafalda; O'Connor, Marie N; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; White, Ian J; Al-Shawi, Raya; Simons, J Paul; Mössinger, Julia; Haucke, Volker; Cutler, Daniel F

    2016-05-15

    Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are endothelial storage organelles that mediate the release of molecules involved in thrombosis, inflammation and angiogenesis, including the pro-thrombotic glycoprotein von Willebrand factor (VWF). Although many protein components required for WPB formation and function have been identified, the role of lipids is almost unknown. We examined two key phosphatidylinositol kinases that control phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate levels at the trans-Golgi network, the site of WPB biogenesis. RNA interference of the type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases PI4KIIα and PI4KIIβ in primary human endothelial cells leads to formation of an increased proportion of short WPB with perturbed packing of VWF, as exemplified by increased exposure of antibody-binding sites. When stimulated with histamine, these cells release normal levels of VWF yet, under flow, form very few platelet-catching VWF strings. In PI4KIIα-deficient mice, immuno-microscopy revealed that VWF packaging is also perturbed and these mice exhibit increased blood loss after tail cut compared to controls. This is the first demonstration that lipid kinases can control the biosynthesis of VWF and the formation of WPBs that are capable of full haemostatic function.

  12. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  13. Type III burst pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zongjun; Fu, Qijun; Lu, Quankang

    2000-05-01

    We present a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0-2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO). Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. We call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is a nice interpretation of type III burst pair since the plasma beta β~=0.01 is much less than 1 and the beams have velocity of about 1.07×10^8 cm s^-1 after leaving the reconnection region if we assume that the ambient magnetic field strength is about 100 G.

  14. PtdIns4P recognition by Vps74/GOLPH3 links PtdIns 4-kinase signaling to retrograde Golgi trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Christopher S.; Schmitz, Karl R.; Bessman, Nicholas J.; Setty, Thanuja Gangi; Ferguson, Kathryn M.; Burd, Christopher G.

    2010-02-11

    Targeting and retention of resident integral membrane proteins of the Golgi apparatus underly the function of the Golgi in glycoprotein and glycolipid processing and sorting. In yeast, steady-state Golgi localization of multiple mannosyltransferases requires recognition of their cytosolic domains by the peripheral Golgi membrane protein Vps74, an orthologue of human GOLPH3/GPP34/GMx33/MIDAS (mitochondrial DNA absence sensitive factor). We show that targeting of Vps74 and GOLPH3 to the Golgi apparatus requires ongoing synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) by the Pik1 PtdIns 4-kinase and that modulation of the levels and cellular location of PtdIns4P leads to mislocalization of these proteins. Vps74 and GOLPH3 bind specifically to PtdIns4P, and a sulfate ion in a crystal structure of GOLPH3 indicates a possible phosphoinositide-binding site that is conserved in Vps74. Alterations in this site abolish phosphoinositide binding in vitro and Vps74 function in vivo. These results implicate Pik1 signaling in retention of Golgi-resident proteins via Vps74 and show that GOLPH3 family proteins are effectors of Golgi PtdIns 4-kinases.

  15. Beta measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schotland, R. M.; Warren, A. J.; Funariu, O. M.

    1991-01-01

    The second year's results of the BETA project research are presented. The program is divided into two areas, aerosol modification and climatology in the trade wind region and the climatology of BETA (CO2) on remote mountain top locations. Limited data is available on the aerosol climatology of the marine free troposphere (MFT) in the trade wind region. In order to study the effects of cumulus convection on the MFT values of BETA, a cloud model was developed to simulate the evolution of a typical Pacific trade wind cumulus cloud. The stages involved in this development are outlined. The assembly of the major optical components of the lidar was made. Tests were run of the spectral bandwidth of the Synrad laser when a portion of the beam is mixed with a component which has traveled 450 meters corresponding to a delay of 1.5 microsecs. The bandwidth of the beat signal was measured to be 3 KHz. The data processing system based on a parallel processing filter bank analyzer using true time squaring detectors at each filter was completed.

  16. BIOPLUME III

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BIOPLUME III is a two-dimensional finite difference model for simulating the natural attenuation of organic contaminants in groundwater due to the processes of advection, dispersion, sorption, and biodegradation.

  17. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Responsible Office References Program Name Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) DoD Component Air Force

  18. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  19. The WASH complex, an endosomal Arp2/3 activator, interacts with the Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome complex BLOC-1 and its cargo phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type IIα

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, P. V.; Vistein, R.; Gokhale, A.; Seaman, M. N.; Puthenveedu, M. A.; Faundez, V.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicle biogenesis machinery components such as coat proteins can interact with the actin cytoskeleton for cargo sorting into multiple pathways. It is unknown, however, whether these interactions are a general requirement for the diverse endosome traffic routes. In this study, we identify actin cytoskeleton regulators as previously unrecognized interactors of complexes associated with the Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome. Two complexes mutated in the Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome, adaptor protein complex-3 and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), interact with and are regulated by the lipid kinase phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type IIα (PI4KIIα). We therefore hypothesized that PI4KIIα interacts with novel regulators of these complexes. To test this hypothesis, we immunoaffinity purified PI4KIIα from isotope-labeled cell lysates to quantitatively identify interactors. Strikingly, PI4KIIα isolation preferentially coenriched proteins that regulate the actin cytoskeleton, including guanine exchange factors for Rho family GTPases such as RhoGEF1 and several subunits of the WASH complex. We biochemically confirmed several of these PI4KIIα interactions. Of importance, BLOC-1 complex, WASH complex, RhoGEF1, or PI4KIIα depletions altered the content and/or subcellular distribution of the BLOC-1–sensitive cargoes PI4KIIα, ATP7A, and VAMP7. We conclude that the Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome complex BLOC-1 and its cargo PI4KIIα interact with regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23676666

  20. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of the Golgi Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Pik1 Is Regulated by 14-3-3 Proteins and Coordinates Golgi Function with Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Demmel, Lars; Beck, Mike; Klose, Christian; Schlaitz, Anne-Lore; Gloor, Yvonne; Hsu, Peggy P.; Havlis, Jan; Shevchenko, Andrej; Krause, Eberhard; Kalaidzidis, Yannis

    2008-01-01

    The yeast phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase Pik1p is essential for proliferation, and it controls Golgi homeostasis and transport of newly synthesized proteins from this compartment. At the Golgi, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate recruits multiple cytosolic effectors involved in formation of post-Golgi transport vesicles. A second pool of catalytically active Pik1p localizes to the nucleus. The physiological significance and regulation of this dual localization of the lipid kinase remains unknown. Here, we show that Pik1p binds to the redundant 14-3-3 proteins Bmh1p and Bmh2p. We provide evidence that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Pik1p involves phosphorylation and that 14-3-3 proteins bind Pik1p in the cytoplasm. Nutrient deprivation results in relocation of Pik1p from the Golgi to the nucleus and increases the amount of Pik1p–14-3-3 complex, a process reversed upon restored nutrient supply. These data suggest a role of Pik1p nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in coordination of biosynthetic transport from the Golgi with nutrient signaling. PMID:18172025

  1. Cereal beta-glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  2. Arabidopsis Type II Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase PI4Kγ5 Regulates Auxin Biosynthesis and Leaf Margin Development through Interacting with Membrane-Bound Transcription Factor ANAC078

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shu-Tang; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Normal leaf margin development is important for leaf morphogenesis and contributes to diverse leaf shapes in higher plants. We here show the crucial roles of an atypical type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, PI4Kγ5, in Arabidopsis leaf margin development. PI4Kγ5 presents a dynamics expression pattern along with leaf development and a T-DNA mutant lacking PI4Kγ5, pi4kγ5–1, presents serrated leaves, which is resulted from the accelerated cell division and increased auxin concentration at serration tips. Studies revealed that PI4Kγ5 interacts with and phosphorylates a membrane-bound NAC transcription factor, ANAC078. Previous studies demonstrated that membrane-bound transcription factors regulate gene transcription by undergoing proteolytic process to translocate into nucleus, and ANAC078 undergoes proteolysis by cleaving off the transmembrane region and carboxyl terminal. Western blot analysis indeed showed that ANAC078 deleting of carboxyl terminal is significantly reduced in pi4kγ5–1, indicating that PI4Kγ5 is important for the cleavage of ANAC078. This is consistent with the subcellular localization observation showing that fluorescence by GFP-ANAC078 is detected at plasma membrane but not nucleus in pi4kγ5–1 mutant and that expression of ANAC078 deleting of carboxyl terminal, driven by PI4Kγ5 promoter, could rescue the leaf serration defects of pi4kγ5–1. Further analysis showed that ANAC078 suppresses the auxin synthesis by directly binding and regulating the expression of auxin synthesis-related genes. These results indicate that PI4Kγ5 interacts with ANAC078 to negatively regulate auxin synthesis and hence influences cell proliferation and leaf development, providing informative clues for the regulation of in situ auxin synthesis and cell division, as well as the cleavage and functional mechanism of membrane-bound transcription factors. PMID:27529511

  3. Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Protein Complexes Associate with Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Type II α in Neuronal and Non-neuronal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Gloria; Zlatic, Stephanie; Craige, Branch; Peden, Andrew A.; Pohl, Jan; Faundez, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a disorder affecting endosome sorting. Disease is triggered by defects in any of 15 mouse gene products, which are part of five distinct cytosolic molecular complexes: AP-3, homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting, and BLOC-1, -2, and -3. To identify molecular associations of these complexes, we used in vivo cross-linking followed by purification of cross-linked AP-3 complexes and mass spectrometric identification of associated proteins. AP-3 was co-isolated with BLOC-1, BLOC-2, and homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex subunits; clathrin; and phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase type II α (PI4KIIα). We previously reported that this membrane-anchored enzyme is a regulator of AP-3 recruitment to membranes and a cargo of AP-3 (Craige, B., Salazar, G., and Faundez, V. (2008) Mol. Biol. Cell 19,1415 -142618256276). Using cells deficient in different Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome complexes, we identified that BLOC-1, but not BLOC-2 or BLOC-3, deficiencies affect PI4KIIα inclusion into AP-3 complexes. BLOC-1, PI4KIIα, and AP-3 belong to a tripartite complex, and down-regulation of either PI4KIIα, BLOC-1, or AP-3 complexes led to similar LAMP1 phenotypes. Our analysis indicates that BLOC-1 complex modulates the association of PI4KIIα with AP-3. These results suggest that AP-3 and BLOC-1 act, either in concert or sequentially, to specify sorting of PI4KIIα along the endocytic route. PMID:19010779

  4. Toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. III. Effects of beta-naphthoflavone pretreatment on hepatotoxicity of compounds produced in the ozonation or NO/sub 2/-nitration of phenanthrene and pyrene in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, T.; Ruhr, L.P.; Flory, W.; Banton, M.I.; Giamalva, D.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A.

    1987-04-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated ip with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF, 40 mg/kg/day) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, 26.7 mg BNF/ml) for three days. At 24 hr after the pretreatment DMSO (3.0 ml/kg), phenanthrene (150 mg/kg), ozonized or nitrated products of phenanthrene (150 mg/kg), pyrene (150 mg/kg), or ozonized or nitrated products of pyrene (150 mg/kg) were injected ip. Phenanthrene, pyrene, and their ozonized or nitrated products were dissolved in DMSO (50 mg/ml). No increase in the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) was seen in the pretreated rats 48 hr after the treatment. This is in contrast to what was seen in previous work without the BNF pretreatment. BNF pretreatment induced a small but significant increase in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) levels. No treatment group receiving BNF differed from another with respect to GGTP. A decrease in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels was noted in the nitro-PAH treatment groups; the same phenomenon was observed earlier in rats treated with nitro-PAH without BNF treatment. These results suggest that the mixed-function oxidase systems specifically induced by BNF have a protective effect against the hepatotoxicity of the oxonized or nitrated products of phenanthrene and pyrene.

  5. Lack of correlation between growth inhibition by TGF-beta and the percentage of cells expressing type II TGF-beta receptor in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    López-González, José Sullivan; Aguilar-Cázares, Dolores; Prado-García, Heriberto; Nieto-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Mandoki, Juan José; Avila-Moreno, Federico; Rivera, Rosa María; Chavarría-Garcés, Jorge

    2002-11-01

    To determine the mechanisms involved in the evasion from TGF-beta growth regulation in the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell lines and the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, we studied: (a) production of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2; (b) percentage of cells expressing TGF-beta RII; (c) responsiveness of the tumour cell lines to exogenous TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta2; and (d) presence of mRNA transcripts of the three TGF-beta isoforms and of the TGF-beta RII. Our results indicate that the SCLC cell lines do not synthesize the isoforms TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 nor the TGF-beta RII, thus avoiding inhibitory autocrine and paracrine TGF-beta actions. However, NSCLC cell lines express not only TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta RII mRNA transcripts, but also synthesize both isoforms and the TGF-beta RII. Although approximately 50% of the cells from the studied cell lines expressed the TGF-beta RII, different cell lines varied greatly in the sensitivity to the inhibitory action of TGF-beta. This could result from alterations in: (i) the structure of TGF-beta RII; (ii) the phosphorylation motif of TGF-beta RI; (iii) the molecules involved in the intracellular signalling pathway of TGF-beta; and (iv) cell cycle regulation.

  6. Structure and NIR-luminescence of ytterbium(III) beta-diketonate complexes with 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline ancillary ligand: assessment of chain length and fluorination impact.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Pereira da Silva, Pedro S; Lavín, Victor; Martín, Inocencio R; Lahoz, Fernando; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2013-10-07

    Seven new tris(β-diketonear-nate)ytterbium(III) complexes with the general formula [Yb(β-diketonate)3(5NO2phen)] (where the β-diketone is either 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-naphthyl)-1,3-butanedione, 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-furyl)-1,3-butanedione, 1,1,1-trifluoro-2,4-pentanedione, 1,1,1-trifluoro-5,5-dimethyl-2,4-hexanedione, 1,1,1,5,5,6,6,7,7,7-decafluoro-2,4-heptanedione, 2,4-hexanedione or 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-heptanedione, and 5NO2phen = 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Single crystal X-ray structures have been determined for three fluorinated complexes and ground state geometries of the other four complexes have been predicted using the Sparkle/PM6 model. These experimental structures and those designed by semi-empirical models reveal octacoordination around the Yb(3+) ion. Photoluminescence studies and lifetime measurements show that the increase in the fluorinated β-diketonate chain length is associated with a decrease in Yb(3+) luminescence intensity of the (2)F5/2→(2)F7/2 transition at around 980 nm and the (2)F5/2 excited state lifetime, while the ligand lifetime value remains almost unaffected. Finally, fluorination of the ligands is only advised when the complexes are to be used for co-doping with isostructural Er(3+) complexes for optical amplifiers, since it leads to a slight decrease in luminescence intensity for the same β-diketonate chain length.

  7. beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( beta - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 85 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  8. Adsorption and displacement effects in the gas-chromatography of metal beta-diketonates.

    PubMed

    Uden, P C; Jenkins, C R

    1969-07-01

    A detailed study of the gas chromatography of the aluminium(III), chromium(III) and iron(III) beta-diketonates has shown that their elution and separation characteristics arise from a number of adsorptive effects. Conditions of optimal peak shape for individual compounds are established by varying Chromatographie parameters, and the adsorption of one metal chelate on a column and its subsequent displacement by another chelate are investigated. The chromatography of iron(III) beta-diketonates is seen to be further complicated by gradual elution of a portion of the chelate before the rest of the sample.

  9. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists at the human beta1, beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jillian G

    2005-02-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ("beta-blockers") are one of the most widely used classes of drugs in cardiovascular medicine (hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and increasingly in heart failure) as well as in the management of anxiety, migraine and glaucoma. Where known, the mode of action in cardiovascular disease is from antagonism of endogenous catecholamine responses in the heart (mainly at beta1-adrenoceptors), while the worrisome side effects of bronchospasm result from airway beta2-adrenoceptor blockade. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of beta-antagonists for the human beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. (3)H-CGP 12177 whole cell-binding studies were undertaken in CHO cell lines stably expressing either the human beta1-, beta2- or the beta3-adrenoceptor in order to determine the affinity of ligands for each receptor subtype in the same cell background. In this study, the selectivity of well-known subtype-selective ligands was clearly demonstrated: thus, the selective beta1 antagonist CGP 20712A was 501-fold selective over beta2 and 4169-fold selective over beta3; the beta2-selective antagonist ICI 118551 was 550- and 661-fold selective over beta1 and beta3, respectively, and the selective beta3 compound CL 316243 was 10-fold selective over beta2 and more than 129-fold selective over beta1. Those beta2-adrenoceptor agonists used clinically for the treatment of asthma and COPD were beta2 selective: 29-, 61- and 2818-fold for salbutamol, terbutaline and salmeterol over beta1, respectively. There was little difference in the affinity of these ligands between beta1 and beta3 adrenoceptors. The clinically used beta-antagonists studied ranged from bisoprolol (14-fold beta1-selective) to timolol (26-fold beta2-selective). However, the majority showed little selectivity for the beta1- over the beta2-adrenoceptor, with many actually being more beta2-selective. This study shows that the beta1/beta2 selectivity of most clinically used beta-blockers is

  10. [Prognostic value of beta-2-microglobulin in Hodgkin disease in young adults].

    PubMed

    Fleury, J; Tortochaux, J; Legros, M; Cure, H; Kwiatkowski, F; Ferrière, J P; Travade, P; Dionet, C; Gaillard, G; Chassagne, J

    1994-07-01

    From 1977 to 1989, we measured serum beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) levels from 64 unselected and untreated patients, between 18 to 50-year-old, affected by Hodgkin's disease. Serum beta 2-MG level was measured by radioimmunoassay (Phadebas beta 2 microtest). Then, all patients received a chemotherapy such as MOPP or alternating MOPP/ABVD followed or not by radiotherapy. Elevated serum beta 2-MG level (> 2.4 mg/l) is associated with advanced stage disease (stage III-IV), presence of systemic symptoms and bulky tumor. Nevertheless, a multivariate analysis shows that the serum beta 2-MG level is the most significant prognostic indicator for disease free survival. The prognostic value of serum beta 2-MG is demonstrated for myeloma and non Hodgkin's lymphoma. A few authors have evaluated the prognostic impact of serum beta 2-MG in Hodgkin's disease. This study requires confirmation by multicentric and prospective trial.

  11. MOON for neutrino-less {beta}{beta} decays and {beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ejiri, H.

    2009-11-09

    The MOON project aims at spectroscopic 0v{beta}{beta} studies with the v-mass sensitivity of 100-30 meV by measuring two beta rays from {sup 100}Mo and/or {sup 82}Se. The detector is a compact super-module of multi-layer PL scintillator plates. R and D works made by the pro to-type MOON-1 and the small PL plate show the possible energy resolution of around {sigma}{approx}2.2%, as required for the mass sensitivity. Nuclear matrix elements M{sup 2v} for 2v{beta}{beta} are shown to be given by the sum {sigma}{sub L}M{sub k} of the 2v{beta}{beta} matrix elements M{sub k} through intermediate quasi-particle states in the Fermi-surface, where Mi is obtained experimentally by using the GT(J{sup {pi}} = 1{sup +}) matrix elements of M{sub i}(k) and M{sub f}(k) for the successive single-{beta} transitions through the k-th intermediate state.

  12. Beta-Carotene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-carotene is a pigment that occurs naturally in many photosynthetic plants and organisms and one of the most abundant carotenoids found in human blood. The richest dietary sources of beta-carotene are yellow, orange, and leafy green fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, spinach, sweet potatoes...

  13. Beta blockers in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Thadani, U

    1983-11-10

    Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists are effective in the management of patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. Noncardioselective agents, cardioselective agents and beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) are equally effective, provided they are used in equipotent doses. Beta blockers can be used as first-line therapy in the management of hypertension and can be safely combined with diuretics, vasodilators, or both, for a better control of blood pressure. The exact mechanism by which beta blockers decrease blood pressure remains speculative, but they all reduce cardiac output during long-term therapy; drugs with ISA lower cardiac output and heart rate less than do drugs without ISA. Pharmacokinetic properties of beta blockers differ widely; drugs metabolized by the liver have shorter plasma half-lives than drugs primarily excreted by the kidneys. Although many of the side effects of various beta blockers are similar, differences in water and lipid solubility account for a higher incidence of central nervous system side effects with lipid-soluble drugs (such as propranolol and metoprolol) than with hydrophilic drugs (such as atenolol and timolol). The incidence of cold extremities has been reported to be less with drugs with ISA, and the incidence of bronchospasm less with cardioselective drugs. In the management of uncomplicated mild-to-moderate hypertension, all beta blockers are equally effective and produce less troublesome side effects than alternative antihypertensive agents. For effective therapy beta blockers can be used in 2 divided daily doses or even once daily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Evaluation of thrombogenicity of beta-propiolactone/ultraviolet (beta-PL/UV) treated PPSB in chimpanzees

    SciTech Connect

    Kotitschke, R.; Stephan, W.; Prince, A.M.; Brotman, B.

    1983-05-01

    The thrombogenicity of beta-PL/UV-treated PPSB (factor IX concentrate) was evaluated in chimpanzees. PPSB isolated from beta-propiolactone-treated and UV-irradiated plasma was injected into chimpanzees at a dose of approximately 100 units/kg body weight. An FDA licensed PPSB preparation served as the negative control, and a preparation containing activated as well as precursor clotting factors served as the positive control. 15 minutes, 1 h, 4 h, and 24 h after the PPSB application the following parameters were determined in the chimpanzee blood: factors II, VII, IX, X, VIII, fibrinogen, AT III, thrombin coagulase, Quick value, APTT and platelet count. Neither the untreated control preparation, nor the PPSB isolated from beta-propiolactone-treated and UV-irradiated plasma, showed signs of thrombogenicity in the chimpanzee model. The positive control indicated that the chimpanzee is a suitable model for the thrombogenicity testing of activated clotting factors.

  15. Functional and structural differences between isoflavonoid beta-glycosidases from Dalbergia sp.

    PubMed

    Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Rimlumduan, Thipwarin; Tantanuch, Waraporn; Mothong, Narumol; Kongsaeree, Prachumporn T; Metheenukul, Pornphimon; Svasti, Jisnuson; Jensen, Ole N; Cairns, James R Ketudat

    2007-12-15

    Among isoflavonoid beta-glucosidases from Dalbergia species, that from Dalbergia nigrescens hydrolyzes isoflavonoid-7-O-beta-D-apiosyl-1,6-beta-D-glucosides more efficiently, while Dalbergia cochinchinensis beta-glucosidase (dalcochinase) hydrolyzes its rotenoid glycoside substrate, dalcochinin beta-d-glucoside (I), more efficiently. A cDNA encoding a glycosylated beta-glucosidase with 81% identity with dalcochinase was cloned from D. nigrescens seeds, and its protein (Dnbglu2) expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified Dnbglu2 hydrolyzed the D. nigrescens natural substrates dalpatein 7-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (II) and dalnigrein 7-O-beta-d-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (III) at 400- and 5000-fold higher catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) than I. Dalcochinase was mutated at two amino acid residues, A454S and E455G, that are homologous to previously described substrate binding residues and differ from the corresponding residues in Dnbglu2. The double mutant showed 4- and 6.8-fold increases in relative activity toward II and III, respectively. However, this activity was only 3% that of Dnbglu2 beta-glucosidase, indicating other determinants are important for isoflavonoid diglycoside hydrolysis.

  16. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  17. Reliability of Beta angle in assessing true anteroposterior apical base discrepancy in different growth patterns

    PubMed Central

    Sundareswaran, Shobha; Kumar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Beta angle as a skeletal anteroposterior dysplasia indicator is known to be useful in evaluating normodivergent growth patterns. Hence, we compared and verified the accuracy of Beta angle in predicting sagittal jaw discrepancy among subjects with hyperdivergent, hypodivergent and normodivergent growth patterns. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 179 patients belonging to skeletal Classes I, II, and III were further divided into normodivergent, hyperdivergent, and hypodivergent groups based on their vertical growth patterns. Sagittal dysplasia indicators - angle ANB, Wits appraisal, and Beta angle values were measured and tabulated. The perpendicular point of intersection on line CB (Condylion-Point B) in Beta angle was designated as ‘X’ and linear dimension XB was evaluated. Results: Statistically significant increase was observed in the mean values of Beta angle and XB distance in the vertical growth pattern groups of both skeletal Class I and Class II patients thus pushing them toward Class III and Class I, respectively. Conclusions: Beta angle is a reliable indicator of sagittal dysplasia in normal and horizontal patterns of growth. However, vertical growth patterns significantly increased Beta angle values, thus affecting their reliability as a sagittal discrepancy assessment tool. Hence, Beta angle may not be a valid tool for assessment of sagittal jaw discrepancy in patients exhibiting vertical growth patterns with skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions. Nevertheless, Class III malocclusions having the highest Beta angle values were unaffected. PMID:25810649

  18. Complexation of Nd(III) with tetraborate ion and its effect on actinide (III) solubility in WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Yongliang, Xiong

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of tetraborate complexation on lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) solubility is recognized in the literature but a systematic study of f-element complexation has not been performed. In neodymium solubility studies in WIPP brines, the carbonate complexation effect is not observed since tetraborate ions form a moderately strong complex with neodymium(III). The existence of these tetraborate complexes was established for low and high ionic strength solutions. Changes in neodymium(III) concentrations in undersaturation experiments were used to determine the neodymium with tetraborate stability constants as a function of NaCl ionic strength. As very low Nd(III) concentrations have to be measured, it was necessary to use an extraction pre-concentration step combined with ICP-MS analysis to extend the detection limit by a factor of 50. The determined Nd(III) with borate stability constants at infinite dilution and 25 C are equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.55 {+-} 0.06 using the SIT approach, equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.99 {+-} 0.30 using the Pitzer approach, with an apparent log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.06 {+-} 0.15 (in molal units) at I = 5.6 m NaCl. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for neodymium with tetraborate and SIT interaction coefficients were also determined and reported.

  19. Beta-carotene

    MedlinePlus

    ... cigarettes per day), former smokers, people exposed to asbestos, and those who use alcohol (one or more ... beta-carotene supplements if you smoke. History of asbestos exposure: In people who have been exposed to ...

  20. Beta experiment flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser Doppler velocimeter system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. The system was flight tested at several different locations and the results of these tests are summarized.

  1. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    from the SV Bus, specifically the Scalable Power Regulation Unit and is being amplified by the solar arrays which act as highly efficient antennas. To...Military Operations in Urban Terrain; Defense-Wide Mission Support; Air Mobility; and Space Launch Orbital Support. For military users, the GPS III...Service: The GPS III program will provide O&S for on- orbit support through the Launch and On- Orbit Support contract. For Space Vehicle (SV)01 and

  2. Genetics Home Reference: beta-ureidopropionase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... down N-carbamyl-beta-alanine to beta-alanine, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Both beta-aminoisobutyric acid and ... beta-ureidopropionase deficiency Merck Manual Professional Version: Pyrimidine Metabolism Disorders Orphanet: Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency Patient Support and ...

  3. The beta cell immunopeptidome.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Nadine L; Purcell, Anthony W

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting beta cells, leading to beta cell loss and insulin deficiency. Presentation of peptides derived from beta cell proteins to autoreactive lymphocytes is critical for the development of disease, and the list of antigens recognized is increasing. A number of these proteins are found within the beta cell secretory granules, which are transiently exposed to the immune system during normal cellular function. How the interplay of environmental and genetic determinants culminates in destructive autoimmunity remains to be clearly defined. Nonconventional presentation of peptide ligands, posttranslational modification of peptides, and the role of the gut microbiome in the development of the immune system are all considered central topics in disease pathogenesis. Each of these may provide a mechanism by which presentation of antigenic peptides in the target tissue differs from presentation in the thymus, allowing autoreactive cells to escape tolerance induction. The high metabolic demand on pancreatic islets, the high concentration of granule proteins, and the susceptibility of islets to cellular stress may all contribute to the presentation of abnormal ligands in the pancreas. Moreover, the finding that small molecules can alter the repertoire of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules provides a tantalizing hypothesis for the presentation of autoantigenic peptides in the presence of microbial or endogenous metabolites. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the immunopeptidome of beta cells and the key factors that may influence presentation of beta cell antigens to the immune system.

  4. Beta cell dynamics: beta cell replenishment, beta cell compensation and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2013-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, characterized by persistent hyperglycemia, arises mostly from beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance and remains a highly complex metabolic disease due to various stages in its pathogenesis. Glucose homeostasis is primarily regulated by insulin secretion from the beta cells in response to prevailing glycemia. Beta cell populations are dynamic as they respond to fluctuating insulin demand. Beta cell replenishment and death primarily regulate beta cell populations. Beta cells, pancreatic cells, and extra-pancreatic cells represent the three tiers for replenishing beta cells. In rodents, beta cell self-replenishment appears to be the dominant source for new beta cells supported by pancreatic cells (non-beta islet cells, acinar cells, and duct cells) and extra-pancreatic cells (liver, neural, and stem/progenitor cells). In humans, beta cell neogenesis from non-beta cells appears to be the dominant source of beta cell replenishment as limited beta cell self-replenishment occurs particularly in adulthood. Metabolic states of increased insulin demand trigger increased insulin synthesis and secretion from beta cells. Beta cells, therefore, adapt to support their physiology. Maintaining physiological beta cell populations is a strategy for targeting metabolic states of persistently increased insulin demand as in diabetes.

  5. An alternative splicing event which occurs in mouse pachytene spermatocytes generates a form of DNA ligase III with distinct biochemical properties that may function in meiotic recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Z B; Ramos, W; Levin, D S; Walter, C A; McCarrey, J R; Tomkinson, A E

    1997-01-01

    Three mammalian genes encoding DNA ligases have been identified. However, the role of each of these enzymes in mammalian DNA metabolism has not been established. In this study, we show that two forms of mammalian DNA ligase III, alpha and beta, are produced by a conserved tissue-specific alternative splicing mechanism involving exons encoding the C termini of the polypeptides. DNA ligase III-alpha cDNA, which encodes a 103-kDa polypeptide, is expressed in all tissues and cells, whereas DNA ligase III-beta cDNA, which encodes a 96-kDa polypeptide, is expressed only in the testis. During male germ cell differentiation, elevated expression of DNA ligase III-beta mRNA is restricted, beginning only in the latter stages of meiotic prophase and ending in the round spermatid stage. In 96-kDa DNA ligase III-beta, the C-terminal 77 amino acids of DNA ligase III-alpha are replaced by a different 17- to 18-amino acid sequence. As reported previously, the 103-kDa DNA ligase III-alpha interacts with the DNA strand break repair protein encoded by the human XRCC1 gene. In contrast, the 96-kDa DNA ligase III-beta does not interact with XRCC1, indicating that DNA ligase III-beta may play a role in cellular functions distinct from the DNA repair pathways involving the DNA ligase III-alpha x XRCC1 complex. The distinct biochemical properties of DNA ligase III-beta, in combination with the tissue- and cell-type-specific expression of DNA ligase III-beta mRNA, suggest that this form of DNA ligase III is specifically involved in the completion of homologous recombination events that occur during meiotic prophase. PMID:9001252

  6. The plasmid RK2 replication initiator protein (TrfA) binds to the sliding clamp beta subunit of DNA polymerase III: implication for the toxicity of a peptide derived from the amino-terminal portion of 33-kilodalton TrfA.

    PubMed

    Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Josh, Peter; Picault, Marc J; Wijffels, Gene; Dalrymple, Brian

    2006-08-01

    The broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is capable of replication and stable maintenance within a wide range of gram-negative bacterial hosts. It encodes the essential replication initiation protein TrfA, which binds to the host initiation protein, DnaA, at the plasmid origin of replication (oriV). There are two versions of the TrfA protein, 44 and 33 kDa, resulting from alternate in-frame translational starts. We have shown that the smaller protein, TrfA-33, and its 64-residue amino-terminal peptide (designated T1) physically interact with the Escherichia coli beta sliding clamp (beta(2)). This interaction appears to be mediated through a QLSLF peptide motif located near the amino-terminal end of TrfA-33 and T1, which is identical to the previously described eubacterial clamp-binding consensus motif. T1 forms a stable complex with beta(2) and was found to inhibit plasmid RK2 replication in vitro. This specific interaction between T1 and beta(2) and the ability of T1 to block DNA replication have implications for the previously reported cell lethality caused by overproduction of T1. The toxicity of T1 was suppressed when wild-type T1 was replaced with mutant T1, carrying an LF deletion in the beta-binding motif. Previously, T1 toxicity has been shown to be suppressed by Hda, an intermediate regulatory protein which helps prevent over-initiation in E. coli through its interaction with the initiator protein, DnaA, and beta(2). Our results support a model in which T1 toxicity is caused by T1 binding to beta(2), especially when T1 is overexpressed, preventing beta(2) from interacting with host replication proteins such as Hda during the early events of chromosome replication.

  7. Boosted Beta Regression

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

  8. Transforming growth factor beta 1: an autocrine regulator of adrenocortical steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feige, J J; Cochet, C; Savona, C; Shi, D L; Keramidas, M; Defaye, G; Chambaz, E M

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) is a member of a large family of structurally related regulatory polypeptides which comprises both functionally similar (TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, TGF beta 3, TGF beta 4 and TGF beta 5) and functionally distinct proteins. In the past few years, TGF beta 1 has emerged as a multifunctional protein. One of its remarkable properties is its capacity to negatively modulate the differentiated, steroidogenic adrenocortical functions. We present here a review of the results from our recent work related to the effects of TGF beta 1 on bovine adrenocortical cell (zona fasciculata-reticularis) functions. We identified the steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P-450 17 alpha) biosynthetic enzyme and the angiotensin II receptor as major targets whose expression are negatively regulated by TGF beta 1 in these cells. We characterized TGF beta 1 receptors at the surface of adrenocortical cells (mainly type I and type III receptors) and observed that their number is increased under ACTH treatment. Furthermore, we could detect the presence of immunoreactive TGF beta 1 in the bovine adrenal cortex whereas it was undetectable in the adrenal medulla and in the capsule. We also observed that adrenocortical cells secrete TGF beta 1 under a latent form together with large amounts of alpha 2-macroglobulin, a protease inhibitor known to be implied in the latency of TGF beta in serum. Taken together, these observations led us to a working hypothesis, proposing TGF beta 1 as an autocrine and/or paracrine regulator of adrenocortical steroidogenic functions. This concept points out the physiological activation of the latent TGF beta 1 complex as the important limiting step controlling its action in the adrenal cortex.

  9. Metabolism. Part III: Lipids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the metabolic processes of complex lipids, including saponification, activation and transport, and the beta-oxidation spiral. Discusses fatty acid degradation in regard to biochemical energy and ketone bodies. (TW)

  10. IO SUBSYSTEM 1 BETA

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, Greg

    2002-08-21

    "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" uses standard object-oriented principles to minimize dependencies between the underlying input or output database format and the client code (i.e., Sierra) using the io subsystem. The interface and priciples are simolar to the Facade pattern described in the "Design Patterns" book by Gamma, et.al. The software uses data authentication algorithms to ensure data input/output is consistent with model being defined. "IO Subsystem Ver. 1.0 Beta" is a database independent input/output library for finite element analysis, preprocessing, post processing, and translation programs.

  11. SUPERSTARS III: K-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  12. beta-Propiolactone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Propiolactone ; CASRN 57 - 57 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  13. beta-Chloronaphthalene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    beta - Chloronaphthalene ; CASRN 91 - 58 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  14. Trichoderma .beta.-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-01-03

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  15. Beta-rolls, beta-helices, and other beta-solenoid proteins.

    PubMed

    Kajava, Andrey V; Steven, Alasdair C

    2006-01-01

    Beta-rolls and beta-helices belong to a larger group of topologically similar proteins with solenoid folds: because their regular secondary structure elements are exclusively beta-strands, they are referred to as beta-solenoids. The number of beta-solenoids whose structures are known is now large enough to support a systematic analysis. Here we survey the distinguishing structural features of beta-solenoids, also documenting their notable diversity. Appraisal of these structures suggests a classification based on handedness, twist, oligomerization state, and coil shape. In addition, beta-solenoids are distinguished by the number of chains that wind around a common axis: the majority are single-stranded but there is a recently discovered subset of triple-stranded beta-solenoids. This survey has revealed some relationships of the amino acid sequences of beta-solenoids with their structures and functions-in particular, the repetitive character of the coil sequences and conformations that recur in tracts of tandem repeats. We have proposed the term beta-arc for the distinctive turns found in beta-solenoids and beta-arch for the corresponding strand-turn-strand motifs. The evolutionary mechanisms underlying these proteins are also discussed. This analysis has direct implications for sequence-based detection, structural prediction, and de novo design of other beta-solenoid proteins. The abundance of virulence factors, toxins and allergens among beta-solenoids, as well as commonalities of beta-solenoids with amyloid fibrils, imply that this class of folds may have a broader role in human diseases than was previously recognized. Thus, identification of genes with putative beta-solenoid domains promises to be a fertile direction in the search for viable targets in the development of new antibiotics and vaccines.

  16. Pharmacogenetics of beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaekyu; Johnson, Julie A

    2007-06-01

    Beta-blockers are an important cardiovascular drug class, recommended as first-line treatment of numerous diseases such as heart failure, hypertension, and angina, as well as treatment after myocardial infarction. However, responses to a beta-blocker are variable among patients. Results of numerous studies now suggest that genetic polymorphisms may contribute to variability in responses to beta-blockers. This review summarizes the pharmacogenetic data for beta-blockers in patients with various diseases and discusses the potential implications of beta-blocker pharmacogenetics in clinical practice.

  17. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of ... may mean you have an increased risk of blood clotting. This can occur when there is not enough ...

  18. TGF-beta and its receptor complex in leukemic B-cell precursors.

    PubMed

    Buske, C; Becker, D; Feuring-Buske, M; Hannig, H; Griesinger, F; Hiddemann, W; Wörmann, B

    1998-11-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a highly conserved peptide with growth-inhibitory activity in multiple normal and transformed cell types. Signal transduction is mediated through the receptor complex, consisting of two active seronine or threonine kinases (TGF-beta-receptor I and II) and the receptor-associated proteins betaglycan (TGF-beta-receptor III) and endoglin. In this study, we assessed the analysis of the role of TGF-beta and the transcription of the genes for TGF-beta and its receptor in highly purified leukemic B-cell precursors (BCPs) of patients with common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL). Leukemic BCPs were positive for gene transcription of TGF-beta (9/9), the TGF-beta-receptor I (9/9), the TGF-beta-receptor II (6/6), betaglycan (5/6), and endoglin (6/6). Incubation with TGF-beta significantly reduced the cell viability of leukemic BCPs by a mean of 45% (p = 0.0009). The reduction of cell viability was associated with the induction of apoptosis by a mean of 31%. TGF-beta caused significant suppression of the S phase (p = 0.002) and accumulation in the G0/G1 phase (p = 0.0005). It also reduced expression of the adhesion surface receptor CD18 and the Fas antigen CD95 from 58% to 40% and from 48% to 27%, respectively. The data indicate that TGF-beta is a negative growth signal in leukemic BCPs and point to an additional role of TGF-beta as an immunomodulatory cytokine, suggesting a complex role of TGF-beta in the leukemogenesis of cALL.

  19. Investigation of horizon Beta.

    PubMed

    Windisch, C C; Leyden, R J; Worzel, J L; Saito, T; Ewing, J

    1968-12-27

    Horizon beta is a subbottom reflector in the North Atlantic deep ocean sediments that extends over a large portion of the North America basin. Cores from an outcrop of beta contained shallow-water Aptian-Albian sediments and deep-water Cenomanian sediments. A core near an outcrop of a deeper horizon, horizon B, contained shallow-water Lower Cretaceous (Barremian-Hauterivian) sediments. These cores can be interpreted to support extensive subsidence of the eastern portion of the basin in early Cretaceous time. It is equally likely that the shallow-water deposits are a result of sediments slumping into an already deep basin. A reconciliation of these interpretations depends upon the JOIDES project.

  20. Beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Galanello, Renzo; Origa, Raffaella

    2010-05-21

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  1. Beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta

  2. Regeneration of pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hee-Sook

    2008-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus results from inadequate mass of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by absolute loss of beta cells due to autoimmune-mediated destruction. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by relative deficiency of beta cells due to lack of compensation for insulin resistance. Restoration of deficient beta cell mass by transplantation from exogenous sources or by endogenous regeneration of insulin-producing cells would be therapeutic options. Mature beta cells have an ability to proliferate; however, it has been shown to be difficult to expand adult beta cells in vitro. Alternatively, regeneration of beta cells from embryonic and adult stem cells and pancreatic progenitor cells is an attractive method to restore islet cell mass. With information obtained from the biology of pancreatic development, direct differentiation of stem and progenitor cells toward a pancreatic beta cell phenotype has been tried using various strategies, including forced expression of beta cell-specific transcription factors. Further research is required to understand how endogenous beta cells differentiate and to develop methods to regenerate beta cells for clinically applicable therapies for diabetes.

  3. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  4. Genetic interactions in thalassemia intermedia: analysis of beta-mutations, alpha-genotype, gamma-promoters, and beta-LCR hypersensitive sites 2 and 4 in Italian patients.

    PubMed

    Camaschella, C; Mazza, U; Roetto, A; Gottardi, E; Parziale, A; Travi, M; Fattore, S; Bacchiega, D; Fiorelli, G; Cappellini, M D

    1995-02-01

    In order to verify the genetic factors influencing the clinical expression of beta-thalassemia we have studied 292 Italian patients, 165 with thalassemia intermedia and 127 with thalassemia major. The beta-globin gene mutations were defined in all cases. The number of alpha-globin genes and the integrity of specific control regions of the beta-globin cluster--gamma promoters and beta-Locus Control Region (beta-LCR)--were studied in selected cases. Homozygosity for mild mutations (group I) accounts for 24% of the intermedia patients and it is not represented among major patients. Forty-four percent of intermedia patients had combinations of mild/severe (group II) mutations and 32% had homozygosity or double heterozygosity for severe mutations (group III). Seventy-six percent of patients with thalassemia major were classified in group III and 24% in group II. Deletion type-alpha3.7 thalassemia, assessed in a part of the cases, was found in 5% of thalassemia major and 19.5% of intermedia patients in groups II and III. Structural analysis of gamma promoters and beta-LCR HS2 and HS4 regions, carried out in order to look for alterations associated with Hb F increase, did not reveal new mutations. Only rare polymorphic changes were observed at the HS2 and HS4 level. The -158G gamma C T change was found with an increased incidence in intermedia patients in groups II and III. A subset of 10 beta-thalassemia heterozygotes with mild intermedia phenotype resulted from coinheritance of a triplicated alpha-locus. We have been unable to find a molecular basis for the benign clinical course in approximately 20% of patients with thalassemia intermedia. Other genetic or acquired factors must be hypothesized which ameliorate the clinical condition.

  5. Role of alpha 5 beta 1 integrin in determining malignant properties of colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, J; Wang, D; Sun, L; Zborowska, E; Willson, J K; Brattain, M G

    1997-01-01

    We characterized the expression of alpha 5 beta 1 integrin in two distinct phenotypes of colon carcinoma cell lines. Highly invasive colon cell lines (designated Group I cell lines) expressed higher levels of integrin alpha 5 beta 1 mRNA and protein than did poorly invasive colon cell lines (designated Group III cell lines). The relatively high expression of integrin alpha 5 beta 1 in Group I cell lines resulted in strong enhancement of cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN) tissue culture plates, whereas Group III cell lines showed little or no enhancement of cell adhesion by coating. There was no significant difference between Group I and Group III cell lines with respect to cell adhesion to laminin and collagen IV. Cell adhesion to FN in Group I cells was mainly mediated by integrin alpha 5 beta 1 because a monoclonal anti-alpha 5 subunit antibody could block cell adhesion to FN, whereas anti-alpha 2 and anti-alpha 3 antibodies had no effect on cell adhesion to FN. The divergence of alpha 5 beta 1 expression in these two distinct colon carcinoma phenotypes suggested that high expression of alpha 5 beta 1 might contribute to malignant progression in this model system. To test this hypothesis, GEO cells, a Group III cell line that did not express alpha 5 integrin, were transfected with the alpha 5 subunit. Stable transfection of alpha 5 sense cDNA into a typical GEO-limiting dilution clone led to the expression of alpha 5 subunit mRNA and cell surface alpha 5 beta 1 protein. The alpha 5 sense transfectants showed enhanced attachment to FN-coated plates and were more tumorigenic when the cells were injected into athymic nude mice. These results indicate that inappropriately high alpha 5 beta 1 integrin expression contributes to malignant progression in colon carcinoma.

  6. Are integrin alpha(2)beta(1), glycoprotein Ib and vWf levels correlated with their contributions to platelet adhesion on collagen under high-shear flow?

    PubMed

    Jung, Stephanie M; Sonoda, Mamiko; Tsuji, Kayoko; Jimi, Atsuo; Nomura, Shosaku; Kanaji, Taisuke; Moroi, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Platelets in flowing blood at high-shear stress are recruited to exposed subendothelial collagen of injured vessels by GPIb-von Willebrand factor (vWf) and integrin alpha(2)beta(1) (alpha(2)beta(1))-collagen interactions. Platelet adhesion to type I collagen depends mainly on the alpha(2)beta(1)-collagen interaction and that to type III collagen depends on the GPIb-vWf interaction due to vWf's weak affinity for type I collagen. Contributions of these two interactions would differ depending on expressions of alpha(2)beta(1), vWf, or GPIb. We quantitated platelet adhesion to low- and high-density collagen under high-shear flow conditions in the presence of anti-alpha(2)beta(1) (Gi9) and anti-GPIb (NNKY5-5) antibodies to determine if their inhibitory effects were correlated with the amounts of alpha(2)beta(1), GPIb and vWf. Gi9 inhibition of adhesion to type I collagen was decreased in platelets with more integrin alpha(2)beta(1). Gi9 and NNKY5-5 are more inhibitory against adhesion to low-density type III and I, respectively. Higher alpha(2)beta(1) expression decreases adhesion to low-density type III and increases Gi9 inhibition of adhesion to high-density type III, suggesting crosstalk between the alpha(2)beta(1)-collagen and GPIb-vWf interactions in adhesion to type III. Integrin alpha(2)beta(1)-collagen and GPIb-vWf interactions both contribute to platelet adhesion to collagen under high-shear flow. In adhesion under high-shear stress, the two interactions would compensate for each other, when there is a deficiency in one or the other. The alpha(2)beta(1)-collagen interaction was also suggested to have an inhibitory effect on platelet adhesion to type III collagen, through a yet undefined mechanism.

  7. Modulation of the TGF{beta}/Smad signaling pathway in mesangial cells by CTGF/CCN2

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel Wahab, Nadia . E-mail: nadia.wahab@imperial.ac.uk; Weston, Benjamin S.; Mason, Roger M.

    2005-07-15

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) drives fibrosis in diseases such as diabetic nephropathy (DN). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; CCN2) has also been implicated in this, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. We show that CTGF enhances the TGF{beta}/Smad signaling pathway by transcriptional suppression of Smad 7 following rapid and sustained induction of the transcription factor TIEG-1. Smad 7 is a known antagonist of TGF{beta} signaling and TIEG-1 is a known repressor of Smad 7 transcription. CTGF enhanced TGF{beta}-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad 2 and Smad 3 in mesangial cells. Antisense oligonucleotides directed against TIEG-1 prevented CTGF-induced downregulation of Smad 7. CTGF enhanced TGF{beta}-stimulated transcription of the SBE4-Luc reporter gene and this was markedly reduced by TIEG-1 antisense oligonucleotides. Expression of the TGF{beta}-responsive genes PAI-1 and Col III over 48 h was maximally stimulated by TGF{beta} + CTGF compared to TGF{beta} alone, while CTGF alone had no significant effect. TGF{beta}-stimulated expression of these genes was markedly reduced by both CTGF and TIEG-1 antisense oligonucleotides, consistent with the endogenous induction of CTGF by TGF{beta}. We propose that under pathological conditions, where CTGF expression is elevated, CTGF blocks the negative feedback loop provided by Smad 7, allowing continued activation of the TGF{beta} signaling pathway.

  8. Type III burst pair.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongjun, Ning; Fu, Qijun; Quankang, Lu

    2000-05-01

    Presents a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0 - 2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. The authors call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is an interpretation of type III burst pair.

  9. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Determination of urinary and serum beta-glucuronidase and alkaline phosphatase in various renal disease and kidney rejection transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Refaie, M O; Abo-Zaid, H; Gomma, N A; Aboul-Enein, H Y

    2000-05-01

    Beta-glucuronidase (beta-Glu) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated in serum and urine in 50 subjects classified into five equal groups. Group I was control healthy subjects, while groups II, III, IV, and V were patients with nephritic syndrome, pyelonephritis, kidney rejection, and end-stage renal disease, respectively. Urinary beta-Glu was significantly elevated in all four groups; while serum enzyme showed no change. On the other hand, serum ALP showed a significant elevation in all abnormal groups. Accordingly, urinary beta-Glu and serum ALP could be used as diagnostic markers for various renal diseases.

  11. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  12. Observation of finite-. beta. MHD phenomena in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, K.M.

    1984-09-01

    Stable high-beta plasmas are required for the tokamak to attain an economical fusion reactor. Recently, intense neutral beam heating experiments in tokamaks have shown new effects on plasma stability and confinement associated with high beta plasmas. The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations at high beta is clearly dominated by the n = 1 mode when the q = 1 surface is in the plasma. The m/n = 1/1 mode drives other n = 1 modes through toroidal coupling and n > 1 modes through nonlinear coupling. On PDX, with near perpendicular injection, a resonant interaction between the n = 1 internal kink and the trapped fast ions results in loss of beam particles and heating power. Key parameters in the theory are the value of q/sub 0/ and the injection angle. High frequency broadband magnetic fluctuations have been observed on ISX-B and D-III and a correlation with the deterioration of plasma confinement was reported. During enhanced confinement (H-mode) discharges in divertor plasmas, two new edge instabilities were observed, both localized radially near the separatrix. By assembling results from the different tokamak experiments, it is found that the simple theoretical ideal MHD beta limit has not been exceeded. Whether this represents an ultimate tokamak limit or if beta optimized configurations (Dee- or bean-shaped plasmas) can exceed this limit and perhaps enter a second regime of stability remains to be clarified.

  13. Simultaneous beta and gamma spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Hamby, David M.

    2010-03-23

    A phoswich radiation detector for simultaneous spectroscopy of beta rays and gamma rays includes three scintillators with different decay time characteristics. Two of the three scintillators are used for beta detection and the third scintillator is used for gamma detection. A pulse induced by an interaction of radiation with the detector is digitally analyzed to classify the type of event as beta, gamma, or unknown. A pulse is classified as a beta event if the pulse originated from just the first scintillator alone or from just the first and the second scintillator. A pulse from just the third scintillator is recorded as gamma event. Other pulses are rejected as unknown events.

  14. Dysprosium(III)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexes of aminocyclodextrins as chiral NMR shift reagents.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, T J; Miles, R D; Zomlefer, K; Frederique, D E; Roan, M A; Troughton, J S; Pond, B V; Colby, A L

    2000-01-01

    A metal chelating ligand is bonded to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin by the reaction of diethylenetraminepentaacetic dianhydride with the corresponding 6-mono- and 2-mono(amine)cyclodextrin. Adding Dy(III) to the cyclodextrin derivatives causes shifts in the (1)H-NMR spectra of substrates such as propranolol, tryptophan, aspartame, carbinoxamine, pheniramine, doxylamine, and 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate. The Dy(III)-induced shifts enhance the enantiomeric resolution in the NMR spectra of several substrates. Enhancements in enantiomeric resolution using cyclodextrin derivatives with the amine tether are compared to previously described compounds in which the chelating ligand is attached through an ethylenediamine tether. In general, the Dy(III) complex of the 6-beta-derivative with the amine tether is a more effective chiral resolving agent than the complex with the ethylenediamine tether. The opposite trend is observed with the 2-beta-derivatives. The presence of the chelating ligand in the 2-beta-derivative hinders certain substrates from entering the cavity. For cationic substrates, evidence suggests that a cooperative association involving inclusion in the cavity and association with the Dy(III) unit occurs. Enhancements in enantiomeric resolution in the spectrum of tryptophan are greater for the secondary alpha- and gamma-derivatives than the beta-derivative.

  15. Summary of Session III

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-06-19

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002.

  16. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  17. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  18. Characterization of human carbonic anhydrase III from skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Carter, N; Jeffery, S; Shiels, A; Edwards, Y; Tipler, T; Hopkinson, D A

    1979-10-01

    A third form of human carbonic anhydrase (CA III), found at high concentrations in skeletal muscle, has been purified and characterized. This isozyme shows relatively poor hydratase and esterase activities compared to the red cell isozymes, CA I and CA II, but is similar to these isozymes in subunit structure (monomer) and molecular size (28,000). CA III is liable to posttranslational modification by thiol group interaction. Monomeric secondary isozymes, sensitive to beta-mercaptoethanol, are found in both crude and purified material and can be generated in vitro by the addition of thiol reagents. Active dimeric isozymes, generated apparently by the formation of intermolecular disulfide bridges, also occur but account for only a small proportion of the total protein and appear only when the concentration of CA III is particularly high.

  19. Pacific Barrier Radar III (PACBAR III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. D.; Sigler, J. D.

    1983-11-01

    The Pacific Barrier (PACBAR III) C-band radar is being installed at the Western Space and Missile Center to furnish Revolution 0 detection of foreign launches. Previously installed on a tracking ship, the upgraded system will also identify and target space objects, maintain a catalog, and cover maneuvers and decay of space objects. Nominal operation will comprise a search of a predesignated 15 deg azimuth with the capability of detecting a 6 sq m target in a 400 km orbit, track spacecraft in orbits up to 800 km altitude, have a range resolution of about 80 yd, provide realtime payload and rocket body discrimination, and transmit two-way digital message traffic between the Center and NORAD in Cheyenne Mt. Interlaced vertical and horizontal pulses will augment the search and acquisition capabilities, and the antenna will have a 140 deg plunge range. The transmitter will function at 5.4-5.65 GHz, 320 p/sec, with a peak power of 0.8 MW, and the system will have a nonambiguous range of 32,768 nmi.

  20. RAVEN Beta Release

    SciTech Connect

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  1. Just a beta....

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, K. S.; Bailey, D. W.; Dorman, K. F.; Moos, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    Traditional implementation of clinical information systems follows a predictable project management process. The selection, development, implementation, and evaluation of the system and the project management aspects of those phases require considerable time and effort. The purpose of this paper is to describe the beta site implementation of a knowledge-based clinical information system in a specialty area of a southeastern hospital that followed a less than traditional approach to implementation. Highlighted are brief descriptions of the hospital's traditional process, the nontraditional process, and key findings from the experience. Preliminary analysis suggests that selection of an implementation process is contextual. Selection of elements from each of these methods may provide a more useful process. The non-traditional process approached the elements of communication, areas of responsibility, training, follow-up and leadership differently. These elements are common to both processes and provide a focal point for future research. PMID:10566425

  2. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2007-06-01

    The recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicate that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavors is different from zero, but are unable to determine the nature and the absolute value of the neutrino mass. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to ascertain if the neutrino is a Majorana particle and to determine under this condition the absolute value of its mass. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is Dirac or Majorana particle.

  3. Superallowed Fermi beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J. C.; Towner, I. S.

    1998-12-21

    Superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} nuclear beta decay provides a direct measure of the weak vector coupling constant, G{sub V}. We survey current world data on the nine accurately determined transitions of this type, which range from the decay of {sup 10}C to that of {sup 54}Co, and demonstrate that the results confirm conservation of the weak vector current (CVC) but differ at the 98% confidence level from the unitarity condition for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. We examine the reliability of the small calculated corrections that have been applied to the data, and assess the likelihood of even higher quality nuclear data becoming available to confirm or deny the discrepancy. Some of the required experiments depend upon the availability of intense radioactive beams. Others are possible today.

  4. Double beta decay: Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brofferio, Chiara

    2008-11-01

    Calorimeters or, with a more specific definition, low temperature detectors, have been used by now for more than 15 years in Double Beta Decay (DBD) searches, with excellent results: they compete with Ge diodes for the rank of detectors with the highest sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass, which is defined as a linear combination of the neutrino mass eigenvalues. After a brief introduction to the argument, with some notes on DBD and on bolometers, an update on the now closed experiment CUORICINO and on its successor, CUORE, is given. The fundamental role of background is then revealed and commented, introducing in this way the importance of the specific experiment now under construction, CUORE-0, that will precede CUORE to help optimizing the struggle against surface background. The possible future of this technique is then commented, quoting important R&D studies that are going on, for active shielding bolometers and for scintillating bolometers coupled with light detecting bolometers.

  5. {alpha}- to {beta}-[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}I{sub 10} reversible solid-state transition, thermochromic and optical studies in the p-phenylenediamine-based iodobismuthate(III) material

    SciTech Connect

    Hrizi, Chakib; Trigui, Ameni; Abid, Younes; Chniba-Boudjada, Nassira; Bordet, Pierre; Chaabouni, Slaheddine

    2011-12-15

    {alpha}-[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}I{sub 10}, which is a new material containing low-dimensional iodobismuthate anions, was synthesized and through its single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements, was proven to crystallize at room temperature in the centrosymmetric space group P2{sub 1}/c. It consists of a p-phenylenediammonium dication and a discrete (0-D) anion built up of edge-sharing bioctahedron. Due to the hydrogen bonds and the interatomic distances (Bi-I, I Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis I and {pi}-{pi}) changes, {alpha}-phase was transformed into the corresponding centrosymmetric {beta}-phase, {beta}-[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}I{sub 10}, through a single-crystal to single-crystal transformation occurring upon cooling to -28/-26 Degree-Sign C. Below the transition temperature, {beta}-[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}I{sub 10} crystallizes in the monoclinic system, centrosymmetric space group P2{sub 1}/n. Besides, the optical transmission measurements on {alpha}-[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}I{sub 10} thin films have revealed two absorption bands at 2.47 and 3.01 eV. Finally, two room temperature photoluminescence emissions attributed to excitons radiative recombinations confined within the bioctahedra Bi{sub 2}I{sub 10}{sup 4-}, were observed in the red spectral range at 1.9 and 2.05 eV energy. - Graphical abstract: The structure of {alpha}-[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}I{sub 10} consists of p-phenylenediammonium dications and dimeric decaiododibismuthate tetraanions stacked in a chessboard fashion. The optical properties were investigated by optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}-[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}Bi{sub 2}I{sub 10} is a new material containing low-dimensional iodobismuthate anions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Below -35 Degree-Sign C {alpha}-phase undergoes

  6. Beta measurement evaluation and upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.W.; Faust, L.G.; Selby, J.M.; Essig, T.H.; Vallario, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Safety, initiated a program to evaluate dosimeters and instruments used at DOE laboratories in the determination of personnel beta dose. The program focuses on significant problems which affect field measurements and is involved in the development and evaluation of new beta dosimetry systems (both dosimeters and instruments). Currently the program is reviewing systems and practices; developing calibration systems and procedures for the calibration of instruments and dosimeters; and developing new concepts which may improve beta dosimetry. The program has been designed to provide a continuing effort for resolution of problems of assessing personnel beta dose at DOE facilities. The current personnel beta dosimetry practices at DOE facilities are being surveyed.

  7. Latent transforming growth factor beta1 activation in situ: quantitative and functional evidence after low-dose gamma-irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrhart, E. J.; Segarini, P.; Tsang, M. L.; Carroll, A. G.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The biological activity of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta) is controlled by its secretion as a latent complex in which it is noncovalently associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). Activation is the extracellular process in which TGF-beta is released from LAP, and is considered to be a primary regulatory control. We recently reported rapid and persistent changes in TGF-beta immunoreactivity in conjunction with extracellular matrix remodeling in gamma-irradiated mouse mammary gland. Our hypothesis is that these specific changes in immunoreactivity are indicative of latent TGF-beta activation. In the present study, we determined the radiation dose response and tested whether a functional relationship exists between radiation-induced TGF-beta and collagen type III remodeling. After radiation exposures as low as 0.1 Gy, we detected increased TGF-beta immunoreactivity in the mammary epithelium concomitant with decreased LAP immunostaining, which are events consistent with activation. Quantitative image analysis demonstrated a significant (P=0.0005) response at 0.1 Gy without an apparent threshold and a linear dose response to 5 Gy. However, in the adipose stroma, loss of LAP demonstrated a qualitative threshold at 0.5 Gy. Loss of LAP paralleled induction of collagen III immunoreactivity in this tissue compartment. We tested whether TGF-beta mediates collagen III expression by treating animals with TGF-beta panspecific monoclonal antibody, 1D11.16, administered i.p. shortly before irradiation. Radiation-induced collagen III staining in the adipose stroma was blocked in an antibody dose-dependent manner, which persisted through 7 days postirradiation. RNase protection assay revealed that radiation-induced elevation of total gland collagen III mRNA was also blocked by neutralizing antibody treatment. These data provide functional confirmation of the hypothesis that radiation exposure leads to latent TGF-beta activation, support our interpretation of the

  8. Synthetic, structural, electrochemical and solvent extraction studies of neutral trinuclear Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) metallocycles and tetrahedral tetranuclear Fe(III) species incorporating 1,4-aryl-linked bis-beta-diketonato ligands.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Jack K; Bray, David J; Gloe, Kerstin; Gloe, Karsten; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Lawrance, Geoffrey A; Lindoy, Leonard F; Meehan, George V; Wenzel, Marco

    2008-03-14

    Uncharged complexes, formulated as trimeric metallocycles of type [M3(L(1))3(Py)6] (where M = cobalt(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) and L(1) is the doubly deprotonated form of a 1,4-phenylene linked bis-beta-diketone ligand of type 1,4-bis(RC(O)CH2C(O))C6H4 (R = t-Bu)) have been synthesised, adding to related, previously reported complexes of these metals with L(1) (R = Ph) and copper(ii) with L(1) (R = Me, Et, Pr, t-Bu, Ph). New lipophilic ligand derivatives with R = hexyl, octyl or nonyl were also prepared for use in solvent extraction experiments. The X-ray structures of H2L(1) (R = t-Bu) and of its trinuclear (triangular) nickel(II) complex [Ni3(L(1))3(Py)6].3.5Py (R = t-Bu) are also presented. Electrochemical studies of H2L(1), [Co3(L(1))3(Py)6], [Ni3(L(1))3(Py)6], [Cu3(L(1))3], [Zn3(L(1))3(Py)6] and [Fe4(L(1))6] (all with R = t-Bu) show that oxidative processes for the complexes are predominantly irreversible, but several examples of quasireversible behaviour also occur and support the assignment of an anodic process, seen between +1.0 and +1.6 V, as involving metal-centred oxidations. The reduction behaviour for the respective metal complexes is not simple, being irreversible in most cases. Solvent extraction studies (water/chloroform) involving the systematic variation of the metal, bis-beta-diketone and heterocyclic base concentrations have been performed for cobalt(II) and zinc(II) using a radiotracer technique in order to probe the stoichiometries of the respective extracted species. Significant extraction synergism was observed when 4-ethylpyridine was also present with the bis-beta-diketone ligand in the chloroform phase. Competitive extraction studies demonstrated a clear uptake preference for copper(II) over cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II).

  9. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  10. The Mark III VLBI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Levine, J. I.; Nesman, E. F.; Webber, J. C.; Hinteregger, H. F.

    1988-01-01

    Geodetic measurements have errors in centimeter range. Collection of three reports describes both equipment and results of some measurements taken with Mark III very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) system. Has demonstrated high accuracy over short baselines, where phase-delay measurements used. Advanced hardware, called Mark III A, developed to improve system performance and efficiency. Original Mark III hardware and III A subsystem upgrades developed as part of NASA Crustal Dynamics Project at Haystack Observatory.

  11. In vitro activation of protein kinase C by beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid, the Lathyrus sativus neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Singh, M Raghuveer; Pratap Rudra, M P; Rao, S L N; Singh, Surya S

    2004-07-01

    Beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha,beta-diaminopropionic acid (L-ODAP) toxicity has been associated with lathyrism; a spastic paraparesis caused by excessive dietary intake of the pulse Lathyrus sativus. We investigated the effect of Lathyrus neurotoxin L-ODAP on protein kinase C (PKC) activity under in vitro conditions. L-ODAP activated phosphorylation activity of purified chick brain PKC. Both lysine-rich (histone III-S) and arginine-rich (protamine sulfate) substrate phosphorylation was enhanced in the presence of L-ODAP. The activation is concentration dependent, and maximal activation is observed at 100 microM concentration. Protamine sulfate phosphorylation was enhanced by 47%, whereas histone III-S phosphorylation was enhanced by 50% over PS/PDBu/Ca2+ dependent activity. The nontoxic D-isomer (D-ODAP) did not affect both histone III-S and protamine sulfate phosphorylation activity. These results indicate that L-ODAP taken up by neuronal cells could also contribute to PKC activation and so be associated with toxicity.

  12. beta-Aminoisobutyric acid as a marker of thymine catabolism in malignancy.

    PubMed

    van Gennip, A H; van Bree-Blom, E J; Abeling, N G; van Erven, A J; Voûte, P A

    1987-06-15

    Urine from untreated patients with various tumours and controls has been examined for the excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid and uric acid. The patients were classified into four groups: I, beta-aminoisobutyric acid and uric acid both normal; II, beta-aminoisobutyric acid normal, uric acid elevated; III, beta-aminoisobutyric acid elevated, uric acid normal; IV, beta-aminoisobutyric acid and uric acid both elevated. Uric acid was used as an indicator for tissue-breakdown. Pseudouridine being a specific parameter for t-RNA degradation was estimated for comparison. Increased urinary concentrations of beta-aminoisobutyric acid were frequently found in tumour patients, especially in patients with leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Tissue breakdown being the cause of the beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria could only be considered in part of the patients. Moreover, strongly elevated ratios of beta-aminoisobutyric acid to uric acid were found. Urinary patterns of pyrimidines and purines were determined in order to exclude other abnormalities. The results are discussed in relation to thymine metabolism and renal function.

  13. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume III. An analysis of the validity of the utilities' stock-recruitment curve-fitting exercise and prior estimation of beta technique. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1792

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S. W.; Goodyear, C. P.; Kirk, B. L.

    1982-03-01

    This report addresses the validity of the utilities' use of the Ricker stock-recruitment model to extrapolate the combined entrainment-impingement losses of young fish to reductions in the equilibrium population size of adult fish. In our testimony, a methodology was developed and applied to address a single fundamental question: if the Ricker model really did apply to the Hudson River striped bass population, could the utilities' estimates, based on curve-fitting, of the parameter alpha (which controls the impact) be considered reliable. In addition, an analysis is included of the efficacy of an alternative means of estimating alpha, termed the technique of prior estimation of beta (used by the utilities in a report prepared for regulatory hearings on the Cornwall Pumped Storage Project). This validation methodology should also be useful in evaluating inferences drawn in the literature from fits of stock-recruitment models to data obtained from other fish stocks.

  14. First principles study of metastable beta titanium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Niraj

    The high temperature BCC phase (beta) of titanium undergoes a martensitic transformation to HCP phase (alpha) upon cooling, but can be stabilized at room temperature by alloying with BCC transition metals such as Mo. There exists a metastable composition range within which the alloyed beta phase separates into alpha+beta upon equilibrium cooling but not when rapidly quenched. Compositional partitioning of the stabilizing element in asquenched beta microstructure creates nanoscale precipitates of a new simple hexagonal £s phase, which considerably reduces ductility. These phase transformation reactions have been extensively studied experimentally, yet several significant questions remain: (i) The mechanism by which the alloying element stabilizes the beta phase, thwarts its transformation to £s and how these processes vary as a function of the concentration of the stabilizing element is unclear. (ii) What is the atomistic mechanism responsible for the non-Arrhenius, anomalous diffusion widely observed in experiments, and how does it extend to low temperatures? How does the concentration of the stabilizing elements alter this behavior? There are many other £s forming alloys that such exhibit anomalous diffusion behavior. (iii) A lack of clarity remains on whether £s can transform to alpha -phase in the crystal bulk or if it occurs only at high-energy regions such as grain boundaries. Furthermore, what is the nature of the alpha phase embryo? (iv) Although previous computational results discovered a new o → alpha transformation mechanism in pure Ti with activation energy lower than the classical Silcock pathway, it is at odds with the alpha /beta / o orientation relationship seen in experiments.

  15. Mechanistic investigation of beta-galactosidase-activated MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Urbanczyk-Pearson, Lauren M; Femia, Frank J; Smith, Jeffrey; Parigi, Giacomo; Duimstra, Joseph A; Eckermann, Amanda L; Luchinat, Claudio; Meade, Thomas J

    2008-01-07

    We report a mechanistic investigation of an isomeric series of beta-galactosidase-activated magnetic resonance contrast agents. Our strategy focuses on the synthesis of macrocyclic caged-complexes that coordinatively saturate a chelated lanthanide. Enzyme cleavage of the complex results in an open coordination site available for water that creates a detectable MR contrast agent. The complexes consist of a DO3A Gd(III) chelator modified with a galactopyranose at the N-10 position of the macrocycle. We observed significant differences in relaxometric properties and coordination geometry that can be correlated to subtle variations of the linker between the macrocycle and the galactopyranose. After synthesis and purification of the R, S, and racemic mixtures of complexes 1 and 3 and measurement of the hydration number, water residence lifetime, and longitudinal relaxation rates, we propose mechanisms for water exclusion from the lanthanide in the precleavage state. While the stereochemistry of the linker does not influence the agents' properties, the mechanism of water exclusion for each isomer is significantly influenced by the position of modification. Data for one series with a methyl group substituted on the sugar-macrocycle linker at the alpha-position suggests a steric mechanism where the galactopyranose sugar blocks water from the Gd(III) center. In contrast, our observations for a second series with methyl substitution at the beta position of the sugar-macrocycle linker are consistent with a mechanism in which a bidentate anion occupies two available coordination sites of Gd(III) in the precleavage state.

  16. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2014-10-07

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  17. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2015-07-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  18. Variants of beta-glucosidase

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Gorre-Clancy, Brian

    2009-12-29

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  19. Variants of beta-glucosidases

    DOEpatents

    Fidantsef, Ana; Lamsa, Michael; Clancy, Brian Gorre

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent beta-glucosidase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 703 of amino acids 1 to 842 of SEQ ID NO: 2 or corresponding to positions 142, 183, 266, and 705 of amino acids 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO: 70, wherein the variant has beta-glucosidase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant beta-glucosidases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  20. Conformation and activity of recombinant human fibroblast interferon-beta.

    PubMed

    Boublik, M; Moschera, J A; Wei, C; Kung, H F

    1990-04-01

    Conformation of highly purified recombinant human fibroblast interferon-beta (rHuIFN-beta) was correlated with its biological activity. The extent of ordered secondary structure was determined by circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy in various buffer conditions to establish conditions of protein stability and its potential for helix formation. The highest "helicity" (about 50 +/- 5% of alpha-helices) and the highest antiviral activities (4-10 x 10(7) units/mg) were found in 50% ethylene glycol, 1 M NaCl and 0.05 M Na3PO4, pH 7.2 (Buffer I); 80 mM citric acid, 20 mM Na2HPO4, pH 2.9 (Buffer II); and 25 mM NH4OAc, 125 mM NaCl, pH 5.1 (Buffer III). Both helicity and antiviral activity of the IFN-beta decrease in parallel with denaturation by urea, heat, and/or by repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. Low pH (pH 2.9 Buffer II) exhibits a distinct stabilizing effect on the structure and antiviral activity of IFN-beta against heat denaturation.

  1. Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2010-12-01

    Almost exactly seventy years ago and only one year before his tragic disappearance the ingenious idea of Ettore Majorana is becoming one of the most important step in the development of fundamental physics. The problem of the nature of the neutrino, namely if it is a massless Dirac particle different from its antineutrino or a Majorana particle with finite mass, is discussed. In fact the recent results showing the presence of neutrino oscillations clearly indicates that the difference between the squared mass of neutrinos of different flavours is finite. Neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is at present the most powerful tool to determine the effective value of the mass of a Majorana neutrino. The results already obtained in this lepton violating process will be reported and the two presently running DBD experiments briefly discussed. The future second generation experiments will be reviewed with special emphasis to those already at least partially approved. In conclusion the peculiar and interdisciplinary nature of these searches will be stressed in their exciting aim to discover if neutrino is indeed a Majorana particle.

  2. Purification and properties of a beta-galactosidase from carambola fruit with significant activity towards cell wall polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Sumathi; Lee, Heng Chin; Lazan, Hamid; Othman, Roohaida; Ali, Zainon Mohd

    2005-01-01

    beta-Galactosidase (EC. 3.2.1.23) from ripe carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. cv. B10) fruit was fractionated through a combination of ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography into four isoforms, viz. beta-galactosidase I, II, III and IV. This beta-galactosidases had apparent native molecular masses of 84, 77, 58 and 130 kDa, respectively. beta-Galactosidase I, the predominant isoform, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity; analysis of the protein by SDS-PAGE revealed two subunits with molecular masses of 48 and 36 kDa. N-terminal amino acid sequence of the respective polypeptides shared high similarities albeit at different domains, with the deduced amino acid sequence of certain plant beta-galactosidases, thus, explaining the observed low similarity between the two subunits. beta-Galactosidase I was probably a heterodimer that have glycoprotein properties and a pI value of 7.2, with one of the potential glycosylation sites appeared to reside within the 48-kDa-polypeptide. The purified beta-galactosidase I was substantially active in hydrolyzing (1-->4)beta-linked spruce and a mixture of (1-->3)beta- and (1-->6)beta-linked gum arabic galactans. This isoform also had the capability to solubilize and depolymerize structurally intact pectins as well as to modify alkaline-soluble hemicelluloses, reflecting in part changes that occur during ripening.

  3. Evolution of outer membrane beta-barrels from an ancestral beta beta hairpin.

    PubMed

    Remmert, M; Biegert, A; Linke, D; Lupas, A N; Söding, J

    2010-06-01

    Outer membrane beta-barrels (OMBBs) are the major class of outer membrane proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and plastids. Their transmembrane domains consist of 8-24 beta-strands forming a closed, barrel-shaped beta-sheet around a central pore. Despite their obvious structural regularity, evidence for an origin by duplication or for a common ancestry has not been found. We use three complementary approaches to show that all OMBBs from Gram-negative bacteria evolved from a single, ancestral beta beta hairpin. First, we link almost all families of known single-chain bacterial OMBBs with each other through transitive profile searches. Second, we identify a clear repeat signature in the sequences of many OMBBs in which the repeating sequence unit coincides with the structural beta beta hairpin repeat. Third, we show that the observed sequence similarity between OMBB hairpins cannot be explained by structural or membrane constraints on their sequences. The third approach addresses a longstanding problem in protein evolution: how to distinguish between a very remotely homologous relationship and the opposing scenario of "sequence convergence." The origin of a diverse group of proteins from a single hairpin module supports the hypothesis that, around the time of transition from the RNA to the protein world, proteins arose by amplification and recombination of short peptide modules that had previously evolved as cofactors of RNAs.

  4. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1997-01-01

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means.

  5. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  6. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: beta thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... a blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein in red blood ... In people with beta thalassemia , low levels of hemoglobin lead to a lack of oxygen in many ...

  8. Beta particle monitor for surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-10-21

    A beta radiation detector which is capable of reliably detecting beta radiation emitted from a surface. An electrically conductive signal collector is adjustably mounted inside an electrically conductive enclosure which may define a single large opening for placing against a surface. The adjustable mounting of the electrically conductive signal collector can be based on the distance from the surface or on the expected beta energy range. A voltage source is connected to the signal collector through an electrometer or other display means for creating an electric field between the signal collector and the enclosure. Air ions created by the beta radiation are collected and the current produced is indicated on the electrometer or other display means. 2 figs.

  9. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  10. Type III Hyperlipoproteinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Peter

    1969-01-01

    Eighteen patients with type III hyperlipoproteinaemia, diagnosed on the basis of skin lesions, serum lipids, and lipoprotein electrophoresis, have been fully investigated over a period of 15 years. The incidence of coronary artery disease was only slightly increased, and was not increased at all among first-degree relatives. Peripheral occlusive arterial disease was probably more common. An increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance was found in neither the patients nor their relatives. The effects of treatment on the skin were uniformly good. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5783124

  11. Apollo applications of beta fiber glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naimer, J.

    1971-01-01

    The physical characteristics of Beta fiber glass are discussed. The application of Beta fiber glass for fireproofing the interior of spacecraft compartments is described. Tests to determine the flammability of Beta fiber glass are presented. The application of Beta fiber glass for commercial purposes is examined.

  12. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Morant, Marc

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  14. Molecular aspects of beta-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) catalysis.

    PubMed

    von Wettstein-Knowles, P; Olsen, J; Arnvig Mcguire, K; Larsen, S

    2000-12-01

    Crystal structure data for Escherichia coli beta-ketoacyl synthase (KAS) I with C(10) and C(12) fatty acid substrates bound in conjunction with results from mutagenizing residues in the active site leads to a model for catalysis. Differences from and similarities to the other Claisen enzymes carrying out decarboxylations reveal two catalytic mechanisms, one for KAS I and KAS II, the other for KAS III and chalcone synthase. A comparison of the structures of KAS I and KAS II does not reveal the basis of chain-length specificity. The structures of the Arabidopsis thaliana KAS family are compared.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of mutant and wild-type human. beta. -actin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, J.; Gunning, P.; Porreca, P.; Ng, S.Y.; Lin, C.H.; Kedes, L.

    1984-10-01

    There are more than 20 ..beta..-actin-specific sequences in the human genome, many of which are pseudogenes. To facilitate the isolation of potentially functional ..beta..-actin genes, they used the new method of B. Seed for selecting genomic clones by homologous recombination. A derivative of the ..pi..VX miniplasmid, ..pi..AN7..beta..1, was constructed by insertion of the 600-base-pair 3' untranslated region of the ..beta..-actin mRNA expressed in human fibroblasts. Five clones containing ..beta..-actin sequences were selected from an amplified human fetal gene library by homologous recombination between library phage and the miniplasmid. One of these clones contained a complete ..beta..-actin gene with a coding sequence identical to that determined for the mRNA of human fibroblasts. A DNA fragment consisting of mostly intervening sequences from this gene was then use to identify 13 independent recombinant copies of the analogous gene from two specially constructed gene libraries, each containing one of the two types of mutant ..beta..-actin genes found in a line of neoplastic human fibroblasts. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences encoded by the unmutated gene predict that a guanine-to-adenine transition is responsible for the glycine-to-aspartic acid mutation at codon 244 and would also result in the loss of a HaeIII site. Detection of this HaeIII polymorphism among the fibroblast-derived closed verified the identity of the ..beta..-actin gene expressed in human fibroblasts.

  16. Modulation of interleukin-1beta mediated inflammatory response in human astrocytes by flavonoids: implications in neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Mishra, Mamata; Ghosh, Soumya; Tewari, Richa; Basu, Anirban; Seth, Pankaj; Sen, Ellora

    2007-06-15

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) contributes to inflammation and neuronal death in CNS injuries and neurodegenerative pathologies, and astrocytes have been implicated as the primary mediators of IL-1beta induced neuronal death. As astrocytes play an important role in supporting the survival and functions of neurons, we investigated the effect of plant flavonoids quercetin and luteolin, with known anti-inflammatory properties in modulating the response of human astrocytes to IL-1beta for therapeutic intervention. Flavonoids significantly decreased the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from astrocytes stimulated with IL-1beta. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) and thioredoxin (TRX1)-mediators associated with protection against oxidative stress. Flavonoids not only modulated the expression of astrocytes specific molecules such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), and ceruloplasmin (CP) both in the presence and absence of IL-1beta but also decreased the elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), interferon-inducible protein (IP-10), monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES from IL-1beta activated astrocytes. Significant decrease in neuronal apoptosis was observed in neurons cultured in conditioned medium obtained from astrocytes treated with a combination of IL-1beta and flavonoids as compared to that treated with IL-1beta alone. Our result suggests that by (i) enhancing the potential of activated astrocytes to detoxify free radical, (ii) reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and (iii) modulating expression of mediators associated with enhanced physiological activity of astrocyte in response to injury, flavonoids confer (iv) protection against IL-1beta induced astrocyte mediated neuronal damage.

  17. Functional properties of an isolated. cap alpha beta. heterodimeric human placenta insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, S.M.; Swanson, M.L.; Wemmie, J.A.; Pessin, J.E.

    1988-05-03

    Treatment of human placenta membranes at pH 8.5 in the presence of 2.0 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 5 min, followed by the simultaneous removal of the DTT and pH adjustment of pH 7.6, resulted in the formation of a functional ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor complex from the native ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state. The membrane-bound ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complex displayed similar curvilinear /sup 125/I-IGF-1 equilibrium binding compared to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric complex. /sup 125/I-IGF-1 binding to both the isolated ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes demonstrated a marked straightening of the Scatchard plots, compared to the placenta membrane-bound IGF-1 receptors, with a 2-fold increase in the high-affinity binding component. IGF-1 stimulation of IGF-1 receptor autophosphorylation indicated that the ligand-dependent activation of ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric protein kinase activity occurred concomitant with the reassociation into a covalent ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric state. These data demonstrate that (i) a combination of alkaline pH and DTT treatment of human placenta membranes results in the formation of an ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex, (ii) unlike the insulin receptor, high-affinity homogeneous IGF-1 binding occurs in both the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes, and (iii) IGF-1-dependent autophosphorylation of the ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex correlates wit an IGF-1 dependent covalent reassociation into an ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state.

  18. Evidence for two concentration-dependent processes for beta-subunit effects on alpha1B calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Cantí, C; Davies, A; Berrow, N S; Butcher, A J; Page, K M; Dolphin, A C

    2001-01-01

    beta-Subunits of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels regulate both their expression and biophysical properties. We have injected a range of concentrations of beta3-cDNA into Xenopus oocytes, with a fixed concentration of alpha1B (Ca(V)2.2) cDNA, and have quantified the corresponding linear increase of beta3 protein. The concentration dependence of a number of beta3-dependent processes has been studied. First, the dependence of the a1B maximum conductance on beta3-protein occurs with a midpoint around the endogenous concentration of beta3 (approximately 17 nM). This may represent the interaction of the beta-subunit, responsible for trafficking, with the I-II linker of the nascent channel. Second, the effect of beta3-subunits on the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation provides evidence for two channel populations, interpreted as representing alpha1B without or with a beta3-subunit, bound with a lower affinity of 120 nM. Third, the effect of beta3 on the facilitation rate of G-protein-modulated alpha1B currents during a depolarizing prepulse to +100 mV provides evidence for the same two populations, with the rapid facilitation rate being attributed to Gbetagamma dissociation from the beta-subunit-bound alpha1B channels. The data are discussed in terms of two hypotheses, either binding of two beta-subunits to the alpha1B channel or a state-dependent alteration in affinity of the channel for the beta-subunit. PMID:11509358

  19. The antifibrotic effects of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA on hepatic fibrosis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Qing; Liu, Qi; Xu, Ning; Qian, Ke-Li; Qi, Jing-Hu; Sun, Yin-Chun; Xiao, Lang; Shi, Xiao-Feng

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We constructed CCL4 induced liver fibrosis model successfully. {yields} We proofed that the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had a definite therapy effect to CCL4 induced liver fibrosis. {yields} The therapy effect of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had dose-dependent. -- Abstract: Background/aims: Hepatic fibrosis results from the excessive secretion of matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which proliferate during fibrotic liver injury. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1 is the dominant stimulus for extracellular matrix (ECM) production by stellate cells. Our study was designed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of using short interference RNA (siRNA) to target TGF-{beta}1 in hepatic fibrosis and its mechanism in rats exposed to a high-fat diet and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4). Methods: A total of 40 healthy, male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomly divided into five even groups containing of eight rats each: normal group, model group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group and TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group (0.25 mg/kg). CCL4 and a high-fat diet were used for 8 weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. All the rats were then sacrificed to collect liver tissue samples. A portion of the liver samples were soaked in formalin for Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, classifying the degree of liver fibrosis, and detecting the expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1; the remaining liver samples were stored in liquid nitrogen to be used for detecting TGF-{beta}1 by Western blotting and for measuring the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Comparing the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group to the model group, the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group and the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group showed significantly reduced levels of pathological changes, protein expression and the m

  20. Classification of two steroids, prostanozol and methasterone, as Schedule III anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substance Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-07-30

    With the issuance of this Final Rule, the Administrator of the DEA classifies the following two steroids as "anabolic steroids'' under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA): prostanozol (17[beta]-hydroxy-5[alpha]-androstano[3,2-c]pyrazole) and methasterone (2[alpha],17[alpha]-dimethyl-5[alpha]-androstan-17[beta]-ol-3-one). These steroids and their salts, esters, and ethers are Schedule III controlled substances subject to the regulatory control provisions of the CSA.

  1. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  2. Pseudo Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance "modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow," some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.

  3. Analysis of betaS and betaA genes in a Mexican population with African roots.

    PubMed

    Magaña, María Teresa; Ongay, Zoyla; Tagle, Juan; Bentura, Gilberto; Cobián, José G; Perea, F Javier; Casas-Castañeda, Maricela; Sánchez-López, Yoaly J; Ibarra, Bertha

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the origin of the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in a Mexican population with African roots and a high frequency of hemoglobin S, we analyzed 467 individuals (288 unrelated) from different towns in the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca in the Costa Chica region. The frequency of the sickle-cell trait was 12.8%, which may represent a public health problem. The frequencies of the beta-haplotypes were determined from 350 nonrelated chromosomes (313 beta(A) and 37 beta(S)). We observed 15 different beta(A) haplotypes, the most common of which were haplotypes 1 (48.9%), 2 (13.4%), and 3 (13.4%). The calculation of pairwise distributions and Nei's genetic distance analysis using 32 worldwide populations showed that the beta(A) genes are more closely related to those of Mexican Mestizos and North Africans. Bantu and Benin haplotypes and haplotype 9 were related to the beta(S) genes, with frequencies of 78.8, 18.2, and 3.0%, respectively. Comparison of these haplotypes with 17 other populations revealed a high similitude with the population of the Central African Republic. These data suggest distinct origins for the beta(A) and beta(S) genes in Mexican individuals from the Costa Chica region.

  4. Fundamental processes in the interacting boson model: 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Iachello, F.; Barea, J.

    2011-05-06

    A program to calculate nuclear matrix elements for fundamental processes in the interacting boson model has been initiated. Results for the nuclear matrix elements in neutrinoless double beta decay 0{nu}{beta}{beta} are presented.

  5. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R; Bernardi, F; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F

    1985-01-01

    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in a beta(+), homozygote and in a beta (+), beta(0) 39 (nonsense mutation at codon 39) double heterozygote is approximately 20% and 10% respectively of total non-alpha globin synthesis. Despite some overlapping of the results, similar beta globin synthesis levels have been obtained in 43 beta(+)-thalassaemia patients. This suggests that in the Po river delta region the most common thalassaemic genes are beta(0) 39 and beta(+) IVS I. Images PMID:2580095

  6. Establishment of norms of the beta angle to assess the sagittal discrepancy for Nellore district population

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Reddy, Karnati Praveen Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Chaitanya, Nellore; Bhaskar Reddy, Myla Vijay; Patil, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, assessment of anteroposterior discrepancy is of importance to the orthodontist. Both angular and linear measurements have been incorporated into various cephalometric analyses to help the clinician diagnose anteroposterior discrepancies and establish the most appropriate treatment plan. Hence the present study is designed to establish the norms of Beta angle to assess the sagittal discrepancy for Nellore district population. Materials and Methods: The sample was screened from the old records of the Orthodontic department of Narayana Dental College and Hospital. One hundred and fifty pretreatment cephalometric radiographs (50 each of Class I, II, and III) were subdivided based on ANB, Wits appraisal, and Beta angle into skeletal Class I, II, III. The same cephalograms were again classified into skeletal Class I, II, and III based purely on Beta angle. Each group was again divided into 2 subgroups consisting of 25 male and 25 female subjects with a mean age limit between 15 and 45 years old. Results: The Newman-keuls post hoc test and ANOVA showed that the 3 groups were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001). The Newman-keuls post hoc test also found the groups to be significantly different. Conclusions: There was statistically significant difference for, the mean values and the standard deviation for Beta angle within the three skeletal patterns (Class I, Class II and Class III skeletal patterns). There was no statistically significant difference among the mean values of beta angle between Nellore district population and Caucasian norms and between male and female sex groups. PMID:24082742

  7. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  8. BETA-GAMMA PERSONNEL DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Davis, D.M.; Gupton, E.D.; Hart, J.C.; Hull, A.P.

    1961-01-17

    A personnel dosimeter is offered which is sensitive to both gamma and soft beta radiations from all directions within a hemisphere. The device is in the shape of a small pill box which is worn on a worker-s wrist. The top and sides of the device are provided with 50 per cent void areas to give 50 per cent response to the beta rays and complete response to the gamma rays. The device is so constructed as to have a response which will approximate the dose received by the basal layer of the human epidermis.

  9. Interplanetary Lyman-beta emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, F.

    1973-01-01

    Derivation of the intensity of the diffuse hydrogen Lyman-beta glow at 1025 A which is due to resonance scattering of the solar H I 1025 A line by interstellar and interplanetary hydrogen. Two sources of neutral hydrogen are considered: the local interstellar medium interacting with the solar system, and the dust deionization of the H(+) component of the solar wind. It is shown that if the dust geometrical factor is less than or equal to five quintillionths per cm, observations of backscattered Lyman-beta radiation will provide a unique determination of the density and temperature of the local interstellar medium.

  10. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J.; Goldstein, Norman P.

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  11. Beta thalassaemia mutations in Turkish Cypriots.

    PubMed Central

    Sozuoz, A; Berkalp, A; Figus, A; Loi, A; Pirastu, M; Cao, A

    1988-01-01

    Using oligonucleotide hybridisation or restriction endonuclease analysis, we have characterised the molecular defect in 94 patients with thalassaemia major and four with thalassaemia intermedia of Turkish Cypriot descent. We found that four mutations, namely beta+ IVS-1 nt 110, beta zero IVS-1 nt, beta+ IVS-1 nt 6, and beta+ IVS-2 nt 745 were prevalent, accounting for 69.9%, 11.7%, 8.7%, and 5.6% respectively of the beta thalassaemia chromosomes. This information may help in the organisation of a large scale prevention programme based on fetal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia by DNA analysis in the Turkish population. PMID:3236356

  12. Title III and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Title III Quarterly, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Title III projects dealing with cultural diversity in the classroom are described in this issue of the Title III Quarterly. Major articles are devoted to the following projects: Two Arts Culture Three Project, developing the crafts and music of mountain whites, blacks, and Cherokees; the Rota Bilingual Project, the Marianas District, emphasizing…

  13. SUPERSTARS III: 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  14. Using dBase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Four articles on dBASE III include three on library applications: a photocopy invoicing system for interlibrary loan, a vertical file subject headings list program, and a subject index to statistical resources. Another article explains the differences between interpreters and compilers and the advantages of the Clipper compiler for dBASE III. (EM)

  15. SUPERSTARS III: 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    SUPERSTARS III is a K-8 program designed as an enrichment opportunity for self-directed learners in mathematics. The basic purpose of SUPERSTARS III is to provide the extra challenge that self-motivated students need in mathematics and to do so in a structured, long-term program that does not impinge on the normal classroom routine or the…

  16. Betaglycan can act as a dual modulator of TGF-beta access to signaling receptors: mapping of ligand binding and GAG attachment sites

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Betaglycan, also known as the TGF-beta type III receptor, is a membrane- anchored proteoglycan that presents TGF-beta to the type II signaling receptor, a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase. The betaglycan extracellular region, which can be shed by cells into the medium, contains a NH2-terminal domain related to endoglin and a COOH-terminal domain related to uromodulin, sperm receptors Zp2 and 3, and pancreatic secretory granule GP-2 protein. We identified residues Ser535 and Ser546 in the uromodulin-related region as the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) attachment sites. Their mutation to alanine prevents GAG attachment but does not interfere with betaglycan stability or ability to bind and present TGF-beta to receptor II. Using a panel of deletion mutants, we found that TGF-beta binds to the NH2-terminal endoglin-related region of betaglycan. The remainder of the extracellular domain and the cytoplasmic domain are not required for presentation of TGF-beta to receptor II; however, membrane anchorage is required. Soluble betaglycan can bind TGF-beta but does not enhance binding to membrane receptors. In fact, recombinant soluble betaglycan acts as potent inhibitor of TGF-beta binding to membrane receptors and blocks TGF-beta action, this effect being particularly pronounced with the TGF-beta 2 isoform. The results suggest that release of betaglycan into the medium converts this enhancer of TGF-beta action into a TGF-beta antagonist. PMID:8106553

  17. Removal of the N-terminal hexapeptide from human beta2-microglobulin facilitates protein aggregation and fibril formation.

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, G.; Michelutti, R.; Verdone, G.; Viglino, P.; Hernández, H.; Robinson, C. V.; Amoresano, A.; Dal Piaz, F.; Monti, M.; Pucci, P.; Mangione, P.; Stoppini, M.; Merlini, G.; Ferri, G.; Bellotti, V.

    2000-01-01

    The solution structure and stability of N-terminally truncated beta2-microglobulin (deltaN6beta2-m), the major modification in ex vivo fibrils, have been investigated by a variety of biophysical techniques. The results show that deltaN6beta2-m has a free energy of stabilization that is reduced by 2.5 kcal/mol compared to the intact protein. Hydrogen exchange of a mixture of the truncated and full-length proteins at microM concentrations at pH 6.5 monitored by electrospray mass spectrometry reveals that deltaN6beta2-m is significantly less protected than its wild-type counterpart. Analysis of deltaN6beta2-m by NMR shows that this loss of protection occurs in beta strands I, III, and part of II. At mM concentration gel filtration analysis shows that deltaN6beta2-m forms a series of oligomers, including trimers and tetramers, and NMR analysis indicates that strand V is involved in intermolecular interactions that stabilize this association. The truncated species of beta2-microglobulin was found to have a higher tendency to self-associate than the intact molecule, and unlike wild-type protein, is able to form amyloid fibrils at physiological pH. Limited proteolysis experiments and analysis by mass spectrometry support the conformational modifications identified by NMR and suggest that deltaN6beta2-m could be a key intermediate of a proteolytic pathway of beta2-microglobulin. Overall, the data suggest that removal of the six residues from the N-terminus of beta2-microglobulin has a major effect on the stability of the overall fold. Part of the tertiary structure is preserved substantially by the disulfide bridge between Cys25 and Cys80, but the pairing between beta-strands far removed from this constrain is greatly perturbed. PMID:10850793

  18. Production of poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-beta-hydroxyvaleric) acids.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, B A; Lomaliza, K; Chavarie, C; Dubé, B; Bataille, P; Ramsay, J A

    1990-01-01

    Alcaligenes latus, Alcaligenes eutrophus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Micrococcus halodenitrificans were found to accumulate poly-(beta-hydroxybutyric-co-beta-hydroxyvaleric) acid [P(HB-co-HV)] copolymer when supplied with glucose (or sucrose in the case of A. latus) and propionic acid under nitrogen-limited conditions. A fed-batch culture of A. eutrophus produced 24 g of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) liter-1 under ammonium limitation conditions. When the glucose feed was replaced with glucose and propionic acid during the polymer accumulation phase, 17 g of P(HB-co-HV) liter-1 was produced. The P(HB-co-HV) contained 5.0 mol% beta-hydroxyvaleric acid (HV). Varying the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio at a dilution rate of 0.15 h-1 in a chemostat culture of A. eutrophus resulted in a maximum value of 33% (wt/wt) PHB in the biomass. In comparison, A. latus accumulated about 40% (wt/wt) PHB in chemostat culture under nitrogen-limited conditions at the same dilution rate. When propionic acid was added to the first stage of a two-stage chemostat, A. latus produced 43% (wt/wt) P(HB-co-HV) containing 18.5 mol% HV. In the second stage, the P(HB-co-HV) increased to 58% (wt/wt) with an HV content of 11 mol% without further addition of carbon substrate. The HV composition in P(HB-co-HV) was controlled by regulating the concentration of propionic acid in the feed. Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates containing a higher percentage of HV were produced when pentanoic acid replaced propionic acid. PMID:2117877

  19. Characterization of the effects of anti-aging medicine Fructus lycii on beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Man-Shan; Lai, Cora Sau-Wan; Ho, Yuen-Shan; Zee, Sze-Yong; So, Kwok-Fai; Yuen, Wai-Hung; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2007-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease. There are increasing lines of evidence showing that the molecular signaling pathways in aged cells are altered so that cells are susceptible to injury. We and other laboratories have demonstrated the significant involvement of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) in beta-amyloid (A beta) peptide neurotoxicity and in AD. Fructus lycii (the fruit of Lycium barbarum) has long been used in oriental medicine as an anti-aging agent. Our previous studies demonstrated that the aqueous extract isolated from L. barbarum exhibited significant protection on cultured neurons against harmful chemical toxins such as A beta and dithiothreitol. We also showed that the polysaccharide-containing extract (LBP) from L. barbarum exhibited neuroprotective effects in the retina against ocular hypertension in a laser-induced glaucoma animal model. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether LBP can elicit neuroprotection to neurons stressed by A beta peptides. Furthermore, we planned to isolate and identify the neuroprotective agent from LBP using chromatographic methods. Our results showed that pretreatment of LBP effectively protected neurons against A beta-induced apoptosis by reducing the activity of both caspase-3 and -2, but not caspase-8 and -9. A new arabinogalactan-protein (LBP-III) was isolated from LBP and attenuated A beta peptide-activated caspase-3-like activity. LBP-III markedly reduced the phosphorylation of PKR triggered by A beta peptide. Since the phosphorylation state of PKR increased with age, reduction of its phosphorylation triggered by A beta peptide may implicate that LBP-III from Fructus lycii is a potential neuroprotective agent in AD. As herbal medicine has received increasing attention for the treatment of AD, our study will open a window for the development of a neuroprotective agent for anti-aging from Chinese medicine.

  20. Characterization of the mouse lymphotoxin-beta gene.

    PubMed

    Lawton, P; Nelson, J; Tizard, R; Browning, J L

    1995-01-01

    Lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta) is a member of the TNF family of ligands which when expressed with lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha, i.e., the original LT or TNF-beta) forms a heteromeric complex with LT-alpha on the cell surface. The mouse gene structure was determined by both cDNA cloning and analysis of a genomic DNA fragment encompassing the TNF/LT locus in the H-2 region of chromosome 17. The mouse and human genomic structures were found to be similar in terms of location in the class III region of the MHC; however, the mouse gene lacks one intron found in most members of the family. Both the cDNA and the genomic sequences revealed an altered splice donor in the conventional intron 2 position, rendering it nonfunctional. The altered gene retains an open reading frame such that an additional 66 amino acids are inserted into the stalk region connecting the transmembrane domain with the receptor binding domain encoded by exon 4 in this type II membrane protein. Northern analysis showed that this gene is expressed predominantly in lymphoid organs. The outlining of the complete mouse TNF locus will further studies of the relationship between these genes and immune function.

  1. Fine structure genetic analysis of a beta-globin promoter.

    PubMed

    Myers, R M; Tilly, K; Maniatis, T

    1986-05-02

    A novel procedure for saturation mutagenesis of cloned DNA was used to obtain more than 100 single base substitutions within the promoter of the mouse beta-major globin gene. The effects of these promoter substitutions on transcription were determined by transfecting the cloned mutant genes into HeLa cells on plasmids containing an SV40 transcription enhancer, and measuring the levels of correctly initiated beta-globin transcripts after 2 days. Mutations in three regions of the promoter resulted in a significant decrease in the level of transcription: (i) the CACCC box, located between -87 and -95, (ii) the CCAAT box, located between -72 and -77, and (iii) the TATA box, located between -26 and -30 relative to the start site of transcription. In contrast, two different mutations in nucleotides immediately upstream from the CCAAT box resulted in a 3- to 3.5-fold increase in transcription. With two minor exceptions, single base substitutions in all other regions of the promoter had no effect on transcription. These results precisely delineate the cis-acting sequences required for accurate and efficient initiation of beta-globin transcription, and they establish a general approach for the fine structure genetic analysis of eukaryotic regulatory sequences.

  2. The mammalian beta-tubulin repertoire: hematopoietic expression of a novel, heterologous beta-tubulin isotype

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    We describe the structure of a novel and unusually heterologous beta- tubulin isotype (M beta 1) isolated from a mouse bone marrow cDNA library, and a second isotype (M beta 3) isolated from a mouse testis cDNA library. Comparison of M beta 1 and M beta 3 with the completed (M beta 4, M beta 5) or extended (M beta 2) sequence of three previously described beta-tubulin isotypes shows that each includes a distinctive carboxy-terminal region, in addition to multiple amino acid substitutions throughout the polypeptide chain. In every case where a mammalian interspecies comparison can be made, both the carboxy- terminal and internal amino acid substitutions that distinguish one isotype from another are absolutely conserved. We conclude that these characteristic differences are important in determining functional distinctions between different kinds of microtubule. The amino acid homologies between M beta 2, M beta 3, M beta 4, and M beta 5 are in the range of 95-97%; however the homology between M beta 1 and all the other isotypes is very much less (78%). The dramatic divergence in M beta 1 is due to multiple changes that occur throughout the polypeptide chain. The overall level of expression of M beta 1 is low, and is restricted to those tissues (bone marrow, spleen, developing liver and lung) that are active in hematopoiesis in the mouse. We predict that the M beta 1 isotype is functionally specialized for assembly into the mammalian marginal band. PMID:3782288

  3. Caliber Schools. Caliber: Beta Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Caliber: Beta Academy is reimagining education as we know it, with the belief that the innovations in its model will allow 100% of its students to graduate ready to attend and succeed in a competitive four-year college and beyond. The academic model of the school features personalized learning plans, blended learning for English and math,…

  4. Human immune responsiveness to Lolium perenne pollen allergen Lol p III (rye III) is associated with HLA-DR3 and DR5.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A A; Freidhoff, L R; Meyers, D A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G

    1989-05-01

    A well-characterized allergen of Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen, Lol p III, has been used as a model antigen to study the genetic control of the human immune response. Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responsiveness to Lol p III were studied in two groups of skin-test-positive Caucasoid adults (N = 135 and 67). We found by nonparametric and parametric analyses that immune responsiveness to Lol p III was significantly associated with HLA-DR3 and DR5. No association was found between any DQ type and immune responsiveness to Lol p III. Geometric mean IgE or IgG Ab levels to Lol p III were not different between B8+, DR3+ subjects and B8-, DR3+ subjects, showing that HLA-B8 had no influence on the association. Lol p III IgG Ab data obtained on subjects after grass antigen immunotherapy showed that 100% of DR3 subjects and 100% of DR5 subjects were Ab+. A comparison of all the available protein sequences of DRB gene products showed that the first hypervariable region of DR3 and DR5 (and DRw6), and no other region, contains the sequence Glu9-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Ser13. Our observations are consistent with the possibility that immune responsiveness to the allergen Lol p III is associated with this amino acid sequence in the first hypervariable region of the DR beta 1 polypeptide chain.

  5. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  6. Neutron beta decay studies with Nab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeßler, S.; Alarcon, R.; Alonzi, L. P.; Balascuta, S.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Bowman, J. D.; Bychkov, M. A.; Byrne, J.; Calarco, J. R.; Chupp, T.; Cianciolo, T. V.; Crawford, C.; Frlež, E.; Gericke, M. T.; Glück, F.; Greene, G. L.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Gudkov, V.; Harrison, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Ito, T.; Makela, M.; Martin, J.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGovern, S.; Page, S.; Penttilä, S. I.; Počanić, D.; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Salas-Bacci, A.; Tompkins, Z.; Wagner, D.; Wilburn, W. S.; Young, A. R.

    2013-10-01

    Precision measurements in neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay and allow for several stringent tests of the standard model. This paper discusses the design and the expected performance of the Nab spectrometer.

  7. How Do Beta Blocker Drugs Affect Exercise?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More How do beta blocker drugs affect exercise? Updated:Aug 5,2015 Beta blockers are a ... about them: Do they affect your ability to exercise? The answer can vary a great deal, depending ...

  8. Can Beta Blockers Cause Weight Gain?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can beta blockers cause weight gain? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... can occur as a side effect of some beta blockers, especially the older ones, such as atenolol (Tenormin) ...

  9. A protein-protein interaction map of yeast RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Flores, A; Briand, J F; Gadal, O; Andrau, J C; Rubbi, L; Van Mullem, V; Boschiero, C; Goussot, M; Marck, C; Carles, C; Thuriaux, P; Sentenac, A; Werner, M

    1999-07-06

    The structure of the yeast RNA polymerase (pol) III was investigated by exhaustive two-hybrid screening using a library of random genomic fragments fused to the Gal4 activation domain. This procedure allowed us to identify contacts between individual polypeptides, localize the contact domains, and deduce a protein-protein interaction map of the multisubunit enzyme. In all but one case, pol III subunits were able to interact in vivo with one or sometimes two partner subunits of the enzyme or with subunits of TFIIIC. Four subunits that are common to pol I, II, and III (ABC27, ABC14.5, ABC10alpha, and ABC10beta), two that are common to pol I and III (AC40 and AC19), and one pol III-specific subunit (C11) can associate with defined regions of the two large subunits. These regions overlapped with highly conserved domains. C53, a pol III-specific subunit, interacted with a 37-kDa polypeptide that copurifies with the enzyme and therefore appears to be a unique pol III subunit (C37). Together with parallel interaction studies based on dosage-dependent suppression of conditional mutants, our data suggest a model of the pol III preinitiation complex.

  10. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, L.A.; Swinth, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that /sup 234/Th- /sup 234m/Pa, /sup 231/Th, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and /sup 60/Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. beta. -decay asymmetry of the free neutron

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, P.; Dubbers, D.; Klemt, E.; Last, J.; Schuetze, H.; Weibler, W.; Freedman, S.J.; Schaerpf, O.

    1983-01-01

    The ..beta..-decay of polarized neutrons has been studied with the new superconducting spectrometer PERKEO at the ILL. The energy dependence of the ..beta..-decay asymmetry has been measured for the first time. From the measured ..beta..-asymmetry parameter we obtain a new value for the ratio of weak coupling constants g/sub A//g/sub V/. 11 references.

  12. Heterogeneity of the Pancreatic Beta Cell

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Giselle Dominguez; Gromada, Jesper; Sussel, Lori

    2017-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell functions as a key regulator of blood glucose levels by integrating a variety of signals in response to changing metabolic demands. Variations in beta cell identity that translate into functionally different subpopulations represent an interesting mechanism to allow beta cells to efficiently respond to diverse physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Recently, there is emerging evidence that morphological and functional differences between beta cells exist. Furthermore, the ability of novel single cell technologies to characterize the molecular identity of individual beta cells has created a new era in the beta cell field. These studies are providing important novel information about the origin of beta cell heterogeneity, the type and proportions of the different beta cell subpopulations, as well as their intrinsic properties. Furthermore, characterization of different beta cell subpopulations that could variably offer protection from or drive progression of diabetes has important clinical implications in diabetes prevention, beta cell regeneration and stem cell treatments. In this review, we will assess the evidence that supports the existence of heterogeneous populations of beta cells and the factors that could influence their formation. We will also address novel studies using islet single cell analysis that have provided important information toward understanding beta cell heterogeneity and discuss the caveats that may be associated with these new technologies. PMID:28321233

  13. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  15. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Discovery of a 210 -fiber texture in medical-grade metastable beta titanium wire

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Song; Schaffer, Jeremy E.; Ren, Yang; Daymond, Mark R.

    2015-04-01

    The texture and phase evolution of metastable beta-III Ti alloy wires, produced in a medical-grade wire-processing facility, are examined via synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The texture development in the beta-phase was interpreted by a simple viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) modeling approach. Both the stress-induced martensite and stress-induced omega phase transformations are observed during the early stage of cold deformation. The < 1 1 0 >(beta) texture is gradually replaced by the < 2 1 0 >(beta) texture at cold work levels above 50% total area reduction or equivalently 0.70 axial true strain. Formation of the < 2 1 0 >(beta)-fiber from the combined activity of {1 1 2} and {3 3 2} twinning plus conventional slip is observed and may not directly depend upon the stress-induced phase per se. According to the VPSC model, similar texture should occur in other metastable beta-Ti alloys subjected to similar wire processing. These data should help inform process-structure-function towards better wire design in titanium-based medical devices. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  17. Effects of controlled exposure of sunlight on plasma and skin levels of beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Biesalski, H K; Hemmes, C; Hopfenmuller, W; Schmid, C; Gollnick, H P

    1996-03-01

    We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study in 20 healthy young female students (skin type II + III, body mass index 18-22) in order to evaluate the efficacy of 10 weeks of moderate dose (30 mg/d) beta-carotene (BC) on plasma and skin beta-carotene levels during 12 days of time and intensity controlled sunlight exposure at sea level (30 degrees latitude, Red Sea, Eilath, Israel). After 12 days of controlled sun exposure (total UV dose of about 10.000J/cm2), plasma beta-carotene decreased in the placebo (p < 0.01) and beta-carotene group (not significant). In addition cutaneous beta-carotene decreased significantly in both groups. Plasma alpha-tocopherol decreased significantly (p < 0.01) during exposure time in both groups. In the supplemented group, however, the decrease of a-tocopherol was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than in the placebo group. We conclude that sunlight influences the beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol content of blood and tissues.

  18. The BUSS spectrum of Beta Lyrae. [Balloon-borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, M.; Sahade, J.; De Jager, C.; Kondo, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrum of Beta Lyrae from about 1975 to 3010 A taken with the Balloon-borne ultraviolet Stellar Spectrograph experiment in May 1976 at phase 0.61 P is analyzed. Results show the presence of N II semi-forbidden emission and provide evidence for about the same location, in the outer envelope of the system, of the layers responsible for the resonance Mg II doublet emissions and for the "narrow" H-alpha emission. In addition, three sets of absorption lines, P Cygni profiles of Fe III and broad Beals Type III emissions of Mg II, are found to be present.

  19. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for enzymatically active fragments of the Bacillus polymyxa beta-amylase.

    PubMed

    Kawazu, T; Nakanishi, Y; Uozumi, N; Sasaki, T; Yamagata, H; Tsukagoshi, N; Udaka, S

    1987-04-01

    The gene encoding beta-amylase was cloned from Bacillus polymyxa 72 into Escherichia coli HB101 by inserting HindIII-generated DNA fragments into the HindIII site of pBR322. The 4.8-kilobase insert was shown to direct the synthesis of beta-amylase. A 1.8-kilobase AccI-AccI fragment of the donor strain DNA was sufficient for the beta-amylase synthesis. Homologous DNA was found by Southern blot analysis to be present only in B. polymyxa 72 and not in other bacteria such as E. coli or B. subtilis. B. polymyxa, as well as E. coli harboring the cloned DNA, was found to produce enzymatically active fragments of beta-amylases (70,000, 56,000, or 58,000, and 42,000 daltons), which were detected in situ by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cloned 3.1-kilobase DNA revealed that it contains one open reading frame of 2,808 nucleotides without a translational stop codon. The deduced amino acid sequence for these 2,808 nucleotides encoding a secretory precursor of the beta-amylase protein is 936 amino acids including a signal peptide of 33 or 35 residues at its amino-terminal end. The existence of a beta-amylase of larger than 100,000 daltons, which was predicted on the basis of the results of nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene, was confirmed by examining culture supernatants after various cultivation periods. It existed only transiently during cultivation, but the multiform beta-amylases described above existed for a long time. The large beta-amylase (approximately 160,000 daltons) existed for longer in the presence of a protease inhibitor such as chymostatin, suggesting that proteolytic cleavage is the cause of the formation of multiform beta-amylases.

  20. Inactivation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type III by heat, chemicals, and irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinnan, G.V. Jr.; Wells, M.A.; Wittek, A.E.; Phelan, M.A.; Mayner, R.E.; Feinstone, S.; Purcell, R.H.; Epstein, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    Infectivity of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, Type III (HTLV-III) was inactivated by heat more rapidly if in liquid medium than if lyophilized and more rapidly at 60 than 56/sup 0/C. When HTLV-III was added to factor VIII suspension, then lyophilized and heated at 60/sup 0/C for 2 hours or longer there was elimination of 1 X 10(6) in vitro infectious units (IVIU) of virus. Much of the viral inactivation appeared to result from lyophilization. The application of water-saturated chloroform to the lyophilized material containing virus also resulted in elimination of infectivity. HTLV-III was efficiently inactivated by formalin, beta-propiolactone, ethyl ether, detergent, and ultraviolet light plus psoralen. The results are reassuring regarding the potential safety of various biological products.

  1. Viking Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    VIKING PHASE III - With the incredible success of the Viking missions on Mars, mission operations have progressed though a series of phases - each being funded as mission success dictated its potential. The Viking Primary Mission phase was concluded in November, 1976, when the reins were passed on to the second phase - the Viking Extended Mission. The Extended Mission successfully carried spacecraft operations through the desired period of time needed to provided a profile of a full Martian year, but would have fallen a little short of connecting and overlapping a full Martian year of Viking operations which scientists desired as a means of determining the degree of duplicity in the red planet's seasons - at least for the summer period. Without this continuation of spacecraft data acquisitions to and beyond the seasonal points when the spacecraft actually began their Mars observations, there would be no way of knowing whether the changing environmental values - such as temperatures and winds atmospheric dynamics and water vapor, surface thermal dynamics, etc. - would match up with those acquired as the spacecraft began investigations during the summer and fall of 1976. This same broad interest can be specifically pursued at the surface - where hundreds of rocks, soil drifts and other features have become extremely familiar during long-term analysis. This picture was acquired on the 690th Martian day of Lander 1 operations - 4009th picture sequence commanded of the two Viking Landers. As such, it became the first picture acquired as the third phase of Viking operations got under way - the Viking Continuation Mission. Between the start of the Continuation Mission in April, 1978, until spacecraft operations are concluded in November, the landers will acquire an additional 200 pictures. These will be used to monitor the two landscaped for the surface changes. All four cameras, two on Lander 1 and two on Lander 2, continue to operate perfectly. Both landers will also

  2. Functional polymorphism of each of the two HLA-DR beta chain loci demonstrated with antigen-specific DR3- and DRw52-restricted T cell clones

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    HLA-DR3- and HLA-DRw52-associated functional polymorphism was investigated with selected tetanus toxoid (TT)-specific T cell clones. We have shown earlier that HLA-DR antigens are encoded by two distinct loci, DR beta I and DR beta III. The alloantigenic determinant(s) defined by the serological HLA-DR3 specificity map to the former, while the supratypic HLA-DRw52 determinants map to DR beta III. Furthermore, we have recently recognized by DNA sequencing three alleles of HLA- DRw52 at locus DR beta III, referred to as 52 a, b, and c. Our objective was to correlate the pattern of T cell restriction with the gene products of individual DR beta chain loci and with the three newly described alleles of locus DR beta III. Among the selected T cell clones, 5 reacted exclusively when TT was presented by HLA-DR3+ APCs (TT-DR3-APC). In contrast, two T cell clones were stimulated by TT- DRw52-APC. More specifically, these two T cell clones (Clones 10 and 16) were stimulated by different subsets of TT-DRw52-APC. Clone 16 responded to some DR3 and TT-DRw6-APC, while clone 10 was stimulated by other TT-DR3 and TT-DRw6, and all TT-DR5-APC. This same pattern of DRw52 restriction was found in panel, as well as in family studies. Because this suggested a correlation with the pattern of DRw52 polymorphism observed earlier by DNA sequencing and oligonucleotide hybridization, the APC used in these experiments were typed for the 52 a, b, and c alleles of locus DR beta III by allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. This distribution overlapped exactly with the stimulation pattern defined by the T cell clones. Clone 16 responded to TT-52a-APC, clone 10 to TT-52b-APC, and both clones to a TT-52c-APC. The response of the T cell clones was inhibited differentially by mAbs to DR. Raising TT concentration, or increasing HLA-class II expression with INF-gamma both affected the magnitude of response of the TT- specific clones but did not modify their specificities. These results demonstrate that

  3. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetic type of cranial mononeuropathy III is a complication of diabetes . It causes double vision and eyelid drooping . ... Cooper ME, Vinik AI, Plutzky J, Boulton AJM. Complications of diabetes mellitus. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg ...

  4. Beta Genus Papillomaviruses and Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Howley, Peter M.; Pfister, Herbert J.

    2015-01-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. PMID:25724416

  5. Synthetic uvby-beta photometry of HD 12856 and HD 13890

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, A. V.; Garmany, C. D.

    1987-01-01

    Stromgren and H-beta colors have been measured from spectrophotometric observations of two Be stars without published photometry in Per OB1: HD 12856 (B0 pe) and HD 13890 (B1 III:pe). Stellar parameters and improved spectral types are then derived from the color indices and the calibrations of Jakobsen (1986). These are compared with the parameters of normal B stars and are used to estimate the evolutionary status of the stars.

  6. Molecular basis for amyloid-[beta] polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Laganowsky, Arthur; Landau, Meytal; Zhao, Minglei; Soriaga, Angela B.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Flot, David; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberga, David

    2011-10-19

    Amyloid-beta (A{beta}) aggregates are the main constituent of senile plaques, the histological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A{beta} molecules form {beta}-sheet containing structures that assemble into a variety of polymorphic oligomers, protofibers, and fibers that exhibit a range of lifetimes and cellular toxicities. This polymorphic nature of A{beta} has frustrated its biophysical characterization, its structural determination, and our understanding of its pathological mechanism. To elucidate A{beta} polymorphism in atomic detail, we determined eight new microcrystal structures of fiber-forming segments of A{beta}. These structures, all of short, self-complementing pairs of {beta}-sheets termed steric zippers, reveal a variety of modes of self-association of A{beta}. Combining these atomic structures with previous NMR studies allows us to propose several fiber models, offering molecular models for some of the repertoire of polydisperse structures accessible to A{beta}. These structures and molecular models contribute fundamental information for understanding A{beta} polymorphic nature and pathogenesis.

  7. Current double beta decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, A.

    2005-01-01

    After an introduction about double beta decay and the deep connections between the lepton-violating channel and the neutrino properties, the most sensitive experimental approaches to the search for this rare nuclear transition are described. An overview of the experiments presently running is then given, with particular emphasis on the adopted techniques and their possible extrapolation to next-generation, higher-sensitivity experiments. The present situation about the experimental determination of the Majorana neutrino mass is presented and discussed.

  8. Estimating beta-mixing coefficients

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Daniel J.; Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Schervish, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The literature on statistical learning for time series assumes the asymptotic independence or “mixing” of the data-generating process. These mixing assumptions are never tested, and there are no methods for estimating mixing rates from data. We give an estimator for the beta-mixing rate based on a single stationary sample path and show it is L1-risk consistent. PMID:26279742

  9. Mammalian. beta. /sub 1/- and. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptors: immunological and structural comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Moxham, C.P.; George, S.T.; Graziano, M.P.; Brandwein, H.J.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-11-05

    ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors, pharmacologically distinct proteins, have been reported to be structurally dissimilar. In the present study three techniques were employed to compare the nature of mammalian ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. Antibodies against each of the receptor subtypes were raised separately. Polyclonal antisera against ..beta../sub 1/-receptors of rat fat cells were raised in mice, and antisera against ..beta../sub 2/-receptors of guinea pig lung were raised in rabbits. Receptors purified from rat fat cells (..beta../sub 1/-), S49 mouse lymphoma cells (..beta../sub 2/-), and rat liver (..beta../sub 2/-) were probed with these antisera. Each anti-receptor antisera demonstrated the ability to immunoprecipitate purified receptors of both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes. The mobility of ..beta..-receptors subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was probed using antireceptor antibodies and nitrocellulose blots of the gels. Fat cell ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors display M/sub r/ = 67,000 under reducing conditions and M/sub r/ = 54,000 under nonreducing conditions, as previously reported. Both ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-receptors displayed this same shift in electrophoretic mobility observed in the presence as compared to the absence of disulfide bridge-reducing agents, as detected both by autoradiography of the radiolabeled receptors and by immunoblotting of native receptors. Finally, isoelectric focusing of purified radioiodinated ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors revealed identical isoelectric points. These data are the first to provide analyses of immunological, structural, and biochemical features of ..beta../sub 1/- and ..beta../sub 2/-subtypes in tandem and underscore the structural similarities that exist between these pharmacologically distinct receptors.

  10. Synergistic mobilization of hemopoietic progenitor cells using concurrent beta1 and beta2 integrin blockade or beta2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Papayannopoulou, T; Priestley, G V; Nakamoto, B; Zafiropoulos, V; Scott, L M; Harlan, J M

    2001-03-01

    The hierarchy of cytoadhesion molecules involved in hematopoietic/stem progenitor cell mobilization has not yet been delineated. Previous studies have suggested an important role for alpha4beta1 integrin in this process. To test whether mobilization involves dynamic interactions of alpha4beta1 with other integrins on hematopoietic cells, especially the beta2 integrins, mice and primates were treated with anti-beta1 or anti-beta2 antibodies alone or in combination. A single injection of anti-alpha4beta1 antibody elicited reproducible mobilization in contrast to other antibodies, and 3 injections yielded higher mobilization efficiency than each of the other antibodies. When the anti-beta2 (anti-CD11a or anti-CD18) or anti-alpha5/beta1 integrin antibody was combined with anti-alpha4, an augmentation in mobilization was seen that was either additive or synergistic, depending on the potency of the antibody used. Synergy between anti-alpha4 and anti-CD18 (beta(2)) antibody blockade was seen in primates and confirmed in anti-alpha4-treated CD18-deficient mice. In the latter, there was a 49-fold increase in mobilization with anti-alpha4, much higher than in littermate control animals, in CD18 hypomorphic mice, or in other strains of mice tested. Data from both the antibody blockade and gene-targeted mice suggest that the cooperativity of alpha4beta1 with beta2 integrins becomes evident when they are concurrently inhibited. It is unclear whether this cooperativity is exerted at the stage of reversible adhesion versus migration, and enhancement of and whether the 2 integrins work in a sequential or parallel manner. Whatever the mechanism, the data provide a novel example of beta1 and beta2 integrin crosstalk in stem/progenitor cell mobilization.

  11. beta-Endorphin-induced analgesia is inhibited by synthetic analogs of beta-endorphin.

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, P; Hammonds, R G; Li, C H

    1984-01-01

    Competitive antagonism of human beta-endorphin (beta h-EP)-induced analgesia by synthetic beta h-EP analogs with high in vitro opiate receptor binding to in vivo analgesic potency ratio has been demonstrated. A parallel shift of the dose-response curve for analgesia to the right was observed when either beta h-EP or [ Trp27 ] -beta h-EP was coinjected with various doses of [Gln8, Gly31 ]-beta h-EP-Gly-Gly-NH2, [Arg9,19,24,28,29]-beta h-EP, or [ Cys11 ,26, Phe27 , Gly31 ]-beta h-EP. It was estimated that the most potent antagonist, [Gln8, Gly31 ]-beta h-EP-Gly-NH2, is at least 200 times more potent than naloxone. PMID:6328494

  12. Association of heterocellular HPFH, beta(+)-thalassaemia, and delta beta(0)-thalassaemia: haematological and molecular aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Cianetti, L; Care, A; Sposi, N M; Giampaolo, A; Calandrini, M; Petrini, M; Massa, A; Marinucci, M; Mavilio, F; Ceccanti, M

    1984-01-01

    An Italian family in which heterocellular hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) interacts with both beta(+)- and delta beta-thalassaemia is described. The index case was an 8 year old girl who was presumed to inherit both heterocellular HPFH and beta (+)-thalassaemia from her mother and delta beta-thalassaemia from her father. She was healthy and never needed blood transfusions. The possible contribution of heterocellular HPFH to the less severe expression of the compound delta beta/beta(+)-thalassaemia heterozygosity is discussed. By DNA analysis the specific delta beta-thalassaemia defect on the gamma delta beta globin gene region has been established. In addition, a previously unreported association of a polymorphic restriction site haplotype with a beta (+)-thalassaemia mutation has been observed. PMID:6208362

  13. Impact analysis of Minuteman III Payload Transporter Type III

    SciTech Connect

    Stirbis, P.P.

    1993-12-01

    An analysis of the impact of the Minuteman III Payload Transporter Type III into a nonyielding target at 46 m.p.h. and 30 m.p.h., and into a yielding target at 46 m.p.h. is presented. The analysis considers the structural response of the tiedown system which secures the Minuteman III re-entry system to the floor of the payload transporter. A finite element model of the re-entry system, its tiedown system, which includes tie-rods and shear pins, and the pallet plate which is attached to the transporter floating plate, was constructed. Because accelerations of the payload transporter are not known, acceleration data from one-quarter scale testing of the Safe Secure Trailer was used to investigate the response of the tiedown system. These accelerations were applied to the pallet plate. The ABAQUS computer code was used to predict the forces in the members of the tiedown system.

  14. Dissociation of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomova, T. N.

    2015-07-01

    The kinetics of dissociation of phthalocyanine complexes with cerium(III) and neodymium(III) (X)LnPc (X = Cl-, Br-, AcO-) under the action of acetic acid in ethanol with isolation of the macrocyclic ligand depending on the temperature was studied. The kinetic equations with the numerical values of rate constants, activation parameters, and the stoichiometric mechanisms with the limiting simple reaction between the nonionized AcOH molecule and (phthalocyaninato)lanthanide(III) in the axially coordinated ((X)LnPc, cerium complexes) or axially ionized ([(AcOH)LnPc]+X-, neodymium complexes) state were derived by solving the direct and inverse problems. As shown by a comparative analysis of quantitative kinetic data, the state is determined by the electronic structure of the metal cation and the mutual effect of the axial and equatorial ligands in the first coordination sphere.

  15. TGF-{beta} modulates {beta}-Catenin stability and signaling in mesenchymal proliferations

    SciTech Connect

    Amini Nik, Saeid; Ebrahim, Rasoul Pour; Dam, Kim van; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Tejpar, Sabine . E-mail: sabine.tejpar@med.kuleuven.be

    2007-08-01

    Here for the first time we showed, despite the oncogenic mutations in {beta}-Catenin, that TGF-{beta} is a modulator of {beta}-Catenin levels in tumoral fibroblasts as well as non-tumoral fibroblasts. The results show that the TGF-{beta} pathway is active in desmoids cells and in in situ tumors. A dose dependent increase in {beta}-Catenin protein levels was observed after TGF-{beta} treatment in combination with an increased repression of GSK-3{beta} both in normal and tumoral fibroblasts. TGF-{beta} stimulation also led to an altered - up to 5 fold - transcriptional activity of {beta}-Catenin responsive promoters, such as IGFBP6 as well as increase of TOPflash activity. TGF-{beta} stimulation increased cell proliferation and BrdU incorporation 2.5 times. Taken together, we propose that TGF-{beta} is a modulator of {beta}-Catenin levels in tumoral fibroblasts and non-tumoral fibroblasts, despite the oncogenic mutations already present in this gene in tumoral fibroblasts of desmoid tumors. This modulation of {beta}-Catenin levels by TGF-{beta} may be involved in determining the tumoral phenotype of the cells.

  16. Evaluation of naked eye single tube red cell osmotic fragility test in detecting beta-thalassemia trait.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, K; Lokeshwar, M R; Birewar, N; Nigam, V; Manglani, M V; Raju, N B

    1991-05-01

    The Naked Eye Single Tube Red Cell Osmotic Fragility Test (NESTROFT) was applied to 4 groups of subjects: (i) Normal; (ii) Proven beta-thalassemia trait carriers; (iii) Iron deficiency anemia; and (iv) other hemoglobinopathies, to evaluate its effectiveness as a screening test for beta-thalassemia minor. The test was successful in detecting 105/110 subjects with beta-thalassemia trait. The sensitivity of the test was 95.5% and specificity was 87%. The predictive value of the positive test was 70.5% and that of the negative test was 98.3%. NESTROFT was also positive in 9/17 subjects with HbS trait, in 3/3 subjects with HbD trait and in 1/1 subjects with HbE trait. The test proved to be simple, cheap, easy to perform and adaptable for field surveys, coming close to an ideal screening test for beta-thalassemia minor.

  17. A synthetic peptide from the heparin-binding domain III (repeats III4-5) of fibronectin promotes stress-fibre and focal-adhesion formation in melanoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, José V; Maqueda, Alfredo; Albar, Juan P; Garcia-Pardo, Angeles

    2003-01-01

    Cell adhesion to fibronectin results in formation of actin stress fibres and focal adhesions. In fibroblasts, this response requires two co-operative signals provided by interactions of the RGD sequence with alpha5beta1 integrin and the heparin-binding domain II (Hep II) domain with syndecan-4. Within Hep II, this activity was mapped to repeat III13 and to the peptide FN-C/H-V(WQPPRARITGY, repeat III14). We previously described that the synthetic heparin-binding peptide/III5 (HBP/III5) (WTPPRAQITGYRLTVGLTRR, repeat III5) binds heparin and mediates cell adhesion via chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans. We have now studied whether HBP/III5 co-operates with alpha5beta1 and drives a full cytoskeletal response in melanoma cells. SKMEL-178 cells attached and spread on the RGD-containing FNIII7-FNIII10 (FNIII7-10) fragment, but did not form stress fibres or focal adhesions. Co-immobilization of HBP/III5 with FNIII7-10 or adding soluble HBP/III5 to cells prespread on FNIII7-10, effectively induced these structures. Cell transfection with dominant-negative N19RhoA, a member of the small GTPase family, abolished the HBP/III5 effect. Both chondroitinase and heparitinase diminished focal adhesions, indicating that both types of proteoglycans bound HBP/III5 in melanoma cells. We have mapped the active sequence of HBP/III5 to YRLTVGLTRR, which is a novel sequence in fibronectin with focal-adhesion-promoting activity. The last two arginine (R) residues of this sequence are required for activity, since their replacement by alanine completely abrogated the HBP/III5 cytoskeletal effect. Moreover, this sequence is also active in the context of large fibronectin fragments. Our results establish that the Hep III region provides co-operative signals to alpha5beta1 for the progression of the cytoskeletal response and that these include activation of RhoA. PMID:12519080

  18. The START III bargaining space

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, T.H.

    1998-08-01

    The declining state of the Russian military and precarious Russian economic condition will give the US considerable advantages at the START III bargaining table. Taking the US-RF asymmetries into account, this paper discusses a menu of START III measures the US could ask for, and measures it could offer in return, in attempting to negotiate an equitable treaty. Measures the US might seek in a START III treaty include: further reductions in deployed strategic nuclear warheads, irreversibility of reductions through warhead dismantlement; beginning to bring theater nuclear weapons under mutual control, and increased transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. The US may, however, wish to apply its bargaining advantages to attempting to achieve the first steps toward two long-range goals that would enhance US security: bringing theater nuclear weapons into the US-RF arms control arena, and increasing transparency into the Russian nuclear weapons complex. In exchange for measures relating to these objectives, the US might consider offering to Russia: Further strategic weapons reductions approaching levels at which the Russians believe they could maintain a degree of parity with the US; Measures to decrease the large disparities in potential deliver-system uploading capabilities that appear likely under current START II/START III scenarios; and Financial assistance in achieving START II/START III reductions as rapidly as is technically possible.

  19. A method for isolating beta-casein.

    PubMed

    Ward, L S; Bastian, E D

    1996-08-01

    A new method was developed for obtaining pure beta-CN. Calcium caseinate (3%) was reconstituted, renneted to form a gel, cooled (4 degrees C) to allow beta-CN dissociation from the caseinate gel, and centrifuged. The supernatant was warmed to 30 degrees C, precipitating pure beta-CN from solution. Large quantities of beta-CN were recovered by scaling-up this procedure, but these beta-CN preparations were less pure than the beta-CN that was prepared on a smaller scale. Chromatography (FPLC) and urea-PAGE showed beta-CN to be the main component in the precipitate. Chymosin, used to form the caseinate gel, did not extensively hydrolyze beta-CN under the conditions of these experiments. Calcium concentration, cooling time, and caseinate concentration influenced the recovery of beta-CN. Maximum recovery of beta-CN, under the experimental conditions used, occurred at 10 mM calcium, 48 h of cooling, and 3% caseinate concentration.

  20. Activation of human platelets by antibodies to thymocytes and beta 2-microglobulin. I. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the platelet aggregation induced by HATG and SA beta 2mG.

    PubMed Central

    Csákó, G; Suba, E A; Wistar, R

    1980-01-01

    The platelet effect of antibody preparations known to have immunosuppressive action was investigated by a turbidimetric method in vitro. Both horse anti-human thymocyte globulin (HATG) and sheep anti-human beta 2-microglobulin IgG (SA beta 2mG) caused the platelets to aggregate in all human platelet-rich plasmas (PRP) tested. The aggregation was usually irreversible and characterized by a sigmoid curve. The action is specific for the antibodies in HATG and SA beta 2mG because control preparations (horse normal IgG and IgG fractions of sheep normal, anti-dog IgG and anti-human IgA sera) were ineffective; further, heating (30 min at 56 degrees C) and BaSO4 or Al(OH)3 adsorption of HATG and SA beta 2mG did not alter their aggregating capability. When HATG and SA beta 2mG were added together to PRP, they induced aggregation in a simple additive manner. High antibody doses tended to decrease the extent of aggregation. The effect of platelet count on aggregation varied with both the dose level ('low' or 'high') and type (HATG or SA beta 2mG) of the inducer antibody. Using fixed submaximal doses, four main aggregation patterns could be recognized among 60 PRP: (i) high responses to both HATG and SA beta 2mG; (ii) high to HATG, low to SA beta 2mG; (iii) low to HATG, high to SA beta 2mG; and (iv) low to both. The results provide guidelines for quantitative aggregation studies with platelet antibodies and suggest that HATG and SA beta 2mG act through distinct platelet membrane components, the receptor for the latter being the best characterized protein of the mammalian cell membrane. PMID:6156042

  1. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes; Camats, Jordi; Molinero, Amalia; Campbell, Iain L; Palmiter, Richard D; Hidalgo, Juan

    2003-06-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area surrounding the lesioned tissue, along with signs of increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. There was also significant upregulation of cytokines/growth factors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 alpha/beta, and IL-6 as measured by ribonuclease protection assay. Mt3-null mice did not differ from control mice in these responses, in sharp contrast to results obtained in Mt1- Mt2-null mice. In contrast, Mt3-null mice showed increased expression of several neurotrophins as well as of the neuronal sprouting factor GAP-43. Thus, unlike MT-I and MT-II, MT-III does not affect the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process.

  2. Thermal and optical properties of Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) co-complexed silicone fluorinated acrylate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yinfeng; Xie, Hongde; Cai, Haijun; Cai, Peiqing; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-07-01

    Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) activated silicone fluorinated acrylate (SFA) have been successfully synthesized using the method of semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. The copolymers are characterized by flourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. The copolymer containing Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions display green and red luminescent colors under UV light excitation, respectively. The TGA curves show the thermal decomposition temperatures of the copolymers are up to about 300 °C. The PL spectra show a strong green emission at 546 nm (5D4 → 7F5) of Tb(III) complexed copolymers, and show a prominent red emission at 615 nm (5D0 → 7F2) of Eu(III) complexed copolymers. Different concentrations of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions are introduced into the copolymer and the energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) ions in the copolymer was found. Thus, based on the results it can be suggested that SFA:Eu(III), SFA:Tb(III) and SFA:Tb(III)/Eu(III) can be used potentially as luminescent materials.

  3. Beta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter covers the use of wild beets in sugar beet improvement, including the basic botany of the species, its distribution; geographical locations of genetic diversity; morphology; cytology and karyotype; genome size; taxonomic position; agricultural status (model plant/weeds/invasive species/...

  4. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  5. The construction and characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lacking protein III in its outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Protein III (PIII) is a highly conserved, antigenically stable gonococcal outer membrane protein that is closely associated with the major outer membrane protein, protein I (PI). We have previously reported the cloning of the PIII gene. This gene was inserted into the Eco RI site of the runaway plasmid pMOB45. The beta-lactamase (beta la) Bam HI restriction fragment from the gonococcal plasmid pFA3 was inserted at the Xba I site in the PIII gene. The plasmid construct was Hae III methylated and the PIII/beta la insert was excised with Eco RI and used to transform gonococcal strain F62. One beta la+, ampicillin- resistant transformant was isolated and designated 2D. A Western blot of 2D whole cell lysate was probed with affinity-purified polyclonal PIII antisera. No PIII reactivity was detected. Southern blot analysis was performed on F62 and 2D chromosomal DNA that were cut with Eco RI or Cla I. A PIII DNA probe hybridized with fragments 2.2 kb larger in strain 2D than strain F62. This corresponds to the size of the beta la insert. A beta la-specific probe hybridized with the same 2D restriction fragments as above, but did not react with any F62 fragments, confirming that homologous recombination had occurred. There were minimal phenotypic changes between 2D and its parent strain, F62. Chromosomal DNA from 2D was able to transform gonococcal strains F62, UU1, and Pgh 3-2, rendering these PIII-. 2D and other PIII- transformants can now be used to study the role of PIII in gonococcal physiology, metabolism, membrane structure, and pathogenesis. Moreover, we now have organisms from which we can purify gonococcal proteins without PIII contamination. PMID:2499656

  6. Beta adrenergic receptor blockade of feline myocardium. Cardiac mechanics, energetics, and beta adrenoceptor regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G; Kent, R L; McGonigle, P; Watanabe, A M

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial oxygen consumption is regulated by interrelated mechanical and inotropic conditions; there is a parallel increase in the aerobic metabolism and inotropic state during beta-adrenergic stimulation under fixed mechanical conditions. In contrast, there is some evidence that beta-blockade may reduce oxygen consumption through effects independent of its influence on mechanical conditions and contractile state, and that prolonged beta-blockade may sensitize the myocardium to beta-adrenergic stimulation. To clarify these two points, the present study examined the relationship of myocardial energetics to mechanics and inotropism during acute beta-blockade and after the withdrawal of long-term beta-blockade, whereupon the basis for any effect observed was sought by characterizing the number, affinity, and affinity states of the beta-receptors as well as the coupling of activated beta-receptors to cyclic AMP generation. Studies of right ventricular papillary muscles from control and chronically beta-blocked cats demonstrated contractile and energetic properties as well as dose-response behavior and inotropic specificity suggestive of an increase in myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation in the latter group. Assays of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors from further groups of control and pretreated cats, both in cardiac tissue and in isolated cardiac muscle cells, failed to define a difference between the two groups either in terms of receptor number and affinity or in terms of the proportion of receptors in the high-affinity state. However, coupling of the activated beta-adrenoceptors to cyclic AMP generation was enhanced in cardiac muscle cells from chronically beta-blocked cats. These data demonstrate that beta-adrenoceptor blockade (a) produces parallel effects on inotropic state and oxygen consumption without an independent effect on either and (b) increases myocardial sensitivity to beta-adrenergic stimulation after beta-blockade withdrawal, not by "up

  7. Human globin gene analysis for a patient with beta-o/delta beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ottolenghi, S; Lanyon, W G; Williamson, R; Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B; Pitcher, C S

    1975-01-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA) was prepared with RNA-dependent DNA polymerase from human globin messenger RNA (mRNA). Annealing and translation experimenta with total mRNA from circulating cells from a patient with heterozygous beta/heterozygous beta-delta-o thalassemia (beta-o/delta beta-o-thalassemia) demonstrated no detectable mRNA for beta-globin. cDNA enriched in sequences homologous to beta-globin mRNA was prepared by hydroxylapatite fractionation of hybrids formed between beta-o/delta beta-o-thalassemic mRNA and cDNA made from mRNA from a patient with alpha-thalassemia (hemoglobin H disease). The rate of annealing of this beta-enriched cDNA to normal human nuclear DNA was that of a sequence present as only a single copy per haploid genome. The beta-enriched cDNA annealed to the beta-o-delta beta-o-thalassemia total DNA with approximately the same kinetics as to normal DNA, indicating that no total gene deletion of beta-globin genes from the diploid genome has occurred, although the accuracy of the technique could not exclude with certainty a partial deletion or a deletion of a beta-globin gene from only one of the haploid genomes. This demonstrates that at least one of the beta-o- or the delta beta-o-thalassemia haploid genomes in this case contains a substantially intact beta-globin gene. PMID:49057

  8. First Stars III Conference Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, B. W.; McKee, C. F.; Heger, A.; Abel, T.

    2008-03-01

    The understanding of the formation, life, and death of Population III stars, as well as the impact that these objects had on later generations of structure formation, is one of the foremost issues in modern cosmological research and has been an active area of research during the past several years. We summarize the results presented at "First Stars III," a conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics. This conference, the third in a series, took place in July 2007 at the La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A.

  9. Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    In this paper we briefly review the concepts of Neutrino Factories and Beta Beam facilities, and indicate the main challenges in terms of beam performance and technological developments. We also describe the worldwide organizations that have embarked on defining and carrying out the necessary R&D on component design, beam simulations of facility performance, and benchmarking of key subsystems via actual beam tests. Currently approved subsystem tests include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the Mercury Intense Target (MERIT) experiment, to be carried out at CERN. These experiments are briefly described, and their schedules are indicated.

  10. [Plasma beta-2-microglobulin in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, A; Giordano, N; Loi, F; D'Amato, S; Castagna, M L; Frati, E; Marcolongo, R

    1984-09-30

    The beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) is a low molecular weight protein, recognized on the cellular membranes of numerous nucleated cells and strictly correlated to the antigens of Major Histocompatibility Complex. Many authors have demonstrated an increase of the plasmatic beta 2m in different inflammatory diseases and, particularly in rheumatic ones, as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Reiter's syndrome, Ankylosing Spondylitis, Systemic lupus erythematosus. We have also investigated the behaviour of the plasmatic beta 2m in 52 RA patients and in 17 healthy subjects. The beta 2m was measured in serum, by radioimmunoassay. We have demonstrated that the plasmatic beta 2m has moderately increased in the serum of RA patients, even if there is not a significant difference when compared to the normal subjects.

  11. Neutrino Mass from Beta Decay of the Free Neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegen, R.; Miller, H. G.

    We calculate the beta decay rate of the free neutron including effects due to (i) a neutrino mass around 1 eV, (ii) deviations from the leptonic V-A structure, (iii) nucleon form factors F1,2V (q2), GA(q2), and (iv) W- propagation. At the end-point energies linear neutrino mass effects in n -> p + e- + ¯ {ν }e are almost exclusively kinematical. If the neutrino spectrum is (almost) degenerate, neutrino oscillations cannot uniquely determine the mass of the neutrino, and direct mass determinations become necessary. The traditional Kurie plot and a partially integrated decay rate are found to be sensitive to a neutrino mass between 1 eV and 3 eV.

  12. Mechanical design of the third FnIII domain of tenascin-C.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing; Zhuang, Shulin; Wang, Meijia; Cao, Yi; Khor, Yuanai; Li, Hongbin

    2009-03-13

    By combining single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM), proline mutagenesis and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations, we investigated the mechanical unfolding dynamics and mechanical design of the third fibronectin type III domain of tenascin-C (TNfn3) in detail. We found that the mechanical stability of TNfn3 is similar to that of other constituting FnIII domains of tenascin-C, and the unfolding process of TNfn3 is an apparent two-state process. By employing proline mutagenesis to block the formation of backbone hydrogen bonds and introduce structural disruption in beta sheet, we revealed that in addition to the important roles played by hydrophobic core packing, backbone hydrogen bonds in beta hairpins are also responsible for the overall mechanical stability of TNfn3. Furthermore, proline mutagenesis revealed that the mechanical design of TNfn3 is robust and the mechanical stability of TNfn3 is very resistant to structural disruptions caused by proline substitutions in beta sheets. Proline mutant F88P is one exception, as the proline mutation at position 88 reduced the mechanical stability of TNfn3 significantly and led to unfolding forces of < 20 pN. This result suggests that Phe88 is a weak point of the mechanical resistance for TNfn3. We used SMD simulations to understand the molecular details underlying the mechanical unfolding of TNfn3. The comparison between the AFM results and SMD simulations revealed similarities and discrepancies between the two. We compared the mechanical unfolding and design of TNfn3 and its structural homologue, the tenth FnIII domain from fibronectin. These results revealed the complexity underlying the mechanical design of FnIII domains and will serve as a starting point for systematically analyzing the mechanical architecture of other FnIII domains in tenascins-C, and will help to gain a better understanding of some of the complex features observed for the stretching of native tenascin-C.

  13. Spectrophotometric and electrochemical determination of the formation constants of the complexes Curcumin-Fe(III)-water and Curcumin-Fe(II)-water.

    PubMed

    Bernabé-Pineda, Marganta; Ramírez-Silva, Maria Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario Alberto; González-Vergara, Enrique; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto

    2004-04-01

    The formation of complexes among the Curcumin, Fe(III) and Fe(II) was studied in aqueous media within the 5-11 pH range by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry. When the reaction between the Curcumin and the ions present in basic media took place, the resulting spectra of the systems Curcumin-Fe(III) and Curcumin-Fe(II) presented a similar behaviour. The cyclic voltammograms in basic media indicated that a chemical reaction has taken place between the Curcumin and Fe(III) before that of the formation of complexes. Data processing with SQUAD permitted to calculate the formation constants of the complexes Curcumin-Fe(III), corresponding to the species FeCur (lob beta110 = 22.25 +/- 0.03) and FeCur(OH)- (log beta111 = 12.14 +/- 0.03), while for the complexes Curcumin-Fe(II) the corresponding formation constants of the species FeCur- (log beta110 = 9.20 +/- 0.04), FeHCur (log beta111 = 19.76 +/- 0.03), FeH2Cur+ (log beta112 = 28.11 +/- 0.02).

  14. Pulsational mode-typing in line profile variables. I - Four Beta Cephei stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campos, A. J.; Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed variations of line profiles in the Beta Cephei-type variable stars Gamma Pegasi, Beta Cephei, Delta Ceti and Sigma Scorpii are modeled throughout their pulsation cycles in order to classify the dominant pulsation mode as radial or nonradial. High-dispersion Reticon observations of the variables were obtained for the Si III line at 4567 A, and line profiles broadened by radial or nonradial pulsations, rotation and radial-tangential macroturbulence were calculated based on a model atmosphere. It is found that only a radial pulsation mode can reproduce the radial velocity amplitude, changes in line asymmetry and uniform line width observed in all four stars. Results are in agreement with the color-to-light arguments of Stamford and Watson (1978), and suggest that radial pulsation plays the dominant role in the observed variations in most Beta Cephei stars. Evidence for shocks or moving shells is also found in visual line data for Sigma Scorpii and an ultraviolet line of Beta Cephei, together with evidence of smooth, secular period changes in Beta Cephei and Delta Ceti.

  15. Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, E.E.

    1984-08-30

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  16. IKK and (Beta) - Catenin in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    activity is not due to a decrease in total beta-catenin protein levels, however, the dephosphorylated form of beta-catenin within the nucleus...2000. 19. Staal F J, Noort MM, Strous G J, and Clevers HC, Wnt signals are transmitted through N-terminally dephosphorylated beta-catenin. EMBO Rep. 3...catenin is phoshorylated sequentially by casein kinase 1 (CK1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-P (GSK-313) (4,52); activation of frizzled receptors by Wnt

  17. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Aselage, Terrence L.; Emin, David

    2002-01-01

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15beta radiation source, and means for transmitting electrical energy to an outside load. The icosahedral boride compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  18. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  19. High-density SNP genotyping to define beta-globin locus haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Muralidhar, Shalini; Singh, Manisha; Sylvan, Caprice; Kalra, Inderdeep S; Quinn, Charles T; Onyekwere, Onyinye C; Pace, Betty S

    2009-01-01

    Five major beta-globin locus haplotypes have been established in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) from the Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian populations. Historically, beta-haplotypes were established using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis across the beta-locus, which consists of five functional beta-like globin genes located on chromosome 11. Previous attempts to correlate these haplotypes as robust predictors of clinical phenotypes observed in SCD have not been successful. We speculate that the coverage and distribution of the RFLP sites located proximal to or within the globin genes are not sufficiently dense to accurately reflect the complexity of this region. To test our hypothesis, we performed RFLP analysis and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across the beta-locus using DNA samples from healthy African Americans with either normal hemoglobin A (HbAA) or individuals with homozygous SS (HbSS) disease. Using the genotyping data from 88 SNPs and Haploview analysis, we generated a greater number of haplotypes than that observed with RFLP analysis alone. Furthermore, a unique pattern of long-range linkage disequilibrium between the locus control region and the beta-like globin genes was observed in the HbSS group. Interestingly, we observed multiple SNPs within the HindIII restriction site located in the Ggamma-globin intervening sequence II which produced the same RFLP pattern. These findings illustrated the inability of RFLP analysis to decipher the complexity of sequence variations that impacts genomic structure in this region. Our data suggest that high-density SNP mapping may be required to accurately define beta-haplotypes that correlate with the different clinical phenotypes observed in SCD.

  20. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S; Farnaby, Joy H; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G; Love, Jason B; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on U(III) and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to Np(IV). Here we report the synthesis of three new Np(III) organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that Np(III) complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of Np(II) is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key Np(III) orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  1. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  2. Modulation of DNA polymerase beta-dependent base excision repair in cultured human cells after low dose exposure to arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, Peter; Snow, Elizabeth T.

    2008-05-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is crucial for development and for the repair of endogenous DNA damage. However, unlike nucleotide excision repair, the regulation of BER is not well understood. Arsenic, a well-established human carcinogen, is known to produce oxidative DNA damage, which is repaired primarily by BER, whilst high doses of arsenic can also inhibit DNA repair. However, the mechanism of repair inhibition by arsenic and the steps inhibited are not well defined. To address this question we have investigated the regulation of DNA polymerase {beta} (Pol {beta}) and AP endonuclease (APE1), in response to low, physiologically relevant doses of arsenic. GM847 lung fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to sodium arsenite, As(III), and mRNA, protein levels and BER activity were assessed. Both Pol {beta} and APE1 mRNA exhibited significant dose-dependant down regulation at doses of As(III) above 1 {mu}M. However, at lower doses Pol {beta} mRNA and protein levels, and consequently, BER activity were significantly increased. In contrast, APE1 protein levels were only marginally increased by low doses of As(III) and there was no correlation between APE1 and overall BER activity. Enzyme supplementation of nuclear extracts confirmed that Pol {beta} was rate limiting. These changes in BER correlated with overall protection against sunlight UV-induced toxicity at low doses of As(III) and produced synergistic toxicity at high doses. The results provide evidence that changes in BER due to low doses of arsenic could contribute to a non-linear, threshold dose response for arsenic carcinogenesis.

  3. Sсandium(III) Beta-diketonate Derivatives as Precursors for Oxide Film Deposition by CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherikova, Kseniya V.; Zelenina, Ludmila N.; Chusova, Tamara P.; Morozova, Natalia B.; Trubin, Sergey V.; Vikulova, Eugeniia S.

    Complexes with acetylacetone Sc(acac)3, dipivaloylmethane Sc(thd)3, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-fluoro-3,5-heptanedione Sc(tfhd)3, pivaloyltrifluoroacetone Sc(ptac)3, trifluoroacetylacetone Sc(tfac)3, and hexafluoroacetylacetone Sc(hfac)3 were synthesized, purified and identified by elemental analysis, m.p., IR and NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The thermal behaviour of the synthesized compounds in the solid state was investigated by the method of difference-scanning calorimetry in vacuum. As a result the thermodynamic characteristics of the melting processes were determined. The temperature dependences of saturated and unsaturated vapour pressure of complexes under study were measured by static method with membrane-gauge manometers. The average molecular weight of gas calculated from the experimental data on unsaturated vapours using ideal gas law was close to the molecular weight of monomer for all investigated compounds. Decomposition temperatures of compounds under study were defined as the temperature above that pressure changes became irreversible. The information about melting and decomposition processes were taken into account at measuring saturated vapour pressure of complexes. The row of volatility Sc(hfac)3 > Sc(ptac)3 > Sc(tfac)3 > Sc(thd)3 ≥ Sc(tfhd)3 > Sc(acac)3 was determined from the p-T dependences obtained. Above information about thermal behaviour of complexes enabled one to use it as a guide for CVD experiments aimed at achieving oxide films with high optical properties. Precursor chosen for film deposition was Sc(thd)3 The Sc2O3 film deposition conditions were following: the gas-carrier rate 1 l/h, He gas-reagent rate 10 l/h, total pressure 10 Torr, evaporator temperature 105-110̊С, substrate temperature 450- 650̊С, substrate Si(100). Ellipsometry was applied to characterize the film thickness and refractive index. The morphology and the composition of the films were determined with XPS and SEM.

  4. Antisense therapeutics for tumor treatment: the TGF-beta2 inhibitor AP 12009 in clinical development against malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Schlingensiepen, K H; Fischer-Blass, B; Schmaus, S; Ludwig, S

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta2) is a hallmark of various malignant tumors including pancreatic carcinoma, malignant glioma, metastasizing melanoma, and metastatic colorectal carcinoma. This is due to the pivotal role of TGF-beta2 as it regulates key mechanisms of tumor development, namely immunosuppression, metastasis, angiogenesis, and proliferation. The antisense technology is an innovative technique offering a targeted approach for the treatment of different highly aggressive tumors and other diseases. Antisense oligonucleotides are being developed to inhibit the production of disease-causing proteins at the molecular level. The immunotherapeutic approach with the phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide AP 12009 for the treatment of malignant tumors is based on the specific inhibition of TGF-beta2. After providing preclinical proof of concept, the safety and efficacy of AP 12009 were assessed in clinical phase I/II open-label dose-escalation studies in recurrent or refractory high-grade glioma patients. Median survival time after recurrence exceeded the current literature data for chemotherapy. Currently, phase I/II study in advanced pancreatic carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, and metastatic colorectal carcinoma and a phase IIb study in recurrent or refractory high-grade glioma are ongoing. The preclinical as well as the clinical results implicate targeted TGF-beta2 suppression as a promising therapeutic approach for malignant tumor therapy.

  5. Novel chitosan/collagen scaffold containing transforming growth factor-{beta}1 DNA for periodontal tissue engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yufeng; Cheng Xiangrong . E-mail: Xiangrongcheng@hotmail.com; Wang Jiawei; Wang Yining; Shi Bin; Huang Cui; Yang Xuechao; Liu Tongjun

    2006-05-26

    The current rapid progression in tissue engineering and local gene delivery system has enhanced our applications to periodontal tissue engineering. In this study, porous chitosan/collagen scaffolds were prepared through a freeze-drying process, and loaded with plasmid and adenoviral vector encoding human transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1). These scaffolds were evaluated in vitro by analysis of microscopic structure, porosity, and cytocompatibility. Human periodontal ligament cells (HPLCs) were seeded in this scaffold, and gene transfection could be traced by green fluorescent protein (GFP). The expression of type I and type III collagen was detected with RT-PCR, and then these scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice. Results indicated that the pore diameter of the gene-combined scaffolds was lower than that of pure chitosan/collagen scaffold. The scaffold containing Ad-TGF-{beta}1 exhibited the highest proliferation rate, and the expression of type I and type III collagen up-regulated in Ad-TGF-{beta}1 scaffold. After implanted in vivo, EGFP-transfected HPLCs not only proliferated but also recruited surrounding tissue to grow in the scaffold. This study demonstrated the potential of chitosan/collagen scaffold combined Ad-TGF-{beta}1 as a good substrate candidate in periodontal tissue engineering.

  6. Correlation of Beta Angle with Antero-Posterior Dysplasia Indicators and FMA: An Institution Based Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gurinder; Verma, Sanjeev; Singh, Devinder Preet; Yadav, Achla Bharti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beta angle utilizes three skeletal landmarks – point A, point B, and point C (the apparent axis of the condyle). It is formed between A-B line and point A perpendicular to C-B line. Further this angle indicates the severity and the type of skeletal dysplasia in the sagittal dimension and it changes with the growth pattern of the patient. Hence, it is important to study the dependence of beta angle on the growth pattern. Aim The present study was designed to evaluate the correlation of Beta angle with point A–Nasion–point B (ANB) angle, points A and B to palatal plane (App-Bpp), Wit’s appraisal and Maxillary-Mandibular plane angle Bisector (MMB) and Frankfort-Mandibular plane Angle (FMA) in Skeletal Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusion groups. Materials and Methods Pre-treatment lateral head cephalo-grams of 120 subjects in age group of 15-25 years were obtained. Three skeletal Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusion groups (40 each) were assorted on the basis of ANB, MMB, App-Bpp, Wit’s appraisal and FMA. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean differences were calculated to compare the study groups. Bivariate correlations among different parameters of these groups were obtained. Results Normal values of beta angle in skeletal Class I group, skeletal Class II group and skeletal Class III group was 31.33±3.25, 25.28±4.28 and 40.93±4.55 respectively. Overall beta angle showed a strong correlation with all parameters of anterio-posterior dysplasia indicators except FMA. Conclusion Beta angle shows weak correlation with FMA and is not affected by growth pattern/jaw rotation. The normal values are in same range irrespective of the differences in craniofacial morphology. PMID:28050509

  7. Interaction of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) with proteinase 3.

    PubMed

    Kekow, J; Csernok, E; Szymkowiak, C; Gross, W L

    1997-01-01

    TGF beta is a multifunctional cytokine modulating onset and course of autoimmune diseases as shown in experimental models. Aim of this study was to investigate possible interactions of TGF beta with lysosomal enzymes identified as ANCA autoantigens (e.g. proteinase 3, PR3). This included TGF beta effects on the translocation the lysosomal enzymes to the cell surface of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and the presumabe activation of non bioactive, latent TGF beta by these enzymes. Flow cytometry analysis showed TGF beta 1 to be a potent translocation factor for PR3 comparable with other neutrophil activating factors such as interleukin 8 (IL8). The PR3 membrane expression on primed PMN increased by up to 51% after incubation with TGF beta 1. PR3 itself was revealed as a potent activator of latent TGF beta, thus mediating bioeffects of this cytokine. Patients with various types of systemic vasculitis (SV) showed marked TGF beta overexpression correlating with disease. Mean TGF beta 1 plasma levels in the ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV) patients ranged from 8.9 (Wegeners granulomatosis, WG) to 13.3 ng/ml (Churg-Strauss syndrome, CSS)(control: 4.2 ng/ml, p < 0.01) while TGF beta 2 levels were not elevated. Our findings, together with other features of TGF beta's such as induction of angiogenesis and its strong chemotactic capacity, indicate that TGF beta might serve as a proinflammatory factor in SV, especially in AAV.

  8. Pin1 promotes production of Alzheimer's amyloid {beta} from {beta}-cleaved amyloid precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Uchida, Chiyoko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Uchida, Takafumi . E-mail: uchidat@cir.tohoku.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is involved in the A{beta} production central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Enzyme immunoassay of brains of the Pin1-deficient mice revealed that production of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 was lower than that of the wild-type mice, indicating that Pin1 promotes A{beta} production in the brain. GST-Pin1 pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Pin1 binds phosphorylated Thr668-Pro of C99. In the Pin1 {sup -/-} MEF transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the levels of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 compared to that without Pin1 co-transfection. In COS7 cells transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the generation of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42, and reduced the expression level of C99, facilitating the C99 turnover. Thus, Pin1 interacts with C99 and promotes its {gamma}-cleavage, generating A{beta}40 and A{beta}42. Further, GSK3 inhibitor lithium blocked Pin1 binding to C99 by decreasing Thr668 phosphorylation and attenuated A{beta} generation, explaining the inhibitory effect of lithium on A{beta} generation.

  9. The role of beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors in isoproterenol-induced drinking.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R F; Novak, C M; Thunhorst, R L; Johnson, A K

    1994-09-05

    The present study examined the contribution of beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptor activation to drinking behavior and the stimulation of plasma renin activity produced by the mixed beta adrenoceptor agonist, isoproterenol. The stimulation of drinking by beta adrenoceptor activation could occur via two independent pathways; by either directly stimulating renal beta1 adrenoceptors on the juxtaglomerular cells to release renin or by stimulating vascular beta2 adrenoceptors that would decrease blood pressure and activate afferent neural and humoral mechanisms. Selective pharmacological antagonism of each adrenoceptor type was achieved by administering atenolol (2.5 mg/kg), a beta1 adrenoceptor antagonist, or ICI 118,551 (1 mg/kg), a beta2 adrenoceptor antagonist, before treatment with isoproterenol (25 micrograms/kg). Neither adrenoceptor mechanism alone could account for all of the water intake or stimulation of plasma renin activity due to isoproterenol treatment. Cardiovascular recordings confirmed the selectivity of the antagonists to their respective receptor subtypes, with atenolol blocking the beta1 adrenoceptor-mediated heart rate increases and ICI 118,551 blocking the beta 2 adrenoceptor-mediated depressor response to isoproterenol. The results provide evidence that the stimulation of both beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors by isoproterenol acts in a synergistic manner to induce drinking and renin-angiotensin system activation.

  10. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ββ-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ββ-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  11. Amide I'-II' 2D IR spectroscopy provides enhanced protein secondary structural sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Deflores, Lauren P; Ganim, Ziad; Nicodemus, Rebecca A; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2009-03-11

    We demonstrate how multimode 2D IR spectroscopy of the protein amide I' and II' vibrations can be used to distinguish protein secondary structure. Polarization-dependent amide I'-II' 2D IR experiments on poly-l-lysine in the beta-sheet, alpha-helix, and random coil conformations show that a combination of amide I' and II' diagonal and cross peaks can effectively distinguish between secondary structural content, where amide I' infrared spectroscopy alone cannot. The enhanced sensitivity arises from frequency and amplitude correlations between amide II' and amide I' spectra that reflect the symmetry of secondary structures. 2D IR surfaces are used to parametrize an excitonic model for the amide I'-II' manifold suitable to predict protein amide I'-II' spectra. This model reveals that the dominant vibrational interaction contributing to this sensitivity is a combination of negative amide II'-II' through-bond coupling and amide I'-II' coupling within the peptide unit. The empirically determined amide II'-II' couplings do not significantly vary with secondary structure: -8.5 cm(-1) for the beta sheet, -8.7 cm(-1) for the alpha helix, and -5 cm(-1) for the coil.

  12. Breakpoints in Robertsonian translocations are localized to satellite III DNA by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gravholt, C.H.; Friedrich, U.; Caprani, M.; Jorgensen, A.L. )

    1992-12-01

    The authors characterized 21 t(13;14) and 3 t(14;21) Robertsonian translocations for the presence of DNA derived from the short arms of the translocated acrocentric chromosomes and identified their centromeres. Nineteen of these 24 translocation carriers were unrelated. Using centromeric [alpha]-repeat DNA as chromosome-specific probe, they found by in situ hybridization that all 24 translocation chromosomes were dicentric. The chromatin between the two centromeres did not stain with silver, and no hybridization signal was detected with probes for rDNA or [beta]-satellite DNA that flank the distal and proximal ends of the rDNA region on the short arm of the acrocentrics. By contrast, all 24 translocation chromosomes gave a distinct hybridization signal when satellite III DNA was used as probe. This result strongly suggests that the chromosomal rearrangements leading to Robertsonian translocations occur preferentially in satellite III DNA. The authors hypothesize that guanine-rich satellite III repeats may promote chromosomal recombination by formation of tetraplex structures. The findings localize satellite III DNA to the short arm of the acrocentric chromosomes distal to centromeric [alpha]-repeat DNA and proximal to [beta]-satellite DNA. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Beta-glucosidase I variants with improved properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, Richard R.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kralj, Slavko; Kruithof, Paulien; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Der Kley, Wilhelmus Antonious Hendricus; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander

    2016-09-20

    The present disclosure is generally directed to enzymes and in particular beta-glucosidase variants. Also described are nucleic acids encoding beta-glucosidase variants, compositions comprising beta-glucosidase variants, methods of using beta-glucosidase variants, and methods of identifying additional useful beta-glucosidase variants.

  14. Thymosin beta4: actin regulation and more.

    PubMed

    Yarmola, Elena G; Klimenko, Evguenia S; Fujita, Go; Bubb, Michael R

    2007-09-01

    The intracellular function of thymosin beta(4) is not limited to simple sequestration of globular actin. Our recent studies revealed that thymosin beta(4) affects actin critical concentration and forms a ternary complex with actin and profilin. The consequences of this complex formation can be very significant. Our new data demonstrate that it is likely that profilin affects binding of thymosin beta(4) to actin in the ternary complex through allosteric changes in actin rather than through competition for the binding site. The N- and C-terminal thymosin beta(4) helices are known to be unstructured in aqueous solution and to adopt helical conformation in organic solvents or upon binding to actin. Osmolytes stabilize protein structure, and TMAO (trimethylamine N-oxide) specifically stabilizes hydrogen bonds. This increases affinity of intact thymosin beta(4) to actin significantly, but the increase is much less for thymosin beta(4) sulfoxide. Our data show that oxidation does not alter binding of profilin to form a ternary complex, and therefore it is very likely that there is no direct steric interference by methionine 6 of thymosin beta(4). Rather, since TMAO has little effect on thymosin beta(4) sulfoxide, this observation is consistent with the hypothesis that methionine oxidation prevents helix transition. The experiment with truncated versions of thymosin beta(4) also supports this hypothesis. Oxidation and formation of the helices are important for both intra- and extracellular properties of thymosin beta(4). We found that actin and, in lesser extent, profilin-actin complex protect thymosin beta(4) from oxidation.

  15. Cytoplasmic beta-catenin in esophageal cancers.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Shiozaki, H; Doki, Y; Yamamoto, M; Utsunomiya, T; Kawanishi, K; Fukuchi, N; Inoue, M; Tsujinaka, T; Monden, M

    1999-04-20

    beta-Catenin has 2 distinct roles in E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion and carcinogenesis through APC gene mutation. One occurs at cell-adhesion sites, where cadherins become linked to the actin-based cytoskeleton. The others occur in the cytoplasm and nuclei and are thought to regulate cell transformation. We studied these different beta-catenins and evaluated their significance in carcinogenesis. Fresh surgical specimens were obtained from 22 patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus. beta-Catenin in the free soluble fraction and the insoluble fraction was immunoblotted separately. At the same time, its localization was observed by immuno-histochemical techniques. In the normal esophageal epithelium, 91% of beta-catenin was detected in the insoluble fraction and beta-catenin staining occurred at the cell membrane, in co-existence with E-cadherin. In cancerous tissues, the amount of soluble beta-catenin was significantly (about 4-fold) higher than in normal tissues. Also, in cancerous tissues with higher amounts of soluble beta-catenin, immuno-histochemical techniques revealed the presence of beta-catenin in the cytoplasm and nuclei, as well as in the cell membrane. However, in samples with lower amounts of beta-catenin, expression was found only at the cell boundaries. The amount of soluble beta-catenin was not associated with the clinico-pathological grading of the tumors. Our results show that the accumulation of free soluble beta-catenin in the cytoplasm and nuclei frequently occurs during carcinogenesis of the squamous epithelium of the esophagus.

  16. Subcutaneous administration of collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone down regulates IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1, ELAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in scleroderma skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Furuzawa-Carballeda, J; Krötzsch, E; Barile-Fabris, L; Alcalá, M; Espinosa-Morales, R

    2005-01-01

    In this study the effect of collagen-polyvinylpyrrolidone (collagen-PVP) vs. triamcinolone acetonide (Triam) in scleroderma (SSc) skin lesions was evaluated. Ten SSc patients were treated weekly with subcutaneous injections of 0.2 mL Triam (8 mg/mL) or 0.2 mL collagen-PVP (1.66 mg collagen). Skin biopsies were obtained from lesions before and after treatment. Tissue sections were evaluated by histology and immunohistochemistry (ELAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and PDGF). The corticoid-treated group showed abnormal tissue architecture while the biodrug-treatment restored cutaneous appendages and type I/III collagen proportion. Cytokine and adhesion molecule expression was almost inhibited with Triam, while collagen-PVP down-regulated it. Collagen-PVP improved the tissue architecture of SSc lesions and down-regulated some proinflammatory parameters, without the side effects induced by corticoids.

  17. Mucolipidosis types II and III and non-syndromic stuttering are associated with different variants in the same genes.

    PubMed

    Raza, M Hashim; Domingues, Carlos E F; Webster, Ronald; Sainz, Eduardo; Paris, Emily; Rahn, Rachel; Gutierrez, Joanne; Chow, Ho Ming; Mundorff, Jennifer; Kang, Chang-Soo; Riaz, Naveeda; Basra, Muhammad A R; Khan, Shaheen; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Braun, Allen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Homozygous mutations in GNPTAB and GNPTG are classically associated with mucolipidosis II (ML II) alpha/beta and mucolipidosis III (ML III) alpha/beta/gamma, which are rare lysosomal storage disorders characterized by multiple pathologies. Recently, variants in GNPTAB, GNPTG, and the functionally related NAGPA gene have been associated with non-syndromic persistent stuttering. In a worldwide sample of 1013 unrelated individuals with non-syndromic persistent stuttering we found 164 individuals who carried a rare non-synonymous coding variant in one of these three genes. We compared the frequency of these variants with those in population-matched controls and genomic databases, and their location with those reported in mucolipidosis. Stuttering subjects displayed an excess of non-synonymous coding variants compared to controls and individuals in the 1000 Genomes and Exome Sequencing Project databases. We identified a total of 81 different variants in our stuttering cases. Virtually all of these were missense substitutions, only one of which has been previously reported in mucolipidosis, a disease frequently associated with complete loss-of-function mutations. We hypothesize that rare non-synonymous coding variants in GNPTAB, GNPTG, and NAGPA may account for as much as 16% of persistent stuttering cases, and that variants in GNPTAB and GNPTG are at different sites and may in general, cause less severe effects on protein function than those in ML II alpha/beta and ML III alpha/beta/gamma.

  18. Solution thermodynamics and structures of biscatecholamide complexes of Fe(III) and U(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Gohdes, J.W.; Reilly, S.D.; Pecha, A.W.; Neu, M.P.

    1996-12-31

    We have studied the solution and solid-state complexes of a bis-catecholamide ligand, 2-LICAMS, with Fe(III) and U(VI). The first protonation constant was found to be pK{sub al} = 14.2(3) using {sup 1}H NMR titrations. Subsequent protonation constants were determined by potentiometric titration in 0.1 M TMAOTf at 25{degrees}C to be pK{sub a2} = 11.2(1), pK{sub 13} =6.5(1), pK{sub a4}= 5.9(1). Ligand-metal formation constants, {Beta}{sub mlh}, were found to be log {beta}{sub 110} = 31.4(2), log {beta}{sub 111} = 31.7(2), log {beta}{sub 112} = 34.9(2), and log {beta}11.1 = 18.0(1) for uranium(VI). To discriminate between monomeric or dimeric species models which both fit the potentiometric titration data, we isolated the hydroxide species and determined its single-crystal X-ray structure and EXAFS. The structure consists of a dimeric, bis-hydroxide bridged iron core which is spanned by two ligands. This study of solution equilibria indicates a higher stability for iron complexes of 2-LICAMS relative to uranyl complexes.

  19. Optical observations of close binaries with the Mark III Stellar Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, X. P.; Shao, M.; Colavita, M. M.; Armstrong, T.; Mozurkewich, D.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time, four spectroscopic binaries have been directly resolved with the Mark III Stellar Interferometer. Observations in 1988 and 1989 were analyzed, and visual orbits for four binaries have been determined. The semimajor axes for Beta Tri, Alpha Equ, Alpha And and Beta Ari are approximately 0.008 arcsec, 0.012 arcsec, 0.024 arcsec and 0.037 arcsec, respectively. The magnitude differences between two components are 0.5, 0.7, 1.8 and 2.6 mag, respectively. All of the orbital elements for Alpha And and Beta Ari were determined from interferometric data only, and agree well with spectroscopic observations. Predictions of relative position between the two components for these binaries are consistent with the measurements to less than 0.001 arcsec. Combined with data from spectroscopy, masses and distance for the double-lined spectroscopic binary Beta Ari are derived, and the results indicate that both components of Beta Ari agree well with the empirical mass-luminosity relation.

  20. The Beta Cage: Screening Low Radioactive Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinar, K.; Akerib, D.; Grant, D.; Schnee, R.; Shutt, T.; Golwala, S.; Ahmed, Z.

    2006-10-01

    The beta cage is a proposed multi-wire proportional chamber that will be the most sensitive device available to screen low-energy (200 keV) betas emitted at rates as low as 10-5 counts keV^1 cm-2 day-1 (of order 10-4 Bq/m^2). The expected sensitivity and details of the construction and commissioning of its prototype chamber are presented. The prototype beta cage is a 50x50x25 cm frame gridded by stacked wire planes contained in a chamber of gas. To reduce background, the chamber contains only enough mass to stop betas of interest. Samples are placed beneath the grid; the wires multiply the betas and collect their electron avalanche. Readouts allow discrimination of its events from background and determination of the beta (or alpha) source. The beta cage has potential use in carbon or tritium dating, with ^3H/^1H sensitivity of 10-20 and ^ 14C/ ^12C sensitivity of 10-18. Its design was motivated by CDMS, whose sensitivity to the dark matter candidate WIMPs is currently limited by low-energy beta contamination.

  1. Beta maritima: the Origin of Beets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Along the undisturbed shores, especially of the Mediterranean Sea and the European North Atlantic Ocean, is a widespread plant called Beta maritima (Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima) by the botanists, or more commonly sea beet. Nothing for the inexperienced observer's eye distinguishes it from surr...

  2. Modeling the beta diversity of coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Harborne, Alastair R; Mumby, Peter J; Zychaluk, Kamila; Hedley, John D; Blackwell, Paul G

    2006-11-01

    Quantifying the beta diversity (species replacement along spatiotemporal gradients) of ecosystems is important for understanding and conserving patterns of biodiversity. However, virtually all studies of beta diversity focus on one-dimensional transects orientated along a specific environmental gradient that is defined a priori. By ignoring a second spatial dimension and the associated changes in species composition and environmental gradients, this approach may provide limited insight into the full pattern of beta diversity. Here, we use remotely sensed imagery to quantify beta diversity continuously, in two dimensions, and at multiple scales across an entire tropical marine seascape. We then show that beta diversity can be modeled (0.852 > or = r2 > or = 0.590) at spatial scales between 0.5 and 5.0 km2, using the environmental variables of mean and variance of depth and wave exposure. Beta diversity, quantified within a "window" of a given size, is positively correlated to the range of environmental conditions within that window. For example, beta diversity increases with increasing variance of depth. By analyzing such relationships across seascapes, this study provides a framework for a range of disparate coral reef literature including studies of zonation, diversity, and disturbance. Using supporting evidence from soft-bottom communities, we hypothesize that depth will be an important variable for modeling beta diversity in a range of marine systems. We discuss the implications of our results for the design of marine reserves.

  3. Shielding for beta-gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J J

    1993-06-01

    The build-up factor, B, for lead was expressed as a polynominal cubic function of the relaxation length, mu x, and incorporated in a "general beta-gamma shielding equation." A computer program was written to determine shielding thickness for polyenergetic beta-gamma sources without resorting to the conventional "add-one-HVL" method.

  4. Beta-agonists and animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of beta-agonists in animal feed is a high profile topic within the U.S. as consumers and activist groups continue to question its safety. The only beta-agonist currently available for use in swine is ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). This is available as Paylean™ (Elanco Animal Health – FDA a...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: beta-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... D-mannosidosis Orphanet: Beta-mannosidosis The MPS Society (UK): Guide to Beta-Mannosidosis (PDF) Patient Support and ... Advocate for Glycoprotein Storage Diseases The MPS Society (UK) ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles ...

  6. Venus: Geology of Beta Regio rift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishin, A. M.; Borozdin, V. K.; Bobina, N. N.

    1992-01-01

    Beta Regio is characterized by the existence of rift structures. We compiled new geologic maps of Beta Regio according to Magellan data. There are many large uplifted tesserae on beta upland. These tesserae are partly buried by younger volcanic cover. We can conclude, using these observations, that Beta upland formed mainly due to lithospheric tectonic uplifting and was only partly constructed by volcanism. Theia Mons is the center of the Beta rift system. Many rift belts are distributed radially to Theia Mons. Typical widths of rifts are 40-160 km. Rift valleys are structurally represented by crustal grabens or half-grabens. There are symmetrical and asymmetrical rifts. Many rifts have shoulder uplifts up to 0.5-1 km high and 40-60 km wide. Preliminary analysis for rift valley structural cross sections lead to the conclusion that rifts originated due to 5-10 percent crustal extension. Many rifts traverse Beta upland and spread to the surrounding lowlands. We can assume because of these data that Beta rift system has an active-passive origin. It formed due to regional tectonic lithospheric extension. Rifting was accelerated by upper-mantle hot spot origination under the center of passive extension (under the Beta Regio).

  7. Expression pattern and localization of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase in different tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, A; Wirtz, G M; Woggon, W D; Brugger, R; Wyss, M; Friedlein, A; Riss, G; Bachmann, H; Hunziker, W

    2001-01-01

    Beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase cleaves beta,beta-carotene into two molecules of retinal, and is the key enzyme in the metabolism of beta,beta-carotene to vitamin A. The enzyme has been known for more than 40 years, yet all attempts to purify the protein to homogeneity have failed. Recently, the successful cloning and sequencing of an enzyme with beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase activity from chicken, as well as from Drosophila, has been reported. Here, we describe in detail our attempt to enrich the chicken beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase to such an extent as to allow determination of partial amino acid sequences, which were then used to design degenerate oligonucleotides. Screening of a chicken duodenal expression library yielded a full-length clone containing a coding sequence of 1578 bp. Functional expression in Escherichia coli and in eukaryotic cell lines confirmed that we had cloned the first vertebrate dioxygenase that cleaves beta,beta-carotene at the central 15,15'-double bond. By performing a sequence homology search, the cDNA sequence of the mouse homologue was found as an expressed sequence tag (EST) in the gene bank. At the amino-acid level, the degree of homology between the chicken and mouse sequences is 81%. Thus beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase can be considered as being an enzyme that is evolutionarily rather well conserved. We established the expression pattern of beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase in chicken and mouse tissues with a combination of Northern blots and in situ hybridization. The mRNA for beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase was localized primarily in duodenal villi, as well as in liver and in tubular structures of lung and kidney. These new findings demonstrate that beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase is also expressed in epithelial structures, where it serves to provide the tissue-specific vitamin A supply. PMID:11237856

  8. PBX: the Princeton beta experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Chance, M.; Dewar, R.

    1983-09-01

    A rearrangement of the divertor coils in PDX will enable a test in 1984 of the MHD stability properties of deeply indented bean-shaped plasmas. The goal is a beta of 10%. Indentation is expected to counter the deterioration of MHD stability against pressure driven modes that is occasioned by the larger aspect ratios typical of anticipated reactor oriented devices. Indeed, as shown by M. Chance et al., indentation may offer direct access to the second region of stability for ballooning modes, and numerical analyses with PEST show the internal kink to be stabilized completely with even relatively modest indentation. The internal kink is implicated in the loss of beam ions in PDX. In this report the theoretical basis for the forthcoming experiment, and the design considerations underlying the modification from PDX to PBX, are described in detail. Additional theoretical material, including an analysis of particle orbits in an indented tokamak plasma, is appended.

  9. Generalized Beta Mixtures of Gaussians.

    PubMed

    Armagan, Artin; Dunson, David B; Clyde, Merlise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a rich variety of shrinkage priors have been proposed that have great promise in addressing massive regression problems. In general, these new priors can be expressed as scale mixtures of normals, but have more complex forms and better properties than traditional Cauchy and double exponential priors. We first propose a new class of normal scale mixtures through a novel generalized beta distribution that encompasses many interesting priors as special cases. This encompassing framework should prove useful in comparing competing priors, considering properties and revealing close connections. We then develop a class of variational Bayes approximations through the new hierarchy presented that will scale more efficiently to the types of truly massive data sets that are now encountered routinely.

  10. DREAM: Research to Operations Beta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Reiner; Reeves, Geoffrey; Zaharia, Sorin; Koller, Josef; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Mike; Thomsen, Davis

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a dataassimilative model of the Earth's radiation belts that has, until recently, been used primarily as a re-search tool to understand radiation belt dynamics and to develop Kalman filter techniques for application to magnetospheric modeling. More recently, the emphasis of the DREAM program has shifted toward implementation of an operational prototype for testing and validation at the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Space Weather Forecast Laboratory (SWFL) and NASA's Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). The transition has required significant effort, funding, and shifting of priorities that serve as a recent example of the oppor-tunities and challenges of transitioning a model from research to operations (R2O). DREAM is still in the early stages of transition to operations but we do not see any significant obstacles to success. We present here the BETA version of this model, operating in real-time, using GOES energetic particle data as input.

  11. Beta-glucuronidase in physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Basińska, Agnieszka; Floriańczyk, Bolesław

    2003-01-01

    beta-glucoronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) is a lysosomal enzyme catylysing the decomposition of beta-D-glucoronides--compounds arising as a result of the combination of beta-D-glucoronic acid and a number of compounds both exo- and endogenous, containing hydroxylic, carboxylic, amine, imine or thiol groups. The most common test evaluating the activity of the enzyme is that using phenolphtalein glucoronide as a biosynthetic substrate. The freed aglycons are colorimetrically assayed. The activity of beta-glucoronidase increases in many pathological conditions: liver infammations, cirrhosis of the liver, inflammations of other organs, cholestatic jaundice, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and also in neoplasms. Many authors point to beta-glucoronidase as a sensitive indicator signalling cell damage.

  12. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-10-07

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  13. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  14. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  15. Precision measurements in 20F beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Maximilian; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Voytas, Paul; George, Elizabeth; Paulauskas, Stan; Huyan, Xueying

    2017-01-01

    Precision measurements of the shape of the beta particle energy spectrum provide a sensitive window to search for new interactions beyond the standard model. The decay of 20F offers an attractive system due to the simple decay scheme for a coincidence measurement. A beam of 20F ions, produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, was implanted into a beta-detector. A gamma-ray detection system surrounded the beta detector to detect the beta-delayed gammas in coincidence to reduce the background. Preliminary analysis of these data focus on the half-life of 20F due to the statistical inconsistency of previous work. Monte Carlo simulations are ongoing to analyze the shape of the beta energy spectrum. Results of the analysis of the half-life will be presented. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1102511.

  16. Singular points of protein beta-sheets.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W. M.; Chou, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Protein beta-sheets can be regarded as surfaces. Two surfaces can be connected along a common edge to form a larger surface, or two edges of a surface can coalesce to form a closed sheet such as a beta-barrel. Singular points are locations where these connections are not perfect. In protein beta-sheets, a singular point is characterized by a residue separating two beta-ladders. In this paper, we study the singular points of protein beta-sheets from the surface topologic viewpoint, summarize our search results from the protein structural data in the Protein Data Bank, and present examples where singular points are near the active sites and may contribute to forming the proper relative positions of catalytic residues. PMID:9827998

  17. Gamma-ray blind beta particle probe

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.

    2001-01-01

    An intra-operative beta particle probe is provided by placing a suitable photomultiplier tube (PMT), micro channel plate (MCP) or other electron multiplier device within a vacuum housing equipped with: 1) an appropriate beta particle permeable window; and 2) electron detection circuitry. Beta particles emitted in the immediate vicinity of the probe window will be received by the electron multiplier device and amplified to produce a detectable signal. Such a device is useful as a gamma insensitive, intra-operative, beta particle probe in surgeries where the patient has been injected with a beta emitting radiopharmaceutical. The method of use of such a device is also described, as is a position sensitive such device.

  18. Beta Pictoris planet finally imaged?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    A team of French astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have discovered an object located very close to the star Beta Pictoris, and which apparently lies inside its disc. With a projected distance from the star of only 8 times the Earth-Sun distance, this object is most likely the giant planet suspected from the peculiar shape of the disc and the previously observed infall of comets onto the star. It would then be the first image of a planet that is as close to its host star as Saturn is to the Sun. Sharpening Up Jupiter ESO PR Photo 42a/08 Beta Pictoris as seen in infrared light The hot star Beta Pictoris is one of the best-known examples of stars surrounded by a dusty 'debris' disc. Debris discs are composed of dust resulting from collisions among larger bodies like planetary embryos or asteroids. They are a bigger version of the zodiacal dust in our Solar System. Its disc was the first to be imaged -- as early as 1984 -- and remains the best-studied system. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and infalling comets onto the star. "These are indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggest the presence of a massive planet lying between 5 and 10 times the mean Earth-Sun distance from its host star," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "However, probing the very inner region of the disc, so close to the glowing star, is a most challenging task." In 2003, the French team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [1]), mounted on one of the 8.2 m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to benefit from both the high image quality provided by the Adaptive Optics system at infrared wavelengths and the good dynamics offered by the detector, in order to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris. Recently, a member of the team re-analysed the data in a different way to seek the trace of a companion to the star. Infrared wavelengths are indeed very well suited for such searches. "For this, the real challenge

  19. Inverse Beta: Inverse cumulative density function (CDF) of a Beta distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David

    2014-03-01

    The Beta Inverse code solves the inverse cumulative density function (CDF) of a Beta distribution, allowing one to sample from the Beta prior directly. The Beta distribution is well suited as a prior for the distribution of the orbital eccentricities of extrasolar planets; imposing a Beta prior on orbital eccentricity is valuable for any type of observation of an exoplanet where eccentricity can affect the model parameters (e.g. transits, radial velocities, microlensing, direct imaging). The Beta prior is an excellent description of the current, empirically determined distribution of orbital eccentricities and thus employing it naturally incorporates an observer’s prior experience of what types of orbits are probable or improbable. The default parameters in the code are currently set to the Beta distribution which best describes the entire population of exoplanets with well-constrained orbits.

  20. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin {beta}E subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Osamu . E-mail: ohashim@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp; Ushiro, Yuuki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Yoshioka, Kazuki; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2006-03-10

    Activins, TGF-{beta} superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin {beta} subunit genes, {beta}C and {beta}E, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin {beta}E subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells.

  1. The lipolytic effect of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptor activation in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Haffner, C A; Kendall, M J; Maxwell, S; Hughes, B

    1993-01-01

    1. We investigated the effect of activation beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors on the process of lipolysis in human volunteers. Ten male subjects underwent a single-blind randomized cross-over trial using infusions of terbutaline (a specific beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist), xamoterol (a partial beta 1-agonist with beta 2-adrenoceptor blocking activity) and saline (placebo control). The effect of these infusions on plasma potassium, glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) (total and individual) and insulin levels was studied. 2. Terbutaline infusion induced a significant rise in plasma glucose and a fall in plasma potassium in keeping with its beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulant properties. Xamoterol infusion had no significant effect on these values. Terbutaline infusion caused a greater rise in total and individual FFA than xamoterol, but both effects were significantly different from placebo. 3. The possible reasons for these results and their implications on the beta-adrenergic control of lipolysis are discussed. PMID:8383517

  2. Jovian type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    Radio bursts have been observed in the Voyager plasma wave data from Jupiter that bear a striking resemblance to solar type III radio bursts. The emissions lie in the frequency range near 10 kHz, have durations of a minute or so, and occur in a set of periodically spaced bursts. The spacing between primary bursts is typically 15 min, but the bursts may have additional components which recur on time scales of about 3 min. The similarity with solar type III radio bursts suggests a source mechanism involving the movement of energetic electrons through a density gradient in the plasma surrounding Jupiter. The periodicity of bursts suggests Io may be involved in the generation of waves, since the timing is similar to the Alfven wave travel time from one hemisphere to the other through the Io torus.

  3. Transition probabilities in O III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froese Fischer, Charlotte

    1994-01-01

    Transition data has been computed in the MCHF + Breit-Pauli approximation for a number of the low lying triplets in O III. Special attention was given to the 2p3p 3P-2p3d 3P transition which is a primary cascade for the Bowen fluorescence mechanism in O III. The relativistic, largely spin-orbit, effect on the intensity ratio of primary decays was found to be as large as 50%, whereas the effect on secondary cascades was less than 30%. Agreement with astrophysically observed intensity ratios is excellent. There also is good agreement between the present liftimes and the beam-foil mean lifetimes obtained by Pinnington et al., though for 2p3p 3D and 3S the theoretical lifetimes are considerably shorter.

  4. NIF Title III engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, G

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the work that must be accomplished by the NIF Project during Title III Engineering. This definition is intended to be sufficiently detailed to provide a framework for yearly planning, to clearly identify the specific deliverables so that the Project teams can focus on them, and to provide a common set of objectives and processes across the Project. This plan has been preceded by similar documents for Title I and Title II design and complements the Site Management Plan, the Project Control Manual, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, the RM Parsons NIF Title III Configuration Control Plan, the Integrated Project Schedule, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, the Configuration Management Plan, and the Transition Plan.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Dopamine beta (β)-hydroxylase deficiency is a condition that ...

  6. Silver europium(III) polyphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ayadi, Mounir; Férid, Mokhtar; Moine, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Europium(III) silver polyphosphate, AgEu(PO3)4, was prepared by the flux method. The atomic arrangement is built up by infinite (PO3)n chains (periodicity of 4) extending along the c axis. These chains are joined to each other by EuO8 dodeca­hedra. The Ag+ cations are located in the voids of this arrangement and are surrounded by five oxygen atoms in a distorted [4+1] coordination. PMID:21582031

  7. Organometallic neptunium(III) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Michał S.; Farnaby, Joy H.; Apostolidis, Christos; Colineau, Eric; Walter, Olaf; Magnani, Nicola; Gardiner, Michael G.; Love, Jason B.; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Caciuffo, Roberto; Arnold, Polly L.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of transuranic organometallic complexes provide a particularly valuable insight into covalent contributions to the metal-ligand bonding, in which the subtle differences between the transuranium actinide ions and their lighter lanthanide counterparts are of fundamental importance for the effective remediation of nuclear waste. Unlike the organometallic chemistry of uranium, which has focused strongly on UIII and has seen some spectacular advances, that of the transuranics is significantly technically more challenging and has remained dormant. In the case of neptunium, it is limited mainly to NpIV. Here we report the synthesis of three new NpIII organometallic compounds and the characterization of their molecular and electronic structures. These studies suggest that NpIII complexes could act as single-molecule magnets, and that the lower oxidation state of NpII is chemically accessible. In comparison with lanthanide analogues, significant d- and f-electron contributions to key NpIII orbitals are observed, which shows that fundamental neptunium organometallic chemistry can provide new insights into the behaviour of f-elements.

  8. Intestinal lactase as an autologous beta-galactosidase reporter gene for in vivo gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Siamak; Eckley, Lorna; Sawyer, Greta J; Zhang, Xiaohong; Dong, Xuebin; Freund, Jean-Noel; Fabre, John W

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal lactase has potential as an autologous beta-galactosidase reporter gene for long-term gene expression studies in vivo, using chromogenic, luminescent, and fluorogenic substrates developed for Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase. In normal rat tissues, reactivity with a chromogenic fucopyranoside (X-Fuc, the preferred substrate of lactase) was present only at the lumenal surface of small intestine epithelial cells. Full-length lactase (domains I-IV), mature lactase (domains III and IV), and a cytosolic form of mature lactase (domains III and IV, without the signal sequence or transmembrane region) were evaluated. Transfection of HuH-7 cells in vitro, and hydrodynamic gene delivery to the liver in vivo, resulted in excellent gene expression. The full-length and mature (homodimeric, membrane-bound) forms reacted strongly with X-Fuc but not with the corresponding galactopyranoside (X-Gal). However, the presumptively monomeric cytosolic lactase unexpectedly reacted equally well with both substrates. The fluorogenic substrate fluorescein-di-beta-D-galactopyranoside was cleaved by cytosolic lactase, but not by full-length or mature lactase. Full-length lactase, when expressed ectopically in hepatocytes in vivo, localized exclusively to the bile canalicular membrane. Intestinal lactase is highly homologous in mice, rats, and humans and has considerable potential for evaluating long-term gene expression in experimental animals and the clinic.

  9. Beta planar source quality assurance with the Fricke xylenol gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva-Sánchez, Mirko S.; de Oliveira, Lucas N.; Petchevist, Paulo C.; Moreira, Marco V.; de Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-03-01

    Beta therapy is employed in post surgery to treat lesions such as pterygia, keloid and glioblastoma. The beta source most used for these purposes is 90/90Y, whose quality assurance is a challenge, because the detectors currently used for this evaluation do not satisfy the spatial resolution, the effective atomic number and the tissue equivalent conditions. The Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) has been used in several applications in radiotherapy due to its better characteristics. This dosimeter is associated with the Fe(II) to Fe(III) oxidation, post ionizing irradiation, being the final Fe(III) concentration linearly depended on the absorbed dose. The goal of this present work is to show that the FXG, with atomic effective number (Zeff) of 7.75 and high resolution (<1 mm), accomplishes quality assurance for rectangular and square planar 90Sr/90Y sources. In order to demonstrate the quality assurance, calibration curves, percentage depth dose and beam profile from exposed FXG samples were analyzed and from these results, we demonstrate the potential use of the FXG dosimeter for beta source quality control.

  10. Comparison of Salivary Beta Glucuronidase Activity in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    ND, Jayakumar; Varghese, Sheeja

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to estimate the salivary beta glucuronidase (β) activity in patients with chronic periodontitis with and without diabetes mellitus and to evaluate the relationship between Beta Glucuronidase activity and Periodontal clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 80 patients of both sexes with age ranging from 20-60 years and they were divided into four groups. Clinical parameters such as Gingival index, Probing depth and Clinical attachment loss were measured. Salivary Beta Glucuronidase activity was measured using spectrophotometer with reagents like phenolphthalein glucuronic acid, phosphate and glycine buffer. Results: The mean BG activity of Group IV (1.17 ± 0.27) was significantly higher than mean BGA levels of Group I, II, III. The p-value was < 0.05. The mean BGA levels of Group III (0.78 ± 0.17) was significantly higher than mean BGA levels of Group I, Group II at 5 % level. There was a significant positive linear relationship between salivary β Glucuronidase level and Probing Depth, clinical attachment level in the experimental Groups. Conclusion: The salivary β Glucuronidase level was higher in Diabetic patients with periodontitis than nondiabetic periodontitis patients. PMID:25121058

  11. Association of europium(III), americium(III), and curium(III) with cellulose, chitin, and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Takuo; Kimura, Takaumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kirishima, Akira; Yoshida, Takahiro; Isobe, Hiroshi; Francis, Arokiasamy J

    2006-08-01

    The association of trivalent f-elements-Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III)--with cellulose, chitin, and chitosan was determined by batch experiments and time-resolved, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The properties of these biopolymers as an adsorbent were characterized based on speciation calculation of Eu(III). The adsorption study showed that an increase of the ionic strength by NaCl did not affect the adsorption kinetics of Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) for all the biopolymers, but the addition of Na2CO3 significantly delayed the kinetics because of their trivalent f-element complexation with carbonate ions. It also was suggested from the speciation calculation study that all the biopolymers were degraded under alkaline conditions, leading to their masking of the adsorption of Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) on the nondegraded biopolymers. The masking effect was higher for cellulose than for chitin and chitosan, indicating that of the three, cellulose was degraded most significantly in alkaline solutions. Desorption experiments suggested that some portion of the adsorbed Eu(III) penetrated deep into the matrix, being isolated in a cavity-like site. The TRLFS study showed that the coordination environment of Eu(III) is stabilized mainly by the inner spherical coordination in chitin and by the outer spherical coordination in chitosan, with less association in cellulose in comparison to chitin and chitosan. These results suggest that the association of these biopolymers with Eu(III), Am(III), and Cm(III) is governed not only by the affinity of the functional groups alone but also by other factors, such as the macromolecular steric effect. The association of degraded materials of the biopolymers also should be taken into consideration for an accurate prediction of the influence of biopolymers on the migration behavior of trivalent f-elements.

  12. Purification of an isoflavonoid 7-O-beta-apiosyl-glucoside beta-glycosidase and its substrates from Dalbergia nigrescens Kurz.

    PubMed

    Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Hua, Yanling; Svasti, Jisnuson; Sakdarat, Santi; Sullivan, Patrick A; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2005-08-01

    A beta-glycosidase was purified from the seeds of Dalbergia nigescens Kurz based on its ability to hydrolyse p-nitrophenyl beta-glucoside and beta-fucoside. This enzyme did not hydrolyze various glycosidic substrates efficiently, so it was used to identify its own natural substrates. Two substrates were identified, isolated and their structures determined as: compound 1, dalpatein 7-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and compound 2, 6,2',4',5'-tetramethoxy-7-hydroxy-7-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (dalnigrein7-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside). The beta-glycosidase removes the sugar from these glycosides as a disaccharide, despite its initial identification as a beta-glucosidase and beta-fucosidase.

  13. Low-dose paclitaxel ameliorates renal fibrosis in rat UUO model by inhibition of TGF-beta/Smad activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongshan; Sun, Lin; Xian, Wang; Liu, Fuyou; Ling, Guanghui; Xiao, Li; Liu, Yanhong; Peng, Youmin; Haruna, Yoshisuke; Kanwar, Yashpal S

    2010-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has a pivotal function in the progression of renal fibrosis in a wide variety of renal diseases. Smad proteins have been identified to have an important function in regulating the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins through TGF-beta signaling pathway. Aberrant TGF-beta/Smad signaling can be modulated by stabilization of microtubules with paclitaxel. In this study, we investigated if paclitaxel can attenuate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Rats in groups of six were subjected to UUO and received low-dose intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (0.3 mg/kg) twice a week. They were killed at day 7 and 14 after UUO or Sham operation. TGF-beta signaling cascade and status of various ECM proteins were evaluated by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical or immunofluorescence staining. The paclitaxel treatment markedly suppressed Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation. This was associated with attenuated expression of integrin-linked kinase, collagens I and III, fibronectin (FN) and alpha-smooth muscle actin, and a substantial decrease in renal fibrosis in animals that underwent UUO and received paclitaxel. These data indicate that the low-dose paclitaxel ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis by modulating TGF-beta signaling, and thus, the paclitaxel may have some therapeutic value in humans.

  14. 21 CFR 1308.13 - Schedule III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule III. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.13 Schedule III. (a) Schedule III shall consist of the drugs and other substances,...

  15. 21 CFR 1308.13 - Schedule III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule III. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.13 Schedule III. (a) Schedule III shall consist of the drugs and other substances,...

  16. Sequence swapping does not result in conformation swapping for the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 beta-hairpin turns in human acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaewon; Lee, Jihun; Brych, Stephen R; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The beta-turn is the most common type of nonrepetitive structure in globular proteins, comprising ~25% of all residues; however, a detailed understanding of effects of specific residues upon beta-turn stability and conformation is lacking. Human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) is a member of the beta-trefoil superfold and contains a total of five beta-hairpin structures (antiparallel beta-sheets connected by a reverse turn). beta-Turns related by the characteristic threefold structural symmetry of this superfold exhibit different primary structures, and in some cases, different secondary structures. As such, they represent a useful system with which to study the role that turn sequences play in determining structure, stability, and folding of the protein. Two turns related by the threefold structural symmetry, the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 turns, were subjected to both sequence-swapping and poly-glycine substitution mutations, and the effects upon stability, folding, and structure were investigated. In the wild-type protein these turns are of identical length, but exhibit different conformations. These conformations were observed to be retained during sequence-swapping and glycine substitution mutagenesis. The results indicate that the beta-turn structure at these positions is not determined by the turn sequence. Structural analysis suggests that residues flanking the turn are a primary structural determinant of the conformation within the turn.

  17. A functional model for pMMO (particulate methane monooxygenase): Hydroxylation of alkanes with H2O2 catalyzed by beta-diketiminatocopper(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Chizu; Teraoka, Junji; Tachi, Yoshimitsu; Itoh, Shinobu

    2006-05-01

    The reaction of copper(II) complexes supported by a series of beta-diketiminate ligands ((R1,R2)L, [(Dipp)N-C(R(2))-C(R(1))-C(R(2))-N(Dipp)](-), Dipp=2,6-diisopropylphenyl; see ) and H(2)O(2) has been examined spectroscopically at a low temperature. The beta-diketiminatocopper(II) complexes with R(2)=H (no substituent on the beta-carbon) provided a copper-oxygen intermediate that exhibited the same spectroscopic features as those of the bis(mu-oxo)dicopper(III) complex generated by the reaction of corresponding beta-diketiminatocopper(I) complex and O(2). On the other hand, the beta-diketiminatocopper(II) complexes with methyl substituent on the beta-carbon (R(2)=Me) did not produce such an intermediate in the same reaction. The beta-diketiminatocopper(II) complexes carrying an electron-withdrawing substituent on the alpha-carbon (R(1)=NO(2) or CN) but no beta-substituent (R(2)=H) exhibited a high catalytic activity in the oxygenation reaction of alkanes with H(2)O(2). Mechanism of the catalytic oxygenation reaction as well as the substituent effects of the ligands on the copper(II)-H(2)O(2) reactivity is discussed.

  18. Bactericidal capacity of newborn phagocytes against group B beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, I D; Robinson, O M; Bazán, T S; López-Osuna, M; Kretschmer, R R

    1981-01-01

    The bactericidal capacity of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes obtained from normal newborn infants and from healthy adults was evaluated in vitro, using two group B beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBBHS) serotypes (GBBHS-Ia-SS-615/28 and GBBHS-III-SS-620/50) and uniform opsonic conditions. No intertype differences in bacteriolysis of these two serotypes were observed among leukocytes from newborns or adults. As group, only polymorphonuclear phagocytes from newborns disclosed a significantly lower mean bactericidal capacity than their adult cellular counterpart, and only with respect to GBBHS-III-SS-620/50. On the other hand, 4 or 16 polymorphonuclear samples from newborns tested revealed significantly low bactericidal capacities against both GBBHS serotypes, and an additional sample revealed a bactericidal capacity against GBBHS-III-SS-620/50 alone. Interstrain variations in the intrinsic bactericidal capacity of polymorphonuclear phagocytes from newborns against GBBHS-III may exist, as suggested by a single observation made by using four clinical isolates of GBBHS-III. Such deviant phagocytic capacities of polymorphonuclear phagocytes from newborns may constitute an additional selective risk factor in the genesis of GBBHS sepsis of the newborn. PMID:7030963

  19. Structure, chromosome location, and expression of the human. gamma. -actin gene: Differential evolution, location, and expression of the cytoskeletal BETA- and. gamma. -actin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Erba, H.P.; Eddy, R.; Shows, T.; Kedes, L.; Gunning, P.

    1988-04-01

    The accumulation of the cytoskeletal ..beta..-and ..gamma..-actin mRNAs was determined in a variety of mouse tissues and organs. The ..beta..-iosform is always expressed in excess of the ..gamma..-isoform. However, the molar ratio of ..beta..- to ..gamma..-actin mRNA varies from 1.7 in kidney and testis to 12 in sarcomeric muscle to 114 in liver. The authors conclude that, whereas the cytoskeletal ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actins are truly coexpressed, their mRNA levels are subject to differential regulation between different cell types. The human ..gamma..-actin gene has been cloned and sequenced, and its chromosome location has been determined. The gene is located on human chromosome 17, unlike ..beta..-actin which is on chromosome 7. Thus, if these genes are also unlinked in the mouse, the coexpression of the ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin genes in rodent tissues cannot be determined by gene linkage. Comparison of the human ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin genes reveals that noncoding sequences in the 5'-flanking region and in intron III have been conserved since the duplication that gave rise to these two genes. In contrast, there are sequences in intron III and the 3'-untranslated region which are not present in the ..beta..-actin gene but are conserved between the human ..gamma..-actin and the Xenopus borealis type 1 actin genes. Such conserved noncoding sequences may contribute to the coexpression of ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin or to the unique regulation and function of the ..gamma..-actin gene. Finally, the authors demonstrate that the human ..gamma..-actin gene is expressed after introduction into mouse L cells and C2 myoblasts and that, upon fusion of C2 cells to form myotubes, the human ..gamma..-actin gene is appropriately regulated.

  20. BACE2, a beta -secretase homolog, cleaves at the beta site and within the amyloid-beta region of the amyloid-beta precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Farzan, M; Schnitzler, C E; Vasilieva, N; Leung, D; Choe, H

    2000-08-15

    Production of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) is initiated by a beta-secretase that cleaves the Abeta precursor protein (APP) at the N terminus of Abeta (the beta site). A recently identified aspartyl protease, BACE, cleaves the beta site and at residue 11 within the Abeta region of APP. Here we show that BACE2, a BACE homolog, cleaves at the beta site and more efficiently at a different site within Abeta. The Flemish missense mutation of APP, implicated in a form of familial Alzheimer's disease, is adjacent to this latter site and markedly increases Abeta production by BACE2 but not by BACE. BACE and BACE2 respond identically to conservative beta-site mutations, and alteration of a common active site Arg inhibits beta-site cleavage but not cleavage within Abeta by both enzymes. These data suggest that BACE2 contributes to Abeta production in individuals bearing the Flemish mutation, and that selective inhibition of these highly similar proteases may be feasible and therapeutically advantageous.

  1. Resistance exercise decreases beta-endorphin immunoreactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, E F; Eastman, N W; McGowan, R W; Tripathi, H; Dewey, W L; Olson, K G

    1994-01-01

    Previous research investigating the response of plasma beta-endorphins (beta-EP) to resistance exercise has resulted in equivocal findings. To examine further the effects of resistance exercise on beta-EP immunoreactivity, 10 male and 10 female college-age students participated in a series of controlled isotonic resistance exercises. The session consisted of three sets of eight repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1-RM) for each of the following exercises: (1) bench press; (2) lateral pull-downs; (3) seated arm curls; and (4) military press. Blood plasma was sampled both before and after the lifting routine and beta-endorphin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. A Students t test for paired samples indicated that mean(s.e.) plasma beta-endorphin levels after exercise (10.5(1.3) pg beta-EP ml-1) were significantly decreased as compared with pre-exercise (control) levels (16.5(1.2), P < 0.05). While the mechanism(s) contributing to the decrease in immunoreactivity is unclear, it may be the result of the synergistic effect of beta-EP clearance during rest intervals and changes in psychological states between sampling. PMID:8000813

  2. Latent TGF-[beta] structure and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Minlong; Zhu, Jianghai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Xing; Mi, Lizhi; Walz, Thomas; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-09-16

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} is stored in the extracellular matrix as a latent complex with its prodomain. Activation of TGF-{beta}1 requires the binding of {alpha}v integrin to an RGD sequence in the prodomain and exertion of force on this domain, which is held in the extracellular matrix by latent TGF-{beta} binding proteins. Crystals of dimeric porcine proTGF-{beta}1 reveal a ring-shaped complex, a novel fold for the prodomain, and show how the prodomain shields the growth factor from recognition by receptors and alters its conformation. Complex formation between {alpha}v{beta}6 integrin and the prodomain is insufficient for TGF-{beta}1 release. Force-dependent activation requires unfastening of a 'straitjacket' that encircles each growth-factor monomer at a position that can be locked by a disulphide bond. Sequences of all 33 TGF-{beta} family members indicate a similar prodomain fold. The structure provides insights into the regulation of a family of growth and differentiation factors of fundamental importance in morphogenesis and homeostasis.

  3. Cellular pathways to beta-cell replacement.

    PubMed

    Fellous, Tariq G; Guppy, Naomi J; Brittan, Mairi; Alison, Malcolm R

    2007-02-01

    In the twenty-first century, diabetic patients are likely to be one of the major beneficiaries from the advancement of regenerative medicine through cellular therapies. Though the existence of a specific self-renewing stem cell within the pancreas is still far from clear, a surprising variety of cells within the pancreas can differentiate towards a beta-cell phenotype: ductular cells, periductular mesenchymal cells and beta-cells themselves can all give rise to new beta-cells. Extra-pancreatic adult somatic stem cells, in particular, those originating from bone marrow may also be capable of differentiating to beta-cells, though equally well the beneficial effects of bone marrow cells may reside in their contribution to the damaged islet vasculature. Forced expression of the beta-cell-specific transcription factor Pdx1 in hepatocytes also holds promise as a therapeutic strategy to increase insulin levels in diabetic individuals. Embryonic stem (ES) cells are clearly another possible source for generating beta-cells, but ES cells are beyond the scope of this review, which focuses on adult stem and progenitor cells capable of producing beta-cells. Despite considerable endeavour, we still have much to learn in the field of pancreatic regeneration prior to any clinically applicable therapy based upon adult stem cells.

  4. Infection dynamics of coexisting beta- and gammaproteobacteria in the nested endosymbiotic system of mealybugs.

    PubMed

    Kono, Marie; Koga, Ryuichi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the infection dynamics of endosymbiotic bacteria in the developmental course of the mealybugs Planococcus kraunhiae and Pseudococcus comstocki. Molecular phylogenetic analyses identified a betaproteobacterium and a gammaproteobacterium from each of the mealybug species. The former bacterium was related to the beta-endosymbionts of other mealybugs, i.e., "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps," and formed a compact clade in the Betaproteobacteria. Meanwhile, the latter bacterium was related to the gamma-endosymbionts of other mealybugs but belonged to distinct clades in the Gammaproteobacteria. Whole-mount in situ hybridization confirmed the peculiar nested formation in the endosymbiotic system of the mealybugs: the beta-endosymbiont cells were present in the cytoplasm of the bacteriocytes, and the gamma-endosymbiont cells were located in the beta-endosymbiont cells. In nymphal and female development, a large oval bacteriome consisting of a number of bacteriocytes was present in the abdomen, wherein the endosymbionts were harbored. In male development, strikingly, the bacteriome progressively degenerated in prepupae and pupae and became almost unrecognizable in adult males. In the degeneration process, the gamma-endosymbionts disappeared more rapidly than the beta-endosymbionts did. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that (i) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts in female development reflected the reproductive activity of the insects, (ii) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts were strikingly different between female development and male development, (iii) the endosymbiont populations drastically decreased in male development, and (iv) the gamma-endosymbiont populations decreased more rapidly than the beta-endosymbiont populations in male development. Possible mechanisms underlying the uncoupled regulation of the beta- and gamma-endosymbiont populations are discussed in relation to the establishment and evolution of this unique prokaryote

  5. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min; Sun, Gui-yuan; Liu, Rui-tian

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  6. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  7. Development of Demographic Norms for Four New WAIS-III/WMS-III Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Rael T.; Chelune, Gordon J.; Taylor, Michael J.; Woodward, Todd S.; Heaton, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Following the publication of the third edition Wechsler scales (i.e., WAIS-III and WMS-III), demographically corrected norms were made available in the form of a computerized scoring program (i.e., WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant). These norms correct for age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Since then, four new indexes have been…

  8. HLA-D gene studies in relation to immune responsiveness to a grass allergen Lol p III.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A A; Shinomiya, N; Zwollo, P; Marsh, D G

    1991-01-01

    The grass pollen allergen Lol p III (Mr 11,000) is a well-characterized antigen that has been found useful in immunogenetic studies of human immune responsiveness. Since immune responsiveness to this allergen is associated with HLA-DR3, we investigated whether there was any sequence in the HLA-D region that would render a person "susceptible" [antibody (Ab)-positive] to the allergen. By sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) slot-blot and sequence analyses of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified genomic DNA from Lol p III responder and nonresponder subjects, Ab responsiveness was found to be strongly associated with the sequence Glu-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Ser (EYSTS), present in the first polymorphic regions of DR beta I polypeptide chains of DR3, DR11 (split of DR5), and DRw6. Of the 41 grass-allergic subjects investigated, 19 had the EYSTS sequence, of whom 18 (95%) were Lol p III immunoglobulin G (IgG) Ab responders; among the 22 EYSTS- subjects, ten were Lol p III responders (P = 0.001, relative risk = 21.6). No such association was found with any polymorphic sequences in other DR beta chains, or in DQ alpha I and DQ beta I chains. These findings suggest that the EYSTS sequence is important in the presentation of an epitope of Lol p III; other sequence(s) may be involved in the presentation of other epitope(s). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a strong association between a specific HLA sequence and immune responsiveness to a well-defined antigen. The paper shows that presence of the EYSTS sequence classifies subjects as Lol p III responders in 18/19 cases.

  9. Fabrication of thin layer beta alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennenhouse, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Beta alumina tubes having walls 700 microns, 300 microns, and 140 microns were processed by extrusion and sintering utilizing Ford proprietary binder and fabrication systems. Tubes prepared by this method have properties similar to tubes prepared by isostatic pressing and sintering, i.e. density greater than 98% of theoretical and a helium leak rate less than 3 x 10 to the -9th power cc/sq cm/sec. Ford ultrasonic bonding techniques were used for bonding beta alumina end caps to open ended beta -alumina tubes prior to sintering. After sintering, the bond was hermetic, and the integrity of the bonded area was comparable to the body of the tube.

  10. Palladium(III) in Synthesis and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Powers, David C.; Ritter, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    While the organometallic chemistry of Pd in its (0), (+II), and (+IV) oxidation states is well-established, organometallic Pd(III) chemistry remains widely unexplored. Few characterized Pd(III) complexes are known, which has inhibited detailed study of the organometallic chemistry of Pd(III). In this review, the potential roles of both mono- and dinuclear Pd(III) complexes in organometallic chemistry will be discussed. While not widely recognized, Pd in the (+III) oxidation state may play a significant role in a variety of known Pd-catalyzed reactions. PMID:21461129

  11. Development of demographic norms for four new WAIS-III/WMS-III indexes.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Taylor, Michael J; Woodward, Todd S; Heaton, Robert K

    2006-06-01

    Following the publication of the third edition Wechsler scales (i.e., WAIS-III and WMS-III), demographically corrected norms were made available in the form of a computerized scoring program (i.e., WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant). These norms correct for age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Since then, four new indexes have been developed: the WAIS-III General Ability Index, the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index, and the two alternate Immediate and Delayed Memory Indexes. The purpose of this study was to develop demographically corrected norms for the four new indexes using the standardization sample and education oversample from the WAIS-III and WMS-III. These norms were developed using the same methodology as the demographically corrected norms made available in the WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant.

  12. Complex between nidogen and laminin fragments reveals a paradigmatic beta-propeller interface.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Junichi; Yang, Yuting; Liu, Jin-Huan; Wang, Jia-Huai; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-08-21

    Basement membranes are fundamental to tissue organization and physiology in all metazoans. The interaction between laminin and nidogen is crucial to the assembly of basement membranes. The structure of the interacting domains reveals a six-bladed Tyr-Trp-Thr-Asp (YWTD) beta-propeller domain in nidogen bound to laminin epidermal-growth-factor-like (LE) modules III3-5 in laminin (LE3-5). Laminin LE module 4 binds to an amphitheatre-shaped surface on the pseudo-6-fold axis of the beta-propeller, and LE module 3 binds over its rim. A Phe residue that shutters the water-filled central aperture of the beta-propeller, the rigidity of the amphitheatre, and high shape complementarity enable the construction of an evolutionarily conserved binding surface for LE4 of unprecedentedly high affinity for its small size. Hypermorphic mutations in the Wnt co-receptor LRP5 (refs 6-9) suggest that a similar YWTD beta-propeller interface is used to bind ligands that function in developmental pathways. A related interface, but shifted off-centre from the pseudo-6-fold axis and lacking the shutter over the central aperture, is used in the low-density lipoprotein receptor for an intramolecular interaction that is regulated by pH in receptor recycling.

  13. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  14. The genes encoding gonadal and nongonadal forms of 3[beta]-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/[Delta][sup 5]-[Delta][sup 4] isomerase are closely linked on mouse chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, P.A.; Meisler, M.H.; Payne, A.H. ); Taylor, B.A. )

    1993-04-01

    The biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the gonads and adrenal glands requires the activities of the enzyme 3[beta]-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenanse/isomerase (3[beta]HSD) which catalyzes the NAD[sup +]-dependant dehydrogenation and subsequent [Delta][sup 5] [r arrow] [Delta][sup 4] isomerization of[Delta][sup 5]-3[beta]-hydroxysteriods to [Delta][sup 4]-3-ketosteroids. The mouse expresses four isoforms of 3[beta]HSD. 3[beta]HSD I is expressed in gonads and adrenal glands and appears to be the major steroidogenic form, 3[beta]HSDs II and III are expressed in both liver and kidneys, and 3[beta]HSD IV has been detected only in kidneys. To determine the genetic relationship between the 3[beta]HSD isoforms, the authors have mapped the chromosomal locations of the four genes by linkage analysis using gene-specific process derived from the 3[prime] untranslated regions of 3 [beta]HSD cDNA clones. The four 3[beta]HSD structural genes (Hsd3b) are closely linked within a segment of chromosome 3 that is conserved on human chromosome 1. The order of markers on Chr 3 surrounding Hsd3b is: centromere-Gba-(4.4 [+-] 2.2)-Hsd3b-(3.3 [+-] 1.9)-Tshb-(6.7 [+-] 2.7)-Amy-1. 28 refs., 5 figs.

  15. The Nimbus III Michelson Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Hanel, R A; Schlachman, B; Clark, F D; Prokesh, C H; Taylor, J B; Wilson, W M; Chaney, L

    1970-08-01

    The Michelson interferometer flown on Nimbus III in April 1969 has obtained infrared emission spectra of the earth and its atmosphere within 400 cm(-1) and 2000 cm(-1) (5 micro and 25 micro). Spectra of good quality have been recorded with a spectral resolution corresponding to 5 cm(-1). This paper discusses the design of the instrument including the optical layout, the phase locked loop operation of the Michelson motor, and the functioning of the reference interferometer. The methods of data reduction and in-flight calibration are demonstrated on sample spectra recorded while in orbit around the earth.

  16. An overview of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in veterinary medicine and their public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Diego Borin; Brocchi, Marcelo

    2014-08-13

    Serious human and animal infections caused by bacteria are usually treated with beta-lactams. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) constitute the most clinically and economically important enzymes that are able to hydrolyze and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine. The spread of ESBLs represents a serious threat to healthcare systems, drastically undermining therapeutic options. The relationship between drug usage and the emergence of resistance has been extensively reported. Nevertheless, the use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and the emergence of ESBLs in animals remains a matter of debate. Moreover, there is still controversy about whether antibiotic usage in farm animals poses a potential public health risk. This review will (i) deal with aspects related to the presence of ESBLs in veterinary medicine, (ii) its link with human medicine, and (iii) discuss strategies to be implemented to preserve antimicrobial effectiveness. New insights relative to old questions concerning antimicrobial use in domestic animals are also presented.

  17. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1a intramuscular at around the same time of day on your injection days. Follow the ...

  18. [Beta 3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism and obesity].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Umekawa, T

    1998-07-01

    The beta 3-adrenoceptor plays a significant role in the control of lipolysis and thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue of rodents and humans. In human beta 3-adrenoceptor, a Trp to Arg replacement has recently been discovered. This change which occurs at position 64, in the first coding exon, has been correlated with increased weight gain, difficulty in losing weight, insulin resistance syndrome, and worsened diabetic situation. Higher percentages of this mutation are observed in Pima Indians (over 30%) and Japanese (20%). The possible functional mechanism of Trp54Arg is reported using human HEK293 cell line stably expressing the wild type and the [Arg64] beta 3-adrenoceptor type. Beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists available for humans are been also developing. In this paper we describe these points up-to-date.

  19. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  20. Optical properties of {beta}-Sn films

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Katsuki; Adachi, Sadao

    2009-04-01

    Optical properties of white tin ({beta}-Sn) have been investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the photon-energy range between 0.6 and 6.5 eV at room temperature. The {beta}-Sn films are deposited by vacuum evaporation on Si(001) substrates. The structural properties of the films are evaluated by x-ray diffraction and ex situ atomic force microscopy. The measured {epsilon}(E) spectra reveal distinct structures at several interband critical points in the Brillouin zone of {beta}-Sn. These spectra are analyzed on the basis of a simplified model of the interband transitions, including the free-carrier absorption between the filled and empty electronic states. Dielectric-related optical constants, such as the complex refractive index, absorption coefficient, and normal-incidence reflectivity, of bulk {beta}-Sn films are also presented.

  1. Identification of residues in beta-lactamase critical for binding beta-lactamase inhibitory protein.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, G W; Palzkill, T

    1999-03-12

    beta-Lactamase inhibitory protein (BLIP) is a potent inhibitor of several beta-lactamases including TEM-1 beta-lactamase (Ki = 0.1 nM). The co-crystal structure of TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP has been solved, revealing the contact residues involved in the interface between the enzyme and inhibitor. To determine which residues in TEM-1 beta-lactamase are critical for binding BLIP, the method of monovalent phage display was employed. Random mutants of TEM-1 beta-lactamase in the 99-114 loop-helix and 235-240 B3 beta-strand regions were displayed as fusion proteins on the surface of the M13 bacteriophage. Functional mutants were selected based on the ability to bind BLIP. After three rounds of enrichment, the sequences of a collection of functional beta-lactamase mutants revealed a consensus sequence for the binding of BLIP. Seven loop-helix residues including Asp-101, Leu-102, Val-103, Ser-106, Pro-107, Thr-109, and His-112 and three B3 beta-strand residues including Ser-235, Gly-236, and Gly-238 were found to be critical for tight binding of BLIP. In addition, the selected beta-lactamase mutants A113L/T114R and E240K were found to increase binding of BLIP by over 6- and 11-fold, respectively. Combining these substitutions resulted in 550-fold tighter binding between the enzyme and BLIP with a Ki of 0.40 pM. These results reveal that the binding between TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP can be improved and that there are a large number of sequences consistent with tight binding between BLIP and beta-lactamase.

  2. Proteopedia: Rossmann Fold: A Beta-Alpha-Beta Fold at Dinucleotide Binding Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanukoglu, Israel

    2015-01-01

    The Rossmann fold is one of the most common and widely distributed super-secondary structures. It is composed of a series of alternating beta strand (ß) and alpha helical (a) segments wherein the ß-strands are hydrogen bonded forming a ß-sheet. The initial beta-alpha-beta (ßaß) fold is the most conserved segment of Rossmann folds. As this segment…

  3. Oligomerization process of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III purified from a sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Hiromiki; Yamasaki, Takayuki; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Aoyagi, Haruhiko; Fujisawa, Tetsuro

    2002-05-01

    CEL-III is a Ca(2+)-dependent lectin purified from a sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata. This protein exhibits strong hemolytic activity as well as cytotoxicity toward some cultured cell lines. Hemolysis is caused by CEL-III oligomers formed in the cell membrane after binding to specific carbohydrate chains on the cell surface. We have found that the oligomerization of CEL-III is also induced by the binding of simple carbohydrates, such as lactose, in aqueous solution under high pH and high ionic strength conditions. From gel filtration analysis of the oligomerization of CEL-III, it was found that the formation of the CEL-III oligomer is effectively induced by the binding of lactose and lactulose, disaccharides containing a beta-galactoside structure. Electron micrographs of the resulting oligomers revealed them to exist as particles with a size of approximately 20-30 nm. The oligomerization process required more than 1 h, which is consistent with the increase in surface hydrophobicity as measured using a fluorescent probe, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate. However, a change in the far-UV CD spectra as well as small-angle X-ray scattering occurred within a few minutes, suggesting that a structural change in the protein takes place rapidly, but the following growth of the oligomer is a much slower process.

  4. Solid-state NMR analysis of the {beta}-strand orientation of the protofibrils of amyloid {beta}-protein

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Takashi; Masuda, Yuichi; Irie, Kazuhiro; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi; Takegoshi, K.

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular structure of A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by solid-state NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala-21 residue in the A{beta}42 protofibrils is included in a slightly disordered {beta}-strand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The A{beta}42 protofibrils do not form intermolecular in-register parallel {beta}-sheets. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by abnormal deposition (fibrillation) of a 42-residue amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}42) in the brain. During the process of fibrillation, the A{beta}42 takes the form of protofibrils with strong neurotoxicity, and is thus believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. To elucidate the supramolecular structure of the A{beta}42 protofibrils, the intermolecular proximity of the Ala-21 residues in the A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C rotational resonance experiments in the solid state. Unlike the A{beta}42 fibrils, an intermolecular {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation was not found in the A{beta}42 protofibrils. This result suggests that the {beta}-strands of the A{beta}42 protofibrils are not in an in-register parallel orientation. A{beta}42 monomers would assemble to form protofibrils with the {beta}-strand conformation, then transform into fibrils by forming intermolecular parallel {beta}-sheets.

  5. Stability of Beta Limited Thermonuclear Burn.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-28

    wunboeJ e burn stability of a thermonuclear reacting plasma Is examined under the assumption that a bum equilibrium exists due to the rapid Increase...of loss rate with plasma beta once a critical beta value is exceeded, it is found that perturbations about equilibrium generally result in a rapidly...exceeded, in order to establish a thermonuclear burn equilibrium , it is necessary that plasma losses increase sufficiently rapidly with temperature. In

  6. Method for treating beta-spodumene ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Day, J. Paul; Hickman, David L.

    1994-09-27

    A vapor-phase method for treating a beta-spodumene ceramic article to achieve a substitution of exchangeable hydrogen ions for the lithium present in the beta-spodumene crystals, wherein a barrier between the ceramic article and the source of exchangeable hydrogen ions is maintained in order to prevent lithium contamination of the hydrogen ion source and to generate highly recoverable lithium salts, is provided.

  7. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  8. Giant impacts in the Beta Pic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, A.

    2014-09-01

    One scenario that can potentially explain the brightness asymmetry in the Beta Pictoris debris disk in the mid-infrared and millimetre is that of a comparatively recent (< 1 Myr ago) impact between planetary scale bodies at an orbital distance of ˜85 AU, as discussed by Dent et al 2014. I will discuss the details of this model, how it applies to Beta Pictoris, and how it may be applied elsewhere.

  9. N=1 supersymmetric {beta}-functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D. R. T.

    1997-06-15

    Recent results on three-loop, four-loop and large-N{sub f}{beta}-functions in supersymmetric gauge theories are summarised. It is argued that the O(1/N{sub f})-corrected form of {beta}{sub g} in SQCD is consistent with the existence of the conformal window 3N{sub c}/2

  10. [Transforming growth factor of beta-type].

    PubMed

    Stoĭka, R S

    1988-01-01

    Recent data about the structure and properties of the beta-type transforming growth factor as well as evidence about its influence on different target cells are presented. The regulatory action of the factor is shown to depend mainly on the type of tested cells, conditions of their culturing and the presence of other bioregulators of cell proliferation in the medium. The prospects of the beta-type transforming growth factor use in practice are considered.

  11. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  12. Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Effector Translocation into Host Cells Using Beta-lactamase Effector Fusions.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Manuel; Zobiak, Bernd; Nauth, Theresa; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2015-10-13

    Many gram-negative bacteria including pathogenic Yersinia spp. employ type III secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells. Inside the host cell the effector proteins manipulate cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. To better understand the control of type III secretion during host cell interaction, sensitive and accurate assays to measure translocation are required. We here describe the application of an assay based on the fusion of a Yersinia enterocolitica effector protein fragment (Yersinia outer protein; YopE) with TEM-1 beta-lactamase for quantitative analysis of translocation. The assay relies on cleavage of a cell permeant FRET dye (CCF4/AM) by translocated beta-lactamase fusion. After cleavage of the cephalosporin core of CCF4 by the beta-lactamase, FRET from coumarin to fluorescein is disrupted and excitation of the coumarin moiety leads to blue fluorescence emission. Different applications of this method have been described in the literature highlighting its versatility. The method allows for analysis of translocation in vitro and also in in vivo, e.g., in a mouse model. Detection of the fluorescence signals can be performed using plate readers, FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy. In the setup described here, in vitro translocation of effector fusions into HeLa cells by different Yersinia mutants is monitored by laser scanning microscopy. Recording intracellular conversion of the FRET reporter by the beta-lactamase effector fusion in real-time provides robust quantitative results. We here show exemplary data, demonstrating increased translocation by a Y. enterocolitica YopE mutant compared to the wild type strain.

  13. AE activity during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Gong, X. Z.; Ren, Q. L.; Ding, S. Y.; Qian, J. P.; Pan, C. K.; Li, G. Q.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Garofalo, A. M.; McClenaghan, J.

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced AE activity has been observed during transient beta drops in high poloidal beta DIII-D discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs). These drops in beta are believed to be caused by n=1 external kink modes. In some discharges, beta recovers within 200 ms but, in others, beta stays suppressed. A typical discharge has βP 3, qmin 3, and q95 12. The drop in beta affects both fast ions and thermal particles, and a drop is also observed in the density and rotation. The enhanced AE activity follows the instability that causes the beta drop, is largest at the lowest beta, and subsides as beta recovers. MHD stability analysis is planned. A database study of the plasma conditions associated with the collapse will be also presented. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, and by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11575249, and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China No. 2015GB110005.

  14. 6-beta-Iodopenicillanate as a probe for the classification of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    De Meester, F; Frère, J M; Waley, S G; Cartwright, S J; Virden, R; Lindberg, F

    1986-01-01

    An inactivator of serine beta-lactamases, 6 beta-iodopenicillanate, can be utilized as a probe in the classification of beta-lactamases. It is a substrate for class-B Zn2+-containing beta-lactamase II. Although it inactivates enzymes from both classes A and C, it is much more efficient for the former group, with which it sometimes interacts following a branched pathway. On the basis of these observations, predictions are made concerning the class to which several enzymes belong. PMID:3030266

  15. Transcriptional upregulation of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) expression by phenylacetate in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sidell, N; Chang, B; Yamashiro, J M; Wada, R K

    1998-02-25

    Sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) has been shown to synergize with retinoic acid (RA) in inducing the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells. Our studies indicated that NaPA can impact on the RA differentiation program by upregulating nuclear retinoic acid receptor-beta (RAR beta) expression. We have found that NaPA does not alter the half-life of RAR beta mRNA; thus, increased stability of mRNA levels does not contribute to NaPA induction. In contrast, NaPA was able to specifically activate a reporter gene construct (delta SV beta RE-CAT) which contains a retinoic acid response element (RARE beta) that is located in the RAR beta promoter. Activation of delta SV beta RE-CAT by NaPA also occurred in neuroblastoma cells cotransfected with a nuclear retinoic acid receptor expression vector, demonstrating the independence of this activation on cellular RAR levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that induction of RAR beta by NaPA is regulated at the level of transcription and mediated through the retinoic acid response element, RARE beta. This effect may account, at least in part, for the strong synergy between NaPA and RA in promoting neuroblastoma differentiation.

  16. Beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid levels in two siblings with dihydropyrimidinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    van Kuilenburg, A B P; Stroomer, A E M; Bosch, A M; Duran, M

    2008-06-01

    Dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) deficiency is an inborn error of the pyrimidine degradation pathway, affecting the hydrolytic ring opening of the dihydropyrimidines. In two siblings with a complete DHP deficiency and a variable clinical presentation, a normal concentration of beta-alanine and strongly decreased levels of beta-aminoisobutyric acid were observed in plasma, urine and CSF. No major differences were observed for the concentrations of the beta-amino acids in plasma and urine between the symptomatic and asymptomatic sibling. Thus, the relevance of the shortage of beta-aminoisobutyric acid for the onset of a clinical phenotype in patients with DHP deficiency remains to be established.

  17. Adsorption of beta blockers to environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kibbey, Tohren C G; Paruchuri, Rajiv; Sabatini, David A; Chen, Lixia

    2007-08-01

    Beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta blockers) are widely used pharmaceuticals which have been detected in the environment. Predicting the transport and ultimate fate of beta blockers in the environment requires understanding their adsorption to soils and sediments, something for which little information is currently available. The objective of this work was to examine the adsorption of three beta blockers, propranolol, metoprolol and nadolol, to a natural alluvial material, as well as to six minerals present as components of the alluvial material. Batch adsorption experiments indicate that, for most of the minerals studied, compound hydrophobicity is an important predictor of adsorption, with propranolol,the most hydrophobic compound studied, adsorbing to the greatest extent. Results further suggest that, for the minerals studied, electrostatic effects are not a good predictor of adsorption; adsorption extent was not well-predicted by either surface zeta potential or by the difference between experiment pH and point of zero charge, despite the cationic nature af the three beta blockers at experiment pH values. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), on adsorption. Results indicate that SDBS significantly increases the adsorption of propranolol to two different sorbents. This result is potentially important because surfactants such as SDBS are likely to be present in wastewater effluents with beta blockers and could influence their mobility in the environment.

  18. Peptidase activity of beta-lactamases.

    PubMed Central

    Rhazi, N; Galleni, M; Page, M I; Frère, J M

    1999-01-01

    Although beta-lactamases have generally been considered as being devoid of peptidase activity, a low but significant hydrolysis of various N-acylated dipeptides was observed with representatives of each class of beta-lactamases. The kcat/Km values were below 0.1 M(-1). s(-1), but the enzyme rate enhancement factors were in the range 5000-20000 for the best substrates. Not unexpectedly, the best 'peptidase' was the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99, but, more surprisingly, the activity was always higher with the phenylacetyl- and benzoyl-d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptides than with the diacetyl- and alpha-acetyl-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala tripeptides, which are the preferred substrates of the low-molecular-mass, soluble dd-peptidases. A comparison between the beta-lactamases and dd-peptidases showed that it might be as difficult for a dd-peptidase to open the beta-lactam ring as it is for the beta-lactamases to hydrolyse the peptides, an observation which can be explained by geometric and stereoelectronic considerations. PMID:10393100

  19. Beta-blockers in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ram, C Venkata S

    2010-12-15

    Beta blockers have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular conditions for decades. Despite a long history and status as a guideline-recommended treatment option for hypertension, recent meta-analyses have brought into question whether β blockers are still an appropriate therapy given outcomes data from other antihypertensive drug classes. However, β blockers are a heterogenous class of agents with diverse pharmacologic and physiologic properties. Much of the unfavorable data revealed in the recent meta-analyses were gleaned from studies involving nonvasodilating, traditional β blockers, such as atenolol. However, findings with traditional β blockers may not be extrapolated to other members of the class, particularly those agents with vasodilatory activity. Vasodilatory β blockers (i.e., carvedilol and nebivolol) reduce blood pressure in large part through reducing systemic vascular resistance rather than by decreasing cardiac output, as is observed with traditional β blockers. Vasodilating ability may also ameliorate some of the concerns associated with traditional β blockade, such as the adverse effects on metabolic and lipid parameters, including an increased risk for new-onset diabetes. Furthermore, vasodilating ability is physiologically relevant and important in treating a condition with common co-morbidities involving metabolic and lipid abnormalities such as hypertension. In patients with hypertension and diabetes or coronary artery disease, vasodilating β blockers provide effective blood pressure control with neutral or beneficial effects on important parameters for the co-morbid disease. In conclusion, it is time for a reexamination of the clinical evidence for the use of β blockers in hypertension, recognizing that there are patients for whom β blockers, particularly those with vasodilatory actions, are an appropriate treatment option.

  20. Flavonoids from Tephrosia major. A new prenyl-beta-hydroxychalcone.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Garibay, Federico; Téllez-Valdez, Oswaldo; Moreno-Torres, Gregorio; Calderón, José S

    2002-01-01

    The roots and aerial parts of Tephrosia major Micheli, afforded a new prenylated-beta-hydroxychalcone, characterized as 2',6'-dihydroxy-3'-prenyl-4'-methoxy-beta-hydroxychalcone. In addition, seven prenylated flavonoids, two rotenoids, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol and quercetin were isolated. The structure of the new beta-hydroxy chalcone was established by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments.

  1. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  2. Nonlinear enhancement of oxygen evolution in thylakoid membranes: modeling the effect of light intensity and beta-cyclodextrin concentration.

    PubMed

    Fragata, Mário; Dudekula, Subhan

    2005-08-04

    Electron transport through photosystem II, measured as oxygen evolution (OE), was investigated in isolated thylakoid membranes treated with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD, a cyclic oligosaccharide constituted of seven alpha-d-glucose residues linked by alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds) and irradiated with white light of variable intensity. First, we found that the light-response curves of oxygen evolution are well fitted with a hyperbolic function, the shape of which is not affected by the beta-CD concentration. Second, we showed that under conditions of irradiation with white light of saturating intensity ( approximately 5000 mumol of photons/m(2).s) beta-CD enhances the oxygen evolution in the thylakoid membranes according to a sigmoid function displaying a sharp inflection point, or transition. Unexpectedely, this beta-CD effect is not observed at irradiances of less than approximately 300 mumol of photons/m(2).s. We attempted a theoretical analysis of the combined effect of irradiance and beta-CD concentration on oxygen evolution (OE(th)). For this purpose, the effect of irradiance (I) was modeled with a hyperbola (i) and the beta-CD concentration (C) contribution with a Hill equation, that is, a sigmoid function (ii). The mathematical simulations generated the following general expressions: (i) OE(th) = [OE(max)(0) G(1)(C)]I/[L(1/2)(0) G(2)(C) + I] and (ii) G(i)()(C) = 1 + p[C(n)()/(K(1/2)(n)() + C(n)())], where OE(max)(0) is the OE maximum (OE(max)) in the absence of beta-CD, L(1/2)(0) is the photon flux density giving OE(max)/2 in the absence of beta-CD, G(1)(C) or G(2)(C) is obtained from G(i)()(C) where i is 1 or 2, n is the Hill coefficient, p is a parameter to account for the beta-CD-mediated maximum OE increase, and K(1/2) is the beta-CD concentration giving half-maximal OE activity. The results of the calculations yielded the expression (iii) OE(th) = 151[1 + 3.3C(4.8)/(13.1(4.8) + C(4.8))]I/{97.5[1 + 5.2C(7.8)/(14.8(7.8) + C(7.8))] + I} which agrees well with

  3. Different small, acid-soluble proteins of the alpha/beta type have interchangeable roles in the heat and uv (ultraviolet) radiation resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.M.; Setlow, P.

    1987-08-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis strains which carry deletion mutations in one gene (sspA) or two genes (sspA and sspB) which code for major alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) are known to be much more sensitive to heat and UV radiation than wild-type spores. This heat- and UV-sensitive phenotype was cured completely or in part by introduction into these mutant strains of (i) one or more copies of the sspA or sspB genes themselves; (ii) multiple copies of the B. subtilis sspD gene, which codes for a minor alpha/beta-type SASP; or (iii) multiple copies of the SASP-C genes, which codes for a major alpha/beta-type SASP of Bacillus megaterium. These findings suggest that alpha-beta-type SASP play interchangeable roles in the heat and UV radiation resistance of bacterial spores.

  4. X-ray powder diffraction patterns for certain beta-lactam, tetracycline and macrolide antibiotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Thangadurai, S; Abraham, J T; Srivastava, A K; Moorthy, M Nataraja; Shukla, S K; Anjaneyulu, Y

    2005-07-01

    X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) data for eight beta-lactam viz., ampicillin sodium, ampicillin trihydrate, penicillin G procaine, benzathine penicillin, benzyl penicillin sodium, cefalexin, cefotaxime sodium and ceftriaxone sodium; three tetracyclines viz., doxycycline hydrochloride, oxytetracycline dihydrate and tetracycline hydrochloride; and two macrolide viz., azithromycin and erythromycin estolate antibiotic drugs were obtained using a powder diffractometer. The drugs were scanned from Bragg angles (2theta) of 10 degrees to 70 degrees. The obtained data were tabulated in terms of the lattice spacing (A) and relative line intensities (I/I(I)). This new information may be useful for identifying these drugs from confiscated materials, which has been frequently encountered in forensic laboratories.

  5. Eu(III) and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} complexation by o-silicic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.; Jensen, M.P.

    1995-12-01

    Solvent extraction and fluorescent intensity measurements have been used to obtain stability constant for the complexation of Eu(III) and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by o-Si(OH){sub 4} in 0.1 M(NaClO{sub 4}) solution. The values were: for Eu{sup 3+} + OSi(OH){sub 3}{sup -}, log {Beta}{sub 1} = 7.25 {plus_minus} 0.34, log {Beta}{sub 2} = 11.7{plus_minus}0.4; for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} + OSi(OH){sub 3}{sup -}, log {Beta}{sub 1} = 6.70{plus_minus}0.05. These values fit well in a linear free energy correlation of the log {Beta}{sub i} values of hydrolysis and o-silicate complexation of di- and tri- valent cations. Speciation calculations indicated that Eu-OSi(OH){sub 3} complexes are significant species for natural waters of pH 6 - 7.5 in equilibrium with atmospheric CO{sub 2} and with [o-Si(OH){sub 4}] {>=} 0.03 mM. Silicate complexation of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} does not compete with hydrolysis and carbonate complexation under these conditions.

  6. The insecticidal potential of scorpion beta-toxins.

    PubMed

    Gurevitz, Michael; Karbat, Izhar; Cohen, Lior; Ilan, Nitza; Kahn, Roy; Turkov, Michael; Stankiewicz, Maria; Stühmer, Walter; Dong, Ke; Gordon, Dalia

    2007-03-15

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are a major target for toxins and insecticides due to their central role in excitability, but due to the conservation of these channels in Animalia most insecticides do not distinguish between those of insects and mammals, thereby imposing risks to humans and livestock. Evidently, as long as modern agriculture depends heavily on the use of insecticides there is a great need for new substances capable of differentiating between sodium channel subtypes. Such substances exist in venomous animals, but ways for their exploitation have not yet been developed due to problems associated with manufacturing, degradation, and delivery to the target channels. Engineering of plants for expression of anti-insect toxins or use of natural vectors that express toxins near their target site (e.g. baculoviruses) are still problematic and raise public concern. In this problematic reality a rational approach might be to learn from nature how to design highly selective anti-insect compounds preferably in the form of peptidomimetics. This is a complex task that requires the elucidation of the face of interaction between insect-selective toxins and their sodium channel receptor sites. This review delineates current progress in: (i) elucidation of the bioactive surfaces of scorpion beta-toxins, especially the excitatory and depressant groups, which show high preference for insects and bind insect sodium channels with high affinity; (ii) studies of the mode of interaction of scorpion beta-toxins with receptor site-4 on voltage-gated sodium channels; and (iii) clarification of channel elements that constitute receptor site-4. This information may be useful in future attempts to mimic the bioactive surface of the toxins for the design of anti-insect selective peptidomimetics.

  7. Force measurements of the alpha5beta1 integrin-fibronectin interaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Feiya; Redick, Sambra D; Erickson, Harold P; Moy, Vincent T

    2003-02-01

    The interaction of the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin and its ligand, fibronectin (FN), plays a crucial role in the adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix. An important intrinsic property of the alpha(5)beta(1)/FN interaction is the dynamic response of the complex to a pulling force. We have carried out atomic force microscopy measurements of the interaction between alpha(5)beta(1) and a fibronectin fragment derived from the seventh through tenth type III repeats of FN (i.e., FN7-10) containing both the arg-gly-asp (RGD) sequence and the synergy site. Direct force measurements obtained from an experimental system consisting of an alpha(5)beta(1) expressing K562 cell attached to the atomic force microscopy cantilever and FN7-10 adsorbed on a substrate were used to determine the dynamic response of the alpha(5)beta(1)/FN7-10 complex to a pulling force. The experiments were carried out over a three-orders-of-magnitude change in loading rate and under conditions that allowed for detection of individual alpha(5)beta(1)/FN7-10 interactions. The dynamic rupture force of the alpha(5)beta(1)/FN7-10 complex revealed two regimes of loading: a fast loading regime (>10,000 pN/s) and a slow loading regime (<10,000 pN/s) that characterize the inner and outer activation barriers of the complex, respectively. Activation by TS2/16 antibody increased both the frequency of adhesion and elevated the rupture force of the alpha(5)beta(1)/wild type FN7-10 complex to higher values in the slow loading regime. In experiments carried out with a FN7-10 RGD deleted mutant, the force measurements revealed that both inner and outer activation barriers were suppressed by the mutation. Mutations to the synergy site of FN, however, suppressed only the outer barrier activation of the complex. For both the RGD and synergy deletions, the frequency of adhesion was less than that of the wild type FN7-10, but was increased by integrin activation. The rupture force of these mutants was only slightly less

  8. III-Nitride Nanowire Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jeremy Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous interest in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires whose diameters range from 10-100 nm. To date, nanowires have been grown using many semiconducting material systems and have been utilized as light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Nanowires possess a relatively large index contrast relative to their dielectric environment and can be used as lasers. A key gure of merit that allows for nanowire lasing is the relatively high optical con nement factor. In this work, I discuss the optical characterization of 3 types of III-nitride nanowire laser devices. Two devices were designed to reduce the number of lasing modes to achieve singlemode operation. The third device implements low-group velocity mode lasing with a photonic crystal constructed of an array of nanowires. Single-mode operation is necessary in any application where high beam quality and single frequency operation is required. III-Nitride nanowire lasers typically operate in a combined multi-longitudinal and multi-transverse mode state. Two schemes are introduced here for controlling the optical modes and achieving single-mode op eration. The rst method involves reducing the diameter of individual nanowires to the cut-o condition, where only one optical mode propagates in the wire. The second method employs distributed feedback (DFB) to achieve single-mode lasing by placing individual GaN nanowires onto substrates with etched gratings. The nanowire-grating substrate acted as a distributed feedback mirror producing single mode operation at 370 nm with a mode suppression ratio (MSR) of 17 dB. The usage of lasers for solid state lighting has the potential to further reduce U.S. lighting energy usage through an increase in emitter e ciency. Advances in nanowire fabrication, speci cally a two-step top-down approach, have allowed for the demonstration of a multi-color array of lasers on a single chip that emit

  9. III-nitride nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeremy Benjamin

    In recent years there has been a tremendous interest in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires whose diameters range from 10-100 nm. To date, nanowires have been grown using many semiconducting material systems and have been utilized as light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Nanowires possess a relatively large index contrast relative to their dielectric environment and can be used as lasers. A key figure of merit that allows for nanowire lasing is the relatively high optical confinement factor. In this work, I discuss the optical characterization of 3 types of III-nitride nanowire laser devices. Two devices were designed to reduce the number of lasing modes to achieve single-mode operation. The third device implements low-group velocity mode lasing with a photonic crystal constructed of an array of nanowires. Single-mode operation is necessary in any application where high beam quality and single frequency operation is required. III-Nitride nanowire lasers typically operate in a combined multi-longitudinal and multi-transverse mode state. Two schemes are introduced here for controlling the optical modes and achieving single-mode operation. The first method involves reducing the diameter of individual nanowires to the cut-off condition, where only one optical mode propagates in the wire. The second method employs distributed feedback (DFB) to achieve single-mode lasing by placing individual GaN nanowires onto substrates with etched gratings. The nanowire-grating substrate acted as a distributed feedback mirror producing single mode operation at 370 nm with a mode suppression ratio (MSR) of 17 dB. The usage of lasers for solid state lighting has the potential to further reduce U.S. lighting energy usage through an increase in emitter efficiency. Advances in nanowire fabrication, specifically a two-step top-down approach, have allowed for the demonstration of a multi-color array of lasers on a single chip

  10. Beta-1-Selective Beta-Blockers and Cognitive Functions in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Burkauskas, Julius; Noreikaite, Aurelija; Bunevicius, Adomas; Brozaitiene, Julija; Neverauskas, Julius; Mickuviene, Narseta; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-01-01

    The association between current beta-1-selective beta-blocker use and cognitive function was evaluated in 722 patients with coronary artery disease without dementia. Beta-1-selective beta-blocker use was associated with worse incidental learning independently of sociodemographic characteristics, clinical coronary artery disease severity, and depression/anxiety.

  11. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Paul Y

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  12. Phase II Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial of conventional radiation therapy followed by treatment with recombinant interferon-{beta} for supratentorial glioblastoma: Results of RTOG 9710

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, Howard . E-mail: hcolman@mdanderson.org; Berkey, Brian A.; Maor, Moshe H.; Groves, Morris D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Vermeulen, Sandra; Mehta, Minesh P.; Yung, W.K. Alfred

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether recombinant human interferon {beta}-1a (rhIFN-{beta}), when given after radiation therapy, improves survival in glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: After surgery, 109 patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma were enrolled and treated with radiation therapy (60 Gy). A total of 55 patients remained stable after radiation and were treated with rhIFN-{beta} (6 MU/day i.m., 3 times/week). Outcomes were compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group glioma historical database. Results: RhIFN-{beta} was well tolerated, with 1 Grade 4 toxicity and 8 other patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity. Median survival time (MST) of the 55 rhIFN-{beta}-treated patients was 13.4 months. MST for the 34 rhIFN-{beta}-treated in RPA Classes III and IV was 16.9 vs. 12.4 months for historical controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89-1.81). There was also a trend toward improved survival across all RPA Classes comparing the 55 rhIFN-{beta} treated patients and 1,658 historical controls (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.94-1.63). The high rate of early failures (54/109) after radiation and before initiation of rhIFN-{beta} was likely caused by stricter interpretation of early radiographic changes in the current study. Matched-pair and intent-to-treat analyses performed to try to address this bias showed no difference in survival between study patients and controls. Conclusion: RhIFN-{beta} given after conventional radiation therapy was well tolerated, with a trend toward survival benefit in patients who remained stable after radiation therapy. These data suggest that rhIFN-{beta} warrants further evaluation in additional studies, possibly in combination with current temozolomide-based regimens.

  13. The biology of beta human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Tommasino, Massimo

    2017-03-02

    The beta genus comprises more than 50 beta human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are suspected to be involved, together with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), the most common form of human cancer. Two members of the genus beta, HPV5 and HPV8, were first identified in patients with a genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), that confers high susceptibility to beta HPV infection and NMSC development. The fact that organ transplant recipients (OTRs) with an impaired immune system have an elevated risk of NMSC raised the hypothesis that beta HPV types may also be involved in skin carcinogenesis in non-EV patients. Epidemiological studies have shown that serological and viral DNA markers are weakly, but significantly, associated with history of NMSC in OTRs and the general population. Functional studies on mucosal high-risk (HR) HPV types have clearly demonstrated that the products of two early genes, E6 and E7, are the main viral oncoproteins, which are able to deregulate events closely linked to transformation, such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Studies on a small number of beta HPV types have shown that their E6 and E7 oncoproteins also have the ability to interfere with the regulation of key pathways/events associated with cellular transformation. However, the initial functional data indicate that the molecular mechanisms leading to cellular transformation are different from those of mucosal HR HPV types. Beta HPV types may act only at early stages of carcinogenesis, by potentiating the deleterious effects of other carcinogens, such as UV radiation.

  14. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caine, Joanne M.; Bharadwaj, Prashant R.; Sankovich, Sonia E.; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  15. Decameter Type III-Like Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Rucker, H. O.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Abranin, E. P.; Lecacheux, A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Stanislavskyy, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Starting from 1960s Type III-like bursts (Type III bursts with high drift rates) in a wide frequency range from 300 to 950MHz have been observed. These new bursts observed at certain frequency being compared to the usual Type III bursts at the same frequency show similar behaviour but feature frequency drift 2-6 times higher than the normal bursts. In this paper we report the first observations of Type III-like bursts in decameter range, carried out during summer campaigns 2002 - 2004 at UTR-2 radio telescope. The circular polarization of the bursts was measured by the radio telescope URAN-2 in 2004. The observed bursts are analyzed and compared with usual Type III bursts in the decameter range. From the analysis of over 1100 Type III-like bursts, their main parameters have been found. Characteristic feature of the observed bursts is similar to Type III-like bursts at other frequencies, i.e. measured drift rates (5-10 MHz/s) of this bursts are few times larger than that for usual Type III bursts, and their durations (1-2 s) are few times smaller than that for usual Type III bursts in this frequency band.

  16. Characterization of ribonuclease III from Brucella.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang-Xian; Xu, Xian-Jin; Zheng, Ke; Liu, Fang; Yang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Chen, Huan-Chun; Liu, Zheng-Fei

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a highly conserved endonuclease, which plays pivotal roles in RNA maturation and decay pathways by cleaving double-stranded structure of RNAs. Here we cloned rncS gene from the genomic DNA of Brucella melitensis, and analyzed the cleavage properties of RNase III from Brucella. We identified Brucella-encoding small RNA (sRNA) by high-throughput sequencing and northern blot, and found that sRNA of Brucella and Homo miRNA precursor (pre-miRNA) can be bound and cleaved by B.melitensis ribonuclease III (Bm-RNase III). Cleavage activity of Bm-RNase III is bivalent metal cations- and alkaline buffer-dependent. We constructed several point mutations in Bm-RNase III, whose cleavage activity indicated that the 133th Glutamic acid residue was required for catalytic activity. Western blot revealed that Bm-RNase III was differently expressed in Brucella virulence strain 027 and vaccine strain M5-90. Collectively, our data suggest that Brucella RNase III can efficiently bind and cleave stem-loop structure of small RNA, and might participate in regulation of virulence in Brucella.

  17. Comparative adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) on TPD.

    PubMed

    Fan, Q H; Zhao, X L; Ma, X X; Yang, Y B; Wu, W S; Zheng, G D; Wang, D L

    2015-09-01

    Comparative adsorption behaviors of Eu(III) and Am(III) on thorium phosphate diphosphate (TPD), i.e., Th4(PO4)4P2O7, have been studied using a batch approach and surface complexation model (SCM) in this study. The results showed that Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption increased to a large extent with the increase in TPD dose. Strong pH-dependence was observed in both Eu(III) and Am(III) adsorption processes, suggesting that inner-sphere complexes (ISCs) were possibly responsible for the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III). Meanwhile, the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) decreased to a different extent with the increase in ion strength, which was possibly related to outer-sphere complexes and/or ion exchange. In the presence of fulvic acid (FA), the adsorption of Eu(III) and Am(III) showed high enhancement mainly due to the ternary surface complexes of TPD-FA-Eu(3+) and TPD-FA-Am(3+). The SCM showed that one ion exchange (≡S3Am/Eu) and two ISCs (≡(XO)2Am/EuNO3 and ≡(YO)2Am/EuNO3) seemed more reasonable to quantitatively describe the adsorption edges of both Eu(III) and Am(III). Our findings obviously showed that Eu(III) could be a good analogue to study actinide behaviors in practical terms. However, it should be kept in mind that there are still obvious differences between the characteristics of Eu(III) and Am(III) in some special cases, for instance, the complex ability with organic matter and adsorption affinity to a solid surface.

  18. Novel monoclonal antibody against beta 1 integrin enhances cisplatin efficacy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Young; Cho, Woon-Dong; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Choi, Da Bin; Hong, Jeong Won; Kim, Soseul; Moon, Yoo Ri; Son, Seung-Myoung; Lee, Ok-Jun; Lee, Ho-Chang; Song, Hyung Geun

    2016-05-01

    The use of anti-beta 1 integrin monoclonal antibody in lung cancer treatment has proven beneficial. Here, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb), called P5, by immunizing mice with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Its anti-tumor effect is now being tested, in a clinical phase III trial, in combinatorial treatments with various chemical drugs. To confirm that P5 indeed binds to beta 1 integrin, cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with commercial anti-beta 1 integrin mAb (TS2/16) and immunoblotted against P5 to reveal a 140 kDa molecular weight band, as expected. Immunoprecipitation with P5 followed by LC/MS protein sequence analysis further verified P5 antigen to be beta 1 integrin. Cisplatin treatment upregulated cell surface expression of beta 1 integrin in A549 cells, while causing inhibition of cell growth. When cells were co-treated with different concentrations of P5 mAb, the cisplatin-mediated inhibitory effect was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings show that a combinatorial treatment of P5 mAb and cisplatin in A549 cells resulted in a 30% increase in apoptosis, compared to baseline, and significantly more when compared to either the cisplatin or P5 alone group. The entire peptide sequences in CDR from variable region of Ig heavy and light chain gene for P5 mAb are also disclosed. Together, these results provide evidence of the beneficial effect of P5 mAb in combinatorial treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma.

  19. Distribution of precursor amyloid-. beta. -protein messenger RNA in human cerebral cortex: relationship to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.A.; Higgins, G.A.; Young, W.G.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Wilson, M.C.; Morrison, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP), two neuropathological markers of Alzheimer disease, may both contain peptide fragments derived from the human amyloid ..beta.. protein. However, the nature of the relationship between NFT and NP and the source of the amyloid ..beta.. proteins found in each have remained unclear. The authors used in situ hybridization techniques to map the anatomical distribution of precursor amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA in the neocortex of brains from three subjects with no known neurologic disease and from five patients with Alzheimer disease. In brains from control subjects, positively hybridizing neurons were present in cortical regions and layers that contain a high density of neuropathological markers in Alzheimer disease, as well as in those loci that contain NP but few NFT. Quantitative analyses of in situ hybridization patterns within layers III and V of the superior frontal cortex revealed that the presence of high numbers of NFT in Alzheimer-diseased brains was associated with a decrease in the number of positively hybridizing neurons compared to controls and Alzheimer-diseased brains with few NFT. These findings suggest that the expression of precursor amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA may be a necessary but is clearly not a sufficient prerequisite for NFT formation. In addition, these results may indicate that the amyloid ..beta.. protein, present in NP in a given region or layer of cortex, is not derived from the resident neuronal cell bodies that express the mRNA for the precursor protein.

  20. Beta Cell Formation in vivo Through Cellular Networking, Integration and Processing (CNIP) in Wild Type Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Bruno; Hu, Wenchao; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2016-01-01

    Insulin replacement therapy is essential in type 1 diabetic individuals and is required in ~40- 50% of type 2 diabetics during their lifetime. Prior attempts at beta cell regeneration have relied upon pancreatic injury to induce beta cell proliferation, dedifferentiation and activation of the embryonic pathway, or stem cell replacement. We report an alternative method to transform adult non-stem (somatic) cells into pancreatic beta cells. The Cellular Networking, Integration and Processing (CNIP) approach targets cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic function in the organ's adult state and utilizes a synergistic mechanism that integrates three important levels of cellular regulation to induce beta cell formation: (i) glucose metabolism, (ii) membrane receptor function, and (iii) gene transcription. The aim of the present study was to induce pancreatic beta cell formation in vivo in adult animals without stem cells and without dedifferentiating cells to recapitulate the embryonic pathway as previously published (1-3). Our results employing CNIP demonstrate that: (i) insulin secreting cells can be generated in adult pancreatic tissue in vivo and circumvent the problem of generating endocrine (glucagon and somatostatin) cells that exert deleterious effects on glucose homeostasis, and (ii) longterm normalization of glucose tolerance and insulin secretion can be achieved in a wild type diabetic mouse model. The CNIP cocktail has the potential to be used as a preventative or therapeutic treatment or cure for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

  1. Use of. beta. -diketones for the isolation and separation of elements in carbonate media

    SciTech Connect

    Karalova, Z.K.; Devirts, E.A.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1987-09-01

    The extraction of uranium, thorium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, europium, and cerium from solutions of K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and KHCO/sub 3/ using TTA and PMBP in MIBK was studied, and the composition of the extractable compounds was established. It was shown that under definite conditions ..beta..-diketones extract many elements sufficiently completely within a broad range of carbonate ion concentrations; moreover, the extraction of the actinides decreases in the series Me/sup (III)/ > Me/sup (IV)/ > Me/sup (VI)/, while that of the trivalent transplutonium elements decreases in the sequence Am > Cm > Cf > Bk. Since increasing the carbonate ion concentration has less of an influence on the extraction of americium and curium than on the extraction of uranium, plutonium, and others, this predetermines the possibility of using the system studied not only for the extraction of the actinides but also for the purification of trivalent americium and curium from a number of elements. The separation factors of Am/sup (III)/ and U/sup (VI)/, Am/sup (III)/ and Pu/sup (IV)/, Am/sup (III)/ and Cs/sup (I)/ are equal to 2 x 10/sup 4/, 1 x 10/sup 1/, and 1 x 10/sup -5/, respectively.

  2. beta1-integrin cytoplasmic subdomains involved in dominant negative function.

    PubMed

    Retta, S F; Balzac, F; Ferraris, P; Belkin, A M; Fässler, R; Humphries, M J; De Leo, G; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1998-04-01

    The beta1-integrin cytoplasmic domain consists of a membrane proximal subdomain common to the four known isoforms ("common" region) and a distal subdomain specific for each isoform ("variable" region). To investigate in detail the role of these subdomains in integrin-dependent cellular functions, we used beta1A and beta1B isoforms as well as four mutants lacking the entire cytoplasmic domain (beta1TR), the variable region (beta1COM), or the common region (beta1 deltaCOM-B and beta1 deltaCOM-A). By expressing these constructs in Chinese hamster ovary and beta1 integrin-deficient GD25 cells (Wennerberg et al., J Cell Biol 132, 227-238, 1996), we show that beta1B, beta1COM, beta1 deltaCOM-B, and beta1 deltaCOM-A molecules are unable to support efficient cell adhesion to matrix proteins. On exposure to Mn++ ions, however, beta1B, but none of the mutants, can mediate cell adhesion, indicating specific functional properties of this isoform. Analysis of adhesive functions of transfected cells shows that beta1B interferes in a dominant negative manner with beta1A and beta3/beta5 integrins in cell spreading, focal adhesion formation, focal adhesion kinase tyrosine phosphorylation, and fibronectin matrix assembly. None of the beta1 mutants tested shows this property, indicating that the dominant negative effect depends on the specific combination of common and B subdomains, rather than from the absence of the A subdomain in the beta1B isoform.

  3. Nitroxylcob(III)Alamin: Synthesis And X-Ray Structural Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Hannibal, L.; Smith, C.A.; Jacobsen, D.W.; Brasch, N.E.

    2009-06-01

    The long-elusive crystal structure of nitrosylcobalamin (NOCbl) reveals that the Co-N-O angle is 117.4-121.4{sup o}; hence, NOCbl is best described as nitroxylcob(III)alamin in the solid state (see picture: Co purple, N blue, O red, P orange, C gray, H white). The length of the Co-N bond trans to the NO ligand is typical of those seen when strong {beta}-axial ligands are positioned trans to the 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole group.

  4. Conceptual design summary for modifying Doublet III to a large dee-shaped configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.G.; Gallix, R.; Luxon, J.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Puhn, F.A.; Rock, P.J.; Wesley, J.C.

    1983-05-01

    The Doublet III tokamak is to be reconfigured by replacing its indented (doublet) vacuum vessel with a larger one of a dee-shaped cross section. This change will permit significantly larger elongated plasmas than is presently possible and will allow higher plasma current (up to 5 MA) and anticipated longer confinement time. Reactor relevant values of stable beta and plasma pressure are predicted. This modification, while resulting in a significant change in capability, utilizes most of the existing coils, structure, systems and facility.

  5. Altered expression of small proteoglycans, collagen, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in developing bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Westergren-Thorsson, G; Hernnäs, J; Särnstrand, B; Oldberg, A; Heinegård, D; Malmström, A

    1993-01-01

    The development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats was studied over a period of 21 d after an intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. The expression of three small proteoglycans (biglycan, decorin, and fibromodulin), collagen III and TGF-beta 1 was studied by RNA-transfer blot analysis. The proteoglycans were also studied by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blots. TGF-beta 1 mRNA increased threefold already on day 3 and remained elevated until day 10. After the increase of TGF-beta 1 mRNA the messages for biglycan and collagen III steadily increased to reach a maximum 10 d after bleomycin instillation. The mRNA for biglycan increased maximally fourfold and that of collagen III 2.5-fold. Decorin mRNA, in contrast to biglycan decreased and reached 20% of control on day 10. The message for fibromodulin remained constant throughout the study period. The amounts of biglycan and decorin in the tissue changed in accordance with the mRNA levels. The results corroborate and extend previous in vitro studies concerning the effect of TGF-beta 1 on the metabolism of small proteoglycans and show that these macromolecules are regulated differently also in vivo. The marked alterations of biglycan and decorin during the development of fibrosis suggests that these proteoglycans have a regulating role in this process. Images PMID:7688761

  6. The xylan-degrading enzyme system of Talaromyces emersonii: novel enzymes with activity against aryl beta-D-xylosides and unsubstituted xylans.

    PubMed Central

    Tuohy, M G; Puls, J; Claeyssens, M; Vrsanská, M; Coughlan, M P

    1993-01-01

    Talaromyces emersonii, a thermophilic aerobic fungus, produces a complete xylan-degrading enzyme system when grown on appropriate substrates. In this paper we present the physicochemical and catalytic properties of three enzymes, xylosidase (Xyl) I (M(r) 181,000; pI 8.9), II (M(r) 131,000; pI 5.3) and III (M(r) 54,200; pI 4.2). Xyl I and II appear to be dimeric and Xyl III is a single-subunit protein. All three enzymes catalyse the hydrolysis of aryl beta-D-xylosides and xylo-oligosaccharides. Xyl I is a classic beta-xylosidase (1,4-beta-D-xylan xylohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.37), and Xyl II and III are novel xylanases (endo-1,4-beta-D-xylan xylanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.8) which we believe have not hitherto been reported. In addition to the above substrates, they also catalyse the extensive hydrolysis of unsubstituted xylans, and may have considerable biotechnological potential. The hydrolysis product profiles and bond-cleavage frequencies with various substrates are presented. PMID:8452541

  7. Measurements of the CKM Angle beta

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoldus, Rainer; /SLAC

    2005-12-14

    In this article I report on new and updated measurements of the CP-violating parameter {beta}({phi}{sub 1}), which is related to the phase of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark-mixing matrix of the electroweak interaction. Over the past few years, {beta} has become the most precisely known parameter of the CKM unitarity triangle that governs the B system. The results presented here were produced by the two B Factories, BABAR and Belle, based on their most recent datasets of over 600 million B{bar B} events combined. The new world average for sin2{beta}, measured in the theoretically and experimentally cleanest charmonium modes, such as B{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sub S}{sup 0}, is sin 2{beta} = 0.685 {+-} 0.032. In addition to these tree-level dominated decays, independent measurements of sin2{beta} are obtained from gluonic b {yields} s penguin decays, including B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub S}{sup 0}, B{sup 0} {yields} {eta}'K{sub S}{sup 0} and others. There are hints, albeit somewhat weaker than earlier this year, that these measurements tend to come out low compared to the charmonium average, giving rise to the tantalizing possibility that New Physics amplitudes could be contributing to the corresponding loop diagrams. Clearly, more data from both experiments are needed to elucidate these intriguing differences.

  8. Flavins secreted by roots of iron-deficient Beta vulgaris enable mining of ferric oxide via reductive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sisó-Terraza, Patricia; Rios, Juan J; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Álvarez-Fernández, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is abundant in soils but generally poorly soluble. Plants, with the exception of Graminaceae, take up Fe using an Fe(III)-chelate reductase coupled to an Fe(II) transporter. Whether or not nongraminaceous species can convert scarcely soluble Fe(III) forms into soluble Fe forms has deserved little attention so far. We have used Beta vulgaris, one among the many species whose roots secrete flavins upon Fe deficiency, to study whether or not flavins are involved in Fe acquisition. Flavins secreted by Fe-deficient plants were removed from the nutrient solution, and plants were compared with Fe-sufficient plants and Fe-deficient plants without flavin removal. Solubilization of a scarcely soluble Fe(III)-oxide was assessed in the presence or absence of flavins, NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form) or plant roots, and an Fe(II) trapping agent. The removal of flavins from the nutrient solution aggravated the Fe deficiency-induced leaf chlorosis. Flavins were able to dissolve an Fe(III)-oxide in the presence of NADH. The addition of extracellular flavins enabled roots of Fe-deficient plants to reductively dissolve an Fe(III)-oxide. We concluded that root-secretion of flavins improves Fe nutrition in B. vulgaris. Flavins allow B. vulgaris roots to mine Fe from Fe(III)-oxides via reductive mechanisms.

  9. A transgene coding for a human insulin analog has a mitogenic effect on murine embryonic beta cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, M T; Carroll, R J; Hammer, R E; Chan, S J; Guz, Y; Steiner, D F; Teitelman, G

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the mitogenic effect of three mutant forms of human insulin on insulin-producing beta cells of the developing pancreas. We examined transgenic embryonic and adult mice expressing (i) human [AspB10]-proinsulin/insulin ([AspB10]ProIN/IN), produced by replacement of histidine by aspartic acid at position 10 of the B chain and characterized by an increased affinity for the insulin receptor; (ii) human [LeuA3]insulin, produced by the substitution of leucine for valine in position 3 of the A chain, which exhibits decreased receptor binding affinity; and (iii) human [LeuA3, AspB10]insulin "double" mutation. During development, beta cells of AspB10 embryos were twice as abundant and had a 3 times higher rate of proliferation compared with beta cells of littermate controls. The mitogenic effect of [AspB10]ProIN/IN was specific for embryonic beta cells because the rate of proliferation of beta cells of adults and of glucagon (alpha) cells and adrenal chromaffin cells of embryos was similar in AspB10 mice and controls. In contrast to AspB10 embryos, the number of beta cells in the LeuA3 and "double" mutant lines was similar to the number in controls. These findings indicate that the [AspB10]ProIN/IN analog increased the rate of fetal beta-cell proliferation. The mechanism or mechanisms that mediate this mitogenic effect remain to be determined. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7603977

  10. Loss of p53 expression is accompanied by upregulation of beta-catenin in meningiomas: a concomitant reciprocal expression.

    PubMed

    Pećina-Šlaus, Nives; Kafka, Anja; Vladušić, Tomislav; Tomas, Davor; Logara, Monika; Skoko, Josip; Hrašćan, Reno

    2016-04-01

    Crosstalk between Wnt and p53 signalling pathways in cancer has long been suggested. Therefore in this study we have investigated the involvement of these pathways in meningiomas by analysing their main effector molecules, beta-catenin and p53. Cellular expression of p53 and beta-catenin proteins and genetic changes in TP53 were analysed by immunohistochemistry, PCR/RFLP and direct sequencing of TP53 exon 4. All the findings were analysed statistically. Our analysis showed that 47.5% of the 59 meningiomas demonstrated loss of expression of p53 protein. Moderate and strong p53 expression in the nuclei was observed in 8.5% and 6.8% of meningiomas respectively. Gross deletion of TP53 gene was observed in one meningioma, but nucleotide alterations were observed in 35.7% of meningiomas. In contrast, beta-catenin, the main Wnt signalling molecule, was upregulated in 71.2%, while strong expression was observed in 28.8% of meningiomas. The concomitant expressions of p53 and beta-catenin were investigated in the same patients. In the analysed meningiomas, the levels of the two proteins were significantly negatively correlated (P = 0.002). This indicates that meningiomas with lost p53 upregulate beta-catenin and activate Wnt signalling. Besides showing the reciprocal relationship between proteins, we also showed that the expression of p53 was significantly (P = 0.021) associated with higher meningioma grades (II and III), while beta-catenin upregulation was not associated with malignancy grades. Additionally, women exhibited significantly higher values of p53 loss when compared to males (P = 0.005). Our findings provide novel information about p53 involvement in meningeal brain tumours and reveal the complex relationship between Wnt and p53 signalling, they suggest an important role for beta-catenin in these tumours.

  11. Mechanisms of Sb(III) Photooxidation by the Excitation of Organic Fe(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Linghao; He, Mengchang

    2016-07-05

    Organic Fe(III) complexes are widely distributed in the aqueous environment, which can efficiently generate free radicals under light illumination, playing a significant role in heavy metal speciation. However, the potential importance of the photooxidation of Sb(III) by organic Fe(III) complexes remains unclear. Therefore, the photooxidation mechanisms of Sb(III) were comprehensively investigated in Fe(III)-oxalate, Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-fulvic acid (FA) solutions by kinetic measurements and modeling. Rapid photooxidation of Sb(III) was observed in an Fe(III)-oxalate solution over the pH range of 3 to 7. The addition of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as an ·OH scavenger quenched the Sb(III) oxidation, suggesting that ·OH is an important oxidant for Sb(III). However, the incomplete quenching of Sb(III) oxidation indicated the existence of other oxidants, presumably an Fe(IV) species in irradiated Fe(III)-oxalate solution. In acidic solutions, ·OH may be formed by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4) with H2O2, but a hypothetical Fe(IV) species may be generated by the reaction of Fe(II)(C2O4)2(2-) with H2O2 at higher pH. Kinetic modeling provides a quantitative explanation of the results. Evidence for the existence of ·OH and hypothetical Fe(IV) was also observed in an irradiated Fe(III)-citrate and Fe(III)-FA system. This study demonstrated an important pathway of Sb(III) oxidation in surface waters.

  12. Specificity of aminoacylase III-mediated deacetylation of mercapturic acids.

    PubMed

    Newman, Debra; Abuladze, Natalia; Scholz, Karoline; Dekant, Wolfgang; Tsuprun, Vladimir; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Bondar, Galyna; Sassani, Pakan; Kurtz, Ira; Pushkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halogenated alkenes are known environmental contaminants with cytotoxic and nephrotoxic effects, and are potential carcinogens. Their metabolism via the mercapturate metabolic pathway was shown to lead to their detoxification. The final products of this pathway, mercapturic acids or N-acetyl-l-cysteine S-conjugates, are secreted into the lumen in the renal proximal tubule. The proximal tubule may also deacetylate mercapturic acids, and the resulting cysteine S-conjugates are transformed by cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyases to nephrotoxic reactive thiols. The specificity and rate of mercapturic acid deacetylation may determine the toxicity of certain mercapturic acids; however, the exact enzymologic processes involved are not known in detail. In the present study we characterized the kinetics of the recently cloned mouse aminoacylase III (AAIII) toward a wide spectrum of halogenated mercapturic acids and N-acetylated amino acids. In general, the V(max) value of AAIII was significantly larger with chlorinated and brominated mercapturic acids, whereas fluorination significantly decreased it. The enzyme deacetylated mercapturic acids derived from the TCE metabolism including N-acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (NA-1,2-DCVC) and N-acetyl-S-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine (NA-2,2-DCVC). Both mercapturic acids induced cytotoxicity in mouse proximal tubule mPCT cells expressing AAIII, which was decreased by an inhibitor of beta-lyase, aminooxyacetate. The toxic effect of NA-2,2-DCVC was smaller than that of NA-1,2-DCVC, indicating that factors other than the intracellular activity of AAIII mediate the cytotoxicity of these mercapturic acids. Our results indicate that in proximal tubule cells, AAIII plays an important role in deacetylating several halogenated mercapturic acids, and this process may be involved in their cyto- and nephrotoxicity.

  13. Ovine colostrum nanopeptide affects amyloid beta aggregation.

    PubMed

    Janusz, Maria; Woszczyna, Mirosław; Lisowski, Marek; Kubis, Adriana; Macała, Józefa; Gotszalk, Teodor; Lisowski, Józef

    2009-01-05

    A colostral proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP) consisting of over 30 peptides shows beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients when administered in the form of sublinqual tablets called Colostrinin. The aim of the present studies was to investigate whether nanopeptide fragment of PRP (NP) - one of the PRP complex components can affect aggregation of amyloid beta (Abeta1-42). The effect of NP on Abeta aggregation was studied using Thioflavin T (ThT) binding, atomic force microscopy, and analyzing circular dichroism spectra. Results presented suggest that NP can directly interact with amyloid beta, inhibit its aggregation and disrupt existing aggregates acting as a beta sheet breaker and reduce toxicity induced by aggregated forms of Abeta.

  14. Beta-blockers in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hayes, P E; Schulz, S C

    1987-01-01

    Studies evaluating the antianxiety and antipanic properties of beta-blockers do not support their routine use in treating either generalized anxiety disorder or panic disorder. The use of propranolol for anxiety disorders accompanied by physical symptoms, especially cardiovascular complaints, may be effective in some patients when combined with benzodiazepines or perhaps in some non-responders to conventional treatment. Better designed studies are needed to evaluate the exact role of beta-blocking agents in treating anxiety. The efficacy of propranolol in patients with panic disorder has not been widely researched, but preliminary results have not been encouraging. Propranolol may provide symptomatic relief in some patients with residual somatic complaints (i.e., palpitations and tachycardia), when combined with the patient's ongoing drug regimen. Because beta-blockers may induce depression, they should be used cautiously--if at all--in panic patients with concurrent depressive illness.

  15. Atomic structure of Beta-tantalum nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Karsten; Thust, Andreas; Gerber, Andreas; Weides, Martin P; Urban, Knut

    2005-12-01

    The structural properties of beta-phase tantalum nanocrystallites prepared by room temperature magnetron sputter deposition on amorphous carbon substrates are investigated at atomic resolution. For these purposes spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is applied in tandem with the numerical retrieval of the exit-plane wavefunction as obtained from a through-focus series of experimental micrographs. We demonstrate that recent improvements in the resolving power of electron microscopes enable the imaging of the atomic structure of beta-tantalum with column spacings of solely 0.127 nm with directly interpretable contrast features. For the first time ever, we substantiate the existence of grain boundaries of 30 degrees tilt type in beta-Ta whose formation may be well explained by atomic agglomeration processes taking place during sputter deposition.

  16. Pitfalls in prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Rosatelli, C; Maccioni, L; Scalas, M T; Cao, A

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, we report a pregnancy at risk for beta thalassaemia in which the fetal red blood cell volume was reduced while that of the mother was relatively great, so that the presence of a fetal red blood cell population in a mixed maternal-fetal sample was difficult to recognise. The molecular basis for these haematological phenotypes was clarified by follow up examination and alpha globin gene mapping. These indicated that the fetus was heterozygous for beta thalassaemia and had deletion of three alpha globin structural genes, while the mother, heterozygous for beta thalassaemia, also had deletion of two alpha globin structural genes. When the coinheritance of alpha thalassaemia is suspected, it is necessary to examine carefully the red blood cell distribution of a placental sample, so that the presence of a population of fetal red blood cells is not missed. PMID:3783623

  17. Beta-Diversity in Tropical Forest Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condit, Richard; Pitman, Nigel; Leigh, Egbert G.; Chave, Jérôme; Terborgh, John; Foster, Robin B.; Núñez V., Percy; Aguilar, Salomón; Valencia, Renato; Villa, Gorky; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Losos, Elizabeth; Hubbell, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    The high alpha-diversity of tropical forests has been amply documented, but beta-diversity-how species composition changes with distance-has seldom been studied. We present quantitative estimates of beta-diversity for tropical trees by comparing species composition of plots in lowland terra firme forest in Panama, Ecuador, and Peru. We compare observations with predictions derived from a neutral model in which habitat is uniform and only dispersal and speciation influence species turnover. We find that beta-diversity is higher in Panama than in western Amazonia and that patterns in both areas are inconsistent with the neutral model. In Panama, habitat variation appears to increase species turnover relative to Amazonia, where unexpectedly low turnover over great distances suggests that population densities of some species are bounded by as yet unidentified processes. At intermediate scales in both regions, observations can be matched by theory, suggesting that dispersal limitation, with speciation, influences species turnover.

  18. The core lipocalin, bovine beta-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, L; Kontopidis, G

    2000-10-18

    The lipocalin family became established shortly after the structural similarity was noted between plasma retinol binding protein and the bovine milk protein, beta-lactoglobulin. During the past 60 years, beta-lactoglobulin has been studied by essentially every biochemical technique available and so there is a huge literature upon its properties. Despite all of these studies, no specific biological function has been ascribed definitively to the protein, although several possibilities have been suggested. During the processing of milk on an industrial scale, the unpredictable nature of the process has been put down to the presence of beta-lactoglobulin and certainly the whey protein has been implicated in the initiation of aggregation that leads to the fouling of heat exchangers. This short review of the properties of the protein will concentrate mainly on studies carried out under essentially physiological conditions and will review briefly some of the possible functions for the protein that have been described.

  19. A search for ultraviolet circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha Piscis Austrinus (Fomalhaut), a possible Beta Pictoris-like system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, K.-P.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Kondo, Yoji

    1994-01-01

    Archival high-dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra have been used to search for circumstellar gas absorption features in alpha PsA (A3 V), a nearby (6.7 pc) proto-planetary system candidate. Recent sub-millimeter mapping observations around the region of alpha PsA indicate a spatially resolved dust disk like the one seen around Beta Pic. To determine how closely this putative disk resembles that of Beta Pic, we have searched for signatures of circumstellar gaseous absorption in all the available IUE high-dispersion data of alpha PsA. Examination of co-added IUE spectra shows weak circumstellar absorptions from excited levels in the resonance multiplet of Fe II near 2600 A. We also conclude that the sharp C I feature near 1657 A, previously identified as interstellar absorption toward alpha PsA, likely has a circumstellar origin. However, because the weakness of these absorption features, we will consider the presence of circumstellar gas as tentative and should be verified by using the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. No corresponding circumstellar absorption is detected in higher ionization Fe III and Al III. Since the collisionally ionized nonphotospheric Al III resonance absorption seen in Beta Pic is likely formed close to the stellar surface, its absence in the UV spectra of alpha PsA could imply that, in contrast with Beta Pic, there is no active gaseous disk infall onto the central star. In the alpha PsA gaseous disk, if we assume a solar abundance for iron and all the iron is in the form of Fe II, plus a disk temperature of 5000 K, the Fe II UV1 absorption at 2611.8743 A infers a total hydrogen column density along the line of sight through the circumstellar disk of N(H) approximately equals 3.8 x 10(exp 17)/cm.

  20. Combined betaseron R (recombinant human interferon beta) and radiation for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, S.; Chang, A.Y.; Rubin, P.; Kim, Ill Soo; Sobel, S.; Smith, J.; Keng, P.; Muhs, A.

    1993-10-20

    Based on in vitro evidence of radiosensitization by Betaseron{reg_sign} ({beta}-IFN), a Phase I/II study was undertaken to determine toxicity and response using combined radiation (RT) and {beta}-IFN in patients with unresectable Stage III and nonsmall cell lung cancer. Varying doses of {beta}-IFN(10 to 90 {times} 10{sup 6} IU) were administered IV immediately preceding RT on the first three days of weeks 1, 3, and 5. The RT dose was 1.8 Gy/day, 5 days/week for a total of 54 or 59.4 Gy. Thirty-nine patients were entered, 32 of whom were evaluable. The median follow-up at time of analysis was 60 months. Responses were based on CT scan. The response rate for the total group was 81% with 44% achieving complete response. Seventy-eight percent of patients with complete response survived a minimum of 21 months. Twenty-six patients had Stage III A/B disease with a median tumor size of 6.5 cm and median survival was 19.7 months. The 5-year actuarial survival for this group was 31%, with a plateau persisting after 3 years. There were no treatment related deaths nor any event of life threatening toxicity. Of eight patients surviving 3-5 years, no long-term toxicity has been observed. Karofsky indices were 90-100 and respiratory symptoms were minimal. {beta}-IFN is well-tolerated. Response and survival rates are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further investigation in a randomized trial which has been accepted as an RTOG study awaiting drug availability. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. National Coastal Condition Report III (2008)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Coastal Condition Report III (NCCR III) is the third in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico.

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) Metformin HCl chelates.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; Al-Azab, Fathi M; Al-Maydama, Hussein M A; Amin, Ragab R; Jamil, Yasmin M S; Kobeasy, Mohamed I

    2015-05-05

    Metal complexes of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes were discussed and synthesized to serve as potential insulin-mimetic. Some physical properties and analytical data of the four complexes were checked. The elemental analysis shows that La(III), Ce(III) Sm(III) and Y(III) formed complexes with Metformin in 1:3 (metal:MF) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are white and possess high melting points. These complexes are soluble in dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide, partially soluble in hot methanol and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. From the spectroscopic (infrared, UV-vis and florescence), effective magnetic moment and elemental analyses data, the formula structures are suggested. The results obtained suggested that Metformin reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The molar conductance measurements proved that the Metformin complexes are slightly electrolytic in nature. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E(∗), ΔH(∗), ΔS(∗) and ΔG(∗) were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluations of the Metformin and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  3. JumpStart III Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.; Brawer, Florence B.; Kozeracki, Carol A.

    This final report for the JumpStart III program presents a summary of the entrepreneurship training programs developed by each of the four JumpStart III partners selected in March 1997. Grants for the colleges totaled $354,546 over 2 years. The Jumpstart funding has been only a starting point for these and the other 12 Jumpstart partners in…

  4. Grant Administration Manual for Title III Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Emily Duncan; Ashmore, Frances W.

    Guidelines for coordinators of programs under Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965 are presented, based on a national survey of Title III program coordinators. The responsibilities of the coordinator and information on administering the Strengthening Developing Institutions Program (SDIP) grant are covered. The program can either be a…

  5. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Olshavsky, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed, They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline.

  6. Cyanoacrylate glue for type iii lad perforation.

    PubMed

    Trehan, V K; Nigam, Arima

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery perforation especially type III is a rare and catastrophic complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. It mandates emergency open heart surgery if hemostasis is not achieved promptly. We report a case of type III left anterior descending artery (LAD) perforation which was managed successfully with cyanoacrylate glue.

  7. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype.

  8. Preparation of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Olshavsky, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Nanometer-scale crystals of III-V semiconductors are disclosed. They are prepared by reacting a group III metal source with a group V anion source in a liquid phase at elevated temperature in the presence of a crystallite growth terminator such as pyridine or quinoline. 4 figs.

  9. Synthesis and in vitro microbial evaluation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) metal complexes of vitamin B6 drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Metal complexes of pyridoxine mono hydrochloride (vitamin B6) are prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes are investigated. Some physical properties, conductivity, analytical data and the composition of the four pyridoxine complexes are discussed. The elemental analysis shows that the formed complexes of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) with pyridoxine are of 1:2 (metal:PN) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are brown in color and possess high melting points. These complexes are partially soluble in hot methanol, dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. Elemental analysis data, spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis. and florescence), effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons and the proton NMR suggest the structures. However, definite particle size is determined by invoking the X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy data. The results obtained suggested that pyridoxine reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its phenolate oxygen and the oxygen of the adjacent group at the 4‧-position. The molar conductance measurements proved that the pyridoxine complexes are electrolytic in nature. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters such as: Ea, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluation of the pyridoxine and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) Metformin HCl chelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Al-Azab, Fathi M.; Al-Maydama, Hussein M. A.; Amin, Ragab R.; Jamil, Yasmin M. S.; Kobeasy, Mohamed I.

    2015-05-01

    Metal complexes of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes were discussed and synthesized to serve as potential insulin-mimetic. Some physical properties and analytical data of the four complexes were checked. The elemental analysis shows that La(III), Ce(III) Sm(III) and Y(III) formed complexes with Metformin in 1:3 (metal:MF) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are white and possess high melting points. These complexes are soluble in dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide, partially soluble in hot methanol and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. From the spectroscopic (infrared, UV-vis and florescence), effective magnetic moment and elemental analyses data, the formula structures are suggested. The results obtained suggested that Metformin reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The molar conductance measurements proved that the Metformin complexes are slightly electrolytic in nature. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E∗, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluations of the Metformin and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III gamma

    MedlinePlus

    ... time. People with mucolipidosis III gamma often have heart valve abnormalities and mild clouding of the clear covering ... III Gamma MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Cloudy Cornea MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Heart Valves General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  12. The double-beta decay: Theoretical challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Horoi, Mihai

    2012-11-20

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a unique process that could reveal physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics namely, if observed, it would prove that neutrinos are Majorana particles. In addition, it could provide information regarding the neutrino masses and their hierarchy, provided that reliable nuclear matrix elements can be obtained. The two neutrino double beta decay is an associate process that is allowed by the Standard Model, and it was observed for about ten nuclei. The present contribution gives a brief review of the theoretical challenges associated with these two process, emphasizing the reliable calculation of the associated nuclear matrix elements.

  13. Method of producing .beta.-spodumene bodies

    DOEpatents

    Chyung, Kenneth; Day, J. Paul; Holleran, Louis M.; Olszewski, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    Beta-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of beta-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of <10.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C.(0-800.degree. C.), and a strength of .gtoreq.4 Ksi.

  14. Problems and progress in tritium beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Balke, B.; Fackler, O.; Mugge, M.; White, R.

    1988-04-01

    It has been nearly eight years since the group led by Lubimov first saw evidence for a finite neutrino mass in the tritium beta decay spectrum. Their measurement provided a great stimulus to the field; the number of experiments currently underway reflects the significance of their claim. The fact that further data are only now beginning to appear reflects the difficulty of this measurement. As an introduction to related papers in these proceedings, we briefly consider the key elements involved in neutrino-mass measurements using tritium beta decay and list the experiments currently underway in the field. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert

    2004-02-01

    Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version supports interactive selection and graphical display of data generated by the Sandia Cognitive Framework, which simulates the examination of security data by experts of various specialties. Insider Alert also encompasses the configuration and data files input to the Cognitive Framework for this application. Insider Alert 1.0 Beta Version is a computer program for analyzing data indicative of possible espionage or improper handling of data by employees at Sandia National Laboratories (or other facilities with comparable policies and procedures for managing sensitive information) It prioritizes and displays information for review by security analysts.

  16. Double-Beta Decay at TUNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Mary

    2007-10-01

    Studying double-beta decay at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is perhaps one of the most promising ways to pinpoint the neutrino mass. What they do not mention is that to study double-beta decay, you probably have to become a certified miner, and if you have a fear of goats, you should stay away. In this talk, I will tell you some of my experiences as a TUNL graduate student, and how I am now nearly qualified for a job in the mining industry.

  17. Strategies, Implementation and Results of BETA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

    The Harvard University/Planetary Society BETA project is an all-sky, narrow-band, microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligent signals. It has been operating more-or-less continuously for the last four years during which time it has automatically scanned the sky visible from Agassiz station (+60^̂ - -30^̂) over the entire waterhole (1400-1720 MHz) five times. We will discuss BETA's search strategies, our implementation and the results of how these fared in the observatory's interference environment. We will also present qualified limits on the prevalence of transmitting civilizations given our (current) negative results.

  18. Cyanido Antimonate(III) and Bismuthate(III) Anions.

    PubMed

    Arlt, Sören; Harloff, Jörg; Schulz, Axel; Stoffers, Alrik; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-12-05

    The reaction of in situ generated E(CN)3 (E = Sb, Bi) with different amounts of [Ph4P]CN and [PPN]CN ([PPN](+) = [Ph3P-N-PPh3](+)) was studied, affording salts bearing the novel ions [E(CN)5](2-), [Bi2(CN)11](5-), and [Bi(CN)6](3-). The valence lone pair of electrons on the central atom of antimony and bismuth(III) compounds can be either sterically active in an unsymmetric fashion (three shorter bonds + x longer bonds) or symmetric (with rather long averaged bonds). In the presence of weakly coordinating cations (e.g., [Ph4P](+) and [PPN](+)), the solid-state structures of salts with [E(CN)5](2-) anions contain well-separated cations and monomeric anions, which display a sterically active lone pair and a monomeric square-based pyramidal (pseudo-octahedral) structure. The [Bi(CN)5·MeCN](2-) acetonitrile adduct ion exhibits a strongly distorted octahedral structure, which is better understood as a [5 + 1] coordination. The intriguing [Ph4P]6[Bi2(CN)11]CN salt consists of separated cations and anions as well as well-separated [Bi2(CN)11](5-) and CN(-) ions. The structure of the molecular [Bi2(CN)11](5-) ion can be described as two square-based-pyramidal [Bi(CN)5](2-) fragments connected by a disordered bridging CN(-) ion, thereby leading to a distorted-octahedral environment around the two Bi centers. Here the steric effect of the lone pair is much less pronounced but still present.

  19. Design III with Marker Loci

    PubMed Central

    Cockerham, C. C.; Zeng, Z. B.

    1996-01-01

    Design III is an experimental design originally proposed by R. E. COMSTOCK and H. F. ROBINSON for estimating genetic variances and the average degree of dominance for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and has recently been extended for mapping QTL. In this paper, we first extend COMSTOCK and ROBINSON's analysis of variance to include linkage, two-locus epistasis and the use of F(3) parents. Then we develop the theory and statistical analysis of orthogonal contrasts and contrast X environment interaction for a single marker locus to characterize the effects of QTL. The methods are applied to the maize data of C. W. STUBER. The analyses strongly suggest that there are multiple linked QTL in many chromosomes for several traits examined. QTL effects are largely environment-independent for grain yield, ear height, plant height and ear leaf area and largely environment dependent for days to tassel, grain moisture and ear number. There is significant QTL epistasis. The results are generally in favor of the hypothesis of dominance of favorable genes to explain the observed heterosis in grain yield and other traits, although epistasis could also play an important role and overdominance at individual QTL level can not be ruled out. PMID:8807314

  20. Mark III results from SPEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Toki, W.

    1983-11-01

    First results from the MARK III detector at SPEAR are presented based on 2.7 million J/psi decays. The eta/sub c/ is observed in three modes, J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..eta/sub c/, (eta/sub c/ ..-->.. rho anti rho, eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/, and phi phi). Using the phi phi mode, the eta/sub c/ spin-parity is determined to be 0/sup -/. The known radiative J/psi decays J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..f(f ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/), ..gamma..eta'(eta' ..-->.. ..gamma..rho/sup 0/, eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/), ..gamma..f'(f' ..-->.. kappa/sup +/kappa/sup -/), ..gamma..theta(theta ..-->.. kappa anti kappa), and ..gamma..iota(iota ..-->.. ..pi..kappa anti kappa) are observed and their branching ratios found to be in agreement with previous measurements. In the J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma..kappa/sup +/kappa/sup -/ mode a new state is observed at 2.22 GeV and in the J/psi ..-->.. ..gamma gamma..rho/sup 0/ and ..gamma..eta..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ modes evidence for new structures near 1.4 GeV is presented. 29 references.

  1. Atypical beta(s) haplotypes are generated by diverse genetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zago, M A; Silva, W A; Dalle, B; Gualandro, S; Hutz, M H; Lapoumeroulie, C; Tavella, M H; Araujo, A G; Krieger, J E; Elion, J; Krishnamoorthy, R

    2000-02-01

    The majority of the chromosomes with the beta(S) gene have one of the five common haplotypes, designated as Benin, Bantu, Senegal, Cameroon, and Arab-Indian haplotypes. However, in every large series of sickle cell patients, 5-10% of the chromosomes have less common haplotypes, usually referred to as "atypical" haplotypes. In order to explore the genetic mechanisms that could generate these atypical haplotypes, we extended our analysis to other rarely studied polymorphic markers of the beta(S)-gene cluster, in a total of 40 chromosomes with uncommon haplotypes from Brazil and Cameroon. The following polymorphisms were examined: seven restriction site polymorphisms of the epsilongammadeltabeta-cluster, the pre-(G)gamma framework sequence including the 6-bp deletion/insertion pattern, HS-2 LCR (AT)xR(AT)y and pre-beta (AT)xTy repeat motifs, the GC/TT polymorphism at -1105-1106 of (G)gamma-globin gene, the C/T polymorphism at -551 of the beta-globin gene, and the intragenic beta-globin gene framework. Among the Brazilian subjects, the most common atypical structure (7/16) was a Bantu 3'-subhaplotype associated with different 5'-sequences, while in two chromosomes a Benin 3'-subhaplotype was associated with two different 5'-subhaplotypes. A hybrid Benin/Bantu configuration was also observed. In three chromosomes, the atypical haplotype differed from the typical one by the change of a single restriction site. In 2/134 chromosomes identified as having a typical Bantu RFLP-haplotype, a discrepant LCR repeat sequence was observed, probably owing to a crossover 5' to the epsilon-gene. Among 80 beta(S) chromosomes from Cameroon, 22 were associated with an atypical haplotype. The most common structure was represented by a Benin haplotype (from the LCR to the beta-gene) with a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In two cases a Bantu LCR was associated with a Benin haplotype and a non-Benin segment 3' to the beta-globin gene. In three other cases, a more complex

  2. III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Major, Jo S. (Inventor); Welch, David F. (Inventor); Scifres, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    III-V arsenide-nitride semiconductor are disclosed. Group III elements are combined with group V elements, including at least nitrogen and arsenic, in concentrations chosen to lattice match commercially available crystalline substrates. Epitaxial growth of these III-V crystals results in direct bandgap materials, which can be used in applications such as light emitting diodes and lasers. Varying the concentrations of the elements in the III-V materials varies the bandgaps, such that materials emitting light spanning the visible spectra, as well as mid-IR and near-UV emitters, can be created. Conversely, such material can be used to create devices that acquire light and convert the light to electricity, for applications such as full color photodetectors and solar energy collectors. The growth of the III-V material can be accomplished by growing thin layers of elements or compounds in sequences that result in the overall lattice match and bandgap desired.

  3. Crystal structure of recombinant soybean beta-amylase complexed with beta-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Adachi, M; Mikami, B; Katsube, T; Utsumi, S

    1998-07-31

    In order to study the interaction of soybean beta-amylase with substrate, we solved the crystal structure of beta-cyclodextrin-enzyme complex and compared it with that of alpha-cyclodextrin-enzyme complex. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli at a high level as a soluble and catalytically active protein. The purified recombinant enzyme had properties nearly identical to those of native soybean beta-amylase and formed the same crystals as the native enzyme. The crystal structure of recombinant enzyme complexed with beta-cyclodextrin was refined at 2. 07-A resolution with a final crystallographic R value of 15.8% (Rfree = 21.1%). The root mean square deviation in the position of C-alpha atoms between this recombinant enzyme and the native enzyme was 0.22 A. These results indicate that the expression system established here is suitable for studying structure-function relationships of beta-amylase. The conformation of the bound beta-cyclodextrin takes an ellipsoid shape in contrast to the circular shape of the bound alpha-cyclodextrin. The cyclodextrins shared mainly two glucose binding sites, 3 and 4. The glucose residue 4 was slightly shifted from the maltose binding site. This suggests that the binding site of the cyclodextrins is important for its holding of a cleaved substrate, which enables the multiple attack mechanism of beta-amylase.

  4. Structural differences between brain beta 1- and beta 2-tubulins: implications for microtubule assembly and colchicine binding.

    PubMed Central

    Little, M; Ludueña, R F

    1985-01-01

    Brain beta 1- and beta 2-tubulins are the major and minor beta-tubulin components of chordate brain tissue, respectively. Two cysteines of beta 1, but not beta 2, can be specifically cross-linked with the bifunctional sulfhydryl reagent N,N'-ethylenebis(iodoacetamide) (EBI). They are in positions 239 and 354. Although separated by 115 amino acid residues along the beta 1-chain, the two sulfur atoms are maximally 9 A apart in the beta 1 tertiary structure. The failure of beta 2 to form a similar cross-bridge is due to the absence of a cysteine in position 239. At least 10 other sequence differences are also present between beta 1 and beta 2. Positions 239 and 354 of beta 1 probably occupy a key part of the tubulin molecule. The microtubule assembly inhibitors colchicine and podophyllotoxin appear to bind on or near this site and EBI is a potent inhibitor of microtubule assembly. Furthermore, the beta 1-cysteine in position 239 appears to be the most reactive in brain tubulin under the given conditions. The marked difference between beta 1 and beta 2 in this critical region suggests that they may have different functions in brain tissue. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4018027

  5. Mechanisms of impaired beta-adrenoceptor-induced airway relaxation by interleukin-1beta in vivo in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Koto, H; Mak, J C; Haddad, E B; Xu, W B; Salmon, M; Barnes, P J; Chung, K F

    1996-01-01

    We studied the in vivo mechanism of beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) hyporesponsiveness induced by intratracheal instillation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta, 500 U) in Brown-Norway rats. Tracheal and bronchial smooth muscle responses were measured under isometric conditions ex vivo. Contractile responses to electrical field stimulation and to carbachol were not altered, but maximal relaxation induced by isoproterenol (10(-6)-10(-5) M) was significantly reduced 24 h after IL-1beta treatment in tracheal tissues and to a lesser extent, in the main bronchi. Radioligand binding using [125I]iodocyanopindolol revealed a 32+/-7% reduction in beta-ARs in lung tissues from IL-1beta-treated rats, without any significant changes in beta2-AR mRNA level measured by Northern blot analysis. Autoradiographic studies also showed significant reduction in beta2-AR in the airways. Isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation was reduced by IL-1beta at 24 h in trachea and lung tissues. Pertussis toxin reversed this hyporesponsiveness to isoproterenol but not to forskolin in lung tissues. Western blot analysis revealed an IL-1beta-induced increase in Gi(alpha) protein expression. Thus, IL-1beta induces an attenuation of beta-AR-induced airway relaxation through mechanisms involving a reduction in beta-ARs, an increase in Gi(alpha) subunit, and a defect in adenylyl cyclase activity. PMID:8878428

  6. Monitoring the human beta1, beta2, beta3 adrenergic receptors expression and purification in Pichia pastoris using the fluorescence properties of the enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Talmont, Franck

    2009-01-01

    The three beta adrenergic receptor subtypes, beta1-, beta2- and beta3-, were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. These receptors were N-terminally fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and the fluorescent properties of EGFP were used: (1) to select the recombinant strains, (2) to monitor the expression of the fluorescent receptors, and (3) to monitor the purification of the receptors by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. We demonstrate here that Pichia pastoris can be an alternative host to express and purify milligram amounts of human beta adrenergic receptors.

  7. Crystal structures of human DNA polymerase beta complexed with DNA: implications for catalytic mechanism, processivity, and fidelity.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, H; Sawaya, M R; Wolfle, W; Wilson, S H; Kraut, J

    1996-10-01

    Mammalian DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) is a small (39 kDa) DNA gap-filling enzyme that comprises an amino-terminal 8-kDa domain and a carboxy-terminal 31-kDa domain. In the work reported here, crystal structures of human pol beta complexed with blunt-ended segments of DNA show that, although the crystals belong to a different space group, the DNA is nevertheless bound in the pol beta binding channel in the same way as the DNA in previously reported structures of rat pol beta complexed with a template-primer and ddCTP [Pelletier, H., Sawaya, M. R., Kumar, A., Wilson, S. H., & Kraut, J. (1994) Science 264, 1891-1903]. The 8-kDa domain is in one of three previously observed positions relative to the 31-kDa domain, suggesting that the 8-kDa domain may assume only a small number of stable conformations. The thumb subdomain is in a more open position in the human pol beta-DNA binary complex than it is in the rat pol beta-DNA-ddCTP ternary complex, and a closing thumb upon nucleotide binding could represent the rate-limiting conformational change that has been observed in pre-steady-state kinetic studies. Intermolecular contacts between the DNA and the 8-kDa domain of a symmetry-related pol beta molecule reveal a plausible binding site on the 8-kDa domain for the downstream oligonucleotide of a gapped-DNA substrate; in addition to a lysine-rich binding pocket that accommodates a 5'-PO4 end group, the 8-kDa domain also contains a newly discovered helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) motif that binds to DNA in the same way as does a structurally and sequentially homologous HhH motif in the 31-kDa domain. DNA binding by both HhH motifs is facilitated by a metal ion. In that HhH motifs have been identified in other DNA repair enzymes and DNA polymerases, the HhH-DNA interactions observed in pol beta may be applicable to a broad range of DNA binding proteins. The sequence similarity between the HhH motif of endonuclease III from Escherichia coli and the HhH motif of the 8-kDa domain of

  8. A chronic hypercoagulable state in patients with beta-thalassaemia major is already present in childhood.

    PubMed

    Eldor, A; Durst, R; Hy-Am, E; Goldfarb, A; Gillis, S; Rachmilewitz, E A; Abramov, A; MacLouf, J; Godefray, Y C; De Raucourt, E; Guillin, M C

    1999-12-01

    A higher than normal incidence of thromboembolic events has been observed in adult patients with beta-thalassaemia major (TM) and certain haemostatic anomalies found in these patients suggest the existence of a chronic hypercoagulable state. Thalassaemic red blood cells (RBC) were demonstrated to facilitate thrombin formation due to altered asymmetry of the membrane phospholipids with enhanced exposure of phosphatidylserine. Since RBC anomalies exist in thalassaemia from the first months of life, we studied markers of hypercoagulability and thrombophilia in 36 adult patients (range 19-38 years) and 26 children (range 2-18 years) with beta-TM. All the patients were in steady state and none had experienced clinical signs or symptoms of thrombosis. Highly elevated urinary levels of 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 and significantly elevated plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complexes were observed to the same extent in TM children and adults. The levels of factor II were decreased while factors V, VII + X and plasminogen were within the normal range. The natural coagulation inhibitors, protein C (PC) and protein S (PS) were significantly decreased in all TM patients investigated, regardless of age, but the PS binding protein (C4bBP) and antithrombin III levels were normal. The frequency of other thrombophilic mutations was not increased. Thus, a chronic hypercoagulable state already exists in thalassaemia in childhood and may contribute to the cardiac and pulmonary anomalies and the thrombotic events which occur later.

  9. The Biermann Battery In Cosmological Mhd Simulations Of Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hao; O' Shea, Brian W; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Norman, Michael L; Collins, David C

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of the first self-consistent three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamical simulations of Population III star formation including the Biermann battery effect. We find that the Population III stellar cores formed including this effect are both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those from hydrodynamics-only (non-MHD) cosmological simulations. We observe peak magnetic fields of {approx_equal} 10{sup -9} G in the center of our star-forming halo at z {approx_equal} 17.55 at a baryon density of n{sub B} {approx} 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. The magnetic fields created by the Biermann battery effect are predominantly formed early in the evolution of the primordial halo at low density and large spatial scales, and then grow through compression and by shear flows. The fields seen in this calculation are never large enough to be dynamically important (with {beta} {ge} 10{sup 15} at all times before the termination of our calculation), and should be considered the minimum possible fields in existence during Population III star formation. The lack of magnetic support lends credibility to assumptions made in previous calculations regarding the lack of importance of magnetic fields in Population III star formation. In addition, these magnetic fields may be seed fields for the stellar dynamo or the magnetorotational instability at higher densities and smaller spatial scales.

  10. Design and testing of the Series III AMTEC cell

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.; Sievers, R.K.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of the Series III (S3) Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) cell which is capable of high efficiency (15--25%) and high power density (100--150 W/kg). Compared to the Series 2 cell which is being developed primarily for space power systems, the Series III cell design provides a significantly higher beta{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) tube packing density around the heat source thereby increasing cell power and minimizing heat loss. The prototype S3 cell will have 96 BASE tubes and is expected to produce about 150 We. In this cell design the BASE tube assemblies are mounted on a cylindrical tube support plate. The BASE tubes are arranged like spokes on a wheel. The inner cylinder, concentric to the tube support plate, is the hot side of the cell and the outer cylinder is the condenser. Since the prototype S3 cell will be the first of its kind, an engineering cell with same dimensions as the prototype but with 24 BASE tubes was built first. The purpose of this cell was to identify and resolve structural, thermal, manufacturing and sodium management issues before launching into the build of a complete 96 BASE tube cell. The engineering cell has been successfully built and tested. The data of the engineering cells have been used to calibrate the SINDA/FLUINT code to predict the prototype cell performance more accurately. The build of the prototype 96 BASE tube cells is now in progress. This paper presents the design and development of the prototype S3 cell. The fabrication and testing of the first S3 engineering cell is discussed next. Based on the test data of the engineering cell, the anticipated thermal performance of the prototype cells predicted by the calibrated SINDA model are also presented.

  11. The soybean beta-conglycinin beta 51-63 fragment suppresses appetite by stimulating cholecystokinin release in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Takashi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2003-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that soybean beta-conglycinin peptone suppresses food intake and gastric emptying by direct action on rat small intestinal mucosal cells to stimulate cholecystokinin (CCK) release. The aim of the present study was to define the active fragment in beta-conglycinin by using synthetic peptides chosen from the sequence of three beta-conglycinin subunits. We selected the fragments that had multiple nonadjacent arginine residues, and investigated their ability to bind to components of the rat intestinal brush border membrane as well as to stimulate CCK release and appetite suppression. The fragment from 51 to 63 of the beta subunit (beta 51-63) had the strongest binding activity. Intraduodenal infusion of beta 51-63 inhibited food intake and markedly increased portal CCK concentration. The threshold concentration of beta 51-63 to affect food intake was 3 micro mol/L. The CCK-A receptor antagonist abolished the beta 51-63-induced suppression of food intake. Three types of smaller fragments of beta 51-63 (beta 51-59, beta 53-63 and beta 53-59) and two types of fragments similar to beta 51-63 in the beta-conglycinin alpha and alpha' subunits (alpha 212-224 and alpha' 230-240) had less binding ability than did beta 51-63. Model peptides constructed with arginine (R) and glycine (G), such as GRGRGRG, had strong binding affinity, but peptides containing a single R or RR did not. These results indicate that the beta-conglycinin beta 51-63 fragment is the bioactive appetite suppressant in beta-conglycinin, and multiple arginine residues in the fragment may be involved in this effect.

  12. Gene encoding the human beta-hexosaminidase beta chain: extensive homology of intron placement in the alpha- and beta-chain genes.

    PubMed Central

    Proia, R L

    1988-01-01

    Lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) is composed of two structurally similar chains, alpha and beta, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing beta-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the alpha and beta chains, the beta-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The beta-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over approximately 40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the alpha-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions. This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the alpha and beta chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor. PMID:2964638

  13. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 modulates beta 1 and beta 5 integrin receptors and induces the de novo expression of the alpha v beta 6 heterodimer in normal human keratinocytes: implications for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying the promotion of wound healing by TGF-beta 1 is incompletely understood. We report that TGF-beta 1 regulates the regenerative/migratory phenotype of normal human keratinocytes by modulating their integrin receptor repertoire. In growing keratinocyte colonies but not in fully stratified cultured epidermis, TGF-beta 1: (a) strongly upregulates the expression of the fibronectin receptor alpha 5 beta 1, the vitronectin receptor alpha v beta 5, and the collagen receptor alpha 2 beta 1 by differentially modulating the synthesis of their alpha and beta subunits; (b) downregulates the multifunctional alpha 3 beta 1 heterodimer; (c) induces the de novo expression and surface exposure of the alpha v beta 6 fibronectin receptor; (d) stimulates keratinocyte migration toward fibronectin and vitronectin; (e) induces a marked perturbation of the general mechanism of polarized domain sorting of both beta 1 and beta 4 dimers; and (f) causes a pericellular redistribution of alpha v beta 5. These data suggest that alpha 5 beta 1, alpha v beta 6, and alpha v beta 5, not routinely used by keratinocytes resting on an intact basement membrane, act as "emergency" receptors, and uncover at least one of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the peculiar integrin expression in healing human wounds. Indeed, TGF-beta 1 reproduces the integrin expression pattern of keratinocytes located at the injury site, particularly of cells in the migrating epithelial tongue at the leading edge of the wound. Since these keratinocytes are inhibited in their proliferative capacity, these data might account for the apparent paradox of a TGF-beta 1-dependent stimulation of epidermal wound healing associated with a growth inhibitory effect on epithelial cells. PMID:7537276

  14. Separation studies of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) by reversed-phase paper chromatographic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, B.; Shinde, V.M.

    1987-07-01

    Reversed-phase paper chromatographic separations of As(III), Sb(III) and Bi(III) have been carried out on Whatman No 1 filter paper impregnated with triphenylphosphine oxide as stationary phase and using organic complexing agents such as sodium acetate, sodium succinate and sodium malonate solutions as active mobile phases. Results for the separation of binary and ternary mixtures are reported and the method has been successfully applied to the separation and detection of these elements present in real samples and at ppm level concentration.

  15. Lanthanide(III) and Yttrium(III) Complexes of Benzimidazole-2-Acetic Acid: Synthesis, Characterisation and Effect of La(III) Complex on Germination of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gudasi, Kalagouda B.; Shenoy, Rashmi V.; Vadavi, Ramesh S.; Patil, Manjula S.; Patil, Siddappa A.; Hanchinal, Rayappa R.; Desai, Srinivas A.; Lohithaswa, H.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) nitrate complexes of benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (HBIA) are reported. The complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic studies, IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible, EPR, and TG/DTA studies. They have the stoichiometry [Ln3(BIA)2(NO3)7(H2O)4] · 3H2O where Ln=La(III), Pr(III), Nd(II), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Y(III). The effect of La(III) complex on germination, coleoptile, and root length of two local varieties of wheat DWR-195 and GW-349 for different treatment periods has been investigated. The complex was found to exhibit enhanced activity, compared to HBIA or metal salt alone at lower treatment periods. PMID:17497017

  16. The circumstellar gas surrounding 51 Ophiuchi - A candidate proto-planetary system similar to Beta Pictoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Silvis, J. M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Combined archival and recent International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of the star, 51 Oph, reveal the presence of variable, accreting gas with velocities as large as + 100 km/s relative to the system. The electron number density of the circumstellar gas is comparable to that observed around the candidate proto-planetary system, Beta Pic. In addition to the cooler gas, absorption from Al III, Si IV, and C IV is present over the velocity range of the accreting gas. The presence of Si IV and C IV in the spectrum of a B9.5 star provides evidence for collisional ionization of the circumstellar gas like that observed in Beta Pic. The combination of H-alpha profiles with double emission peaks to comparable strength, together with detection of transient mass ejection events similar to those observed in other Be stars, suggests that the inclination of the 51 Oph system is within 10-15 deg of the equatorial plane. Collectively these data imply that the 51 Oph system is similar to Beta Pic in both system constituents and orientation, and may be in a similar evolutionary state.

  17. [The level of beta-endorphin, chronic stress, and depression associated with vestibular pathology].

    PubMed

    Kunel'skaia, N L; Guseva, A L; Chistov, S D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence and the severity of manifestations of anxiety and depression in the patients presenting with vestibular dysfunction making use of the psychometric scales and taking into consideration variations in the plasma beta-endorphin level as a biochemical marker before and after medicamental and physical rehabilitative treatment. A total of 8 patients presenting with stage I-III Meniere's disease and 8 patients suffering from dyscirculatory encephalopathy concomitant with vestibular ataxic syndrome were available for the observation. We separately analysed the results of examination of two patients with vestibular neuronitis and two others presenting with vestibular migraine. It was shown that the degree of anxiety and depression correlated with the plasma beta-endorphin level whereas its correlation with the severity of vestibular oculomotor and vestibular motor disorders during the inter-bout periods was not documented. It was demonstrated that the plasma beta-endorphin level was many times higher than the normal value of 20 ng/l in the patients with the well apparent vegetative symptoms accompanied by dizziness and the patients suffering from vegetative migraine.

  18. Using Beta Cen to Probe the Photosphere-Wind Connection to B Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, Joseph J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the project was to probe the connection between the photospheric pulsations and the X-ray production in the stellar winds of B stars. The B1 III star Beta Centauri is a Beta Cephei variable with a high X-ray count rate, and was observed by XMM. Analysis of XMM X-ray spectra showed characteristic plasma temperatures of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.6 keV. Analysis of He-like forbidden-to-intercombination lines was performed to determine the dominant locations of the X-ray emission. At Prism, work focused on developing and upgrading spectral models to calculate forbidden-to-intercombination line ratios using more detailed atomic models than the simple models typically used in the analysis of X-ray spectral lines, thereby allowing us to assess the effects of a broader variety of populating and depopulating channels for energy levels contributing to the observed X-ray line emission. Based on Ne IX lines, the source location was determined to be no farther than 4 stellar radii. Examination of the time variability of the XMM data for Beta Cen showed no significant correlation with the known optical pulsation period for the star, and also did not find any significant periods of variation at X-ray wavelengths.

  19. Critical role for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection and bacterial replication-independent secretion of IL-1beta in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Prantner, Daniel; Darville, Toni; Sikes, James D; Andrews, Charles W; Brade, Helmut; Rank, Roger G; Nagarajan, Uma M

    2009-12-01

    Recent findings have implicated interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) as an important mediator of the inflammatory response in the female genital tract during chlamydial infection. But how IL-1beta is produced and its specific role in infection and pathology are unclear. Therefore, our goal was to determine the functional consequences and cellular sources of IL-1beta expression during a chlamydial genital infection. In the present study, IL-1beta(-/-) mice exhibited delayed chlamydial clearance and decreased frequency of hydrosalpinx compared to wild-type (WT) mice, implying an important role for IL-1beta both in the clearance of infection and in the mediation of oviduct pathology. At the peak of IL-1beta secretion in WT mice, the major producers of IL-1beta in vivo are F4/80(+) macrophages and GR-1(+) neutrophils, but not CD45(-) epithelial cells. Although elicited mouse macrophages infected with Chlamydia muridarum in vitro secrete minimal IL-1beta, in vitro prestimulation of macrophages by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Escherichia coli or C. trachomatis L2 prior to infection greatly enhanced secretion of IL-1beta from these cells. By using LPS-primed macrophages as a model system, it was determined that IL-1beta secretion was dependent on caspase-1, potassium efflux, and the activity of serine proteases. Significantly, chlamydia-induced IL-1beta secretion in macrophages required bacterial viability but not growth. Our findings demonstrate that IL-1beta secreted by macrophages and neutrophils has important effects in vivo during chlamydial infection. Additionally, prestimulation of macrophages by chlamydial TLR ligands may account for the elevated levels of pro-IL-1beta mRNA observed in vivo in this cell type.

  20. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) monoclonal antibodies with lupus anticoagulant-like activity enhance the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids.

    PubMed Central

    Takeya, H.; Mori, T.; Gabazza, E. C.; Kuroda, K.; Deguchi, H.; Matsuura, E.; Ichikawa, K.; Koike, T.; Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    beta2-Glycoprotein I (beta2GPI), a plasma glycoprotein with phospholipid-binding property, is known to be the actual target antigen for autoimmune type anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLs). Certain groups of aCLs (anti-beta2GPI antibodies) exert lupus anticoagulant (LA) activity and perturb the function of vascular endothelial cells. This investigation aimed at highlighting some insights into the molecular basis by which aCLs exert their biological effects by using anti-beta2GPI mAbs with well-characterized epitopes from mice and from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Anti-beta2GPI mAbs directed against the third domain (Cof-20 and Cof-22) and fourth domain (Cof-21, EY1C8, and EY2C9) of beta2GPI inhibited the thrombin generation induced by Russell's viper venom in diluted plasma and that induced by the prothrombinase complex reconstituted with purified clotting factors. This anticoagulant activity was abrogated in the presence of an excess amount of phospholipids, thus resembling the LA activity. In stark contrast, anti-beta2GPI mAbs directed against the fifth domain and the carboxy-terminal region of the fourth domain showed no LA-like activity. These findings suggest that the LA activity of anti-beta2GPI antibodies depends on their epitope specificity. Experiments carried out to clarify the mechanism of the LA activity showed that anti-beta2GPI mAbs with LA-like activity, but not those without this effect, enhance the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids. In addition, the F(ab')2 fragment, but not the Fab' fragment, of the anti-beta2GPI mAbs was found to enhance the LA activity and the beta2GPI binding to phospholipids, suggesting that anti-beta2GPI antibodies induce formation of multiple complexes of beta2GPI on the surface of phospholipids because of their bivalent property. This clustering of beta2GPI molecules induced by anti-beta2GPI antibodies, probably because of their multivalent property and epitope specificity, might hinder the lateral mobility and

  1. Characterization of a Commercial Silicon Beta Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; Hayes, James C.; Mayer, Michael F.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Sivels, Ciara B.; Suarez, Rey

    2016-03-31

    Silicon detectors are of interest for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) due to their enhanced energy resolution compared to plastic scintillators beta cells. Previous work developing a figure-of-merit (FOM) for comparison of beta cells suggests that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) could be reduced by a factor of two to three with the use of silicon detectors. Silicon beta cells have been developed by CEA (France) and Lares Ltd. (Russia), with the PIPSBox developed by CEA being commercially available from Canberra for approximately $35k, but there is still uncertainty about the reproducibility of the capabilities in the field. PNNL is developing a high-resolution beta-gamma detector system in the shallow underground laboratory, which will utilize and characterize the operation of the PIPSBox detector. Throughout this report, we examine the capabilities of the PIPSBox as developed by CEA. The lessons learned through the testing and use of the PIPSBox will allow PNNL to strategically develop a silicon detector optimized to better suit the communities needs in the future.

  2. Review: Beta-thalassemia and molecular chaperones.

    PubMed

    Sumera, Afshan; Radhakrishnan, Ammu; Baba, Abdul Aziz; George, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Thalassemia is known as a diverse single gene disorder, which is prevalent worldwide. The molecular chaperones are set of proteins that help in two important processes while protein synthesis and degradation include folding or unfolding and assembly or disassembly, thereby helping in cell homeostasis. This review recaps current knowledge regarding the role of molecular chaperones in thalassemia, with a focus on beta thalassemia.

  3. Beta Backscatter Measures the Hardness of Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, E. T.; Roje, F. N.

    1986-01-01

    Nondestructive testing method determines hardness, on Shore scale, of room-temperature-vulcanizing silicone rubber. Measures backscattered beta particles; backscattered radiation count directly proportional to Shore hardness. Test set calibrated with specimen, Shore hardness known from mechanical durometer test. Specimen of unknown hardness tested, and radiation count recorded. Count compared with known sample to find Shore hardness of unknown.

  4. Double beta decay: recent developments and projections

    SciTech Connect

    Avignone, F.T. III; Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Hensley, W.K.; Reeves, J.H.; Wogman, N.A.

    1983-08-01

    A report of recent events in both theoretical and experimental aspects of double beta decay is given. General theoretical considerations, recent developments in nuclear structure theory, geochronological determinations of half lives and ratios as well as laboratory experiments are discussed with emphasis on the past three years. Some projections are given. 28 references.

  5. Effect of beta blockade on singing performance.

    PubMed

    Gates, G A; Saegert, J; Wilson, N; Johnson, L; Shepherd, A; Hearne, E M

    1985-01-01

    The symptoms associated with performance anxiety, or the so-called stage fright syndrome, are similar to those of alpha and beta adrenergic stimulation. Suppression of symptoms and improvement in instrumentalist's performance after beta blockade suggest that this modality would be of benefit for singers as well. To evaluate the dose-effect relationship of beta blockade upon singing performance and the possible effect of these agents upon performance maturation, we studied 34 singing students during end of semester juries, using a double-blind crossover paradigm. Students performed once with either placebo, 20, 40, or 80 mg of nadolol, and again 48 hours later, with placebo. There was a significant dose-related, limiting effect upon intraperformance cardiac rate. A small, but statistically significant, dichotomous effect upon performance rating was noted: low-dose nadolol tended to enhance performance, whereas larger doses impaired performance. We conclude that the effects of low dose beta blockade upon singing are minimally helpful and high doses may detract from performance ability.

  6. ATCA characterisation of first BETA fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feain, Ilana; Johnston, Simon

    2011-04-01

    To fully characterise 2 30 square degree fields that will become the first science fields observed on BETA and at the same time to extract new science from the ATCA observations. The fields are centred on the Circinus galaxy and the Fornax cluster (and including Fornax A)

  7. Beta Bremsstrahlung dose in concrete shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Chandrika, B. M.; Rudraswamy, B.; Sankarshan, B. M.

    2012-05-01

    In a nuclear reactor, beta nuclides are released during nuclear reactions. These betas interact with shielding concrete and produces external Bremsstrahlung (EB) radiation. To estimate Bremsstrahlung dose and shield efficiency in concrete, it is essential to know Bremsstrahlung distribution or spectra. The present work formulated a new method to evaluate the EB spectrum and hence Bremsstrahlung dose of beta nuclides (32P, 89Sr, 90Sr-90Y, 90Y, 91Y, 208Tl, 210Bi, 234Pa and 40K) in concrete. The Bremsstrahlung yield of these beta nuclides in concrete is also estimated. The Bremsstrahlung yield in concrete due to 90Sr-90Y is higher than those of other given nuclides. This estimated spectrum is accurate because it is based on more accurate modified atomic number (Zmod) and Seltzer's data, where an electron-electron interaction is also included. Presented data in concrete provide a quick and convenient reference for radiation protection. The present methodology can be used to calculate the Bremsstrahlung dose in nuclear shielding materials. It can be quickly employed to give a first pass dose estimate prior to a more detailed experimental study.

  8. Automatic TLI recognition system beta prototype testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the beta prototype automatic target recognition system ATR3, and some performance tests done with this system. This is a fully operational system, with a high computational speed. It is useful for findings any kind of target in digitized image data, and as a general purpose image analysis tool.

  9. .beta.-glucosidase 5 (BGL5) compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2010-06-01

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl5, and the corresponding BGL5 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL5, recombinant BGL5 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  10. Neptunium(III) application in extraction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Nicolas; Nadeau, Kenny; Larivière, Dominic

    2011-12-15

    This paper describes a novel strategy for actinide separation by extraction chromatography with Np(III) valence adjustment. Neptunium(IV) was reduced to Np(III) using Cr(II) and then selectively separated from uranium (IV) on a TEVA resin. After elution, Np(III) was retained on a DGA resin in order to remove any detrimental chromium impurities. Neptunium(III) formation was demonstrated by the complete and selective elution of Np from TEVA resin (99 ± 7%) in less than 12 mL of 9M HCl from U(IV) (0.7 ± 0.7%). It was determined by UV-visible and kinetic studies that Cr(II) was the only species responsible for the elution of Np(IV) as Np(III) and that the Cr(II) solution could be prepared from 2 to 30 min before its use without the need of complex degassing systems to prevent the oxidation of Np(III) by oxygen. The methodology proposed here with TEVA/DGA resins provides removal of Cr(III) impurities produced at high decontamination factors (2.8 × 10(3) and 7.3 × 10(4) respectively).

  11. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  12. Multivariate Generalized Beta Distributions with Applications to Utility Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libby, David L.; Novick, Melvin R.

    1982-01-01

    Two multivariate probability distributions, a generalized beta distribution and a generalized F distribution, are derived. Formulas for the moments of these distributions are given and an example of the bivariate generalized beta is presented. (Author/JKS)

  13. BETA-SILICON CARBIDE AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR DEVICES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BETA- SILICON CARBIDE AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR DEVICES. GROWTH OF BETA SIC CRYSTALS FROM SOLUTION USING MOLTEN SI AS SOLVENT. INCREASED RESISTIVITY (FROM 0.5 TO 3.8 OHM/CM) ACCOMPANIED DECREASE IN N CONTAMINATION SOURCES.

  14. Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

  15. Spectral, electrochemical, and catalytic properties of a homologous series of manganese porphyrins as cytochrome P450 model: the effect of the degree of beta-bromination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Dayse Carvalho; DeFreitas-Silva, Gilson; do Nascimento, Eliane; Rebouças, Júlio Santos; Barbeira, Paulo Jorge Sanches; de Carvalho, Maria Eliza Moreira Dai; Idemori, Ynara Marina

    2008-10-01

    A homologous series of beta-brominated porphyrins derived from meso-tetrakis(4-carbomethoxyphenyl)porphyrinatomanganese(III) chloride, i.e., Mn(III)(Br(x)TCMPP)Cl (x=0,2,4,6, and 8), was prepared and investigated as cytochrome P450 models. Hydroxylations of cyclohexane by iodosylbenzene (PhIO) and iodobenzene diacetate (PhI(OAc)(2)) in the presence or absence of water were carried out as P450 model reactions. The influence of the degree of beta-bromination of the macrocycle on the UV-vis spectra, the Mn(III)/Mn(II) reduction potential, and the catalytic properties of the Mn(III)(Br(x)TCMPP)Cl (x=0,2,4,6, and 8) series were examined. The catalytic efficiency does not correlate with the Mn(III)/Mn(II) reduction potential and shows a bell-shaped behavior, where the best results are achieved with the hexabrominated complex. Better hydroxylation yields were achieved by using PhI(OAc)(2) as oxygen donor, but at expenses of catalyst recovery; addition of water to this system resulted in a increase in the reaction rate. Recycling of the more oxidatively robust complexes Mn(III)(Br(6)TCMPP)Cl and Mn(III)(Br(8)TCMPP)Cl is feasible when using PhIO as oxygen donor. Selectivity and UV-vis data suggested that hydroxylation by both PhIO and PhI(OAc)(2) share closely related active species and mechanism. We also show that the Mn(III)/Mn(II) reduction potentials are inappropriate predictors of P450-type activity of Mn porphyrin-catalyzed oxidations.

  16. Integrin alpha v beta 3 differentially regulates adhesive and phagocytic functions of the fibronectin receptor alpha 5 beta 1

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The plasma protein fibronectin is an important opsonin in wound repair and host defense. To better understand the process of fibronectin- mediated phagocytosis, we have transfected K562 cells, which endogenously express alpha 5 beta 1, with alpha v beta 3. In these transfectants, antibodies to alpha v beta 3 block phagocytosis of fibronectin-opsonized beads completely, even though half the ingestion occurs through endogenous alpha 5 beta 1 receptors. alpha 5 beta 1- mediated adhesion to fibronectin-coated surfaces is unaffected by alpha v beta 3 ligation. Neither alpha v beta 5 nor alpha M beta 2 ligation affects alpha 5 beta 1 phagocytic function in transfectants expressing these receptors. Pharmacologic data suggest that alpha v beta 3 ligation suppresses the phagocytic competence of high affinity alpha 5 beta 1 receptors through a signal transduction pathway, perhaps involving protein kinase C. In addition to its significance for phagocytosis, alpha v beta 3 regulation of alpha 5 beta 1 function may be significant for its roles in cell migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis. PMID:7525603

  17. Calcium channel beta subunit promotes voltage-dependent modulation of alpha 1 B by G beta gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, A; Bell, D C; Stephens, G J; Page, K M; Dolphin, A C

    2000-01-01

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) are heteromultimers composed of a pore-forming alpha1 subunit and auxiliary subunits, including the intracellular beta subunit, which has a strong influence on the channel properties. Voltage-dependent inhibitory modulation of neuronal VDCCs occurs primarily by activation of G-proteins and elevation of the free G beta gamma dimer concentration. Here we have examined the interaction between the regulation of N-type (alpha 1 B) channels by their beta subunits and by G beta gamma dimers, heterologously expressed in COS-7 cells. In contrast to previous studies suggesting antagonism of G protein inhibition by the VDCC beta subunit, we found a significantly larger G beta gamma-dependent inhibition of alpha 1 B channel activation when the VDCC alpha 1 B and beta subunits were coexpressed. In the absence of coexpressed VDCC beta subunit, the G beta gamma dimers, either expressed tonically or elevated via receptor activation, did not produce the expected features of voltage-dependent G protein modulation of N-type channels, including slowed activation and prepulse facilitation, while VDCC beta subunit coexpression restored all of the hallmarks of G beta gamma modulation. These results suggest that the VDCC beta subunit must be present for G beta gamma to induce voltage-dependent modulation of N-type calcium channels. PMID:10920007

  18. A potential role for the COOH-terminal domain in the lateral packing of type III intermediate filaments

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    To identify sites of self-association in type III intermediate filament (IF) proteins, we have taken an "anti-idiotypic antibody" approach. A mAb (anti-Ct), recognizing a similar feature near the end of the rod domain of vimentin, desmin, and peripherin (epsilon site or epsilon epitope), was characterized. Anti-idiotypic antibodies, generated by immunizing rabbits with purified anti-Ct, recognize a site (presumably "complementary" to the epsilon epitope) common among vimentin, desmin, and peripherin (beta site or beta epitope). The beta epitope is represented in a synthetic peptide (PII) modeled after the 30 COOH- terminal residues of peripherin, as seen by comparative immunoblotting assays. Consistent with the idea of an association between the epsilon and the beta site, PII binds in vitro to intact IF proteins and fragments containing the epsilon epitope, but not to IF proteins that do not react with anti-Ct. Microinjection experiments conducted in vivo and filament reconstitution assays carried out in vitro further demonstrate that "uncoupling" of this site-specific association (by competition with PII or anti-Ct) interferes with normal IF architecture, resulting in the formation of filaments and filament bundles with diameters much greater than that of the normal IFs. These thick fibers are very similar to the ones observed previously when a derivative of desmin missing 27 COOH-terminal residues was assembled in vitro (Kaufmann, E., K. Weber, and N. Geisler. 1985. J. Mol. Biol. 185:733-742). As a molecular explanation, we propose here that the epsilon and the beta sites of type III IF proteins are "complementary" and associate during filament assembly. As a result of this association, we further postulate the formation of a surface-exposed "loop" or "hairpin" structure that may sterically prevent inappropriate filament-filament aggregation and regulate filament thickness. PMID:1714461

  19. [Napoleon III's urogenital disease (1808-1873)].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G

    2000-02-01

    We tried through this paper to reconstitute the evolution of the urologic illness of Napoleon III, last emperor of France, the first symptoms of which appeared many years before the fatal war of 1870, which led to the dismembering of France. In this connection, we present Napoleon III's physicians and his cures, along with the diagnostic and therapeutic errors. The case of Napoleon III is a typical example of the influence the bad health of a sovereign can exercise on the destiny of his country.

  20. Transcription by RNA polymerases I and III

    PubMed Central

    Paule, Marvin R.; White, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The task of transcribing nuclear genes is shared between three RNA polymerases in eukaryotes: RNA polymerase (pol) I synthesises the large rRNA, pol II synthesises mRNA and pol III synthesises tRNA and 5S rRNA. Although pol II has received most attention, pol I and pol III are together responsible for the bulk of transcriptional activity. This survey will summarise what is known about the process of transcription by pol I and pol III, how it happens and the proteins involved. Attention will be drawn to the similarities between the three nuclear RNA polymerase systems and also to their differences. PMID:10684922

  1. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, T.D.; Misra, M.

    1997-10-14

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector. 24 figs.

  2. Photodetectors using III-V nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Misra, Mira

    1997-01-01

    A photodetector using a III-V nitride and having predetermined electrical properties is disclosed. The photodetector includes a substrate with interdigitated electrodes formed on its surface. The substrate has a sapphire base layer, a buffer layer formed from a III-V nitride and a single crystal III-V nitride film. The three layers are formed by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (ECR-assisted MBE). Use of the ECR-assisted MBE process allows control and predetermination of the electrical properties of the photodetector.

  3. An intermediate in a new synthesis approach to beta-substituted beta-hydroxyaspartame.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Johny; Rolland, Valérie; Martinez, Jean; Rolland, Marc

    2003-08-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of 1-tert-butyl 4-ethyl (2'R,3'R,5'R,2S,3S)-3-bromomethyl-3-hydroxy-2-[(2'-hydroxy-2',6',6'-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3'-ylidene)amino]succinate, C(21)H(34)BrNO(6), is presented. This compound is an intermediate in the new synthetic route to beta-substituted beta-hydroxyaspartates, which are blockers of glutamate transport.

  4. [Separation and identification of beta-casein from Chinese human milk by ion exchange chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Ren, Haowei; Liu, Biao; Liu, Ning; Li, Meng; Wang, Dongmao

    2013-05-01

    The selective precipitation of whole casein from skimmed milk was achieved by the addition of calcium salt under acidic pH. The effects of pH, centrifugal force and final concentration of CaCl2 on the separation of casein were studied by measuring the purity of final products using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that casein with the highest purity could be obtained with the pH of 4.3, the centrifugal force of 10 400 g and the final concentration of CaCl2 of 60 mmol/L. The casein was processed with DEAE anion exchange chromatography and three peaks were obtained. Then the third peak (peak III) was identified with Western-Blot method and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The identification of Western-Blot showed that peak III can combine with the specificity of human milk beta-casein antibody, and it is proved to be human milk beta-casein. The fingerprints of peak III were nalyzed by Mascot searching, and the sequence coverage was 50%, further supporting it is human milk beta-casein. In conclusion, an effective method to obtain human milk beta-casein from milk samples through DEAE anion exchange chromatography was established, and it is suitable for the proteomics research requirements of the beta-casein from human milk.

  5. Polarization and position measurements of Type III bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, S.; Sheridan, K. V.; Dulk, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    The positional and polarization characteristics of Type III bursts in the range 24-220 MHz as measured by the Culgoora radioheliograph, spectrograph and spectropolarimeter are reported. The study includes 997 bursts which are of two classes: fundamental-harmonic (F-H) pairs and 'structureless' bursts with no visible F-H structure, and concentrates on the polarization of the bursts and the variation of polarization from centre to limb. The observed centre-to-limb decrease in polarization approximately follows a cosine law. This decrease is not as predicted by simple theory but is consistent with other observations which imply that open field lines from an active region diverge strongly. The observed o-mode polarization of harmonic radiation implies that the wave vectors of Langmuir waves are always parallel, within about 20 deg, to the magnetic field, while the constancy of H polarization with frequency implies that the ratio of gyromagnetic to plasma frequency, the Alfven speed and the plasma beta are constant with height on the open field lines above an active region. Finally, it is inferred that some factor, in addition to the magnetic field strength, controls the polarization of F radiation.

  6. Biodegradation and aquatic toxicity of beta-alaninediacetic acid (beta-ADA).

    PubMed

    Nitschke, L; Wilk, A; Cammerer, C; Lind, G; Metzner, G

    1997-02-01

    The aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of the new chelating agent beta-alaninediacetic acid (beta-ADA) were investigated. There is no inhibition effect of beta-ADA in the daphnia magna 24 h test up to a concentration of 1000 mg/L. The algal growth inhibition test resulted in an EC 50 of 19.7 mg/L. An EC 20 of 740 mg/L was determined in the luminescent bacteria test. An EC 50 was not obtained in this test up to a concentration of 2000 mg/L beta-ADA. The degree of biodegradation of beta-ADA was determined in a static and a continuous test. The beta-ADA removal reached 98% at the end of the test after eight weeks in the continuous test which was carried out with laboratory activated sludge units simulating a waste water treatment plant. Further, biodegradation and toxicity tests were coupled, i.e. the effluents of the laboratory activated sludge units were applied in the toxicity tests. A higher toxicity of the effluents of the test units in comparison with the control unit was not observed.

  7. Beta scattering and beta back-scattering from a thin target

    SciTech Connect

    Bafandeh, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical technique is presented to determine the distribution of transmitted and back scattered beta particles as a function of angle of incident radiation on a target. Scatterers used consisted of metallic foils of various thicknesses and atomic number, such as Al, Zn, Fe, Ag, and Zr. Three pure beta-emitting radionuclides, [sup 32]P, [sup 204]Tl, and [sup 147]Pm characterized by end-point energies of 1.71 Mev, 0.769 Mev, and 0.225 Mev, respectively, were prepared as individual sources and used in the experimental work. A scintillation detector used in conjunction with the target scatterer and a specially designed fixture that allowed rotation about its vertical rotation axis provided the proper geometry and shielding for this experiment. Finally, the author attempted to compare experimental results with computer calculations and derived an algebraic equation to predict the intensity of beta particle back-scattered radiation as a function of energy of the source material, the scattering angle, scatterer thickness, and the material of the target scatterer. Unlike the case of heavy charged particles such as alpha particles, the effects of beta particle back scattering on dose calculations cannot be ignored. Scattering effects also have important implications with respect to the measurement of beta-emitting radionuclides and the measurements of beta radiation dose.

  8. Charge-exchange reactions and nuclear matrix elements for {beta}{beta} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Frekers, D.

    2009-11-09

    Charge-exchange reactions of (n, p) and (p, n) type at intermediate energies are a powerful tool for the study of nuclear matrix element in {beta}{beta} decay. The present paper reviews some of the most recent experiments in this context. Here, the (n, p) type reactions are realized through (d, {sup 2}He), where {sup 2}He refers to two protons in a singlet {sup 1}S{sub 0} state and where both of these are momentum analyzed and detected by the same spectrometer and detector. These reactions have been developed and performed exclusively at KVI, Groningen (NL), using an incident deuteron energy of 183 MeV. Final state resolutions of about 100 keV have routinely been available. On the other hand, the ({sup 3}He, t) reaction is of (p, n) type and was developed at the RCNP facility in Osaka (JP). Measurements with an unprecedented high resolution of 30 keV at incident energies of 420 MeV are now readily possible. Using both reaction types one can extract the Gamow-Teller transition strengths B(GT{sup +}) and B(GT{sup -}), which define the two ''legs'' of the {beta}{beta} decay matrix elements for the 2v{beta}{beta} decay The high resolution available in both reactions allows a detailed insight into the excitations of the intermediate odd-odd nuclei and, as will be shown, some unexpected features are being unveiled.

  9. Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2012-12-06

    To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

  10. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  11. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  12. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  13. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  15. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, Marc

    2014-01-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase, or beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of nicotinamide beta-riboside and nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Franchetti, Palmarisa; Pasqualini, Michela; Petrelli, Riccardo; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vita, Patrizia; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2004-09-20

    The beta-anomers of N-ribofuranosylnicotine-3-carboxamide (beta-NAR) and its nicotinic acid analog (beta-NaR) were obtained by stereoselective synthesis via glycosylation of the presilylated bases under Vorbruggen's protocol. A NAR analog, methylated in position 3 of the ribosylic moiety, is also reported.

  17. [Beta-blockers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Sova, Milan; Kamasová, Monika; Václavík, Jan; Sovová, Eliška; Hajdová, Lenka; Kolek, Vítězslav

    2016-04-01

    This general article discusses the problems of beta-blockers use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its aim is to refute exaggerated concerns of physicians over possible undesirable effects of beta-blockers on the patient respiratory functions and present new data on the effects of beta-blockers on the extent of COPD exacerbations, bronchial reactivity and mortality of patients.

  18. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    DOEpatents

    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  19. Beta-Cryptoxanthin as a source of Vitamin A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-cryptoxanthin is a common carotenoid that is found in fruit, and in human blood and tissues. Foods that are rich in beta-cryptoxanthin include tangerines, persimmons, and oranges. Beta-cryptoxanthin has several functions that are important for human health, including roles in antioxidant defens...

  20. Why Downside Beta Is Better: An Educational Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, James T.; Jennings, William P.; Phillips, G. Michael

    2013-01-01

    An educational example is presented that is an effective teaching illustration to help students understand the difference between traditional CAPM beta and downside (or down-market) beta and why downside beta is a superior measure for use in personal financial planning investment policy statements.