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Sample records for 4-methylbenzylidene camphor 4-mbc

  1. Effects of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) on neuronal and muscular development in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Vincent Wai Tsun; Tsui, Mei Po Mirabelle; Chen, Xueping; Hui, Michelle Nga Yu; Jin, Ling; Lam, Raymond H W; Yu, Richard Man Kit; Murphy, Margaret B; Cheng, Jinping; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2016-05-01

    The negative effects of overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in humans, including sunburn and light-induced cellular injury, are of increasing public concern. 4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), an organic chemical UV filter, is an active ingredient in sunscreen products. To date, little information is available about its neurotoxicity during early vertebrate development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of 4-MBC in embryo medium for 3 days. In this study, a high concentration of 4-MBC, which is not being expected at the current environmental concentrations in the environment, was used for the purpose of phenotypic screening. Embryos exposed to 15 μM of 4-MBC displayed abnormal axial curvature and exhibited impaired motility. Exposure effects were found to be greatest during the segmentation period, when somite formation and innervation occur. Immunostaining of the muscle and axon markers F59, znp1, and zn5 revealed that 4-MBC exposure leads to a disorganized pattern of slow muscle fibers and axon pathfinding errors during the innervation of both primary and secondary motor neurons. Our results also showed reduction in AChE activity upon 4-MBC exposure both in vivo in the embryos (15 μM) and in vitro in mammalian Neuro-2A cells (0.1 μM), providing a possible mechanism for 4-MBC-induced muscular and neuronal defects. Taken together, our results have shown that 4-MBC is a teratogen and influences muscular and neuronal development, which may result in developmental defects. PMID:26888529

  2. [Monograph for 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC)--HBM values for the sum of metabolites 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4 CBHC) in the urine of adults and children. Statement of the HBM Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency].

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The substance 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC, CAS-No. 36861-47-9 as well as 38102-62-4) is used as UV-filter in cosmetics, mainly in sunscreen lotions. National as well as European evaluations are available for the substance, especially from the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP). The SCCP did not derive a TDI-value, but used for a MoS assessment a NOAEL of 25 mg/(kg bw · d) based on effects on the thyroid gland of rats in a subchronic study with oral administration. Newer studies, however, indicate lower NOAEL values, leading to tolerable daily intakes of 0,01 mg/kg bw. The HBM Commission established for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor (3-4CBC) HBM-I values of 0,09 mg/l urine for adults and 0,06 mg/l urine for children. HBM-I values for the metabolite 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor (3-4CBHC) were set at 0,38 mg/l urine for adults and 0,25 mg/l urine for children. The rounded HBM-I value for the sum of metabolites 3-4CBC und 3-4CBHC is accordingly 0,5 mg/l urine for adults and 0,3 mg/l urine for children. PMID:26721474

  3. Comparison of effects of estradiol (E2) with those of octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) - 2 filters of UV light - on several uterine, vaginal and bone parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Seidlova-Wuttke, D.; Jarry, H.; Christoffel, J.; Rimoldi, G.; Wuttke, W. . E-mail: ufkendo@med.uni-goettingen.de

    2006-02-01

    OMC and 4MBC are 2 absorbers of ultraviolet light which are used in unknown quantities in sunscreens, cosmetics and plastic products to protect against UV light-induced damage of the skin or of fragrances or plastic material. From there, they were shown to reach surface water and/or by direct contamination or ingestion the human. Under various conditions in mice and rats, both substances were shown to be estrogenic. Therefore, we compared in vitro and in vivo the effects of chronic application of these compounds at 2 doses with those of E2, all administered via food. No signs of toxicity were observed under application of 0.6 mg E2, 57.5 or 275 mg of OMC, 57.5 or 250 mg of 4MBC; these amounts were ingested with 21 g of control food, 17.8 g E2 food, 20.6 g or 22.3 g OMC food and 23.7 or 22.8 g 4MBC food. In the uterus, vagina and bone, E2 exerted the expected stimulatory effects which were minimally shared by OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and vagina as assessed by histology and determination of a variety of estrogen-regulated genes such as insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor {beta}. In the bone, OMC had no effect, while 4MBC shared the antiosteoporotic effects of E2 as measured by quantitative computer tomography in the metaphysis of the tibia. The mechanism of action of 4MBC, however, appears to be different as E2 reduced serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal breakdown products of collagen-1{alpha}1 which were both increased by 4MBC. Taken together, these data indicate a very weak estrogenic effect of OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and in the vagina but not in the bone where 4MBC exerted antiosteoporotic effects by a different mechanism than E2.

  4. Toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats after oral administration

    SciTech Connect

    Voelkel, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas; Schauer, Ute M.D.; Broschard, Thomas H.; Dekant, Wolfgang . E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) is an UV-filter frequently used in sunscreens and cosmetics. Equivocal findings in some screening tests for hormonal activity initiated a discussion on a possible weak estrogenicity of 4-MBC. In this study, the toxicokinetics and biotransformation of 4-MBC were characterized in rats after oral administration. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group) were administered single oral doses of 25 or 250 mg/kg bw of 4-MBC in corn oil. Metabolites formed were characterized and the kinetics of elimination for 4-MBC and its metabolites from blood and with urine were determined. Metabolites of 4-MBC were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR and LC-MS/MS as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and as four isomers of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor containing the hydroxyl group located in the camphor ring system with 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor as the major metabolite. After oral administration of 4-MBC, only very low concentrations of 4-MBC were present in blood and the peak concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were approximately 500-fold above those of 4-MBC; blood concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were below the limit of detection. Blood concentration of 4-MBC and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor peaked within 10 h after 4-MBC administration and then decreased with half-lives of approximately 15 h. No major differences in peak blood levels between male and female rats were seen. In urine, one isomer of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)hydroxycamphor was the predominant metabolite [3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor], the other isomers and 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were only minor metabolites excreted with urine. However, urinary excretion of 4-MBC-metabolites represents only a minor pathway of elimination for 4-MBC, since most of the applied dose was recovered in feces as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor and, to a smaller extent, as 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor

  5. Influence of solid lipid microparticle carriers on skin penetration of the sunscreen agent, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Santo; Mezzena, Matteo; Iannuccelli, Valentina

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare lipid microparticles (LMs) loaded with the sunscreen agent, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), to achieve decreased skin penetration of this UV filter. The microparticles were produced by the melt dispersion technique using tristearin as lipidic material and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine as the surfactant. The obtained microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Release of 4-MBC from the LMs was found to be slower than its dissolution rate. The influence of the LMs' carrier system on percutaneous penetration was evaluated after their introduction in a model topical formulation (emulsion). In-vitro measurements were performed with cellulose acetate membranes in Franz diffusion cells. The 4-MBC release and diffusion was decreased by 66.7-77.3% with the LM formulation, indicating that the retention capacity of the microparticles was maintained after incorporation into the emulsion. In-vivo human skin penetration of 4-MBC was investigated by tape stripping, a technique for selectively removing the upper cutaneous layers. The amount of sunscreen penetrating into the stratum corneum was greater for the emulsion containing non-encapsulated 4-MBC (36.55% of the applied dose) compared with the formulation with the sunscreen-loaded microparticles (24.57% of the applied dose). The differences between the two formulations were statistically significant in the first (2-4) horny layer strips. Moreover, the LMs' effect measured in-vivo was less pronounced than in-vitro. The increased 4-MBC retention on the skin surface achieved by its incorporation in the LMs should enhance its efficacy and reduce the potential toxicological risk associated with skin penetration. PMID:18053323

  6. Influence of solid lipid microparticle carriers on skin penetration of the sunscreen agent, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Santo; Mezzena, Matteo; Iannuccelli, Valentina

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare lipid microparticles (LMs) loaded with the sunscreen agent, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), to achieve decreased skin penetration of this UV filter. The microparticles were produced by the melt dispersion technique using tristearin as lipidic material and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine as the surfactant. The obtained microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Release of 4-MBC from the LMs was found to be slower than its dissolution rate. The influence of the LMs' carrier system on percutaneous penetration was evaluated after their introduction in a model topical formulation (emulsion). In-vitro measurements were performed with cellulose acetate membranes in Franz diffusion cells. The 4-MBC release and diffusion was decreased by 66.7-77.3% with the LM formulation, indicating that the retention capacity of the microparticles was maintained after incorporation into the emulsion. In-vivo human skin penetration of 4-MBC was investigated by tape stripping, a technique for selectively removing the upper cutaneous layers. The amount of sunscreen penetrating into the stratum corneum was greater for the emulsion containing non-encapsulated 4-MBC (36.55% of the applied dose) compared with the formulation with the sunscreen-loaded microparticles (24.57% of the applied dose). The differences between the two formulations were statistically significant in the first (2-4) horny layer strips. Moreover, the LMs' effect measured in-vivo was less pronounced than in-vitro. The increased 4-MBC retention on the skin surface achieved by its incorporation in the LMs should enhance its efficacy and reduce the potential toxicological risk associated with skin penetration.

  7. Stereoisomer composition of the chiral UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Müller, Markus D; Balmer, Marianne E; Poiger, Thomas; Buerge, Ignaz J

    2005-05-01

    4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) is an important organic UV filter used in many personal care products such as sunscreens and cosmetics. After use, 4-MBC may enter the aquatic environment due to its release from skin during recreational activities (swimming, bathing) and from personal hygiene measures (washing, laundering of cloths) via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In fact, 4-MBC has been detected in wastewater, in surface waters, and even in fish. 4-MBC can exist as distinct cis-(Z)- and trans-(E)-isomers, both of which are chiral. Despite the fact that stereoisomers often show a different biological behavior, the stereochemistry of 4-MBC has hardly ever been considered in environmental or biological studies. In this study, enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the stereoisomer composition of 4-MBC. For stereoisomer assignment, the pure enantiomers of (E)-4-MBC were synthesized from (+)- and (-)-camphor. The photochemical isomerization (sunlight) of these (E)-isomers to the corresponding (Z)-isomers eventually allowed the configurational assignment of all four stereoisomers of 4-MBC. In a technical material and in a major brand sun lotion, 4-MBC was shown to consist entirely (>99%) of (E)-isomers and to be racemic (R/S, 1.00 +/- 0.02). Wastewater showed the presence of both (E)- and (Z)-4-MBC with a clear excess of (E)-isomers (E > Z). Untreated wastewater showed a nearly racemic composition (R/S= 0.95-1.09), suggesting that most if not all commercial 4-MBC is racemic. Treated wastewater indicated some excess of (R)- or (S)-stereoisomers (R/S, 0.89-1.17), likely as a result of some enantioselective (bio)degradation in WWTPs. Residues of 4-MBC in lakes and in a river with inputs from WWTPs and/or recreational activities consisted mainly of (E)-4-MBC and, with exception of one lake (Greifensee), showed a small enantiomer excess (R/S, 1.04-1.16). In Greifensee, 4-MBC showed a higher enantiomer excess (R/S, 1

  8. Stereoisomer composition of the chiral UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Müller, Markus D; Balmer, Marianne E; Poiger, Thomas; Buerge, Ignaz J

    2005-05-01

    4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) is an important organic UV filter used in many personal care products such as sunscreens and cosmetics. After use, 4-MBC may enter the aquatic environment due to its release from skin during recreational activities (swimming, bathing) and from personal hygiene measures (washing, laundering of cloths) via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In fact, 4-MBC has been detected in wastewater, in surface waters, and even in fish. 4-MBC can exist as distinct cis-(Z)- and trans-(E)-isomers, both of which are chiral. Despite the fact that stereoisomers often show a different biological behavior, the stereochemistry of 4-MBC has hardly ever been considered in environmental or biological studies. In this study, enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the stereoisomer composition of 4-MBC. For stereoisomer assignment, the pure enantiomers of (E)-4-MBC were synthesized from (+)- and (-)-camphor. The photochemical isomerization (sunlight) of these (E)-isomers to the corresponding (Z)-isomers eventually allowed the configurational assignment of all four stereoisomers of 4-MBC. In a technical material and in a major brand sun lotion, 4-MBC was shown to consist entirely (>99%) of (E)-isomers and to be racemic (R/S, 1.00 +/- 0.02). Wastewater showed the presence of both (E)- and (Z)-4-MBC with a clear excess of (E)-isomers (E > Z). Untreated wastewater showed a nearly racemic composition (R/S= 0.95-1.09), suggesting that most if not all commercial 4-MBC is racemic. Treated wastewater indicated some excess of (R)- or (S)-stereoisomers (R/S, 0.89-1.17), likely as a result of some enantioselective (bio)degradation in WWTPs. Residues of 4-MBC in lakes and in a river with inputs from WWTPs and/or recreational activities consisted mainly of (E)-4-MBC and, with exception of one lake (Greifensee), showed a small enantiomer excess (R/S, 1.04-1.16). In Greifensee, 4-MBC showed a higher enantiomer excess (R/S, 1

  9. Comparison of effects of estradiol with those of octylmethoxycinnamate and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor on fat tissue, lipids and pituitary hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Christoffel, Julie; Rimoldi, Guillermo; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang . E-mail: ufkendo@med.uni-goettingen.de

    2006-07-01

    Octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) are commercially used absorbers of ultraviolet (UV) light. In rats, they were shown to exert endocrine disrupting including uterotrophic, i.e. estrogenic effects. Estrogens have also metabolic effects, therefore the impact of oral application of the two UV absorbers at 2 doses for 3 months on lipids and hormones were compared with those of estradiol-17{beta} (E2). E2, OMC and 4MBC reduced weight gain, the size of fat depots and serum leptin, a lipocyte-derived hormone, when compared to the ovariectomized control animals. Serum triglycerides were also reduced by the UV screens but not by E2. On the other hand, E2 and OMC reduced serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins; this effect was not shared by 4MBC. While E2 inhibited, OMC and 4MBC stimulated serum LH levels. In the uterus, both UV filters had mild stimulatory effects. 4MBC inhibited serum T4 resulting in increased serum TSH levels. It is concluded that OMC and 4MBC have effects on several metabolic parameters such as fat and lipid homeostasis as well as on thyroid hormone production. Many of these effects are not shared by E2. Hence, other than estrogen-receptive mechanisms may be responsible for these effects.

  10. Comparison of effects of estradiol with those of octylmethoxycinnamate and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor on fat tissue, lipids and pituitary hormones.

    PubMed

    Seidlová-Wuttke, Dana; Christoffel, Julie; Rimoldi, Guillermo; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    Octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) are commercially used absorbers of ultraviolet (UV) light. In rats, they were shown to exert endocrine disrupting including uterotrophic, i.e. estrogenic effects. Estrogens have also metabolic effects, therefore the impact of oral application of the two UV absorbers at 2 doses for 3 months on lipids and hormones were compared with those of estradiol-17beta (E2). E2, OMC and 4MBC reduced weight gain, the size of fat depots and serum leptin, a lipocyte-derived hormone, when compared to the ovariectomized control animals. Serum triglycerides were also reduced by the UV screens but not by E2. On the other hand, E2 and OMC reduced serum cholesterol, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins; this effect was not shared by 4MBC. While E2 inhibited, OMC and 4MBC stimulated serum LH levels. In the uterus, both UV filters had mild stimulatory effects. 4MBC inhibited serum T4 resulting in increased serum TSH levels. It is concluded that OMC and 4MBC have effects on several metabolic parameters such as fat and lipid homeostasis as well as on thyroid hormone production. Many of these effects are not shared by E2. Hence, other than estrogen-receptive mechanisms may be responsible for these effects.

  11. Sexually dimorphic gene regulation in brain as a target for endocrine disrupters: Developmental exposure of rats to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor

    SciTech Connect

    Maerkel, Kirsten; Durrer, Stefan; Henseler, Manuel; Schlumpf, Margret; Lichtensteiger, Walter . E-mail: Walter.Lichtensteiger@access.unizh.ch

    2007-01-15

    The developing neuroendocrine brain represents a potential target for endocrine active chemicals. The UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) exhibits estrogenic activity, but also interferes with the thyroid axis. We investigated effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 4-MBC in the same rat offspring at brain and reproductive organ levels. 4-MBC (7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) was administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during gestation and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. mRNA of estrogen target genes involved in control of sexual behavior and gonadal functions was measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO) of adult offspring. 4-MBC exposure affected mRNA levels of ER alpha, progesterone receptor (PR), preproenkephalin (PPE) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in a sex- and region-specific manner. In order to assess possible changes in sensitivity of target genes to estrogens, offspring were gonadectomized on day 70, injected with estradiol (E2, 10 or 50 {mu}g/kg s.c.) or vehicle on day 84, and sacrificed 6 h later. The acute induction of PR mRNA, and repression (at 6 h) of PPE mRNA by E2 was enhanced by 4-MBC in male and female VMH and female MPO, whereas male MPO exhibited reduced responsiveness of both genes. Steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 mRNA levels were increased in female VMH and MPO. The data indicate profound sex- and region-specific alterations in the regulation of estrogen target genes at brain level. Effect patterns in baseline and E2-induced gene expression differ from those in uterus and prostate.

  12. Kinetics of 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor in rats and humans after dermal application

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, Ute M.D.; Voelkel, Wolfgang; Heusener, Alexander; Colnot, Thomas; Broschard, Thomas H.; Landenberg, Friedrich von; Dekant, Wolfgang . E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    The toxicokinetics of 4-MBC after dermal administration were investigated in human subjects and in rats. Humans (3 male and 3 female subjects) were exposed to 4-MBC by topical application of a commercial sunscreen formulation containing 4% 4-MBC (w/w), covering 90% of the body surface and resulting in a mean dermal 4-MBC dose of 22 mg/kg bw. In rats, dermal 4-MBC doses of 400 and 2000 mg/kg bw were applied in a formulation using an occlusive patch for 24 h. Concentrations of 4-MBC and its metabolites were monitored over 96 h in plasma (rats and humans) and urine (humans). In human subjects, plasma levels of 4-MBC peaked at 200 pmol/ml in males and 100 pmol/ml in females 6 h after application and then decreased to reach the limit of detection after 24 h (females), respectively, 36 h (males). After dermal application of 4-MBC, peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 50-80 pmol/ml at 12 h and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 100-200 pmol/ml at 24 h. In male and female rats, peak plasma levels of 4-MBC were 200 (dose of 400 mg/kg bw) and 1 200 pmol/ml (dose of 2000 mg/kg bw). These levels remained constant for up to 24-48 h after dermal application. Peak plasma concentrations of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)-6-hydroxycamphor were 18,000 pmol/ml (males) and of 3-(4-carboxybenzylidene)camphor were 55,000 pmol/ml (females) between 48 and 72 h after application of the high dose of 4-MBC. In human subjects, only a small percentage of the dermally applied dose of 4-MBC was recovered in the form of metabolites in urine, partly as glucuronides. The obtained results suggest a more intensive biotransformation of 4-MBC in rats as compared to humans after dermal application and a poor absorption of 4-MBC through human skin.

  13. Enantioselective separation of the sunscreen agent 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor by electrokinetic chromatography: Quantitative analysis in cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Gómara, Belén; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, María Luisa

    2005-10-01

    3-(4-Methylbenzylidene)-camphor (MBC) is a chiral sunscreen agent used in cosmetic products. In this work, the enantioseparation of MBC has been performed by EKC and applied to the analysis of the MBC enantiomers in cosmetic creams. Different experimental conditions (type and concentration of the chiral selector, temperature, and sample solvent) have been optimized. Due to the neutral nature of this compound, anionic CD derivatives were investigated as chiral selectors. Carboxymethylated-beta-CD (CM-beta-CD) showed the highest chiral separation power, observing that a 15 mM concentration of this CD at a working temperature of 15 degrees C enabled to obtain the highest enantioresolution. However, under these conditions, tailing of peaks obtained for the enantiomers was observed. The addition of increasing concentrations of the neutral alpha-CD to CM-beta-CD at a 15 mM concentration in a 100 mM borate buffer at pH 9.0 improved the enantiomeric separation and decreased peak tailing. The use of DMF for the total dissolution of the cosmetic creams, and methanol:water (1:1 v/v) for appropriate dilution enabled to observe good shape and size for the peaks of the MBC enantiomers. After optimizing a method for the preconditioning of the capillary, the analytical characteristics of the chiral separation method for the analysis of MBC were investigated. Linearity, LODs and LOQs, precision (instrumental repeatability, method repeatability, intermediate precision), accuracy, and selectivity were evaluated. The method was applied to analyze MBC enantiomers contained in two commercial cosmetic creams containing racemic MBC and to study the skin absorption of this compound with time. PMID:16217832

  14. Optical and time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance studies of the excited states of a UV-B absorber (4-methylbenzylidene)camphor.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Azusa; Shibata, Kenji; Kumasaka, Ryo; Yagi, Mikio

    2013-02-21

    The excited states of UV-B absorber (4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (MBC) have been studied through measurements of UV absorption, phosphorescence, triplet-triplet (T-T) absorption, and steady-state and time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in ethanol. The energy level and lifetime of the lowest excited triplet (T(1)) state of MBC were determined. The energy level of the T(1) state of MBC is much lower than that of photolabile 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane. The weak phosphorescence and strong time-resolved EPR signals, and T-T absorption band of MBC were observed. These facts suggest that the significant proportion of the lowest excited singlet (S(1)) molecules undergoes intersystem crossing to the T(1) state and the deactivation process from the T(1) state is predominantly radiationless. The quantum yields of singlet oxygen production by MBC determined by time-resolved near-IR luminescence measurements are 0.05 ± 0.01 and 0.06 ± 0.01 in ethanol and in acetonitrile, respectively. The photostability of MBC arises from the (3)ππ* character in the T(1) state. The zero-field splitting parameters in the T(1) state are D = 0.0901 cm(-1) and E = -0.0498 cm(-1). The sublevel preferentially populated by intersystem crossing is T(y) (y close to in-plane short axis and to the C═O direction). PMID:23320917

  15. Screening the Toxicity of Selected Personal Care Products Using Embryo Bioassays: 4-MBC, Propylparaben and Triclocarban

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Tiago; Cunha, Isabel; Martins, Rosário; Santos, Miguel M.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several emerging pollutants, including Personal Care Products (PCPs), have been detected in aquatic ecosystems, in the ng/L or µg/L range. Available toxicological data is limited, and, for certain PCPs, evidence indicates a potential risk for the environment. Hence, there is an urgent need to gather ecotoxicological data on PCPs as a proxy to improve risk assessment. Here, the toxicity of three different PCPs (4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor (4-MBC), propylparaben and triclocarban) was tested using embryo bioassays with Danio rerio (zebrafish) and Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin). The No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) for triclocarban was 0.256 µg/L for sea urchin and 100 µg/L for zebrafish, whereas NOEC for 4-MBC was 0.32 µg/L for sea urchin and 50 µg/L for zebrafish. Both PCPs impacted embryo development at environmentally relevant concentrations. In comparison with triclocarban and 4-MBC, propylparaben was less toxic for both sea urchin (NOEC = 160 µg/L) and zebrafish (NOEC = 1000 µg/L). Overall, this study further demonstrates the sensitivity of embryo bioassays as a high-throughput approach for testing the toxicity of emerging pollutants. PMID:27775672

  16. Effects of in vivo exposure to UV filters (4-MBC, OMC, BP-3, 4-HB, OC, OD-PABA) on endocrine signaling genes in the insect Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence indicating that several UV filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. Numerous studies have evaluated hormonal effects in vertebrates, mainly reporting estrogenic and androgenic activities in mammals and fishes. There is only limited knowledge about potential endocrine activity in invertebrate hormonal systems. In this work, the effects on endocrine signaling genes of six frequently used UV filters were investigated in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. The UV filters studied were: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also called 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC); benzophenone-3 (BP-3); 4-hidroxybenzophenone (4-HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). After in vivo exposure at different dosages, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR), the ultraspiracle (usp, ortholog of the RXR) and the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) were quantified by Real Time PCR. The EcR gene was significantly upregulated by 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA, with a dose-related response following 24h exposure. In contrast, the benzophenones, BP-3 and 4-HB, as well as OC did not alter this gene at the same exposure conditions. The transcription profiles of the usp and ERR genes were not significantly affected, except for BP-3 that inhibited the usp gene at the highest concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence in invertebrates of a direct effect of UV filters on endocrine-related genes, and is consistent with the known effects on vertebrate hormonal receptor genes. The capability of 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA to stimulate the expression of the ecdysone receptor, a key transcription factor for the ecdysone-genomic response in arthropods, suggests the possibility of a broad and long-term effect on this hormonal pathway. These findings strengthen the need for further research about the ecotoxicological implications

  17. Sorption and degradation of selected organic UV filters (BM-DBM, 4-MBC, and OD-PABA) in laboratory water-sediment systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Lu, Guanghua; Xie, Zhengxin; Ding, Jiannan; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Organic UV filters that have been widely used in sunscreens and other personal care products have drawn much public concern because of their widespread contamination in the environment and their potential ecological risks to ecosystems. We selected three UV filters with high frequency of detection in the environment, namely butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM), ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA), and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), to investigate the sorption and degradation behaviors of these compounds in lab-scale water-sediment systems set up with natural water and sediment samples collected from different rivers and lakes (i.e., Yangtze River, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake, and Mochou Lake) in Nanjing, East China. The sorption isotherms of these UV filters were well described by the Freundlich equation (C s   = K f  × C w (n) ). The sorption of three UV filters in four sediments was all linear or close to it, with n values between 0.92 and 1.13. A moderate to strong sorption affinity was observed for these compounds, and the sorption appears to be irreversible. For the combined sorption and degradation studies, sorption was found to be a primary mechanism for the disappearance of these UV filters from the water phase, and biotransformation appears to be the predominant factor for the degradation of the target compounds in the water-sediment systems. All three UV filters were found to be slightly resistant to the microbes in these systems, with DT50total and DT90total values-the disappearance time (DT) describes the time in which the initial total mass of the UV filters in the whole system is reduced by 50 and 90 %-ranging between 18 and 31 days and 68 and 101 days, respectively. PMID:26846244

  18. Sorption and degradation of selected organic UV filters (BM-DBM, 4-MBC, and OD-PABA) in laboratory water-sediment systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Lu, Guanghua; Xie, Zhengxin; Ding, Jiannan; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Organic UV filters that have been widely used in sunscreens and other personal care products have drawn much public concern because of their widespread contamination in the environment and their potential ecological risks to ecosystems. We selected three UV filters with high frequency of detection in the environment, namely butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM), ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA), and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), to investigate the sorption and degradation behaviors of these compounds in lab-scale water-sediment systems set up with natural water and sediment samples collected from different rivers and lakes (i.e., Yangtze River, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake, and Mochou Lake) in Nanjing, East China. The sorption isotherms of these UV filters were well described by the Freundlich equation (C s   = K f  × C w (n) ). The sorption of three UV filters in four sediments was all linear or close to it, with n values between 0.92 and 1.13. A moderate to strong sorption affinity was observed for these compounds, and the sorption appears to be irreversible. For the combined sorption and degradation studies, sorption was found to be a primary mechanism for the disappearance of these UV filters from the water phase, and biotransformation appears to be the predominant factor for the degradation of the target compounds in the water-sediment systems. All three UV filters were found to be slightly resistant to the microbes in these systems, with DT50total and DT90total values-the disappearance time (DT) describes the time in which the initial total mass of the UV filters in the whole system is reduced by 50 and 90 %-ranging between 18 and 31 days and 68 and 101 days, respectively.

  19. Camphor overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated as appropriate. The person may receive: Activated charcoal (used if other substances were taken along with the camphor, since activated charcoal does not adsorb camphor very well) Airway support, ...

  20. "Vibrational spectroscopic analysis and molecular docking studies of (E)-4-methoxy-N‧-(4-methylbenzylidene) benzohydrazide by DFT"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, R.; Manjula, J.

    2016-07-01

    (E)-4-methoxy-N‧-(4-methylbenzylidene)benzohydrazide (4MN'MBH) a novel, organic, hydrazone Schiff base compound was synthesized and its structure was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (4000-400 cm-1), Fourier Transform Raman (3500-50 cm-1), Ultraviolet-Visible (200-800 nm) and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis. Optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments regarding 4MN'MBH has become screened tentatively as well as hypothetically utilizing Gaussian09Wprogram package. Potential energy distributions of the normal modes of vibrations connected with vibrations are generally accomplished by applying VEDA program. Natural Bonding Orbital (NBO) assessment was completed with a reason to clarify charge transfer or conjugative interaction, the intra-molecular-hybridization and delocalization of electron density within the molecule. Electronic transitions were studied employing UV-Visible spectrum and the observed values were compared with theoretical values. 1H and13C NMR spectral assessment had been made with choosing structure property relationship by chemical shifts along with magnetic shielding effects of title compound. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of 4MN'MBH were calculated. The computed first order hyperpolarizability commensurate with the documented worth of very similar structure and could be an interesting thing for more experiments on non linear optics. Molecular docking study has been performed by in silico method to analysis their antituberculosis aspects against Enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA) protein.

  1. [Raspail, Don Quixote of camphor!].

    PubMed

    Hutin, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    François Vincent Raspail (1794-1878) was a chemist and a politician who practised medicine illegally : for him, all pathologies were almost exclusively caused by "parasites" and he treated them all thanks to the beneficial effects of camphor. Raspail did not invent nor discover that substance, which was broadly used in the 18th century, but he codified the use of its various pharmaceutical forms thanks to what would be later called "Raspail's method": camphor to eat (lumps), to snuff (powder), to smoke (cigarettes), brandy and 32° camphored alcohol, camphored oil and sedative water... Since Raspail lavished his patients with many hygiene pieces of advice and moral principles, this method--that was actually a prolongation of his political action in favour of the very poor--was a complete success among the population. But this success was also due to the simplicity of the remedy, its relative harmlessness and, above all, to an incredibly efficient advertising since he enjoyed the support of many important people and also published a very successful book, his Manuel annuaire de Santé, that was re-edited 77 times. PMID:26492672

  2. Developmental toxicity of UV filters and environmental exposure: a review.

    PubMed

    Schlumpf, Margret; Durrer, Stefan; Faass, Oliver; Ehnes, Colin; Fuetsch, Michaela; Gaille, Catherine; Henseler, Manuel; Hofkamp, Luke; Maerkel, Kirsten; Reolon, Sasha; Timms, Barry; Tresguerres, Jesus A F; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2008-04-01

    Several ultraviolet (UV) filters exhibit estrogenic, some also anti-androgenic activity. They are present in waste water treatment plants, surface waters and biosphere including human milk, suggesting potential exposure during development. Developmental toxicity was studied in rats for the UV filters 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC, 0.7, 7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC, 0.07, 0.24, 0.7, 2.4, 7 mg/kg/day) administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during pregnancy and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. Neonates exhibited enhanced prostate growth after 4-MBC and altered uterine gene expression after both chemicals. 4-MBC and 3-BC delayed male puberty and affected reproductive organ weights of adult offspring. Effects on the thyroid axis were also noted. Expression and oestrogen sensitivity of oestrogen-regulated genes and nuclear receptor coregulator levels were altered at mRNA and protein levels in adult uterus, prostate and brain regions involved in gonadal control and sexual behaviour. Female sexual behaviour was impaired by both filters; 3-benzylidene camphor caused irregular cycles. Classical endpoints exhibited lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) and no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of 7/0.7 mg/kg for 4-MBC and 0.24/0.07 mg/kg for 3-BC. Molecular endpoints were affected by the lowest doses studied. Our data indicate that the potential risk posed by endocrine active UV filters warrants further investigations.

  3. Spontaneous motion of an elliptic camphor particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Iida, Keita; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    The coupling between deformation and motion in a self-propelled system has attracted broader interest. In the present study, we consider an elliptic camphor particle for investigating the effect of particle shape on spontaneous motion. It is concluded that the symmetric spatial distribution of camphor molecules at the water surface becomes unstable first in the direction of a short axis, which induces the camphor disk motion in this direction. Experimental results also support the theoretical analysis. From the present results, we suggest that when an elliptic particle supplies surface-active molecules to the water surface, the particle can exhibit translational motion only in the short-axis direction.

  4. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-12-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  5. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  6. [Camphor in the Edo era fireworks].

    PubMed

    Hattori, A

    2001-01-01

    Guns and gunpowder were introduced into Japan in 1543 by the Portuguese, and they soon began to be made in Japan by the Japanese. The powder was used also for making fireworks. The brilliance of fireworks was darker and the scale was less in the Edo period. Various materials were added to the powder to make the fireworks more brilliant. Camphor was one of them, though the volume was slight and the frequency of adding it was small. Camphor had been used for torch-light materials before the Edo period, so it seems logical that it would be added to powder for fireworks.

  7. Sorption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products to polyethylene debris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenxi; Zhang, Kai; Huang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jiantong

    2016-05-01

    Presence of plastic debris in marine and freshwater ecosystems is increasingly reported. Previous research suggested plastic debris had a strong affiliation for many pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals. In this study, the sorption behavior of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), including carbamazepine (CBZ), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), triclosan (TCS), and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), to polyethylene (PE) debris (250 to 280 μm) was investigated. The estimated linear sorption coefficients (K d) are 191.4, 311.5, 5140, and 53,225 L/kg for CBZ, EE2, TCS, and 4MBC, and are related to their hydrophobicities. Increase of salinity from 0.05 to 3.5 % did not affect the sorption of 4MBC, CBZ, and EE2 but enhanced the sorption of TCS, likely due to the salting-out effect. Increase of dissolved organic matter (DOM) content using Aldrich humic acid (HA) as a proxy reduced the sorption of 4MBC, EE2, and TCS, all of which show a relatively strong affiliation to HA. Results from this work suggest that microplastics may play an important role in the fate and transport of PPCPs, especially for those hydrophobic ones. PMID:26810664

  8. Nondipole Photoemission from Chiral Enantiomers of Camphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, K. P.; Stolte, W. C.; Young, J. A.; Demchenko, I. N.; Guillemin, R.; Hemmers, O.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Lindle, D. W.

    2010-03-01

    K-shell photoemission from the carbonyl carbon in the chiral molecule camphor has been studied in the region just above the core-shell ionization threshold. Differences between angular distributions of emitted photoelectrons from the two enantiomers are attributed to the influence of chirality combined with nondipole effects in the photoemission process, despite the fact the measurements were taken using linearly polarized x-rays. The results suggest the possibility of a new form of linear dichroism.

  9. Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor: An Environment-Friendly Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukul; Ando, Yoshinori

    2007-03-01

    High-purity carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are produced by chemical vapour deposition of camphor, an environment-friendly hydrocarbon. In a small CVD reactor (1-m long and 26- mm wide), CVD of 3 g camphor at 650°C for 1 hour yields ~1.62 g MWNTs of diameter ~10 nm with an as-grown purity over 88%; that is, camphor-to-CNT production efficiency is 50%. This is the highest efficiency ever achieved from any material by any method. Moreover, camphor-based CNT synthesis technique stands fairly good against the 12-principle protocol of green chemistry.

  10. Biotransformations of 2-methylisoborneol by camphor-degrading bacteria.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many camphor-degrading bacteria that are able to transform 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) have been identified. Three strains representative of these, have been examined in detail. Rhodococcus ruber T1 metabolizes camphor through 6-hydroxycamphor, but converts MIB to 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbornane. Pseu...

  11. Swarming of self-propelled camphor boats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisler, Eric; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku

    2012-05-01

    When an ensemble of self-propelled camphor boats move in a one-dimensional channel, they exhibit a variety of collective behaviors. Under certain conditions, the boats tend to cluster together and move in a relatively tight formation. This type of behavior, referred to as clustering or swarming here, is one of three types recently observed in experiment. Similar clustering behavior is also reproduced in simulations based on a simple theoretical model. Here we examine this model to determine the clustering mechanism and the conditions under which clustering occurs. We also propose a method of quantifying the behavior that may be used in future experimental work.

  12. [Camphor preparations in the overall therapy of cerebral infarct].

    PubMed

    Natiazhkina, G M; Gorbacheva, F E; Kats, E I; Kvasov, V T

    1980-01-01

    The authors studied the platelet functional properties and the brain bioelectric activity in 20 patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases before and after subcutaneous injection of 2.0 ml of racemic camphor T, as well as before and after oral taking of monobromated camphor in a dose of 0.5 g 3 times a day. The platelet aggregation was examined by the method of Born (1962) with automatic recording of aggregatograms. The brain bioelectric activity was examined using an Alvar electroencephalograph. As a result, the authors discovered an inhibitory effect of camphor preparations on the platelet aggregation. Racemic camphor T and monobromated camphor were found to produce a stimulant effect on the brain. PMID:6986733

  13. [Historical study of a moth repellent "Fujisawa Camphor" (4) - newspaper advertisements for "Fujisawa Camphor" in the Meiji Era].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Newspaper advertisements were frequently available as one way of communicating news about new products to the general public during the middle of the Meiji Era. The first newspaper advertisement of "Fujisawa Camphor"' appeared in the Osaka Asahi on June 1, 1989. At that time, the newspaper advertisements of OTC were brilliant and the space taken by them was large, in some cases covering a full page. They appeared daily. However, the ad for Fujisawa Camphors was small and simple. The appeal points of the Fujisawa Camphor advertisement were as follows: 1. Fujisawa Camphor, crystals of refined camphor, are hard and colorless.2. It is effective for insecticide and prevents moisture.3. It is widely used by governments and the military.4. It removes bad smell to protect against infectious diseases. PMID:16025650

  14. Ecotoxicological evaluation of four UV filters using marine organisms from different trophic levels Isochrysis galbana, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Paracentrotus lividus, and Siriella armata.

    PubMed

    Paredes, E; Perez, S; Rodil, R; Quintana, J B; Beiras, R

    2014-06-01

    Due to the concern about the negative effects of exposure to sunlight, combinations of UV filters like 4-Methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC), Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-Ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) are being introduced in all kind of cosmetic formulas. These chemicals are acquiring a concerning status due to their increasingly common use and the potential risk for the environment. The aim of this study is to assess the behaviour of these compounds in seawater, the toxicity to marine organisms from three trophic levels including autotrophs (Isochrysis galbana), herbivores (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Paracentrotus lividus) and carnivores (Siriella armata), and set a preliminary assessment of potential ecological risk of UV filters in coastal ecosystems. In general, EC50 results show that both EHMC and 4-MBC are the most toxic for our test species, followed by BP-3 and finally BP-4. The most affected species by the presence of these UV filters are the microalgae I. galbana, which showed toxicity thresholds in the range of μg L(-1) units, followed by S. armata>P. Lividus>M. galloprovincialis. The UV filter concentrations measured in the sampled beach water were in the range of tens or even hundreds of ng L(-1). The resulting risk quotients showed appreciable environmental risk in coastal environments for BP-3 and 4-MBC.

  15. The Effect of Camphor on Sex Hormones Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn’t received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

  16. The effects of binary UV filter mixtures on the midge Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-06-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in a wide variety of products, including cosmetics, to prevent damage from UV light in tissues and industrial materials. Their extensive use has raised concerns about potential adverse effects in human health and aquatic ecosystems that accumulate these pollutants. To increase sun radiation protection, UV filters are commonly used in mixtures. Here, we studied the toxicity of binary mixtures of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), by evaluating the larval mortality of Chironomus riparius. Also molecular endpoints have been analyzed, including alterations in the expression levels of a gene related with the endocrine system (EcR, ecdysone receptor) and a gene related with the stress response (hsp70, heat shock protein 70). The results showed that the mortality caused by binary mixtures was similar to that observed for each compound alone; however, some differences in LC50 were observed between groups. Gene expression analysis showed that EcR mRNA levels increased in the presence of 0.1mg/L 4MBC but returned to normal levels after exposure to mixtures of 4MBC with 0.1, 1, and 10mg/L of BP-3 or OMC. In contrast, the hsp70 mRNA levels increased after exposure to the combinations tested of 4MBC and BP-3 or OMC mixtures. These data suggest that 4MBC, BP-3, and OMC may have antagonist effects on EcR gene transcription and a synergistic effect on hsp70 gene activation. This is the first experimental study to show the complex patterned effects of UV filter mixtures on invertebrates. The data suggest that the interactions within these chemicals mixtures are complex and show diverse effects on various endpoints. PMID:26971216

  17. The effects of binary UV filter mixtures on the midge Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-06-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in a wide variety of products, including cosmetics, to prevent damage from UV light in tissues and industrial materials. Their extensive use has raised concerns about potential adverse effects in human health and aquatic ecosystems that accumulate these pollutants. To increase sun radiation protection, UV filters are commonly used in mixtures. Here, we studied the toxicity of binary mixtures of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC), octyl-methoxycinnamate (OMC), and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), by evaluating the larval mortality of Chironomus riparius. Also molecular endpoints have been analyzed, including alterations in the expression levels of a gene related with the endocrine system (EcR, ecdysone receptor) and a gene related with the stress response (hsp70, heat shock protein 70). The results showed that the mortality caused by binary mixtures was similar to that observed for each compound alone; however, some differences in LC50 were observed between groups. Gene expression analysis showed that EcR mRNA levels increased in the presence of 0.1mg/L 4MBC but returned to normal levels after exposure to mixtures of 4MBC with 0.1, 1, and 10mg/L of BP-3 or OMC. In contrast, the hsp70 mRNA levels increased after exposure to the combinations tested of 4MBC and BP-3 or OMC mixtures. These data suggest that 4MBC, BP-3, and OMC may have antagonist effects on EcR gene transcription and a synergistic effect on hsp70 gene activation. This is the first experimental study to show the complex patterned effects of UV filter mixtures on invertebrates. The data suggest that the interactions within these chemicals mixtures are complex and show diverse effects on various endpoints.

  18. Camphorated oil: still endangering the lives of Canadian children.

    PubMed Central

    Theis, J G; Koren, G

    1995-01-01

    Camphor is a volatile, aromatic compound familiar to many people as a principal ingredient in topical home remedies for colds. It is highly toxic when ingested. Although camphorated oil in concentrations of 11% or greater is not longer sold in the United States, preparations containing concentrations of up to 20% are still sold over the counter in Canada. The authors describe two children who suffered severe poisoning after accidental ingestion of a small amount of camphorated oil. Both children exhibited generalized tonic-clonic seizures with subsequent respiratory depression. Treatment was symptomatic, consisting of seizure control and respiratory assistance. The authors argue that because camphorated oil is of questionable benefit and poses a danger to the public it should be removed from the market. PMID:7773898

  19. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures.

    PubMed

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10 g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  20. [Starting with camphor--the progress of Nippon Fine Chemical].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    In 1918, Nippon Fine Chemical Co., Ltd. (NFC) was founded under the name, Nippon Camphor Co., Ltd. for the purpose of unifying the camphor business throughout Japan. The company manufactured purified camphor as a government-monopolized good. Camphor was used as a plasticizer for nitrocellulose, as a moth repellent, as an antimicrobial substance, as a rust inhibitor, and as an active ingredient in medicine. It was also a very important good exported in order to obtain foreign currency. Later on, after World War II and the abolition of the camphor monopoly, the company started manufacturing products related to oils and fats, including higher fatty acids, and expanded its business by developing a new field of chemical industry. In 1971 the company changed its name to Nippon Fine Chemical Co., Ltd., and made a new start as a diversified fine chemicals company. Recently, the fine chemicals division of NFC has concentrated on rather complex molecules, such as active pharmaceutical ingredients, and other chemicals. Since 2000, NFC have started to supply "Presome", precursors of liposome DDS drugs. NFC is strengthening marketing strategies in foreign countries with unique technologies and products.

  1. Characteristic oscillatory motion of a camphor boat sensitive to physicochemical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, S.; Yoshii, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Suematsu, N. J.

    2015-06-01

    A self-propelled camphor boat on water was investigated from the viewpoint of characteristic features of motion and mode-bifurcation depending on the diffusion length of camphor molecules. When a camphor disk was connected to the bottom of a larger plastic plate and then was placed on water, either oscillatory motion (repetition between rest and motion) or continuous motion was observed. In this paper, we report the novel features of this motion and mode-bifurcation as a function of the diffusion length of camphor molecules, e.g., multiple accelerations during oscillation, period-2 or irregular oscillatory motion, and reciprocating oscillation. These characteristic motion and mode-bifurcation are discussed in relation to the diffusion length of camphor molecules under the camphor boat and the development of camphor molecules from the camphor boat on water.

  2. Hydrodynamics of a fixed camphor boat at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dhiraj; Akella, Sathish; Singh, Ravi; Mandre, Shreyas; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    A camphor tablet, when introduced at the air-water interface undergoes sublimation and the camphor vapour spreads radially outwards across the surface. This radial spreading of camphor is due to Marangoni forces setup by the camphor concentration gradient. We report experiments on the hydrodynamics of this process for a camphor tablet held fixed at the air-water interface. During the initial transient, the time-dependent spread radius R (t) of camphor scales algebraically with time t (R (t) ~t 1 / 2) in agreement with empirical scalings reported for spreading of volatile oils on water surface. But unlike surfactants, the camphor stops spreading when the influx of camphor from the tablet onto the air-water interface is balanced by the outflux of camphor due to evaporation, and a steady-state condition is reached. The spreading camphor however, shears the underlying fluid and sets up bulk convective flow. We explain the coupled steady-state dynamics between the interfacial camphor spreading and bulk convective flow with a boundary layer approximation, supported by experimental evidence. This work was supported by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University.

  3. Anticonvulsant properties of spirohydantoins derived from optical isomers of camphor.

    PubMed

    Chatterjie, N; Alexander, G J

    1986-12-01

    Natural camphor exists as the d (+) form but the l (-) form has been synthesized. Replacement of the keto group on carbon 2 of each form with a hydantoin moiety led to only one spirohydantoin derivative. Both d and l derivatives were synthesized. Both forms and their racemic mixture were tested in vivo for toxicity and behavioral effects in mice. A dose of 100 mg/kg of the d form was not toxic: mice showed normal grooming and exploratory behavior; the l form induced hunched posture, body jerks and myoclonic manifestations followed by quiescence. The dl form showed intermediate effects. Challenge with the convulsant pentylenetetrazol (Metrazol) 2 hr after treatment with placebo or the camphor spirohydantoins produced seizure manifestations in all controls, in half of the subjects pretreated with the d-camphor derivative, in none of those pretreated with the l derivative and an intermediate response in those pretreated with racemic mixture. Thus, a spirohydantoin moiety added to camphor conferred strong anticonvulsive properties on the l form and modest ones on the d form; the d form did not seem to antagonize the l form. PMID:3822049

  4. Analysis of UV filters in tap water and other clean waters in Spain.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Llorca, Marta; Barceló, Damià

    2012-03-01

    The present paper describes the development of a method for the simultaneous determination of five hormonally active UV filters namely benzophenone-3 (BP3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OC) by means of solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry. Under optimized conditions, this methodology achieved low method limits of detection (needed for clean waters, especially drinking water analysis), between 0.02 and 8.42 ng/L, and quantitative recovery rates higher than 73% in all cases. Inter- and intraday precision for all compounds were lower than 7% and 11%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to perform the first survey of UV absorbing compounds in tap water from the metropolitan area and the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). In addition, other types of clean water matrices (mineral bottled water, well water and tap water treated with an ion-exchange resin) were investigated as well. Results evidenced that all the UV filters investigated were detected in the water samples analyzed. The compounds most frequently found were EHMC and OC. Maximum concentrations reached in tap water were 290 (BP3), 35 (4MBC), 110 (OD-PABA), 260 (EHMC), and 170 ng/L (OC). This study constitutes the first evidence of the presence of UV filter residues in tap water in Europe.

  5. Distribution and seasonal occurrence of UV filters in rivers and wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ekpeghere, Kalu Ibe; Kim, Un-Jung; O, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hee-Young; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2016-01-15

    The occurrence and distribution of eight UV filters benzophenone (BP), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), isoamyl benzoate, and benzyl cinnamate in eleven sites among three rivers, five sewage treatment plants (STPs), and four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in different parts of Korea was investigated. The total concentrations of UV filters in the three sampled seasons were 62.9-412 ng L(-1) (river), 417-5055 ng L(-1) (STP influent), 108-2201 ng L(-1) (STP effluent), 122-4154 ng L(-1) (WWTP influent), and 120-849 ng L(-1) (WWTP effluent). The concentration of the target pollutants in the influent of the treatment systems was directly proportional to the resident population density. A seasonal increase of >27% was observed in the total concentration of the UV filters in the rivers and influents of the treatment plants (TPs) during summer. BP, BP-3, EHMC, 4-MBC, and EHS were the most dominant, showing a distinct distribution pattern that was dependent on the effectiveness of the treatment process and properties of each compound. The concentrations of the UV filters were higher in the TPs influents than in the rivers, and the most dominant UV filters in the rivers were those with low removal rate. Although biological treatment processes favored the removal of the UV filter compounds in the TPs, complete removal was not achieved before discharge into the rivers.

  6. Distribution and seasonal occurrence of UV filters in rivers and wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ekpeghere, Kalu Ibe; Kim, Un-Jung; O, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hee-Young; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2016-01-15

    The occurrence and distribution of eight UV filters benzophenone (BP), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), isoamyl benzoate, and benzyl cinnamate in eleven sites among three rivers, five sewage treatment plants (STPs), and four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in different parts of Korea was investigated. The total concentrations of UV filters in the three sampled seasons were 62.9-412 ng L(-1) (river), 417-5055 ng L(-1) (STP influent), 108-2201 ng L(-1) (STP effluent), 122-4154 ng L(-1) (WWTP influent), and 120-849 ng L(-1) (WWTP effluent). The concentration of the target pollutants in the influent of the treatment systems was directly proportional to the resident population density. A seasonal increase of >27% was observed in the total concentration of the UV filters in the rivers and influents of the treatment plants (TPs) during summer. BP, BP-3, EHMC, 4-MBC, and EHS were the most dominant, showing a distinct distribution pattern that was dependent on the effectiveness of the treatment process and properties of each compound. The concentrations of the UV filters were higher in the TPs influents than in the rivers, and the most dominant UV filters in the rivers were those with low removal rate. Although biological treatment processes favored the removal of the UV filter compounds in the TPs, complete removal was not achieved before discharge into the rivers. PMID:26519573

  7. Occurrence of eight UV filters in beaches of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). An approach to environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Rodríguez, A; Rodrigo Sanz, M; Betancort Rodríguez, J R

    2015-07-01

    Due to the growing concern about human health effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the use of UV filters has increased in recent decades. Unfortunately, some common UV filters are bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms and show a potential for estrogenic activity. The aim of the present study is to determine the presence of some UV filters in the coastal waters of six beaches around Gran Canaria Island as consequence of recreational seaside activities. Eight commonly used UV filters: benzophenone-3 (BP-3), octocrylene (OC), octyl-dimethyl-PABA (OD-PABA), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), homosalate (HMS), butyl methoxydibenzoyl methane (BMDBM), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), were monitored and, with the exception of OD-PABA, all were detected in the samples collected. 99% of the samples showed some UV filters and concentration levels reached up to 3316.7 ng/L for BP-3. Environmental risk assessment (ERA) approach showed risk quotients (RQ) higher than 10, which means that there is a significant potential for adverse effects, for 4-MBC and EHMC for those samples with highest levels of UV filters.

  8. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Camphor Hydrazone and Imine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Emerson T.; da Silva Araújo, Adriele; Moraes, Adriana M.; de Souza, Leidiane A.; Silva Lourenço, Maria Cristina; de Souza, Marcus V. N.; Wardell, James L.; Wardell, Solange M. S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Both sonochemical and classical methodologies have been employed to convert camphor, 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, C9H16C=O, into a number of derivatives including hydrazones, C9H16C=N-NHAr 3, imines, C9H16C=N-R 7, and the key intermediate nitroimine, C9H16C=N-NO2 6. Reactions of nitroamine 6 with nucleophiles by classical methods provided the desired compounds in a range of yields. In evaluations of activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, compound 7j exhibited the best activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 3.12 µg/mL), comparable to that of the antitubercular drug ethambutol. The other derivatives displayed modest antimycobacterial activities at 25–50 µg/mL. In in vitro tests against cancer cell lines, none of the synthesized camphor compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities.

  9. Degradation of aqueous solutions of camphor by heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Sirtori, Carla; Altvater, Priscila K; de Freitas, Adriane M; Peralta-Zamora, Patricio G

    2006-02-28

    In this study the photocatalytic degradation of aqueous solutions of camphor was investigated by using TiO2 and ZnO photocatalysts. In the presence of artificial UV-light the highly photosensitive camphor was almost totally degraded after reaction times of 60 min. However, under these conditions the mineralization degree was lower than 25%. In the presence of semiconductors the degradation was complete after a treatment time of about 30 min. Moreover, the mineralization was considerably greater, mainly with the use of TiO2 (> 80% at reaction time of 60 min). Heterogeneous photocatalytic processes applied in the presence of solar radiation show a promising degradation capability. TiO2-based processes afforded mineralization degrees of about 90% after a reaction time of 120 min, when the system was assisted by aeration.

  10. Differential analysis of camphor wood products by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Yan, Jianping; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhang, Wenjun; Dai, Ximo; Luo, Liping; Chen, Huanwen

    2013-01-23

    In the course of this study, desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS) was applied to readily acquire the mass spectral fingerprints of camphor wood and other wood samples under ambient conditions. Characteristic natural analytes, such as camphor and geraniol, were successfully detected in their protonated form and then identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)). Further principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of the mass spectrometric results allow a confident discrimination of camphor wood products from inferior/fake ones. These experimental findings demonstrate that DAPCI-MS is a valuable tool for differential analysis of untreated camphor wood products with sufficient sensitivity and high throughput.

  11. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) were rarely detected. Additionally, the detection frequencies and measured concentrations of all targets were clearly higher in mussels than in fish. Spatial distribution of studied UV filters indicated a positive correlation between their measured concentrations and the anthropogenic activities responsible for their direct emission. The ecological risk assessment specific to the marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment. PMID:27235899

  12. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) were rarely detected. Additionally, the detection frequencies and measured concentrations of all targets were clearly higher in mussels than in fish. Spatial distribution of studied UV filters indicated a positive correlation between their measured concentrations and the anthropogenic activities responsible for their direct emission. The ecological risk assessment specific to the marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment.

  13. Transdermal permeation of drugs with differing lipophilicity: Effect of penetration enhancer camphor.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Chai, Jia-Ke; Hu, Quan; Yu, Yong-Hui; Ma, Li; Liu, Ling-Ying; Zhang, Xu-Long; Li, Bai-Ling; Zhang, Dong-Hai

    2016-06-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential application of (+)-camphor as a penetration enhancer for the transdermal delivery of drugs with differing lipophilicity. The skin irritation of camphor was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays and in vivo transdermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. A series of model drugs with a wide span of lipophilicity (logP value ranging from 3.80 to -0.95), namely indometacin, lidocaine, aspirin, antipyrine, tegafur and 5-fluorouracil, were tested using in vitro transdermal permeation experiments to assess the penetration-enhancing profile of camphor. Meanwhile, the in vivo skin microdialysis was carried out to further investigate the enhancing effect of camphor on the lipophilic and hydrophilic model drugs (i.e. lidocaine and tegafur). SC (stratum corneum)/vehicle partition coefficient and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to probe the regulation action of camphor in the skin permeability barrier. It was found that camphor produced a relatively low skin irritation, compared with the frequently-used and standard penetration enhancer laurocapram. In vitro skin permeation studies showed that camphor could significantly facilitate the transdermal absorption of model drugs with differing lipophilicity, and the penetration-enhancing activities were in a parabola curve going downwards with the drug logP values, which displayed the optimal penetration-enhancing efficiency for the weak lipophilic or hydrophilic drugs (an estimated logP value of 0). In vivo skin microdialysis showed that camphor had a similar penetration behavior on transdermal absorption of model drugs. Meanwhile, the partition of lipophilic drugs into SC was increased after treatment with camphor, and camphor also produced a shift of CH2 vibration of SC lipid to higher wavenumbers and decreased the peak area of the CH2 vibration, probably resulting in the alteration of the skin permeability barrier. This suggests that

  14. The effect of UV-filters on the viability of neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line.

    PubMed

    Broniowska, Żaneta; Pomierny, Bartosz; Smaga, Irena; Filip, Małgorzata; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-05-01

    Topical application of cosmetic products, containing ultraviolet filters (UV filters) are recommended as a protection against sunburns and in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer. However, some UV filters can be absorbed through skin and by consuming contaminated food. Among the chemical UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) and 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are absorbed through the skin to the greatest extent. So far, these lipophilic compounds were demonstrated to influence the gonadal and thyroid hormone function, but their effect on central nervous system cells has not been investigated, yet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of some UV filters on cell viability and caspase-3 activity in SH-SY5Y cells. It has been found that benzophenone-2 (BP-2), BP-3, 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP) and OMC present in the culture medium for 72h in high concentration (10(-5) and 10(-4)M) and 4-MBC only 10(-4)M produced a significant cytotoxic effect, as determined both by the MTT reduction test and LDH release assay. In contrast to necrotic changes, all tested UV filters increased caspase-3 activity in much lower concentrations (from 10(-8) to 10(-7)M). Proapoptotic properties of the test compounds were positively verified by Hoechst staining. The obtained results indicated that UV filters adversely affected the viability of nerve cells, most likely by enhancing the process of apoptosis. The most potent effect was exerted by BP-3 and 4-MBC and at concentrations that may be reached in vivo. Since human exposure to UV filters is significant these compound should be taken into consideration as one of the possible factors involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26965011

  15. Ultraviolet filters differentially impact the expression of key endocrine and stress genes in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Several organic UV filters have hormonal activity in vertebrates, as demonstrated in fishes, rodents and human cells. Despite the accumulation of filter contaminants in aquatic systems, research on their effects on the endocrine systems of freshwaters invertebrates is scarce. In this work, the effects of five frequently used UV filters were investigated in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius, which is a reference organism in ecotoxicology. LC50 values for larvae as well as the percentage of eclosion of eggs were determined following exposures to: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also known as 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC); 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). To assess sublethal effects, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and heat shock protein HSP70 were investigated as biomarkers for endocrine and stress effects at the cellular level. Life-stage-dependent sensitivity was found. In embryos, all of the UV filters provoked a significant overexpression of EcR at 24h after exposure. OC, 4MBC and OD-PABA also triggered transcriptional activation of the hsp70 stress gene in embryos. In contrast, in larvae, only 4MBC and OMC/EHMC increased EcR and hsp70 mRNA levels and OD-PABA upregulated only the EcR gene. These results revealed that embryos are particularly sensitive to UV filters, which affect endocrine regulation during development. Most UV filters also triggered the cellular stress response, and thus exhibit proteotoxic effects. The differences observed between embryos and larvae and the higher sensitivity of embryos highlight the importance of considering different life stages when evaluating the environmental risks of pollutants, particularly when analyzing endocrine effects. PMID:26994811

  16. Ultraviolet filters differentially impact the expression of key endocrine and stress genes in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Several organic UV filters have hormonal activity in vertebrates, as demonstrated in fishes, rodents and human cells. Despite the accumulation of filter contaminants in aquatic systems, research on their effects on the endocrine systems of freshwaters invertebrates is scarce. In this work, the effects of five frequently used UV filters were investigated in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius, which is a reference organism in ecotoxicology. LC50 values for larvae as well as the percentage of eclosion of eggs were determined following exposures to: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also known as 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC); 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). To assess sublethal effects, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and heat shock protein HSP70 were investigated as biomarkers for endocrine and stress effects at the cellular level. Life-stage-dependent sensitivity was found. In embryos, all of the UV filters provoked a significant overexpression of EcR at 24h after exposure. OC, 4MBC and OD-PABA also triggered transcriptional activation of the hsp70 stress gene in embryos. In contrast, in larvae, only 4MBC and OMC/EHMC increased EcR and hsp70 mRNA levels and OD-PABA upregulated only the EcR gene. These results revealed that embryos are particularly sensitive to UV filters, which affect endocrine regulation during development. Most UV filters also triggered the cellular stress response, and thus exhibit proteotoxic effects. The differences observed between embryos and larvae and the higher sensitivity of embryos highlight the importance of considering different life stages when evaluating the environmental risks of pollutants, particularly when analyzing endocrine effects.

  17. The effect of UV-filters on the viability of neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line.

    PubMed

    Broniowska, Żaneta; Pomierny, Bartosz; Smaga, Irena; Filip, Małgorzata; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-05-01

    Topical application of cosmetic products, containing ultraviolet filters (UV filters) are recommended as a protection against sunburns and in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer. However, some UV filters can be absorbed through skin and by consuming contaminated food. Among the chemical UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) and 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are absorbed through the skin to the greatest extent. So far, these lipophilic compounds were demonstrated to influence the gonadal and thyroid hormone function, but their effect on central nervous system cells has not been investigated, yet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of some UV filters on cell viability and caspase-3 activity in SH-SY5Y cells. It has been found that benzophenone-2 (BP-2), BP-3, 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP) and OMC present in the culture medium for 72h in high concentration (10(-5) and 10(-4)M) and 4-MBC only 10(-4)M produced a significant cytotoxic effect, as determined both by the MTT reduction test and LDH release assay. In contrast to necrotic changes, all tested UV filters increased caspase-3 activity in much lower concentrations (from 10(-8) to 10(-7)M). Proapoptotic properties of the test compounds were positively verified by Hoechst staining. The obtained results indicated that UV filters adversely affected the viability of nerve cells, most likely by enhancing the process of apoptosis. The most potent effect was exerted by BP-3 and 4-MBC and at concentrations that may be reached in vivo. Since human exposure to UV filters is significant these compound should be taken into consideration as one of the possible factors involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Ionothermal synthesis of homochiral framework with acetate-pillared cobalt-camphorate architecture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shumei; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2008-07-01

    A new organically templated homochiral material (EMIm)[Co 2( d-cam) 2(ac)] ( 1; d-H 2cam = d-camphoric acid; ac = acetate; EMIm = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium) has been ionothermally synthesized, and it features an unusual acetate-pillared cobalt-camphorate architecture encapsulating the cationic component of the ionic liquid.

  19. [Poisoning caused by the cutaneous application of camphorated balsam ointment in a nursing infant].

    PubMed

    Calvelli, M M; Pesenti, P; Ronconi, G F

    1987-01-01

    We describe a case of camphor and balsamic oil poisoning observed in a 1-month-old infant. Because of toxic effects of camphor and volatile oils on central nervous system, these compounds show no therapeutical usefullness in children. PMID:3697334

  20. Synchronized Intermittent Motion Induced by the Interaction between Camphor Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Tateno, Kurina; Nakata, Satoshi; Nishimori, Hiraku

    2015-03-01

    A new mode of collective motion was discovered in a system of camphor disks floating on the water surface in a circular chamber. The mode was induced by tuning the number of the disks. A single or few disks are known to continuously move on the water surface. Conversely, when many disks are present, motion comes to a stop and the disks form ordered spatial patterns by repulsive interaction. Here we found the third mode that emerged at an intermediate disk number, in which inactive and active motion phases alternated non-periodically. This new mode exhibited synchronization as the disk number increased.

  1. Mode selection of a camphor boat in a dual-circle canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Satoshi; Kohira, Masahiro I.; Hayashima, Yuko

    2000-05-01

    The mode selection of a camphor boat was investigated. When a camphor boat, confined in a container with a shape of number 8, was floated on the surface of water, one of the three modes of motion (rotation within one cell, outer rotation without passing through the intersection of the two cells, and 8-shaped rotation) was maintained for several tens of cycles. This mode selection depended on the conditions of camphor scrapings attached to the boat. When two camphor boats were floated on the water, a synchronized motion between them was observed. The present system suggests a chemo-mechanical transducer, where the vectorial process is sensitive to the shape of the cell and the surface concentration of the camphor molecule under isothermal conditions.

  2. Unintentional exposure of young children to camphor and eucalyptus oils

    PubMed Central

    Flaman, Zorina; Pellechia-Clarke, Sandra; Bailey, Benoit; McGuigan, Michael

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Essential oils, such as camphorated and eucalyptus oils, are volatile oils that can be absorbed by mouth and through the skin; if ingested orally by children, they can be harmful, even life-threatening. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of essential oil ingestion among children in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: Charts from December 1995 through March 1997 at the Ontario Regional Poison Information Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were reviewed to collect information on calls about essential oil ingestion, and a search of MEDLINE articles from 1966 to 1998 was conducted using the key words: ‘camphor’, ‘eucalyptus’, ‘paediatric’, and ‘poisoning’. RESULTS: Callers to the Poison Information Centre reported that 251 children had ingested an essential oil or product: eucalyptus oil 50 children; camphorated oil 18 children; VapAir (Drug Trading, Canada) vaporizing liquid 93 children; and Vicks VaporRub (Procter & Gamble, Canada) 90 children. The most common symptoms were cough, vomiting and cough associated with vomiting. Two children had seizures but recovered. The MEDLINE search found 18 reports of paediatric ingestion of the oils or oil products. The main symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, coma and seizures. One child died. CONCLUSION: Although widely used by health care consumers, essential oils and the products that contain them can be harmful when ingested by children. Further education for parents and other caregivers about the risks involved in exposure to these products is required. PMID:20084213

  3. Lamellar coupled growth in the neopentylglycol-(D)camphor eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witusiewicz, V. T.; Sturz, L.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

    2014-01-01

    Lamellar eutectic growth was investigated in the transparent organic alloy neopentylglycol-(D)camphor of eutectic composition (NPG-45.3 wt% DC) using bulk (3D) and thin (2D) samples. Two types of eutectic grains were observed in the polycrystalline samples, either with lamellae well aligned to the direction of solidification or inclined at an angle of 21.5±1.5°. The well aligned grains were used for determining lamellar spacing as function of growth velocity V and temperature gradient G. Based on these data the Jackson-Hunt constant was evaluated to be KJH=1.60±0.15 μm3 s-1. For low growth velocity experiments the contact angles for (DC) and (NPG) lamellae at eutectic triple junctions were also evaluated, being θ(DC)=50.9±4.1° and θ(NPG)=41.8±4.7°, respectively. Using these values, as well as phase diagram data and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficients, the chemical coefficient of diffusion of (D)camphor in the eutectic liquid at eutectic temperature 53 °C was estimated to be DL=97±15 μm2 s-1.

  4. Synchronized sailing of two camphor boats in polygonal chambers.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Satoshi; Doi, Yukie; Kitahata, Hiroyuki

    2005-02-10

    The synchronized self-motion of two camphor boats on polygonal water chambers was investigated. The two boats synchronously moved depending on the number of corners in the polygon by changing the distance between the two boats through the corners. We regard the self-motion of a camphor boat as an oscillator; i.e., one cycle on the polygonal chamber corresponds to 2pi. Phase-locked synchronization at a phase difference of 2pi/3, which corresponds to the length of one side of the chamber, was observed with a triangular chamber. Two types of synchronized motion at phase differences of pi/2 and pi, which correspond to the length of one and two sides of the chamber, respectively, were observed with a square chamber. These characteristic features of synchronized self-motion were qualitatively reproduced by a numerical calculation that regarded the surface tension as the driving force and the number of corners in the chamber as a velocity-regulating mechanism. We believe that the present system may be a simple model of synchronization which depends on the geometry of the system.

  5. Hydrodynamics of a self-propelled camphor boat at the air-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akella, Sathish; Singh, Dhiraj; Singh, Ravi; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    A camphor tablet, when placed at the air-water interface undergoes sublimation and camphor vapour spreads radially outwards across the surface due to Marangoni forces. This steady camphor influx from tablet onto the air-water interface is balanced by the camphor outflux due to evaporation. When spontaneous fluctuations in evaporation break the axial symmetry of Marangoni force acting radially outwards, the camphor tablet is propelled like a boat along the water surface. We report experiments on the hydrodynamics of a self-propelled camphor boat at air-water interfaces. We observe three different modes of motion, namely continuous, harmonic and periodic, due to the volatile nature of camphor. We explain these modes in terms of ratio of two time-scales: the time-scale over which viscous forces are dominant over the Marangoni forces (τη) and the time-scale over which Marangoni forces are dominant over the viscous forces (τσ). The continuous, harmonic and periodic motions are observed when τη /τσ ~ 1 , τη /τσ >= 1 and τη /τσ >> 1 respectively. Experimentally, the ratio of the time scales is varied by changing the interfacial tension of the air-water interface using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate. This work was supported by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University.

  6. Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

    1981-01-01

    The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

  7. Central Effects of Camphor on GnRH and Sexual Hormones in Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Aghajanpour, Seyed Mohsen; Mousavi Kani, Seyedeh Narges; Pourbagher, Roghieh; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Esmaili, Mohsen; Yoonesi, Ali Asghar; Zarghami, Amin; Alinezhad, Farid

    2012-01-01

    In Persian traditional medicine is believed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) is a suppressor of sexual behaviors. This study examined the central effects of camphor on sexual hormones (LH, FSH and testosterone) and GnRH plasma levels in male rat. Male Wistar rats weighing 250-260gr were selected and divided into control (no treatment), sham (ICV injection of EtOH 10%) and treatment (ICV injection of camphor in three doses 4, 20, 40 µg/ 10µl in alcohol) groups. The serum samples were used for assaying of GnRH, LH, FSH and testosterone. There were no significant differences in the levels of hormones between the groups of study. Despite the central administration of camphor in hypothalamus - pituitary - gonad (HPG) axis, no significant differences were seen in sex hormone`s levels compared to the control. With this finding, it can be concluded that camphor may not effectively handle the axis via central pathway. These data recommend further studies of camphor on the HPG axis. PMID:24551777

  8. Ag (I)-based 2D metal frameworks with helical structures decorated by the homochiral camphor-10-sulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jun; Pan, Daocheng; Xu, Guohai

    2010-12-01

    Two two-dimension homochiral Ag (I) metal frameworks constructed from enantiopure camphor-10-sulfonic acid and hexamethylenetetramine have been synthesized at the room temperature. These two complexes with (6, 3) topology decorated by the homochiral camphor-10-sulfonic acid possess the unique helical structures. The result of Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirms that the bulk materials are homochiral and also indicates the handedness of the single crystals can be controlled by the chirality of the camphor-10-sulfonic acid.

  9. Dynamics of camphor sulphonic acid: a quasielastic neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bée, M.; Djurado, D.; Combet, J.; Gonzalez, M. A.

    2002-03-01

    Molecular motions in mono-hydrated racemic camphor sulphonic acid (±)-10-C 10H 16O 4S --H 3O + which is abbreviated as (CSA-H 2O) were investigated using incoherent neutron scattering techniques. Analysis of the intensity of the purely elastic scattering over a wide temperature range (4-340 K) carried out with a high-resolution backscattering spectrometer revealed the onset of molecular motions at ca. 100 K which could be observed on the 10 -10 s time-scale up to T=180 K. These motions were identified as 120° jumps of the methyl groups. Quasielastic measurements using both the backscattering and the time-of-flight techniques enabled to study this movement from 150 to 340 K. The corresponding characteristic time was found to follow an Arrhenius law with an activation energy ΔH=12.0±0.2 kJ mol -1. All the methyl groups appear as dynamically equivalent. That result is at contrast with earlier studies on conducting polymers where CSA was introduced as a counter-ion and for which the intermolecular effects were found to strongly influence the dynamics. Inspection of the low frequency part of the vibrational spectrum evidences deformations of the C-C-S angle and rotational oscillations of the hydration molecules.

  10. Determination of personal care products and hormones in leachate and groundwater from Polish MSW landfills by ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kapelewska, Justyna; Kotowska, Urszula; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in leachate and groundwater samples from the landfill sites is very important because of the proven harmful effects of these compounds on human and animal organisms. A method combining ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of seven personal care products (PCPs): methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), buthylparaben (BP), benzophenone (BPh), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC), N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET), and two hormones: estrone (E1) and β-estradiol (E2) in landfill leachate and groundwater samples. The limit of detection (LOD)/limit of quantification (LOQ) values in landfill leachate and groundwater samples were in the range of 0.003-0.083/0.009-0.277 μg L(-1) and 0.001-0.015/0.002-0.049 μg L(-1), respectively. Quantitative recoveries and satisfactory precision were obtained. All studied compounds were found in the landfill leachates from Polish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills; the concentrations were between 0.66 and 202.42 μg L(-1). The concentration of pollutants in groundwater samples was generally below 0.1 μg L(-1). PMID:26381788

  11. Determination of personal care products and hormones in leachate and groundwater from Polish MSW landfills by ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kapelewska, Justyna; Kotowska, Urszula; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in leachate and groundwater samples from the landfill sites is very important because of the proven harmful effects of these compounds on human and animal organisms. A method combining ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for simultaneous determination of seven personal care products (PCPs): methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), buthylparaben (BP), benzophenone (BPh), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC), N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET), and two hormones: estrone (E1) and β-estradiol (E2) in landfill leachate and groundwater samples. The limit of detection (LOD)/limit of quantification (LOQ) values in landfill leachate and groundwater samples were in the range of 0.003-0.083/0.009-0.277 μg L(-1) and 0.001-0.015/0.002-0.049 μg L(-1), respectively. Quantitative recoveries and satisfactory precision were obtained. All studied compounds were found in the landfill leachates from Polish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills; the concentrations were between 0.66 and 202.42 μg L(-1). The concentration of pollutants in groundwater samples was generally below 0.1 μg L(-1).

  12. Sunscreen products as emerging pollutants to coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-01-01

    A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO₂ and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6-577.5 ng L⁻¹ BZ-3; 51.4-113.4 ng L⁻¹ 4-MBC; 6.9-37.6 µg L⁻¹ Ti; 1.0-3.3 µg L⁻¹ Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC₅₀ = 125±71 mg L⁻¹). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO₄³⁻ is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO₄³⁻g⁻¹). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO₄³⁻ concentrations (0.12 µmol L⁻¹ over a background level of 0.06 µmol L⁻¹) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:23755233

  13. Sunscreen products as emerging pollutants to coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-01-01

    A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO₂ and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6-577.5 ng L⁻¹ BZ-3; 51.4-113.4 ng L⁻¹ 4-MBC; 6.9-37.6 µg L⁻¹ Ti; 1.0-3.3 µg L⁻¹ Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC₅₀ = 125±71 mg L⁻¹). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO₄³⁻ is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO₄³⁻g⁻¹). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO₄³⁻ concentrations (0.12 µmol L⁻¹ over a background level of 0.06 µmol L⁻¹) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem.

  14. Sunscreen Products as Emerging Pollutants to Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L.; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-01-01

    A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO2 and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6–577.5 ng L-1 BZ-3; 51.4–113.4 ng L-1 4-MBC; 6.9–37.6 µg L-1 Ti; 1.0–3.3 µg L-1 Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC50 = 125±71 mg L-1). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO43− is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO43− g−1). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO43− concentrations (0.12 µmol L-1 over a background level of 0.06 µmol L-1) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:23755233

  15. Collective motion of symmetric camphor papers in an annular water channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikura, Yumihiko S.; Heisler, Eric; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku; Nakata, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the collective motion of symmetric self-propelled objects that are driven by a difference in the surface tension. The objects move around an annular water channel spontaneously and interact through the camphor layer that develops on the water surface. We found that two collective motion modes, discrete and continuous density waves, are generated depending on the number of self-propelled objects. The two modes are characterized by examining the local and global dynamics, and the collective motion mechanism is discussed in relation to the distribution of camphor concentration in the annular water channel. We conclude that the difference between these two modes originates from that of the driving mechanism that pushes a camphor paper away from a cluster, through which mechanism density waves are generated and maintained.

  16. Spontaneous Resolution of Racemic Camphorates in the Formation of Three-Dimensional Metal-Organic Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shumei; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-01-01

    Reported here is a rare example of enantioselective processes between organic racemic ligands (DL-camphorates) with in situ formed chiral metal complexes. Such enantioselectivity leads to a double spontaneous resolution of two pairs of distinctly different racemates (the ΛΔ-Zn(Htea) units and the DL-camphorate ligands) into two chiral 3-D frameworks containing only one enantiommeric form from each racemate. This work demonstrates unique enantioselectivity in the self-assembly of MOFs containing multiple chiral features, which points to a new avenue for the preparation of chiral framework materials and for the resolution of racemates. PMID:19537824

  17. Spontaneous resolution of racemic camphorates in the formation of three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shumei; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-07-20

    Reported here is a rare example of enantioselective processes between organic racemic ligands (DL-camphorates) with in situ formed chiral metal complexes. Such enantioselectivity leads to a double spontaneous resolution of two pairs of distinctly different racemates [the LambdaDelta-Zn(Htea) units and the DL-camphorate ligands] into two chiral three-dimensional frameworks containing only one enantiommeric form from each racemate. This work demonstrates unique enantioselectivity in the self-assembly of metal-organic frameworks containing multiple chiral features, which points to a new avenue for the preparation of chiral framework materials and for the resolution of racemates. PMID:19537824

  18. Synthesis and structures of four homochiral metal camphorates with auxiliary bipyridine ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, E.; Lian, Ting-Ting; Lin, Shen; Chen, Shu-Mei

    2011-12-01

    Four homochiral metal camphorates with auxiliary bipyridine ligands are hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. The structure of compound [Cd( D-Hcam) 2(bpa)(H 2O)] n ( 1; D-H 2cam = D-(+)-camphoric acid, bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)-ethane) presents a rare case where the D-Hcam is not a bridging ligand, but a dangling unit attached to the infinite [Cd(bpa)] chain. Compounds [M 2( D-cam) 2(4,4'-bipy)(H 2O) 4] n (M = Co, 2; M = Cd, 3; 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine) are isostructural and have homochiral [M( D-cam)] n chains linked by the 4,4'-bipy ligands into a honeycomb-like 6 3 layer. Compound [Zn 2( D-cam) 2(PPE) 2] n ( 4, PPE = 1-(4-pyridyl)-2-(2-pyridyl)-ethylene) consists of the grid-like 4 4 layers with the dinuclear Zn 2(COO) 4 units and D-cam ligands, where the PPE ligands are only monodentately coordinated to the dinuclear units and act as the separators between two homochiral layers. The results demonstrate the rich coordination chemistry of the enantiopure D-camphorate ligand and the structural diversity of metal-camphorate compounds.

  19. Induced solvent chirality: A VCD study of camphor in CDCl 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debie, Elke; Jaspers, Lize; Bultinck, Patrick; Herrebout, Wouter; Veken, Benjamin Van Der

    2008-01-01

    It is shown how the presence of a chiral compound in solution induces chirality in the surrounding solvent molecules. Using Vibrational Circular Dichroism on camphor dissolved in deuterated chloroform, it is found that the C-D stretch in the latter indeed becomes VCD active. The experimental results agree with ab initio computed spectra for 1:1 associations between the solvent and solute.

  20. Structural diversity of homochiral cadmium-camphorates with 2,2'-bipyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Mei; Lian, Ting-Ting

    2012-08-01

    Homochiral framework materials are of current interest due to their potential applications in asymmetric catalysis and enantioselective separation. Four new Cd(II) camphorates (1-4) with 2,2'-bipyridine ligand (= 2,2'-bipy) are successfully synthesized and show distinct structural features. Such rich Cd-cam-2,2'-bipy system is composed of four compounds, [Cd(D-cam)(2,2'-bipy)(DMF)]n (1), [Cd(D-cam)(2,2'-bipy)(H2O)]n (2), [Cd2(D-cam)2(2,2'-bipy)2]n (3) and [Cd2Cu2(D-cam)4(2,2'-bipy)2]n·4nH2O (4), which are obtained under different conditions. Both compounds 1 and 2 show infinite homochiral Cd-camphorate chain, while compounds 3 and 4 exhibit homochiral layered structures based on different dinuclear units. The results demonstrate the rich coordination chemistry of the enantiopure D-camphorate ligand and the structural diversity of metal-camphorate compounds.

  1. Theoretical study on the translation and rotation of an elliptic camphor particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Keita; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2014-04-01

    The spontaneous motion of an elliptic camphor particle floating on water is studied theoretically and experimentally. Considering a mathematical model for the motion of an elliptic camphor particle in a two-dimensional space, we first investigate the asymptotic solutions with numerical computation. We then introduce a small parameter ε into the definition of the particle shape, which represents an elliptic deformation from a circular shape and, by means of perturbation theory, we analytically calculate the travelling solution to within O(ε). The results show that short-axis-directed travelling solutions primarily bifurcate from stationary solutions and that long-axis-directed ones are secondary which means that elliptic camphor particles are easier to move in the short-axis direction. Furthermore, we show that rotating solutions bifurcate from stationary solutions and that the bifurcation point changes with O(ε2), which suggests that elliptic camphor disks easily exhibit translational motion, rather than rotational, within the small deformation. Finally, our theoretical suggestions are confirmed by an experiment.

  2. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-04-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100-1600 μgL(-1)) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%): Four parabens, bisphenol-A, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP3), triclosan, galaxolide and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. After 60 min, the removal efficiency of benzalkonium chloride was 98%, tonalide and nonylphenol 95%, octocrylene 92% and 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (PBSA) 84%. Ozonation of aerobically treated grey water at an applied ozone dose of 15 mgL(-1), reduced the concentrations of octocrylene, nonylphenol, triclosan, galaxolide, tonalide and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor to below limits of quantification, with removal efficiencies of at least 79%. Complete adsorption of all studied micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was observed in batch tests with milliQ water spiked with 100-1600 μgL(-1) at a PAC dose of 1.25 gL(-1) and a contact time of 5 min. Three granular activated carbon (GAC) column experiments were operated to treat aerobically treated grey water. The operation of a GAC column with aerobically treated grey water spiked with micropollutants in the range of 0.1-10 μgL(-1) at a flow of 0.5 bed volumes (BV)h(-1) showed micropollutant removal efficiencies higher than 72%. During the operation time of 1728 BV, no breakthrough of TOC or micropollutants was observed. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water was tested in a GAC column at a flow of 2 BVh(-1). Bisphenol-A, triclosan, tonalide, BP3, galaxolide, nonylphenol and PBSA were effectively removed even after a stable TOC breakthrough of 65% had been reached. After spiking the aerobically treated effluent with micropollutants to concentrations of 10-100 μgL(-1), efficient removal to below limits of quantification

  3. Induction and Characterization of a Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Camphor Hydroxylase in Tissue Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis).

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R.

    1993-01-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O2-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl2, camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn2+-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. PMID:12231778

  4. Induction and characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent camphor hydroxylase in tissue cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R. )

    1993-04-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O[sub 2]-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl[sub 2], camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn[sup 2+]-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. 44 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Broadband Microwave Spectroscopy as a Tool to Study Dispersion Interactions in Camphor-Alcohol Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Mariyam; Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Many biological processes such as chemical recognition and protein folding are mainly controlled by the interplay between hydrogen bonds and dispersive forces. Broadband rotational spectroscopy studies of weakly bound complexes are able to accurately reveal the structures and internal dynamics of molecular clusters isolated in the gas phase. To investigate the influence of the interplay between different types of weak intermolecular interactions and how it controls the preferred active sites of an amphiphilic molecule, we are using camphor (C10H16O, 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2-one) with different aliphatic alcohol systems. Camphor is a conformationally rigid bicyclic molecule endowed with considerable steric hindrance and has a single polar group (-C=O). The rotational spectrum of camphor and its structure has been previously reported [1] as well as multiple clusters with water [2]. In order to determine the structure of the camphor-alcohol complexes, we targeted low energy rotational transitions in the 2-8 GHz range under the isolated conditions of a molecular jet in the gas phase. The data obtained suggests that camphor forms one complex with methanol and two with ethanol, with differences in the intermolecular interaction in both complexes. With these results, we aim to study the shift in intermolecular interaction from hydrogen bonding to dispersion with the increase in the size of the aliphatic alcohol. [1] Z. Kisiel, et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 5 (2003), 820-826. [2] C. Pérez, et al, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 7 (2016), 154-160.

  6. Interaction of polycyclic musks and UV filters with the estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), and progesterone receptor (PR) in reporter gene bioassays.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, Richard H M M; Sonneveld, Edwin; Jansen, Jenny H J; Seinen, Willem; van der Burg, Bart

    2005-02-01

    Two important ingredients of personal care products, namely polycyclic musk fragrances and UV filters, can be found in the environment and in humans. In previous studies, several compounds of both classes have been tested for their interaction with the estrogen receptor. Two polycyclic musk fragrances, namely AHTN and HHCB, turned out to be anti-estrogenic both in vitro and in vivo in a transgenic zebrafish assay. Several UV filters have been shown to exert estrogenic effects in vitro and in some in vivo studies. Here, we assessed the interaction of five polycyclic musk compounds and seven UV filters with the estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), and progesterone (PR) receptor, using sensitive and specific reporter gene cell lines. Four polycyclic musks (AHTN, HHCB, AETT, and AHMI) were found to be antagonists toward the ERbeta, AR and PR. The UV filters that showed estrogenic effects (benzophenone-3, Bp-3; 3-benzylidene camphor, 3-BC; homosalate, HMS; and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC) were found to be antagonists toward the AR and PR. The ERalpha agonistic UV filter octyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) did not show activity toward the AR and PR. Octyl methoxy cinnamate (OMC) showed weak ERalpha agonism, but potent PR antagonism. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (B-MDM) only showed weak ERalpha agonism and weak AR antagonism. Most effects were observed at relatively high concentrations (above 1 muM); however, the anti-progestagenic effects of the polycyclic musks AHMI and AHTN were detected at concentrations as low as 0.01 muM. The activity of anti-progestagenic xenobiotics at low concentrations indicates the need to undertake more research to find out about the potential endocrine disrupting effects of these compounds in vivo.

  7. Development of a Tightly Controlled Off Switch for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Regulated by Camphor, a Low-Cost Natural Product

    PubMed Central

    Ikushima, Shigehito; Zhao, Yu; Boeke, Jef D.

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe the engineering of a distant homolog of the Tet repressor, CamR, isolated from Pseudomonas putida, that is regulated by camphor, a very inexpensive small molecule (at micromolar concentrations) for use in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The repressor was engineered by expression from a constitutive yeast promoter, fusion to a viral activator protein cassette, and codon optimization. A suitable promoter responsive to the CamR fusion protein was engineered by embedding a P. putida operator binding sequence within an upstream activating sequence (UAS)-less CYC1 promoter from S. cerevisiae. The switch, named the Camphor-Off switch, activates expression of a reporter gene in camphor-free media and represses it with micromolar concentrations of camphor. PMID:26206350

  8. Capillary gas chromatographic assay of camphor and m-cresol in dermatological creams.

    PubMed

    Mirza, T; Tan, H S

    1998-09-01

    Camphor and m-cresol mixtures are used in antiseptic and anti-itching creams. No compendial method exists for these preparations. This paper reports a capillary gas chromatographic method using FID detection with 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol as internal standard on a 30 m x 0.32 mm Supelcowax -10 column (0.25 micron film) with helium as carrier gas. Ramped temperature programming was applied. The method allows simultaneous quantitation of camphor and m-cresol in the presence of o- and p-cresols, calamine and zinc oxide. Overall percent recoveries (+/- SD, n = 9) of camphor, o-, p- and m-cresol from spiked placebo creams, at a labeled amount of 10 (w/w)% were 96.9 +/- 0.6, 98.2 +/- 0.6, 99.2 +/- 0.5 and 101.0 +/- 0.9%, respectively, and at a labeled amount of 1% were 96.7 +/- 0.6, 97.8 +/- 0.9, 97.8 +/- 0.6, and 100.3 +/- 1.0%, respectively. The recovery studies were carried out at +/- 30% of the labeled amounts. Linear peak area or height ratios were obtained (r > 0.999) for camphor, o-, p- and m-cresol covering a concentration range of 10-200% of the labeled amount. Linearity (r > 0.999) was also obtained for m-cresol when the relative concentration of o- and p-cresol was varied from 5 to 100% of the m-cresol concentration. The resolution between the 'critical pair' of p- and m-cresol was > or = 1.1. The limit of quantitation was 23 pg for m-cresol and 9.3 pg for camphor using an injection split of 1:50. The repeatability (%RSD) for all compounds were < 2% for peak area and < 1.4% for peak height ratios. System suitability and robustness of the method were established. The method was successively applied to the assay of available commercial products and allows assay of camphor and the three cresol isomers. PMID:9800662

  9. Three 2D Ag(I)-framework isomers with helical structures controlled by the chirality of camphor-10-sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng

    2011-02-28

    Three 2D Ag(I)-framework isomers were constructed from enantiopure camphor-10-sulfonic acids or racemic camphor-10-sulfonic acids, together with achiral 4-aminobenzoic acids. In complex 1, (+)-camphor-10-sulfonic acids bridge the single left-handed helices that are made up of Ag ions and 4-aminobenzoic acids, generating a homochiral 2D layer. In such a structure, the interweaving of triple left-handed homohelices was also found. It is worth noting that the helicity of complex 2 could be controlled by the handedness of the camphor-10-sulfonic acid. In complex 2, there are right-handed helical structures, including single right-handed and triple right-handed helical structures connected by (-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acids. For a comparative study, (±)-camphor-10-sulfonic acids were utilized to synthesize complex 3, in which equal numbers of right-handed or left-handed double-helical chains are created. All the complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure determination, powder X-ray diffraction, IR, TGA and element analysis. Circular dichroism spectra of complexes 1 and 2 were been studied to confirm the fact that enantiopure bridging ligands do not racemize. PMID:21264423

  10. Selection of the Rotation Direction for a Camphor Disk Resulting from Chiral Asymmetry of a Water Chamber.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroya; Koyano, Yuki; Yamanaka, Osamu; Sumino, Yutaka; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Skrobanska, Paulina; Gorecki, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    Self-motion of a camphor disk rotating inside a water chamber composed of two half-disks was investigated. The half-disks were joined along their diameter segments, and the distance between their midpoints (ds) was considered as the control parameter. Various types of camphor disk motions were observed depending on ds. When ds = 0, the chamber had a circular shape, so it was symmetric. A camphor disk showed either a clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW) rotation with the direction determined by its initial state. The symmetry of the chamber was broken for ds > 0. For moderate distances between the midpoints, a unidirectional orbital motion of the disk was observed. The preferred rotation direction was determined by the shape of the chamber, and it did not depend on the initial rotation direction. For yet larger ds, the unidirectional circular motion was no longer observed and the trajectory became irregular. A mathematical model coupling the camphor disk motion with the dynamics of the developed camphor molecular layer on water was constructed, and the numerical results were compared with the experimental results. The selection of motion type can be explained by considering the influence of camphor concentration on the disk trajectory through the surface tension gradient. PMID:27500909

  11. Three 2D Ag(I)-framework isomers with helical structures controlled by the chirality of camphor-10-sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng

    2011-02-28

    Three 2D Ag(I)-framework isomers were constructed from enantiopure camphor-10-sulfonic acids or racemic camphor-10-sulfonic acids, together with achiral 4-aminobenzoic acids. In complex 1, (+)-camphor-10-sulfonic acids bridge the single left-handed helices that are made up of Ag ions and 4-aminobenzoic acids, generating a homochiral 2D layer. In such a structure, the interweaving of triple left-handed homohelices was also found. It is worth noting that the helicity of complex 2 could be controlled by the handedness of the camphor-10-sulfonic acid. In complex 2, there are right-handed helical structures, including single right-handed and triple right-handed helical structures connected by (-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acids. For a comparative study, (±)-camphor-10-sulfonic acids were utilized to synthesize complex 3, in which equal numbers of right-handed or left-handed double-helical chains are created. All the complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure determination, powder X-ray diffraction, IR, TGA and element analysis. Circular dichroism spectra of complexes 1 and 2 were been studied to confirm the fact that enantiopure bridging ligands do not racemize.

  12. Quantitative determination of the solidus line in the dilute limit of succinonitrile-camphor alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, F. L.; Fabietti, L. M.; Bergeon, N.; Strutzenberg, L. L.; Karma, A.; Billia, B.; Trivedi, R.

    2016-08-01

    Different phase diagram measurements for succinonitrile-camphor alloys to date have yielded different values of the solute partition coefficient and the freezing range of the alloy. These parameters are critical to model solidification microstructure evolution. New measurements are made to precisely characterize the dilute limit of the succinonitrile-camphor phase diagram using thin-sample directional solidification experiments where convection is negligible, so that solute transport in the melt is purely diffusive, and the temperature gradient is constant in time. These results are confirmed through complementary measurements by differential scanning calorimetry and isothermal annealing. Possible measurement uncertainties in previously measured solidus lines are discussed. Experimental results were further confirmed using a boundary layer model of transient planar interface dynamics.

  13. Supramolecular arrangement in mono and bi-camphor acyl hydrazones: A structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Adelino M.; Carvalho, M. Fernanda N. N.; Ferreira, Ana S. D.

    2016-03-01

    New acyl hydrazones were synthesized by condensation with camphorquinone aiming at extending the range of applications of the biologically active camphor compounds and structural studies by XRD, 1H-NMR and IR were used in conjunction with advanced computational methodologies to understand the new structural chemistry enabled by the conjugation of the camphor ketone group to the hydrazone Ndbnd C double bond. In particular, were analysed supramolecular arrangements either by hydrogen bonding to water molecules or electrostatic interactions with non protic solvents. The relative stability of all conformers (E/Z) prompted by the hydrazone bond was addressed by state of the art methods such as CR-CCSD(T) and their inter-conversion in both S0 and S1 by CR-EOM-CCSD(T).

  14. Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Camphoric Carbon by Thermal-CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.

    2010-03-01

    Chemical properties and surface study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-CVD) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The chemical properties of the CNTs were conducted using FTIR spectroscopy and PXRD analysis. The high-temperature graphitization process induced by the Thermal-CVD enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs.

  15. Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared Using Camphoric Carbon by Thermal-CVD

    SciTech Connect

    Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.

    2010-03-11

    Chemical properties and surface study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-CVD) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The chemical properties of the CNTs were conducted using FTIR spectroscopy and PXRD analysis. The high-temperature graphitization process induced by the Thermal-CVD enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs.

  16. Three-dimensional homochiral transition-metal camphorate architectures directed by a flexible auxiliary ligand.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Chew, Emily; Chen, Shumei; Pham, Jimmy T H; Bu, Xianhui

    2008-05-01

    Reported here are four homochiral and one racemic chiral compounds assembled from transition metals (Fe2+, Co2+, and Ni2+), rigid enantiopure camphoric acid, and flexible 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine; they feature an unusual homochiral three-dimensional supramolecular assembly (resulting from catenation of 4-connected bilayers) as well as a homochiral 3-fold interpenetrating diamond net and a noninterpenetrating primitive cubic net. PMID:18393493

  17. Camphor-based symmetric diimines as inhibitors of influenza virus reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Anastasiya S; Yarovaya, O Cyrilliclga I; Korchagina, Dina V; Zarubaev, Vladimir V; Tretiak, Tatiana S; Anfimov, Pavel M; Kiselev, Oleg I; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F

    2014-04-01

    Influenza is a continuing world-wide public health problem that causes significant morbidity and mortality during seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics. The purpose of the study was synthesis and investigation of antiviral activity of camphor-based symmetric diimines and diamines. A set of C2-symmetric nitrogen-containing camphor derivatives have been synthesized. The antiviral activity of these compounds was studied against rimantadine- and amantadine-resistant influenza virus A/California/7/09 (H1N1)pdm09 in MDCK cells. The highest efficacy in virus inhibiting was shown for compounds 2a-e with cage moieties bound by aliphatic linkers. The therapeutic index (selectivity index) for 2b exceeded that for reference compounds amantadine, deitiforin and rimantadine almost 10-fold. As shown by structure-activity analysis, the length of the linker has a dramatic effect on the toxicity of compounds. Compound 2e with -C12H24- linker exhibited the lowest toxicity (CTD50=2216μM). Derivatives of camphor, therefore, can be considered as prospective antiinfluenza compounds active against influenza viruses resistant to adamantane-based drugs. PMID:24631360

  18. Surface Study of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Thermal-CVD of Camphor Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azira, A. A.; Rusop, M.

    2010-03-01

    Surface morphology study on the influence of starting carbon materials by using thermal chemical vapor deposition (Thermal-CVD) to produced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is investigated. The CNTs derived from camphor were synthesized as the precursor material due to low sublimation temperature, which indirectly maybe cost effective. The major parameters are also evaluated in order to obtain high-yield and high-quality CNTs. The prepared CNTs are examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) to determine the microstructure of nanocarbons. The FESEM investigation of the CNTs formed on the support catalysts provides evidence that camphor is suitable as a precursor material for nanotubes formation. The high-temperature graphitization process induced by the Thermal-CVD enables the hydrocarbons to act as carbon sources and changes the aromatic species into the layered graphite structure of CNTs. The camphoric hydrocarbons not only found acts as the precursors but also enhances the production rate and the quality of CNTs.

  19. Central to Axial Transfer of Chirality in Menthone or Camphor-Derived 2,2'-Biphenols.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Fabrizio; De Lucchi, Ottorino; Lucchini, Vittorio

    1997-10-17

    A study aimed at defining a molecular arrangement where a chiral fragment derived from menthone or camphor transfers its central chirality to a 2,2'-biphenol residue, inducing an axial chirality, is reported. The menthol or isoborneol groups are attached at the two benzylic positions at 3,3' in order to maximize efficiency in practical applications. A reliable and high-yielding procedure for the synthesis of such C(2)-symmetric molecules substituted at the 3,3'-positions has been developed. The procedure entails Mannich condensation with paraformaldehyde and morpholine, protection of the hydroxylic functions, chlorination, metalation, and addition to (-)-menthone and (+)-camphor. The use of samarium diiodide is essential in the latter step for optimum selectivity and efficiency. The tetrols exhibit intramolecular hydrogen bonding between phenolic and alcoholic hydroxy functions within each monomeric unity, so that they retain their rotational freedom. NOEDS and COSY experiments show that the tetrols are present in more than one rotamer. The tetrols react with tetrachlorosilane to afford siloxanes as pure diastereoisomers, showing that the metal is able to induce preferential helicity at the biphenyl residue; i.e., the central chirality of menthol or isoborneol auxiliary is totally transfered to the axial chirality of the biphenyl. The configurations could be determined by NOEDS and heterocorrelated HMQC experiments. Remarkably, while the menthol derivative induces total M helicity, the camphor induces complementary P helicity. These results suggest that these tetrols may be useful as ligands in catalysts for asymmetric synthesis. PMID:11671820

  20. Effect of Nanosilver Gel, Chlorhexidine Gluconate, and Camphorated Phenol on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Bo, Dong; Kayombo, Cecilia Marcellino

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To assess the effectiveness of nanosilver gel (NSG) in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and camphorated phenol (CP) against Enterococcus faecalis (E.f) biofilm. Methods and Materials. Two tests were done, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis, to determine the effectiveness of NSG, CHX, and CP on E.f biofilm. Polystyrene microtiter 96- and 6-well plates were used for MTT and CLSM, respectively. Nanosilver gel was in three concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%), chlorhexidine gluconate used was 2%, and camphorated phenol and normal saline were as control. Analysis was done using one-way ANOVA; the post hoc test was run for multiple comparisons. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences among groups (0.05% NSG and CP, 0.1% NSG and CP, 0.2% NSG and CP, 0.1% NSG and 2% CHX, 0.2% and NSG and 2% CHX) (P < 0.001) and also showed significant difference between groups (P < 0.001), f-ratio 87.823. A post hoc Tukey's test revealed no significant difference between chlorhexidine gluconate and 0.05% nanosilver gel (P > 0.05). Conclusions. 0.1% and 0.2% nanosilver gel is more effective on Enterococcus faecalis biofilm as compared to chlorhexidine gluconate and camphorated phenol.

  1. Camphor--a fumigant during the Black Death and a coveted fragrant wood in ancient Egypt and Babylon--a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiyang; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2013-05-10

    The fragrant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) and its products, such as camphor oil, have been coveted since ancient times. Having a rich history of traditional use, it was particularly used as a fumigant during the era of the Black Death and considered as a valuable ingredient in both perfume and embalming fluid. Camphor has been widely used as a fragrance in cosmetics, as a food flavourant, as a common ingredient in household cleaners, as well as in topically applied analgesics and rubefacients for the treatment of minor muscle aches and pains. Camphor, traditionally obtained through the distillation of the wood of the camphor tree, is a major essential oil component of many aromatic plant species, as it is biosynthetically synthesised; it can also be chemically synthesised using mainly turpentine as a starting material. Camphor exhibits a number of biological properties such as insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticoccidial, anti-nociceptive, anticancer and antitussive activities, in addition to its use as a skin penetration enhancer. However, camphor is a very toxic substance and numerous cases of camphor poisoning have been documented. This review briefly summarises the uses and synthesis of camphor and discusses the biological properties and toxicity of this valuable molecule.

  2. Occurrence of some organic UV filters in wastewater, in surface waters, and in fish from Swiss Lakes.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Marianne E; Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas

    2005-02-15

    Organic UV filters are used in personal care products such as sunscreen products, and in cosmetics, beauty creams, skin lotions, lipsticks, hair sprays, hair dyes, shampoos, and so forth. The compounds enter the aquatic environmentfrom showering, wash-off, washing (laundering), and so forth via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) ("indirect inputs") and from recreational activities such as swimming and bathing in lakes and rivers ("direct inputs"). In this study, we investigated the occurrence of four important organic UV filter compounds (benzophenone-3, BP-3; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC) in wastewater, and in water and fish from various Swiss lakes, using gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analyses. All four UV filters were present in untreated wastewater (WWTP influent) with a maximum concentration of 19 microg L(-1) for EHMC. The data indicate a seasonal variation with influent loads higher in the warmer season (June 2002) than in the colder one (April 2002). The influent loads were in the order EHMC > 4-MBC approximately BP-3 > OC. The concentrations in treated wastewater (WWTP effluent) were considerably lower, indicating substantial elimination in the plants. 4-MBC was usually the most prevalent compound (maximum concentration, 2.7 microg L(-1)), followed by BP-3, EHMC, and OC. UV filters were also detected in Swiss midland lakes and a river (Limmat) receiving inputs from WWTPs and recreational activities. However, all concentrations were low (<2-35 ng L(-1)); no UV filters (<2 ng L(-1)) were detected in a remote mountain lake. Data from passive sampling using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) supported the presence of these UV filters in the lakes and the river and suggested some potential for accumulation of these compounds in biota. SPMD-derived water concentrations increased in the order Greifensee < Zürichsee < Hüttnersee. This order is reversed from that observed for methyl

  3. Occurrence of some organic UV filters in wastewater, in surface waters, and in fish from Swiss Lakes.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Marianne E; Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas

    2005-02-15

    Organic UV filters are used in personal care products such as sunscreen products, and in cosmetics, beauty creams, skin lotions, lipsticks, hair sprays, hair dyes, shampoos, and so forth. The compounds enter the aquatic environmentfrom showering, wash-off, washing (laundering), and so forth via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) ("indirect inputs") and from recreational activities such as swimming and bathing in lakes and rivers ("direct inputs"). In this study, we investigated the occurrence of four important organic UV filter compounds (benzophenone-3, BP-3; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC) in wastewater, and in water and fish from various Swiss lakes, using gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analyses. All four UV filters were present in untreated wastewater (WWTP influent) with a maximum concentration of 19 microg L(-1) for EHMC. The data indicate a seasonal variation with influent loads higher in the warmer season (June 2002) than in the colder one (April 2002). The influent loads were in the order EHMC > 4-MBC approximately BP-3 > OC. The concentrations in treated wastewater (WWTP effluent) were considerably lower, indicating substantial elimination in the plants. 4-MBC was usually the most prevalent compound (maximum concentration, 2.7 microg L(-1)), followed by BP-3, EHMC, and OC. UV filters were also detected in Swiss midland lakes and a river (Limmat) receiving inputs from WWTPs and recreational activities. However, all concentrations were low (<2-35 ng L(-1)); no UV filters (<2 ng L(-1)) were detected in a remote mountain lake. Data from passive sampling using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) supported the presence of these UV filters in the lakes and the river and suggested some potential for accumulation of these compounds in biota. SPMD-derived water concentrations increased in the order Greifensee < Zürichsee < Hüttnersee. This order is reversed from that observed for methyl

  4. Camphor Induces Proliferative and Anti-senescence Activities in Human Primary Dermal Fibroblasts and Inhibits UV-Induced Wrinkle Formation in Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thao Anh; Ho, Manh Tin; Song, Yeon Woo; Cho, Moonjae; Cho, Somi Kim

    2015-12-01

    Camphor ((1R)-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one), a bicyclic monoterpene, is one of the major constituents of essential oils from various herbs such as rosemary, lavender, and sage. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of camphor as a botanical ingredient in cosmetics. Camphor induced the proliferation of human primary dermal fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner via the PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling pathways. Camphor attenuated the elevation of senescence associated with β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity. Elastase activity decreased, while the total amount of collagen increased, in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human primary dermal fibroblasts treated with camphor. Camphor induced the expression of collagen IA, collagen IIIA, collagen IVA, and elastin in human primary dermal fibroblasts. In addition, posttreatment with 26 and 52 mM camphor for 2 weeks led to a significant reduction in the expression of MMP1 but increases in the expression of collagen IA, IIIA, and elastin in mouse skin exposed to UV for 4 weeks. These posttreatments also reduced the depths of the epidermis and subcutaneous fat layer in UV-exposed mouse skin. Taken together, these findings suggest camphor to be a potent wound healing and antiwrinkle agent with considerable potential for use in cosmeceuticals. PMID:26458283

  5. Camphor burns of the palm and non-suicidal self-injury: An uncommonly reported, but socially relevant issue.

    PubMed

    Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Friji, Meethale Thiruvoth; Kumar, S Dinesh; Asokan, Arjun; Pandey, Sandhya

    2014-05-01

    Camphor is a waxy white sublimating chemical derived from natural as well as synthetic sources and widely used in various communities worldwide for a number of medicinal, culinary, and religious reasons. Camphor is burnt as an offering to God in many religious communities. We report three incidences of self inflicted injury from burning camphor on the palm resulting in full thickness burns. Non-suicidal self-injury is socially unacceptable destruction or alteration of body tissue when there is no suicidal intent or pervasive developmental disorder and we have explored an association between this and burn injury. This report also highlights the unique social and cultural pattern of this burn injury and the importance of psycho-therapeautic help for these victims.

  6. Camphor burns of the palm and non-suicidal self-injury: An uncommonly reported, but socially relevant issue

    PubMed Central

    Chittoria, Ravi Kumar; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Friji, Meethale Thiruvoth; Kumar, S. Dinesh; Asokan, Arjun; Pandey, Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Camphor is a waxy white sublimating chemical derived from natural as well as synthetic sources and widely used in various communities worldwide for a number of medicinal, culinary, and religious reasons. Camphor is burnt as an offering to God in many religious communities. We report three incidences of self inflicted injury from burning camphor on the palm resulting in full thickness burns. Non-suicidal self-injury is socially unacceptable destruction or alteration of body tissue when there is no suicidal intent or pervasive developmental disorder and we have explored an association between this and burn injury. This report also highlights the unique social and cultural pattern of this burn injury and the importance of psycho-therapeautic help for these victims. PMID:25190924

  7. Discovery of a new class of antiviral compounds: camphor imine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Anastasiya S; Yarovaya, Olga I; Shernyukov, Andrey V; Gatilov, Yuriy V; Razumova, Yuliya V; Zarubaev, Vladimir V; Tretiak, Tatiana S; Pokrovsky, Andrey G; Kiselev, Oleg I; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F

    2015-11-13

    A new class of compounds featuring a camphor moiety has been discovered that exhibits potent inhibitory activity against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H5N1) viruses. The synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic analysis; in addition the structures of compound 2 and 14 were elucidated by the X-ray diffraction technique. Structure-activity relationship studies have been conducted to identify the 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptanes2-ylidene group as the key functional group responsible for the observed antiviral activity. The most potent antiviral compound is imine 2 with therapeutic index more than 500. PMID:26498572

  8. Solvent effects on the electronic absorption spectrum of camphor using continuum, discrete or explicit approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongsted, Jacob; Mennucci, Benedetta; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio

    2010-01-01

    We address the effect of solvation on the lowest electronic excitation energy of camphor. The solvents considered represent a large variation in-solvent polarity. We consider three conceptually different ways of accounting for the solvent using either an implicit, a discrete or an explicit solvation model. The solvatochromic shifts in polar solvents are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for all three solvent models. However, both the implicit and discrete solvation models are less successful in predicting solvatochromic shifts for solvents of low polarity. The results presented suggest the importance of using explicit solvent molecules in the case of nonpolar solvents.

  9. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  10. UV filters induce transcriptional changes of different hormonal receptors in Chironomus riparius embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Aquilino, Mónica; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are emerging contaminants that are ubiquitous in fresh and marine aquatic systems due to their extensive use in cosmetics, plastics, paints, textiles, and many other industrial products. The estrogenic effects of organic UV filters have been long demonstrated in vertebrates, and other hormonal activities may be altered, according to more recent reports. The impact of UV filters on the endocrine system of invertebrates is largely unknown. We have previously reported that some UV filters may affect ecdysone-related genes in the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius, an ecotoxicologically important model organism. To further analyze other possible effects on endocrine pathways, we first characterized four pivotal genes related with hormonal pathways in insects; thereafter, these genes were assessed for alterations in transcriptional activity after exposure to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) or benzophenone-3 (BP-3), two extensively used sunscreens. We found that both chemicals disturbed the expression of all four genes analyzed: hormonal receptor 38 (HR38), methoprene-tolerant (Met), membrane-associate progesterone receptor (MAPR) and insulin-like receptor (INSR), measured by changes in mRNA levels by real-time PCR. An upregulatory effect at the genomic level was detected in different developmental stages. Interestingly, embryos appeared to be more sensitive to the action of the UV filters than larvae. Our results suggest that the risk of disruption through different endocrine routes is not negligible, considering the significant effects of UV filters on key hormonal receptor and regulatory genes. Further effort is needed to develop environmental risk assessment studies on these pollutants, particularly for aquatic invertebrate model organisms. PMID:27089421

  11. UV filters induce transcriptional changes of different hormonal receptors in Chironomus riparius embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Aquilino, Mónica; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are emerging contaminants that are ubiquitous in fresh and marine aquatic systems due to their extensive use in cosmetics, plastics, paints, textiles, and many other industrial products. The estrogenic effects of organic UV filters have been long demonstrated in vertebrates, and other hormonal activities may be altered, according to more recent reports. The impact of UV filters on the endocrine system of invertebrates is largely unknown. We have previously reported that some UV filters may affect ecdysone-related genes in the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius, an ecotoxicologically important model organism. To further analyze other possible effects on endocrine pathways, we first characterized four pivotal genes related with hormonal pathways in insects; thereafter, these genes were assessed for alterations in transcriptional activity after exposure to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) or benzophenone-3 (BP-3), two extensively used sunscreens. We found that both chemicals disturbed the expression of all four genes analyzed: hormonal receptor 38 (HR38), methoprene-tolerant (Met), membrane-associate progesterone receptor (MAPR) and insulin-like receptor (INSR), measured by changes in mRNA levels by real-time PCR. An upregulatory effect at the genomic level was detected in different developmental stages. Interestingly, embryos appeared to be more sensitive to the action of the UV filters than larvae. Our results suggest that the risk of disruption through different endocrine routes is not negligible, considering the significant effects of UV filters on key hormonal receptor and regulatory genes. Further effort is needed to develop environmental risk assessment studies on these pollutants, particularly for aquatic invertebrate model organisms.

  12. Interaction mechanisms between organic UV filters and bovine serum albumin as determined by comprehensive spectroscopy exploration and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Ao, Junjie; Gao, Li; Yuan, Tao; Jiang, Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Organic UV filters are a group of emerging PPCP (pharmaceuticals and personal care products) contaminants. Current information is insufficient to understand the in vivo processes and health risks of organic UV filters in humans. The interaction mechanism of UV filters with serum albumin provides critical information for the health risk assessment of these active ingredients in sunscreen products. This study investigates the interaction mechanisms of five commonly used UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-3; 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; methoxydibenzoylmethane, BDM; homosalate, HMS) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by spectroscopic measurements of fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), competitive binding experiments and molecular docking. Our results indicated that the fluorescence of BSA was quenched by these UV filters through a static quenching mechanism. The values of the binding constant (Ka) ranged from (0.78±0.02)×10(3) to (1.29±0.01)×10(5) L mol(-1). Further exploration by synchronous fluorescence and CD showed that the conformation of BSA was demonstrably changed in the presence of these organic UV filters. It was confirmed that the UV filters can disrupt the α-helical stability of BSA. Moreover, the results of molecular docking revealed that the UV filter molecule is located in site II (sub-domain IIIA) of BSA, which was further confirmed by the results of competitive binding experiments. In addition, binding occurred mainly through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. This study raises critical concerns regarding the transportation, distribution and toxicity effects of organic UV filters in human body.

  13. Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fu, J. T.; Tang, L.; Li, W. S.; Wang, K.; Cheng, D. M.; Zhang, Z. X.

    2015-01-01

    The red imported fire ant (RIFA) Solenopsis invicta Buren causes severe damage to humans and animals as well as the environment. Chemical treatment is the main strategy of RIFA management, which also is potentially toxic to the environment. Plant essential oils (EOs) are considered as potential substance that can be used to control insects. This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of camphor EO and investigate the insecticidal activity on RIFAs. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results revealed that 36.61% camphor and 30.05% cineole were the major components. The insecticidal activity of camphor EO was assessed against RIFA workers by conducting two different bioassays: fumigant toxicity and repellence. Fumigant toxicity assay results showed that the lethal dose (LC50) of the EO at 24 h was 1.67 and 4.28 μg/ml for minor and major workers, respectively; knockdown time (KT50) was 10.82 and 14.73 h. At 2.55 μg/ml, the highest average mortality of the ants was 84.89% after 72 h. Camphor EO exhibited fumigant toxicity against minor and major workers as indicated by the effects on attacking, feeding, and climbing behaviors. This EO was also strongly repellent to the two size workers of the colony as observed in their behavior against Tenebrio molitor treated with 5 µl EO. The fumigant toxicity and repellence of camphor EO against RIFA indicated that this substance could be a potential alternative for the development of eco-friendly products used to control pests. PMID:26392574

  14. Fumigant Toxicity and Repellence Activity of Camphor Essential Oil from Cinnamonum camphora Siebold Against Solenopsis invicta Workers (Hymenoptera:Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, J T; Tang, L; Li, W S; Wang, K; Cheng, D M; Zhang, Z X

    2015-01-01

    The red imported fire ant (RIFA) Solenopsis invicta Buren causes severe damage to humans and animals as well as the environment. Chemical treatment is the main strategy of RIFA management, which also is potentially toxic to the environment. Plant essential oils (EOs) are considered as potential substance that can be used to control insects. This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of camphor EO and investigate the insecticidal activity on RIFAs. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results revealed that 36.61% camphor and 30.05% cineole were the major components. The insecticidal activity of camphor EO was assessed against RIFA workers by conducting two different bioassays: fumigant toxicity and repellence. Fumigant toxicity assay results showed that the lethal dose (LC50) of the EO at 24 h was 1.67 and 4.28 μg/ml for minor and major workers, respectively; knockdown time (KT50) was 10.82 and 14.73 h. At 2.55 μg/ml, the highest average mortality of the ants was 84.89% after 72 h. Camphor EO exhibited fumigant toxicity against minor and major workers as indicated by the effects on attacking, feeding, and climbing behaviors. This EO was also strongly repellent to the two size workers of the colony as observed in their behavior against Tenebrio molitor treated with 5 µl EO. The fumigant toxicity and repellence of camphor EO against RIFA indicated that this substance could be a potential alternative for the development of eco-friendly products used to control pests. PMID:26392574

  15. New quaternary ammonium camphor derivatives and their antiviral activity, genotoxic effects and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Anastasiya S; Yarovaya, Capital O Cyrilliclga I; Shernyukov, Capital A Cyrillicndrey V; Pokrovsky, Capital Em Cyrillicichail A; Pokrovsky, Capital A Cyrillicndrey G; Lavrinenko, Valentina A; Zarubaev, Vladimir V; Tretiak, Tatiana S; Anfimov, Pavel M; Kiselev, Oleg I; Beklemishev, Anatoly B; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F

    2013-11-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of dimeric camphor derivatives are described. The resulting compounds were studied for their antiviral activity, cyto- and genotoxicity. Compounds 3a and 3d in which the quaternary nitrogen atoms are separated by the C5H10 and С9H18 aliphatic chain, exhibited the highest efficiency as an agent inhibiting the reproduction of the influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09. The cytotoxicity data of compounds 3 and 4 revealed their moderate activity against malignant cell lines; compound 3f had the highest activity for the CEM-13 cells. These results show close agreement with the data of independent studies on toxicity of these compounds, in particular that the toxicity of compounds strongly depends on spacer length. PMID:23993669

  16. On the question of phase equilibria in the succinonitrile-(D)camphor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witusiewicz, V. T.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

    2013-07-01

    Alloys from the succinonitrile-(D)camphor (SCN-DC) system are widely used as model alloys for the in situ investigation of solidification using light optical microscopy, but literature on the binary phase diagram is contradictory with respect to the solubility limit of DC in (SCN). Phase equilibria of the system were therefore revisited experimentally and critically assessed in the present work. The results prove that the maximum solubility of DC in the succinonitrile solid solution (SCN) is far less 1 wt% and the volume fraction of the (DC) phase in the eutectic solid is 23.3%. On this basis and on recently reported experimental data the CALPHAD description of the SCN-DC system was re-optimized.

  17. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  18. Strecker degradation of amino acids promoted by a camphor-derived sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M Fernanda N N; Ferreira, M João; Knittel, Ana S O; Oliveira, Maria da Conceição; Costa Pessoa, João; Herrmann, Rudolf; Wagner, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    A camphor-derived sulfonimine with a conjugated carbonyl group, oxoimine 1 (O2SNC10H13O), reacts with amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine) to form a compound O2SNC10H13NC10H14NSO2 (2) which was characterized by spectroscopic means (MS and NMR) and supported by DFT calculations. The product, a single diastereoisomer, contains two oxoimine units connected by a -N= bridge, and thus has a structural analogy to the colored product Ruhemann´s purple obtained by the ninhydrin reaction with amino acids. A plausible reaction mechanism that involves zwitterions, a Strecker degradation of an intermediate imine and water-catalyzed tautomerizations was developed by means of DFT calculations on potential transition states. PMID:27340465

  19. Strecker degradation of amino acids promoted by a camphor-derived sulfonamide

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, M João; Knittel, Ana S O; Oliveira, Maria da Conceição; Costa Pessoa, João; Herrmann, Rudolf; Wagner, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Summary A camphor-derived sulfonimine with a conjugated carbonyl group, oxoimine 1 (O2SNC10H13O), reacts with amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-leucine) to form a compound O2SNC10H13NC10H14NSO2 (2) which was characterized by spectroscopic means (MS and NMR) and supported by DFT calculations. The product, a single diastereoisomer, contains two oxoimine units connected by a –N= bridge, and thus has a structural analogy to the colored product Ruhemann´s purple obtained by the ninhydrin reaction with amino acids. A plausible reaction mechanism that involves zwitterions, a Strecker degradation of an intermediate imine and water-catalyzed tautomerizations was developed by means of DFT calculations on potential transition states. PMID:27340465

  20. Additive estrogenic effects of mixtures of frequently used UV filters on pS2-gene transcription in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heneweer, Marjoke . E-mail: M.Heneweer@iras.uu.nl; Muusse, Martine; Berg, Martin van den; Sanderson, J. Thomas

    2005-10-15

    In order to protect consumers from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and enhance light stability of the product, three to eight UV filters are usually added to consumer sunscreen products. High lipophilicity of the UV filters has been shown to cause bioaccumulation in fish and humans, leading to environmental levels of UV filters that are similar to those of PCBs and DDT. In this paper, estrogen-regulated pS2 gene transcription in the human mammary tumor cell line MCF-7 was used as a measure of estrogenicity of four individual UV filters. Since humans are exposed to more than one UV filter at a time, an equipotent binary mixture of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone (BP-3) and its metabolite 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone (BP-1), as well as an equipotent multi-component mixture of BP-1, BP-3, octyl methoxy cinnamate (OMC) and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), were also evaluated for their ability to induce pS2 gene transcription in order to examine additivity. An estrogen receptor-mediated mechanism of action was expected for all UV filters. Therefore, our null-hypothesis was that combined estrogenic responses, measured as increased pS2 gene transcription in MCF-7 cells after exposure to mixtures of UV filters, are additive, according to a concentration-addition model. Not all UV filters produced a full concentration-response curve within the concentration range tested (100 nM-1 {mu}M). Therefore, instead of using EC{sub 50} values for comparison, the concentration at which each compound caused a 50% increase of basal pS2 gene transcription was defined as the C50 value for that compound and used to calculate relative potencies. For comparison, the EC{sub 50} value of a compound is the concentration at which the compound elicits an effect that is 50% of its maximal effect. Individual UV filters increased pS2 gene transcription concentration-dependently with C50 values of 0.12 {mu}M, 0.5 {mu}M, 1.9 {mu}M, and 1.0 {mu}M for BP-1, BP-3, 4-MBC and OMC, respectively. Estradiol

  1. Photostability and phytotoxicity of selected sunscreen agents and their degradation mixtures in water.

    PubMed

    Rodil, Rosario; Moeder, Monika; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2009-11-01

    The study on the photostability of six UV filters in aqueous solution was combined with investigations on the phytotoxicity of the produced degradation mixtures. During the exposure to artificial sunlight over 72 h, the degradation of three of the UV filters evaluated was observed with half-lives between 20 and 59 h. The structural changes of iso-amylmethoxy-cinnamate (IAMC), ethylhexyl-methoxy-cinnamate (EHMC), and 4-methylbenzyliden camphor (4-MBC) occurred during irradiation were consistent with isomerisation and polymerization (IAMC and EHMC) whereas 2-ethylhexyl-4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (OD-PABA) was degraded. The analysis of the UV filters and their degradation products was performed by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) or liquid desorption-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LD-LC-MS). The phytotoxicological potential of the UV filters was examined in vitro by evaluating reproduction inhibition of the chlorophyte microalgae Scenedesmus vacuolatus. Excess toxicity was calculated by comparing experimental derived median efficiencies after log-logistic modeling to predict effects assuming narcotic mode of action. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) showed 43-fold higher toxicity than theoretically predicted and a more specific mode of action was assumed. The other UV filters tested indicated toxicity in the range of modeled narcosis. For IAMC, EHMC, and OD-PABA the phytotoxicity of their photodegradation mixtures was followed over time. Phytotoxicity decreased directly with the reduction of the parent substance from the solution. Five of the tested UV filters do not represent a risk at least for algae. Octocrylen and 4-MBC were found to be photostable but few toxic to algae. EHMC, IAMC, and OD-PABA were fast degraded during UV radiation and the phytotoxicity of the corresponding degradation mixtures was low and decreased onward during exposure. Thus, for the UV filters studied, it could be

  2. Conditioned enhancement of natural killer cell activity, but not interferon, with camphor or saccharin-LiCl conditioned stimulus.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, V K; Hiramoto, N S; Solvason, H B; Tyring, S K; Spector, N H; Hiramoto, R N

    1987-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning of the natural killer (NK) cell response has been demonstrated by pairing camphor with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) in nine association trials. The NK cell response could be conditioned also by using combined saccharin and lithium chloride (LiCl) as the conditioned stimulus. The camphor and saccharin-LiCl paradigms were tested to determine if the conditioned NK cell activity was the result of conditioning of the interferon response. Interferon levels were measured at 6 hr and NK cell activity at 24 hr after application of the conditioned stimulus. The interferon levels measured in separate experiments were not uniformly elevated in conditioned animals compared with controls.

  3. Camphor-mediated synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes and carbon dots for bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    Oza, Goldie; Ravichandran, M.; Merupo, Victor-Ishrayelu; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Ramirez, Jose Tapia; Velumani, S.; Sharon, Madhuri; Sharon, Maheshwar

    2016-01-01

    A green method for an efficient synthesis of water-soluble carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes (CNCs), Carbon dots (CDs) using Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) is demonstrated. Here, we describe a competent molecular fusion and fission route for step-wise synthesis of CDs. Camphor on acidification and carbonization forms CNPs, which on alkaline hydrolysis form CNCs that are encapsulated by thick graphitic layers and on further reduction by sodium borohydride yielded CDs. Though excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence is observed in all the three carbon nanostructures, CDs possess enhanced photoluminescent properties due to more defective carbonaceous structures. The surface hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups make them water soluble in nature. They possess excellent photostability, higher quantum yield, increased absorption, decreased cytotoxicity and hence can be utilized as a proficient bio imaging agent. PMID:26905737

  4. Camphor-mediated synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes and carbon dots for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Oza, Goldie; Ravichandran, M; Merupo, Victor-Ishrayelu; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Ramirez, Jose Tapia; Velumani, S; Sharon, Madhuri; Sharon, Maheshwar

    2016-01-01

    A green method for an efficient synthesis of water-soluble carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes (CNCs), Carbon dots (CDs) using Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) is demonstrated. Here, we describe a competent molecular fusion and fission route for step-wise synthesis of CDs. Camphor on acidification and carbonization forms CNPs, which on alkaline hydrolysis form CNCs that are encapsulated by thick graphitic layers and on further reduction by sodium borohydride yielded CDs. Though excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence is observed in all the three carbon nanostructures, CDs possess enhanced photoluminescent properties due to more defective carbonaceous structures. The surface hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups make them water soluble in nature. They possess excellent photostability, higher quantum yield, increased absorption, decreased cytotoxicity and hence can be utilized as a proficient bio imaging agent. PMID:26905737

  5. Camphor-mediated synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes and carbon dots for bioimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Goldie; Ravichandran, M.; Merupo, Victor-Ishrayelu; Shinde, Sachin; Mewada, Ashmi; Ramirez, Jose Tapia; Velumani, S.; Sharon, Madhuri; Sharon, Maheshwar

    2016-02-01

    A green method for an efficient synthesis of water-soluble carbon nanoparticles (CNPs), graphitic shell encapsulated carbon nanocubes (CNCs), Carbon dots (CDs) using Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) is demonstrated. Here, we describe a competent molecular fusion and fission route for step-wise synthesis of CDs. Camphor on acidification and carbonization forms CNPs, which on alkaline hydrolysis form CNCs that are encapsulated by thick graphitic layers and on further reduction by sodium borohydride yielded CDs. Though excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence is observed in all the three carbon nanostructures, CDs possess enhanced photoluminescent properties due to more defective carbonaceous structures. The surface hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups make them water soluble in nature. They possess excellent photostability, higher quantum yield, increased absorption, decreased cytotoxicity and hence can be utilized as a proficient bio imaging agent.

  6. Mode-selection and mode-switching of an autonomous motor composed of a camphor rotor and a mobile loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Satoshi; Tenno, Ryoichi; Ikura, Yumihiko S.

    2011-09-01

    Mode-selection and mode-switching of self-motion were investigated for a loop driven by the movement of a camphor rotor on water, as a simple autonomous system. Three modes of self-motion (caterpillar motion, translation, and alternating mode-switching between them) were selectively generated depending on the state of a knot of the loop. The experimental results were numerically reproduced and categorized by using a differential equation of rotation with a fold bifurcation.

  7. Bifurcation phenomena of two self-propelled camphor disks on an annular field depending on system length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Kei; Wakai, Ken; Ueda, Tomoaki; Yoshii, Miyu; Ikura, Yumihiko S.; Nishimori, Hiraku; Nakata, Satoshi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2015-08-01

    Mode selection and bifurcation of a synchronized motion involving two symmetric self-propelled objects in a periodic one-dimensional domain were investigated numerically and experimentally by using camphor disks placed on an annular water channel. Newton's equation of motion for each camphor disk, whose driving force was the difference in surface tension, and a reaction-diffusion equation for camphor molecules on water were used in the numerical calculations. Among various dynamical behaviors found numerically, four kinds of synchronized motions (reversal oscillation, stop-and-move rotation, equally spaced rotation, and clustered rotation) were also observed in experiments by changing the diameter of the water channel. The mode bifurcation of these motions, including their coexistence, were clarified numerically and analytically in terms of the number density of the disk. These results suggest that the present mathematical model and the analysis of the equations can be worthwhile in understanding the characteristic features of motion, e.g., synchronization, collective motion, and their mode bifurcation.

  8. Bifurcation phenomena of two self-propelled camphor disks on an annular field depending on system length.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Kei; Wakai, Ken; Ueda, Tomoaki; Yoshii, Miyu; Ikura, Yumihiko S; Nishimori, Hiraku; Nakata, Satoshi; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2015-08-01

    Mode selection and bifurcation of a synchronized motion involving two symmetric self-propelled objects in a periodic one-dimensional domain were investigated numerically and experimentally by using camphor disks placed on an annular water channel. Newton's equation of motion for each camphor disk, whose driving force was the difference in surface tension, and a reaction-diffusion equation for camphor molecules on water were used in the numerical calculations. Among various dynamical behaviors found numerically, four kinds of synchronized motions (reversal oscillation, stop-and-move rotation, equally spaced rotation, and clustered rotation) were also observed in experiments by changing the diameter of the water channel. The mode bifurcation of these motions, including their coexistence, were clarified numerically and analytically in terms of the number density of the disk. These results suggest that the present mathematical model and the analysis of the equations can be worthwhile in understanding the characteristic features of motion, e.g., synchronization, collective motion, and their mode bifurcation.

  9. Characterization and comparison of lidocaine-tetracaine and lidocaine-camphor eutectic mixtures based on their crystallization and hydrogen-bonding abilities.

    PubMed

    Gala, Urvi; Chuong, Monica C; Varanasi, Ravi; Chauhan, Harsh

    2015-06-01

    Eutectic mixtures formed between active pharmaceutical ingredients and/or excipients provide vast scope for pharmaceutical applications. This study aimed at the exploration of the crystallization abilities of two eutectic mixtures (EM) i.e., lidocaine-tetracaine and lidocaine-camphor (1:1 w/w). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for degradation behavior whereas modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) set in first heating, cooling, and second heating cycles, was used to qualitatively analyze the complex exothermic and endothermic thermal transitions. Raman microspectroscopy characterized vibrational information specific to chemical bonds. Prepared EMs were left at room temperature for 24 h to visually examine their crystallization potentials. The degradation of lidocaine, tetracaine, camphor, lidocaine-tetracaine EM, and lidocaine-camphor EM began at 196.56, 163.82, 76.86, 146.01, and 42.72°C, respectively, which indicated that eutectic mixtures are less thermostable compared to their individual components. The MTDSC showed crystallization peaks for lidocaine, tetracaine, and camphor at 31.86, 29.36, and 174.02°C, respectively (n = 3). When studying the eutectic mixture, no crystallization peak was observed in the lidocaine-tetracaine EM, but a lidocaine-camphor EM crystallization peak was present at 18.81°C. Crystallization occurred in lidocaine-camphor EM after being kept at room temperature for 24 h, but not in lidocaine-tetracaine EM. Certain peak shifts were observed in Raman spectra which indicated possible interactions of eutectic mixture components, when a eutectic mixture was formed. We found that if the components forming a eutectic mixture have crystallization peaks close to each other and have sufficient hydrogen-bonding capability, then their eutectic mixture is least likely to crystallize out (as seen in lidocaine-tetracaine EM) or vice versa (lidocaine-camphor EM).

  10. Wetting Camphor: Multi-Isotopic Substitution Identifies the Complementary Roles of Hydrogen Bonding and Dispersive Forces.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Krin, Anna; Steber, Amanda L; López, Juan C; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Schnell, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Using broadband rotational spectroscopy, we report here on the delicate interplay between hydrogen bonds and dispersive forces when an unprecedentedly large organic molecule (camphor, C10H16O) is microsolvated with up to three molecules of water. Unambiguous assignment was achieved by performing multi H2(18)O isotopic substitution of clustered water molecules. The observation of all possible mono- and multi-H2(18)O insertions in the cluster structure yielded accurate structural information that is not otherwise achievable with single-substitution experiments. The observed clusters exhibit water chains starting with a strong hydrogen bond to the C═O group and terminated by a mainly van der Waals (dispersive) contact to one of the available sites at the monomer moiety. The effect of hydrogen bond cooperativity is noticeable, and the O···O distances between the clustered water subunits decrease with the number of attached water molecules. The results reported here will further contribute to reveal the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in systems of increasing size. PMID:26689110

  11. (E)-3-(1-Naphthyl­amino)­methyl­ene-(+)-camphor

    PubMed Central

    Pastrán, Jesús; Ineichen, Emilio; Agrifoglio, Giuseppe; Linden, Anthony; Dorta, Romano

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title ketoamine {systematic name: (E)-1,7,7-trimethyl-3-[(1-naphthyl­amino)­methyl­idene]bicyclo­[2.2.1]heptan-2-one}, C21H23NO, there are two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. Both mol­ecules have an E configuration about the alkene function. The main conformational difference between the mol­ecules is in the orientation of the plane of the naphthyl rings with respect to the camphor fragment. The torsion angle about the enamine C—N bond is 21.3 (7)° for mol­ecule A, but −24.4 (8)° for mol­ecule B. Inter­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the amino and ketone groups of adjacent independent mol­ecules sustain the crystal, and the resulting extended chains, containing an alternating sequence of the two independent mol­ecules, run parallel to the [001] direction and can be described by a graph-set motif of C 2 2(12). PMID:21522692

  12. Circular dichroism in valence photoelectron spectroscopy of free unoriented chiral molecules: Camphor and bromocamphor

    SciTech Connect

    Lischke, T.; Boewering, N.; Schmidtke, B.; Mueller, N.; Khalil, T.; Heinzmann, U.

    2004-08-01

    The circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution was investigated for valence photoionization of randomly oriented pure enantiomers of camphor and bromocamphor molecules using circularly polarized light in the vacuum ultraviolet. The forward-backward electron emission spectra were recorded simultaneously with two spectrometers at several opposite angles relative to the propagation direction of the photon beam and compared for each of the two substances. Measurements were also carried out for reversed light helicity and opposite molecular handedness. For the left- and right-handed enantiomers of both molecules we observed asymmetries of comparable magnitude up to several percent. The measured asymmetry parameters vary strongly for different orbital binding energies and also for the selected photon energies in the valence region. The results for both molecules are compared. They suggest a strong influence of the final states on the asymmetry, depending on the chiral geometry of the molecular electronic structure, as well as a significant dependence on the initial states involved. They also confirm theoretical predictions describing the effect in pure electric-dipole approximation.

  13. The effect of carbon precursors (methane, benzene and camphor) on the quality of carbon nanotubes synthesised by the chemical vapour decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Wen; Aziz, Azizan; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Tye, Ching-Thian

    2011-06-01

    The effect of carbon precursors on carbon nanotube (CNT) formation was studied. The catalyst used was Fe 3O 4/MgO without prior reduction by hydrogen. Methane, benzene and camphor were used to produce CNTs at 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The results show that the types of carbon precursors greatly affect the quality of CNTs produced. The CNTs obtained from the decomposition of methane had the lowest intensity of D band to G band ratio ( ID/ IG) compared to the ID/ IG ratios of CNTs produced using benzene and camphor at 900 and 1000 °C, respectively. This low ID/ IG ratio is due to the difference in the molecule structures between methane, benzene and camphor, which resulted in different CNT growth mechanism. Raman analysis showed that single-walled carbon nanotubes of high quality were formed at 900 °C using methane as carbon precursor.

  14. Few layers isolated graphene domains grown on copper foils by microwave surface wave plasma CVD using camphor as a precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Aryal, Hare; Adhikari, Sudip; Uchida, Hideo; Wakita, Koichi; Umeno, Masayoshi

    2016-03-01

    Few layers isolated graphene domains were grown by microwave surface wave plasma CVD technique using camphor at low temperature. Graphene nucleation centers were suppressed on pre-annealed copper foils by supplying low dissociation energy. Scanning electron microscopy study of time dependent growth reveals that graphene nucleation centers were preciously suppressed, which indicates the possibility of controlled growth of large area single crystal graphene domains by plasma processing. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the graphene domains are few layered which consist of relatively low defects.

  15. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of neopentylglycol solid solution in equilibrium with neopentylglycol-(D) camphor eutectic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayram, Ü.; Aksöz, S.; Maraşlı, N.

    2012-01-01

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid neopentylglycol (NPG) solution (NPG-3 mol% D-camphor) in equilibrium with the NPG-DC eutectic liquid (NPG-36.1 mol% D-camphor) have been directly observed using a horizontal linear temperature gradient apparatus. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient ( Г), solid-liquid interfacial energy ( σSL) of NPG solid solution have been determined to be (7.5±0.7)×10 -8 K m and (8.1±1.2)×10 -3 J m -2, respectively. The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient versus TmΩ1/3, where Ω is the volume per atom was also plotted by linear regression for some organic transparent materials and the average value of coefficient ( τ) for nonmetallic materials was obtained to be 0.32 from graph of the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient versus TmΩ1/3. The grain boundary energy of solid NPG solution phase has been determined to be (14.6±2.3)×10 -3 J m -2 from the observed grain boundary groove shapes. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated eutectic liquid to thermal conductivity of solid NPG solution was also measured to be 0.80.

  16. Tip Growth Of Carbon Nanotubes Obtained By Pyrolyzation Of Camphor Oil With Zeolite Embedded With Fe/Ni/Mn Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azira, A. A.; Zainal, N. F. A.; Nik, S. F.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    Highly efficient synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of camphor oil, on a zeolite support impregnated with Fe/Ni/Mn (molar ratio of Fe:Ni:Mn = 1:1:1) catalyst in the temperature range from 550-950° C by the thermal CVD method. Besides the surface fluidization of the catalyst nanoparticles themselves, assistance of the metal oxides embedded in zeolite supports is supposed to be responsible for high activity and selectivity of the Fe/Ni/Mn catalyst over which carbon source (camphor oil) successfully decomposes. The CNT yield was higher at 850° C and can be considered as the optimum deposition temperature. This result demonstrates that zeolite impregnated with the catalyst Fe/Ni/Mn is a suitable support for effective formation of CNTs. The morphological studies support `tip growth mechanism' for the growth of the CNT's in our case. The as-grown CNTs were characterized by FESEM and FTIR spectroscopy.

  17. Mutagenicity testing (+/-)-camphor, 1,8-cineole, citral, citronellal, (-)-menthol and terpineol with the Salmonella/microsome assay.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Carneiro, M R; Felzenszwalb, I; Paumgartten, F J

    1998-08-01

    The essential oils and their monoterpenoid constituents have been widely used as fragrances in cosmetics, as flavouring food additives, as scenting agents in a variety of household products, as active ingredients in some old drugs, and as intermediates in the synthesis of perfume chemicals. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mutagenic potential of six monoterpenoid compounds: two aldehydes (citral and citronellal), a ketone ((+/-)-camphor), an oxide (1,8-cineole, also known as eucalyptol), and two alcohols (terpineol and (-)-menthol). It is part of a more comprehensive toxicological screening of monoterpenes under way at our laboratory. Mutagenicity was evaluated by the Salmonella/microsome assay (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 tester strains), without and with addition of an extrinsic metabolic activation system (lyophilized rat liver S9 fraction induced by Aroclor 1254). In all cases, the upper limit of the dose interval tested was either the highest non-toxic dose or the lowest dose of the monoterpene toxic to TA100 strain in the preliminary toxicity test. No mutagenic effect was found with (+/-) camphor, citral, citronellal, 1,8-cineole, and (-) menthol. Terpineol caused a slight but dose-related increase in the number of his+ revertants with TA102 tester strain both without and with addition of S9 mixture. The results from this study therefore suggest that, with the exception of terpineol, the monoterpenoid compounds tested are not mutagenic in the Ames test.

  18. Topological and experimental approach to the pressure-temperature-composition phase diagram of the binary enantiomer system d- and l-camphor.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Ivo B; Barrio, Maria; Espeau, Philippe; Tamarit, Josep Lluis; Céolin, René

    2011-02-24

    In 1981, Jacques, Collet, and Wilen already put forward the idea to use pressure to influence equilibria in binary enantiomer systems in analogy with temperature (Jacques et al. Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1981). Whereas temperature is used routinely to study phase equilibria, pressure is an all but forgotten parameter. This is therefore possibly the first paper on the influence of pressure on a binary enantiomer system: d- and l-camphor. The study consists of two parts, a topological approach, which uses data obtained from routine measurements (differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction), and the experimental determination of phase transitions as a function of pressure and temperature. This has resulted in two topological pressure-temperature phase diagrams of the pure enantiomer d-camphor and of the racemic mixture dl-camphor; both have been verified by the experiments as a function of pressure. In turn, these results have been used to construct part of the pressure-temperature-composition phase diagram of d- and l-camphor. A method to obtain the excess Gibbs energy from these binary phase diagrams as a function of pressure is proposed. PMID:21280597

  19. Recombinant expression and purification of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase from the camphor metabolizing Pseudomonas putida strain NCIMB 10007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Three different Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) were reported to be involved in the camphor metabolism by Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007. During (+)-camphor degradation, 2,5-diketocamphane is formed serving as substrate for the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase. This enzyme is encoded on the CAM plasmid and depends on the cofactors FMN and NADH and hence belongs to the group of type II BVMOs. We have cloned and recombinantly expressed the oxygenating subunit of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase (2,5-DKCMO) in E. coli followed by His-tag-based affinity purification. A range of compounds representing different BVMO substrate classes were then investigated, but only bicyclic ketones were converted by 2,5-DKCMO used as crude cell extract or after purification. Interestingly, also (-)-camphor was oxidized, but conversion was about 3-fold lower compared to (+)-camphor. Moreover, activity of purified 2,5-DKCMO was observed in the absence of an NADH-dehydrogenase subunit. PMID:21906366

  20. Analyses of residual iron in carbon nanotubes produced by camphor/ferrocene pyrolysis and purified by high temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, E. F.; de Resende, V. G.; Mengui, U. A.; Cunha, J. B. M.; Corat, E. J.; Massi, M.

    2011-07-01

    A detailed analysis of iron-containing phases in multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) powder was carried out. The MWCNTs were produced by camphor/ferrocene and purified by high temperature annealing in an oxygen-free atmosphere (N2 or VC). Thermogravimetric analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the evaluation of the residual iron in MWCNTs after purification. The VC treatments provided MWCNTs with a purity degree higher than 99%. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy revealed a significant improvement in graphitic ordering after thermal annealing. A brief description of the mechanism of iron removal was included. We highlight the mobility of iron atoms through graphitic sheets and the large contact angle of iron clusters formed on MWCNT surfaces at high temperatures.

  1. Benchmark experiments and numerical modelling of the columnar-equiaxed dendritic growth in the transparent alloy Neopentylglycol-(d)Camphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturz, L.; Wu, M.; Zimmermann, G.; Ludwig, A.; Ahmadein, M.

    2015-06-01

    Solidification benchmark experiments on columnar and equiaxed dendritic growth, as well as the columnar-equiaxed transition have been carried out under diffusion-dominated conditions for heat and mass transfer in a low-gravity environment. The system under investigation is the transparent organic alloy system Neopentylglycol-37.5wt.-%(d)Camphor, processed aboard a TEXUS sounding rocket flight. Solidifications was observed by standard optical methods in addition to measurements of the thermal fields within the sheet like experimental cells of 1 mm thickness. The dendrite tip kinetic, primary dendrite arm spacing, temporal and spatial temperature evolution, columnar tip velocity and the critical parameters at the CET have been analysed. Here we focus on a detailed comparison of the experiment “TRACE” with a 5-phase volume averaging model to validate the numerical model and to give insight into the corresponding physical mechanisms and parameters leading to CET. The results are discussed in terms of sensitivity versus numerical parameters.

  2. Recontamination of coronally unsealed root canals medicated with camphorated paramonochlorophenol or calcium hydroxide pastes after saliva challenge.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, J F; Lopes, H P; de Uzeda, M

    1998-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the ability of some medications to prevent recontamination of coronally unsealed root canals by bacteria from saliva. The medications tested were camphorated paramonochlorophenol (CPMC) applied in cotton pellets in the pulp chamber; calcium hydroxide/saline solution paste filling the root canal; and calcium hydroxide/CPMC/glycerin paste also filling the root canal. Medicated canals were exposed to saliva, and the number of days required for total recontamination to occur was recorded. Canals medicated with CPMC in cotton pellets were thoroughly recontaminated within an average of 6.9 days. Canals filled with calcium hydroxide/saline solution and calcium hydroxide/CPMC/glycerin showed entire recontamination within an average of 14.7 and 16.5 days, respectively. Calcium hydroxide pastes were significantly more effective than CPMC (p < 0.05). PMID:9487858

  3. Determination of accurate electron chiral asymmetries in fenchone and camphor in the VUV range: sensitivity to isomerism and enantiomeric purity.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Laurent; Nag, Lipsa; Garcia, Gustavo A; Myrgorodska, Iuliia; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Beaulieu, Samuel; Wanie, Vincent; Blanchet, Valérie; Géneaux, Romain; Powis, Ivan

    2016-05-14

    Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) manifests itself as an intense forward/backward asymmetry in the angular distribution of photoelectrons produced from randomly-oriented enantiomers by photoionization with circularly-polarized light (CPL). As a sensitive probe of both photoionization dynamics and of the chiral molecular potential, PECD attracts much interest especially with the recent performance of related experiments with visible and VUV laser sources. Here we report, by use of quasi-perfect CPL VUV synchrotron radiation and using a double imaging photoelectron/photoion coincidence (i(2)PEPICO) spectrometer, new and very accurate values of the corresponding asymmetries on showcase chiral isomers: camphor and fenchone. These data have additionally been normalized to the absolute enantiopurity of the sample as measured by a chromatographic technique. They can therefore be used as benchmarking data for new PECD experiments, as well as for theoretical models. In particular we found, especially for the outermost orbital of both molecules, a good agreement with CMS-Xα PECD modeling over the whole VUV range. We also report a spectacular sensitivity of PECD to isomerism for slow electrons, showing large and opposite asymmetries when comparing R-camphor to R-fenchone (respectively -10% and +16% around 10 eV). In the course of this study, we could also assess the analytical potential of PECD. Indeed, the accuracy of the data we provide are such that limited departure from perfect enantiopurity in the sample we purchased could be detected and estimated in excellent agreement with the analysis performed in parallel via a chromatographic technique, establishing a new standard of accuracy, in the ±1% range, for enantiomeric excess measurement via PECD. The i(2)PEPICO technique allows correlating PECD measurements to specific parent ion masses, which would allow its application to analysis of complex mixtures. PMID:27095534

  4. Sulfur speciation and bioaccumulation in camphor tree leaves as atmospheric sulfur indicator analyzed by synchrotron radiation XRF and XANES.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jianrong; Zhang, Guilin; Bao, Liangman; Long, Shilei; Tan, Mingguang; Li, Yan; Ma, Chenyan; Zhao, Yidong

    2013-03-01

    Analyzing and understanding the effects of ambient pollution on plants is getting more and more attention as a topic of environmental biology. A method based on synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy was established to analyze the sulfur concentration and speciation in mature camphor tree leaves (CTLs), which were sampled from 5 local fields in Shanghai, China. Annual SO2 concentration, SO4(2-) concentration in atmospheric particulate, SO4(2-) and sulfur concentration in soil were also analyzed to explore the relationship between ambient sulfur sources and the sulfur nutrient cycling in CTLs. Total sulfur concentration in mature camphor tree leaves was 766-1704 mg/kg. The mainly detected sulfur states and their corresponding compounds were +6 (sulfate, include inorganic sulfate and organic sulfate), +5.2 (sulfonate), +2.2 (suloxides), +0.6 (thiols and thiothers), +0.2 (organic sulfides). Total sulfur concentration was strongly correlated with sulfate proportion with a linear correlation coefficient up to 0.977, which suggested that sulfur accumulated in CTLs as sulfate form. Reduced sulfur compounds (organic sulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfoxide and sulfonate) assimilation was sufficed to meet the nutrient requirement for growth at a balanced level around 526 mg/kg. The sulfate accumulation mainly caused by atmospheric sulfur pollution such as SO2 and airborne sulfate particulate instead of soil contamination. From urban to suburb place, sulfate in mature CTLs decreased as the atmospheric sulfur pollution reduced, but a dramatic increase presented near the seashore, where the marine sulfate emission and maritime activity pollution were significant. The sulfur concentration and speciation in mature CTLs effectively represented the long-term biological accumulation of atmospheric sulfur pollution in local environment.

  5. Effect of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol on the Sealing Ability of Biodentine Apical Plug

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Harshit; Prasad, Ashwini B; Raisingani, Deepak; Soni, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Teeth with immature apex are managed by establishing an apical plug using various materials and techniques. However, the use of previously placed intracanal medicament may affect the sealing ability of permanent filling material used as an apical plug. Aim To evaluate the effect of removal of previously placed Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol as an intracanal medicament on the sealing ability of the Biodentine as an apical plug. Materials and Methods A total of 72 recently extracted human permanent teeth with single root were selected and stored in saline at room temperature. The crown portion of each tooth was removed at the level of cemento enamel junction; 14mm root length was taken as standard length. All the roots were submerged in 20% sulphuric acid up to 3 mm from the apex, for four days for root resorption. One sample was cut longitudinally to look for root resorption under stereo microscope. The canal preparation was done; the roots were kept in moist gauze after instrumentation. A total of 71 roots were randomly divided into three groups. GROUP 1:Calcium hydroxide paste, GROUP 2: Chlorhexidine digluconate, GROUP 3: Camphorated Monochlorophenol (CMCP). The medicaments were removed with stainless steel hand files and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. After removal of medicament Biodentine was placed in apical third of resorbed roots and the remaining portion of the canals was filled with gutta-percha. All the 71 roots were analysed with fluid filtration method for evaluating microleakage. Results Comparing all the three groups statistically there was no significant difference. The mean values were found more for group 1 followed by group 2 & 3. Conclusion All the groups showed microleakage. Calcium hydroxide showed the maximum microleakage followed by Chlorhexidine digluconate and least with CMCP. PMID:27504409

  6. Identification of 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, and thujone as anti-inflammatory compounds in a Salvia officinalis L. infusion using human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam M; Fricke, Kristina; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel M; Walker, Jessica; Rychlik, Michael; Somoza, Veronika

    2013-04-10

    Drinking or gargling Salvia officinalis L. infusion (sage infusion) is thought to soothe a sore throat, tonsillitis, and inflamed, red gums, although structure-based scientific evidence for the key anti-inflammatory compounds in sage infusion is scarce. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were treated with sage infusion (SI) or SI fractions containing either its volatile components and water (aqueous distillate, AD) or its dry matter (DM) for six hours. SI, AD, and DM reduced a mean phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate/ionomycin (PMA/I)-stimulated release of the pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-6 and IL-8 by more than 50% (p < 0.05). Cellular uptake experiments and subsequent GC-MS analysis using stable-isotope-labeled internal standards revealed the presence of 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, and α-/β-thujone in SI-treated cells; LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of rosmarinic acid. A significant, more than 50% mean inhibition of PMA/I-induced IL-6 and IL-8 release was demonstrated for the volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, and thujone, but not for the nonvolatile rosmarinic acid when applied in concentrations representative of sage infusion. Therefore, the volatile compounds were found to be more effective than rosmarinic acid. 1,8-Cineole, borneol, camphor, and α-/β-thujone chiefly contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of sage infusion in human gingival fibroblasts.

  7. Comparative Analysis of IR and Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectra for a Series of Camphor-Related Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbate, Sergio; Burgi, Luigi Filippo; Gangemi, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Roberto; Lebon, France; Longhi, Giovanna; Pultz, Vaughan M.; Lightner, David A.

    2009-09-01

    The absorption spectra and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra in the mid-IR range 1600-950 cm-1 of 10 camphor-related compounds have been recorded and compared to DFT calculated spectra at the B3PW91/TZ2P level and have been examined together with the corresponding data of the parent molecules. The rigidity of the bridged structure common to all compounds investigated permits (a) identification of three spectroscopic regions in the mid-IR range that can be "used" separately by the interested stereochemist for structural diagnosis and assignment of some major characteristics of the VCD spectra in these regions to what we call "skeletal chiral sense" and (b) recognition of possible conformers for flexible substituent groups, when present. VCD spectra of the 10 molecules have been recorded and analyzed also in the CH-stretching region, 3100-2800 cm-1. Here, we have been able to identify and characterize features of vibrational excitons by comparison of data within the 10-molecule class. To find a theoretical justification of result (a), we have examined the potential energy distribution of the normal modes in the mid-IR range, the partitioning of the calculated rotational strengths in terms of contributions from all couples of internal coordinates, the angle formed by the two vectors, the electric dipole transition moment and the magnetic dipole transition moment, and finally the overlap of normal modes of different molecules. A discussion is provided as to the usability of the introduced algorithms.

  8. Camphor-3-thioxo-2-oxime as an analytical reagent for extractive spectrophotometric determination and separation of lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninan, S.; Varadarajan, A.; Jadhav, S. B.; Kulkarni, A. J.; Malve, S. P.

    1999-04-01

    Camphor-3-thioxo-2-oxime (HCTO) is proposed as a new sensitive analytical reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of lead. The method is based on the instantaneous formation of a stable yellow-orange colored 1:2 chelate with lead at room temperature in the pH range 9.3-9.6 selectively extracted in carbon tetrachloride. The extracted species exhibits an absorption maximum at 400 nm with a molar absorptivity of 4.14×10 4 mol -1 cm -1, complying with Beer's law over the concentration range 0.1-0.5 μg ml -1 of lead with an optimum concentration range 0.18-0.37 μg ml -1. The effects of pH, concentration of reagent and salting-out agents, time of equilibration, order of addition of diluents and the tolerance limit of the method towards various cations and anions usually associated with lead are reported. The developed method is successfully used for the determination of traces of lead in synthetic mixtures, alloys and ore samples.

  9. Cellular and stress protein responses to the UV filter 3-benzylidene camphor in the amphipod crustacean Gammarus fossarum (Koch 1835).

    PubMed

    Scheil, Volker; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2008-05-01

    Chemical ultraviolet (UV) filters are used in various products and could be released into the environment, for example, via sunscreens used at swimming lakes. UV filters have been found in surface waters in the past but only a few investigations have concentrated on the effects of these substances in the environment. This study investigates the effects of a UV filter in the amphipod Gammarus fossarum at the cellular and molecular level. Stress protein (Hsp70) responses and reactions of hepatopancreatic cells and cells of gut appendices were investigated in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum after short-term exposure (4 days) to five different concentrations of the UV filter 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC; 33 ng/L, 330 ng/L, 3.3 microg/L, 33 microg/L, 330 microg/L) and two control conditions (water and solvent ethanol). Male as well as female gammarids showed increased Hsp70 levels after exposure to low concentrations of 3-BC, with a maximum response at 3.3 microg/L, while the higher concentrations resulted in lower Hsp70 levels. This effect was most likely due to a cessation of Hsp70 synthesis following pathological impact as indicated by strong cellular responses and cellular damage obtained in epithelia of the hepatopancreas and the gut appendices after treatment with 330 microg/L 3-BC. Although environmentally relevant concentrations of 3-BC did not seem to have an adverse effect in this short-term study, higher concentrations of 3-BC are surely detrimental. It is known that chronic exposure generally requires much lower concentrations to cause harm than acute exposure. Additionally, juvenile stages may be even more sensitive than the adults tested. Therefore, on the basis of this study, 3-BC-effects in the field cannot be excluded and should be regarded possible.

  10. Transient Proliferation of Proanthocyanidin-Accumulating Cells on the Epidermal Apex Contributes to Highly Aluminum-Resistant Root Elongation in Camphor Tree1[W

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Hiroki; Endo, Izuki; Hara, Yukari; Matsushima, Yuki; Tange, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a harmful element that rapidly inhibits the elongation of plant roots in acidic soils. The release of organic anions explains Al resistance in annual crops, but the mechanisms that are responsible for superior Al resistance in some woody plants remain unclear. We examined cell properties at the surface layer of the root apex in the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) to understand its high Al resistance mechanism. Exposure to 500 μm Al for 8 d, more than 20-fold higher concentration and longer duration than what soybean (Glycine max) can tolerate, only reduced root elongation in the camphor tree to 64% of the control despite the slight induction of citrate release. In addition, Al content in the root apices was maintained at low levels. Histochemical profiling revealed that proanthocyanidin (PA)-accumulating cells were present at the adjacent outer layer of epidermis cells at the root apex, having distinctive zones for cell division and the early phase of cell expansion. Then the PA cells were gradually detached off the root, leaving thin debris behind, and the root surface was replaced with the elongating epidermis cells at the 3- to 4-mm region behind the tip. Al did not affect the proliferation of PA cells or epidermis cells, except for the delay in the start of expansion and the accelerated detachment of the former. In soybean roots, the innermost lateral root cap cells were absent in both PA accumulation and active cell division and failed to protect the epidermal cell expansion at 25 μm Al. These results suggest that transient proliferation and detachment of PA cells may facilitate the expansion of epidermis cells away from Al during root elongation in camphor tree. PMID:21045123

  11. Porphyrogenic properties of the terpenes camphor, pinene, and thujone (with a note on historic implications for absinthe and the illness of Vincent van Gogh).

    PubMed

    Bonkovsky, H L; Cable, E E; Cable, J W; Donohue, S E; White, E C; Greene, Y J; Lambrecht, R W; Srivastava, K K; Arnold, W N

    1992-06-01

    Camphor, alpha-pinene (the major component of turpentine), and thujone (a constituent in the liqueur called absinthe) produced an increase in porphyrin production in primary cultures of chick embryo liver cells. In the presence of desferrioxamine (an iron chelator which inhibits heme synthesis and thereby mimics the effect of the block associated with acute porphyria), the terpenes enhanced porphyrin accumulation 5- to 20-fold. They also induced synthesis of the rate-controlling enzyme for the pathway, 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase, which was monitored both spectrophotometrically and immunochemically. These effects are shared by well-known porphyrogenic chemicals such as phenobarbital and glutethimide. Camphor and glutethimide alone led to the accumulation of mostly uro- and heptacarboxylporphyrins, whereas alpha-pinene and thujone resulted in lesser accumulations of porphyrins which were predominantly copro- and protoporphyrins. In the presence of desferrioxamine, plus any of the three terpenes, the major product that accumulated was protoporphyrin. The present results indicate that the terpenes tested are porphyrogenic and hazardous to patients with underlying defects in hepatic heme synthesis. There are also implications for the illness of Vincent van Gogh and the once popular, but now banned liqueur, called absinthe.

  12. Syntheses, structures and properties of two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid and 2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine

    SciTech Connect

    Lun, Huijie; Yang, Jinghe; Jin, Linyu; Cui, Sasa; Bai, Yanlong; Zhang, Xudong; Li, Yamin

    2015-05-15

    By hydrothermal method, two new coordination polymers [Co(ca)(phdat)]{sub n} (1), [Ni(ca)(phdat).0.125H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (2) (H{sub 2}ca=D-camphoric acid, phdat=2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine) have been achieved and structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and TGA. The X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, both of which exhibit two-dimensional layered network built up from paddle-wheel Co{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}/Ni{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4} SBUs by ca{sup 2−} ligand. In the existence of π…π stacking interactions between triazine rings and phenyl rings, the 3D networks are constructed with the hanging phdat filled between the neighboring layers. Furthermore, compounds 1–2 exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior and compound 2 displays a good activity for methanol oxidation. - Graphical abstract: Two new coordination compounds 1–2 have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffractions, IR spectra, elemental analyses, thermogravimetric analyses, magnetic and electrochemical measurement. - Highlights: • This paper reports two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid. • Both the compounds feather two-dimensional layered networks built up from paddle-wheel SBUs. • The magnetism and electrochemical property are investigated.

  13. Crystal structure of tetra­methyl­tetra­thia­fulvalenium (1S)-camphor-10-sulfonate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Mathieu; Allain, Magali; Mézière, Cécile; Pop, Flavia; Giffard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Electro-oxidation of tetra­methyl­tetra­thia­fulvalene (TMTTF) in the presence of the chiral anion (1S)-camphor-10-sulfonate (S-camphSO3 −) in tetra­hydro­furan/water medium afforded a 1/1 salt formulated as TMTTF·S-camphSO3·2H2O or 2-(4,5-dimethyl-1,3-di­thiol-2-yl­idene)-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-di­thiole radical ion (1+) [(1S)-7,7-dimethyl-2-oxobi­cyclo­[2.2.1]heptan-1-yl]methane­sulfonate dihydrate, C10H12S4 +·C10H15O4S−·2H2O. In this salt, two independent TMTTF units are present but, in both cases, the observed bond lengths and especially the central C=C distance [1.392 (6) and 1.378 (6) Å] are in agreement with a complete oxidation of TMTTF which is thus present as TMTTF. + radical cations. These cations form one-dimensional stacks in which they are associated two by two, forming dimers with short [3.472 (1) to 3.554 (2) Å] S⋯S contacts. The two S-camphSO3 anions present also form stacks and are connected with each other via the water mol­ecules with many O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds ranging from 1.86 (3) to 2.15 (4) Å; the O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network can be described as being constituted of C 2 2(6) chains bearing R 3 3(11) lateral rings. On the other hand, the columns of cations and anions are connected through C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a system expanding in three directions; finally, the result is a three-dimensional network of O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:26279858

  14. Syntheses, structures and properties of two new coordination polymers based on D-camphoric acid and 2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun, Huijie; Yang, Jinghe; Jin, Linyu; Cui, Sasa; Bai, Yanlong; Zhang, Xudong; Li, Yamin

    2015-05-01

    By hydrothermal method, two new coordination polymers [Co(ca)(phdat)]n (1), [Ni(ca)(phdat).0.125H2O]n (2) (H2ca=D-camphoric acid, phdat=2-phenyl-4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine) have been achieved and structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, X-ray single-crystal diffraction and TGA. The X-ray single-crystal diffraction reveals that compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, both of which exhibit two-dimensional layered network built up from paddle-wheel Co2(CO2)4/Ni2(CO2)4 SBUs by ca2- ligand. In the existence of π…π stacking interactions between triazine rings and phenyl rings, the 3D networks are constructed with the hanging phdat filled between the neighboring layers. Furthermore, compounds 1-2 exhibit antiferromagnetic behavior and compound 2 displays a good activity for methanol oxidation.

  15. Pyrrolidinyl-camphor derivatives as a new class of organocatalyst for direct asymmetric Michael addition of aldehydes and ketones to beta-nitroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Ting, Ying-Fang; Chang, Chihliang; Reddy, Raju Jannapu; Magar, Dhananjay R; Chen, Kwunmin

    2010-06-18

    Practical and convenient synthetic routes have been developed for the synthesis of a new class of pyrrolidinyl-camphor derivatives (7 a-h). These novel compounds were screened as catalysts for the direct Michael addition of symmetrical alpha,alpha-disubstituted aldehydes to beta-nitroalkenes. When this asymmetric transformation was catalyzed by organocatalyst 7 f, the desired Michael adducts were obtained in high chemical yields, with high to excellent stereoselectivities (up to 98:2 diastereomeric ratio (d.r.) and 99 % enantiomeric excess (ee)). The scope of the catalytic system was expanded to encompass various aldehydes and ketones as the donor sources. The synthetic application was demonstrated by the synthesis of a tetrasubstituted-cyclohexane derivative from (S)-citronellal, with high stereoselectivity.

  16. Metal-organic frameworks constructed from d-camphor acid: bifunctional properties related to luminescence sensing and liquid-phase separation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Lili; Xu, Xiaoyue; Lv, Kangle; Huang, Yumei; Zheng, Xiaofang; Zhou, Li; Sun, Renqiang; Li, Dongfeng

    2015-02-25

    Three metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [M2(d-cam)2(bimb)2]n · 3.5nH2O (M = Mn for 1, Co for 2) and [Cd8(d-cam)8(bimb)4]n (3) (d-H2cam = d-camphor acid, bimb = 4,4'-bis(1-imidazolyl)biphenyl), solvothermally synthesized, exhibit structural diversity. The charming aspect of these frameworks is that compound 3 is the very first MOF-based sensor for quantitatively detecting three different types of analytes (metal ions, aromatic molecules, and pesticides). And also, both compounds 2 and 3 show rapid uptake and ready regeneration for methyl orange (MO) and can selectively bind MO over methylene blue (MB) with high MO/MB separation ratio.

  17. Effects of dimerization on the photoelectron angular distribution parameters from chiral camphor enantiomers obtained with circularly polarized vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahon, Laurent; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Soldi-Lose, Héloïse; Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan

    2010-09-01

    As an intermediate state of matter between the free monomeric gas phase and the solid state, clusters may exhibit a specific electronic structure and photoionization dynamics that can be unraveled by different types of electron spectroscopies. From mass-selected ion yield scans measured for photoionization of (R)-camphor, the ionization potentials (IPs) of the monomer (8.66±0.01 eV), and of the homochiral dimer (⩽8.37±0.01 eV) and trimer (⩽8.30±0.01 eV) were obtained. These spectra, combined with threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and velocity map ion imaging, allow us to show that the camphor monomer and dimer photoionization channels are decoupled, i.e., that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the dimer does not undergo a dissociative ionization process that would lead to a spurious contribution to the monomer ion channel. Therefore mass selection, as achieved in our imaging photoelectron-photoion coincidence experiments, leads to size selection of the nascent monomer or dimer species. Since both the monomer and dimer are chiral, their photoelectron angular distribution (PAD) not only involves the usual β anisotropy parameter but also a chiral asymmetry parameter b1 that can generate a forward-backward asymmetry in the PAD. This has been investigated using circularly polarized light (CPL) to record the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the near-threshold vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization region. Analysis of size-selected electron images recorded with left- and right-handed CPL shows that over the first 1.5 eV above the HOMO orbital ionization potentials (IPs), the β parameter is not affected by the dimerization process, while the chiral b1 parameter shows clear differences between the monomer and the dimer, confirming that PECD is a subtle long-range probe of the molecular potential.

  18. Broad range of inhibiting action of novel camphor-based compound with anti-hemagglutinin activity against influenza viruses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zarubaev, V V; Garshinina, A V; Tretiak, T S; Fedorova, V A; Shtro, A A; Sokolova, A S; Yarovaya, O I; Salakhutdinov, N F

    2015-08-01

    Influenza virus continues to remain one of the leading human respiratory pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality around the globe. Due to short-term life cycle and high rate of mutations influenza virus is able to rapidly develop resistance to clinically available antivirals. This makes necessary the search and development of new drugs with different targets and mechanisms of activity. Here we report anti-influenza activity of camphor derivative 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylidene-aminoethanol (camphecene). In in vitro experiments it inhibited influenza viruses A(H1, H1pdm09, H3 and H5 subtypes) and B with EC50's lying in micromolar range. Due to low cytotoxicity it resulted in high selectivity indices (74-661 depending on the virus). This effect did not depend on susceptibility or resistance of the viruses to adamantane derivatives amantadine and rimantadine. The compound appeared the most effective when added at the early stages of viral life cycle (0-2h p.i.). In direct hemagglutinin inhibition tests camphecene was shown to decrease the activity of HA's of influenza viruses A and B. The activity of camphecene was further confirmed in experiments with influenza virus-infected mice, in which, being used orally by therapeutic schedule (once a day, days 1-5 p.i.) it decreased specific mortality of animals infected with both influenza A and B viruses (highest indices of protection 66.7% and 88.9%, respectively). Taken together, these results are encouraging for further development of camphecene-based drug(s) and for exploration of camphor derivatives as highly prospective group of potential antivirals. PMID:26072310

  19. In-situ and real-time investigation of the columnar-equiaxed transition in the transparent alloy system neopentylglycol-camphor onboard the sounding rocket TEXUS-47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturz, L.; Zimmermann, G.

    2011-12-01

    The low-gravity experiment TRACE (TRansparent Alloys in Columnar Equiaxed solidification) has been performed onboard the sounding rocket TEXUS-47 to enable the investigation of dendritic growth and the dendrites' columnar to equiaxed transition during solidification. Low-gravity conditions provide solidification under diffusive heat and mass transfer conditions and without sedimentation or buoyancy of equiaxed dendrites or nucleation seeds to simplify the boundary conditions for dendritic microstructure simulation. In addition the transparent organic alloy system Neopentylglycol (NPG) - (D)Camphor (DC) was used to allow for a real-time and in-situ observation of the microstructure evolution with standard optics. For the flight experiment all relevant experimental parameters like thermal gradient, solidification velocity and undercooling within the bulk liquid and at the columnar dendritic tips have been determined by image analysis or from thermocouple recordings within the solidifying alloy. This allows a very detailed comparison with results of existing models for dendritic growth and for columnar-to-equiaxed transition. Here we present a summary of the experimental findings in comparison with results of some of the theoretical models.

  20. Camphor Pathway Redux: Functional Recombinant Expression of 2,5- and 3,6-Diketocamphane Monooxygenases of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453 with Their Cognate Flavin Reductase Catalyzing Baeyer-Villiger Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Iwaki, Hiroaki; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Leisch, Hannes; Morley, Krista; Hasegawa, Yoshie

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the biochemical properties of the monooxygenase components that catalyze the oxidation of 2,5-diketocamphane and 3,6-diketocamphane (2,5-DKCMO and 3,6-DKCMO, respectively) in the initial catabolic steps of (+) and (−) isomeric forms of camphor (CAM) metabolism in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453 are relatively well characterized, the actual identity of the flavin reductase (Fred) component that provides the reduced flavin to the oxygenases has hitherto been ill defined. In this study, a 37-kDa Fred was purified from a camphor-induced culture of P. putida ATCC 17453 and this facilitated cloning and characterization of the requisite protein. The active Fred is a homodimer with a subunit molecular weight of 18,000 that uses NADH as an electron donor (Km = 32 μM), and it catalyzes the reduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) (Km = 3.6 μM; kcat = 283 s−1) in preference to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (Km = 19 μM; kcat = 128 s−1). Sequence determination of ∼40 kb of the CAM degradation plasmid revealed the locations of two isofunctional 2,5-DKCMO genes (camE25–1 for 2,5-DKCMO-1 and camE25–2 for 2,5-DKCMO-2) as well as that of a 3,6-DKCMO-encoding gene (camE36). In addition, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the CAM plasmid was established to be linear and ∼533 kb in length. To enable functional assessment of the two-component monooxygenase system in Baeyer-Villiger oxidations, recombinant plasmids expressing Fred in tandem with the respective 2,5-DKCMO- and 3,6-DKCMO-encoding genes in Escherichia coli were constructed. Comparative substrate profiling of the isofunctional 2,5-DCKMOs did not yield obvious differences in Baeyer-Villiger biooxidations, but they are distinct from 3,6-DKCMO in the stereoselective oxygenations with various mono- and bicyclic ketone substrates. PMID:23524667

  1. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands national park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A; Alvarez, David A; Garrison, Virginia H

    2015-12-15

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r(2)=0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present. PMID:26581812

  2. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands National Park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Alvarez, David; Garrison, Virginia H.

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r2 = 0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present.

  3. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands national park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Bargar, Timothy A; Alvarez, David A; Garrison, Virginia H

    2015-12-15

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r(2)=0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present.

  4. Optimization and validation of liquid chromatography and headspace-gas chromatography based methods for the quantitative determination of capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, glycol monosalicylate, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, camphor and l-menthol in a topical formulation.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Jochen; D'Autry, Ward; Van den Bossche, Larissa; Dewever, Cédric; Forier, Michel; Vandenwaeyenberg, Stephanie; Wolfs, Kris; Hoogmartens, Jos; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2012-02-23

    Capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, methyl and ethyl salicylate, glycol monosalicylate, camphor and l-menthol are widely used in topical formulations to relieve local pain. For each separate compound or simple mixtures, quantitative analysis methods are reported. However, for a mixture containing all above mentioned active compounds, no assay methods were found. Due to the differing physicochemical characteristics, two methods were developed and optimized simultaneously. The non-volatile capsaicinoids, salicylic acid and glycol monosalicylate were analyzed with liquid chromatography following liquid-liquid extraction, whereas the volatile compounds were analyzed with static headspace-gas chromatography. For the latter method, liquid paraffin was selected as compatible dilution solvent. The optimized methods were validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision in a range of 80% to 120% of the expected concentrations. For both methods, peaks were well separated without interference of other compounds. Linear relationships were demonstrated with R² values higher than 0.996 for all compounds. Accuracy was assessed by performing replicate recovery experiments with spiked blank samples. Mean recovery values were all between 98% and 102%. Precision was checked at three levels: system repeatability, method precision and intermediate precision. Both methods were found to be acceptably precise at all three levels. Finally, the method was successfully applied to the analysis of some real samples (cutaneous sticks). PMID:22094014

  5. Cloning, Baeyer-Villiger Biooxidations, and Structures of the Camphor Pathway 2-Oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-Trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-Coenzyme A Monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453

    PubMed Central

    Leisch, Hannes; Shi, Rong; Grosse, Stephan; Morley, Krista; Bergeron, Hélène; Cygler, Miroslaw; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    A dimeric Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) catalyzing the lactonization of 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), a key intermediate in the metabolism of camphor by Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453, had been initially characterized in 1983 by Ougham and coworkers (H. J. Ougham, D. G. Taylor, and P. W. Trudgill, J. Bacteriol. 153:140–152, 1983). Here we cloned and overexpressed the 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA monooxygenase (OTEMO) in Escherichia coli and determined its three-dimensional structure with bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) at a 1.95-Å resolution as well as with bound FAD and NADP+ at a 2.0-Å resolution. OTEMO represents the first homodimeric type 1 BVMO structure bound to FAD/NADP+. A comparison of several crystal forms of OTEMO bound to FAD and NADP+ revealed a conformational plasticity of several loop regions, some of which have been implicated in contributing to the substrate specificity profile of structurally related BVMOs. Substrate specificity studies confirmed that the 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid coenzyme A ester is preferred over the free acid. However, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) favors 2-n-hexyl cyclopentanone (4.3 × 105 M−1 s−1) as a substrate, although its affinity (Km = 32 μM) was lower than that of the CoA-activated substrate (Km = 18 μM). In whole-cell biotransformation experiments, OTEMO showed a unique enantiocomplementarity to the action of the prototypical cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) and appeared to be particularly useful for the oxidation of 4-substituted cyclohexanones. Overall, this work extends our understanding of the molecular structure and mechanistic complexity of the type 1 family of BVMOs and expands the catalytic repertoire of one of its original members. PMID:22267661

  6. What is the active species of cytochrome P450 during camphor hydroxylation? QM/MM studies of different electronic states of compound I and of reduced and oxidized iron-oxo intermediates.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ahmet; Shaik, Sason; Thiel, Walter

    2007-07-25

    We have investigated C-H hydroxylation of camphor by Compound I (Cpd I) of cytochrome P450cam in different electronic states and by its one-electron reduced and oxidized forms, using QM/MM calculations in the native protein/solvent environment. Cpd I species with five unpaired electrons (pentaradicaloids) are ca. 12 kcal/mol higher in energy than the ground state Cpd I species with three unpaired electrons (triradicaloids). The H-abstraction transition states of pentaradicaloids lie ca. 21 (9) kcal/mol above the triradicaloid (pentaradicaloid) reactants. Hydroxylation via pentaradicaloids is thus facile provided that they can react before relaxing to the ground-state triradicaloids. Excited states of Cpd I with an Fe(V)-oxo moiety lie more than 20 kcal/mol above the triradicaloid ground state in single-point gas-phase calculations, but these electronic configurations are not stable upon including the point-charge protein environment which causes SCF convergence to the triradicaloid ground state. One-electron reduced species (Cpd II) show sluggish reactivity compared with Cpd I in agreement with experimental model studies. One-electron oxidized species are more reactive than Cpd I but seem too high in energy to be accessible. The barriers to hydrogen abstraction for the various forms of Cpd I are generally not affected much by the chosen protonation states of the Asp297 and His355 residues near the propionate side chains of the heme or by the appearance of radical character at Asp297, His355, or the propionates. PMID:17595079

  7. Comparison of Individual and Combined Effects of Four Endocrine Disruptors on Estrogen Receptor Beta Transcription in Cerebellar Cell Culture: The Modulatory Role of Estradiol and Triiodo-Thyronine

    PubMed Central

    Jocsak, Gergely; Kiss, David Sandor; Toth, Istvan; Goszleth, Greta; Bartha, Tibor; Frenyo, Laszlo V.; Horvath, Tamas L.; Zsarnovszky, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans and animals are continuously exposed to a number of environmental substances that act as endocrine disruptors (EDs). While a growing body of evidence is available to prove their adverse health effects, very little is known about the consequences of simultaneous exposure to a combination of such chemicals; Methods: Here, we used an in vitro model to demonstrate how exposure to bisphenol A, zearalenone, arsenic, and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, alone or in combination, affect estrogen receptor β (ERβ) mRNA expression in primary cerebellar cell cultures. Additionally, we also show the modulatory role of intrinsic biological factors, such as estradiol (E2), triiodo-thyronine (T3), and glial cells, as potential effect modulators; Results: Results show a wide diversity in ED effects on ERβ mRNA expression, and that the magnitude of these ED effects highly depends on the presence or absence of E2, T3, and glial cells; Conclusion: The observed potency of the EDs to influence ERβ mRNA expression, and the modulatory role of E2, T3, and the glia suggests that environmental ED effects may be masked as long as the hormonal milieu is physiological, but may tend to turn additive or superadditive in case of hormone deficiency. PMID:27338438

  8. Development and application of a HPLC method for eight sunscreen agents in suncare products.

    PubMed

    Peruchi, L M; Rath, S

    2012-06-01

    This work describes the development, validation and application of a simple and fast high-performance liquid chromatography-with diode array dectection (HPLC-DAD) method for the determination of eight sunscreen agents: benzophenone-3, octocrylene, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, ethylhexyl salicylate, homosalate (used in two isomeric forms), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA in sunscreen formulations. The separation of the eight sunscreen compounds was achieved using an ACE C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with a column temperature 20°C, and a mobile phase of 88 : 12 (v/v) methanol-water with isocratic elution. Column temperature strongly influences the retention time and resolution of the compounds. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min(-1) and quantitation was performed by external calibration at the maximum wavelength of each compound. The sample preparation was simple and consisted basically of sample dilution with methanol, centrifugation and filtration in syringe filters before quantitation. Total run time was 18 min. The method was validated according to the parameters: linear range, linearity, selectivity, intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy. Ten samples of sunscreen emulsions commercially available in Brazil (SPF 30) from different manufacturers were analysed using the proposed method. The number of the sunscreen agents varied between one and five in a single sample. The concentrations of all compounds were in the range of 0.9-10% (w/w) and were in accordance with the current Brazilian legislation.

  9. Organic UV filters inhibit multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) activity in Tetrahymena thermophila: investigations by the Rhodamine 123 accumulation assay and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Yuan, Tao; Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Chuanqi; Ao, Junjie; Wang, Wenhua; Zhang, Haimou

    2016-09-01

    Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) transporters, which belong to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family proteins, are present in living organisms as a first line of defense system against xenobiotics and environmental contaminants. The effects of six organic UV filters (4-methyl -benzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; benzophenone-3, BP-3; butyl methoxydibenzoyl-methane, BM-DBM; ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC and homosalate, HMS) on multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in Tetrahymena thermophila were investigated in this study. It was found that 4-MBC, BP-3 and BM-DBM could significantly inhibit activity of the MXR system, causing concentration dependent accumulation of rhodamine 123; while EHMC, OC and HMS had weak MXR inhibition. The IC50 (50 % inhibition concentration) values of 4-MBC, BP-3 and BM-DBM were 23.54, 40.59 and 26.37 μM, respectively, with inhibitory potentials of 23.1, 13.4 and 20.6 % relative to verapamil (VER, a model inhibitor of P-glycoprotein). Our results firstly provide the evidence for UV filters inhibition effect on MXR in aquatic organisms. In addition, it was revealed by molecular docking analysis that the selected six UV filters can occupy the same binding site on T. thermophila P-gp as VER does; and form H-bonds with residues Ser 328 and/or Asn 281. This study raises the awareness of aquatic ecological risk from the organic UV filters exposure, as they would be involved in potentiating toxic effects by chemosensitizing. PMID:27315091

  10. Collective Motion and Phase Transitions of Symmetric Camphor Boats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisler, Eric; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku

    2012-07-01

    The motion of several self-propelled boats in a narrow channel displays spontaneous pattern formation and kinetic phase transitions. In contrast with previous studies on self-propelled particles, this model does not require stochastic fluctuations and it is experimentally accessible. By varying the viscosity in the system, it is possible to form either a stationary state, correlated or uncorrelated oscillations, or unidirectional flow. Here, we describe and analyze these self organized patterns and their transitions.

  11. Vacuum thermal evaporation of polyaniline doped with camphor sulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Boyne, Devon; Menegazzo, Nicola; Pupillo, Rachel C.; Rosenthal, Joel; Booksh, Karl S.

    2015-05-15

    Intrinsically conducting polymers belong to a class of organic polymers with intriguing electronic and physical properties specifically for electro-optical applications. Significant interest into doped polyaniline (PAni) can be attributed to its high conductivity and environmental stability. Poor dissolution in most solvents has thus far hindered the successful integration of PAni into commercial applications, which in turn, has led to the investigations of various deposition and acidic doping methods. Physical vapor deposition methods, including D.C. magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation, have shown exceptional control over physical film properties (thickness and morphology). However, resulting films are less conductive than films deposited by conventional methods (i.e., spin and drop casting) due to interruption of the hyperconjugation of polymer chains. Specifically, vacuum thermal evaporation requires a postdoping process, which results in incorporation of impurities and oxidation of surface moieties. In this contribution, thermally evaporated films, sequentially doped by vacuum evaporation of an organic acid (camphorsulfonic acid, CSA) is explored. Spectroscopic evidence confirms the successful doping of PAni with CSA while physical characterization (atomic force microscopy) suggests films retain good morphology and are not damaged by the doping process. The procedure presented herein also combines other postpreparation methods in an attempt to improve conductivity and/or substrate adhesion.

  12. ZnO nanoparticles and organic chemical UV-filters are equally well tolerated by human immune cells.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Sean J; Feltis, Bryce N; Piva, Terrence J; Turney, Terence W; Wright, Paul F A

    2016-11-01

    An important part of assessing the toxic potential of nanoparticles for specific applications should be the direct comparison of biological activities with those of alternative materials for the same application. Nanoparticulate inorganic ultraviolet (UV) filters, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), are commonly incorporated into transparent sunscreen and cosmetic formulations. However, concerns have been raised about potential unwanted effects, despite their negligible skin penetration and inherent advantages over organic chemical UV-filters. To provide useful application-relevant assessments of their potential hazard with/without UVA co-exposure, we directly compared cytotoxic and immune response profiles of human THP-1 monocytic cells to ZnO nanoparticles (30 nm) with bulk ZnO particulates (200 nm) and five conventional organic chemical UV-filters - butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone), octylmethoxycinnamate, octylsalicylate, homosalate and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor. High exposure concentrations of both organic and particulate UV-filters were required to cause cytotoxicity in monocyte and macrophage cultures after 24 h. Co-exposure with UVA (6.7 J/cm(2)) did not alter cytotoxicity profiles. Particle surface area-based dose responses showed that ZnO NPs were better tolerated than bulk ZnO. Organic and particulate UV-filters increased apoptosis at similar doses. Only particulates increased the generation of reactive oxygen species. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) release was increased by all particulates, avobenzone, homosalate and octylsalicylate. IL-1β release was only increased in macrophages by exposure to avobenzone and homosalate. In conclusion, direct effects were caused in monocytes and macrophages at similar concentrations of both organic UV-filters and ZnO nanoparticulates - indicating that their intrinsic cytotoxicity is similar. With their lower skin penetration, ZnO nanoparticles are expected to have lower bioactivity when used in sunscreens. PMID:27345703

  13. Exposure patterns of UV filters, fragrances, parabens, phthalates, organochlor pesticides, PBDEs, and PCBs in human milk: correlation of UV filters with use of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Schlumpf, Margret; Kypke, Karin; Wittassek, Matthias; Angerer, Juergen; Mascher, Hermann; Mascher, Daniel; Vökt, Cora; Birchler, Monika; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2010-11-01

    In order to assess potential risks of exposure to environmental chemicals, more information on concomitant exposure to different chemicals is needed. We present data on chemicals in human milk of a cohort study (2004, 2005, 2006) of 54 mother/child pairs, where for the first time, cosmetic UV filters, synthetic musks, parabens and phthalate metabolites were analyzed in the same sample along with persistent organochlor pollutants (POPs), i.e., organochlor pesticides and metabolites, polybrominated diphenylethers and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The two groups of chemicals exhibited different exposure patterns. Six out of seven PCB congeners and a majority of pesticides were present in all milk samples, with significant correlations between certain PCB congener and pesticide levels, whereas the cosmetic-derived compounds, UV filters, parabens and synthetic musks, exhibited a more variable exposure pattern with inter-individual differences. UV filters were present in 85.2% of milk samples, in the range of PCB levels. Comparison with a questionnaire revealed a significant correlation between use of products containing UV filters and their presence in milk for two frequently used and detected UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and octocrylene, and for the whole group of UV filters. Concentrations of PCBs and organochlor pesticides were within ranges seen in Western and Southern European countries. For several POPs, mean and/or maximum daily intake calculated from individual concentrations was above recent US EPA reference dose values. Our data emphasize the need for analyses of complex mixtures to obtain more information on inter-individual and temporal variability of human exposure to different types of chemicals.

  14. ZnO nanoparticles and organic chemical UV-filters are equally well tolerated by human immune cells.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Sean J; Feltis, Bryce N; Piva, Terrence J; Turney, Terence W; Wright, Paul F A

    2016-11-01

    An important part of assessing the toxic potential of nanoparticles for specific applications should be the direct comparison of biological activities with those of alternative materials for the same application. Nanoparticulate inorganic ultraviolet (UV) filters, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), are commonly incorporated into transparent sunscreen and cosmetic formulations. However, concerns have been raised about potential unwanted effects, despite their negligible skin penetration and inherent advantages over organic chemical UV-filters. To provide useful application-relevant assessments of their potential hazard with/without UVA co-exposure, we directly compared cytotoxic and immune response profiles of human THP-1 monocytic cells to ZnO nanoparticles (30 nm) with bulk ZnO particulates (200 nm) and five conventional organic chemical UV-filters - butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (avobenzone), octylmethoxycinnamate, octylsalicylate, homosalate and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor. High exposure concentrations of both organic and particulate UV-filters were required to cause cytotoxicity in monocyte and macrophage cultures after 24 h. Co-exposure with UVA (6.7 J/cm(2)) did not alter cytotoxicity profiles. Particle surface area-based dose responses showed that ZnO NPs were better tolerated than bulk ZnO. Organic and particulate UV-filters increased apoptosis at similar doses. Only particulates increased the generation of reactive oxygen species. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) release was increased by all particulates, avobenzone, homosalate and octylsalicylate. IL-1β release was only increased in macrophages by exposure to avobenzone and homosalate. In conclusion, direct effects were caused in monocytes and macrophages at similar concentrations of both organic UV-filters and ZnO nanoparticulates - indicating that their intrinsic cytotoxicity is similar. With their lower skin penetration, ZnO nanoparticles are expected to have lower bioactivity when used in sunscreens.

  15. Campho-Phenique overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Campho-Phenique contains both camphor and phenol. For information on products containing camphor alone, see camphor overdose . ... Both camphor and phenol are in Campho-Phenique. However, camphor and phenol may be found separately in other products.

  16. Occurrence, fate and ecotoxicological risk of personal care products in urban river-groundwater interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Anna; Pau Serra, Maria; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Barceló, Damià

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the occurrence and fate of selected personal care products (PCPs) in the urban river-groundwater interface. To this end, urban groundwater and river samples were collected in Sant Adrià del Besòs (NE of Spain) and a total of 16 PCPs were analyzed including benzophenone derivatives, camphor derivatives, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, triazoles and parabens in three different campaigns (from May 2010 to July 2014). These compounds reach the aquifer through the recharge of River Besòs that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants. Results shown that most of compounds were not or barely detected (maximum concentrations around 30 ng/L) in groundwater samples during the different sampling campaigns. Only two triazoles, named as benzotriazole (BZT) and methyl benzotriazol (MeBZT) were found at high concentrations in groundwater samples (maximum concentration around 2000 ng/L). The fate of PCPs in the aquifer was assessed using mixing analysis considering the temporal variability of the River Besòs. Overall, measured groundwater concentrations were significantly much lower than those estimated by the mixing of the river water. This observation suggested that most of the PCPs are naturally removed when river water infiltrates the aquifer. However, some compounds were more persistent in the aquifer. These compounds were in descending order: the triazoles MeBZT and BZT followed by the camphor derivative 4MBC. The measured concentrations allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by the selected UV-Fs (e.g. benzophenone derivatives) in the river-groundwater samples. Hazard Quotients (HQs) for diferent aquatic species were calculated in order to characterise the ecotoxicity potential of the studied compounds in the river-groundwater interface. HQ values will be presented and discussed in the presentation.

  17. Sunscreens: are they beneficial for health? An overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV-filters.

    PubMed

    Krause, M; Klit, A; Blomberg Jensen, M; Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Schlumpf, M; Lichtensteiger, W; Skakkebaek, N E; Drzewiecki, K T

    2012-06-01

    Today, topical application of sunscreens, containing ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters), is preferred protection against adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation. Evidently, use of sunscreens is effective in prevention of sunburns in various models. However, evidence for their protective effects against melanoma skin cancer is less conclusive. Three important observations prompted us to review the animal data and human studies on possible side effects of selected chemical UV-filters in cosmetics. (1) the utilization of sunscreens with UV-filters is increasing worldwide; (2) the incidence of the malignant disorder for which sunscreens should protect, malignant melanoma, is rapidly increasing and (3) an increasing number of experimental studies indicating that several UV-filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. The selected UV-filters we review in this article are benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxy cinnamate (OMC), Homosalate (HMS), 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA) and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The potential adverse effects induced by UV-filters in experimental animals include reproductive/developmental toxicity and disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT). Few human studies have investigated potential side effects of UV-filters, although human exposure is high as UV-filters in sunscreens are rapidly absorbed from the skin. One of the UV-filters, BP-3, has been found in 96% of urine samples in the US and several UV-filters in 85% of Swiss breast milk samples. It seems pertinent to evaluate whether exposure to UV-filters contribute to possible adverse effects on the developing organs of foetuses and children. PMID:22612478

  18. Occurrence, fate and risk assessment of personal care products in river-groundwater interface.

    PubMed

    Serra-Roig, Maria Pau; Jurado, Anna; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Barceló, Damià

    2016-10-15

    This work presents the occurrence and fate of selected personal care products (PCPs) in the urban river-groundwater interface. To this end, urban river and groundwater samples were collected in Sant Adrià del Besòs (NE of Spain) and a total of 16 PCPs were analyzed including benzophenone derivatives, camphor derivatives, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, triazoles and parabens in three different campaigns (from May 2010 to July 2014). These compounds reach the aquifer through the recharge of Besòs River that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants. Results have shown that most of the compounds were not or barely detected (maximum concentrations around 200ng/L) in groundwater samples during the different sampling campaigns. Only two triazoles, namely benzotriazole (BZT) and methyl benzotriazol (MeBZT) were found at high concentrations in groundwater samples (maximum concentration around 2000ng/L). The fate of PCPs in the aquifer was assessed using mixing analysis considering the seasonal variability of the Besòs River. Overall, measured groundwater concentrations were significantly much lower than those estimated by the mixing of the river water. This observation suggested that most of the PCPs are naturally removed when river water infiltrates the aquifer. However, some compounds were more persistent in the aquifer. These compounds were in descending order: the triazoles BZT and MeBZT followed by the camphor derivative 4MBC and the paraben MePB. The measured concentrations allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by the selected UV-filters and parabens in the river and groundwater samples. Hazard Quotients (HQs) for different aquatic species were calculated in order to characterize the ecotoxicity potential of the studied compounds in the river-groundwater interface. HQ values were always below 1 indicating that at the concentrations observed in the surface or aquifer water of Besòs River these compounds pose no risk to

  19. Occurrence, fate and risk assessment of personal care products in river-groundwater interface.

    PubMed

    Serra-Roig, Maria Pau; Jurado, Anna; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Barceló, Damià

    2016-10-15

    This work presents the occurrence and fate of selected personal care products (PCPs) in the urban river-groundwater interface. To this end, urban river and groundwater samples were collected in Sant Adrià del Besòs (NE of Spain) and a total of 16 PCPs were analyzed including benzophenone derivatives, camphor derivatives, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, triazoles and parabens in three different campaigns (from May 2010 to July 2014). These compounds reach the aquifer through the recharge of Besòs River that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants. Results have shown that most of the compounds were not or barely detected (maximum concentrations around 200ng/L) in groundwater samples during the different sampling campaigns. Only two triazoles, namely benzotriazole (BZT) and methyl benzotriazol (MeBZT) were found at high concentrations in groundwater samples (maximum concentration around 2000ng/L). The fate of PCPs in the aquifer was assessed using mixing analysis considering the seasonal variability of the Besòs River. Overall, measured groundwater concentrations were significantly much lower than those estimated by the mixing of the river water. This observation suggested that most of the PCPs are naturally removed when river water infiltrates the aquifer. However, some compounds were more persistent in the aquifer. These compounds were in descending order: the triazoles BZT and MeBZT followed by the camphor derivative 4MBC and the paraben MePB. The measured concentrations allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by the selected UV-filters and parabens in the river and groundwater samples. Hazard Quotients (HQs) for different aquatic species were calculated in order to characterize the ecotoxicity potential of the studied compounds in the river-groundwater interface. HQ values were always below 1 indicating that at the concentrations observed in the surface or aquifer water of Besòs River these compounds pose no risk to

  20. Antitumor Compounds from the Stout Camphor Mushroom Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Spent Culture Broth.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Bai, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Zhong; Feng, Na; Feng, Jie; Yan, Meng-Qiu; Zhu, Li-Na; Jia, Xin-Cheng; Wang, Ming-Dao; Zhang, Jing-song; Fan, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A known compound, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furan-2-carbaldehyde, and a novel compound, 3-isobutyl-1-methoxy-4-(4'-(3-methylbut-2-enyloxy)phenyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione were isolated from spent broth from submerged cultures of Taiwanofungus camphoratus. Their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C, and 2D) and mass spectra. These compounds inhibited the proliferation of K562 and HepG2 tumor cells in vitro.

  1. Separation of Americium from Europium using Camphor-BisTriazinyl Pyridine: A Fundamental Study

    DOE PAGES

    Tevepaugh, Kayron N.; Carrick, Jesse D.; Tai, Serene; Coonce, Janet G.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Ensor, Dale D.

    2015-10-27

    Among the different components present in spent nuclear fuel, long-lived trivalent actinides are particularly difficult to separate from the shorter-lived lanthanide fission products due to their similar chemical properties. We achieved selective extraction of americium from acidic solution (up to 2M HNO3) containing tenth molar quantities of lanthanides using neutral pyridine-based ligands dissolved in polar diluents. Nitrogen-based Bis Triazinyl Pyridine (BTP) ligands are desirable for both their excellent An/Ln selectivity and incinerability. Our results pertaining to ligand solubility, kinetics, hydrolytic stability, and extraction performance in various nitric acid environments are presented.

  2. Separation of Americium from Europium using Camphor-BisTriazinyl Pyridine: A Fundamental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tevepaugh, Kayron N.; Carrick, Jesse D.; Tai, Serene; Coonce, Janet G.; Delmau, Lætitia H.; Ensor, Dale D.

    2015-10-27

    Among the different components present in spent nuclear fuel, long-lived trivalent actinides are particularly difficult to separate from the shorter-lived lanthanide fission products due to their similar chemical properties. We achieved selective extraction of americium from acidic solution (up to 2M HNO3) containing tenth molar quantities of lanthanides using neutral pyridine-based ligands dissolved in polar diluents. Nitrogen-based Bis Triazinyl Pyridine (BTP) ligands are desirable for both their excellent An/Ln selectivity and incinerability. Our results pertaining to ligand solubility, kinetics, hydrolytic stability, and extraction performance in various nitric acid environments are presented.

  3. Fast synthesis of multilayer carbon nanotubes from camphor oil as an energy storage material.

    PubMed

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  4. Fast synthesis of multilayer carbon nanotubes from camphor oil as an energy storage material.

    PubMed

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs. PMID:25258714

  5. Occurrence and behavior of four of the most used sunscreen UV filters in a wastewater reclamation plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihong; Ma, Yongmin; Guo, Changsheng; Hu, Wei; Liu, Keming; Wang, Yuqiu; Zhu, Tan

    2007-08-01

    Four UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 4-methylbenzylidence camphor (4-MBC), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), and octocrylene (OC), have been examined along the different units of a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) located in Tianjin, North China. The analytical procedure included solid-phase extraction and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analyses. All four UV filters were detected in the influent during the three sampling campaigns (February, July, and September), and the concentrations ranged from 34 to 2128 ng L(-1). The concentrations of the four UV filters were higher in hot weather (July and September) than in cool weather (February). The monthly average removal ranged from 7.6% to 21% for the selected UV filters during coagulation-flocculation (C-F) treatment. The ozonation treatment achieved the maximum removal (16-28%); on the contrary, the continuous microfiltration (CMF) achieved the lowest removal (3.6-8.2%). The total removal efficiencies along the plant varied from 28% to 43%. These results indicate that the UV filters are not completely removed during WWRP treatment and may be carried over into the environment during the reuse applications.

  6. Phase-field modeling of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition in neopentylglycol-camphor alloy solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viardin, A.; Sturz, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Apel, M.

    2011-12-01

    We have performed phase field simulations in order to explore the effect of equiaxed grain nucleation undercooling on the columnar to equiaxed transition "CET" in the NPG-DC alloy system. Our phase field model is based on the multiphase-field method. The simulation parameters are adapted to a microgravity experiment performed under purely diffusive growth conditions. The experimental investigation is made during the sounding rocket campaign TEXUS-47.

  7. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene.

  8. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Energy of Solid Succinonitrile in Equilibrium with Succinonitrile-(D)Camphor-Aminomethylpropanediol Eutectic Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, Pınar; Karamazı, Yasin; Bayram, Ümit; Aksöz, Sezen; Keşlioğlu, Kazım; Maraşlı, Necmettin

    2016-01-01

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid SCN in equilibrium with the eutectic liquid SCN-15.6 mol% DC-2.1 mol% AMPD have been directly observed by using a horizontal linear temperature gradient apparatus. The ratio of the thermal conductivity of the equilibrated liquid to the thermal conductivity of solid SCN has also been determined to be 0.89. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes and measured thermal conductivity ratio, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient ({{\\varGamma }}), solid-liquid interfacial energy (σ _{SL}), and the grain boundary energy (σ _{gb}) have been determined to be (5.43 ± 0.54)× 10^{-8} K{\\cdot } m, (8.53 ± 1.28) × 10^{-3} J {\\cdot } m^{-2}, and (13.36 ± 2.14) × 10^{-3} J{\\cdot } m^{-2}, respectively, for equilibrated solid SCN in equilibrium with the eutectic liquid (SCN-15.6 mol% DC-2.1 mol% AMPD).

  9. Ultrasound-mediated synthesis of camphoric acid-based chiral salens for the enantioselective trimethylsilylcyanation of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Serra, Maria E Silva; Murtinho, Dina; Goth, Albertino; Rocha Gonsalves, António M D'A; Abreu, Paulo E; Pais, Alberto A C C

    2010-05-01

    New chiral salen ligands were prepared by the ultrasound-irradiated condensation of optically active (1R, 3S)-1,2,2-trimethyl-1,3-diaminocyclopentane with aromatic 1-hydroxyaldehydes. The ultrasound-mediated process is more convenient due to shorter reaction times, energy economy, and easier isolation of the products. The in situ formed Ti(IV)(salen) complexes, evaluated as catalysts in the enantioselective trimethylsilylcyanation of benzaldehyde, were found to be efficient for this process, originating the corresponding product in high yields (72-99%) and selectivities of up to 79%. The lowest energy transition states were determined by computational studies. These results were in qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed ones. PMID:19603482

  10. Origins and evolution of cinnamon and camphor: A phylogenetic and historical biogeographical analysis of the Cinnamomum group (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Li, Lang; van der Werff, Henk; Li, Hsi-Wen; Rohwer, Jens G; Crayn, Darren M; Meng, Hong-Hu; van der Merwe, Marlien; Conran, John G; Li, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction is among the most fascinating distribution patterns, but received little attention. Here we use the fossil-rich Cinnamomum group, a primarily tropical and subtropical Asian lineage with some species distributed in Neotropics, Australasia and Africa to shed light upon this disjunction pattern. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses were carried out using sequences of three nuclear loci from 94 Cinnamomum group and 13 outgroup samples. Results show that although there are three clades within a monophyletic Cinnamomum group, Cinnamomum and previously recognized subdivisions within this genus were all rejected as natural groups. The Cinnamomum group appears to have originated in the widespread boreotropical paleoflora of Laurasia during the early Eocene (ca. 55Ma). The formation and breakup of the boreotropics seems to have then played a key role in the formation of intercontinental disjunctions within the Cinnamomum group. The first cooling interval (50-48Ma) in the late early Eocene resulted in a floristic discontinuity between Eurasia and North America causing the tropical and subtropical amphi-Pacific disjunction. The second cooling interval in the mid-Eocene (42-38Ma) resulted in the fragmentation of the boreotropics within Eurasia, leading to an African-Asian disjunction. Multiple dispersal events from North into South America occurred from the early Eocene to late Miocene and a single migration event from Asia into Australia appears to have occurred in the early Miocene. PMID:26718058

  11. Introducing Organic Chemistry Students to Natural Product Isolation Using Steam Distillation and Liquid Phase Extraction of Thymol, Camphor, and Citral, Monoterpenes Sharing a Unified Biosynthetic Precursor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Katherine A.; Miller, Kenneth A.; Collins, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have provided and continue to provide the inspiration and foundation for modern medicines. Natural product isolation is a key component of the process of drug discovery from plants. The purpose of this experiment is to introduce first semester undergraduate organic chemistry students, who have relatively few lab techniques at their…

  12. 21 CFR 216.24 - Drug products withdrawn or removed from the market for reasons of safety or effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Bromfenac sodium: All drug products containing bromfenac sodium. Butamben: All parenteral drug products containing butamben. Camphorated oil: All drug products containing camphorated oil. Carbetapentane citrate: All oral gel drug products containing carbetapentane citrate. Casein, iodinated: All drug...

  13. Shark cartilage

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate, and camphor reportedly reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom relief is most likely due to the effect of camphor and not the other ingredients. Additionally, there is ...

  14. Acceleration or deceleration of self-motion by the Marangoni effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yui; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Ikura, Yumihiko S.; Nakata, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the water-depth dependence of the self-motion of a camphor disk and camphor boat. With increasing water depth, the speed of motion of the camphor disk increased, but that of the camphor boat decreased in an annular one-dimensional system. We discussed the difference in the water-depth dependence of the speed of the camphor objects in relation to Marangoni flow. We concluded that Marangoni flow, which became stronger with increasing the water depth, positively and negatively affected the speed of the disk and boat, respectively.

  15. Food experience-induced taste desensitization modulated by the Drosophila TRPL channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali V; Raghuwanshi, Rakesh P; Shen, Wei L; Montell, Craig

    2013-10-01

    Animals tend to reject bitter foods. However, long-term exposure to some unpalatable tastants increases acceptance of these foods. Here we show that dietary exposure to an unappealing but safe additive, camphor, caused the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to decrease camphor rejection. The transient receptor potential-like (TRPL) cation channel was a direct target for camphor in gustatory receptor neurons, and long-term feeding on a camphor diet led to reversible downregulation of TRPL protein concentrations. The turnover of TRPL was controlled by an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Ube3a. The decline in TRPL levels and increased acceptance of camphor reversed after returning the flies to a camphor-free diet long term. We propose that dynamic regulation of taste receptors by ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation comprises an important molecular mechanism that allows an animal to alter its taste behavior in response to a changing food environment. PMID:24013593

  16. Food experience-induced taste desensitization modulated by the Drosophila TRPL channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali V; Raghuwanshi, Rakesh P; Shen, Wei L; Montell, Craig

    2013-10-01

    Animals tend to reject bitter foods. However, long-term exposure to some unpalatable tastants increases acceptance of these foods. Here we show that dietary exposure to an unappealing but safe additive, camphor, caused the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to decrease camphor rejection. The transient receptor potential-like (TRPL) cation channel was a direct target for camphor in gustatory receptor neurons, and long-term feeding on a camphor diet led to reversible downregulation of TRPL protein concentrations. The turnover of TRPL was controlled by an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Ube3a. The decline in TRPL levels and increased acceptance of camphor reversed after returning the flies to a camphor-free diet long term. We propose that dynamic regulation of taste receptors by ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation comprises an important molecular mechanism that allows an animal to alter its taste behavior in response to a changing food environment.

  17. Growth and characterization of single-crystal cored fibers of organic nonlinear optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvarajan, Ananth; Varma, Kalidhindi B. R.

    1996-09-01

    The recent development of several organic materials with large nonlinear susceptibilities, high damage threshold and low melting points encouraged researchers to employ these materials in fiber form to efficiently couple diode laser pumps and obtain enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG). In this paper we report the growth of single crystal cored fibers of 4-nitro-4'-methylbenzylidene aniline, ethoxy methoxy chalcone and (-)2-((alpha) -methylbenzylamino)-5- nitropyridine by inverted Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The fibers were grown in glass capillaries with varying internal diameters and lengths and were characterized using x-ray and polarizing microscope techniques. The propagation loss at 632.8 nm and 1300 nm were measured and SHG was studied using 1064 nm pump.

  18. A Classroom Experiment on Phase Equilibria Involving Orientational Disordering in Crystals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mjojo, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for an experiment in which a phase diagram is determined using a differential scanning calorimeter. Commercial samples of D-camphoric anhydride (Eastman Kodak) and D,L-camphoric anhydride (Aldrich) were used in the experiment. (JN)

  19. Glucosamine hydrochloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... additional ingredients are frequently chondroitin sulfate, MSM, or shark cartilage. Some people think these combinations work better ... to the skin in combination with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor for osteoarthritis. Glucosamine hydrochloride is ...

  20. Chondroitin sulfate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is usually manufactured from animal sources, such as shark and cow cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate is used for ... contain chondroitin sulfate, in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin ...

  1. Collective behavior of inanimate boats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Nakata, Satoshi; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku

    2010-05-01

    We propose an inanimate system composed of camphor boats in an annular water channel in order to understand the collective motions. The boats move on the water surface spontaneously and interact with one another through the concentration of the camphor molecules on the water. We observed several modes of collective motion, e.g., behaviors analogous to traffic flow or an ant trail. Our system provides a convenient experimental setup for the investigation of a variety of collective motions.

  2. Biotransformations of (+/-)-geosmin by terpene-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Richard W; Sandusky, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Two terpene-degrading bacteria able to transform (+/-)-geosmin have been identified. Pseudomonas sp. SBR3-tpnb, following growth on gamma-terpinene, converts (+/-)-geosmin to several products; the major products are ketogeosmins. Rhodococcus wratislaviensis DLC-cam, isolated on D-camphor, also converts (+/-)-geosmin to several oxidation products, primarily ketogeosmins identical to those produced by strain SBR3-tpnb as well as hydroxygeosmins. This conversion appears to be inducible by (+/-)-geosmin and not by D-camphor.

  3. Enhanced cuticular penetration as the mechanism for synergy of insecticidal constituents of rosemary essential oil in Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2015-07-30

    Synergistic interactions between constituents of essential oils have been reported for several areas of research. In the present study, mechanisms that could explain the synergistic action of the two major insecticidal constituents of rosemary oil, 1,8-cineole and camphor against the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni were investigated. 1,8-Cineole was more toxic than camphor when applied topically to larvae, and when coadministered in their ratio naturally occurring in rosemary oil, the binary mixture was synergistic. However, when injected directly into larvae, camphor was more toxic than 1,8-cineole. GC-MS analyses showed that penetration of topically-applied camphor was significantly enhanced when it was mixed with 1,8-cineole in the natural ratio. A bioassay combining injection and topical application methods confirmed the increased penetration of both compounds when mixed, showing the same bioactivity as seen for higher amounts applied individually. Lowered surface tension as well as increased solubility of camphor by 1,8-cineole, along with the interaction between 1,8-cineole and the lipid layer of the insect's cuticle may explain the enhanced penetration of camphor. Because of the similarities in biological function of animal and microbial membranes, our finding has potential for application in other fields of study.

  4. Extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil by Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jian-Ren; Ma, Hwong-Wen; Wang, Yi-Chung; Ko, Chun-Han; Chang, Fang-Chih; Feng, Fong-Long; Wang, Ya-Nang

    2014-12-01

    83 acres of rice paddy fields in Taoyuan county, Taiwan, were polluted by cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) through a nearby irrigation channel, and rice plantation was ceased in 1987. Camphor trees (Cinnamomum camphora) have been planted in 2 acre of the above fields since 1991. Heavy metal accumulation of roots, leaves, branches and heartwood of camphor trees were analyzed during 20-year afforestation. Averaged Cd contents of the roots were found larger than the ones of the branches, leaves, sapwood and heartwood of camphor trees growing in three polluted plots. Averaged diameters at breast height (DBH) of the planted camphor trees were 13-15 cm. Cd pollution did not significantly impact the growth of camphor trees, as similar DBH's were found from both polluted and control sites. Annual growths of DBH were from 0.63 to 0.77 cm year(-1). Planting camphor trees sequestered 68.8 ton biomass per acre. During 20-year period, 0.69-1.98 ton C year(-1) ha(-1) were sequestered on three polluted plots. The above numbers exceeded IPCC LULUCF reference values 0.31-0.53 ton C year(-1) ha(-1) for activities at forest lands. PMID:25204813

  5. Enhanced cuticular penetration as the mechanism for synergy of insecticidal constituents of rosemary essential oil in Trichoplusia ni

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic interactions between constituents of essential oils have been reported for several areas of research. In the present study, mechanisms that could explain the synergistic action of the two major insecticidal constituents of rosemary oil, 1,8-cineole and camphor against the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni were investigated. 1,8-Cineole was more toxic than camphor when applied topically to larvae, and when coadministered in their ratio naturally occurring in rosemary oil, the binary mixture was synergistic. However, when injected directly into larvae, camphor was more toxic than 1,8-cineole. GC-MS analyses showed that penetration of topically-applied camphor was significantly enhanced when it was mixed with 1,8-cineole in the natural ratio. A bioassay combining injection and topical application methods confirmed the increased penetration of both compounds when mixed, showing the same bioactivity as seen for higher amounts applied individually. Lowered surface tension as well as increased solubility of camphor by 1,8-cineole, along with the interaction between 1,8-cineole and the lipid layer of the insect’s cuticle may explain the enhanced penetration of camphor. Because of the similarities in biological function of animal and microbial membranes, our finding has potential for application in other fields of study. PMID:26223769

  6. Effect of crystals and fibrous network polymer additives on cellular morphology of microcellular foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ryoma; Utano, Tatsumi; Yasuhara, Shunya; Ishihara, Shota; Ohshima, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the core-back foam injection molding was used for preparing microcelluar polypropylene (PP) foam with either a 1,3:2,4 bis-O-(4-methylbenzylidene)-D-sorbitol gelling agent (Gel-all MD) or a fibros network polymer additive (Metablen 3000). Both agent and addiive could effectively control the celluar morphology in foams but somehow different ways. In course of cooling the polymer with Gel-all MD in the mold caity, the agent enhanced the crystal nucleation and resulted in the large number of small crystals. The crystals acted as effective bubble nucleation agent in foaming process. Thus, the agent reduced the cell size and increased the cell density, drastically. Furthermore, the small crystals provided an inhomogenuity to the expanding cell wall and produced the high open cell content with nano-scale fibril structure. Gell-all as well as Metablene 3000 formed a gel-like fibrous network in melt. The network increased the elongational viscosity and tended to prevent the cell wall from breaking up. The foaming temperature window was widened by the presence of the network. Especially, the temperature window where the macro-fibrous structure was formed was expanded to the higher temperature. The effects of crystal nucleating agent and PTFE on crystals' size and number, viscoelsticity, rheological propreties of PP and cellular morphology were compared and thorougly investigated.

  7. Evaporation Behavior and Characterization of Eutectic Solvent and Ibuprofen Eutectic Solution.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun; Charoensuksai, Purin

    2016-10-01

    Liquid eutectic system of menthol and camphor has been reported as solvent and co-solvent for some drug delivery systems. However, surprisingly, the phase diagram of menthol-camphor eutectic has not been reported previously. The evaporation behavior, physicochemical, and thermal properties of this liquid eutectic and ibuprofen eutectic solution were characterized in this study. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that a eutectic point of this system was near to 1:1 menthol/camphor and its eutectic temperature was -1°C. The solubility of ibuprofen in this eutectic was 282.11 ± 6.67 mg mL(-1) and increased the drug aqueous solubility fourfold. The shift of wave number from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the hydrogen bonding of each compound in eutectic mixture. The weight loss from thermogravimetric analysis of menthol and camphor related to the evaporation and sublimation, respectively. Menthol demonstrated a lower apparent sublimation rate than camphor, and the evaporation rate of eutectic solvent was lower than the sublimation rate of camphor but higher than the evaporation of menthol. The evaporation rate of the ibuprofen eutectic solution was lower than that of the eutectic solvent because ibuprofen did not sublimate. This eutectic solvent prolonged the ibuprofen release with diffusion control. Thus, the beneficial information for thermal behavior and related properties of eutectic solvent comprising menthol-camphor and ibuprofen eutectic solution was attained successfully. The rather low evaporation of eutectic mixture will be beneficial for investigation and tracking the mechanism of transformation from nanoemulsion into nanosuspension in the further study using eutectic as oil phase. PMID:26669887

  8. Evaporation Behavior and Characterization of Eutectic Solvent and Ibuprofen Eutectic Solution.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun; Charoensuksai, Purin

    2016-10-01

    Liquid eutectic system of menthol and camphor has been reported as solvent and co-solvent for some drug delivery systems. However, surprisingly, the phase diagram of menthol-camphor eutectic has not been reported previously. The evaporation behavior, physicochemical, and thermal properties of this liquid eutectic and ibuprofen eutectic solution were characterized in this study. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that a eutectic point of this system was near to 1:1 menthol/camphor and its eutectic temperature was -1°C. The solubility of ibuprofen in this eutectic was 282.11 ± 6.67 mg mL(-1) and increased the drug aqueous solubility fourfold. The shift of wave number from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the hydrogen bonding of each compound in eutectic mixture. The weight loss from thermogravimetric analysis of menthol and camphor related to the evaporation and sublimation, respectively. Menthol demonstrated a lower apparent sublimation rate than camphor, and the evaporation rate of eutectic solvent was lower than the sublimation rate of camphor but higher than the evaporation of menthol. The evaporation rate of the ibuprofen eutectic solution was lower than that of the eutectic solvent because ibuprofen did not sublimate. This eutectic solvent prolonged the ibuprofen release with diffusion control. Thus, the beneficial information for thermal behavior and related properties of eutectic solvent comprising menthol-camphor and ibuprofen eutectic solution was attained successfully. The rather low evaporation of eutectic mixture will be beneficial for investigation and tracking the mechanism of transformation from nanoemulsion into nanosuspension in the further study using eutectic as oil phase.

  9. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and UV filters in swimming pools and spas.

    PubMed

    Ekowati, Yuli; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Ferrero, Giuliana; Valle-Sistac, Jennifer; Diaz-Cruz, M Silvía; Barceló, Damià; Petrovic, Mira; Villagrasa, Marta; Kennedy, Maria D; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of 32 pharmaceuticals and 14 UV filters in swimming pools and spas was studied. Fifty-one water samples were collected from 17 pools located in sport centres and hotels in Catalonia, Spain. The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmaceuticals atenolol, carbamazepine, hydrochlorothiazide, metronidazole, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and phenazone were measured in water samples at concentrations higher than their limit of quantification (LOQ). The highest concentration of any individual pharmaceutical was measured for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (904 ng/L). The most frequently detected pharmaceutical was carbamazepine, as it was observed in more than half of all the water samples measured (53 %, 27/51). The UV filters at concentrations higher than LOQ in water samples were BP1, BP2, BP3, BP8, THB, 4DHB, 4MBC, OD-PABA, 1HBT, MeBT and DMeBT. The highest concentration of UV filter observed was 4MBC (69.3 ng/L) while the most frequent UV filters in the samples were 1HBT (59 %, 30/51). The results also showed that pharmaceuticals and UV filters were most frequently found in spas. Finally, from a water treatment technology perspective, the lowest occurrence of pharmaceuticals was in the pools applying sand filters followed by disinfection by sodium hypochlorite, while the lowest occurrence of UV filters was in the pools applying coagulation, sand filtration, UV and salt electrolysis. PMID:27068900

  10. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and UV filters in swimming pools and spas.

    PubMed

    Ekowati, Yuli; Buttiglieri, Gianluigi; Ferrero, Giuliana; Valle-Sistac, Jennifer; Diaz-Cruz, M Silvía; Barceló, Damià; Petrovic, Mira; Villagrasa, Marta; Kennedy, Maria D; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of 32 pharmaceuticals and 14 UV filters in swimming pools and spas was studied. Fifty-one water samples were collected from 17 pools located in sport centres and hotels in Catalonia, Spain. The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmaceuticals atenolol, carbamazepine, hydrochlorothiazide, metronidazole, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and phenazone were measured in water samples at concentrations higher than their limit of quantification (LOQ). The highest concentration of any individual pharmaceutical was measured for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (904 ng/L). The most frequently detected pharmaceutical was carbamazepine, as it was observed in more than half of all the water samples measured (53 %, 27/51). The UV filters at concentrations higher than LOQ in water samples were BP1, BP2, BP3, BP8, THB, 4DHB, 4MBC, OD-PABA, 1HBT, MeBT and DMeBT. The highest concentration of UV filter observed was 4MBC (69.3 ng/L) while the most frequent UV filters in the samples were 1HBT (59 %, 30/51). The results also showed that pharmaceuticals and UV filters were most frequently found in spas. Finally, from a water treatment technology perspective, the lowest occurrence of pharmaceuticals was in the pools applying sand filters followed by disinfection by sodium hypochlorite, while the lowest occurrence of UV filters was in the pools applying coagulation, sand filtration, UV and salt electrolysis.

  11. P450cam visits an open conformation in the absence of substrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Tae; Wilson, Richard F; Rupniewski, Igor; Goodin, David B

    2010-04-27

    P450cam from Pseudomonas putida is the best characterized member of the vast family of cytochrome P450s, and it has long been believed to have a more rigid and closed active site relative to other P450s. Here we report X-ray structures of P450cam crystallized in the absence of substrate and at high and low [K(+)]. The camphor-free structures are observed in a distinct open conformation characterized by a water-filled channel created by the retraction of the F and G helices, disorder of the B' helix, and loss of the K(+) binding site. Crystallization in the presence of K(+) alone does not alter the open conformation, while crystallization with camphor alone is sufficient for closure of the channel. Soaking crystals of the open conformation in excess camphor does not promote camphor binding or closure, suggesting resistance to conformational change by the crystal lattice. This open conformation is remarkably similar to that seen upon binding large tethered substrates, showing that it is not the result of a perturbation by the ligand. Redissolved crystals of the open conformation are observed as a mixture of P420 and P450 forms, which is converted to the P450 form upon addition of camphor and K(+). These data reveal that P450cam can dynamically visit an open conformation that allows access to the deeply buried active site without being induced by substrate or ligand. PMID:20297780

  12. High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.

    PubMed

    Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Ristić, Mihailo; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Hančević, Katarina; Radić, Tomislav; Satović, Zlatko

    2012-10-01

    Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and β-pinene, β-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/β-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study.

  13. Terpene-induced porphyria and the illness of Vincent van Gogh

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, R.; Cable, E.; Cable, J.; Clements, E.; Donohue, S.; Greene, Y.; Srivastava, K.; Arnold, W.; Bonkovsky, H. Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City )

    1992-01-01

    Vincent van Gogh suffered from recurrent bouts of an illness that may have been acute porphyria and abused camphor and alcohol, the latter particularly in the form of absinthe, a liqueur distilled from wormwood that was popular in 19th C France. To learn whether camphor or terpenes found in absinthe are porphyrogenic, the authors studied them in cultures of chick embryo liver cells. All were found to be porphyrogenic, especially in the presence of deferoxamine. The terpenes also induced the activity and protein amount of 5-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase, and induced activities of benzphetamine demethylase. The degree of porphyrin and enzyme induction produced by 1mM camphor was similar to that produced by 50uM glutethimide, a potent porphyrogen. Potency of pinene and thujone were lower. Camphor and glutethimide both produced accumulations of 8- and 7-COOH porphyrins, whereas pinene and thujone produced 4- and 2-COOH porphyrin accumulation. The authors conclude that camphor, pinen and thujone are porphyrogenic, cable of exacerbating acute porphyria, and may have done so in van Gogh.

  14. Active-Site Hydration and Water Diffusion in Cytochrome P450cam: A Highly Dynamic Process

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Yinglong; Baudry, Jerome Y

    2011-01-01

    Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations (300 ns) are performed on both the apo- (i.e., camphor-free) and camphor-bound cytochrome P450cam (CYP101). Water diffusion into and out of the protein active site is observed without biased sampling methods. During the course of the molecular dynamics simulation, an average of 6.4 water molecules is observed in the camphor-binding site of the apo form, compared to zero water molecules in the binding site of the substrate-bound form, in agreement with the number of water molecules observed in crystal structures of the same species. However, as many as 12 water molecules can be present at a given time in the camphor-binding region of the active site in the case of apo-P450cam, revealing a highly dynamic process for hydration of the protein active site, with water molecules exchanging rapidly with the bulk solvent. Water molecules are also found to exchange locations frequently inside the active site, preferentially clustering in regions surrounding the water molecules observed in the crystal structure. Potential-of-mean-force calculations identify thermodynamically favored trans-protein pathways for the diffusion of water molecules between the protein active site and the bulk solvent. Binding of camphor in the active site modifies the free-energy landscape of P450cam channels toward favoring the diffusion of water molecules out of the protein active site.

  15. Individual and joint activity of terpenoids, isolated from Calamintha nepeta extract, on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Graña, Elisa; Reigosa, Manuel J; Sánchez-Moreiras, Adela M; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Four terpenoids, camphor, pulegone, trans-caryophyllene and farnesene, previously found in Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi methanolic extract and essential oils were assayed on germination and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. None of the terpenes, singularly or in combination, was able to inhibit the germination process. Farnesene and trans-caryophyllene caused a strong inhibitory effect on root growth, and pulegone, at the highest concentrations, reduced lateral root formation. Although the mixture of camphor-trans-caryophyllene with or without farnesene did not cause any effect on root growth, the addition of pulegone induced a marked synergistic activity. Moreover, the addition, at low concentration, of farnesene to pulegone-camphor-trans-caryophyllene mixture further increased the inhibitory effect on root elongation. These results suggested that the inhibitory effects caused by C. nepeta methanolic extract may depend on the combined action of different molecules.

  16. Individual and joint activity of terpenoids, isolated from Calamintha nepeta extract, on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Araniti, Fabrizio; Graña, Elisa; Reigosa, Manuel J; Sánchez-Moreiras, Adela M; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Four terpenoids, camphor, pulegone, trans-caryophyllene and farnesene, previously found in Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi methanolic extract and essential oils were assayed on germination and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. None of the terpenes, singularly or in combination, was able to inhibit the germination process. Farnesene and trans-caryophyllene caused a strong inhibitory effect on root growth, and pulegone, at the highest concentrations, reduced lateral root formation. Although the mixture of camphor-trans-caryophyllene with or without farnesene did not cause any effect on root growth, the addition of pulegone induced a marked synergistic activity. Moreover, the addition, at low concentration, of farnesene to pulegone-camphor-trans-caryophyllene mixture further increased the inhibitory effect on root elongation. These results suggested that the inhibitory effects caused by C. nepeta methanolic extract may depend on the combined action of different molecules. PMID:23972283

  17. Water Oxidation by a Cytochrome P450: Mechanism and Function of the Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Brinda; Mah, Derrick J.; Lewis, Andrew R.; Plettner, Erika

    2013-01-01

    P450cam (CYP101A1) is a bacterial monooxygenase that is known to catalyze the oxidation of camphor, the first committed step in camphor degradation, with simultaneous reduction of oxygen (O2). We report that P450cam catalysis is controlled by oxygen levels: at high O2 concentration, P450cam catalyzes the known oxidation reaction, whereas at low O2 concentration the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of camphor to borneol. We confirmed, using 17O and 2H NMR, that the hydrogen atom added to camphor comes from water, which is oxidized to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This is the first time a cytochrome P450 has been observed to catalyze oxidation of water to H2O2, a difficult reaction to catalyze due to its high barrier. The reduction of camphor and simultaneous oxidation of water are likely catalyzed by the iron-oxo intermediate of P450cam, and we present a plausible mechanism that accounts for the 1∶1 borneol:H2O2 stoichiometry we observed. This reaction has an adaptive value to bacteria that express this camphor catabolism pathway, which requires O2, for two reasons: 1) the borneol and H2O2 mixture generated is toxic to other bacteria and 2) borneol down-regulates the expression of P450cam and its electron transfer partners. Since the reaction described here only occurs under low O2 conditions, the down-regulation only occurs when O2 is scarce. PMID:23634216

  18. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  19. A Tale of Three Carboxylates: Cooperative Asymmetric Crystallization of Three-Dimensional Microporous Framework from Achiral Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Shumei; Nieto, Ruben A.; Wu, Tao; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-01-01

    Chirality Induction in Porous MOF The chiral induction reagent (e.g., D-, L-camphoric acid) exhibits two distinct roles: (1) enable and catalyze growth of chiral crystals, and (2) control bulk chirality of Mn3(HCOO)4(adc) crystals (H2adc = adamantane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid. Time-dependent experiments show the initial crystallization of an achiral phase Mn(adc), which persists in the absence of chiral induction agent, but is slowly converted into enantioenriched Mn3(HCOO)4(adc) in the presence of chiral induction agent such as D-camphoric acid, operating in synergy with in situ generated formate. PMID:20077556

  20. Environment-related variations of the composition of the essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in the Balkan Penninsula.

    PubMed

    Lakušić, Dmitar V; Ristić, Mihailo S; Slavkovska, Violeta N; Sinžar-Sekulić, Jasmina B; Lakušić, Branislava S

    2012-07-01

    Composition of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis of ten populations from the Balkan Peninsula were determined by GC/FID and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole, camphor, α-pinene, and borneol. Multivariate statistical analysis (UPGMA cluster analysis and principal-component analysis (PCA)) revealed two major types of rosemary oil, i.e., 1,8-cineole and camphor-type, and two intermediate types, i.e., camphor/1,8-cineole/borneol type and 1,8-cineole/camphor type. The regression analyses (simple linear regression and stepwise multiple regression) have shown that, with respect to basic geographic, orographic, and 19 bioclimatic characteristics of each population, bioclimatic factor temperature of habitat represented the dominant abiogenetic factor, which, in chemical sense, led to differentiation of populations in the studied region. Also, the regression analysis have shown that some constituents of essential oils are independent of any single bioclimatic factors. However, some constituents display statistically significant correlations with some abiotic factors.

  1. Enantioselective recognition and separation of racemic 1-phenylethanol by a pair of 2D chiral coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Jian; Yao, Jia; Tao, Qian; Jiang, Long; Lu, Tong-Bu

    2013-10-21

    A pair of 2D chiral coordination polymers were constructed through the self-assembly of a chiral metal-camphor-10-sulfonate salt and a bidentate linker, which show selective inclusion of S and R enantiomers of 1-phenylethanol respectively with an enantioselectivity of 9:1. PMID:24083956

  2. [STUDIES ON THE CONSTITUENTS OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA L].

    PubMed

    Youyou, Tu; Muyun, Ni; Yurong, Zhong; Lanna, Li; Shulian, Gui; Muqun, Zhang; Xiuzhen, Wang; Xiaotian, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Six crystalline components were isolated from the lipophilic fraction of Artemisia annua L. They have been identified as four sesquiterpenes, one flavonol and one coumarin. Qinghaosu I and III are new sesquiterpenes. Five main constituents, camphene, iso-artemisia ketone, 1-camphor, β-carophyllene, and β-pinene were identified from the volatile oil of this herb. PMID:26837162

  3. Interaction between Mo132 nanocluster polyoxometalate and solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroushko, A. A.; Safronov, A. P.; Tonkushina, M. O.; Korotaev, V. Yu.; Barkov, A. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between solid Mo132 nanocluster polyoxometalate with the structure of a keplerate and solvents of different natures (e.g., water, alcohols, hexane, and tetrachloromethane) is studied thermochemically. NMR spectroscopy is used to analyze interactions in solid polyoxometalate-organic compound systems in a gaseous medium. Data are collected on sorption interactions between a Mo132 nanocluster and camphor.

  4. 21 CFR 172.515 - Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; pentyl alcohol. Amyl butyrate. α-Amylcinnamaldehyde. α-Amylcinnamaldehyde dimethyl acetal. α-Amylcinnamyl... creosote. Benzaldehyde dimethyl acetal. Benzaldehyde glyceryl acetal; 2-phenyl-m-dioxan-5-ol. Benzaldehyde.... Camphene; 2,2-dimethyl-3-methylenenorbornane. d-Camphor. Carvacrol; 2-p-cymenol. Carvacryl ethyl ether;...

  5. Formulation Design and Optimization of Orodispersible Tablets of Quetiapine Fumarate by Sublimation Method

    PubMed Central

    Kalyankar, P.; Panzade, P.; Lahoti, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present study was to formulate directly compressible orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A full 32 factorial design was used to investigate the effect of two variables viz., concentration of Indion 414 and camphor. Indion 414 (3-5 % w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (5-15 % w/w) as subliming agent. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, content uniformity, wetting time, porosity, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. The formulation containing 5% w/w of Indion 414 and 5% w/w camphor was emerged as promising based on evaluation parameters. The disintegration time for optimized formulation was 18.66 s. The tablet surface was evaluated for presence of pores by scanning electron microscopy before and after sublimation. Differential scanning colorimetric study did not indicate any drug excipient incompatibility, either during mixing or after compression. The effect of independent variables on disintegration time, % drug release and friability is presented graphically by surface response plots. Short-term stability studies on the optimized formulation indicated no significant changes in drug content and in vitro disintegration time. The directly compressible orodispersible tablets of quetiapine fumarate with lower friability, greater drug release and shorter disintegration times were obtained using Indion 414 and camphor at optimum concentrations. PMID:26180271

  6. Total synthesis of (+)-grandiamide D, dasyclamide and gigantamide A from a Baylis–Hillman adduct: A unified biomimetic approach

    PubMed Central

    Saravanakumar, Shanmugasundar

    2014-01-01

    Summary A unified strategy was followed for the synthesis of three putrescine bisamides, (+)-grandiamide D, dasyclamide and gigantamide A, isolated from leaves of Aglaia gigantea, by making use of a common synthetic intermediate prepared by the Baylis–Hillman reaction. Asymmetric synthesis of the natural (+)-grandiamide D was accomplished from camphor sultam. PMID:24454565

  7. Insecticidal, fumigant, and repellent activities of sweet wormwood oil and its individual components against red imported fire ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Tang, Liang; Hu, Wei; Wang, Kun; Zhou, You; Li, Hong; Huang, Congling; Chun, Jiong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    In total, 29 compounds from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) oil were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The five active components were D-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol. The effectiveness of A. annua oil, as well as d-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol, as fumigants, contact insecticides, and repellents, were tested on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren. The results indicated that A. annua oil has no significant topical toxicity; however, the spray contact test revealed that it has strong insecticidal activity and the inhibitory effect is stronger during closed exposure than during open exposure. In the fumigant test, cineole and D-camphor exhibited strong fumigant toxicity on minor and major S. invicta workers. They also caused 100% mortality at 5, 3, 2, and 1 mg/centrifuge tube but not at 0.5 mg/centrifuge tube. The mortality rates of linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol exceeded 80% at 5, 3, and 2 mg/centrifuge tube. In the repellent test, cineole and d-camphor showed significant repellency at 100, 10, and 1 mg/kg. However, linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol significantly facilitated digging at 10 and 1 mg/kg.

  8. The Enantioselectivity of Odor Sensation: Some Examples for Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Philip; Mannschreck, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses seven chiral odorants that demonstrate the enantioselectivity of odor sensation: carvone, Celery Ketone, camphor, Florhydral, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, muscone, and methyl jasmonate. After a general introduction of the odorant-receptor interaction and the combinatorial code of olfaction, the olfactory properties of the…

  9. Influence of different vehicles on the pH of calcium hydroxide pastes.

    PubMed

    Pacios, María Gabriela; de la Casa, María Luisa; de Bulacio, María los Angeles; López, María Elena

    2004-06-01

    The main known benefit of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament lies in the bactericidal effect conferred by its pH. The objective of this work was to determine the influence of the vehicle on the pH of calcium hydroxide pastes after usage in patients and in vitro. The incisor root canals of 180 patients were instrumented and filled with calcium hydroxide pastes containing distilled water, chlorhexidine, propylene glycol, anesthetic solution, camphorated p-monochlorophenol and camphorated p-monochlorophenol-propylene glycol. The pH of the paste in the patients' root canals was measured at 7, 14 and 21 days. Similarly, pH was measured in vitro up to 21 days. The pH of all the pastes remained constant throughout the time periods assessed. The calcium hydroxide-water combination showed significantly higher pH values than the other pastes in clinical use. Comparative analysis showed that the pH values of the anesthetic solution, camphorated p-monochlorophenol and camphorated p-monochlorophenol-propylene glycol were significantly higher in vitro. The type of vehicle was shown to influence the final pH of the pastes. However, the alkalinity of all pastes was maintained over time under the experimental conditions. PMID:15287544

  10. Insecticidal, fumigant, and repellent activities of sweet wormwood oil and its individual components against red imported fire ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Tang, Liang; Hu, Wei; Wang, Kun; Zhou, You; Li, Hong; Huang, Congling; Chun, Jiong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    In total, 29 compounds from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) oil were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The five active components were D-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol. The effectiveness of A. annua oil, as well as d-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol, as fumigants, contact insecticides, and repellents, were tested on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren. The results indicated that A. annua oil has no significant topical toxicity; however, the spray contact test revealed that it has strong insecticidal activity and the inhibitory effect is stronger during closed exposure than during open exposure. In the fumigant test, cineole and D-camphor exhibited strong fumigant toxicity on minor and major S. invicta workers. They also caused 100% mortality at 5, 3, 2, and 1 mg/centrifuge tube but not at 0.5 mg/centrifuge tube. The mortality rates of linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol exceeded 80% at 5, 3, and 2 mg/centrifuge tube. In the repellent test, cineole and d-camphor showed significant repellency at 100, 10, and 1 mg/kg. However, linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol significantly facilitated digging at 10 and 1 mg/kg. PMID:25525106

  11. Phytotoxicity of Constituents of Glandular Trichomes and the Leaf Surface of Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camphorweed, Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britt. & Rusby has a camphor-like odor, and its leaf surfaces contain glandular trichomes of the type shown to contain high levels of isoprenoids in other species. Phytotoxic calamenene-type sesquiterpenes (1-4, 8-10), borneol (11) and methylated flavone...

  12. Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Stešević, Danijela; Ristić, Mihailo; Nikolić, Vuko; Nedović, Marijana; Caković, Danka; Šatović, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), α-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and α-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between α-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and α-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, α-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and α-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio.

  13. Bioactivity of essential oil of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van. and its main compounds against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Wang, Ying; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Su, Yang; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van., a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, is widely distrbuted in the world. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia argyi was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 32 components representing 91.74% of the total oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (22.03%), β-pinene (14.53%), β-caryophyllene (9.24%) and (-)-camphor (5.45%). With a further isolation, four active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene and camphor. The essential oil and the four isolated compounds exhibited potential bioactivity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil, camphor, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene and β-pinene exhibited strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LD50 values of 6.42, 11.30, 15.58, 35.52, and 65.55 μg/adult, respectively. During the fumigant toxicity test, the essential oil, eucalyptol and camphor showed stronger fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults than β-pinene (LC50 = 29.03 mg/L air) with LC50 values of 8.04, 5.18 and 2.91 mg/L air. Moreover, the essential oil, eucalyptol, β-pinene and camphor also exhibited the strong repellency against L. serricorne adults, while, β-caryophyllene exhibited attracting activity relative to the positive control, DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. argyi and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides, fumigants or repellents in controlling insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  14. Enrichment of H(2)(17)O from tap water, characterization of the enriched water, and properties of several (17)O-labeled compounds.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Brinda; Lewis, Andrew R; Plettner, Erika

    2011-01-01

    A low-abundance form of water, H(2)(17)O, was enriched from 0.04% to ∼90% by slow evaporation and fractional distillation of tap water. The density and refractive index for H(2)(17)O are reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of (16)O- and (17)O-1-hexanols and their trimethyl silyl ethers and of (16)O- and (17)O-hexamethyl disiloxanes was used to determine the percentage of (17)O enrichment in the H(2)(17)O. Furthermore, the chemical shifts of labeled and nonlabeled water dissolved in CDCl(3) differed sufficiently that we could verify the enrichment of H(2)(17)O. (17)O hexanol was synthesized by the reaction of iodohexane with Na(17)OH. (17)O-Labeled trimethylsilanol and (17)O-labeled hexamethyldisiloxane were prepared by the reaction of H(2)(17)O with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). To generate standards for (17)O NMR, H(2)(17)O(2), and (17)O camphor were prepared. H(2)(17)O was electrolyzed to form (17)O-labeled hydrogen peroxide which was quantified using two colorimetric assays. (17)O-Labeled camphor was prepared by exchanging the ketone oxygen of camphor using H(2)(17)O. The (17)O-labeled compounds were characterized using (17)O, (1)H, and (13)C NMR and GC-MS. While we were characterizing the labeled camphor, we also detected an unexpected oxygen exchange reaction of primary alcohols, catalyzed by electrophilic ketones such as camphor. The reaction is a displacement of the alcohol OH group by water. This is an example of the usefulness of (17)O NMR in the study of a reaction mechanism that has not been noticed previously. PMID:21128590

  15. Imaging photoelectron circular dichroism of chiral molecules by femtosecond multiphoton coincidence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, C. Stefan; Ram, N. Bhargava; Powis, Ivan; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Here, we provide a detailed account of novel experiments employing electron-ion coincidence imaging to discriminate chiral molecules. The full three-dimensional angular scattering distribution of electrons is measured after photoexcitation with either left or right circular polarized light. The experiment is performed using a simplified photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging setup employing only a single particle imaging detector. Results are reported applying this technique to enantiomers of the chiral molecule camphor after three-photon ionization by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 380 nm. The electron-ion coincidence imaging provides the photoelectron spectrum of mass-selected ions that are observed in the time-of-flight mass spectra. The coincident photoelectron spectra of the parent camphor ion and the various fragment ions are the same, so it can be concluded that fragmentation of camphor happens after ionization. We discuss the forward-backward asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution which is expressed in Legendre polynomials with moments up to order six. Furthermore, we present a method, similar to one-photon electron circular dichroism, to quantify the strength of the chiral electron asymmetry in a single parameter. The circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution of camphor is measured to be 8% at 400 nm. The electron circular dichroism using femtosecond multiphoton excitation is of opposite sign and about 60% larger than the electron dichroism observed before in near-threshold one-photon ionization with synchrotron excitation. We interpret our multiphoton ionization as being resonant at the two-photon level with the 3s and 3p Rydberg states of camphor. Theoretical calculations are presented that model the photoelectron angular distribution from a prealigned camphor molecule using density functional theory and continuum multiple scattering X alpha photoelectron scattering calculations

  16. Imaging photoelectron circular dichroism of chiral molecules by femtosecond multiphoton coincidence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, C. Stefan; Ram, N. Bhargava; Janssen, Maurice H. M.; Powis, Ivan

    2013-12-21

    Here, we provide a detailed account of novel experiments employing electron-ion coincidence imaging to discriminate chiral molecules. The full three-dimensional angular scattering distribution of electrons is measured after photoexcitation with either left or right circular polarized light. The experiment is performed using a simplified photoelectron-photoion coincidence imaging setup employing only a single particle imaging detector. Results are reported applying this technique to enantiomers of the chiral molecule camphor after three-photon ionization by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 380 nm. The electron-ion coincidence imaging provides the photoelectron spectrum of mass-selected ions that are observed in the time-of-flight mass spectra. The coincident photoelectron spectra of the parent camphor ion and the various fragment ions are the same, so it can be concluded that fragmentation of camphor happens after ionization. We discuss the forward-backward asymmetry in the photoelectron angular distribution which is expressed in Legendre polynomials with moments up to order six. Furthermore, we present a method, similar to one-photon electron circular dichroism, to quantify the strength of the chiral electron asymmetry in a single parameter. The circular dichroism in the photoelectron angular distribution of camphor is measured to be 8% at 400 nm. The electron circular dichroism using femtosecond multiphoton excitation is of opposite sign and about 60% larger than the electron dichroism observed before in near-threshold one-photon ionization with synchrotron excitation. We interpret our multiphoton ionization as being resonant at the two-photon level with the 3s and 3p Rydberg states of camphor. Theoretical calculations are presented that model the photoelectron angular distribution from a prealigned camphor molecule using density functional theory and continuum multiple scattering X alpha photoelectron scattering calculations

  17. Variation of chemical composition of essential oils in wild populations of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut., a North African endemic Species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thymus algeriensis is an endemic aromatic plant to Tunisia largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by the geographical location and the phase of the plant development. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information on the variation of essential oil composition of T. algeriensis collected during the vegetative and the flowering phases and from eight different geographical regions. Besides, influence of population location and phenological stage on yield and metal chelating activity of essential oils is also assessed. Methods The essential oil composition of Thymus algeriensis was determined mainly by GC/FID and GC/MS. The chemical differentiation among populations performed on all compounds was assessed by linear discriminate analysis and cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance. Results A total of 71 compounds, representing 88.99 to 99.76% of the total oil, were identified. A significant effect of the population location on the chemical composition variability of T. algeriensis oil was observed. Only 18 out of 71 compounds showed a statistically significant variation among population locations and phenological stages. Chemical differentiation among populations was high. Minor compounds play an important role to distinguish between chemical groups. Five chemotypes according to the major compounds have been distinguished. Chemotypes distribution is linked to the population location and not to bioclimate, indicating that local selective environmental factors acted on the chemotype diversity. Conclusions The major compounds at the species level were α-pinene (7.41-13.94%), 1,8-cineole (7.55-22.07%), cis-sabinene hydrate (0.10-12.95%), camphor (6.8-19.93%), 4-terpineol (1.55-11.86%), terpenyl acetate (0-14.92%) and viridiflorol (0-11.49%). Based on major compounds, the

  18. Structural Analysis and Direct Imaging of Rotational Stacking Faults in Few-Layer Graphene Synthesized from Solid Botanical Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Golap; Wakita, Koichi; Umeno, Masayoshi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we report the structural analysis and rotational stacking faults of few-layer graphene sheets derived by the controlled pyrolysis of the solid botanical derivative camphor (C10H16O). The second-order Raman spectra of the sheets show that the graphene layers are more than one single layer, and the numbers of layers can be controlled by adjusting the amount of camphor pyrolyzed. Transmission electron microscopy images show a minimum of 3 layers for thinner graphene sheets and a maximum of 12 layers for thicker graphene sheets. Low-voltage aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is also carried out to gain insight into the hexagonal structure and stacking of graphene layers. The transmission electron microscopy study showed the presence of moiré patterns with a relative rotation between graphene layers.

  19. Monolayer graphene from a green solid precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Golap; Wakita, Koichi; Umeno, Masayoshi

    2011-06-01

    Monolayer and bilayer graphene sheets are synthesized by simple control pyrolysis of solid botanical derivative camphor (C 10H 16O), a green and renewable carbon source. Raman studies show much intense 2D peak than that of G peak, signifying presence of monolayer graphene. Transmission electron microscopic study shows predominately monolayer or bilayer graphene sheets, while trilayer graphene sheet were also observed. Synthesized graphene film on copper foil is transferred to poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate to fabricate transparent electrode. Electrical and optical measurement shows a sheet resistance of 860 Ω/sq with a transmittance of 91% at 550 nm wavelength of the graphene film. The technique to fabricate monolayer or bilayer graphene based film from camphor is both viable and scalable for potential large area electronic applications.

  20. Growth Mechanism Of Carbon Nanotubes Prepared By Fluidized Floating Catalyst Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azira, A. A.; Zainal, N. F. A.; Nik, S. F.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, carbon nanotubes were synthesized by fluidized floating catalyst method which yielded high yield even at low temperature; 650° C using camphor oil as carbon source and Argon as carrier gas. Optimum concentration for trimetal alloy catalyst; Fe/Ni/Mg has been found to be the suitable catalyst for producing carbon nanotubes at high yield. Carbon nanotubes are formed by the evaporation of the camphor oil (precursor), which decomposes `in situ' and aggregates on the metal alloy catalyst particles present in the ceramic boat. The morphology of carbon nanotubes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This result demonstrates that fluidized floating catalyst method is suitable for effective formation of CNTs with average size ˜11.5 nm. The morphological studies support `tip growth mechanism' for the growth of the CNT's in our case.

  1. PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: Transfer characterization of sulfur from coal-burning emission to plant leaves by PIXE and XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Liang-Man; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zhang, Yuan-Xim; Li, Yan; Lin, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cao, Qing-Chen; Zhao, Yi-Dong; Ma, Chen-Yan; Han, Yong

    2009-11-01

    The impact of coal-burning emission on sulfur in camphor leaves was investigated using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and synchrotron radiation technique X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The PIXE results show that the sulfur concentrations in the leaves collected at the polluted site are significantly higher than those in controls. The Sulfur XANES spectra show the presence of organic (disulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfonates and sulfoxides) and inorganic sulfur (sulfates) in the leaves. The inorganic sulfur in the leaves of camphor tree polluted by coal combustion is 15% more than that of the control site. The results suggest that the long-term coal-burning pollution resulted in an enhanced content of the total sulfur and sulfate in the leaves, and the uptake of sulfur by leaves had exceeded the metabolic requirement of plants and the excess of sulfur was stored as SO2-4. It can monitor the sulfur pollution in atmosphere.

  2. In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ramsewak, Russel S; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Stommel, Manfred; Selanders, Louise

    2003-04-01

    The antibiotic effect of the active ingredients in Meijer medicated chest rub (eucalyptus oil, camphor and menthol) as well as the inactive ingredients (thymol, oil of turpentine, oil of nutmeg and oil of cedar leaf) were studied in vitro using the fungal pathogens responsible for onychomycosis, such as the dermatophytes Tricophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton fl occosum and Epidermophyton stockdale. The zones of inhibition data revealed that camphor (1). menthol (2). thymol (3). and oil of Eucalyptus citriodora were the most efficacious components against the test organisms. The MIC(100) for mixtures of these four components in various carrier solvents revealed that formulations consisting of 5 mg/mL concentrations of each have a potential to be efffective in controlling onychomycosis. PMID:12722144

  3. Determination of the Solute Diffusion Coefficient by the Droplet Migration Method

    SciTech Connect

    Shan Liu; Jing Teng; Jeongyun Choi

    2007-07-01

    Further analysis of droplet migration in a temperature gradient field indicates that different terms can be used to evaluate the solute diffusion coefficient in liquid (D{sub L}) and that there exists a characteristic curve that can describe the motion of all the droplets for a given composition and temperature gradient. Critical experiments are subsequently conducted in succinonitrile (SCN)-salol and SCN-camphor transparent alloys in order to observe dynamic migration processes of a number of droplets. The derived diffusion coefficients from different terms are the same within experimental error. For SCN-salol alloys, D{sub L} = (0.69 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and for SCN-camphor alloys, D{sub L} = (0.24 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s.

  4. Toxicity of essential and non-essential oils against the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Talbert, R; Wall, R

    2012-10-01

    The toxicity of six plant essential oils to the chewing louse, Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus collected from donkeys, was examined in laboratory bioassays. The oils examined were: tea-tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), peppermint (Mentha piperita), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere), clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora). All except camphor oil showed high levels of toxicity, with significant dose-dependent mortality and an LC(50) at concentrations of below 2% (v/v). Hundred percent mortality was achieved at concentrations of 5-10% (v/v). Two essential oil components: eugenol and (+)-terpinen-4-ol showed similar levels of toxicity. The data suggest that these botanical products may offer environmentally and toxicologically safe, alternative veterinary pediculicides for the control of ectoparasitic lice. PMID:22177577

  5. Composition of the essential oil of Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Said; Ghanmi, Mohamed; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-06-01

    The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product. PMID:20614829

  6. Composition of the essential oil of Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Said; Ghanmi, Mohamed; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-06-01

    The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product.

  7. [Drugs and poisons in the life of Vincent van Gogh].

    PubMed

    Berggren, L

    1997-01-01

    Van Gogh was during his last years exposed to several potentially toxic substances such as; bromides, lead, camphor and terpene oils in absinthe liquor. All of them produce signs of toxicity which are similar to the symptoms known from van Gogh's attacks of illness; hallucinations, confusion, delirium, convulsions and agitation. However, the many interpretations of van Gogh's illness and state of mind have in most cases not taken into account the possible influence of toxic chemicals.

  8. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  9. Chemical composition of essential oil from the root bark of Sassafras albidum.

    PubMed

    Kamdem, D P; Gage, D A

    1995-12-01

    The root bark of Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees (Lauraceae) was extracted at room temperature with hexane and chloroform as solvents. The isolated essential oils were analyzed with GC and GC/MS. Thirty compounds were identified, nine of which have not been previously reported from this species. The major compounds were safrole (85%), camphor (3.25%), and methyleugenol (1.10%). Ten sesquiterpenes were also identified.

  10. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Artemisia lancea against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida).

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Dai, J L; Yang, L; Qiu, J

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged use of chemical anthelmintics has been found to result in anthelmintic resistance and environmental issues, thereby limiting the application of these drugs in domestic animals and prompting interest in the study of plant extracts as alternative sources thereof. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of the essential oil (EO) of Artemisia lancea against the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay, larval development assay, and larval migration inhibition assay. The EO yield of extraction was 0.63% (w/w), and the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (34.56%) and camphor (16.65%). In the egg hatch assay, an inhibition greater than 99% was observed with the EO at 10 mg mL(-1) and the LC50 was 1.82 mg mL(-1). 1,8-Cineole demonstrated moderate ovicidal activity with a LC50 of 4.64 mg mL(-1), whereas camphor did not show enough activity to have its LC50 determined. In the larval development assay, the EO, 1,8-cineole, and camphor inhibited 93.6%, 65.2%, and 57% of larval development at 10 mg mL(-1) and exhibited dose-dependent responses with LC50 values of 1.66, 5.07, and 7.80 mg mL(-1), respectively. In the migration inhibition assay, the EO and 1,8-cineole at best inhibited 77% and 60.3% of larval migration at 10 mg mL(-1), respectively. Camphor showed low inhibition capacity, and its efficacy was not dose dependent. The results indicate that the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the EO of A. lancea may be associated with the additive action of the two major constituents, as well as other more minor terpenoid components.

  11. The sonochemical synthesis and characterization of mesoporous chiral titania using a chiral inorganic precursor.

    PubMed

    Gabashvili, Alexandra; Major, Dan T; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2010-03-01

    The paper presents a successful sonochemical attempt to synthesize mesoporous chiral titania using a chiral inorganic precursor and dodecylamine, as the surfactant template. The resulting porous structure was characterized by nitrogen sorption experiments, transmission electron microscopy, and small-angle XRD. The enantioselectivity of this mesoporous titania after the extraction of the amine was examined by selective adsorption of enantiomers and racemic aqueous solution of camphor. The selective adsorption was measured by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. PMID:19942471

  12. Absolute Helicity Induction in Three-Dimensional Homochiral Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2009-01-01

    Three Co(II) isomers assembled from d-, or l-, or dl-camphorate together with achiral isonicotinate exhibit a clear relationship between chirality and helicity even though chiral molecules are not in the backbone of the helix: the absolute sense of helix made of achiral components is controlled by chains of metal and enantiopure chiral ligands running perpendicular to helix in two enantiomeric forms. PMID:19099070

  13. Comparative mortality of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) exposed to monoterpenoids and low pressure.

    PubMed

    Mbata, George N; Pascual-Villalobos, Marie J; Payton, Mark E

    2012-04-01

    Monoterpenoids and low pressure have each been demonstrated to cause mortality of stored-product insect pests. The current report investigated the prospects of integrating the two methods in the management of diapausing and nondiapausing larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). In a separate experiment, the larvae were exposed to 35.5 mmHg in Erlenmeyer flasks at 19 and 28 degrees C for times ranging from 30 min to 96 h. Another set of experiments was conducted to investigate the toxicity of exposing P. interpunctella larvae to monoterpenoids including E-anethole, estragole, S-carvone, linalool, L-fenchone, geraniol, gamma-terpinene, and DL-camphor alone or in combination with low pressure (50 mmHg). Lethal times (LT) determined by subjecting time-mortality data to probit analyses were shortened to half when both diapausing and nondiapausing larvae were exposed to low pressure at 28 degrees C compared with 19 degrees C. Exposure of diapausing larvae to a monoterpenoid alone, with the exception of DL-camphor and estragole, at a concentration of 66.7 microl/1L of volume required > 30 h to generate 99% mortality at 19.0 +/- 0.8 degrees C. However, the LT99 values for diapausing and nondiapausing larvae exposed to combinations of DL-camphor or estragole and low pressure were considerably shortened. Combinations involving the rest of the monoterpenoids investigated and low pressure did not generate LT99 that were shorter than those of the control, which was low pressure only. These results suggest that integrating low pressure with DL-camphor or estragole could be a new method for the control of diapausing larvae of P. interpunctella at cooler temperatures.

  14. Polarizable continuum model study of solvent effects on electronic circular dichroism parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecul, Magdalena; Marchesan, Domenico; Ruud, Kenneth; Coriani, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    We present an implementation of the polarizable continuum model for the calculation of solvent effects on electronic circular dichroism spectra. The computational model used is density functional theory in the length-gauge formulation, and gauge-origin independence is ensured through the use of London atomic orbitals. Results of calculations carried out for methyloxirane and bicyclic ketones, camphor, norcamphor, norbornenone, and fenchone are presented, and the theoretically obtained solvent effects are compared with experimental observations.

  15. Influence of gibberellin and daminozide on the expression of terpene synthases and on monoterpenes in common sage (Salvia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Grassi, Paolo; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2010-07-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of alpha- and beta-thujone. GA(3) at the highest level applied also led to a significant decrease of alpha- and beta-thujone. Monoterpene synthases are a class of enzymes responsible for the first step in monoterpene biosynthesis, competing for the same substrate geranylpyrophosphate. The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. The foliar application of GA(3) increased, while daminozide significantly decreased gene expression of the monoterpene synthases. The amounts of two of the end products, 1,8-cineole and camphor, were directly correlated with the levels of gene expression of the respective monoterpene synthases, indicating transcriptional control, while the formation of alpha- and beta

  16. Unexpected Irregular Monoterpene "Yomogi Alcohol" in the Volatiles of the Lathyrus L. species (Leguminosae) of Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-01-01

    Lathyrus species including L. ochrus and L. sativus are known for their food, feed and horticultural uses. Despite their widespread uses and cultivation, there is limited information on their chemistry. Previously, only the essential oil composition of L. rotundifolius, L. vernus and volatiles of L. odoratus have been reported. In the present research, volatiles of seven Lathyrus L. species, namely, L. aphaca, L. ochrus, L. cicera, L. sativus, L. gorgonei, L. saxatilis and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius were analyzed by SPME GC-MS for the first time. Plant materials were collected from five different locations in Cyprus (February-March 2012). The main components of L. aphaca volatiles from four locations were yomogi alcohol 26.1-16.5%, camphor 21.6-10.1%, tetradecane 14.3-0%; L. cicera from five locations were yomogi alcohol 20.3-3.0%, camphor 18.7-2.0%; L. gorgonei from two locations were yomogi alcohol 24.5-13.1%, camphor 17.1-9.0% and L. sativus was yomogi alcohol 11.4%, camphor 9.0%. Yomogi alcohol was not present as the major compound in L. ochrus (2-methyl butanoic acid 7.2%), L. saxatilis (hexanal 7.7%) and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius ((Z)-3-hexenal 8.6%) volatiles. The volatiles of the Lathyrus species were also compared with each other quantitative and qualitatively using AHC analysis to find out differences among the species. The irregular monoterpene yomogi alcohol is reported from the Lathyrus and the Leguminosae family for the first time. The existence of yomogi alcohol in Lathyrus volatiles points out that the irregular monoterpenes are not restricted solely to Asteraceae family. PMID:26876676

  17. North American Lauraceae: terpenoid emissions, relative attraction and boring preferences of redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: curculionidae: scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Kendra, Paul E; Montgomery, Wayne S; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E; Mayfield, Albert E; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A; Bauchan, Gary R; Ploetz, Randy C; Epsky, Nancy D

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  18. The antibacterial effects of calcium hydroxide apexification pastes on Streptococcus sanguis.

    PubMed

    DiFiore, P M; Peters, D D; Setterstrom, J A; Lorton, L

    1983-01-01

    Four calcium hydroxide-based apexification pastes were tested for their antibacterial effects on Streptococcus sanguis. Their zones of growth inhibition on blood agar plates were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. Only the camphorated parachlorophenol and the metacresylacetate pastes showed zones of inhibition. Both of these zones of inhibition decreased with time; however, the zones of inhibition for the parachlorophenol paste decreased at a slower rate. PMID:6572354

  19. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of flowerheads of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium) against agricultural pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Castellanos, P P; Bishop, C D; Pascual-Villalobos, M J

    2001-05-01

    The antifungal activity of Chrysamthemum coronarium was evaluated against 12 agricultural pathogens. Flowerhead oil was active both in contact and headspace in vitro assays producing hyphal growth inhibition, although there was less activity on faster growing fungi. The main compounds identified in the oil were camphor (29.2%), alpha-pinene (14.8%), beta-pinene (9.5%) and lyratyl acetate (9.8%). The blue color of the oil was due to the presence of chamazulene (0.5%).

  20. Unexpected Irregular Monoterpene "Yomogi Alcohol" in the Volatiles of the Lathyrus L. species (Leguminosae) of Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Can Başer, Kemal Hüsnü

    2016-01-01

    Lathyrus species including L. ochrus and L. sativus are known for their food, feed and horticultural uses. Despite their widespread uses and cultivation, there is limited information on their chemistry. Previously, only the essential oil composition of L. rotundifolius, L. vernus and volatiles of L. odoratus have been reported. In the present research, volatiles of seven Lathyrus L. species, namely, L. aphaca, L. ochrus, L. cicera, L. sativus, L. gorgonei, L. saxatilis and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius were analyzed by SPME GC-MS for the first time. Plant materials were collected from five different locations in Cyprus (February-March 2012). The main components of L. aphaca volatiles from four locations were yomogi alcohol 26.1-16.5%, camphor 21.6-10.1%, tetradecane 14.3-0%; L. cicera from five locations were yomogi alcohol 20.3-3.0%, camphor 18.7-2.0%; L. gorgonei from two locations were yomogi alcohol 24.5-13.1%, camphor 17.1-9.0% and L. sativus was yomogi alcohol 11.4%, camphor 9.0%. Yomogi alcohol was not present as the major compound in L. ochrus (2-methyl butanoic acid 7.2%), L. saxatilis (hexanal 7.7%) and L. blepharicarpos var. cyprius ((Z)-3-hexenal 8.6%) volatiles. The volatiles of the Lathyrus species were also compared with each other quantitative and qualitatively using AHC analysis to find out differences among the species. The irregular monoterpene yomogi alcohol is reported from the Lathyrus and the Leguminosae family for the first time. The existence of yomogi alcohol in Lathyrus volatiles points out that the irregular monoterpenes are not restricted solely to Asteraceae family.

  1. North American Lauraceae: Terpenoid Emissions, Relative Attraction and Boring Preferences of Redbay Ambrosia Beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    PubMed Central

    Kendra, Paul E.; Montgomery, Wayne S.; Niogret, Jerome; Pruett, Grechen E.; Mayfield, Albert E.; MacKenzie, Martin; Deyrup, Mark A.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ploetz, Randy C.; Epsky, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is the primary vector of Raffaelea lauricola, a symbiotic fungus and the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. This lethal disease has caused severe mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia) and swampbay (P. palustris) trees in the southeastern USA, threatens avocado (P. americana) production in Florida, and has potential to impact additional New World species. To date, all North American hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Lauraceae. This comparative study combined field tests and laboratory bioassays to evaluate attraction and boring preferences of female X. glabratus using freshly-cut bolts from nine species of Lauraceae: avocado (one cultivar of each botanical race), redbay, swampbay, silkbay (Persea humilis), California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora), and lancewood (Nectandra coriacea). In addition, volatile collections and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were conducted to quantify terpenoid emissions from test bolts, and electroantennography (EAG) was performed to measure olfactory responses of X. glabratus to terpenoids identified by GC-MS. Significant differences were observed among treatments in both field and laboratory tests. Silkbay and camphor tree attracted the highest numbers of the beetle in the field, and lancewood and spicebush the lowest, whereas boring activity was greatest on silkbay, bay laurel, swampbay, and redbay, and lowest on lancewood, spicebush, and camphor tree. The Guatemalan cultivar of avocado was more attractive than those of the other races, but boring response among the three was equivalent. The results suggest that camphor tree may contain a chemical deterrent to boring, and that different cues are associated with host location and host acceptance. Emissions of α-cubebene, α-copaene, α-humulene, and calamenene were

  2. Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oil from Spain: determination of aromatic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oils (EOs), from Abrial, Super and Grosso cultivars, cultivated and extracted in the South East of Spain, were analysed by using GC/MS to determine their composition, in both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (34-47%), linalyl acetate (17-34%), camphor (4-9%) and eucalyptol (3-7%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with the enantioselective gas chromatography, where ( - )-linalool, (+)-camphor and ( - )-linalyl acetate were determined as the main components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods: activity against free radicals, chelating and reducing power, probably due to linalool and linalyl acetate. Mild inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool and camphor. These properties support the potential use of L. × intermedia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredient to fight several skin diseases. PMID:26106980

  3. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of cinnarizine using superdisintegrant blends and subliming material

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Biswajit; Bagadiya, Abhishek; Makwana, Sagar; Vipul, Vora; Batt, Devraj; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablet of cinnarizine. A combination of super disintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and crosscarmellose sodium (CCS) were used along with camphor as a subliming material. An optimized concentration of camphor was added to aid the porosity of the tablet. A 32 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: Amount of SSG and CCS. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer. IR spectroscopy showed that there is no interaction of drug with polymer. In the present study, direct compression was used to prepare the tablets. The powder mixtures were compressed into tablet using flat face multi punch tablet machine. Camphor was sublimed from the tablet by exposing the tablet to vacuum drier at 60°C for 12 hours. All the formulations were evaluated for their characteristics such as average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, dispersion time (DT), and dissolution rate. An optimized tablet formulation (F 9) was found to have good hardness of 3.30 ± 0.10 kg/cm2, wetting time of 42.33 ± 4.04 seconds, DT of 34.67 ± 1.53 seconds, and cumulative drug release of not less than 99% in 16 minutes. PMID:22247895

  4. Chemical Variability of the Essential Oil Isolated from Aerial Parts of Tetraclinis articulata from North-Western Algeria.

    PubMed

    Boussaïd, Maghnia; Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Beddou, Fawzia; Sari, Daoudi Chabane; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the yield and chemical composition of 50 essential oil samples isolated from leaves and flowers of Tetraclinis articulata harvested in eight locations (coastal township and highlands) of Tlemcen Province (North-Western Algeria). Essential oil yields varied drastically from sample to sample (0.03 to 0.86%, w/w). No direct correlation was observed between the yield and the altitude of the harvest areas. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpenes: α-pinene (9.2-56.5%), bornyl acetate (1.2-45.1%), camphor (0.5-40.3%), borneol (0.2-12.9%), limonene (3.6-12.5%), and myrcene (1.6-9.7%). Sesquiterpenes were represented by germacrene D (up to 14.2%) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (up to 13.3%). PCA analysis of the data allowed the distinction of two groups within the samples. The composition of group I (9 samples) was dominated by camphor, (Mean = 30.9%) followed by α-pinene (M = 19.1%) and bornyl acetate (M = 11.4%). Group II was divided into two sub-groups. Samples of sub-group IIA (8 samples) contained mainly α-pinene (M = 45.4%). Samples of the largest group IIB (33 samples) were characterized by similar contents of α-pinene (M = 28.2%) and bornyl acetate (M = 24.5%) and the occurrence of camphor to a lesser extent (M = 10.0%).

  5. Quantitation of Ten Flavor Compounds in Unburned Tobacco Products†

    PubMed Central

    Lisko, Joseph G.; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Most research on unburned tobacco has focused on the harmful chemicals associated with the tobacco itself. However, certain flavor additives in tobacco products can pose additional health risks. Flavors like camphor, coumarin, pulegone, eugenol, methyl salicylate, menthol and diphenyl ether have exhibited biological activity and/or toxicity in both lab animals and humans. This publication presents a new GC/MS method for the quantitation of ten flavor compounds (eucalyptol, camphor, menthol, pulegone, ethyl salicylate, methyl salicylate, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, diphenyl ether and coumarin) in a variety of tobacco products, including smokeless products and cigar filler. Excellent linearity (>0.997), accuracy (93.9% - 106.6%) and precision (C.V., 0.5% - 3.0%) were achieved for all flavor analytes measured. A summary of the concentrations of these flavors in selected international smokeless tobacco (SLT) products including zarda, quiwam, gutkha, and khaini varieties from Southeast Asia and snuff, clove cigarette filler and flavored cigar filler from the United States is reported. High concentrations of eugenol (2110 μg/g), coumarin (439 μg/g), camphor (1060 μg/g) and diphenyl ether (4840 μg/g) were found in selected products. Accurate identification and quantitation of potentially hazardous flavor compounds is important because they can exist in relatively high levels in some tobacco products, including international SLT products. We outline a versatile method which can be used to quantitate flavor compounds in multiple types of tobacco products. PMID:26388954

  6. Structure of fenchone by broadband rotational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Loru, Donatella; Bermúdez, Miguel A; Sanz, M Eugenia

    2016-08-21

    The bicyclic terpenoid fenchone (C10H16O, 1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one) has been investigated by chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the 2-8 GHz frequency region. The parent species and all heavy atom isotopologues have been observed in their natural abundance. The experimental rotational constants of all isotopic species observed have been determined and used to obtain the substitution (rs) and effective (r0) structures of fenchone. Calculations at the B3LYP, M06-2X, and MP2 levels of theory with different basis sets were carried out to check their performance against experimental results. The structure of fenchone has been compared with those of norbornane (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) and the norbornane derivatives camphor (1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one) and camphene (3,3-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptane), both with substituents at C2. The structure of fenchone is remarkably similar to those of camphor and camphene. Comparison with camphor allows identification of changes in ∠CCC angles due to the different position of the methyl groups. All norbornane derivatives display similar structural changes with respect to norbornane. These changes mainly affect the bond lengths and angles of the six-membered rings, indicating that the substituent at C2 drives structural adjustments to minimise ring strain after its introduction. PMID:27544109

  7. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of cinnarizine using superdisintegrant blends and subliming material.

    PubMed

    Basu, Biswajit; Bagadiya, Abhishek; Makwana, Sagar; Vipul, Vora; Batt, Devraj; Dharamsi, Abhay

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop fast dissolving tablet of cinnarizine. A combination of super disintegrants, i.e., sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and crosscarmellose sodium (CCS) were used along with camphor as a subliming material. An optimized concentration of camphor was added to aid the porosity of the tablet. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: Amount of SSG and CCS. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between drug and polymer. IR spectroscopy showed that there is no interaction of drug with polymer. In the present study, direct compression was used to prepare the tablets. The powder mixtures were compressed into tablet using flat face multi punch tablet machine. Camphor was sublimed from the tablet by exposing the tablet to vacuum drier at 60°C for 12 hours. All the formulations were evaluated for their characteristics such as average weight, hardness, wetting time, friability, content uniformity, dispersion time (DT), and dissolution rate. An optimized tablet formulation (F 9) was found to have good hardness of 3.30 ± 0.10 kg/cm(2), wetting time of 42.33 ± 4.04 seconds, DT of 34.67 ± 1.53 seconds, and cumulative drug release of not less than 99% in 16 minutes. PMID:22247895

  8. Chemical Variability of the Essential Oil Isolated from Aerial Parts of Tetraclinis articulata from North-Western Algeria.

    PubMed

    Boussaïd, Maghnia; Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Beddou, Fawzia; Sari, Daoudi Chabane; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the yield and chemical composition of 50 essential oil samples isolated from leaves and flowers of Tetraclinis articulata harvested in eight locations (coastal township and highlands) of Tlemcen Province (North-Western Algeria). Essential oil yields varied drastically from sample to sample (0.03 to 0.86%, w/w). No direct correlation was observed between the yield and the altitude of the harvest areas. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpenes: α-pinene (9.2-56.5%), bornyl acetate (1.2-45.1%), camphor (0.5-40.3%), borneol (0.2-12.9%), limonene (3.6-12.5%), and myrcene (1.6-9.7%). Sesquiterpenes were represented by germacrene D (up to 14.2%) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (up to 13.3%). PCA analysis of the data allowed the distinction of two groups within the samples. The composition of group I (9 samples) was dominated by camphor, (Mean = 30.9%) followed by α-pinene (M = 19.1%) and bornyl acetate (M = 11.4%). Group II was divided into two sub-groups. Samples of sub-group IIA (8 samples) contained mainly α-pinene (M = 45.4%). Samples of the largest group IIB (33 samples) were characterized by similar contents of α-pinene (M = 28.2%) and bornyl acetate (M = 24.5%) and the occurrence of camphor to a lesser extent (M = 10.0%). PMID:26434139

  9. Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia Essential Oils from Spain: Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Compositions of true lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oils, cultivated and extracted in the Southeast of Spain, were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection, obtaining both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (37-54 %), linalyl acetate (21-36 %) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (1-3 %) were the most abundant components for L. angustifolia. Linalool (35-51 %), eucalyptol (26-32 %), camphor (10-18 %), α-pinene (1-2 %), α-terpineol (1-2 %) and α-bisabolene (1-2 %) were the most abundant components for L. latifolia. The characterization was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, in which the determined main molecules were (-)-linalool, (-)-linalyl acetate and (+)-camphor. (S)-(-)-camphene, (R)-(+)-limonene, (1R, 9S)-(-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene and (1R, 4R, 6R, 10S)-(-)-caryophyllene oxide were found in this study as the predominant enantiomers in Spanish L. angustifolia. The characterised essential oils were tested for their antioxidant activity against free radicals ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, chelating, and reducing power. Inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed indicating a possible anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool, camphor, p-cymene and limonene. These results can be the starting point for a future study of the potential use of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients for several skin diseases. PMID:26441063

  10. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle.

  11. Chemical Compositionand Anti-acetyl cholinesterase Activity of Flower Essential Oils of Artemisiaannuaat Different Flowering Stage

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhengwen; Wang, Bochu; Yang, Fumei; Sun, Qianyun; Yang, Zhannan; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of flower at the pre-flowering, full-flowering and post-flowering stage of A. annua was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and sixty-two components were identified. The main compounds in the pre-flowering oil were β-myrcene (37.71%), 1, 8-cineole (16.11%) and camphor (14.97%). The full-flowering oil contained predominantly caryophyllene (19.4%), germacrene D (18.1%), camphor (15.84%), 1, 8-cineole (10.6%) and (Z)-β-farnesene (9.43%). The major constituents identified in the post-flowering oil were camphor (16.62%), caryophyllene (16.27%), β-caryophyllene oxide (15.84%), β-farnesene (9.05%) and (-)-spathulenol (7.21%). The variety of anti-AChE activity of flower oil of A. annua at three flowering stage might be a result of the variety of the content and interaction of those terpenoids with anti-AChE activity. The greatest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.13 ± 0.02 mg mL-1) was exhibited by the essential oil of flower of A. annua at post-flowering stage. PMID:24250353

  12. In vitro antifungal activity of four chemotypes of Lippia alba (Verbenaceae) essential oils against Alternaria solani (Pleosporeaceae) isolates.

    PubMed

    Tomazoni, Elisa Z; Pansera, Márcia R; Pauletti, Gabriel F; Moura, Sidnei; Ribeiro, Rute T S; Schwambach, Joséli

    2016-05-31

    Several volatile natural compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism have been proven to present antimicrobial action, enabling their use in phytopathogen control. They also present low environmental impact when compared to conventional pesticides. Essential oils contain these compounds and can be found in several plant species, such as Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae). Essential oils of four chemotypes of L. alba, characterized by their major compounds, namely camphor, citral, linalool and camphor/1,8-cineole, were tested against the phytopathogen Alternaria solani Sorauer (Pleosporaceae), which causes early blight on tomatoes and is responsible for great economic losses regarding production. Essential oils antifungal action was tested in vitro using potato dextrose agar medium with essential oil concentrations at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µL mL-1. The chemotype that had the best performance was citral, showing significant inhibition compared to the others, starting at the 0.5 µL mL-1 concentration. The essential oil belonging to the linalool chemotype was efficient starting at the 1.5 µL mL-1 concentration. Conversely, the camphor chemotype did not show any action against the phytopathogen. Moreover, the essential oils had no remarkable effect on tomato germination and growth. In conclusion, these essential oils presented fungicidal action against A. solani. PMID:27254445

  13. Hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system for topical delivery of lipophilic drugs.

    PubMed

    Mou, Dongsheng; Chen, Huabing; Du, Danrong; Mao, Chengwen; Wan, Jiangling; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2008-04-01

    In this work, a hydrogel-thickened nanoemulsion system (HTN) with powerful permeation ability, good stability and suitable viscosity was investigated for topical delivery of active molecules. HTN was prepared to deliver an oily mixture of 5% camphor, 5% menthol and 5% methyl salicylate for topical therapy of arthritis, minor joint and muscle pain using soybean oil as the oil phase, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and poloxamer 407 as the surfactants, propylene glycol as the cosurfactant, carbomer 940 as a thickening agent. The HTN system was found to combine the o/w microstructure of nanoemulsion with the gel network of hydrogel and had a suitable viscosity of 133.2PaS. The system had small average diameters and good long-term stability. The abilities of HTN to deliver the high amounts of camphor, menthol and methyl salicylate were evaluated using the in vitro permeation studies. The permeation rates of camphor, menthol and methyl salicylate from the optimal HTN formulation were 138.0+/-6.5, 63.6+/-3.3, 53.8+/-3.2 microg cm(-2) h(-1) and showed the significant advantages over the control gel. The HTN with good stability and powerful permeation enhancing ability and suitable viscosity might be a promising prospective carrier for topical delivery of lipophilic drugs. PMID:18215479

  14. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes

    PubMed Central

    Kubiça, Thaís F.; Alves, Sydney H.; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T.

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL−1) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL−1) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  15. Olfactory discrimination of structurally related molecules: receptor cell responses to camphoraceous odorants.

    PubMed

    Sicard, G

    1985-02-11

    Electrophysiological investigations of the selective sensitivity of receptor cells have shown that odorants could be distributed into groups according to the profiles of responses that they elicited from a population of receptor cells. As the concept of odorant group plays an important role in the understanding of olfactory coding, an attempt was made to investigate in detail the group properties of a number of structurally and qualitatively related molecules: 1,8 cineole, DL-camphor, borneol, iso-borneol, adamantane, fenchone, fenchyl alcohol, 3,3,5-tri-methyl cyclohexanone, camphene, 1,1,2,2-tetra-bromoethane. These odorants, along with several other representatives of other odorant groups, were utilized to stimulate a set of 71 individually recorded receptor cells. Factor analysis of electrophysiological data demonstrated that the grouping of odorants with camphor could be predicted on the basis of the shape and size of the molecules. The analysis also showed that even a clearly defined odorant group such as the camphor group is not likely to be determined by a single type of receptor site.

  16. Essential oil from Artemisia phaeolepis: chemical composition and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Ben Halima, Nihed; Abdelkafi, Slim; Hamdi, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia phaeolepis, a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, grows on the grasslands of Mediterranean region. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia phaeolepis was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 79 components representing 98.19% of the total oil were identified, and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (11.30%), camphor (8.21%), terpine-4-ol (7.32%), germacrene D (6.39), caryophyllene oxide (6.34%), and caryophyllene (5.37%). The essential oil showed definite inhibitory activity against 10 strains of test microorganisms. Eucalyptol, camphor, terpine-4-ol, caryophyllene, germacrene D and caryophyllene oxide were also examined as the major components of the oil. Camphor showed the strongest antimicrobial activity; terpine-4-ol, eucalyptol, caryophyllene and germacrene D were moderately active and caryophyllene oxide was weakly active. The study revealed that the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. PMID:24292348

  17. Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia Essential Oils from Spain: Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Compositions of true lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oils, cultivated and extracted in the Southeast of Spain, were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection, obtaining both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (37-54 %), linalyl acetate (21-36 %) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (1-3 %) were the most abundant components for L. angustifolia. Linalool (35-51 %), eucalyptol (26-32 %), camphor (10-18 %), α-pinene (1-2 %), α-terpineol (1-2 %) and α-bisabolene (1-2 %) were the most abundant components for L. latifolia. The characterization was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, in which the determined main molecules were (-)-linalool, (-)-linalyl acetate and (+)-camphor. (S)-(-)-camphene, (R)-(+)-limonene, (1R, 9S)-(-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene and (1R, 4R, 6R, 10S)-(-)-caryophyllene oxide were found in this study as the predominant enantiomers in Spanish L. angustifolia. The characterised essential oils were tested for their antioxidant activity against free radicals ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, chelating, and reducing power. Inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed indicating a possible anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool, camphor, p-cymene and limonene. These results can be the starting point for a future study of the potential use of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients for several skin diseases.

  18. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle. PMID:24948933

  19. Monoterpenoid agonists of TRPV3

    PubMed Central

    Vogt-Eisele, A K; Weber, K; Sherkheli, M A; Vielhaber, G; Panten, J; Gisselmann, G; Hatt, H

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Transient receptor potential (TRP) V3 is a thermosensitive ion channel expressed predominantly in the skin and neural tissues. It is activated by warmth and the monoterpene camphor and has been hypothesized to be involved in skin sensitization. A selection of monoterpenoid compounds was tested for TRPV3 activation to establish a structure-function relationship. The related channel TRPM8 is activated by cool temperatures and a number of chemicals, among them the monoterpene (-)-menthol. The overlap of the receptor pharmacology between the two channels was investigated. Experimental approach: Transfected HEK293 cells were superfused with the test substances. Evoked currents were measured in whole cell patch clamp measurements. Dose-response curves for the most potent agonists were obtained in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Key results: Six monoterpenes significantly more potent than camphor were identified: 6-tert-butyl-m-cresol, carvacrol, dihydrocarveol, thymol, carveol and (+)-borneol. Their EC50 is up to 16 times lower than that of camphor. All of these compounds carry a ring-located hydroxyl group and neither activates TRPM8 to a major extent. Conclusions and implications: Terpenoids have long been recognized as medically and pharmacologically active compounds, although their molecular targets have only partially been identified. TRPV3 activation may be responsible for several of the described effects of terpenoids. We show here that TRPV3 is activated by a number of monoterpenes and that a secondary hydroxyl-group is a structural requirement. PMID:17420775

  20. Structure of fenchone by broadband rotational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loru, Donatella; Bermúdez, Miguel A.; Sanz, M. Eugenia

    2016-08-01

    The bicyclic terpenoid fenchone (C10H16O, 1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one) has been investigated by chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the 2-8 GHz frequency region. The parent species and all heavy atom isotopologues have been observed in their natural abundance. The experimental rotational constants of all isotopic species observed have been determined and used to obtain the substitution (rs) and effective (r0) structures of fenchone. Calculations at the B3LYP, M06-2X, and MP2 levels of theory with different basis sets were carried out to check their performance against experimental results. The structure of fenchone has been compared with those of norbornane (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) and the norbornane derivatives camphor (1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one) and camphene (3,3-dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo[2.2.1]heptane), both with substituents at C2. The structure of fenchone is remarkably similar to those of camphor and camphene. Comparison with camphor allows identification of changes in ∠CCC angles due to the different position of the methyl groups. All norbornane derivatives display similar structural changes with respect to norbornane. These changes mainly affect the bond lengths and angles of the six-membered rings, indicating that the substituent at C2 drives structural adjustments to minimise ring strain after its introduction.

  1. Rapid diagnosis of the infection of pine tree with pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) by use of host-tree volatiles.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji Eun; Kim, Junheon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2012-08-01

    Attraction of the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus nematode toward 18 volatiles of Pinus species was evaluated by a Petri-dish bioassay under laboratory conditions to develop a rapid diagnostic kit. Among these compounds, α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor showed significantly higher attractiveness to B. xylophilus in both the reproductive and dispersal stages, whereas these compounds were not active against Bursaphelenchus mucronatus . A trap tube was developed as a diagnostic kit, which consisted of a tube filled with 0.8% agar and a matrix impregnated with an attractant: α-pinene, β-pinene, or camphor. All tested compounds attracted a significantly higher number of B. xylophilus than that in the control treatment. No significant difference was observed among attractants. The cotton-ball matrix was significantly more effective than the filter-paper matrix for attracting B. xylophilus in the artificial pupal chamber bioassay. In a bioassay with pine wood nematode (PWN)-infected pine tree logs, B. xylophilus was initially attracted after an 8 h trap period and the number of B. xylophilus increased with time. The trap tube using camphor and the cotton-ball matrix were most effective for attracting B. xylophilus . The semiochemical-based tube-trapping method is simple to use, requires minimal labor, and is economical and effective for detecting B. xylophilus living in host pine trees during field sampling. PMID:22725097

  2. Quantitative estimation of the parameters for self-motion driven by difference in surface tension.

    PubMed

    Suematsu, Nobuhiko J; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Nakata, Satoshi; Kitahata, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-15

    Quantitative information on the parameters associated with self-propelled objects would enhance the potential of this research field; for example, finding a realistic way to develop a functional self-propelled object and quantitative understanding of the mechanism of self-motion. We therefore estimated five main parameters, including the driving force, of a camphor boat as a simple self-propelled object that spontaneously moves on water due to difference in surface tension. The experimental results and mathematical model indicated that the camphor boat generated a driving force of 4.2 μN, which corresponds to a difference in surface tension of 1.1 mN m(-1). The methods used in this study are not restricted to evaluate the parameters of self-motion of a camphor boat, but can be applied to other self-propelled objects driven by difference in surface tension. Thus, our investigation provides a novel method to quantitatively estimate the parameters for self-propelled objects driven by the interfacial tension difference.

  3. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Scabiosa arenaria Forssk: growing wild in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Malek; Omri, Amel; Cheraif, Imed; Daami, Mejda; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Mastouri, Maha; Aouni, Mahjoub; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2012-04-01

    The essential oils isolated from three organs, i.e., fruits, stems and leaves, and flowers, of the endemic North African plant Scabiosa arenaria Forssk. were screened for their chemical composition, as well as their possible antibacterial, anticandidal, and antifungal properties. According to the GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, 61 (99.26% of the total oil composition), 79 (98.43%), and 51 compounds (99.9%) were identified in the three oils, respectively. While α-thujone (34.39%), camphor (17.48%), and β-thujone (15.29%) constituted the major compounds of the fruit oil, chrysanthenone (23.43%), together with camphor (12.98%) and α-thujone (10.7%), were the main constituents of the stem and leaf oil. In the case of the flower oil, also chrysanthenone (38.52%), camphor (11.75%), and α-thujone (9.5%) were identified as the major compounds. Furthermore, the isolated oils were tested against 16 Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, four Candida species, and nine phytopathogenic fungal strains. It was found that the oils exhibited interesting antibacterial and anticandidal activities, comparable to those of thymol, which was used as positive control, but no activity against the phytopathogenic fungal strains was observed.

  5. Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  6. UV filters interaction in the chlorinated swimming pool, a new challenge for urbanization, a need for community scale investigations.

    PubMed

    Sharifan, Hamidreza; Klein, David; Morse, Audra N

    2016-07-01

    Sunscreen products and some personal care products contain the Ultraviolet (UV) chemical filters, which are entering the surface water. Public concerns about secondary effects of these compounds are growing because of the contamination of the aquatic environment that may reach to potentially toxic concentration levels. This article highlights the reaction of certain UV filters with hypochlorite disinfectant in the presence of sunlight. Due to urbanization and industrialization, use of outdoor plastic swimming pools is increasing. The relatively smaller volume of these pools compared to larger pools may increase the concentration of the UV filters in the pool and their potential interactions with materials of human origin (urine, sweat, cosmetics, skin cells, and hair) to the levels of toxicity concerns for children through the creation of disinfection by products (DBP). Based on our analysis, the minimum concentration levels of 2.85, 1.9, 1.78 and 0.95g/L, respectively, for EHMC, OC, 4-MBC and BP3 UV filters in children pools are predicted. Therefore, this article calls for an urgent investigation of potential toxic effects of the UV filters, the creation of DBPs and their subsequent impacts on human health.

  7. Susceptibility of Phytopathogenic Bacteria to Wheat Purothionins In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    De Caleya, R. Fernandez; Gonzalez-Pascual, Blanca; García-Olmedo, F.; Carbonero, Pilar

    1972-01-01

    Purothionins are basic polypeptides with antimicrobial properties that are present in the endosperm of wheat and other cereal species. Susceptibility to wheat purothionins among phytopathogenic bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Agrobacterium, Erwinia, and Corynebacterium has been investigated. Sensitive strains have been found in all of these genera except Agrobacterium (the only strain of A. tumefaciens available proved to be resistant). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) with partially purified crude purothionins ranged from 1 μg/ml for C. sepedonicum (C.5) to 540 μg/ml for E. amylovora (E.3). Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were not higher than twice the MIC value, except for C. poinsettiae (C.4) (MBC/MIC = 8). Purothionins α and β, obtained by carboxymethyl-cellulose column chromatography, were tested against P. solanacearum (P.2) and X. phaseoli (X.2); α purothionin was more active than β against X.2, and β more active than α against P.2. This suggests a relationship between polypeptide sequence and specificity of action. PMID:5031563

  8. UV filters interaction in the chlorinated swimming pool, a new challenge for urbanization, a need for community scale investigations.

    PubMed

    Sharifan, Hamidreza; Klein, David; Morse, Audra N

    2016-07-01

    Sunscreen products and some personal care products contain the Ultraviolet (UV) chemical filters, which are entering the surface water. Public concerns about secondary effects of these compounds are growing because of the contamination of the aquatic environment that may reach to potentially toxic concentration levels. This article highlights the reaction of certain UV filters with hypochlorite disinfectant in the presence of sunlight. Due to urbanization and industrialization, use of outdoor plastic swimming pools is increasing. The relatively smaller volume of these pools compared to larger pools may increase the concentration of the UV filters in the pool and their potential interactions with materials of human origin (urine, sweat, cosmetics, skin cells, and hair) to the levels of toxicity concerns for children through the creation of disinfection by products (DBP). Based on our analysis, the minimum concentration levels of 2.85, 1.9, 1.78 and 0.95g/L, respectively, for EHMC, OC, 4-MBC and BP3 UV filters in children pools are predicted. Therefore, this article calls for an urgent investigation of potential toxic effects of the UV filters, the creation of DBPs and their subsequent impacts on human health. PMID:27088731

  9. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila.

  10. Comparison of piracetam measured with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, DIP-APCI-MS, and a newly developed and optimized DIP-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, Claudia; Winterfeld, Gottfried A; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-06-01

    The direct inlet probe-electrospray ionization (DIP-ESI) presented here was based on the direct inlet probe-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DIP-APCI) developed by our group. It was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) for the detection of more polar compounds such as degradation products from pharmaceuticals. First, the position of the ESI tip, the gas and solvent flow rates, as well as the gas temperature were optimized with the help of the statistic program Minitab® 17 and a caffeine standard. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was also tested by using different concentrations of caffeine and camphor. Calibration curves with a quadratic calibration regression of R (2) = 0.9997 and 0.9998 for caffeine and camphor, respectively, were obtained. The limit of detection of 2.5 and 1.7 ng per injection for caffeine and camphor were determined, respectively. Furthermore, a solution of piracetam was used to compare established analytical methods for this drug and its impurities such as HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-ESI-MS with the DIP-APCI and the developed DIP-ESI. With HPLC-DAD and 10 μg piracetam on column, no impurity could be detected. With HPLC-ESI-MS, two impurities (A and B) were identified with only 4.6 μg piracetam on column, while with DIP-ESI, an amount of 1.6 μg piracetam was sufficient. In the case of the DIP-ESI measurements, all detected impurities could be identified by MS/MS studies. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the DIP-ESI principle. PMID:27071761

  11. Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activities of Ajania fruticulosa Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Yu; Guo, Shan-Shan; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan; Zhang, Ji

    2016-08-01

    The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (41.40%), (+)-camphor (32.10%), and myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm(2) , respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 and 0.65 mg/l, respectively. 1,8-Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)-Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50  = 29.40 μg/cm(2) ) and fumigant toxicity (LC50  = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8-Cineole and (+)-camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insecticidal activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. PMID:27482698

  12. The synthesis and microwave absorbing properties of MWCNTs and MWCNTs/ferromagnet composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi Gang; Qiao, Xiao Jing; Wan, Xiang; Ren, Qing Guo; Li, Wang Chang; Zhang, Shuai Zhong; Guo, Xiao Dang

    2016-02-01

    The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using camphor as carbon source and ferrocene as catalyst. The effect of different camphor/ferrocene ratio, calcination temperature and deposition substrates on the morphology and performance of the samples have been examined. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed the structure and growing mechanism of the MWCNTs in detail. The optimized MWCNTs have been obtained at 900 °C by 100:1 camphor/ferrocene ratio, whose IR extinction coefficient(αe) can reach 0.66 m2/g at 1400 cm-1, with the bandwidth between 594 and 3233 cm-1. The magnetic properties and microwave absorbing capability of Fe NPs/MWCNTs and MWCNTs/ferrite composites have been investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer and Vector network analyzer. With the addition of MWCNTs, the dielectric properties of the FeNPs/MWCNTs are enhanced in the L, S and C bands. The bandwidth (BW) below -10 dB of the 2 mm thickness ranges from 6.50 to 9.15 GHz, with the maximum RL reaching -23.78 dB at 7.8 GHz. And the peak reflection loss (RL) of the MWCNTs/ferrite can reach -18.17 dB at 3.55 GHz under 5 mm thickness, with dual-frequency absorption appearing in Ku bands at 4 and 5 mm thickness. The difference in lower frequency between the two composites suggests that MWCNTs/ferrite is expected to be an excellent tunable and broadband absorber.

  13. Lousicidal, ovicidal and repellent efficacy of some essential oils against lice and flies infesting water buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; El-Madawy, Reham S

    2009-10-14

    The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting water buffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal concentration, LC50, values were 2.74, 7.28, 12.35, 18.67 and 22.79% for camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), onion (Allium cepa), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and rosemary oils (Rosmarinus officinalis), respectively, whereas for d-phenothrin, it was 1.17%. The lethal time (50) (LT50) values were 0.89, 2.75, 15.39, 21.32, 11.60 and 1.94 min after treatment with 7.5% camphor, onion, peppermint, chamomile, rosemary and d-phenothrin, respectively. All the materials used except rosemary, which was not applied, were ovicidal to the eggs of H. tuberculatus. Despite the results of the in vitro assays, the in vivo treatments revealed that the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with oils. All treated lice were killed after 0.5-2 min, whereas with d-phenothrin, 100% mortality was reached only after 120 min. The number of lice infesting buffaloes was significantly reduced 3, 6, 4, 6 and 9 days after treatment with camphor, peppermint, chamomile, onion, and d-phenothrin, respectively. Moreover, the oils and d-phenothrin significantly repelled flies, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans and Hippobosca equina, for 6 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively. No adverse effects were noted on either animals or pour-on operators after exposure to the applied materials. Consequently, some Egyptian essential oils show potential for the development of new, speedy and safe lousicides and insect repellents for controlling lice and flies which infest water buffaloes. PMID:19596520

  14. Analysis of the essential oils of the leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots of the medicinal plant Alpinia galanga from southern India.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Shafi, Mohamed Pottachola; Leela, Neettiyath Kalathil

    2003-06-01

    The essential oils of the leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots of the medicinal plant Alpinia galanga from southern India were investigated by GC-FID, GC-MS and olfactometry. In all four samples, mono- and sesquiterpenes as well as (E)-methyl cinnamate could be identified. They are responsible for the characteristic odor as well as for the reported use in (folk) medicine and in food products of A. galanga. The essential oil of A. galanga leaves is rich in 1,8-cineole (28.3%), camphor (15.6%), beta-pinene (5.0%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (4.6%), bornyl acetate (4.3%) and guaiol (3.5%). The stem essential oil contains 1,8-cineole (31.1%), camphor (11.0%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (7.4%), guaiol (4.9%), bornyl acetate (3.6%), beta-pinene (3.3%) and alpha-terpineol (3.3%). 1,8-cineole (28.4%), alpha-fenchyl acetate (18.4%), camphor (7.7%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (4.2%) and guaiol (3.3%) are the main constituents of the rhizome essential oil. The root essential oil contains alpha-fenchyl acetate (40.9%), 1,8-cineole (9.4%), borneol (6.3%), bornyl acetate (5.4%) and elemol (3.1%). In addition, biological and aroma effects of the main and minor compounds of the four essential oils of Alpinia galanga are discussed in terms of their possible use in medicine, cosmetics and foods.

  15. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively).

  16. Reductive dehalogenation by cytochrome P450CAM: substrate binding and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Wackett, L P

    1993-09-14

    Biological reductive dehalogenation reactions are important in environmental detoxification of organohalides. Only scarce information is available on the enzymology underlying these reactions. Cytochrome P450CAM with a known X-ray structure and well-studied oxygenase reaction cycle, has been studied for its ability to reduce carbon-halogen bonds under anaerobic conditions. The reductive reactions functioned with NADH and the physiological electron-transfer proteins or by using artificial electron donors to reduce cytochrome P450CAM. Halogenated methane and ethane substrates were transformed by a two-electron reduction and subsequent protonation, beta-elimination, or alpha-elimination to yield alkanes, alkene, or carbene-derived products, respectively. Halogenated substrates bound to the camphor binding site as indicated by saturable changes in the Fe(III)-heme spin state upon substrate addition. Hexachloromethane was bound with a dissociation constant (KD) of 0.7 microM and caused > 95% shift from low- to high-spin iron. Ethanes bearing fewer chlorine substituents were bound with increasing dissociation constants and gave lesser degrees of iron spin-state change. Camphor competitively inhibited hexachloroethane reduction with an inhibitor constant (KI) similar to the dissociation constant for camphor (KI = KD = 0.9 microM). Rate determinations with pentachloroethane indicated a 100-fold higher enzyme V/K compared to the second-order rate constant for hematin free in solution. These studies on substrate binding and catalysis will help reveal how biological systems enzymatically reduce carbon-halogen bonds in the environment. PMID:8369306

  17. Formulation design and optimization of fast dissolving clonazepam tablets by sublimation method.

    PubMed

    Shirsand, S B; Suresh, Sarasija; Kusumdevi, V; Swamy, P V

    2011-09-01

    Fast dissolving tablets of clonazepam were prepared by sublimation method with a view to enhance patient compliance. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to investigate the combined effect of two formulation variables: amount of croscarmellose sodium and camphor. Croscarmellose sodium (2-8% w/w) was used as superdisintegrant and camphor (20-40% w/w) was used as subliming agent, to increase the porosity of the tablets, since it helps water to penetrate into the tablets, along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, thickness, drug content uniformity, in vitro dispersion time, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Based on in vitro dispersion time (approximately 11 s); the formulation containing 5% w/w croscarmellose sodium and 40% w/w camphor was found to be promising and tested for in vitro drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer). Short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 3 mo) and drug-excipient interaction. Surface response plots are presented to graphically represent the effect of independent variables on the in vitro dispersion time. The validity of the generated mathematical model was tested by preparing two extra-design checkpoints. The optimized tablet formulation was compared with conventional commercial tablet formulation for drug release profiles. This formulation showed nearly nine-fold faster drug release (t(50%) 1.8 min) compared to the conventional commercial tablet formulation (t(50%) 16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dispersion time (P<0.05). PMID:22923860

  18. Comparison of piracetam measured with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, DIP-APCI-MS, and a newly developed and optimized DIP-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, Claudia; Winterfeld, Gottfried A; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-06-01

    The direct inlet probe-electrospray ionization (DIP-ESI) presented here was based on the direct inlet probe-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DIP-APCI) developed by our group. It was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) for the detection of more polar compounds such as degradation products from pharmaceuticals. First, the position of the ESI tip, the gas and solvent flow rates, as well as the gas temperature were optimized with the help of the statistic program Minitab® 17 and a caffeine standard. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was also tested by using different concentrations of caffeine and camphor. Calibration curves with a quadratic calibration regression of R (2) = 0.9997 and 0.9998 for caffeine and camphor, respectively, were obtained. The limit of detection of 2.5 and 1.7 ng per injection for caffeine and camphor were determined, respectively. Furthermore, a solution of piracetam was used to compare established analytical methods for this drug and its impurities such as HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-ESI-MS with the DIP-APCI and the developed DIP-ESI. With HPLC-DAD and 10 μg piracetam on column, no impurity could be detected. With HPLC-ESI-MS, two impurities (A and B) were identified with only 4.6 μg piracetam on column, while with DIP-ESI, an amount of 1.6 μg piracetam was sufficient. In the case of the DIP-ESI measurements, all detected impurities could be identified by MS/MS studies. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the DIP-ESI principle.

  19. Lousicidal, ovicidal and repellent efficacy of some essential oils against lice and flies infesting water buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; El-Madawy, Reham S

    2009-10-14

    The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting water buffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal concentration, LC50, values were 2.74, 7.28, 12.35, 18.67 and 22.79% for camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), onion (Allium cepa), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and rosemary oils (Rosmarinus officinalis), respectively, whereas for d-phenothrin, it was 1.17%. The lethal time (50) (LT50) values were 0.89, 2.75, 15.39, 21.32, 11.60 and 1.94 min after treatment with 7.5% camphor, onion, peppermint, chamomile, rosemary and d-phenothrin, respectively. All the materials used except rosemary, which was not applied, were ovicidal to the eggs of H. tuberculatus. Despite the results of the in vitro assays, the in vivo treatments revealed that the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with oils. All treated lice were killed after 0.5-2 min, whereas with d-phenothrin, 100% mortality was reached only after 120 min. The number of lice infesting buffaloes was significantly reduced 3, 6, 4, 6 and 9 days after treatment with camphor, peppermint, chamomile, onion, and d-phenothrin, respectively. Moreover, the oils and d-phenothrin significantly repelled flies, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans and Hippobosca equina, for 6 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively. No adverse effects were noted on either animals or pour-on operators after exposure to the applied materials. Consequently, some Egyptian essential oils show potential for the development of new, speedy and safe lousicides and insect repellents for controlling lice and flies which infest water buffaloes.

  20. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR.

  1. P450cam biocatalysis in surfactant-stabilized two-phase emulsions.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Jessica D; Clark, Douglas S

    2008-04-15

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are powerful biocatalysts that have the ability to oxidize a broad range of substrates, often at non-reactive carbon centers. However, incorporation of P450s into synthetic schemes has so far been limited to a few whole-cell transformations. P450 substrates are often hydrophobic and have low water solubility, limiting the amount of product that can be produced. To help overcome this limitation, we have examined P450cam activity in two-phase hexane/water emulsions with and without the anionic surfactant, bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT). Hydroxylation of camphor to hydroxycamphor by the three- component P450cam system was chosen as the model reaction, and regeneration of NADH was accomplished with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). P450cam was activated in the surfactant-free emulsions, and addition of AOT improved the activity even further, at least over the range of camphor concentrations for which initial rates were readily measurable in all media. The largest observed rate enhancement was 4.5-fold. Nearly 50-times more product was formed in the surfactant-stabilized emulsions than was achieved in aqueous buffer, with total turnover numbers reaching 28,900 for P450cam and 11,800 for YADH. In the absence of surfactant, the two-phase reaction appeared to be mass-transfer limited, while inclusion of AOT alleviated transport limitations and/or afforded a larger interfacial area for P450 activation. The oxidation of hydroxycamphor to 2,5-diketocamphane was also observed, owing to the large concentration of hydroxycamphor relative to camphor in the aqueous phase of the two-phase emulsion. This competing reaction was accompanied by the uncoupled oxidation of NADH (i.e., NADH oxidation without formation of 2,5-diketocamphane), which reduced the availability of NADH for camphor oxidation and further limited the yield of hydroxycamphor in the two-phase emulsions. These results indicate that a surfactant

  2. Application of carbon nanomaterial as a microwave absorber.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Pradhan, Debabrata; Zacharia, Renju; Puri, Vijaya

    2005-12-01

    Microwave absorption (8 GHz to 12 GHz) studies have been made with carbon nanomaterials for the first time. Carbon nanomaterials are synthesized by the pyrolysis of camphor. It is observed that film of carbon prepared under certain synthetic condition, can absorb microwave of either some specific wavelengths e.g., 9.5 GHz and 11.5 GHz or full range from 8-12 GHz to the extent of 20 dB depending upon their preparation condition. Carbon nanobeads seems to absorb the microwave in the range of 8-12 GHz.

  3. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1991--March 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  4. [Regulation of terpene metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year on understanding of terpene synthesis in mint plants and sage. Specifically reported are the fractionation of 4-S-limonene synthetase, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step to monoterpene synthesis, along with isolation of the corresponding RNA and DNA cloning of its gene; the localization of the enzyme within the oil glands, regulation of transcription and translation of the synthetase, the pathway to camphor biosynthesis,a nd studies on the early stages and branch points of the isoprenoid pathway.

  5. Optical activity and Alfred Werner's coordination chemistry.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Karl-Heinz; Berke, Heinz

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted, that Pasteur's seminal discovery of the opposite optical activity of ammonium sodium tartrate enantiomorphs in solution gave the spark to organic stereochemistry and led to the development of the tetrahedron model by van't Hoff and Le Bel. The proof that chirality is inherently connected to octahedral coordination chemistry fostered greatly Werner's spatial views of metal complexes and his coordination theory. The actual proof of principle was established via separation of diastereomeric camphor sulfonate salts of racemic metal complexes. PMID:20928897

  6. Electrodeposition and characterization of Pd nanoparticles doped amorphous hydrogenated carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yuanlie; Zhang, Junyan

    2009-11-01

    Palladium (0) nanoparticles incorporated hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Pd/a-C:H) films were synthesized on single crystal silicon (100) substrates by electrochemical deposition route using methanol and camphor as carbon source, and Pd nanoparticles as dopant. The characterization results indicate that Pd nanocrystalline particles with diameter in the range of 1-5 nm dispersed in the amorphous carbon matrix. Compared with pure a-C:H films, the introduction of Pd nanoparticles didn't change the structure of carbon films. At the end, the growth mechanism of the Pd/a-C:H composite films was discussed.

  7. High thermoelectric figure of merit in nanocrystalline polyaniline at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, Ashok; Kuo, Yung-Kang; Okram, Gunadhor Singh

    2014-09-01

    Thermoelectric coolers with figure of merit (ZT) close to unity at low temperatures are the need of the hour with new advances in high temperature superconductors, superconducting microelectronic circuits, quantum computers, and photonics. Here, we demonstrate that the conducting polymer polyaniline (Pani) doped with camphor sulfonic acid synthesized in semi-crystalline nanostructures, possesses a giant Seebeck effect at low temperatures. The resulting enormously large Seebeck coefficient (up to 0.6 V/K) combined with an intrinsically low electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity give rise to a ZT = 0.77 at 45 K and ZT = 2.17 at 17 K.

  8. Top-view approach for in-situ observation of growth morphology in bulk transparent organic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witusiewicz, V. T.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

    2012-08-01

    A new experimental method for in-situ observation of microstructure formation in top view during unidirectional solidification of bulk, transparent, organic alloys is presented. This method allows observing growth patterns over an extended interface area with high resolution and minimal optical aberrations. With (D)camphor-neopentylglycol-succinonitrile (DC-NPG-SCN) alloys a series of unidirectional solidification experiments were performed in order to validate the set-up. By means of multi-focus exposition eutectic cells were observed over a depth of several millimeters, followed by 3D reconstruction of their shape. The method also allows capturing the integral interface dynamics and measuring its relative undercooling.

  9. Diameter Controlled of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized on Nanoporous Silicon Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asli, N. A.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Maryam, M.; Yusop, S. F. M.; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been successfully synthesized on nanoporous silicon template (NPSiT) using botanical source, camphor oil. Diameter of CNTs synthesized was controlled by pore size of NPSiT prepared by photo-electrochemical anodization method. The diameter of CNTs grown on different NPSiT corresponded to the pore diameter of NPSiT. FESEM images showed self-organized bundles of fiber-like structures of CNTs with diameter of around 20nm which were successfully grown directly on nanoporous silicon while raman spectra obtained ratio of ID/IG at 0.67.

  10. Composition of the Essential Oil of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo Growing Wild in Sicily and its Activity on Microorganisms Affecting Historical Art Crafts.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Federica; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of the aerial parts of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo collected in Sicily were analyzed by gas-chromatography-flame-ionization detection and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen compounds were identified in the oil and the main components were found to be (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (28.1%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (9.6%), dimethyl trisulfide (9.6%), camphor (7.4%), methyl allyl disulfide (6.8%) and 1-methyl-3-allyl trisulfide (5.8%). The essential oil showed good antimicrobial activity against 11 strains of test microorganisms, including several species infesting historical material. PMID:26632947

  11. Antifungal activities of selected aromatic plants growing wild in Greece.

    PubMed

    Soković, M; Tzakou, O; Pitarokili, D; Couladis, M

    2002-10-01

    Essential oils of Origanum onites, Satureja thymbra, Salvia fruticosa (Greek sage), and Salvia pomifera subsp. calycina plants growing wild in Greece and their components carvacrol, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, were assayed for antifungal activity against 13 fungal species. Among the fungi tested were food poisoning, plant, animals and human pathogenic species. The oils presented various degrees of inhibition against all the fungi investigated. The highest and broadest activity was shown by the carvacrol content oils (O. onites and S. thymbra), while the oil of sage was the least effective. Carvacrol exhibited the highest and 1,8-cineole the lowest level of antifungal activity among the components tested. PMID:12428445

  12. Compression behaviour of thick vertically aligned carbon nanotube blocks.

    PubMed

    Pavese, Matteo; Musso, Simone; Pugno, Nicola M

    2010-07-01

    Blocks of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes were prepared by thermal chemical vapor deposition starting from camphor and ferrocene precursors. The blocks, having a thickness of approximately 2 mm and composed of nanotubes with diameter ranging between 30 and 80 nm, were submitted to compression tests. The results were analyzed accordingly with a simple model consisting in a parallel array of nanotubes under compression and bending suffering microscopic instability and compaction. The model mostly fits the experimental stress-strain curves, with a small deviation attributed to dissipative phenomena, such as frictional forces and nanotube wall breakage. PMID:21128406

  13. [(1R)-3-Benzoyl-1,7,7-trimethyl­bicyclo­[2.2.1]heptan-2-onato-κ2 O,O′]chlorido(η6-p-cymene)ruthenium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Harrad, Mohamed Anouar; Valerga, Pedro; Puerta, M. Carmen; Ali, Mustapha Ait; El Firdoussi, Larbi; Karim, Abdellah

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [RuCl(C10H14)(C17H19O2)], contains two diastereomers. In both, the RuII ion has a tetra­hedral coordination, formed by two O atoms of the camphor-derived ligand and the p-cymene and Cl ligands. In the crystal structure, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯Cl inter­actions link the mol­ecules into columns propagated along [010]. PMID:21580227

  14. High thermoelectric figure of merit in nanocrystalline polyaniline at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, Ashok E-mail: okram@csr.res.in; Kuo, Yung-Kang; Okram, Gunadhor Singh E-mail: okram@csr.res.in

    2014-09-29

    Thermoelectric coolers with figure of merit (ZT) close to unity at low temperatures are the need of the hour with new advances in high temperature superconductors, superconducting microelectronic circuits, quantum computers, and photonics. Here, we demonstrate that the conducting polymer polyaniline (Pani) doped with camphor sulfonic acid synthesized in semi-crystalline nanostructures, possesses a giant Seebeck effect at low temperatures. The resulting enormously large Seebeck coefficient (up to 0.6 V/K) combined with an intrinsically low electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity give rise to a ZT = 0.77 at 45 K and ZT = 2.17 at 17 K.

  15. Complex formation of fenchone with α-cyclodextrin: NMR titrations.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Michał; Ejchart, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    (13)C NMR titration studies of inclusion complexes of bicyclic terpenoid, fenchone enantiomers with α-cyclodextrin revealed their 1:2 guest-host stoichiometry. Sequential binding constants were determined indicating a strong binding cooperativity of two α-cyclodextrin to fenchone. The overall association constants were used to calculate the Gibbs free energies of diastereomeric complex formation, which might be used as a measure of chiral recognition of fenchone by α-cyclodextrin. These results were compared with corresponding data derived for camphor, which is an isomeric bicyclic terpenoid.

  16. Contact dermatitis to Vicks VapoRub.

    PubMed

    Noiles, Kristin; Pratt, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Vicks VapoRub (VVR) is a commonly used inhalant ointment that helps relieve symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It contains several plant substances, including turpentine oil, eucalyptus oil, and cedar leaf oil, which can potentially irritate or sensitize the skin, as well as camphor, menthol, nutmeg oil, and thymol. Although many reports describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to the various constituents in VVR ointment, there are no cases of VVR directly causing ACD. We present a case of a patient who developed an ACD secondary to application of her VVR. PMID:20487662

  17. Poly[(μ(3)-camphorato-κO:O':O'')(2-methyl-1H-imidazole-κN)zinc(II)].

    PubMed

    Shi, Haochen; Li, Chunjie; Gao, Feng; Chen, Jingyan; Han, Fei

    2010-03-03

    In the title compound, [Zn(C(10)H(14)O(4))(C(4)H(6)N(2))](n), each Zn(II) ion is coordinated by one N atom from one 2-methyl-1H-imidazole ligand and three O atoms from two camphorate (cap) ligands in a distorted tetra-hedral geometry. In one of the cap ligands, one methyl group is disordered between positions 1 and 3 in a 0.518 (12):0.482 (12) ratio. Each cap ligand bridges three Zn(II) ions, forming two-dimensional layers, which inter-act further via N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  18. The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil on the development of Musca domestica third stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Azza S; Morsy, Tosson A

    2005-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil (Camphor oil) against the larval maturation and adult emergency of the house-fly, Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. Concentrations of 100%, 70%, 50% 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9 % and 0.7% showed 100% larval mortality rate. At concentrations of 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.1% the larval mortality rate was 90%. On the other hand, the developed pupae did not emerge to adults. Eucalyptus globulus oil is safe, cheap and widely used in Medicine. So, it is recommended to be use in controlling larvae of M. domestica. PMID:16083072

  19. Spontaneous resolution to absolute chiral induction: pseudo-Kagomé type homochiral Zn(II)/Co(II) coordination polymers with achiral precursors.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Kamal Kumar; Suresh, Eringathodi

    2013-10-23

    It is observed that conglomerate crystallization of achiral precursors yielding racemate metal organic frameworks/coordination polymers (MOFs/CPs) can be driven to absolute homochiral crystallization of the desired enantiomorph by utilizing a suitable chiral induction agent. In a series of crystallization experiments isostructural Zn and Co homochiral CPs (1P, 1M and 2P, 2M) are prepared using the achiral precursors. In the presence of enantiopure camphoric acid, the crystallization process prefers absolute chiral induction over conglomerate formation which is established by single crystal X-ray diffraction and CD spectroscopy.

  20. Composition of the Essential Oil of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo Growing Wild in Sicily and its Activity on Microorganisms Affecting Historical Art Crafts.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Federica; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of the aerial parts of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo collected in Sicily were analyzed by gas-chromatography-flame-ionization detection and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nineteen compounds were identified in the oil and the main components were found to be (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (28.1%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (23.8%), (E)-β-farnesene (9.6%), dimethyl trisulfide (9.6%), camphor (7.4%), methyl allyl disulfide (6.8%) and 1-methyl-3-allyl trisulfide (5.8%). The essential oil showed good antimicrobial activity against 11 strains of test microorganisms, including several species infesting historical material.

  1. [Burn treatment in the renaissance by Fabricius Hildanus--a historical appraisal].

    PubMed

    Rennekampff, H-O

    2009-12-01

    A first comprehensive textbook on burns treatment was written in 1607 by Fabry of Hilden (Fabricius Hildanus). This monograph describes cause, diagnosis, treatment, and complications of burn injuries. Besides a variety of topical ointments with promising herbal ingredients like onion and camphor, surgical procedures like necrectomies, escharotomies and syndactely treatment are described for the first time ever. Scar management including splinting devices is another interesting topic. Some of the therapeutic procedures are still valid today. Thus this renaissance piece of medical writing belongs to the pedigree of surgery. PMID:20017089

  2. [Acute poisoning of an infant by cutaneous application of a local counterirritant and pulmonary antiseptic salve].

    PubMed

    Dupeyron, J P; Quattrocchi, F; Castaing, H; Fabiani, P

    1976-01-01

    The case of acute poisoning reported here raises the question of the harmlessness of preparations destined for cutaneous application in infants. After describing the method perfected for the identification and estimation of camphor, menthol and thymol in biological material, the authors present the toxicological, clinical and biological arguments in favour of the notion that the cutaneous resorption of these substances was responsible for this acute intoxication in an infant. Particular attention should be paid to poisoning which may result, in the newborn and infant, from the cutaneous application of active substances. PMID:1010000

  3. Evaluation of residues of essential oil components in honey after different anti-varroa treatments.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Sabine; Lázaro, Regina; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Conchello, Pilar; Herrera, Antonio

    2005-12-28

    Apiary trials on the use of three different treatments (Apilife Var, thymol solution in olive oil, and thymol solution in ethanol) for the control of Varroa destructor were conducted in Aragon (northeastern Spain). For the evaluation of the presence of residues of these treatments in honey an analytical method was developed. The method is applied to analyze honey samples before and after treatments with the acaricides mentioned. A solid-phase extraction on trifunctional silane SPE C18 cartridge and gas chromatography separation using a flame ionization detector allow reliable and precise determination of residues of thymol, menthol, eucalyptol, and camphor in honey. The results indicate that camphor is present in only low concentrations, residues of eucalyptol or menthol were not found at all, and only thymol left residues in high concentrations. Residues of thymol found in honey collected from the beehives ranged from 0.75 to 8.20 microg/g for Apilife Var, from 0.03 to 6.30 microg/g for thymol solution in olive oil, and from 0.05 to 6.20 microg/g for thymol solution in ethanol. Even so, natural treatments can be considered to be good alternatives for synthetic acaricides, especially because they do not represent a sanitary risk. PMID:16366699

  4. Bioactivity of essential oil from Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Komar. and its main compounds against two stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Su, Yang; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia stolonifera, a perennial herb, is widely distrbuted in China. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from the aerial parts of Artemisia stolonifera, as well as to evaluate the bioactivity of the oil and its main constituents. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 22 compounds. The main components were eucalyptol (32.93%), β-pinene (8.18%), camphor (6.12%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.11%), and obtained from the essential oil after a further isolation. During the contact toxicity tests, the essential oil (LD50 = 8.60 μg/adult) exhibited stronger toxicity against Tribolium castaneum adults than those isolated constituents, however, camphor and terpinen-4-ol showed 1 and 2 times toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults than the essential oil (LD50 = 12.68 μg/adult) with LD50 values of 11.30 and 5.42 μg/adult, respectively. In the fumigant toxicity tests, especially on Tribolium castaneum, the essential oil (LC50 = 1.86 mg/L air) showed almost the same level toxicity as positive control, methyl bromide (LC50 = 1.75 mg/L air). Moreover, the essential oil and its four isolated constituents also exhibited strong repellency against two stored-product insects.

  5. Benign synthesis of 2-ethylhexanoic acid by cytochrome P450cam: enzymatic, crystallographic, and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    French, K J; Strickler, M D; Rock, D A; Rock, D A; Bennett, G A; Wahlstrom, J L; Goldstein, B M; Jones, J P

    2001-08-14

    This study examines the ability of P450cam to catalyze the formation of 2-ethylhexanoic acid from 2-ethylhexanol relative to its activity on the natural substrate camphor. As is the case for camphor, the P450cam exhibits stereoselectivity for binding (R)- and (S)-2-ethylhexanol. Kinetic studies indicate (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid is produced 3.5 times as fast as the (S)-enantiomer. In a racemic mixture of 2-ethylhexanol, P450cam produces 50% more (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid than (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid. The reason for stereoselective 2-ethylhexanoic acid production is seen in regioselectivity assays, where (R)-2-ethylhexanoic acid comprises 50% of total products while (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid comprises only 13%. (R)- and (S)-2-ethylhexanol exhibit similar characteristics with respect to the amount of oxygen and reducing equivalents consumed, however, with (S)-2-ethylhexanol turnover producing more water than the (R)-enantiomer. Crystallographic studies of P450cam with (R)- or (S)-2-ethylhexanoic acid suggest that the (R)-enantiomer binds in a more ordered state. These results indicate that wild-type P450cam displays stereoselectivity toward 2-ethylhexanoic acid synthesis, providing a platform for rational active site design. PMID:11583152

  6. Detection of substrate-dependent conformational changes in the P450 fold by nuclear magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Colthart, Allison M.; Tietz, Drew R.; Ni, Yuhua; Friedman, Jessica L.; Dang, Marina; Pochapsky, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases typically catalyze the insertion of one atom of oxygen from O2 into unactivated carbon-hydrogen and carbon-carbon bonds, with concomitant reduction of the other oxygen atom to H2O by NAD(P)H. Comparison of the average structures of the camphor hydroxylase cytochrome P450cam (CYP101) obtained from residual dipolar coupling (RDC)-restrained molecular dynamics (MD) in the presence and absence of substrate camphor shows structural displacements resulting from the essential collapse of the active site upon substrate removal. This collapse has conformational consequences that extend across the protein structure, none of which were observed in analogous crystallographic structures. Mutations were made to test the involvement of the observed conformational changes in substrate binding and recognition. All of the mutations performed based upon the NMR-detected perturbations, even those remote from the active site, resulted in modified substrate selectivity, enzyme efficiency and/or haem iron spin state. The results demonstrate that solution NMR can provide insights into enzyme structure-function relationships that are difficult to obtain by other methods. PMID:26911901

  7. The interaction of migrating grain boundaries with fluid inclusions in rock analogues: the effect of wetting angle and fluid inclusion velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmatz, Joyce; Schenk, Oliver; Urai, Janos L.

    2011-07-01

    The distribution of fluids in grain boundaries, fluid inclusion morphology and kinetics have important effects on the evolution of microstructure and transport properties and should be understood for correct interpretations for studies of thermobarometry and paleorheology. We compare results of in situ annealing experiments on rock analogues in the presence of different pore fluids in transmitted light: bischofite with saturated brine, camphor with ethanol, and camphor with ethylene glycol. The solid-liquid systems vary in terms of wettability and solubility, while homologous temperatures, strain rates, annealing times, and the initial textures are similar. In agreement with earlier work and theory, we observe different types of grain boundary-fluid inclusion interaction at sufficiently low grain boundary velocity such as drag and drop, necking, and the break up into arrays of smaller inclusions. In all three systems the maximum possible velocity of a fluid inclusion being dragged by a moving grain boundary is dependent on the fluid inclusion size. We interpret this to reflect the fluid inclusion mobility, and compare the trend with theoretical models which suggest that for all three systems the rate-limiting process is bulk diffusion and not surface diffusion or solution-precipitation.

  8. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-01-01

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids. PMID:27043503

  9. Detection of substrate-dependent conformational changes in the P450 fold by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Colthart, Allison M; Tietz, Drew R; Ni, Yuhua; Friedman, Jessica L; Dang, Marina; Pochapsky, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases typically catalyze the insertion of one atom of oxygen from O2 into unactivated carbon-hydrogen and carbon-carbon bonds, with concomitant reduction of the other oxygen atom to H2O by NAD(P)H. Comparison of the average structures of the camphor hydroxylase cytochrome P450(cam) (CYP101) obtained from residual dipolar coupling (RDC)-restrained molecular dynamics (MD) in the presence and absence of substrate camphor shows structural displacements resulting from the essential collapse of the active site upon substrate removal. This collapse has conformational consequences that extend across the protein structure, none of which were observed in analogous crystallographic structures. Mutations were made to test the involvement of the observed conformational changes in substrate binding and recognition. All of the mutations performed based upon the NMR-detected perturbations, even those remote from the active site, resulted in modified substrate selectivity, enzyme efficiency and/or haem iron spin state. The results demonstrate that solution NMR can provide insights into enzyme structure-function relationships that are difficult to obtain by other methods. PMID:26911901

  10. Ecosustainable Development of Novel Bio-inorganic Hybrid Materials as UV Protection Systems for Potential Cosmetic Applications.

    PubMed

    Villa, Carla; Lacapra, Chiara; Rosa, Roberto; Veronesi, Paolo; Leonelli, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A new organoclay, bio-inorganic hybrid material, was successfully prepared following the "green chemistry" principles, exploiting microwave irradiation (as an alternative energetic source) in both the solvent-free synthesis of the organic filler (UVB filter) and in its hydrothermal intercalation in a sodium Bentonite clay (renewable natural inorganic source at low temperature). The organic filler is a benzylidene camphor derivative with the same cationic moiety as the well- known UV filter camphor benzalkonium methosulfate. The aim of the research was the ecosustainable development of a new UV protection model, suitable for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, with potential advantages of stability, efficiency and safety compared to the commercially available UVB sunscreens. The organically modified clay was thoroughly investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Results confirmed the complete intercalation of the organic filler in the interlayer region of the smectite clay, leading to a new bio-inorganic hybrid material with potential for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications in the UV protection field, as confirmed by preliminary photochemical studies. This work represents the first example in the use of Na-Bentonite cationic clay (usually employed as rheological additive) as hosting agent of the synthesized quaternary UVB filter, as well as in the complete MW-assisted preparation of the organoclay, starting from the synthesis of the organic UV sunscreen to its hydrothermal intercalation. PMID:26412223

  11. [Quality evaluation of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norikazu; Kato, Yoshiko; Minamino, Miki; Watabe, Kazuhito

    2002-03-01

    Essential oils on the market were analyzed using GC-MS and the main ingredients of each essential oil were quantified. Analysis of the essential oil of Lavandula officinalis (lavender oil) showed that each sample had a different ratio of the contents of main ingredients, such as linalool, linalyl acetate, and camphor. In addition, some commercial lavender oils were analyzed by GC-MS for comparison with the Lavandula flagrans (lavandin oil) and the reference standard. As a result of this analysis, although the components of almost all commercial lavender oils were approximately the same as those of the reference standard, there were a few products that contained more than 0.5% of the amount of camphor in lavandin oil. This suggests that some lavender oil samples are mixed with lavandin oil to lower the price. Commercial essential oils of Melaleuca alternifolia (teatree oil) and Mentha piperita (peppermint oil) were also analyzed by GC-MS. Each of the peppermint oil samples had a different ratio in the content of its main ingredient. With respect to teatree oils, the amount of terpinens in each sample differed. These results led to concern about the efficacy of essential oils. For achieve the expected efficacy of essential oils, correct information on their ingredients should be available and quality control using instrumental analysis should be introduced. PMID:11905050

  12. Facile synthesis of nano cauliflower and nano broccoli like hierarchical superhydrophobic composite coating using PVDF/carbon soot particles via gelation technique.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Bichitra Nanda; Balasubramanian, Kandasubramanian

    2014-12-15

    We have elucidated a cost effective fabrication technique to produce superhydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF/DMF/candle soot particle and PVDF/DMF/camphor soot particle composite) porous materials. The water repellent dry composite was formed by the interaction of non-solvent (methanol) into PVDF/carbon soot particles suspension in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). It is seen that longer quenching time effectively changes the surface morphology of dry composites. The nano broccoli like hierarchical microstructure with micro or nano scaled roughen surface was obtained for PVDF/DMF/camphor soot particle, which reveals water contact angle of 172° with roll off angle of 2°. However, composite coating of PVDF/DMF/candle soot particle shows nano cauliflower like hierarchical, which illustrates water contact angle of 169° with roll off angle of 3°. To elucidate the enhancement of water repellent property of PVDF composites, we further divulge the evolution mechanism of nano cauliflower and nano broccoli structure. In order to evaluate the water contact angle of PVDF composites, surface diffusion of water inside the pores is investigated. Furthermore, the addition of small amount of carbon soot particles in composite not only provides the crystallization of PVDF, but also leads to dramatical amendment of surface morphology which increases the surface texture and roughness for superhydrophobicity. PMID:25268814

  13. Bioactivities of volatile components from Nepalese Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Paudel, Prajwal; Kafle, Ananad; Pokharel, Suraj K; Lamichhane, Bimala; Dosoky, Noura S; Moriarity, Debra M; Setzer, William N

    2012-12-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Artemisia dubia, A. indica, and A. vulgaris growing wild in Nepal were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The major components in A. dubia oil were chrysanthenone (29.0%), coumarin (18.3%), and camphor (16.4%). A. indica oil was dominated by ascaridole (15.4%), isoascaridole (9.9%), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (9.7%), and trans-verbenol (8.4%). The essential oil of Nepalese A. vulgaris was rich in alpha-thujone (30.5%), 1,8-cineole (12.4%), and camphor (10.3%). The essential oils were screened for phytotoxic activity against Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) using both seed germination and seedling growth, and all three Artemisia oils exhibited notable allelopathic activity. A. dubia oil showed in-vitro cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cells (100% kill at 100 microg/mL) and was also marginally antifungal against Aspergillus niger (MIC = 313 microg/mL). DFT calculations (B3LYP/6-31G*) revealed thermal decomposition of ascaridole to be energetically accessible at hydrodistillation and GC conditions, but these are spin-forbidden processes. If decomposition does occur, it likely proceeds by way of homolytic peroxide bond cleavage rather than retro-Diels-Alder elimination of molecular oxygen. PMID:23413575

  14. Screening of antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Kotan, Recep; Kordali, Saban; Cakir, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Plant essential oils are widely used as fragrances and flavours in the cosmetic, perfume, drug and food industries. Oxygenated monoterpenes are widespread components of the essential oils, usually occurring in high amount. In this paper, the antibacterial activities of twenty-one oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, borneol acetate, camphor, carvone, 1,8-cineole, citronellal, beta-citronellol, dihydrocarvone, fenchol, fenchone, geraniol acetate, isomenthol, limonene oxide, linalool, linalool acetate, nerol, nerol acetate, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, menthol and menthone) and penicillin (standard antibiotic) were determined using a disc diffusion method (in vitro) against 63 bacterial strains, belonging to 37 different genera and 54 species (plant, food and clinic origins). The results showed that the oxygenated monoterpenes exhibited a variable degree of antibacterial activities. These compounds also inhibited the growth of bacterial strains by producing a weak zone of inhibition from 7 to 11 mm in diameter, depending on the susceptibility of the tested bacteria. Among the tested compounds, nerol, linalool alpha-terpineol, fenchol and terpinen-4-ol showed antibacterial activity at a broad spectrum. However, their antibacterial activities were lower than those of penicillin. In contrast to these compounds, camphor and 1,8-cineole exhibited no inhibition effects on the growth of all tested bacteria.

  15. Controlling of deposition time as an effective parameter on purified growth CNTs based on TCVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Amin Termeh; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2016-07-01

    According to the unique properties of Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), they have been under scientific investigation for more than fifteen years in different applications. Here we reported the effect of temperature on camphor in a wide range of 500-1150 ˚C. The results indicate that camphor did not decompose below 500 ˚C but very short-length tubes emerged from the silicon substrate at 550 ˚C which is suggesting that the catalyst activity. According to the results, the CNT growth rate was abruptly increased at 600 ˚C. This process was done on the same condition by optimizing the temperature up to 900 ˚C. FESEM images indicate the highest catalyst activity at 850 ˚C which direct the experiment to grow purified CNT up to 3 µm in the length. This result suggests that, at low temperatures, the catalyst-support interaction is strong enough not to let the metal particles to involve in deposition process, but at 850 ˚C MWCNTs and SWCNTs can be selectively grown as a function of CVD temperature. The optimum deposition time was found in 30 minutes, which based on the Raman shift results the growth CNTs has shown high purity and crystallinity as well as high aspect ratio.

  16. Ecosustainable Development of Novel Bio-inorganic Hybrid Materials as UV Protection Systems for Potential Cosmetic Applications.

    PubMed

    Villa, Carla; Lacapra, Chiara; Rosa, Roberto; Veronesi, Paolo; Leonelli, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A new organoclay, bio-inorganic hybrid material, was successfully prepared following the "green chemistry" principles, exploiting microwave irradiation (as an alternative energetic source) in both the solvent-free synthesis of the organic filler (UVB filter) and in its hydrothermal intercalation in a sodium Bentonite clay (renewable natural inorganic source at low temperature). The organic filler is a benzylidene camphor derivative with the same cationic moiety as the well- known UV filter camphor benzalkonium methosulfate. The aim of the research was the ecosustainable development of a new UV protection model, suitable for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, with potential advantages of stability, efficiency and safety compared to the commercially available UVB sunscreens. The organically modified clay was thoroughly investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Results confirmed the complete intercalation of the organic filler in the interlayer region of the smectite clay, leading to a new bio-inorganic hybrid material with potential for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications in the UV protection field, as confirmed by preliminary photochemical studies. This work represents the first example in the use of Na-Bentonite cationic clay (usually employed as rheological additive) as hosting agent of the synthesized quaternary UVB filter, as well as in the complete MW-assisted preparation of the organoclay, starting from the synthesis of the organic UV sunscreen to its hydrothermal intercalation.

  17. Bioactivity of essential oil from Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Komar. and its main compounds against two stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Su, Yang; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia stolonifera, a perennial herb, is widely distrbuted in China. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from the aerial parts of Artemisia stolonifera, as well as to evaluate the bioactivity of the oil and its main constituents. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 22 compounds. The main components were eucalyptol (32.93%), β-pinene (8.18%), camphor (6.12%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.11%), and obtained from the essential oil after a further isolation. During the contact toxicity tests, the essential oil (LD50 = 8.60 μg/adult) exhibited stronger toxicity against Tribolium castaneum adults than those isolated constituents, however, camphor and terpinen-4-ol showed 1 and 2 times toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults than the essential oil (LD50 = 12.68 μg/adult) with LD50 values of 11.30 and 5.42 μg/adult, respectively. In the fumigant toxicity tests, especially on Tribolium castaneum, the essential oil (LC50 = 1.86 mg/L air) showed almost the same level toxicity as positive control, methyl bromide (LC50 = 1.75 mg/L air). Moreover, the essential oil and its four isolated constituents also exhibited strong repellency against two stored-product insects. PMID:25757434

  18. Preparation and In Vitro/In Vivo Characterization of Porous Sublingual Tablets Containing Ternary Kneaded Solid System of Vinpocetine with β-Cyclodextrin and Hydroxy Acid

    PubMed Central

    Aburahma, Mona H.; El-Laithy, Hanan M.; Hamza, Yassin El-Said

    2010-01-01

    The demand for sublingual tablets has been growing during the previous decades especially for drugs with extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism. Vinpocetine, a widely used neurotropic agent, has low oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility and marked first-pass metabolism. Accordingly, the aim of this work was to develop tablets for the sublingual delivery of vinpocetine. Initially, the feasibility of improving vinpocetine’s poor aqueous solubility by preparing kneaded solid systems of the drug with β-Cyclodextrin and hydroxy acids (citric acid and tartaric acid) was assessed. The solid system with improved solubility and dissolution properties was incorporated into porous tablets that rapidly disintegrate permitting fast release of vinpocetine into the sublingual cavity. The pores were induced into these tablets by directly compressing the tablets’ excipients with a sublimable material, either camphor or menthol, which was eventually sublimated leaving pores. The obtained results demonstrated that the tablets prepared using camphor attained sufficient mechanical strength for practical use together with rapid disintegration and dissolution. In vivo absorption study performed in rabbits indicated that the sublingual administration of the proposed porous tablets containing vinpocetine solid system with β-Cyclodextrin and tartaric acid could be useful for therapeutic application. PMID:21179352

  19. [Transcriptome analysis for leaves of five chemical types in Cinnamomum camphora].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiangmei; Wu, Yanfang; Xiao, Fuming; Xiong, Zhenyu; Xu, Haining

    2014-01-01

    Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) is a representative species in Lauraceae family, and can be subdivided into five types: linalool, camphor, cineol, iso-nerolidol and borneol. In this paper, the leaves transcriptomes of Cinnamomum camphora were sequenced with the platform of Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. Based on the GO (Gene Ontology), COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database, the function classification, pathway annotation, and the coding sequence prediction of all-Unigenes were carried out. 156 278 Unigenes with an average length of 584 bp and N50 (N50 value is defined as the Unigene length where half the assembly is represented by Unigenes of this size or longer) of 1 023 bp were generated by de novo assembly. A total of 5 5955 Unigenes (35.80%) were annotated through similarity comparison, in which 24 717 and 21 806 Unigenes were assigned into GO and COG, respectively. By searching KEGG database, 3 350 Unigenes were involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, in which 424 Unigenes were involved in monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. The analysis of monoterpenoids biosynthesis pathway showed that 9 Unigenes likely encode (+)-linalool synthase, and their expression levels were higher in linalool type but lower in cineole type. This study provides a foundation for further characterizing the functional genes in C. camphora.

  20. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica.

  1. Essential oil composition of five collections of Achillea biebersteinii from central Turkey and their antifungal and insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betül; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Demirci, Fatih; Becnel, James J; Wedge, David E; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2011-05-01

    The composition of the essential oils hydrodistilled from the aerial parts of five Achillea biebersteinii Afan samples, collected in central Turkey from Konya, Isparta and Ankara, were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eighty-four components were identified, representing 87 to 99% of the total oil composition. The identified major components were 1,8-cineole (9-37%), camphor (16-30%) and p-cymene (1-27%). Two samples differed in piperitone (11%) and ascaridol (4%) content. The five A. biebersteinii essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using the direct overlay bioautography assay. The essential oils showed no antifungal activity at 80 and 160 microg/spot. In addition, A. biebersteinii oils and their major compounds were subsequently investigated against Aedes aegypti first instar larvae in a high throughput bioassay. Among the oils, only one sample from Ankara showed a notable larvacidal effect on Ae. aegypti larvae. The major compounds, 1,8-cineole, camphor and p-cymene, exhibited low mosquito larval activity, and thus the minor compounds are probably responsible for the observed activity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The oils showed weak activity against adult Ae. aegypti. PMID:21615036

  2. Essential-oil diversity of Salvia tomentosa Mill. in Greece.

    PubMed

    Hanlidou, Effie; Karousou, Regina; Lazari, Diamanto

    2014-08-01

    Salvia tomentosa essential oils from Greece were studied for the first time here. The oils from five populations growing in Mediterranean pine forests on the island of Thassos (northern Aegean Sea) and from 14 populations situated in deciduous forests in Thrace (northeastern Greek mainland) were investigated. Their essential-oil contents ranged from 1.1 to 3.3% (v/w, based on the dry weight of the plant material). The populations from Thassos had high contents of α-pinene (18.0 ± 2.9%), 1,8-cineole (14.7 ± 3.0%), cis-thujone (14.0 ± 6.9%), and borneol (12.8 ± 2.2%) and smaller amounts of camphene, camphor, and β-pinene, whereas the populations from Thrace showed high α-pinene (16.7 ± 4.0%), β-pinene (22.8 ± 4.5%), camphor (18.3 ± 4.3%), and camphene (10.3 ± 2.4%) contents, much lower 1,8-cineole and borneol amounts, while cis-thujone was completely lacking. The comparison of the present results with published data showed that oils having cis-thujone as one of the main compounds were reported for the first time here. Multivariate statistical analyses indicate that the observed essential-oil variation was related to geographical and environmental factors.

  3. Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances

    PubMed Central

    Tsigonia, Alexandra; Lagoudi, Argyro; Chandrinou, Stavroula; Linos, Athena; Evlogias, Nikos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100–1,450 μg m−3) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 μg m−3) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor. PMID:20195448

  4. Insecticidal potential of defense metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Sarate, Priya; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense) significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity.

  5. Molecular dynamics of the P450cam-Pdx complex reveals complex stability and novel interface contacts.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Scott A; Poulos, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450cam catalyzes the stereo and regiospecific hydroxylation of camphor to 5-exo-hydroxylcamphor. The two electrons for the oxidation of camphor are provided by putidaredoxin (Pdx), a Fe2 S2 containing protein. Two recent crystal structures of the P450cam-Pdx complex, one solved with the aid of covalent cross-linking and one without, have provided a structural picture of the redox partner interaction. To study the stability of the complex structure and the minor differences between the recent crystal structures, a 100 nanosecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the cross-linked structure, mutated in silico to wild type and the linker molecule removed, was performed. The complex was stable over the course of the simulation though conformational changes including the movement of the C helix of P450cam further toward Pdx allowed for the formation of a number of new contacts at the complex interface that remained stable throughout the simulation. While several minor crystal contacts were lost in the simulation, all major contacts that had been experimentally studied previously were maintained. The equilibrated MD structure contained a mixture of contacts resembling both the cross-linked and noncovalent structures and the newly identified interactions. Finally, the reformation of the P450cam Asp251-Arg186 ion pair in the MD simulation mirrors the ion pair observed in the more promiscuous CYP101D1 and suggests that the Asp251-Arg186 ion pair may be important.

  6. Artemisia arborescens Essential Oil Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antimicrobial Activity from Different Wild Populations from the Mediterranean Area.

    PubMed

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Militello, Marcello; Saia, Sergio; Settanni, Luca; Aleo, Aurora; Mammina, Caterina; Bombarda, Isabelle; Vanloot, Pierre; Roussel, Christian; Dupuy, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Aerial parts of Artemisia arborescens were collected from different sites of the Mediterranean area (southwestern Algeria and southern Italy) and the chemical composition of their essential oil (EO) extracted by hydrodistillation was studied by both gas chromatography (GC) equipped with an enantioselective capillary column and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The EOs obtained were tested against several Listeria monocytogenes strains. Using GC and GC/MS, 41 compounds were identified, accounting for 96.0 - 98.8% of the total EO. All EOs showed a similar terpene profile, which was rich in chamazulene, β-thujone, and camphor. However, the concentration of such compounds varied among the EOs. A. arborescens EO inhibited up to 83.3% of the L. monocytogenes strains, but the inhibitory spectrum varied among the EOs, with those from Algeria showing a higher inhibition degree than the Italian EOs. Such effect likely depended on the ketone (β-thujone + camphor) content of the EO. The differences in the EO composition support the hypothesis that A. arborescens has at least two different chemotypes: a β-thujone and a chamazulene type. The EO inhibitory spectrum indicates the A. arborescens EO as a valuable option in the control of the food-borne pathogens. PMID:27447740

  7. Chemical composition and biological effects of Artemisia maritima and Artemisia nilagirica essential oils from wild plants of western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar; Girova, Tania; Stoyanova, Albena; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2014-08-01

    Artemisia species possess pharmacological properties that are used for medical purposes worldwide. In this paper, the essential oils from the aerial parts of Artemisia nilagirica and Artemisia maritima from the western Indian Himalaya region are described. The main compounds analyzed by simultaneous GC/MS and GC/FID were camphor and 1,8-cineole from A. maritima, and camphor and artemisia ketone from A. nilagirica. Additionally, the oils were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, mosquito biting deterrent, and larvicidal activities. A. nilagirica essential oil demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, whereas A. maritima did not show antifungal activity. Both Artemisia spp. exhibited considerable mosquito biting deterrence, whereas only A. nilagirica showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Antibacterial effects assessed by an agar dilution assay demonstrated greater activity of A. maritima essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to A. nilagirica. PMID:25127023

  8. Machine Learning Based Dimensionality Reduction Facilitates Ligand Diffusion Paths Assessment: A Case of Cytochrome P450cam.

    PubMed

    Rydzewski, J; Nowak, W

    2016-04-12

    In this work we propose an application of a nonlinear dimensionality reduction method to represent the high-dimensional configuration space of the ligand-protein dissociation process in a manner facilitating interpretation. Rugged ligand expulsion paths are mapped into 2-dimensional space. The mapping retains the main structural changes occurring during the dissociation. The topological similarity of the reduced paths may be easily studied using the Fréchet distances, and we show that this measure facilitates machine learning classification of the diffusion pathways. Further, low-dimensional configuration space allows for identification of residues active in transport during the ligand diffusion from a protein. The utility of this approach is illustrated by examination of the configuration space of cytochrome P450cam involved in expulsing camphor by means of enhanced all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The expulsion trajectories are sampled and constructed on-the-fly during molecular dynamics simulations using the recently developed memetic algorithms [ Rydzewski, J.; Nowak, W. J. Chem. Phys. 2015 , 143 ( 12 ), 124101 ]. We show that the memetic algorithms are effective for enforcing the ligand diffusion and cavity exploration in the P450cam-camphor complex. Furthermore, we demonstrate that machine learning techniques are helpful in inspecting ligand diffusion landscapes and provide useful tools to examine structural changes accompanying rare events. PMID:26989997

  9. GC×GC-TOFMS Analysis of Essential Oils Composition from Leaves, Twigs and Seeds of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl and Their Insecticidal and Repellent Activities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jin; Song, Li; Cao, Xianshuang; Yao, Xi; Tang, Feng; Yue, Yongde

    2016-03-28

    Interest in essential oils with pesticidal activity against insects and pests is growing. In this study, essential oils from different parts (leaves, twigs and seeds) of Cinnamomum camphora L. Presl were investigated for their chemical composition, and insecticidal and repellent activities against the cotton aphid. The essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. A total of 96 components were identified in the essential oils and the main constituents found in the leaves and twigs were camphor, eucalyptol, linalool and 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene. The major components found in the seeds were eucalyptol (20.90%), methyleugenol (19.98%), linalool (14.66%) and camphor (5.5%). In the contact toxicity assay, the three essential oils of leaves, twigs and seeds exhibited a strong insecticidal activity against cotton aphids with LC50 values of 245.79, 274.99 and 146.78 mg/L (after 48 h of treatment), respectively. In the repellent assay, the highest repellent rate (89.86%) was found in the seed essential oil at the concentration of 20 μL/mL after 24 h of treatment. Linalool was found to be a significant contributor to the insecticidal and repellent activities. The results indicate that the essential oils of C. camphora might have the potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling cotton aphids.

  10. Chemical diversity in the genus Alpinia (Zingiberaceae): comparative composition of four Alpinia species grown in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Sundaresan, Velusamy; Chanotiya, Chandan S

    2010-08-01

    The essential-oil compositions of leaves, flowers, and rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alpinia calcarata Rosc., Alpinia speciosa K. Schum., and Alpinia allughas Rosc. were examined and compared by capillary GC and GC/MS. Monoterpenoids were the major oil constituents identified. 1,8-Cineole, alpha-terpineol, (E)-methyl cinnamate, camphor, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha- and beta-pinenes were the major constituents commonly distributed in leaf and flower essential oils. The presence of endo-fenchyl acetate, exo-fenchyl acetate, and endo-fenchol was the unique feature of rhizome essential oils of A. galanga, A. calcarata, and A. speciosa. On contrary, the rhizome oil of A. allughas was dominated by beta-pinene. Significant qualitative and quantitative variations were observed in essential-oil compositions of different parts of Alpinia species growing in subtemperate and subtropical regions of Northern India. Cluster analysis was performed to find similarities and differences in essential-oil compositions based on representative molecular skeletons. Monoterpenoids, viz., 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, camphor, pinenes, (E)-methyl cinnamate, and fenchyl derivatives, were used as chemotaxonomic markers.

  11. Insecticidal potential of defense metabolites from Ocimum kilimandscharicum against Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Jayaramaiah, Ramesha H; Sarate, Priya; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Kulkarni, Mahesh J; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Genus Ocimum contains a reservoir of diverse secondary metabolites, which are known for their defense and medicinal value. However, the defense-related metabolites from this genus have not been studied in depth. To gain deeper insight into inducible defense metabolites, we examined the overall biochemical and metabolic changes in Ocimum kilimandscharicum that occurred in response to the feeding of Helicoverpa armigera larvae. Metabolic analysis revealed that the primary and secondary metabolism of local and systemic tissues in O. kilimandscharicum was severely affected following larval infestation. Moreover, levels of specific secondary metabolites like camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene (known to be involved in defense) significantly increased in leaves upon insect attack. Choice assays conducted by exposing H. armigera larvae on O. kilimandscharicum and tomato leaves, demonstrated that O. kilimandscharicum significantly deters larval feeding. Further, when larvae were fed on O. kilimandscharicum leaves, average body weight decreased and mortality of the larvae increased. Larvae fed on artificial diet supplemented with O. kilimandscharicum leaf extract, camphor, limonene and β-caryophyllene showed growth retardation, increased mortality rates and pupal deformities. Digestive enzymes of H. armigera - namely, amylase, protease and lipase- showed variable patterns after feeding on O. kilimandscharicum, which implies striving of the larvae to attain required nutrition for growth, development and metamorphosis. Evidently, selected metabolites from O. kilimandscharicum possess significant insecticidal activity. PMID:25098951

  12. TOXIC ACTIVITY AND DELAYED EFFECTS OF FIVE BOTANICAL OILS ON THE FOLLOWING GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER PARENTS TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, N A; El-Kady, M B; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is carried out to evaluate the toxic efficiency and delayed effects of five botanical oils on the greasy cut worm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a trial for the attainment of a possible use of an alternative safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. So as to minimize or prevent the repeated usage of conventional insecticides, then reduce the environmental pollution as well as the occurring hazards to man and domestic animal due to the use of the pesticides alone. Four tested concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5% v/v) from each of camphor, red basil, menthol, rose and anise oils, were bioassayed by treating the offered castor oil bean leaves, to the 4th instar larvae along 48h, under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2 °C and 65±5% R.H. The obtained results showed that the five tested oils were found to have more or less toxic activity and drastic effects on the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated parent generation of the insect, in particular, pupae, emerged adult moths and laid eggs/female. In this respect camphor and red basil oils were highly effective, followed by menthol oil, anise oil and the least effective one was rose oil. Moreover, the assessed unprofitable delayed effects on the going on of the biological performance within the treated insects showed the adverse effects on the fitness components of the consequent generations (fs) post (p) one treatment with each of the bioassyed oils. The prevalence of adverse effects and disturbance in the going on biological performance through the period of (p) generation; which is followed by the distinct failure of insect development in (f1) generation were recorded for each of the tested menthol oil at 0.5 and 1.5% (v/v); camphor oil at 1.5 and 2.5% and red basil oil at 2.5% (v/v). While anise and rose oils were somewhat less efficient causing the distinct failure of the following generations up to the 3rd and/or the 6th ones

  13. Analysis of the major chiral compounds of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils (EOs) using reconstructed vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra: En route to a VCD chiral signature of EOs.

    PubMed

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Vanloot, Pierre; Bombarda, Isabelle; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Dahmane, El Montassir; Aamouche, Ahmed; Jean, Marion; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Dupuy, Nathalie; Roussel, Christian

    2016-01-15

    An unprecedented methodology was developed to simultaneously assign the relative percentages of the major chiral compounds and their prevailing enantiomeric form in crude essential oils (EOs). In a first step the infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of the crude essential oils were recorded and in a second step they were modelized as a linear weighted combination of the IR and VCD spectra of the individual spectra of pure enantiomer of the major chiral compounds present in the EOs. The VCD spectra of enantiomer of known enantiomeric excess shall be recorded if they are not yet available in a library of VCD spectra. For IR, the spectra of pure enantiomer or racemic mixture can be used. The full spectra modelizations were performed using a well known and powerful mathematical model (least square estimation: LSE) which resulted in a weighting of each contributing compound. For VCD modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the associate compound while the attached sign addressed the correctness of the enantiomeric form used to build the model. As an example, a model built with the non-prevailing enantiomer will show a negative sign of the weighting value. For IR spectra modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the compounds without of course accounting for the chirality of the prevailing enantiomers. Comparison of the weighting values issuing from IR and VCD spectra modelizations is a valuable source of information: if they are identical, the EOs are composed of nearly pure enantiomers, if they are different the chiral compounds of the EOs are not in an optically pure form. The method was applied on four samples of essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba in which the three major compounds namely (-)-α-thujone, (+)-β-thujone and (-)-camphor were found in different proportions as determined by GC-MS and chiral HPLC using polarimetric detector. In order to validate the

  14. Analysis of the major chiral compounds of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils (EOs) using reconstructed vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra: En route to a VCD chiral signature of EOs.

    PubMed

    Said, Mohammed El-Amin; Vanloot, Pierre; Bombarda, Isabelle; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Dahmane, El Montassir; Aamouche, Ahmed; Jean, Marion; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Dupuy, Nathalie; Roussel, Christian

    2016-01-15

    An unprecedented methodology was developed to simultaneously assign the relative percentages of the major chiral compounds and their prevailing enantiomeric form in crude essential oils (EOs). In a first step the infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of the crude essential oils were recorded and in a second step they were modelized as a linear weighted combination of the IR and VCD spectra of the individual spectra of pure enantiomer of the major chiral compounds present in the EOs. The VCD spectra of enantiomer of known enantiomeric excess shall be recorded if they are not yet available in a library of VCD spectra. For IR, the spectra of pure enantiomer or racemic mixture can be used. The full spectra modelizations were performed using a well known and powerful mathematical model (least square estimation: LSE) which resulted in a weighting of each contributing compound. For VCD modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the associate compound while the attached sign addressed the correctness of the enantiomeric form used to build the model. As an example, a model built with the non-prevailing enantiomer will show a negative sign of the weighting value. For IR spectra modelization, the absolute value of each weighting represented the percentage of the compounds without of course accounting for the chirality of the prevailing enantiomers. Comparison of the weighting values issuing from IR and VCD spectra modelizations is a valuable source of information: if they are identical, the EOs are composed of nearly pure enantiomers, if they are different the chiral compounds of the EOs are not in an optically pure form. The method was applied on four samples of essential oil of Artemisia herba-alba in which the three major compounds namely (-)-α-thujone, (+)-β-thujone and (-)-camphor were found in different proportions as determined by GC-MS and chiral HPLC using polarimetric detector. In order to validate the

  15. TOXIC ACTIVITY AND DELAYED EFFECTS OF FIVE BOTANICAL OILS ON THE FOLLOWING GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER PARENTS TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, N A; El-Kady, M B; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is carried out to evaluate the toxic efficiency and delayed effects of five botanical oils on the greasy cut worm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a trial for the attainment of a possible use of an alternative safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. So as to minimize or prevent the repeated usage of conventional insecticides, then reduce the environmental pollution as well as the occurring hazards to man and domestic animal due to the use of the pesticides alone. Four tested concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5% v/v) from each of camphor, red basil, menthol, rose and anise oils, were bioassayed by treating the offered castor oil bean leaves, to the 4th instar larvae along 48h, under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2 °C and 65±5% R.H. The obtained results showed that the five tested oils were found to have more or less toxic activity and drastic effects on the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated parent generation of the insect, in particular, pupae, emerged adult moths and laid eggs/female. In this respect camphor and red basil oils were highly effective, followed by menthol oil, anise oil and the least effective one was rose oil. Moreover, the assessed unprofitable delayed effects on the going on of the biological performance within the treated insects showed the adverse effects on the fitness components of the consequent generations (fs) post (p) one treatment with each of the bioassyed oils. The prevalence of adverse effects and disturbance in the going on biological performance through the period of (p) generation; which is followed by the distinct failure of insect development in (f1) generation were recorded for each of the tested menthol oil at 0.5 and 1.5% (v/v); camphor oil at 1.5 and 2.5% and red basil oil at 2.5% (v/v). While anise and rose oils were somewhat less efficient causing the distinct failure of the following generations up to the 3rd and/or the 6th ones

  16. Double dendrite growth in solidification.

    PubMed

    Utter, Brian; Bodenschatz, E

    2005-07-01

    We present experiments on the doublon growth morphology in directional solidification. Samples used are succinonitrile with small amounts of poly(ethylene oxide), acetone, or camphor as the solute. Doublons, or symmetry-broken dendrites, are generic diffusion-limited growth structures expected at large undercooling and low anisotropy. Low anisotropy growth is achieved by selecting a grain near the {111} plane leading to either seaweed (dense branching morphology) or doublon growth depending on experimental parameters. We find selection of doublons to be strongly dependent on solute concentration and sample orientation. Doublons are selected at low concentrations (low solutal undercooling) in contrast to the prediction of doublons at large thermal undercooling in pure materials. Doublons also exhibit preferred growth directions and changing the orientation of a specific doublonic grain changes the character and stability of the doublons. We observe transitions between seaweed and doublon growth with changes in concentration and sample orientation.

  17. Dynamics of low anisotropy morphologies in directional solidification.

    PubMed

    Utter, B; Bodenschatz, E

    2002-11-01

    We report experimental results on quasi-two-dimensional diffusion limited growth in directionally solidified succinonitrile with small amounts of poly(ethylene oxide), acetone, or camphor as a solute. Seaweed growth, or dense branching morphology, is selected by growing grains close to the [111] plane, where the in-plane surface tension is nearly isotropic. The observed growth morphologies are very sensitive to small anisotropies in surface tension caused by misorientations from the [111] plane. Different seaweed morphologies are found, including the degenerate, the stabilized, and the strongly tilted seaweeds. The degenerate seaweeds show a limited fractal scaling range and, with increased undercooling, suggests a transition from "fractal" to "compact" seaweed. Strongly tilted seaweeds demonstrate a significant twofold anisotropy. In addition, seaweed-dendrite transitions are observed in low anisotropy growth.

  18. Vincent van Gogh and the thujone connection.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W N

    1988-11-25

    During his last two years Vincent van Gogh experienced fits with hallucinations that have been attributed to a congenital psychosis. But the artist admitted to episodes of heavy drinking that were amply confirmed by colleagues and there is good evidence to indicate that addiction to absinthe exacerbated his illness. Absinthe was distilled from an alcoholic steep of herbs. Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) was the most significant constituent because it contributed thujone. This terpene can cause excitation, convulsions that mimic epilepsy, and even permanent brain damage. Statements in van Gogh's letters and from his friends indicate that he had an affinity for substances with a chemical connection to thujone; the documented examples are camphor and pinene. Perhaps he developed an abnormal craving for terpenes, a sort of pica, that would explain his attempts to eat paints and so on, which were previously regarded as unrelated absurdities.

  19. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    SciTech Connect

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  20. Application of Essential Oil of Artemisia Herba Alba as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Steel in 0.5 M H2SO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouachikh, O.; Bouyanzer, A.; Bouklah, M.; Desjobert, J.-M.; Costa, J.; Hammouti, B.; Majidi, L.

    Essential oil from Artemisia herba alba (Art) was hydrodistilled and tested as corrosion inhibitor of steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 using weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization methods. Results gathered show that this natural oil reduced the corrosion rate by the cathodic action. Its inhibition efficiency attains the maximum (74%) at 1 g/L. The inhibition efficiency of Arm oil increases with the rise of temperature. The adsorption isotherm of natural product on the steel has been determined. A. herba alba essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and its chemical composition oil was investigated by capillary GC and GC/MS. The major components were chrysanthenone (30.6%) and camphor (24.4%).

  1. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Progress report, [March 15, 1993--March 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1994-03-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest that the cyclases ((+){minus}bornyl pyrophosphate cyclases and ({minus}){minus}limonene cyclases) catalyze the rate-limiting steps of monoterpene biosynthesis in sage and mint, respectively. Similar evidence indicates that camphor hydroxylase, and the reductases that control the disposition of methone, are the critical steps of monoterpene catabolism in these systems. Related studies, based on in vitro assay of enzyme activities, have suggested that the accumulation and the compartmentation of these processes. Further studies directed toward localizing the pathways and determining the relevant protein and transcript levels require pure enzymes for antibody preparation and amino determining the relevant protein and transcript levels require pure enzymes for antibody preparation and amino acid sequence determination.

  2. Terpenoid diversity in the leaf essential oils of Himalayan Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Subhash C; Padalia, Rajendra C; Bisht, Dinesh S; Mathela, Chandra S

    2009-09-01

    The leaf terpenoid compositions of nine Lauraceae species, viz., Neolitsea pallens, Lindera pulcherrima, Dodecadenia grandiflora, Persea duthiei, Persea odoratissima, Persea gamblei, Phoebe lanceolata, Cinnamomum tamala, and Cinnamomum camphora, collected from the Himalayan region (India) were examined by GC, GC/MS, and NMR analyses in order to determine the similarities and differences among their volatile constituents. Furano-sesquiterpenoids were the principal constituents of N. pallens, L. pulcherrima, and D. grandiflora. (E)-Nerolidol, limonene, beta-pinene, and alpha-pinene were the major constituents of P. duthiei; alpha-pinene, sabinene, and beta-caryophyllene were predominant in P. odoratissima, while the oils of P. gamblei and P. lanceolata possessed beta-caryophyllene as common major constituent. C. camphora and C. tamala were marked by the presence of camphor and cinnamaldehyde, respectively. Cluster analysis of the oil composition was carried out in order to discern the differences and similarities within nine species of six genera of Lauraceae. PMID:19774599

  3. Application of the Taguchi analytical method for optimization of effective parameters of the chemical vapor deposition process controlling the production of nanotubes/nanobeads.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Apte, P R; Purandare, S C; Zacharia, Renju

    2005-02-01

    Seven variable parameters of the chemical vapor deposition system have been optimized with the help of the Taguchi analytical method for getting a desired product, e.g., carbon nanotubes or carbon nanobeads. It is observed that almost all selected parameters influence the growth of carbon nanotubes. However, among them, the nature of precursor (racemic, R or Technical grade camphor) and the carrier gas (hydrogen, argon and mixture of argon/hydrogen) seem to be more important parameters affecting the growth of carbon nanotubes. Whereas, for the growth of nanobeads, out of seven parameters, only two, i.e., catalyst (powder of iron, cobalt, and nickel) and temperature (1023 K, 1123 K, and 1273 K), are the most influential parameters. Systematic defects or islands on the substrate surface enhance nucleation of novel carbon materials. Quantitative contributions of process parameters as well as optimum factor levels are obtained by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of mean (ANOM), respectively. PMID:15853150

  4. 1-Magnesiotetrahydroisoquinolyloxazolines as Chiral Nucleophiles in Stereoselective Additions to Aldehydes: Auxiliary Optimization, Asymmetric Synthesis of (+)-Corlumine, (+)-Bicuculline, (+)-Egenine, and (+)-Corytensine, and Preliminary (13)C NMR Studies of 1-Lithio- and 1-Magnesiotetrahydroisoquinolyloxazolines.

    PubMed

    Gawley, Robert E.; Zhang, Pingsheng

    1996-11-15

    Transmetalation of 1-lithiotetrahydroisoquinolyloxazolines with magnesium halides affords Grignard reagents that add to aldehydes with up to 80% selectivity for one of the four possible diastereomeric products. An oxazoline chiral auxiliary derived from camphor provides an optimal blend of diastereoselectivity and isomer separability. Synthetic applications of the optimal auxiliary, patterned after a literature approach in the racemic series, comprise an improved (formal) synthesis of bicuculline, egenine, and corytensine, as well as an efficient synthesis of corlumine. Preliminary NMR studies show that both 1-lithio- and 1-magnesiotetrahydroisoquinolyloxazolines are dynamic mixtures in THF solution at low temperatures. The barrier to pyramidal inversion of the secondary Grignard reagent is in the 9.8-10.1 kcal/mol range, while an upper limit of about 8.2 kcal/mol can be assigned to the barrier to the organolithium inversion. PMID:11667797

  5. Composition, enantiomeric distribution, and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Achillea ligustica All. from Corsica.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-Jacques; Lanfranchi, Don-Antoine; Prado, Soizic; Baldovini, Nicolas; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2006-08-23

    The essential oil of Achillea ligustica from Corsica was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 82 compounds representing 94.0% of the oil were tentatively identified. The main constituents were the camphane derivatives, representing >30% (camphor, 21.3%; borneol, 6.2%; bornyl acetate, 3.5%) of the whole oil, and santolina alcohol (19.3%). The enantiomeric distribution of 8 chiral constituents was determined by GC-MS using two enantioselective stationary phases (DIME-beta-CD and Lipodex-E). Racemic santolina alcohol, required for optimization of the enantioselective GC conditions, was prepared by an original two-step synthesis from 2,5-dimethylhexa-2,4-diene. The whole essential oil was tested for its antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria using a paper disk method. The results show a promising activity against Streptomyces species. PMID:16910724

  6. Doping dependence of electrical and thermal conductivity of nanoscale polyaniline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiezhu; Wang, Qing; Haque, M. A.

    2010-05-01

    We performed simultaneous characterization of electrical and thermal conductivity of 55 nm thick polyaniline (PANI) thin films doped with different levels of camphor sulfonic acids (CSAs). The effect of the doping level is more pronounced on electrical conductivity than on thermal conductivity of PANIs, thereby greatly affecting their ratio that determines the thermoelectric efficiency. At the 60% (the molar ratio of CSA to phenyl-N repeat unit of PANI) doping level, PANI exhibited the maximum electrical and thermal conductivity due to the formation of mostly delocalized structures. Whereas polarons are the charge carriers responsible for the electrical conduction, phonons are believed to play a dominant role in the heat conduction in nanoscale doped PANI thin films.

  7. Effect of organic flux on the colossal dielectric constant of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razdan, Vishnu; Singh, Abhishek; Arnold, Brad; Choa, Fow-Sen; Kelly, Lisa; Singh, N. B.

    2015-05-01

    We have used low temperature organics to achieve orientation of the grains of Ca2/3Cu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) compound to increase the resistivity. During the past fifteen years CCTO has been studied extensively for its performance as a dielectric capacitor. We have synthesized and grown large grains of pure Ca2/3Cu3Ti4O12 and doped compound, and studied the dielectric constant and resistivity. The grains were aligned by using a naphthalene-camphor eutectic. CCTO was mixed in the organic melt and oriented by the directional solidification method. This material has different characteristics than pure processed CCTO material. The effect of solidification conditions and its effect on the morphology and the dielectric constant, resistivity and loss tan delta of pure and doped CCTO are described in this article.

  8. IR and py/GC/MS examination of amber relics excavated from 6th century royal tomb in Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongseo; Yun, Eunyoung; Kang, Hyungtae; Ahn, Jooyoung; Kim, Gyuho

    2016-08-01

    Relics of amber were excavated from King Muryeong's tomb constructed in the 6th century on the Korean peninsula. To estimate the provenance, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and py/GC/MS (pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) analysis were utilized. The reference Baltic amber sample was also analyzed with the same method for comparison. The relics were confirmed to be amber from the FTIR analysis where an absorption band near 1150cm(-1), characteristic one in Baltic amber, was also observed. In py/GC/MS analysis, pyrolyzed products like butanedioic acid and dehydroabietic acid, known constituents of amber, were observed. In addition, d-fenchyl alcohol, camphor, borneol and butanedioic acid, typical constituents of Baltic amber, were observed in some samples. From this, it appears that some of relics were made from Baltic amber and that Baltic amber was transported to the Korean peninsula in the time of tomb construction. PMID:27116473

  9. Dynamics of rod eutectic growth patterns in confined geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şerefoǧlu, Melis; Bottin-Rousseau, S.; Akamatsu, S.; Faivre, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of rod-like eutectics are examined using a directional solidification setup, which allows real-time observation of the whole solidification front in specimens of transparent eutectic alloys -here, succinonitrile-(D)camphor. In steady-state, rod eutectic growth patterns consist of triangular arrays, more or less disturbed by topological defects. In the absence of strong convection and of crystallographic anisotropy, the long-time evolution of the pattern is dominated by "imperfections" of the system, such as misalignment of the temperature gradient, and finite-size. In this study, we present experimental results on the finite-size effects on rod eutectics and show that a rod to lamella transition takes place as a result of finite-size effect only, at a given alloy concentration.

  10. Supramolecular arrangement promoted in trans-[PdCl2(HONC10H14O)2]·2H2O by hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Adelino M.; Carvalho, M. Fernanda N. N.; Grilo, António L.

    2014-05-01

    Palladium(II) complexes trans-[PdCl2(3-HONC10H14O)2]ṡ2H2O and trans-[PdCl2(2-HONC10H16)2] with similar formulations and molecular geometries display considerably different supramolecular arrangements due to hydrogen bonding involving the oxime substituent (NOH) of the camphor ligand, the halide co-ligand of adjacent molecules and H2O outer-sphere molecules in the case of trans-[PdCl2(3-HONC10H14O)2]ṡ2H2O. The discussion is based on data collected by X-ray diffraction analysis and DFT calculations.

  11. A High-Speed Imaging and Modeling Study of Dendrite Fragmentation Caused by Ultrasonic Cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Da; Sun, Baode; Mi, Jiawei; Grant, Patrick S.

    2012-10-01

    The dynamic behavior of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their effect on the fragmentation of dendritic grains of a solidifying succinonitrile 1 wt pct camphor organic transparent alloy have been studied experimentally using high-speed digital imaging and complementary numerical analysis of sound wave propagation, cavitation dynamics, and the velocity field in the vicinity of an imploding cavitation bubble. Real-time imaging and analysis revealed that the violent implosion of bubbles created local shock waves that could shatter dendrites nearby into small pieces in a few tens of milliseconds. These catastrophic events were effective in breaking up growing dendritic grains and creating abundant fragmented crystals that may act as embryonic grains; therefore, these events play an important role in grain refinement of metallurgical alloys.

  12. Evaluation of residual iron in carbon nanotubes purified by acid treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E. R.; Antunes, E. F.; Botelho, E. C.; Baldan, M. R.; Corat, E. J.

    2011-11-01

    A detailed analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) surfaces after non-oxidative and oxidative purification treatments in liquid-phase. The MWCNT were produced by pyrolysis of camphor and ferrocene, that provides a high yield but with high iron contamination (∼15% wt). The elimination and/or oxidation of iron nanoparticles were monitored by Fe2p and O1s core level. Oxygen-based functional groups attachment was also investigated by C1s fitting. The effectiveness of each treatment in iron removal was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The integrity of the MWCNT structure was verified by Raman spectroscopy (RS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A purity degree higher than 98% was achieved only with non-oxidative treatments using sonification process.

  13. Bioactivity, proximate, mineral and volatile profiles along the flowering stages of Opuntia microdasys (Lehm.): defining potential applications.

    PubMed

    Chahdoura, Hassiba; Barreira, João C M; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Morales, Patricia; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Flamini, Guido; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Achour, Lotfi

    2016-03-01

    Opuntia spp. flowers have been traditionally used for medical purposes, mostly because of their diversity in bioactive molecules with health promoting properties. The proximate, mineral and volatile compound profiles, together with the cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties were characterized in O. microdasys flowers at different maturity stages, revealing several statistically significant differences. O. microdasys stood out mainly for its high contents of dietary fiber, potassium and camphor, and its high activities against HCT15 cells, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium funiculosum. The vegetative stage showed the highest cytotoxic and antifungal activities, whilst the full flowering stage was particularly active against bacterial species. The complete dataset has been classified by principal component analysis, achieving clearly identifiable groups for each flowering stage, elucidating also the most distinctive features, and comprehensively profiling each of the assayed stages. The results might be useful to define the best flowering stage considering practical application purposes. PMID:26876160

  14. EPR investigations of silicon carbide nanoparticles functionalized by acid doped polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karray, Fekri; Kassiba, Abdelhadi

    2012-06-01

    Nanocomposites (SiC-PANI) based on silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC) encapsulated in conducting polyaniline (PANI) are synthesized by direct polymerization of PANI on the nanoparticle surfaces. The conductivity of PANI and the nanocomposites was modulated by several doping levels of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations were carried out on representative SiC-PANI samples over the temperature range [100-300 K]. The features of the EPR spectra were analyzed taking into account the paramagnetic species such as polarons with spin S=1/2 involved in two main environments realized in the composites as well as their thermal activation. A critical temperature range 200-225 K was revealed through crossover changes in the thermal behavior of the EPR spectral parameters. Insights on the electronic transport properties and their thermal evolutions were inferred from polarons species probed by EPR and the electrical conductivity in doped nanocomposites.

  15. Nondipole Effects in Chiral Systems Measured with Linearly Polarized Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, K. P.; Hemmers, O.; Guillemin, R.; Stolte, W. C.; Piancastelli, M. N.; Lindle, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    With the advent of third-generation synchrotron light sources, it has been demonstrated that higher-order corrections to the dipole approximation are necessary for the description of light-matter interactions in the soft x-ray range. These effects, known as 'nondipole effects', present themselves as asymmetries in the angular distributions of photoelectrons. Chiral molecules, known to have asymmetries in photoelectron angular distributions when exposed to circularly polarized light, have been proposed to demonstrate a chiral-specific nondipole effect when exposed to linearly polarized light. We present the first-ever measurement of nondipole chiral angular distributions for the case of each enantiomer of camphor in the photon energy range 296-343eV.

  16. The Effect of Deposition Temperature to Photoconductivity Properties of Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Deposited By Thermal CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, F.; Suriani, A. B.; Noor, U. M.; Rusop, M.

    2010-07-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films were deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using camphor oil on quartz substrates. The photoconductivity and optical properties of the thin films were studied with varying the deposition temperatures ranging from 650 to 900 °C. The film deposited at 750 °C shows large photoconductivity compare to other films. The optical characterization shows that the optical band gap of the thin films decreased from 0.65 to ˜0.0eV with increasing the deposition temperature due to the increase of sp2 bonded carbon configuration. The electrical conductivity of the thin films grown at higher temperature is much higher compared with the thin films deposited at low temperature.

  17. Variation of terpenes in milk and cultured cream from Norwegian alpine rangeland-fed and in-door fed cows.

    PubMed

    Borge, Grethe Iren A; Sandberg, Ellen; Øyaas, Jorun; Abrahamsen, Roger K

    2016-05-15

    The terpene content of milk and cream made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors, and by early or late grazing, in alpine rangeland farms in Norway, were analysed for three consecutive years. The main terpenes identified and semi-quantified were the monoterpenes β-pinene, α-pinene, α-thujene, camphene, sabinene, δ-3-carene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, camphor, β-citronellene, and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. The average total terpene content increased five times during the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes α-thujene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and β-citronellene were only detected in milk and cultured cream from the alpine rangeland feeding period and not in samples from the indoors feeding period. These four terpenes could be used, as indicators, to show that milk and cultured cream originate from the alpine rangeland feeding period. The terpenes did not influence the sensorial quality of the milk or the cultured cream. PMID:26775961

  18. In situ and real time characterization of interface microstructure in 3D alloy solidification: benchmark microgravity experiments in the DECLIC-Directional Solidification Insert on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, A.; Chen, L.; Bergeon, N.; Billia, B.; Gu, Jiho; Trivedi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamical microstructure formation and selection during solidification processing, which has a major influence on the properties in the use of elaborated materials, occur during the growth process. In situ observation of the solid-liquid interface morphology evolution is thus necessary. On earth, convection effects dominate in bulk samples and may strongly interact with microstructure dynamics and alter pattern characterization. Series of solidification experiments with 3D cylindrical sample geometry were conducted in succinonitrile (SCN) -0.24 wt%camphor (model transparent system), in microgravity environment in the Directional Solidification Insert of the DECLIC facility of CNES (French space agency) on the International Space Station (ISS). Microgravity enabled homogeneous values of control parameters over the whole interface allowing the obtaining of homogeneous patterns suitable to get quantitative benchmark data. First analyses of the characteristics of the pattern (spacing, order, etc.) and of its dynamics in microgravity will be presented.

  19. Solid-State and Solution Structures of Glycinimine-Derived Lithium Enolates.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kyoung Joo; Collum, David B

    2015-11-18

    A combination of crystallographic, spectroscopic, and computational studies was applied to study the structures of lithium enolates derived from glycinimines of benzophenone and (+)-camphor. The solvents examined included toluene and toluene containing various concentrations of tetrahydrofuran, N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA), (R,R)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylcyclohexanediamine [(R,R)-TMCDA], and (S,S)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylcyclohexanediamine [(S,S)-TMCDA]. Crystal structures show chelated monomers, symmetric disolvated dimers, S4-symmetric tetramers, and both S6- and D3d-symmetric hexamers. (6)Li NMR spectroscopic studies in conjunction with the method of continuous variations show how these species distribute in solution. Density functional theory computations offer insights into experimentally elusive details. PMID:26554898

  20. Photoelectron circular dichroism of chiral molecules studied with a continuum-state-corrected strong-field approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreissigacker, Ingo; Lein, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on circular dichroism in the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong-field ionization of chiral molecules [C. Lux et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 5001 (2012), 10.1002/anie.201109035; C. S. Lehmann et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234307 (2013), 10.1063/1.4844295], we investigate the origin of this effect theoretically. We show that it is not possible to describe photoelectron circular dichroism with the commonly used strong-field approximation due to its plane-wave nature. We therefore apply the Born approximation to the scattering state and use this as a continuum-state correction in the strong-field approximation. We obtain electron distributions for the molecules camphor and fenchone. In order to gain physical insight into the process, we study the contributions of individual molecular orientations.

  1. Aurum and Platinum as Metal Contact to Amorphous Carbon Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, F.; Suriani, A. B.; Noor, U. M.; Rusop, M.

    2010-07-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films have been deposited on quartz substrates at different deposition temperatures ranging from 700 °C-800 °C. The objective of this work is to investigate several electrical contacts on a-C thin films and to find the suitable method to fabricate ohmic contact on a-C thin films that prepared from a natural product, camphor (C10H16O). The a-C thin films were prepared with a simple thermal CVD method. In this study, Aurum (Au) and Platinum (Pt) were selected as the metal contact to a-C thin films. I-V characteristics measurement was carried out to study the contact between metal and a-C thin films. It was found that increasing deposition temperature also contributes to the variation I-V characteristics of a-C thin films.

  2. Biotransformation of (-)-α-Pinene by Whole Cells of White Rot Fungi, Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 and Stereum hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Ho-Young; Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Choi, In-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    Two white rot fungi, Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 (CER) and Stereum hirsutum (STH) were used as biocatalysts for the biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene. After 96 hr, CER converted the bicyclic monoterpene hydrocarbon (-)-α-pinene into α-terpineol (yield, 0.05 g/L), a monocyclic monoterpene alcohol, in addition to, other minor products. Using STH, verbenone was identified as the major biotransformed product, and minor products were myrtenol, camphor, and isopinocarveol. We did not observe any inhibitory effects of substrate or transformed products on mycelial growth of the fungi. The activities of fungal manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase were monitored for 15 days to determine the enzymatic pathways related to the biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene. We concluded that a complex of enzymes, including intra- and extracellular enzymes, were involved in terpenoid biotransformation by white rot fungi. PMID:26539046

  3. Growth of well-oriented VACNTs using thermal chemical vapor deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Amin Termeh; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2016-07-01

    The remarkable properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them attractive for biosensor applications, especially for medical detecting devices. In this paper, we describe a process to grow high oriented ratio CNT arrays to improve the electrical properties of the devices based on CNTs. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to grow highly oriented CNT using camphor as the carbon source, and argon and hydrogen as carrier gases to grow perpendicular CNTs on the surface of the silicon substrate in presence of ferrocene as a metallic catalyst. Images were revealed by FESEM indicates that the formation mechanism of oriented CNTs with high morphological purity nanotubes, which is depends significantly on deposition time and applied temperature to the furnaces. This method might be an effective method to produce oriented MWCNT in different length.

  4. Optimization of Fe/Ni/Mg Trimetallic Catalyst for Carbon Nanotubes Growth by Using Fluidized Floating Catalyst Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azira, A. A.; Zainal, N. F. A.; Nik, S. F.; Rusop, M.

    2009-06-01

    Fluidized floating catalyst method has been used for preparing carbon nanotubes with average size ˜11 nm which yielded high yield even at low temperature; 650° C. Optimum concentration of the Fe/Ni/Mg metal alloy catalyst has been found to be at 2.133% for producing carbon nanotubes with high yield. Carbon nanotubes are formed by the evaporation of the camphor oil (precursor), which decomposes `in situ' and aggregates on the metal alloy catalyst particles present in the ceramic boat. From the PXRD analyses, graphite layers detected which provide an indication of the degree of graphitic character. However, by using the Scherrer equation is not suitable for carbon nanotubes as the value is slightly different from the average diameter determine from FESEM micrographs. Since the metallic alloy was obtained by calcining the respective nitrates, it is expected to have residual entrapped nitrogen, which may bond with the depositing CNTs as observed from FTIR spectroscopy.

  5. Identification of volatiles in leaves of Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Yan; Ye, Zheng Mei; Huang, Tian Yi; Chen, Xiao Dan; Li, Yong Yu; Wu, Shao Hua

    2014-07-01

    Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' is an aromatic medicinal plant, its foliage producing an intense, unique fragrant odor. This study identified 46 volatile compounds in the leaf tissue of this plant using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The major compounds included 1, 8-cineole (43.5%), p-cymene (14.7%), humulene (5.5%), camphor (5.3%), linalool (4.7%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (3.8%), gamma-cadinene (3.3%), humulene oxide II (2.1%) and a-terpineol (1.5%). The majority of the volatiles were terpenoids of which oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant, accounting for 57.2% of the total volatiles. Alcohols made up the largest (52.8%) and aldehydes the smallest (0.2%) portions of the volatiles. Many bioactive compounds were present in the volatiles. PMID:25230513

  6. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaying; Pan, Liumeng; Wu, Shenggan; Lu, Liping; Xu, Yiwen; Zhu, Yanye; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives. PMID:27527194

  7. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaying; Pan, Liumeng; Wu, Shenggan; Lu, Liping; Xu, Yiwen; Zhu, Yanye; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives. PMID:27527194

  8. High loading fragrance encapsulation based on a polymer-blend: preparation and release behavior.

    PubMed

    Sansukcharearnpon, Aurapan; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason; Leepipatpaiboon, Natchanun; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat; Arayachukeat, Sunatda

    2010-05-31

    The six fragrances, camphor, citronellal, eucalyptol, limonene, menthol and 4-tert-butylcyclohexyl acetate, which represent different chemical functionalities, were encapsulated with a polymer-blend of ethylcellulose (EC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PV(OH)) using solvent displacement (ethanol displaced by water). The process gave >or=40% fragrance loading capacity with >or=80% encapsulation efficiency at the fragrance to polymer weight ratio of 1:1 and at initial polymer concentrations of 2000-16,000 ppm and the obtained fragrance-encapsulated spheres showed hydrodynamic diameters of less than 450 nm. The release profile of the encapsulated fragrances, evaluated by both thermal gravimetric and electronic nose techniques, indicated different release characteristics amongst the six encapsulated fragrances. Limonene showed the fastest release with essentially no retention by the nanoparticles, while eucalyptol and menthol showed the slowest release.

  9. Microbial oxidation of (-)-α-pinene to verbenol production by newly isolated strains.

    PubMed

    Rottava, Ieda; Cortina, Priscila F; Zanella, Camila A; Cansian, Rogerio L; Toniazzo, Geciane; Treichel, Helen; Antunes, Octavio A C; Oestreicher, Enrique G; de Oliveira, Debora

    2010-12-01

    Verbenol is a bicyclicbicycle secondary allylic alcohol, with pronounced camphor and mint flavor notes, mainly used as food flavoring. This compound is also used to control harmful insects, and hence has potential for using in agriculture, and is an intermediate in the synthesis of valuable perfume and medicinal substances. This work is focused on the microbial oxidation of (-)-α-pinene to verbenol production. To carry out the present study, 405 microorganisms were tested for their ability to bioconvert the substrate. From the isolated microorganisms, 193 were selected in the pre-screening using mineral medium for limonene degradation. At the screening step, 31 strains were able to convert (-)-α-pinene in verbenol. The highest concentration in verbenol from (-)-α-pinene was about 125.6 mg/L for yeast isolated from orange juice industrial residue.

  10. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaying; Pan, Liumeng; Wu, Shenggan; Lu, Liping; Xu, Yiwen; Zhu, Yanye; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2016-08-03

    Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.

  11. Potential occupational exposures in the Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen Mannheim/Germany.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Gottsmann, Sandra; Mitschke, Sylvia; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-12-01

    The Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen in Mannheim, Germany requested support from a toxicological laboratory in evaluating occupational exposures before a cleanup and renovation period in 2006. Samples of dust and dirt and scrapings of exhibits were collected from several locations. Following toxicologically relevant compounds could be identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) by comparison with a mass spectra library: dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD) as well as dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (DDE), methoxychlor, nicotine, and camphor. In recent times various insecticides have been used to protect museum artefacts against moths, woodborers and other insect pests. Caution has to be made because the presence of hazardous compounds can result in security problems for museum staff as well as for visitors. PMID:20972535

  12. Analysis of Iranian rosemary essential oil: application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Moazeni, Rudabeh Sadat; Sereshti, Hassan

    2011-05-01

    This paper focuses on characterization of the components of Iranian rosemary essential oil using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) approach was used to overcome the problem of background, baseline offset and overlapping/embedded peaks in GC-MS. The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that sixty eight components exist in the rosemary essential oil. However, with the help of MCR this number was extended to ninety nine components with concentrations higher than 0.01%, which accounts for 98.23% of the total relative content of the rosemary essential oil. The most important constituents of the Iranian rosemary are 1,8-cineole (23.47%), α-pinene (21.74%), berbonone (7.57%), camphor (7.21%) and eucalyptol (4.49%).

  13. Poly[(μ3-camphorato-κ3 O:O′:O′′)(2-methyl-1H-imidazole-κN 3)zinc(II)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haochen; Li, Chunjie; Gao, Feng; Chen, Jingyan; Han, Fei

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn(C10H14O4)(C4H6N2)]n, each ZnII ion is coordinated by one N atom from one 2-methyl-1H-imidazole ligand and three O atoms from two camphorate (cap) ligands in a distorted tetra­hedral geometry. In one of the cap ligands, one methyl group is disordered between positions 1 and 3 in a 0.518 (12):0.482 (12) ratio. Each cap ligand bridges three ZnII ions, forming two-dimensional layers, which inter­act further via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21580467

  14. An Efficient Protocol for Plantlet Regeneration via Direct Organogenesis by Using Nodal Segments from Embryo-Cultured Seedlings of Cinnamomum camphora L.

    PubMed Central

    Du, Li; Li, Yongpeng; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient plantlet regeneration protocol via direct organogenesis was established for camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora L.). Stem segments with one node (SN explants) from embryo-cultured seedlings (EC seedlings) were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.0 mg/L 6-benzyladenine was used to induce cotyledonary embryo germination. This medium was also used for EC seedlings propagation and adventitious bud induction from SN explants. Regenerated plantlets were cultured on hormone-free MS medium for elongation and root induction. The regeneration capability of SN explants was compared by using EC seedling lines established in this research. EC seedling line EL6 exhibited the highest adventitious bud induction frequency (91.7%) and the highest number of buds per responding explant (5.2), which was considered as the most efficient EC seedling line for further gene transformation research. PMID:25962170

  15. Responses to olfactory stimuli in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta): I. Investigation of environmental odors and the function of rolling.

    PubMed

    Drea, Christine M; Vignieri, Sacha N; Cunningham, Sarah B; Glickman, Stephen E

    2002-12-01

    Olfaction is crucial to spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), yet there are no controlled studies of their reactions to odors. In Experiment 1, the authors examined responses of captive hyenas to various environmental (prey, nonprey animal, and plant) odors. Subjects approached and sniffed all odors equally but preferentially licked prey odors, scent marked next to odors, and rolled in animal-based odors. In Experiment 2, the authors examined the function of rolling by applying odors to the pelts of captive hyenas. When hyenas wore carrion, they gained positive social attention (increased investigation and allogrooming) from pen mates, but when they wore camphor, the normal social greeting ceremony was curtailed. Thus, olfactory stimuli elicit specific responses, influence where behavior is directed, and can be used to affect social interaction.

  16. Chemical composition of the essential oil from basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.) and its in vitro cytotoxicity against HeLa and HEp-2 human cancer cell lines and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Poonkodi; Ravi, Subban

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chemical composition and in vitro anticancer activity of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), cultivated in the Western Ghats of South India. The chemical compositions of basil fresh leaves were identified by GC-MS: 11 components were identified. The major constituents were found to be methyl cinnamate (70.1%), linalool (17.5%), β-elemene (2.6%) and camphor (1.52%). The results revealed that this plant may belong to the methyl cinnamate and linalool chemotype. A methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity screening against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human laryngeal epithelial carcinoma cell line (HEp-2) and NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The IC(50) values obtained were 90.5 and 96.3 µg mL(-1), respectively, and the results revealed that basil oil has potent cytotoxicity.

  17. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    PubMed

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  18. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects.

  19. [The study of transpiration influence on plant infrared radiation character].

    PubMed

    Ling, Jun; Zhang, Shuan-Qin; Pan, Jia-Liang; Lian, Chang-Chun; Yang, Hui

    2012-07-01

    Studying vegetation infrared radiation character is the base of developing infrared camouflage and concealment technology of ground military target. Accurate fusion of target and background can be achieved by simulating formation mechanism of vegetation infrared radiation character. Leaf transpiration is characteristic physiological mechanism of vegetation and one of the main factors that influence its infrared radiation character. In the present paper, physical model of leaf energy balance is set up. Based on this model the influence of plant transpiration on leaf temperature is analyzed and calculated. The daily periodic variation of transpiration, leaf temperature and infrared radiation character of typical plants such as camphor tree and holly is actually measured with porometer and infrared thermal imaging system. By contrasting plant leaf with dryness leaf, experimental data indicates that plant transpiration can regulate leaf energy balance effectively and control leaf temperature in a reasonable range and suppress deep range variation of leaf infrared radiation character.

  20. Characterization of odor-active compounds of various Chrysanthemum essential oils by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fan, Binbin; Niu, Yunwei; Wu, Minling; Liu, Junhua; Ma, Shengtao

    2016-01-15

    Volatiles of five kinds of Chrysanthemum essential oils with different manufactures were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and statistics analysis. Six sensory attributes (floral, woody, grassy, fruity, sour and minty) were selected to assess Chrysanthemum essential oils. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected and quantified using standard substances by GC-O and GC-MS. Terpenes constituted the largest chemical group among the volatiles of the essential oils. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the relationship between sensory attributes and aroma compounds. The result showed that α-pinene, β-thujene, α-terpinolen, β-cubebene, caryophyllene, (Z)β-farnesene, (-)-spathulenol, linalool, camphor, camphene, 4-terpineol, Z-citral and 4-isopropyltoluene were typical aroma compounds covaried with characteristic aroma of Chrysanthemum essential oils.

  1. Raman, IR and DFT studies of mechanism of sodium binding to urea catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Partha P.; Kumari, Gayatri; Chittoory, Arjun K.; Rajaram, Sridhar; Narayana, Chandrabhas

    2015-12-01

    Bis-camphorsulfonyl urea, a newly developed hydrogen bonding catalyst, was evaluated in an enantioselective Friedel-Crafts reaction. We observed that complexation of the sulfonyl urea with a sodium cation enhanced the selectivity of reactions in comparison to reactions performed with urea alone. To understand the role of sodium cation, we performed Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies. The detailed band assignment of the molecule was made by calculating spectra using Density Functional theory. Our studies suggest that the binding of the cation takes place through the oxygen atoms of carbonyl and sulfonyl groups. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis shows the expected charge distribution after sodium binding. The changes in the geometrical parameter and charge distribution are in line with the experimentally observed spectral changes. Based on these studies, we conclude that binding of the sodium cation changes the conformation of the sulfonyl urea to bring the chiral camphor groups closer to the incipient chiral center.

  2. A preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S

    1997-11-01

    The pharmacological activity of nine commercial essential oils was studied on the rat isolated phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation and compared with activity on field-stimulated guinea-pig ileum preparations. The essential oils at final bath concentrations of 2 x 10(-5) and 2 x 10(-4) g/ml produced four different effects on skeletal muscle, whilst only a contracture with or without a decrease in response to field stimulation in smooth muscle. The first type of effect on skeletal muscle involved a contracture and inhibition of the twitch response to nerve stimulation shown by a sample of clary sage, dill, fennel, frankincense and nutmeg; a second, shown by thyme produced a contracture without a change in the twitch response; a third, shown by lavender reduced the twitch response alone and the fourth, shown by camphor, increased the size of the twitch response. Angelica root oil at the highest concentration studied showed no response on skeletal muscle. PMID:9421254

  3. [Some glass instruments of Arabic alchemy].

    PubMed

    Kurzmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    From an as yet unpublished collection, kept in the Linden Museum, Stuttgart, of some 20 Islamic glass items, 12 objects with an alchemical background have been selected and studied in detail. The most important items are two alchemical still heads which, according to an alchemical manuscript of al-Kindī, a significant 9th century Arabian philosopher, natural scientist, mathematician, physician and musician, are identified as still heads for the watersteam distillation of camphor in particular. Additionally the publication presented here features a medical utensil (probably recent), a measuring jug, a funnel, a mortar, a pestle, a test tube most probably 19th century and four small bottles--probably for perfume. Most of the objects originate in Iran, but some are from Egypt, Afghanistan and Palestine and date mainly from the 9th to the 13th century AD. Some misinterpretations and ambiguities to be found in the literature have been corrected and eliminated. PMID:20336929

  4. [Raspail, propagandist himself from the "warnings" of the manual of health, between 1845 and 1878].

    PubMed

    Albou, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    During the last thirty years of his life, between 1845 and 1878, François-Vincent Raspail (1794-1878) published each year a new edition of his Manuel de santé (Manual of Health), which was intended as a practical guide to prevent and treat, using in particular camphor, major human diseases. Each edition was accompanied by a preamble, as an annual forum where the "revered teacher" applied to give information on his family, his trial, his stays in prison, his resentment, his exile, his publications, schedules consultations, etc. As a libertarian protester against the powers wether medical, political or judicial, Raspail was a tireless defender of the poor and weak, and this attitude earned him his reputation and his popularity. This positive image of "secular saint" was built from an effective propaganda, where the Manuel de santé and its preambles played a central rol.

  5. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  6. Conducting polymers at low temperatures and high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.C.; Ihas, G.G.; Reghu, M.

    1995-11-01

    Advances in the synthesis of organic conducting polymer systems has increased the electrical conductivity of these systems by several orders of magnitude in the last decade. Several practical applications are envisioned for such systems, but a thorough understanding of the conduction mechanisms and identification of the charge carriers is lacking, making design and implementation for bulk synthesis difficult. In order to clarify our understanding of the electrical properties of these systems, the resistivity and magnetoresistivity of various polymers doped near the metal - insulator transition, such as polyaniline protonated by camphor sulfonic acid (PANi-CSA) and polypyrrole doped with PF{sub 6} (PPy-PF{sub 6}), have been studied down to 25 mK in magnetic fields up to 16 T.

  7. Essential oil composition of Achillea clusiana from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Vitkova, Antonina

    2010-01-01

    The essential oil compositon of Achillea clusiana Tausch from Bulgaria has been studied by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-four components were registered, representing 92.5% of the oil. The oil was characterized by the presence of oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenoids. The main components were beta-thujone (17.2%), 1,8-cineole (11.2%), camphor (11.1%) and alpha-thujone (7.8%). Farnesol (3.1%), nerolidol (2.7%) and oxygenated nerolidol derivatives (cabreuva oxides A-D, isohumbertiols A-D, bejarol and 7-hydroxy-6,7-dihydro-5,6E-dehydronerolidol) were the main sesquiterpenoids in the oil. PMID:20184037

  8. 1,2-diketones promoted degradation of poly(epsilon-caprolactone)

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, Martin; Borska, Katarina; Ragab, Sherif Shaban; Janigova, Ivica; Mosnacek, Jaroslav

    2012-07-11

    Photochemical reactions of Benzil and Camphorquinone were used for modification of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) polymer films. Photochemistry of dopants was followed by infrared spectroscopy, changes on polymer chains of matrix were followed by gel permeation chromatography. Benzoyl peroxide was efficiently photochemically generated from benzyl in solid polymer matrix in the presence of air. Following decomposition of benzoyl peroxide led to degradation of matrix. Photochemical transformation of benzil in vacuum led to hydrogen abstraction from the polymer chains in higher extent, which resulted to chains recombination and formation of gel. Photochemical transformation of camphorquinone to corresponding camphoric peroxide was not observed. Only decrease of molecular weight of polymer matrix doped with camphorquinone was observed during the irradiation.

  9. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant. PMID:24849850

  10. Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of α- and β-thujone in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal tea.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Occhipinti, Andrea; Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2013-09-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is an important industrial plant used both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. The terpene fraction of this plant is responsible for many of its therapeutic and culinary properties. We used different extraction methods Tenax TA® purge and trap, headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction, HS sorptive extraction, and stir bar sorptive extraction to analyze the terpene fraction extracted from sage tea by GC-MS. Twenty compounds were identified, including α-, β-thujone, and several other oxygenated monoterpenes (1,8-cineole, linalool, camphor, boneol, and bornyl acetate) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene oxide, viridiflorol, humulene epoxide I, II, and III). Tenax TA® and HS sorptive extraction extracted a lower number of identified compounds, whereas HS solid-phase microextraction allowed the complete extraction of volatiles with particular reference to α- and β-thujone. The importance of the determination of thujones content in sage herbal tea is also discussed.

  11. Eco-Friendly Synthesis of Some Thiosemicarbazones and Their Applications as Intermediates for 5-Arylazothiazole Disperse Dyes.

    PubMed

    Gaffer, Hatem E; Khalifa, Mohamed E

    2015-01-01

    The solid-solid reactions of thiosemicarbazide with 4-formylantipyrine, 2-acetylpyrrole and camphor were performed to afford the thiosemicarbazones 1-3 which underwent hetero-cyclization with phenacyl bromide to furnish the corresponding thiazole derivatives 4-6. The yields of the reactions are quantitative in all cases and the products do not require further purification. A series of 5-arylazo-2-(substituted ylidene-hydrazinyl)-thiazole dyes 7-9 was then prepared by diazo coupling of thiazole derivatives 4-6 with several diazonium chlorides. The synthesized dyes were applied as disperse dyes for dyeing polyester fabric. The dyed fabrics exhibit good washing, perspiration, sublimation and light fastness properties, with little variation in their moderate to good rubbing fastness. PMID:26690111

  12. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for characterization of fragrances of lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Sun; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2004-01-01

    Natural fragrances from lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) were studied by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) techniques followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with six different fibre coatings being tested to evaluate the extraction efficiencies of several selected compounds. A total of 14 compounds were identified in the fragrances of lemon verbena. Geranial and neral were detected as major components and alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-caryophyllene, and curcumene as minor components. Enantiomeric analysis of chiral compounds from lemon verbena was carried out on a chiral column. alpha-Pinene, limonene, and camphor in the fragrances emitted from lemon verbena were found in the (+), (-), and (-) forms, respectively.

  13. IR and py/GC/MS examination of amber relics excavated from 6th century royal tomb in Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongseo; Yun, Eunyoung; Kang, Hyungtae; Ahn, Jooyoung; Kim, Gyuho

    2016-08-01

    Relics of amber were excavated from King Muryeong's tomb constructed in the 6th century on the Korean peninsula. To estimate the provenance, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and py/GC/MS (pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) analysis were utilized. The reference Baltic amber sample was also analyzed with the same method for comparison. The relics were confirmed to be amber from the FTIR analysis where an absorption band near 1150 cm- 1, characteristic one in Baltic amber, was also observed. In py/GC/MS analysis, pyrolyzed products like butanedioic acid and dehydroabietic acid, known constituents of amber, were observed. In addition, D-fenchyl alcohol, camphor, borneol and butanedioic acid, typical constituents of Baltic amber, were observed in some samples. From this, it appears that some of relics were made from Baltic amber and that Baltic amber was transported to the Korean peninsula in the time of tomb construction.

  14. Analysis of creams. III. Application of gas--liquid chromatography. Part I.

    PubMed

    Lake, O A; Hulshoff, A; Indemans, A W

    1982-04-23

    The possibilities of the gas--liquid chromatographic analysis with flame ionization detection of creams of the o/w emulsion type were investigated. Interferences by cream base components in the determination of the active compounds were studied. It appeared to be possible to determine active compounds with a retention index lower than 1900 on ov-17 (e.g. methyl salicylate, menthol, thymol camphor) without clean-up of the cream samples; for the determination of compounds with retention indices between 1900 and 3700, a simple clean-up step suffices. The possible analysis of some of the cream base components together with the active compounds of the creams was investigated as well. Cetomacrogol emulsifying wax, lanette was sx and cetiol v could be determined easily, whether or not a sample clean-up step was incorporated. PMID:7099914

  15. Fabrication of particular structures of hexagonal boron nitride and boron-carbon-nitrogen layers by anisotropic etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Sharma, Kamal P.; Thangaraja, Amutha; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2016-05-01

    Anisotropic etching of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) basal plane can be an exciting platform to develop well-defined structures with interesting properties. Here, we developed an etching process of atomically thin h-BN and BCN layers to fabricate nanoribbons (NRs) and other distinct structures by annealing in H2 and Ar gas mixture. BCN and h-BN films are grown on Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using solid camphor and ammonia borane as carbon, nitrogen and boron source, respectively. Formation of micron size well-defined etched holes and NRs are obtained in both h-BN and BCN layers by the post growth annealing process. The etching process of h-BN and BCN basal plane to fabricate NRs and other structures with pronounced edges can open up new possibilities in 2D hybrid materials.

  16. Essential oils of Chiliadenus lopadusanus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Scirica, Elena; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-08-01

    The essential oils from the leaves and flowers of Chiliadenus lopadusanus growing on Lampedusa Island were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The major component was camphor (39.4% in the leaves and 24.0% in the flowers), followed in the leaves by torreyol (6.7%), t-cadinol (5.2%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8%), while in the flowers by t-cadinol (15.2%), t-muurolol (5.1%) and torreyol (4.5%). Among the compounds identified, several seem to play a role in antibacterial, antifungal, allelopathic and spasmolytic activity. In addition, several compounds identified in this study seem to influence the attraction of Megachile (Eutricharaea) apicalis (Megachilidae) and Halictus (Seladonia) gemmeus (Halictidae), two hymenopteran here identified as pollinators of Chiliadenus lopadusanus. PMID:24079193

  17. Reaction of inflamed periapical tissue to intracanal medicaments and root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Tepel, J; Darwisch el Sawaf, M; Hoppe, W

    1994-10-01

    The effects of different intracanal medicaments and zinc oxide-eugenol based root canal sealers on an experimentally induced apical periodontitis were studied histologically in mesial roots of lower molars of Wistar rats. After root canal instrumentation each canal was filled either with an intracanal medicament twice for 3 days each time or with a sealer for 21 days. The intracanal medicament chlorophenol caused periapical tissue damage. P-chloroxylenol-camphor lead to periapical improvement as did 5% sodium-hypochlorite. 12% sodium-hypochlorite gave tissue damage. After intracanal medication with an aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide periapical repair was clearly visible. A combination of a corticoid and an antibiotic appeared to induce damage of the periapical tissues. The root canal sealers Endomethasone and N2 essentially impaired periapical repair. The results were acceptable for Aptal-Zink-Harz root canal fillings after 21 days as well as after 56 days.

  18. Characterization of odor-active compounds of various Chrysanthemum essential oils by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fan, Binbin; Niu, Yunwei; Wu, Minling; Liu, Junhua; Ma, Shengtao

    2016-01-15

    Volatiles of five kinds of Chrysanthemum essential oils with different manufactures were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and statistics analysis. Six sensory attributes (floral, woody, grassy, fruity, sour and minty) were selected to assess Chrysanthemum essential oils. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected and quantified using standard substances by GC-O and GC-MS. Terpenes constituted the largest chemical group among the volatiles of the essential oils. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the relationship between sensory attributes and aroma compounds. The result showed that α-pinene, β-thujene, α-terpinolen, β-cubebene, caryophyllene, (Z)β-farnesene, (-)-spathulenol, linalool, camphor, camphene, 4-terpineol, Z-citral and 4-isopropyltoluene were typical aroma compounds covaried with characteristic aroma of Chrysanthemum essential oils. PMID:26735711

  19. DC Electrical Conductivity Retention, Optical Properties and Ammonia Sensing Analysis of Naturally Degraded CSA-Doped Graphene/polyaniline Composite Nanofibers Prepared with CTAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Sayyed; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Khan, Abuzar; Khan, Mohd Y.; Hasan, Mudassir

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report surfactant-mediated synthesis of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PANI/GN) composite nanofibers as an electrical conductor and excellent ammonia sensor. The synthesis was mediated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant. The as-synthesized composite nanofibers were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tunneling electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, diffused reflectance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The electrical conductivity of the CSA-doped PANI/GN composite nanofibers was found to be remarkably enhanced as compared to the CSA-doped PANI. The boost in electronic conductivity could be attributed to an improved electronic interaction between CSA-doped PANI backbone and GN present in the composite system. The naturally degraded CSA-doped PANI/GN composite nanofibers showed a decrease in electrical conductivity but worked as a good ammonia sensor in open atmospheric conditions.

  20. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gillij, Y G; Gleiser, R M; Zygadlo, J A

    2008-05-01

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases and nuisance pests. Repellents minimize contact with mosquitoes. Repellents based on essential oils (EO) are being developed as an alternative to DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide), an effective compound that has disadvantages including toxic reactions, and damage to plastic and synthetic fabric. This work evaluated the repellency against Aedes aegypti of EO from aromatic plants that grow in Argentina: Acantholippia seriphioides, Achyrocline satureioides, Aloysia citriodora, Anemia tomentosa, Baccharis spartioides, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Eucalyptus saligna, Hyptis mutabilis, Minthostachys mollis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tagetes minuta and Tagetes pusilla. Most EO were effective. Variations depending on geographic origin of the plant were detected. At a 90% EO concentration, A. satureoides and T. pusilla were the least repellent. At concentrations of 12.5% B. spartioides, R. officinalis and A. citriodora showed the longest repellency times. Comparisons of the principal components of each EO suggest that limonene and camphor were the main components responsible for the repellent effects. PMID:17583499

  1. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for characterization of fragrances of lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Sun; Lee, Dong-Sun

    2004-01-01

    Natural fragrances from lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) were studied by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) techniques followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with six different fibre coatings being tested to evaluate the extraction efficiencies of several selected compounds. A total of 14 compounds were identified in the fragrances of lemon verbena. Geranial and neral were detected as major components and alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-caryophyllene, and curcumene as minor components. Enantiomeric analysis of chiral compounds from lemon verbena was carried out on a chiral column. alpha-Pinene, limonene, and camphor in the fragrances emitted from lemon verbena were found in the (+), (-), and (-) forms, respectively. PMID:15335064

  2. A selected ion flow tube study of the reactions of H3O+, NO+ and O2+ with some oxygenated biogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Kuppens, T.; Bultinck, P.; Arijs, E.

    2005-12-01

    The rate constants and product ion distributions of the reactions of H3O+, NO+ and O2+ with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, camphor and linalool have been determined at 150 Pa and 297 K using a selected ion flow tube (SIFT). All reactions were found to proceed at a rate close to the collision rate, calculated with the Su and Chesnavich model, using the polarizability and electric dipole moment of the compounds derived from B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ quantum chemical calculations. Additionally the product ion distributions of the reactions of these three ions with the terpenoid alcohols nerol and geraniol have been obtained.

  3. Electron transfer in the P450cam/PDX complex. The QM/MM e-pathway.

    PubMed

    Wallrapp, Frank; Masone, Diego; Guallar, Victor

    2008-12-18

    Electron transfer processes are simple but crucial reactions in biochemistry, being one of the main steps in almost all enzymatic cycles. Obtaining an atomic description of the transfer pathway is a difficult task, at both the experimental and theoretical levels. Here we combine protein-protein docking algorithms, protein structure prediction methodologies and mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics techniques to map the electron transfer pathway between cytochrome P450 camphor and its redox partner, putidaredoxin. Although the mechanism of interaction and electron transfer for this redox couple has been under investigation for over 30 years, the exact mechanism and electron transfer pathway has not been fully understood, yet. Our results report the first ab initio quantum chemistry description of the electron migration. The obtained electron transfer pathway indicates the key role of Arg112 of P450 and Asp38 of PDX and the existence of slightly different electron transfer pathways for different protein-protein complexes.

  4. [Some glass instruments of Arabic alchemy].

    PubMed

    Kurzmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    From an as yet unpublished collection, kept in the Linden Museum, Stuttgart, of some 20 Islamic glass items, 12 objects with an alchemical background have been selected and studied in detail. The most important items are two alchemical still heads which, according to an alchemical manuscript of al-Kindī, a significant 9th century Arabian philosopher, natural scientist, mathematician, physician and musician, are identified as still heads for the watersteam distillation of camphor in particular. Additionally the publication presented here features a medical utensil (probably recent), a measuring jug, a funnel, a mortar, a pestle, a test tube most probably 19th century and four small bottles--probably for perfume. Most of the objects originate in Iran, but some are from Egypt, Afghanistan and Palestine and date mainly from the 9th to the 13th century AD. Some misinterpretations and ambiguities to be found in the literature have been corrected and eliminated.

  5. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-09-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  6. Biotransformation of (-)-α-Pinene by Whole Cells of White Rot Fungi, Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 and Stereum hirsutum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Ho-Young; Ryu, Sun-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Two white rot fungi, Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 (CER) and Stereum hirsutum (STH) were used as biocatalysts for the biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene. After 96 hr, CER converted the bicyclic monoterpene hydrocarbon (-)-α-pinene into α-terpineol (yield, 0.05 g/L), a monocyclic monoterpene alcohol, in addition to, other minor products. Using STH, verbenone was identified as the major biotransformed product, and minor products were myrtenol, camphor, and isopinocarveol. We did not observe any inhibitory effects of substrate or transformed products on mycelial growth of the fungi. The activities of fungal manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase were monitored for 15 days to determine the enzymatic pathways related to the biotransformation of (-)-α-pinene. We concluded that a complex of enzymes, including intra- and extracellular enzymes, were involved in terpenoid biotransformation by white rot fungi. PMID:26539046

  7. METHOD FOR PRODUCING CEMENTED CARBIDE ARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    Onstott, E.I.; Cremer, G.D.

    1959-07-14

    A method is described for making molded materials of intricate shape where the materials consist of mixtures of one or more hard metal carbides or oxides and matrix metals or binder metals thereof. In one embodiment of the invention 90% of finely comminuted tungsten carbide powder together with finely comminuted cobalt bonding agent is incorporated at 60 deg C into a slurry with methyl alcohol containing 1.5% paraffin, 3% camphor, 3.5% naphthalene, and 1.8% toluene. The compact is formed by the steps of placing the slurry in a mold at least one surface of which is porous to the fluid organic system, compacting the slurry, removing a portion of the mold from contact with the formed object and heating the formed object to remove the remaining organic matter and to sinter the compact.

  8. Sensitive indoor air monitoring of monoterpenes using different adsorbents and thermal desorption gas chromatography with mass-selective detection.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Juliane; Sandner, Frank; Möller, Manfred; Dott, Wolfgang

    2002-07-12

    A simple method using active trapping on adsorbents and thermal desorption followed by GC-MS analysis was developed for the indoor air monitoring of monoterpenes. The study was carried out using a dynamically generated atmosphere consisting of 11 monoterpenes: camphene, camphor, delta 3-carene, 1,8-cineol, limonene, linalool, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, fenchyl alcohol. The influence of the different adsorbents Tenax TA, Tenax GR, Carbosieve SIII, Chromosorb 106 on the yield of six selected monoterpenes at indoor air concentrations was studied. The adsorbent Tenax GR gave relatively the best yields followed by Tenax TA. Detection limits of approximately 1 microgram m3 were determined with Tenax GR for most of the monoterpenes.

  9. Chemical constituents of essential oils from the leaves, stems, roots and fruits of Alpinia polyantha.

    PubMed

    Huong, Le T; Thang, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-02-01

    The essential oils obtained from the leaves, stems, roots and fruits of Alpinia polyantha D. Fang (Zingiberaceae) have been studied. The leaf oil was comprised mainly of camphor (16.1%), α-pinene (15.2%) and β-agarofuran (12.9%), while the major constituents of the stem oil were α-pinene (12.4%), β-cubebene (10.6%), β-agarofuran (10.3%) and globulol (8.8%). However, β-cubebene (12.6%), fenchyl acetate (10.8%), β-maaliene (9.0%), aristolone (8.8%) and α-pinene (8.2%) were the compounds occurring in higher amounts in the root oil. The quantitatively significant compounds of the fruit oil were δ-cadinene (10.9%), β-caryophyllene (9.1%), β-pinene (8.7%) and α-muurolene (7.7%).

  10. Identification of volatiles in leaves of Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Yan; Ye, Zheng Mei; Huang, Tian Yi; Chen, Xiao Dan; Li, Yong Yu; Wu, Shao Hua

    2014-07-01

    Alpinia zerumbet 'Variegata' is an aromatic medicinal plant, its foliage producing an intense, unique fragrant odor. This study identified 46 volatile compounds in the leaf tissue of this plant using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The major compounds included 1, 8-cineole (43.5%), p-cymene (14.7%), humulene (5.5%), camphor (5.3%), linalool (4.7%), (E)-methyl cinnamate (3.8%), gamma-cadinene (3.3%), humulene oxide II (2.1%) and a-terpineol (1.5%). The majority of the volatiles were terpenoids of which oxygenated monoterpenes were the most abundant, accounting for 57.2% of the total volatiles. Alcohols made up the largest (52.8%) and aldehydes the smallest (0.2%) portions of the volatiles. Many bioactive compounds were present in the volatiles.

  11. The role of flavor and fragrance chemicals in TRPA1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1) activity associated with allergies.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Satoru; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    TRPA1 has been proposed to be associated with diverse sensory allergic reactions, including thermal (cold) nociception, hearing and allergic inflammatory conditions. Some naturally occurring compounds are known to activate TRPA1 by forming a Michael addition product with a cysteine residue of TRPA1 through covalent protein modification and, in consequence, to cause allergic reactions. The anti-allergic property of TRPA1 agonists may be due to the activation and subsequent desensitization of TRPA1 expressed in sensory neurons. In this review, naturally occurring TRPA1 antagonists, such as camphor, 1,8-cineole, menthol, borneol, fenchyl alcohol and 2-methylisoborneol, and TRPA1 agonists, including thymol, carvacrol, 1'S-1'- acetoxychavicol acetate, cinnamaldehyde, α-n-hexyl cinnamic aldehyde and thymoquinone as well as isothiocyanates and sulfides are discussed.

  12. Deciphering the language of plant communication: volatile chemotypes of sagebrush.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard; Wetzel, William C; Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi; Ramirez, Santiago R; Blande, James D

    2014-10-01

    Volatile communication between sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) individuals has been found previously to reduce herbivory and to be more effective between individuals that are genetically identical or related relative to between strangers. The chemical nature of the cues involved in volatile communication remains unknown for this and other systems. We collected headspace volatiles from sagebrush plants in the field and analyzed these using GC-MS. Volatile profiles were highly variable among individuals, but most individuals could be characterized as belonging to one of two chemotypes, dominated by either thujone or camphor. Analyses of parents and offspring revealed that chemotypes were highly heritable. The ecological significance of chemotypes and the genetic mechanisms that control them remain poorly understood. However, we found that individuals of the same chemotype communicated more effectively and experienced less herbivory than individuals of differing chemotypes. Plants may use chemotypes to distinguish relatives from strangers.

  13. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of Cetirizine dihydrochloride orodispersible tablet.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S; Sankar, V; Manakadan, Asha Asokan; Ismail, Sareena; Andhuvan, G

    2010-04-01

    Cetirizine orodispersible tablets were prepared to achieve quick onset of action and for maximum bioavailability. Tablets were prepared using cetirizine along with camphor and mannitol in the proportion of 1:1:1, 1:1:3, and 1:1:6. The flow property of granules was found to be good for the formulation CZ2 (1:1:3). The hardness and friability of all the formulations were found to be within the standard limit for orodispersible tablets. Disintegration time was found to be rapid in formulation CZ2 (1:1:3).The in vitro dissolution time was found to be 100% in 11 minutes for the formulation CZ2 (1:1:3).

  15. Homochiral metal-organic framework used as a stationary phase for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jiao; Zhang, Mei; Duan, Ai-Hong; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yang, Rui; Yuan, Li-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Metal-organic frameworks are promising porous materials. Chiral metal-organic frameworks have attracted considerable attention in controlling enantioselectivity. In this study, a homochiral metal-organic framework [Co(2) (D-cam)(2) (TMDPy)] (D-cam = D-camphorates, TMDPy = 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine) with a non-interpenetrating primitive cubic net has been used as a chiral stationary phase in high-performance liquid chromatography. It has allowed the successful separation of six positional isomers and six chiral compounds. The good selectivity and baseline separation, or at least 60% valley separation, confirmed its excellent molecular recognition characteristics. The relative standard deviations for the retention time of run-to-run and column-to-column were less than 1.8 and 3.1%, respectively. These results demonstrate that [Co(2) (D-cam)(2) (TMDPy)] may represent a promising chiral stationary phase for use in high-performance liquid chromatography.

  16. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers.

  17. Monoterpenes as inhibitors of digestive enzymes and counter-adaptations in a specialist avian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D; Pitman, Elizabeth; Robb, Brecken C; Connelly, John W; Dearing, M Denise; Forbey, Jennifer Sorensen

    2015-05-01

    Many plants produce plant secondary metabolites (PSM) that inhibit digestive enzymes of herbivores, thus limiting nutrient availability. In response, some specialist herbivores have evolved digestive enzymes that are resistant to inhibition. Monoterpenes, a class of PSMs, have not been investigated with respect to the interference of specific digestive enzymes, nor have such interactions been studied in avian herbivores. We investigated this interaction in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Phasianidae: Centrocercus urophasianus), which specializes on monoterpene-rich sagebrush species (Artemisia spp.). We first measured the monoterpene concentrations in gut contents of free-ranging sage-grouse. Next, we compared the ability of seven individual monoterpenes present in sagebrush to inhibit a protein-digesting enzyme, aminopeptidase-N. We also measured the inhibitory effects of PSM extracts from two sagebrush species. Inhibition of aminopeptidase-N in sage-grouse was compared to inhibition in chickens (Gallus gallus). We predicted that sage-grouse enzymes would retain higher activity when incubated with isolated monoterpenes or sagebrush extracts than chicken enzymes. We detected unchanged monoterpenes in the gut contents of free-ranging sage-grouse. We found that three isolated oxygenated monoterpenes (borneol, camphor, and 1,8-cineole) inhibited digestive enzymes of both bird species. Camphor and 1,8-cineole inhibited enzymes from chickens more than from sage-grouse. Extracts from both species of sagebrush had similar inhibition of chicken enzymes, but did not inhibit sage-grouse enzymes. These results suggest that specific monoterpenes may limit the protein digestibility of plant material by avian herbivores. Further, this work presents additional evidence that adaptations of digestive enzymes to plant defensive compounds may be a trait of specialist herbivores.

  18. Unexpected reactivity of 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate in the active site of crystalline 2-methylisoborneol synthase

    PubMed Central

    Köksal, Mustafa; Chou, Wayne K. W.; Cane, David E.; Christianson, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of 2-methylisoborneol synthase (MIBS) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) has been determined in its unliganded state and in complex with 2 Mg2+ ions and cis-2-fluorogeranyl diphosphate at 1.85 Å and 2.00 Å resolution, respectively. Under normal circumstances, MIBS catalyzes the cyclization of the naturally-occurring, non-canonical 11-carbon isoprenoid substrate, 2-methylgeranyl diphosphate, which first undergoes an ionization-isomerization-ionization sequence through the tertiary diphosphate intermediate 2-methyllinalyl diphosphate to enable subsequent cyclization chemistry. MIBS does not exhibit catalytic activity with 2-fluorogeranyl diphosphate, and we recently reported the crystal structure of MIBS complexed with this unreactive substrate analogue [Köksal, M., Chou, W. K. W., Cane, D. E., Christianson, D. W. (2012) Biochemistry 51, 3011–3020]. However, cocrystallization of MIBS with the fluorinated analogue of the tertiary allylic diphosphate intermediate, 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate, reveals unexpected reactivity for the intermediate analogue and yields the crystal structure of the complex with the primary allylic diphosphate, 2-fluoroneryl diphosphate. Comparison with the structure of the unliganded enzyme reveals that the crystalline enzyme active site remains partially open, presumably due to the binding of only 2 Mg2+ ions. Assays in solution indicate that MIBS catalyzes the generation of (1R)-(+)-camphor from the substrate 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate, suggesting that both 2-fluorolinalyl diphosphate and 2-methyllinalyl diphosphate follow the identical cyclization mechanism leading to 2-substituted isoborneol products; however, the initially generated 2-fluoroisoborneol cyclization product is unstable and undergoes elimination of hydrogen fluoride to yield (1R)-(+)-camphor. PMID:23844678

  19. Thymol and related alkyl phenols activate the hTRPA1 channel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S P; Buber, M T; Yang, Q; Cerne, R; Cortés, R Y; Sprous, D G; Bryant, R W

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Thymol, a major component of thyme and oregano, has medical uses in oral care products as an astringent and antibiotic. Its distinctive sharp odour and pungent flavour are considered aversive properties. The molecular basis of these aversive properties is not well understood. Experimental approach: The ability of thymol to activate human transient receptor potential channel A1 (hTRPA1) expressed in stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells was measured by membrane potential and calcium-sensitive dyes in a fluorescence-imaging plate reader (FLIPR) assay. Direct activation of hTRPA1 currents was measured by whole-cell voltage clamp recording. Intracellular calcium changes were measured using fura-2 dye. The FLIPR assay was also used to measure membrane potential changes elicited by thymol after pretreatment with camphor, a known TRPA1 inhibitor. The ability of related alkyl phenols to activate hTRPA1 was also determined. Key results: Thymol potently activated a membrane potential response and intracellular calcium increase in hTRPA1-expressing HEK293 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Activation by thymol desensitized hTRPA1 to further exposure to thymol or the known ligand allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). The related phenols 2-tert-butyl-5-methylphenol, 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol) and carvacrol also activated hTRPA1. Phenols with less bulky carbon substitutions and lower logP values were less potent in general. The response to thymol was blocked by camphor. Conclusions and implications: These results suggest a role for hTRPA1 activation in the reported pungent and aversive properties of some of these pharmaceutically important phenols. PMID:18334983

  20. In-situ investigations of grain boundary-fluid inclusion interaction in recrystallizing rock analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmatz, J.; Schenk, O.; Urai, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Investigating the mobility of fluid inclusions and fluid-rock interaction helps characterizing the effect of pore fluid on i) mechanical properties of rocks and ii) transport properties of fluid through rock volume. We present results from deformation and annealing experiments in transmitted light using rock analogues containing a liquid phase. The deformation rig is a high-pressure (up to 30 MPa), high-temperature (up to 200°C) see-through vessel with a controlled pore fluid pressure system. Samples were made of bischofite-brine, camphor-ethanol, and camphor-ethylene mixtures with the solid being polycrystalline with grain sizes ranging from 200 to 600 µm and with varying solubility in the liquid phase. In all systems the liquid phase is predominantly observed in isolated fluid inclusions and fluid pockets along grain boundaries with sizes ranging from 1 to 50 µm. Results show the in-situ pore fluid morphology during grain boundary migration recrystallization with preferential leakage of fluid inclusions along grain boundaries. For grain boundary migration rates ranging from 10-10 to 10-6 ms-1 we observed Zener pinning, drag and drop of fluid inclusions by migrating grain boundaries, but also passage of grain boundaries over fluid inclusions without any noticeable interaction, all being dependent on fluid inclusion size and solubility. Systematic measurements allowed tracing the maximum velocity of dragged fluid inclusions as well as the drag-limiting grain boundary velocity. The effects of these limiting conditions on recrystallized texture and on mobility of isolated fluid inclusions are subject to numerical simulations using the microstructural modeling platform ELLE. Image sequence showing fluid inclusion detaching from migrating grain boundary. Systematic measurements on pore shape evolution through time provide us the base for an empirical solution for pore drag and drop. The dragging time can be described as a function of grain boundary velocity, pore

  1. Toxicity of Myristica fagrans seed compounds against Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Chul; Jang, Young-Su; Hieu, Tran Trung; Lee, Chong-Kyu; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-05-01

    The insecticidal constituents of hexane-soluble fraction from a methanolic extract of the seeds from Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae) against adult females of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal activity of 13 Myristica seed compounds against female B. germanica was examined by using the filter-paper contact toxicity and vapor phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of the other 23 known compounds of Myristica seed and currently used insecticides: dichlorvos, deltamethrin, permethrin, and propoxur. In contact toxicity tests using female B. germanica, (IS)-(-) -beta-pinene (0.06 mg/cm2) was the most toxic insecticide, based on 24-h LD50 values. The insecticidal activity of this compound was comparable with that of permethrin (0.05 mg/cm2). (1R)-(+) -Camphor, (1S)-(-) -camphor, dipentene, (1R)-(+) -3-pinene, and (+)-alpha-terpineol (0.10-0.14 mg/cm2) were more toxic than propoxur (0.19 mg/cm2). (E)-Sabinene hydrate and propoxur were almost equitoxic. Potent insecticidal activity also was observed with (R)-(+) -citronellal, (S)-(-) -citronellal, (R)-(-) -alpha-phellandrene, (1S)-(-) -alpha-pinene, (1R)-(+) -alpha-pinene, and safrole (0.27-0.48 mg/cm2). In vapor phase toxicity tests, the compounds tested were effective in closed but not in open containers. These results indicate that the effect of these compounds was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Myristica seed compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides or as leads for the control of cockroaches.

  2. Chemical Components of Four Essential Oils in Aromatherapy Recipe.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kamkaen, Narisa; Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Rith; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11.1%), limonene (9.6%), camphor (8.4%), and camphene (6.6%). The main components of rosemary oil were 1,8-cineole (37.3%), α-pinene (19.3%), camphor (14.7%), camphene (8.8%), and β-pinene (5.5%); of eucalyptus oil 1,8-cineole (82.6%) followed by limonene (7.4%), o-cymene (4.3%), γ-terpinene (2.7%), and α-pinene (1.5%); of pine oil terpinolene (26.7%), α-terpineol (20.50%), 1-terpineol (10.8%), α-pinene (6.0%), and γ-terpineol (5.3%); and of lime oil limonene (62.9%), γ-terpinene (11.5%), α-terpineol (7.6%), terpinolene (6.0%), and α-terpinene (2.8%). The present study provided a theoretical basis for the potential application of blended essential oils to be used as an aromatherapy essential oil recipe. GC-MS serves as a suitable and reliable method for the quality control of the chemical markers. PMID:26197558

  3. Essential oils and chemical diversity of southeast European populations of Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Karapandzova, Marija; Kulevanova, Svetlana; Satović, Zlatko

    2015-07-01

    The essential oils of 25 populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from nine Balkan countries, including 17 indigenous populations (representing almost the entire native distribution area) and eight non-indigenous (cultivated or naturalized) populations were analyzed. Their essential-oil yield ranged from 0.25 to 3.48%. Within the total of 80 detected compounds, ten (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, borneol, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, viridiflorol, and manool) represented 42.60 to 85.70% of the components in the analyzed essential oils. Strong positive correlations were observed between the contents of trans-caryophyllene and α-humulene, α-humulene and viridiflorol, and viridiflorol and manool. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the contents of the ten main compounds showed that four principal components had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained 79.87% of the total variation. Performing cluster analysis (CA), the sage populations could be grouped into four distinct chemotypes (A-D). The essential oils of 14 out of the 25 populations of Dalmatian sage belonged to Chemotype A and were rich in cis-thujone and camphor, with low contents of trans-thujone. The correlation between the essential-oil composition and geographic variables of the indigenous populations was not significant; hence, the similarities in the essential-oil profile among populations could not be explained by the physical proximity of the populations. Additionally, the southeastern populations tended to have higher EO yields than the northwestern ones. PMID:26172323

  4. Hydrocarbon emissions from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corchnoy, Stephanie B.; Arey, Janet; Atkinson, Roger

    The large-scale planting of shade trees in urban areas to counteract heat-island effects and to minimize energy use is currently being discussed. Among the costs to be considered in a cost/benefit analysis of such a program is the potential for additional reactive organic compounds in the atmosphere due to emissions from these trees. In this program, 15 species of potential shade trees for the Los Angeles Air Basin were studied and emission rates were determined for 11 of these trees, with one further tree (Crape myrtle) exhibiting no detectable emissions. The emission rates normalized to dry leaf weight and corrected to 30°C were (in μg g -1 h -1), ranked from lowest to highest emission rate: Crape myrtle, none detected; Camphor, 0.03; Aleppo pine, 0.15; Deodar cedar, 0.29; Italian Stone pine, 0.42; Monterey pine, 0.90; Brazilian pepper, 1.3; Canary Island pine, 1.7; Ginkgo, 3.0; California pepper, 3.7; Liquidambar, 37; Carrotwood, 49. In addition to the emission rates per unit biomass, the biomass per tree must be factored into any assessment of the relative merits of the various trees, since some trees have higher biomass constants than others. The present data shows that there are large differences in emission rates among different tree species and this should be factored into decision-making as to which shade trees to plant. Based solely on the presently determined emission rates, the Crape myrtle and Camphor tree are good choices for large-scale planting, while the Carrotwood tree and Liquidambar are poor choices due to their high isoprene emission rates.

  5. Method for attaining rosemary essential oil with differential composition from dried or fresh material.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Zhalnov, Ivan; Georgieva, Tonya D

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) is a well-known medicinal and essential oil plant, utilized by humankind since ancient times. The objective was to determine the effect of steam distillation time (DT) and material (dry or fresh biomass) on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity; and to develop regression models that can predict oil yield and composition at specific DT. The oil yield (content) from dry biomass was higher (0.43%) than that from fresh biomass (0.35%) and ranged from 0.18% in the 1.25 min DT to 0.51% in the 40 min DT. There was no yield advantage in extending the DT beyond 40 min, which is much shorter than the DT used by industry. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of the rosemary oil using the ORACoil method was 4,108 μmolVE/L. Rosemary oil did not exhibit significant antileishmanial, antimalarial, or antimicrobial activity. In general, the low-boiling constituents eluted earlier than the higher boiling constituents of the essential oil, resulting in a great variation of essential oil composition obtained at different DT. The most important constituents are α-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. The highest α-pinene concentration in the oil (30.4%) was obtained from dry biomass at 2.5 min DT; eucalyptol (23.3% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 2.5 min DT; and camphor (15.9% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 160 min DT. The DT could be used as an inexpensive tool to alter essential oil composition of the essential oil from fresh or dried rosemary biomass, and to produce rosemary oils with elevated or lowered concentration of specific targeted oil constituents to meet specific market demands.

  6. Chemical composition and biological activity of four salvia essential oils and individual compounds against two species of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-21

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), α-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and β-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), β-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), β-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; α-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), β-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 μg/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of β-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus.

  7. Essential oils and chemical diversity of southeast European populations of Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Karapandzova, Marija; Kulevanova, Svetlana; Satović, Zlatko

    2015-07-01

    The essential oils of 25 populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from nine Balkan countries, including 17 indigenous populations (representing almost the entire native distribution area) and eight non-indigenous (cultivated or naturalized) populations were analyzed. Their essential-oil yield ranged from 0.25 to 3.48%. Within the total of 80 detected compounds, ten (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, borneol, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, viridiflorol, and manool) represented 42.60 to 85.70% of the components in the analyzed essential oils. Strong positive correlations were observed between the contents of trans-caryophyllene and α-humulene, α-humulene and viridiflorol, and viridiflorol and manool. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the contents of the ten main compounds showed that four principal components had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained 79.87% of the total variation. Performing cluster analysis (CA), the sage populations could be grouped into four distinct chemotypes (A-D). The essential oils of 14 out of the 25 populations of Dalmatian sage belonged to Chemotype A and were rich in cis-thujone and camphor, with low contents of trans-thujone. The correlation between the essential-oil composition and geographic variables of the indigenous populations was not significant; hence, the similarities in the essential-oil profile among populations could not be explained by the physical proximity of the populations. Additionally, the southeastern populations tended to have higher EO yields than the northwestern ones.

  8. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Want, Muzamil Y.; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml-1 and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml-1, respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0–G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml-1. Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  9. Chemical composition and biological activity of four salvia essential oils and individual compounds against two species of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-21

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), α-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and β-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), β-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), β-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; α-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), β-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 μg/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of β-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus. PMID:25531412

  10. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Artemisia gilvescens against Anopheles anthropophagus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Tian, Yingjuan

    2013-03-01

    Artemisia gilvescens, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil from A. gilvescens was investigated by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and larvicidal activity of the oil and its six main compounds against Anopheles anthropophagus was carried out by WHO method. In total, 56 compounds corresponding to 98.20 % of the total oil were identified and the major compounds identified were camphor (13.49 %), eucalyptol (12.13 %), terpine-4-ol (9.65 %), germacrene D (8.62 %), caryophyllene oxide (4.65 %), and caryophyllene (4.29 %). Essential oil induced 8, 46, 80, 85, 94, and 100 % larval mortality at the concentrations of 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mg/l, and the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 49.95 and 97.36 mg/l, respectively. Among the six compounds, the most potent larvicidal compound was caryophyllene oxide and germacrene D, with LC(50) values of 49.46 and 49.81 mg/l and LC(90) values of 115.38 and 106.19 mg/l, respectively. Terpine-4-ol had LC(50) and LC(90) values of 76.70 and 139.42 mg/l followed by camphor which showed LC(50) and LC(90) values of 129.17 and 192.42 mg/l, respectively. The least potent among the six compounds were eucalyptol and caryophyllene, with and LC(50) value exceeding 200 mg/l. In general, it also shows a dose-dependent effect on mortality, with increasing concentrations of essential oil and compounds increasing mortality of the larvae. The essential oil of A. gilvescens and its several major compounds may have potential for use in control of A. anthropophagus. PMID:23263328

  11. Holistic Control of Herbal Teas and Tinctures Based on Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) for Compounds with Beneficial and Adverse Effects using NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Walch, Stephan G; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kuballa, Thomas; Stühlinger, Wolf; Monakhova, Yulia B

    2012-01-01

    A methodology that utilizes (1)H-NMR spectroscopy has been developed to simultaneously analyze toxic terpenes (thujone and camphor), major polyphenolic compounds, the total antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index in foods and medicines containing sage. The quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid (limit of detection (LOD) = 10 mg/L) and total thujone (LOD = 0.35 mg/L) was possible using direct integration of the signals. For other parameters (derivatives of rosmarinic acid, carnosol and flavone glycosides, ORAC and FC index), chemometric regression models obtained separately for alcohol-based tinctures (R(2) = 0.94-0.98) and aqueous tea infusions (R(2) = 0.79-0.99) were suitable for screening analysis. The relative standard deviations for authentic samples were below 10%. The developed methodology was applied for the analysis of a wide variety of sage products (n = 108). The total thujone content in aqueous tea infusions was found to be in the range of not detectable (nd) to 37.5 mg/L (average 9.2 mg/L), while tinctures contained higher levels (range nd-409 mg/L, average 107 mg/L). The camphor content varied from 2.1 to 43.7 mg/L in aqueous infusions and from not detectable to 748 mg/L in tinctures (averages were 14.1 and 206 mg/L, respectively). Phenolic compounds were also detected in the majority of the investigated products. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy was proven to have the ability to holistically control all important adverse and beneficial compounds in sage products in a single experiment, considerably saving time, resources and costs as NMR replaces four separate methodologies that were previously needed to analyze the same parameters.

  12. Polypyrrole-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensor Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakoullis, James, Jr.

    The overall objective of this work is to fabricate and evaluate polypyrrole-single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid structures based chemiresistive sensor arrays for sensitive, selective and discriminative sensing at room temperature of emissions from automobiles and industrial manufacturing. To conceive the sensor arrays single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) networks were aligned to bridge a 3 mum gap between a pair of prefabricated microelectrodes followed by coating with polypyrrole (PPY) with different dopants by electrochemical polymerization. Initially, the sensor¡¦s synthesis conditions in terms of PPY thickness on SWNTs networks by varying the electropolymerization charge of the monomer pyrrole in presence of LiClO4 dopant for the sensing of NH3 was optimized. Using the optimized polymerization charge of 1 muC determined previously, arrays of SWNTs-PPY hybrid sensors were fabricated by replacing dopant LiClO4 by L-camphor sulfonic acid, D-camphor sulfonic acid, p-toluene sulfonic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfonate. Room temperature gas sensing performance of the PPY coated SWNTs network arrays to gases of environmental significance such as NH3, NO 2, H2S, SO2, CO and CO2 and volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, p-xylene, methanol, n-hexane and acetone and humidity, was evaluated. Several folds enhancement in sensing performance was observed towards all the tested analytesfor hybrid devices when compared to bare SWNTs network devices. Differences in sensing performance were noticed for PPY coating with different dopants demonstrating the potential of using the array for discrimination of the tested analytes in a mixture by using chemometric techniques. The underlying sensing mechanism was also investigated by using the devices in chemFET mode configuration.

  13. Leishmanicidal activities of Artemisia annua leaf essential oil against Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Islamuddin, Mohammad; Chouhan, Garima; Tyagi, Maujiram; Abdin, Malik Z; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-most dreaded parasitic disease after malaria, is currently endemic in 88 countries. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection, drug resistance, and non-availability of safe vaccines have highlighted the need for identification of novel and inexpensive anti-leishmanial agents from natural sources. In this study, we showed the leishmanicidal effect of essential oil from Artemisia annua leaves (AALEO) against Leishmania donovani in vitro and in vivo. AALEO was extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS, the most abundant compounds were found to be camphor (52.06 %) followed by β-caryophyllene (10.95 %). AALEO exhibited significant leishmanicidal activity against L. donovani, with 50 % inhibitory concentration of 14.63 ± 1.49 μg ml(-1) and 7.3 ± 1.85 μg ml(-1), respectively, against the promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The effect was mediated through programmed cell death as confirmed by externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA nicking by TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, dyskinetoplastidy, cell cycle arrest at sub-G0-G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species generation in promastigotes and nitric oxide generation in ex vivo model. AALEO presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian macrophages even at 200 μg ml(-1). Intra-peritoneal administration of AALEO (200 mg/ kg.b.w.) to infected BALB/c mice reduced the parasite burden by almost 90% in the liver and spleen with significant reduction in weight. There was no hepato- or nephro-toxicity as demonstrated by normal levels of serum enzymes. The promising antileishmanial activity shown by camphor-rich AALEO may provide a new lead in the treatment of VL. PMID:25505453

  14. Inhibition of the compound action potentials of frog sciatic nerves by aroma oil compounds having various chemical structures

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Matsushita, Akitomo; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived chemicals including aroma oil compounds have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction and modulate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although applying aroma oils to the skin produces a local anesthetic effect, this has not been yet examined throughly. The aim of the present study was to know how nerve conduction inhibitions by aroma oil compounds are related to their chemical structures and whether these activities are mediated by TRP activation. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Citral (aldehyde), which activates various types of TRP channels, attenuated the peak amplitude of CAP with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.46 mmol/L. Another aldehyde (citronellal), alcohol (citronellol, geraniol, (±)-linalool, (−)-linalool, (+)-borneol, (−)-borneol, α-terpineol), ester (geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate), and oxide (rose oxide) compounds also reduced CAP peak amplitudes (IC50: 0.50, 0.35, 0.53, 1.7, 2.0, 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, 0.51, 0.71, 0.44, and 2.6 mmol/L, respectively). On the other hand, the amplitudes were reduced by a small extent by hydrocarbons (myrcene and p-cymene) and ketone (camphor) at high concentrations (2–5 mmol/L). The activities of citral and other TRP agonists ((+)-borneol and camphor) were resistant to TRP antagonist ruthenium red. An efficacy sequence for the CAP inhibitions was generally aldehydes ≥ esters ≥ alcohols > oxides >> hydrocarbons. The CAP inhibition by the aroma oil compound was not related to its octanol–water partition coefficient. It is suggested that aroma oil compounds inhibit nerve conduction in a manner specific to their chemical structures without TRP activation. PMID:26038703

  15. NaCl stress-induced changes in the essential oil quality and abietane diterpene yield and composition in common sage

    PubMed Central

    Tounekti, Taieb; Khemira, Habib

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how increasing NaCl salinity in the medium can affects the essential oils (EOs) composition and phenolic diterpene content and yield in leaves of Salvia officinalis L. The protective role of such compounds against NaCl stress was also argued with regard to some physiological characteristics of the plant (water and ionic relations as well as the leaf gas exchanges). Materials and Methods: Potted plants were exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 75, and 100 mM) for 4 weeks during July 2012. Replicates from each treatment were harvested after 0, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of adding salt to perform physiological measurements and biochemical analysis. Results: Sage EOs were rich in manool, viridiflorol, camphor, and borneol. Irrigation with a solution containing 100 mM NaCl for 4 weeks increased considerably 1.8-cineole, camphor and β-thujone concentrations, whereas lower concentrations (50 and 75 mM) had no effects. On the contrary, borneol and viridiflorol concentrations decreased significantly under the former treatment while manool and total fatty acid concentrations were not affected. Leaf extracts also contained several diterpenes such as carnosic acid (CA), carnosol, and 12-O-methoxy carnosic acid (MCA). The concentrations and total contents of CA and MCA increased after 3 weeks of irrigation with 75 or 100 mM NaCl. The 50 mM NaCl had no effect on these diterpenes. Our results suggest a protective role for CA against salinity stress. Conclusion: This study may provide ways to manipulate the concentration and yield of some phenolic diterpenes and EOs in sage. In fact, soil salinity may favor a directional production of particular components of interest. PMID:26401409

  16. Strong non-linear effects in the chiroptical properties of the ligand-exchanged Au38 and Au40 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoppe, Stefan; Dass, Amala; Bürgi, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Ligand exchange reactions on size-selected Au38(2-PET)24 and Au40(2-PET)24 clusters (2-PET: 2-phenylethylthiol) with mono- and bi-dentate chiral thiols were performed. The reactions were monitored with MALDI mass spectrometry and the arising chiroptical properties were compared to the number of incorporated chiral ligands. Only a small fraction of chiral ligands is needed to induce significant optical activity to the clusters. The use of bidentate 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dithiol (BINAS) leads to slow exchange, but the optical activity measured is strong. Moreover, a non-linear behaviour between optical activity and the number of chiral ligands is found in the BINAS case for both Au38 and Au40, which may indicate different exchange rates of enantiopure BINAS with the enantiomers of inherently chiral (but racemic) clusters. This is ascribed to effects arising from the bidentate nature of BINAS. In contrast, the use of monodentate camphor-10-thiol (CamSH) leads to comparably fast exchange on both clusters. The arising optical activity is weak. This is the first study where chiroptical effects are directly correlated with the composition of the ligand shell.Ligand exchange reactions on size-selected Au38(2-PET)24 and Au40(2-PET)24 clusters (2-PET: 2-phenylethylthiol) with mono- and bi-dentate chiral thiols were performed. The reactions were monitored with MALDI mass spectrometry and the arising chiroptical properties were compared to the number of incorporated chiral ligands. Only a small fraction of chiral ligands is needed to induce significant optical activity to the clusters. The use of bidentate 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dithiol (BINAS) leads to slow exchange, but the optical activity measured is strong. Moreover, a non-linear behaviour between optical activity and the number of chiral ligands is found in the BINAS case for both Au38 and Au40, which may indicate different exchange rates of enantiopure BINAS with the enantiomers of inherently chiral (but racemic) clusters

  17. Organosulfates and oxidation products from biogenic hydrocarbons in fine aerosols from a forest in North West Europe during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-09-01

    Organosulfates of monoterpenes and isoprene, as well as their oxidation products have been identified in biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOA) from both laboratory and field studies. Organosulfates provide an interesting coupling between air pollution and formation of low-volatility BSOA. HPLC quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to study polar acidic monoterpene and isoprene oxidation products including pinic acid, pinonic and terpenylic acid along with organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates in aerosols from ambient air. The method was first validated by analysis of spiked quartz filters, which showed acceptable recoveries >74% for pinic acid, pinonic acid, camphor sulphonic acid and adipic acid. Acetonitrile was identified as a better solvent than methanol for extraction and analysis of pinonic acid and adipic acid, due to improved analytical sensitivity and prevention of methyl ester formation during sample extraction. PM 1 (i.e, aerosols with an aerodynamic diameter ≤1 μm) were collected during spring 2008 in a forest in Denmark with mixed deciduous and coniferous trees. Average concentrations of the most abundant compounds were: pinic acid: 1.5 ng m -3, pinonic acid: 3.0 ng m -3, terpenylic acid: 0.8 ng m -3 and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid: 3.0 ng m -3. Organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates were identified in a majority of the daily samples and the highest levels were observed during a warm period in late spring. As a first approach, due to the lack of authentic standards, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates were tentatively quantified based on the analytical response of camphor sulphonic acid. Generally the concentrations of organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates were lower than first generation oxidation products. The maximum concentration of a total of 10 organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates were found to be about three times lower than pinonic acid with a maximum concentration of 8 ng m -3. A

  18. Co-calibrating quality-of-life scores from three pulmonary disorders: implications for comparative-effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Rouse, M; Twiss, J; McKenna, S P

    2016-06-01

    Background Efficient use of health resources requires accurate outcome assessment. Disease-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are designed to be highly relevant to patients with a specific disease. They have advantages over generic PROs that lack relevance to patient groups and miss crucial impacts of illness. It is thought that disease-specific measurement cannot be used in comparative effectiveness research (CER). The present study provides further evidence of the value of disease-specific measures in making valid comparisons across diseases. Methods The Asthma Life Impact Scale (ALIS, 22 items), Living with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (LCOPD, 22 items) scale, and Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR, 25 items) were completed by 140, 162, and 91 patients, respectively. The three samples were analyzed for fit to the Rasch model, then combined into a scale consisting of 58 unique items and re-analyzed. Raw scores on the three measures were co-calibrated and a transformation table produced. Results The scales fit the Rasch model individually (ALIS Chi(2) probability value (p-Chi(2)) = 0.05; LCOPD p-Chi(2 )=( )0.38; CAMPHOR p-Chi(2 )=( )0.92). The combined data also fit the Rasch model (p-Chi(2 )=( )0.22). There was no differential item functioning related to age, gender, or disease. The co-calibrated scales successfully distinguished between perceived severity groups (p < 0.001). Limitations The samples were drawn from different sources. For scales to be co-calibrated using a common item design, they must be based on the same theoretical construct, be unidimensional, and have overlapping items. Conclusions The results showed that it is possible to co-calibrate scores from disease-specific PRO measures. This will permit more accurate and sensitive outcome measurement to be incorporated into CER. The co-calibration of needs-based disease-specific measures allows the calculation of γ scores that can be

  19. Acute toxicity and synergistic and antagonistic effects of the aromatic compounds of some essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae.

    PubMed

    Pavela, Roman

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of 30 aromatic compounds and their mutual binary combinations was assessed for acute toxicity against the larvae Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on comparison of the lethal doses, thymol and p-cymene were selected as the most effective (LD50 = 18 and 21 mg L(-1), respectively, and LD90 = 25 and 30 mg L(-1), respectively). Although the LD50 for terpinolene and trans-anethole was also estimated at 21 mg L(-1), their LD90 was significantly higher compared to the substances above (245 and 34 mg L(-1), respectively). In total, 435 binary combinations were tested, of which 249 combinations showed a significant synergistic effect, while 74 combinations showed a significant antagonistic effect on mortality. Only nine substances were identified as being able to create a synergistic effect with more than 20 substances: limonene, trans-anethole, 4-allylanisole, carvacrol, isoeugenol, menthone, carvone, borneol, and camphor. The highest synergistic effect on larval mortality was achieved for the combinations: eugenol and isoeugenol, carvone and carvacrol, carvone and 4-allylanisole, carvone and α-terpineol, carvone and menthone, limonene and trans-anethole, limonene and menthone, α-pinene and menthone, β-citronellol and menthone, carvacrol and 4-allylanisole, carvacrol and terpineol, α-terpinene and trans-anethole, camphor and menthone, camphene and menthone, and 4-allylanisole and menthone. Significant differences between achieved mortality and the mutual mixing ratio were found for the five selected binary mixtures that had shown the most significant synergistic effect in the previous tests. The mixture of limonene and trans-anethole showed the highest mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:1; the mixture of eugenol and isoeugenol caused 90.2% mortality, with the mixing ratio 1:3. One hundred percent mortality was achieved if carvacrol was contained in a mixture with carvone in a ratio >2. After a comparison of all our results, based on our experiments, we

  20. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculated reactivity networks reveal how cytochrome P450cam and Its T252A mutant select their oxidation pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binju; Li, Chunsen; Dubey, Kshatresh Dutta; Shaik, Sason

    2015-06-17

    Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations address the longstanding-question of a "second oxidant" in P450 enzymes wherein the proton-shuttle, which leads to formation of the "primary-oxidant" Compound I (Cpd I), was severed by mutating the crucial residue (in P450cam: Threonine-252-to-Alanine, hence T252A). Investigating the oxidant candidates Cpd I, ferric hydroperoxide, and ferric hydrogen peroxide (Fe(III)(O2H2)), and their reactions, generates reactivity networks which enable us to rule out a "second oxidant" and at the same time identify an additional coupling pathway that is responsible for the epoxidation of 5-methylenylcamphor by the T252A mutant. In this "second-coupling pathway", the reaction starts with the Fe(III)(O2H2) intermediate, which transforms to Cpd I via a O-O homolysis/H-abstraction mechanism. The persistence of Fe(III)(O2H2) and its oxidative reactivity are shown to be determined by interplay of substrate and protein. The substrate 5-methylenylcamphor prevents H2O2 release, while the protein controls the Fe(III)(O2H2) conversion to Cpd I by nailing-through hydrogen-bonding interactions-the conformation of the HO(•) radical produced during O-O homolysis. This conformation prevents HO(•) attack on the porphyrin's meso position, as in heme oxygenase, and prefers H-abstraction from Fe(IV)OH thereby generating H2O + Cpd I. Cpd I then performs substrate oxidations. Camphor cannot prevent H2O2 release and hence the T252A mutant does not oxidize camphor. This "second pathway" transpires also during H2O2 shunting of the cycle of wild-type P450cam, where the additional hydrogen-bonding with Thr252 prevents H2O2 release, and contributes to a successful Cpd I formation. The present results lead to a revised catalytic cycle of Cytochrome P450cam. PMID:26011529

  1. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculated reactivity networks reveal how cytochrome P450cam and Its T252A mutant select their oxidation pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binju; Li, Chunsen; Dubey, Kshatresh Dutta; Shaik, Sason

    2015-06-17

    Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations address the longstanding-question of a "second oxidant" in P450 enzymes wherein the proton-shuttle, which leads to formation of the "primary-oxidant" Compound I (Cpd I), was severed by mutating the crucial residue (in P450cam: Threonine-252-to-Alanine, hence T252A). Investigating the oxidant candidates Cpd I, ferric hydroperoxide, and ferric hydrogen peroxide (Fe(III)(O2H2)), and their reactions, generates reactivity networks which enable us to rule out a "second oxidant" and at the same time identify an additional coupling pathway that is responsible for the epoxidation of 5-methylenylcamphor by the T252A mutant. In this "second-coupling pathway", the reaction starts with the Fe(III)(O2H2) intermediate, which transforms to Cpd I via a O-O homolysis/H-abstraction mechanism. The persistence of Fe(III)(O2H2) and its oxidative reactivity are shown to be determined by interplay of substrate and protein. The substrate 5-methylenylcamphor prevents H2O2 release, while the protein controls the Fe(III)(O2H2) conversion to Cpd I by nailing-through hydrogen-bonding interactions-the conformation of the HO(•) radical produced during O-O homolysis. This conformation prevents HO(•) attack on the porphyrin's meso position, as in heme oxygenase, and prefers H-abstraction from Fe(IV)OH thereby generating H2O + Cpd I. Cpd I then performs substrate oxidations. Camphor cannot prevent H2O2 release and hence the T252A mutant does not oxidize camphor. This "second pathway" transpires also during H2O2 shunting of the cycle of wild-type P450cam, where the additional hydrogen-bonding with Thr252 prevents H2O2 release, and contributes to a successful Cpd I formation. The present results lead to a revised catalytic cycle of Cytochrome P450cam.

  2. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo, Ignacio Javier; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2005-06-29

    Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In general, fennel oil extracted by SDE and SFE showed similar compositions, with trans-anethole, estragole, and fenchone as the main components. In contrast, thymol and p-cymene, the most abundant compounds in thyme leaves, showed big differences, with generally higher amounts of monoterpenes obtained by SDE. However, in this case, the differences between the extracts were higher. Key odorants of fennel seeds determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) showed similar patterns when applying SDE and SFE. trans-Anethole (anise, licorice), estragole (anise, licorice, sweet), fenchone (mint, camphor, warm), and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) were the most intense odor compounds detected in fennel extracts. Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves.

  3. Elimination of chromatographic and mass spectrometric problems in GC-MS analysis of Lavender essential oil by multivariate curve resolution techniques: Improving the peak purity assessment by variable size moving window-evolving factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Moazeni-Pourasil, Roudabeh Sadat; Sereshti, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    In analysis of complex natural matrices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), many disturbing factors such as baseline drift, spectral background, homoscedastic and heteroscedastic noise, peak shape deformation (non-Gaussian peaks), low S/N ratio and co-elution (overlapped and/or embedded peaks) lead the researchers to handle them to serve time, money and experimental efforts. This study aimed to improve the GC-MS analysis of complex natural matrices utilizing multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods. In addition, to assess the peak purity of the two-dimensional data, a method called variable size moving window-evolving factor analysis (VSMW-EFA) is introduced and examined. The proposed methodology was applied to the GC-MS analysis of Iranian Lavender essential oil, which resulted in extending the number of identified constituents from 56 to 143 components. It was found that the most abundant constituents of the Iranian Lavender essential oil are α-pinene (16.51%), camphor (10.20%), 1,8-cineole (9.50%), bornyl acetate (8.11%) and camphene (6.50%). This indicates that the Iranian type Lavender contains a relatively high percentage of α-pinene. Comparison of different types of Lavender essential oils showed the composition similarity between Iranian and Italian (Sardinia Island) Lavenders. PMID:25621436

  4. Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia (Lamiacae).

    PubMed

    Lakusić, Branislava; Lakusić, Dmitar; Ristić, Mihailo; Marcetić, Mirjana; Slavkovska, Violeta

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal variations in the composition of the essential oils obtained from the same individual (of the same genotype) of Lavandula angustifolia cultivated in Belgrade were determined by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole (7.1-48.4%), linalool (0.1-38.7%), bomeol (10.9-27.7%), beta-phellandrene (0.5-21.2%) and camphor (1.5-15.8%). Cluster analysis showed that the 21 samples collected each month during the vegetation cycle were separable into three main clades with different compositions of essential oils. In the shoots with flowers, inflorescences and fruits of clade I, linalool is dominant, in the young leaves before flowering and old leaves of clade II, 1,8-cineole is dominant. In the young and incompletely developed leaves of clade III, beta-phellandrene is dominant. The composition of the essential oils of lavender depended on the plant part and the stage of development. PMID:25115100

  5. Clinical efficacy of polyherbal formulation Eezpain spray for muscular pain relief.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Allah; Sheikh, Zeeshan Ahmed; Feroz, Majid; Alam, Kamran; Nazar, Halima; Usmanghani, Khan

    2015-01-01

    The topical herbal formulation Eezpain spray consisting of natural ingredients that have been clinically proved for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The designed formulation on application knee and wrist joints, back of neck and shoulder, forearms and lower back exhibited significant efficacy. A total of 20 subjects both male and female applied Eezpain spray consisting of Gaultheria oil, Eucalyptus oil, Turpentine oil, Clove Oil, Menthol and Camphor. All the active materials are cited that these have analgesic activity in myalgia and neuralgia. The study design was prospective and opens as pilot study followed the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the sign and symptoms were noted at baseline and at the end of 14 days treatment performance was evaluated. The statistical analysis was done by using Microsoft Excel2007 and SPSS version 18.0. It is concluded that Eezpain spray has shown efficacy in mild to moderate cases on applying locally to the affected parts to relieve pain from different ailments. PMID:25553684

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, Diego A; Lizarraga, Emilio F; Ibatayev, Zharkyn A; Omarova, Akerke B; Suleimen, Yerlan M; Catalán, Cesar A N

    2016-09-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were β-thujone (66.5 ± 0.2%), and trans-sabinyl acetate (12.1 ± 0.2%) in A. deserticola; α-thujone (66.9 ± 0.4%) in A. proceriformis; 1,8-cineole (26.9 ± 0.5%), and camphor (17.7 ± 0.3%) in A. micrantha and cis-β-ocimene (23.3 ± 0.3%), and trans-β-ocimene (18.4 ± 0.2%) in L. buchtormensis. The oils showed a weak antimicrobial effect (MIC100 > 1.5 mg/ml) on most phytopathogens tested. A moderate antimicrobial activity (MIC100 between 0.5 and 1.5 mg/ml) was displayed by the oils of A. deserticola, A. micrantha and L. buchtormensis on Septoria tritici and by the oil of A. deserticola on Septoria glycine. The antimicrobial activity was associated to the contents of β-thujone, trans-sabinyl acetate and trans-sabinol. Our results indicate that the tested essential oils have little inhibitory potency not suitable for use as plant protection products against the phytopathogens assayed. PMID:26404704

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of Perovskia artemisioides Boiss. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Hafez Ghoran, Salar; Azadi, Boshra; Hussain, Hidayat

    2016-09-01

    The Perovskia artemisioides Boiss. essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation method of flowers growing wild in the north of Iran. The study led to the identification of 29 compositions by a combination of HP-5 GC-FID and GC-MS analytical techniques. The constituents were identified in P. artemisioides essential oil with 1,8-cineole (29.9%), camphor (29.5%) and α-pinene (7.8%) as main constituents as well as δ-3-carene (5.1%), camphene (3.3%) and β-pinene (2.7%). The oil was identified by a much larger amount of monoterpenes (87.7%) and sesquiterpenes (6.3%). The results of antimicrobial activity exhibit that the extracted essential oil has presented a high inhibiting activity against five microbial strains up to 18 mm. Also, the MIC and MBC results displayed that Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were inhibited by P. artemisioides essential oil. Therefore, determination of essential oils in this research showed a relatively similar pattern to those published for the other species of Perovskia. PMID:26506460

  8. Chemical Compositions and Insecticidal Activities of Alpinia kwangsiensis Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Dong-Ye; Wang, Ying; Wei, Jian-Yu; Li, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Bai, Jia-Feng; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Wang, Ping-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan

    2015-12-08

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Alpinia kwangsiensis rhizomes was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 31 components representing 92.45% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be camphor (17.59%), eucalyptol (15.16%), β-pinene (11.15%) and α-pinene (10.50%). These four compounds were subsequently isolated and the essential oil and four isolated compounds exhibited potent insecticidal activity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. During the assay, it was shown that the essential oil exhibited both potential contact (LD50 = of 24.59 μg/adult) and fumigant (LC50 = of 9.91 mg/L air) toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne. The study revealed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major components, which indicates that oil of Alpinia kwangsiensis and its isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides to control insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  9. Chemical Composition and Antipathogenic Activity of Artemisia annua Essential Oil from Romania.

    PubMed

    Marinas, Ioana C; Oprea, Eliza; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Badea, Irinel Adriana; Buleandra, Mihaela; Lazar, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    The essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from Romanian Artemisia annua aerial parts was characterized by GC/MS analysis, which allowed the identification of 94.64% of the total oil composition. The main components were camphor (17.74%), α-pinene (9.66%), germacrene D (7.55%), 1,8-cineole (7.24%), trans-β-caryophyllene (7.02%), and artemisia ketone (6.26%). The antimicrobial activity of this essential oil was evaluated by determining the following parameters: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). Moreover, the soluble virulence factors were quantified with different biochemical substrates incorporated in the culture media. The reference and resistant, clinical strains proved to be susceptible to the A. annua oil, with MICs ranging from 0.51 to 16.33 mg/ml. The tested essential oil also showed good antibiofilm activity, inhibiting both the initial stage of the microbial cell adhesion to the inert substratum and the preformed mature biofilm. When used at subinhibitory concentrations, the essential oil proved to inhibit the phenotypic expression of five soluble virulence factors (hemolysins, gelatinase, DNase, lipases, and lecithinases). Briefly, the present results showed that the A. annua essential oil contained antimicrobial compounds with selective activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as on yeast strains and which also interfere with the expression of cell-associated and soluble virulence factors.

  10. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, α-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent.

  11. Synthesis of customized petroleum-replica fuel molecules by targeted modification of free fatty acid pools in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Thomas P.; Middelhaufe, Sabine; Moore, Karen; Edner, Christoph; Kolak, Dagmara M.; Taylor, George N.; Parker, David A.; Lee, Rob; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Aves, Stephen J.; Love, John

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels are the most immediate, practical solution for mitigating dependence on fossil hydrocarbons, but current biofuels (alcohols and biodiesels) require significant downstream processing and are not fully compatible with modern, mass-market internal combustion engines. Rather, the ideal biofuels are structurally and chemically identical to the fossil fuels they seek to replace (i.e., aliphatic n- and iso-alkanes and -alkenes of various chain lengths). Here we report on production of such petroleum-replica hydrocarbons in Escherichia coli. The activity of the fatty acid (FA) reductase complex from Photorhabdus luminescens was coupled with aldehyde decarbonylase from Nostoc punctiforme to use free FAs as substrates for alkane biosynthesis. This combination of genes enabled rational alterations to hydrocarbon chain length (Cn) and the production of branched alkanes through upstream genetic and exogenous manipulations of the FA pool. Genetic components for targeted manipulation of the FA pool included expression of a thioesterase from Cinnamomum camphora (camphor) to alter alkane Cn and expression of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex and β-keto acyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from Bacillus subtilis to synthesize branched (iso-) alkanes. Rather than simply reconstituting existing metabolic routes to alkane production found in nature, these results demonstrate the ability to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for the production of renewable, industrially relevant fuel molecules. PMID:23610415

  12. Effect of bioclimatic area on the composition and bioactivity of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ben Jemia, Mariem; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition of eight Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. populations (A-H) from different bioclimatic areas has been examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The essential oils are characterised by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.2-71.7%) followed by monoterpene hydrocabons (15.1-26.7%). 1,8-Cineole, camphor, α-pinene and borneol are the main representative components. The antioxidant activity was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing ability power assay and β-carotene bleaching test. Samples showed antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical with IC50 values ranging from 375.3 to 592.8 μg mL(- 1) for samples F and A, respectively. Sample A also showed the most promising activity in β-carotene bleaching test (IC50 of 31.9 μg mL(- 1)). The essential oils were also screened for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity. Sample G showed the highest activity against AChE (IC50 of 64.7 μg mL(- 1)) while sample D (IC50 of 29.5 μg mL(- 1)) exhibited the most potent activity against BChE.

  13. [Regulation of terpene metabolism: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1991-12-31

    We have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis in sage and peppermint, and on biosynthetic enzymes. We have confirmed that monoterpene turnover does occur, have deciphered the function of this process in plants, delineated the essential features of the catabolic pathways for camphor and menthone, and initiated studies on the relevant enzymology. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation (yield and composition) depends on the balance between biosynthetic and catabolic events, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally regulated and very closely associated with senescence (collapse) of the oil glands. We have demonstrated that foliar applied bioregulators influence terpene composition and yield, probably by a combination of effects in oil gland development and by more direct alteration of enzyme levels. These studies have provided a practical means for modifying terpene composition and yield and, moreover, have provided a powerful approach to studying developmental regulation in intact plants, explants and tissue culture systems. We have thus developed the fundamental background knowledge needed as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of terpene metabolism.

  14. (Regulation of terpene metabolism: Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1991-01-01

    We have completed studies on the key pathways of monoterpene biosynthesis in sage and peppermint, and on biosynthetic enzymes. We have confirmed that monoterpene turnover does occur, have deciphered the function of this process in plants, delineated the essential features of the catabolic pathways for camphor and menthone, and initiated studies on the relevant enzymology. We have made a strong case, based on analytical, in vivo, and in vitro studies, that terpene accumulation (yield and composition) depends on the balance between biosynthetic and catabolic events, and provided supporting evidence that these processes are developmentally regulated and very closely associated with senescence (collapse) of the oil glands. We have demonstrated that foliar applied bioregulators influence terpene composition and yield, probably by a combination of effects in oil gland development and by more direct alteration of enzyme levels. These studies have provided a practical means for modifying terpene composition and yield and, moreover, have provided a powerful approach to studying developmental regulation in intact plants, explants and tissue culture systems. We have thus developed the fundamental background knowledge needed as well as the necessary experimental tools for studying the regulation of terpene metabolism.

  15. Effects of Dispersion in Density Functional Based Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Calculations on Cytochrome P450 Catalyzed Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Richard; Harvey, Jeremy N; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2012-11-13

    Density functional theory (DFT) based quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations have provided valuable insight into the reactivity of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes (P450s). A failure of commonly used DFT methods, such as B3LYP, is the neglect of dispersion interactions. An empirical dispersion correction has been shown to improve the accuracy of gas phase DFT calculations of P450s. The current work examines the effect of the dispersion correction in QM/MM calculations on P450s. The hydrogen abstraction from camphor, and hydrogen abstraction and C-O addition of cyclohexene and propene by P450cam have been modeled, along with the addition of benzene to Compound I in CYP2C9, at the B3LYP-D2/CHARMM27 level of theory. Single point energy calculations were also performed at the B3LYP-D3//B3LYP-D2/CHARMM27 level. The dispersion corrections lower activation energy barriers significantly (by ∼5 kcal/mol), as seen for gas phase calculations, but has a small effect on optimized geometries.These effects are likely to be important in modeling reactions catalyzed by other enzymes also. Given the low computational cost of including such dispersion corrections, we recommend doing so in all B3LYP based QM/MM calculations.

  16. Chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2011-07-01

    The genus Cinnamomum comprises of several hundreds of species, which are distributed in Asia and Australia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, the source of cinnamon bark and leaf oils, is an indigenous tree of Sri Lanka, although most oil now comes from cultivated areas. C. zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop having wide applications in flavoring, perfumery, beverages, and medicines. Volatile oils from different parts of cinnamon such as leaves, bark, fruits, root bark, flowers, and buds have been isolated by hydro distillation/steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The chemical compositions of the volatile oils have been identified by GC and GC-MS. More than 80 compounds were identified from different parts of cinnamon. The leaf oil has a major component called eugenol. Cinnamaldehyde and camphor have been reported to be the major components of volatile oils from stem bark and root bark, respectively. Trans-cinnamyl acetate was found to be the major compound in fruits, flowers, and fruit stalks. These volatile oils were found to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. C. zeylanicum bark and fruits were found to contain proanthocyandins with doubly linked bis-flavan-3-ol units in the molecule. The present review provides a coherent presentation of scattered literature on the chemistry, biogenesis, and biological activities of cinnamon.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Hanaa A; Pang, Edwin C; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of Perovskia artemisioides Boiss. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Hafez Ghoran, Salar; Azadi, Boshra; Hussain, Hidayat

    2016-09-01

    The Perovskia artemisioides Boiss. essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation method of flowers growing wild in the north of Iran. The study led to the identification of 29 compositions by a combination of HP-5 GC-FID and GC-MS analytical techniques. The constituents were identified in P. artemisioides essential oil with 1,8-cineole (29.9%), camphor (29.5%) and α-pinene (7.8%) as main constituents as well as δ-3-carene (5.1%), camphene (3.3%) and β-pinene (2.7%). The oil was identified by a much larger amount of monoterpenes (87.7%) and sesquiterpenes (6.3%). The results of antimicrobial activity exhibit that the extracted essential oil has presented a high inhibiting activity against five microbial strains up to 18 mm. Also, the MIC and MBC results displayed that Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were inhibited by P. artemisioides essential oil. Therefore, determination of essential oils in this research showed a relatively similar pattern to those published for the other species of Perovskia.

  19. Synthesis and photooxidation of styrene copolymer bearing camphorquinone pendant groups

    PubMed Central

    Moszner, Norbert; Lukáč, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Summary (±)-10-Methacryloyloxycamphorquinone (MCQ) was synthesized from (±)-10-camphorsulfonic acid either by a known seven-step synthetic route or by a novel, shorter five-step synthetic route. MCQ was copolymerized with styrene (S) and the photochemical behavior of the copolymer MCQ/S was compared with that of a formerly studied copolymer of styrene with monomers containing the benzil (BZ) moiety (another 1,2-dicarbonyl). Irradiation (λ > 380 nm) of aerated films of styrene copolymers with monomers containing the BZ moiety leads to the insertion of two oxygen atoms between the carbonyl groups of BZ and to the formation of benzoyl peroxide (BP) as pendant groups on the polymer backbone. An equivalent irradiation of MCQ/S led mainly to the insertion of only one oxygen atom between the carbonyl groups of camphorquinone (CQ) and to the formation of camphoric anhydride (11) covalently bound to the polymer backbone. While the decomposition of pendant BP groups formed in irradiated films of styrene copolymers with pendant BZ groups leads to crosslinking, only small molecular-weight changes in irradiated MCQ/S were observed. PMID:22509202

  20. Syntheses ofγ-fluoro-α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Haufe, G; Kröger, S

    1996-09-01

    Methods for the synthesis of racemic and optically active title compounds are presented. Key step of these four-step procedures is the alkylation with 1-bromo-2-fluoroalkanes of glycine-ester-derived imines in anhydrous medium using lithium diisopropylamide as a base at low temperature or phase transfer catalyzed alkylation with 50% NaOH and triethylbenzylammoniumchloride as the phase transfer catalyst, respectively. Subsequent three-step deprotection gave the free acids in 13-33% overall yield. Deracemization ofγ-fluoro-α-aminobutyric acid methyl and ethyl esters withα-chymotrypsin was shown to give the (-)-enantiomers of the esters and (+)-γ-fluoro-α-aminobutyric acid in >98% ee, while from thetert-butylester the opposite stereochemical result was observed giving the (-)-acid with 88% ee. Optically activeγ-fluoro-α-amino acids were synthesized alternatively by phase transfer catalysis with N-benzyl-cinchonium chloride or using an auxiliary-directed asymmetric alkylation of the imine derived from (R)-(+)-camphor or (R)-(+)-2-hydroxypinan-3-one. These processes gave different enantiomers ofγ-fluoro-α-aminobutyric acid via a monomeric lithium enolate in the first or a dimeric lithium enolate in the second case, respectively. The enantiomeric excess can be improved by lithium/magnesium exchange. PMID:24178725

  1. Crystal structure of cis-bis-{4-phenyl-1-[(3R)-1,7,7-tri-methyl-2-oxobi-cyclo-[2.2.1]heptan-3-ylidene]thio-semicarbazidato-κ(3) O,N (1),S}cadmium(II) with an unknown solvent mol-ecule.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Vanessa Senna; Bresolin, Leandro; Näther, Christian; Jess, Inke; de Oliveira, Adriano Bof

    2015-12-01

    The reaction between the racemic mixture of the camphor-4-phenyl-thio-semicarbazone derivative and cadmium acetate dihydrate yielded the title compound, [Cd(C17H20N3OS)2]. The Cd(II) ion is six-coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral environment by two deprotonated thio-semicarbazone ligands acting as an O,N,S-donor in a tridentate chelating mode, forming five-membered chelate rings. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are connected via pairs of N-H⋯S and C-H⋯S inter-actions, building centrosymmetric dimers. One of the ligands is disordered in the campher unit over two sets of sites with site-occupancy factors of 0.7 and 0.3. The structure contains additional solvent mol-ecules, which are disordered and for which no reasonable split model was found. Therefore, the data were corrected for disordered solvent using the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] in PLATON. Since the disordered solvents were removed by data processing, and the number of solvent entities was a suggestion only, they were not considered in the chemical formula and subsequent chemical or crystal information. PMID:26870441

  2. Strong non-linear effects in the chiroptical properties of the ligand-exchanged Au38 and Au40 clusters.

    PubMed

    Knoppe, Stefan; Dass, Amala; Bürgi, Thomas

    2012-07-21

    Ligand exchange reactions on size-selected Au(38)(2-PET)(24) and Au(40)(2-PET)(24) clusters (2-PET: 2-phenylethylthiol) with mono- and bi-dentate chiral thiols were performed. The reactions were monitored with MALDI mass spectrometry and the arising chiroptical properties were compared to the number of incorporated chiral ligands. Only a small fraction of chiral ligands is needed to induce significant optical activity to the clusters. The use of bidentate 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dithiol (BINAS) leads to slow exchange, but the optical activity measured is strong. Moreover, a non-linear behaviour between optical activity and the number of chiral ligands is found in the BINAS case for both Au(38) and Au(40), which may indicate different exchange rates of enantiopure BINAS with the enantiomers of inherently chiral (but racemic) clusters. This is ascribed to effects arising from the bidentate nature of BINAS. In contrast, the use of monodentate camphor-10-thiol (CamSH) leads to comparably fast exchange on both clusters. The arising optical activity is weak. This is the first study where chiroptical effects are directly correlated with the composition of the ligand shell. PMID:22653001

  3. Electrochemical polymerization of aniline on carbon-aluminum electrodes for energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasoma, Asela; Grant, Robert; Bruce, Alice E.; Bruce, Mitchell R. M.

    2012-12-01

    We report a simple and reliable method to electrochemically synthesize PANi on aluminum carbon (Al/C).Aluminum electrodes were coated with hard black graphite. Polyaniline was then deposited in steps from +0.75 V to +0.825 V (V vs. Ag/AgCl) in low pH growth solutions containing aniline and camphor sulphonic acid. The polyaniline films were rinsed in hydrazine solution and dried in an infrared oven under a nitrogen atmosphere. The films were transferred and are stable in a 50:50 (v/v) propylene carbonate (PC)/acetonitrile (ACN) solvent mixture containing 0.5 M LiClO4 electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge capacities are reported. Microscope (SEM) images of Al/C/PANi and Pt/PANi films show similar structural details and morphology. The specific capacity for Al/C/PANi in nonaqueous solutions was ca. 133 mAh g-1, in good agreement with the reported data for other PANi-based electrodes. The performance studies and SEM images demonstrate similar results for Pt/PANi and Al/C/PANi electrodes.

  4. Amorphous Carbon Deposited by a Novel Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition for Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nurfadzilah; Kamaruzzaman, Dayana; Rusop, Mohamad

    2012-06-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) solar cells were successfully prepared using a novel and self-designed aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using camphor oil as a precursor. The fabricated solar cell with the configuration of Au/p-C/n-Si/Au achieved an efficiency of 0.008% with a fill factor of 0.15 for the device deposited at 0.5 h. The current-voltage (I-V) graph emphasized on the linear graph (ohmic) for the a-C thin films, whereas for the p-n device structure, a rectifying curve was obtained. The rectifying curves signify the heterojunction between the p-type a-C film and the n-Si substrate and designate the generation of electron-hole pair of the samples under illumination. Photoresponse characteristics of the deposited a-C was highlighted when being illuminated (AM 1.5 illumination: 100 mW/cm2, 25 °C). Transmittance spectrum exhibit a large transmittance value (>85%) and absorption coefficient value of 103-104 cm-1 at the visible range of 390 to 790 nm. The atomization of a liquid precursor solution into fine sub-micrometre-sized aerosol droplets in AACVD induced the smooth surface of a-C films. To the best of our knowledge, fabrication of a-C solar cell using this AACVD method has not yet been reported.

  5. Micro-Raman studies of swift heavy ion irradiation induced structural and conformational changes in polyaniline nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Somik; Kumar, A.

    2010-09-01

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers doped with camphor sulfonic acid have been irradiated with 90 MeV O 7+ ions at different fluences (3 × 10 10-1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2) using a 15UD Pelletron accelerator under ultra-high vacuum. XRD studies reveal a decrease in the domain length and an increase in the strain upon SHI irradiation. The increase in d-spacing corresponding to the (1 0 0) reflection of PAni nanofibers with increasing irradiation fluence has been attributed to the increase in the tilt angle of the chains with respect to the ( a, b ) basal plane of PAni. Decrease in the integral intensity upon SHI irradiation indicates amorphization of the material. Micro-Raman (μR) studies confirm amorphization of the PAni nanofibers and also show that the PAni nanofibers get de-doped upon SHI irradiation. μR spectroscopy also reveals a benzenoid to quinoid transition in the PAni chain upon SHI irradiation. TEM results show that the size of PAni nanofibers decreases with the increase in irradiation fluence, which has been attributed to the fragmentation of PAni nanofibers in the core of amorphized tracks caused by SHI irradiation.

  6. Electrical resistance response of polyaniline films to water, ethanol, and nitric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hong-Xing; Li, Meng-Meng; Yang, H.; Long, Yun-Ze; Sun, Xin

    2010-08-01

    This paper reports on electrical resistance vs. aging time for the response of polyaniline films under exposure to water, ethanol and nitric acid (HNO3) solution. Camphor sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline films were prepared by a “doping-dedoping-redoping" method, the morphology and microstructures of the films were characterized by a scanning electron microscope and an x-ray diffractometer, the electrical resistance was measured by a four-probe method. It was found that a lower amount of water molecules infiltrating the film can decrease the film's resistance possibly due to an enhancement of charge carrier transfer between polyaniline chains, whereas excessive water molecules can swell inter-chain distances and result in a quick increase of resistance. The resistance of the film under exposure to ethanol increases and becomes much larger than the original value. However, HNO3 solution can decrease the film's resistance sharply possibly owing to doping effect of protonic acid. These results can help to understand the conduction mechanism in polyaniline films, and also indicate that the films have potential application in chemical sensors.

  7. Semiconducting Properties of Nanostructured Amorphous Carbon Thin Films Incorporated with Iodine by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruzaman, Dayana; Ahmad, Nurfadzilah; Annuar, Ishak; Rusop, Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured iodine-post doped amorphous carbon (a-C:I) thin films were prepared from camphor oil using a thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique at different doping temperatures. The structural properties of the films were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies. FESEM and EDS studies showed successful iodine doping. FTIR and Raman studies showed that the a-C:I thin films consisted of a mixture of sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon atoms. The optical and electrical properties of a-C:I thin films were determined by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy and current-voltage (I-V) measurement respectively. The optical band gap of a-C thin films decreased upon iodine doping. The highest electrical conductivity was found at 400 °C doping. Heterojunctions are confirmed by rectifying the I-V characteristics of an a-C:I/n-Si junction.

  8. Phytotoxic and Nematicidal Components of Lavandula luisieri.

    PubMed

    Julio, Luis F; Barrero, Alejandro F; Herrador del Pino, M Mar; Arteaga, Jesús F; Burillo, Jesús; Andres, Maria Fe; Díaz, Carmen E; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2016-02-26

    Several preparations were obtained from the aerial parts of predomesticated Lavandula luisieri, including the essential oil and ethanolic, hexane, and ethyl acetate extractives. Additionally, pilot plant vapor pressure extraction was carried out at a pressure range of 0.5-1.0 bar to give a vapor pressure oil and an aqueous residue. A chemical study of the hexane extract led to the isolation of six necrodane derivatives (1, 2, and 4-7), with four of these (1, 2, 5, and 7) being new, as well as camphor, a cadinane sesquiterpene (9), tormentic acid, and ursolic acid. The EtOAc and EtOH extracts contained a mixture of phenolic compounds with rosmarinic acid being the major component. Workup of the aqueous residue resulted in the isolation of the necrodane 3 and (1R*,2S*,4R*)-p-menth-5-ene-1,2,8-triol (8), both new natural compounds. The structures of the new compounds were established based on their spectroscopic data. The phytotoxic and nematicidal activities of these compounds were evaluated. PMID:26797293

  9. Electrodes for H2 and O2 in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Sachin Maruti; Sharon, Madhuri; Sharon, Maheshwar

    2013-06-01

    Pumice plate and carbon felt are tried as electrode for the oxidation for hydrogen and reduction of oxygen in 30% KOH solution. Pumice plate is found to be not suitable for making large area electrode. Carbon felt after depositing conducting carbon by pyrolysis of camphor is found to be hydrophobic. This was used as an electrode for hydrogen oxidation process after depositing platinum (0.2 mg/cm2). This system gives current density of 9.0mA/cm2 and opens circuit potential of 0.423V VsZn/ZnO22-. It is observed that for oxygen reduction process, carbon felt deposited with conducting carbon is sufficient and there is no need to use any electrocatalyst. It is observed that with carbon felt a current density of 89.56mA/cm2 and open circuit potential 1.272 V VsZn/ZnO22- canbe obtained. An over potential of 37mV and 56mV were obtained with carbon felt electrode for hydrogen oxidation process and oxygen reduction process respectively. It is concluded that carbon felt coated with conducting carbon can be used for hydrogen/oxygen alkaline fuel cell.

  10. Biodegradation of PAHs by Burkholderia sp. VITRSB1 Isolated from Marine Sediments.

    PubMed

    Revathy, T; Jayasri, M A; Suthindhiran, K

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution to the environment is a major threat to the living organisms, and hence the degradation of these PAHs is necessary. Studies on PAHs degrading bacteria have focussed on terrestrial microbes and the potential of marine derived microbes is undermined. Herein we report the isolation and characterization of PAHs degrading Burkholderia sp. from lagoon sediments collected at the Southern coast of India. The strain was Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, and ∼2-5 μm in length. Based on the phylogenetic data the strain was identified as Burkholderia and designated as VITRSB1. Initial PAHs degradation ability of the strain was assessed using basal salt medium supplemented with diesel, kerosene, toluene, aniline, naphthalene, and phenol. The strain was found to be effectively degrading kerosene, diesel, toluene, and aniline even at higher concentration (1%). However, naphthalene and aniline were degraded only at lower concentration (0.1%) and phenol, camphor, and DAP inhibited the growth of the strain. Furthermore, the degraded end products of the PAHs were determined using FTIR. Notably, none of the end products were found to be toxic to the biosphere. Our results indicate that the isolated Burkholderia sp. could be a prospective candidate for the effective degradation of selective PAHs. PMID:26605106

  11. Comparison of two different carbon nanotube-based surfaces with respect to potassium ferricyanide electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurino, Irene; Carrara, Sandro; Giorcelli, Mauro; Tagliaferro, Alberto; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the electrochemical investigation of two multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrodes using potassium ferricyanide as a benchmark redox system. Carbon nanotubes were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition on silicon wafer with camphor and ferrocene as precursors. Vertically-aligned as well as islands of horizontally-randomly-oriented carbon nanotubes were obtained by varying the growth parameters. Cyclic voltammetry was the employed method for this electrochemical study. Vertical nanotubes showed a slightly higher kinetic. Regarding the sensing parameters we found a sensitivity for vertical nanotubes almost equal to the sensitivity obtained with horizontally/randomly oriented nanotubes (71.5 ± 0.3 μA/(mM cm2) and 62.8 ± 0.3 μA/(mM cm2), respectively). In addition, values of detection limit are of the same order of magnitude. Although tip contribution to electron emission has been shown to be greatly larger than the lateral contribution on single carbon nanotubes per unit area, the new findings reported in this paper demonstrate that the global effects of nanotube surface on potassium ferricyanide electrochemistry are comparable for these two types of nanostructured surfaces.

  12. A completely controlled sphere-to-bilayer micellar transition: the molecular mechanism and application on the growth of nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kong; Li, Huanyuan; Lu, Yuan; Wang, Ruijuan; Bei, Fengli; Lu, Lude; Han, Qiaofeng; Wu, Xiaodong

    2016-04-20

    The combination of a simple modification of the sample addition method to generate a sort of continuously accumulated external stimulation with only minute increments in amplitude and the introduction of probe molecules (herein aniline) within the micelle allow the direct continuous in situ spectroscopic monitoring of possible micellar transitions. In this way, a sphere-to-ellipsoid and further an ellipsoid-to-bilayer micellar transition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induced by camphor sulfuric acid (CSA) is observed to experience four stages in the time sequence: (i) the accumulated protons released from CSA in the hydration layer of the micelle stimulate the rearrangement of SDS micelles; (ii) the micelles transform into ellipsoidal shapes as evidenced by the characteristic chemical shift anisotropy and the corresponding molecular dynamic properties from probe molecules; (iii) further protonation of aniline induces the micelle to turn into lamellar structures; (iv) aniline is freed from the micelle while leaving the SDS bilayers undistorted. Moreover, polyaniline nanosheets incorporating SDS bilayers in sandwich structures, which can display excellent capacitive behavior at relatively high current densities for the fabricated supercapacitors, are prepared from the aniline oriented by the bending energy of the SDS bilayers. PMID:26996652

  13. Growth of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, M. I.; Giorcelli, M.; Perrone, D.; Virga, A.; Shahzad, N.; Jagdale, P.; Cocuzza, M.; Tagliaferro, A.

    2013-06-01

    Capability of patterning carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growth is of tantamount importance for a number of applications ranging from thermal to electronic. This article reports on the columnar growth of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) on patterned Silicon (Si) surface. We have developed procedures based on negative as well as positive masking approaches which allows the growth of predetermined MWCNTs patterns. We describe in detail the process steps leading to Si surface patterning. As quoted above, patterns are exploited to grow VA-MWCNTs. We have focused in particular on the growth of CNT pillars by chemical vapor despoition (CVD) technique at 850°C with camphor and ferrocene as carbon precursors and catalyst respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) is employed at low magnification to verify the correct patterning, and at high magnification to examine the surface morphology of CNTs pillars. The pillars are up to 2 mm high, their height being tailored through the deposition time. The diameter of each MWCNT is in the range 30-70 nm and the length is up to few hundred micrometers. The small CNT pillars produced, have several electrical and thermal applications. For instance they can be very useful for heat transfer systems as the lower thermal conductivity of fluids can be improved by the inclusion of nanotubes thanks to their peculiar 1-dimensional heat transfer characteristics.

  14. Intraspecific differences in plant chemotype determine the structure of arthropod food webs.

    PubMed

    Bálint, János; Zytynska, Sharon E; Salamon, Rozália Veronika; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitz, Oswald J; Benedek, Klára; Balog, Adalbert

    2016-03-01

    It is becoming increasingly appreciated that the structure and functioning of ecological food webs are controlled by the nature and level of plant chemicals. It is hypothesized that intraspecific variation in plant chemical resistance, in which individuals of a host-plant population exhibit genetic differences in their chemical contents (called 'plant chemotypes'), may be an important determinant of variation in food web structure and functioning. We evaluated this hypothesis using field assessments and plant chemical assays in the tansy plant Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae). We examined food webs in which chemotypes of tansy plants are the resource for two specialized aphids, their predators and mutualistic ants. The density of the ant-tended aphid Metopeurum fuscoviride was significantly higher on particular chemotypes (borneol) than others. Clear chemotype preferences between predators were also detected. Aphid specialist seven-spotted ladybird beetles (Coccinella septempunctata) were more often found on camphor plants, while significantly higher numbers of the polyphagous nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis) were observed on borneol plants. The analysis of plant chemotype effects on the arthropod community clearly demonstrates a range of possible outcomes between plant-aphid-predator networks. The findings help to offer a deeper insight into how one important factor--plant chemical content--influences which species coexist within a food web on a particular host plant and the nature of their trophic linkages. PMID:26581421

  15. Chemical Compositions and Insecticidal Activities of Alpinia kwangsiensis Essential Oil against Lasioderma serricorne.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Dong-Ye; Wang, Ying; Wei, Jian-Yu; Li, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Bai, Jia-Feng; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Wang, Ping-Juan; Du, Shu-Shan

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Alpinia kwangsiensis rhizomes was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 31 components representing 92.45% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be camphor (17.59%), eucalyptol (15.16%), β-pinene (11.15%) and α-pinene (10.50%). These four compounds were subsequently isolated and the essential oil and four isolated compounds exhibited potent insecticidal activity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. During the assay, it was shown that the essential oil exhibited both potential contact (LD50 = of 24.59 μg/adult) and fumigant (LC50 = of 9.91 mg/L air) toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne. The study revealed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major components, which indicates that oil of Alpinia kwangsiensis and its isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides to control insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials. PMID:26670226

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Hanaa A; Pang, Edwin C; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms. PMID:27242708

  17. Antioxidant activity and haemolysis prevention efficiency of polyaniline nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Somik; Saikia, Jyoti P.; Kumar, A.; Konwar, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers have been synthesized by interfacial polymerization using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) as dopants. The powder x-ray diffraction pattern of bulk polyaniline reveals ES I structure and has been indexed in a pseudo-orthorhombic lattice. The broadening of (110) reflection in the nanofiber samples has been analysed in terms of domain length and strain using a convolution method employing a Voigt function. The increase in d spacing for the (110) reflection in HCl-doped PAni nanofibers have been assigned to the change in structural conformation due to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from microRaman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit a remarkable blueshift in the absorption bands attributed to π-π* and π-polaron band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size, which is also observed in TEM micrographs. The antioxidant activity of the polyaniline nanofiber samples has been investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. It has also been observed that polyaniline nanofibers are able to protect the haemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) from cytotoxic agents, namely H2O2. The observed enhancement in the antioxidant and haemolysis prevention activity of the PAni nanofibers as compared to bulk has been attributed to the reduction in particle size and changes in structural conformation, as evident from TEM, XRD and microRaman spectroscopy.

  18. Polypyrrole-ZnO nanohybrids: effect of CSA doping on structure, morphology and optoelectronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, M. A.; Khuspe, G. D.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V. B.

    2013-10-01

    Polypyrrole-ZnO (PPy-ZnO) nanohybrid was prepared from PPy and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Nanohybrids of PPy-ZnO were doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) with different weight ratios (10-50 %). The CSA-doped nanohybrids obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, field emission SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy and electrical transport method. Structural investigations using X-ray diffraction shows new peaks appeared at 15.44° and 17.61° in the XRD pattern of CSA-doped PPy-ZnO nanohybrids belong to CSA. The FTIR spectra confirmed the strong interaction between the CSA and PPy-ZnO nanohybrids. The UV-visible spectrums revealed the enhancement of doping level for the 30 % CSA-doped PPy-ZnO nanohybrid film which is assigned to the existence of greater number of charges on the polymer backbone. The room temperature dc electrical conductivity of CSA-doped PPy-ZnO nanohybrids were observed to depend on the CSA doping and the morphology.

  19. Antibacterial activity of silver camphorimine coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, João M S; Galvão, Adelino M; Guerreiro, Soraia I; Leitão, Jorge H; Suarez, Ana C; Carvalho, M Fernanda N N

    2016-04-28

    Five new silver camphorimine complexes of general formula [Ag(NO3)(Y)L] were synthesized and fully characterized using spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The structure of [Ag(NO3)(OC10H14NC6H4NC10H14O)] () was analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction, showing that it arranges as a coordination polymer formed by sequential Ag(NO3) units bridged by the bi-camphor ligand (). The antimicrobial properties of the new complexes were screened using the disk diffusion method and their Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were assessed against selected bacterial strains of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia contaminans. The lowest MICs were observed for , with estimated values of 72, 20, 32 and 19 μg mL(-1) for S. aureus, E. coli, B. contaminans, and P. aeruginosa, respectively. In the case of S. aureus, similar MIC values were obtained for silver nitrate and compound . All five compounds were bactericidal when used in concentrations equal or above the MIC value, as found by enumerating the total colony forming units (CFUs) after incubation in their presence. PMID:27007331

  20. Anti-inflammatory and blood stasis activities of essential oil extracted from Artemisia argyi leaf in animals.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yue-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Xiong, Ying; Huang, Xian-Ju; Mei, Zhi-Nan; Hong, Zong-Guo

    2016-07-01

    Artemisia argyi leaf is a well-known species in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory and activating blood stasis activities of its essential oil (AAEO) have not been explored in vivo. The present study measured the contents of three chemical components by gas chromatography (GC). The anti-acute inflammatory effects of AAEO were investigated in dimethyl benzene, glacial acetic acid and carrageenan-induced animals through skin administration or by oral gavage, respectively. The effects of AAEO on haemorheology were studied in a rat acute blood stasis model. The contents of eucalyptol, camphor and borneol in AAEO were 254.4, 51.6 and 58.7 mg/g, respectively. All dosages of AAEO by skin administration significantly decreased the swelling in dimethyl benzene-induced ear oedema and carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and reduced the permeability in glacial acetic acid-induced abdominal blood capillary (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, haemorheology indexes such as whole blood viscosity and the erythrocyte aggregation index significantly decreased only in the high dosage group. In addition, the effects of AAEO by oral gavage were weaker than skin administration at the medium dose in the experiments. It suggests that AAEO has better absorption bioavailability and pharmacological effects through skin administration due to the better skin permeability of essential oil than gastrointestinal absorption. PMID:26894818