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Sample records for 4-styrene sulfonate pss

  1. Interactional behavior of the polyelectrolyte poly sodium 4-styrene sulphonate (NaPSS) with imidazolium based surface active ionic liquids in an aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Renu; Kamal, Ajar; Kang, Tejwant Singh; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-09-28

    The present study aims to develop an understanding of the interactions between an anionic polyelectrolyte, poly sodium 4-styrene sulphonate (NaPSS), and cationic surface active imidazolium based ionic liquids (SAILs), [Cnmim][Cl] (n = 10, 12, 14) using a multi-technique approach. Various physicochemical and electrochemical techniques such as surface tension, conductivity, fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), turbidity, potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) are employed to obtain comprehensive information about NaPSS-SAIL interactions. Different stages of interaction, corresponding to the critical aggregation concentration (cac), critical saturation concentration (Cs) and critical micelle concentration (cmc) have been observed owing to the strong electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, and the results obtained from different techniques complement each other very well. The results extracted from DLS and turbidity measurements clearly indicated that the size of the micelle like aggregates first decreases and then increases in the presence of polyelectrolyte. The binding isotherms obtained using potentiometry show a concentration dependence and the highly co-operative nature of the interactions which is attributed to aggregation of the polyelectrolyte-SAIL complexes. The diffusion coefficients (Dm) of the electroactive probe in the pure and NaPSS-SAIL mixed systems were obtained, which were further used to obtain the values of the micellar self-diffusion coefficients (D) and inter-micellar interaction parameters (kd). PMID:26300416

  2. Preparation of graphene oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxytriophene): Poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrospun nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efelina, Vita; Widianto, Eri; Rusdiana, Dadi; Nugroho, A. A.; Kusumaatmaja, Ahmad; Triyana, Kuwat; Santoso, Iman

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)/Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxytriophene):Poly (styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique to develop conductive nanofibers with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) act as a carrier solution. Graphene oxide has been synthesized by Hummer's method and has been confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy, FTIR and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. GO/PEDOT:PSS composite nanofibers. The structural and morphological properties were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of SEM show that GO/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers has a relatively uniform morphology nanofiber with diameter between 180 nm - 340 nm with smooth nanofiber surface. The produced nanofibers from this study can be utilized for various applications such as flexible, conductive and transparent electrode.

  3. Preparation of graphene oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxytriophene): Poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrospun nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widianto, Eri; Efelina, Vita; Rusdiana, Dadi; Nugroho, A. A.; Kusumaatmaja, Ahmad; Triyana, Kuwat; Santoso, Iman

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)/Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxytriophene):Poly (styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique to develop conductive nanofibers with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) act as a carrier solution. Graphene oxide hasbeen synthesized by Hummer's method and has been confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy, FTIR, and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The structural and morphological properties of GO/PEDOT:PSS composite nanofiberswere characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of SEM showed that GO/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers have a relatively uniform morphology nanofiber with adiameterof 180 nm - 340 nm with smooth nanofiber surface. The produced nanofibers from this study can be utilized for various applicationssuch as aflexible, conductive and transparent electrode.

  4. Development of bifacial inverted polymer solar cells using a conductivity-controlled transparent PEDOT:PSS and a striped Au electrode on the hole collection side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwabara, Takayuki; Katori, Shinji; Arima, Kazuhiro; Omura, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Taima, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2014-02-01

    An inverted bifacial polymer solar cell was developed using a conductivity-controlled transparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) as a hole collection layer and a striped Au electrode with a large open aperture ratio (Rap) as a hole collection electrode. We investigated the performance of the device by varying the interelectrode distance of the striped Au electrode and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS film. The device using untreated Clevios P (PEDOT:PSS) showed a maximum electric output (Pw) in the Rap range of 50 to 65%. When alcohol-treated Clevios P (Clevios P+) with a lower electrical resistance was used, the maximum Pw increased by 40% compared with that of the device using Clevios P. The maximum Pw was obtained in the Rap range of 84% as the hole collection efficiency of the striped Au electrode improved with the decreased sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS.

  5. Phase Behavior of Symmetric Sulfonated Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Moon Jeong; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2008-08-21

    Phase behavior of poly(styrenesulfonate-methylbutylene) (PSS-PMB) block copolymers was studied by varying molecular weight, sulfonation level, and temperature. Molecular weights of the copolymers range from 2.9 to 117 kg/mol. Ordered lamellar, gyroid, hexagonally perforated lamellae, and hexagonally packed cylinder phases were observed in spite of the fact that the copolymers are nearly symmetric with PSS volume fractions between 0.45 and 0.50. The wide variety of morphologies seen in our copolymers is inconsistent with current theories on block copolymer phase behavior such as self-consistent field theory. Low molecular weight PSS-PMB copolymers (<6.2 kg/mol) show order-order and order-disorder phase transitions as a function of temperature. In contrast, the phase behavior of high molecular weight PSS-PMB copolymers (>7.7 kg/mol) is independent of temperature. Due to the large value of Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, x, between the sulfonated and non-sulfonated blocks, PSS-PMB copolymers with PSS and PMB molecular weights of 1.8 and 1.4 kg/mol, respectively, show the presence of an ordered gyroid phase with a 2.5 nm diameter PSS network. A variety of methods are used to estimate x between PSS and PMB chains as a function of sulfonation level. Some aspects of the observed phase behavior of PSS-PMB copolymers can be rationalized using x.

  6. Electrostatic Effect on the Solution Structure and Dynamics of PEDOT:PSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaf, Michael; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) is a popular material used in organic electronic devices as a conductor. It consists of PEDOT polycations complexed with PSS polyanions which are initially suspended in aqueous solution and eventually cast into a film. Various annealing and doping methods dramatically enhance PEDOT:PSS film conductivity. To understand the physical interactions at play, we explore structural and dynamic aspects of PEDOT:PSS solutions through scattering and rheology techniques. We highlight several aspects of the phase behavior of PEDOT:PSS, and the significance of electrostatic interactions.

  7. Ultraviolet-ozone-treated PEDOT:PSS as anode buffer layer for organic solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet-ozone-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)was used as the anode buffer layer in copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of the cells with appropriated UV-ozone treatment was found to increase about 20% compared to the reference cell. The improved performance is attributed to the increased work function of the PEDOT:PSS layer, which improves the contact condition between PEDOT:PSS and CuPc, hence increasing the extraction efficiency of the photogenerated holes and decreasing the recombination probability of holes and electrons in the active organic layers. PMID:22901365

  8. Electrochemical glucose oxidation on dendritic cuprous oxide film fabricated by PSS-assisted electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Jin, Xiaoqi; Huang, Qiao

    2011-02-01

    Cuprous oxides (Cu 2O) with different morphologies were deposited on F-doped tin oxide (FTO) covered glass substrates by potentiostatic deposition. The as-deposited samples were characterized by XRD, BET surface area and SEM. The effects of Poly(styrene sulfonic acid) sodium salt (PSS) on the crystal morphologies of Cu 2O were studied. Different crystal morphologies of Cu 2O can be obtained by varying the concentrations of PSS in the electrolytes. The formation of dendritic microstructure in Cu 2O film depends on the concentration of PSS in the electrolyte. Dendritic Cu 2O crystals formed gradually with the increase of the concentration of PSS in the electrolyte from 0 to 4 g L -1. More symmetrical Cu 2O crystals appear when the concentration of PSS is changed from 4 to 8 g L -1. However, the Cu 2O nanoparticles formed instead of dendritic Cu 2O crystals if the concentration of PSS reaches to 12 g L -1, which is due to the slower diffusion rate of reactive species in high concentration of PSS. The as-deposited Cu 2O thin films with different morphologies all exhibit the electrochemical glucose oxidation properties. The improved performance of glucose oxidation is achieved on the dendritic Cu 2O film electrode. The result indicates that the dendritic microstructure is beneficial for decreasing the resistance and improving transportation and diffusion of reactants and products.

  9. Solvation Behavior of Short-chain Polystyrene Sulfonate in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions: A Molecular Dyamics Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Simonson, J Michael {Mike}

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the solvation behavior of short-chain polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) in aqueous electrolyte solutions by isothernal-isochoric molecular dynamics simulation to determine the solvation effects on the structure and conformation of the polyelectrolyte as a function of the aqueous environment. To that end, we study these aqueous systems including the explicit atomistic description of water, the PSS chain, and their interactions with all species in solution. In addition, we investigate the effect of the degree of sulfonation and its distribution along the PSS chain on the resulting conformation as well as solvation structure. Moreover, we assess the impact of added salts on the net charge of the PSS backbone, placing emphasis on the valence of the counterion and the extent of the ion-pair formation between the sulfonate group and the counterions. Finally, we present evidence for the so-called like-charge attraction between sulfonate groups through the formation of counterion-mediated interchain sulfonate-sulfonate and water-mediated intrachain sulfonate-sulfonate bridges, as well as between unlike counterion-counterion interactions.

  10. A comprehensive study of sulfonated carbon materials as conductive composites for polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ting; Tan, Licheng; Hu, Xiaotian; Dai, Yanfeng; Chen, Yiwang

    2015-02-14

    Sulfonated carbon nanotubes (S-CNTs) and sulfonated graphene (S-Gra) with superior dispersibility were successfully prepared to modify poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) for applications in polymer solar cells (PSCs). The synergetic effect between S-CNTs/S-Gra and PEDOT:PSS could remove excess insulating PSS chains leading to an obvious phase separation between the PEDOT and PSS chains, which allows the formation of more conductive PEDOT channels. The PEDOT:PSS (Clevios PH 4083):S-CNTs with well-matched work function, favorable morphology, optimized hydrophobicity and superior hole mobility is demonstrated to be an excellent hole transport layer (HTL) for PSCs. However, the PEDOT:PSS (Clevios PH 4083) modified by sulfonated graphene with stacked and wrinkled lamellae as an HTL renders a rough morphology and has a negative impact on the morphology of the active layer, consequently resulting in a poor device performance. Excitingly, PEDOT:PSS (Clevios PH 1000) modified with S-Gra shows high conductivity, because the sulfonated graphene lamellae contribute to the connection between the insulator and conductive PEDOT islands and improves the charge conduction. The PH1000:S-Gra with multiple layers presents excellent electrical conductive properties and a high transmittance (sheet resistance of ∼45 Ω sq(-1) and transmittance of ∼85.5% at 550 nm), which possess great potential for its application as a transparent conductive and flexible electrode in organic electronics. PMID:25563771

  11. Aldicarb sulfone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aldicarb sulfone ; CASRN 1646 - 88 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  12. PUA/PSS multilayer coated CaCO3 microparticles as smart drug delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao; Shi, Jun; Shi, Jin; Zhang, Li; Cao, Shaokui

    2013-10-01

    Hybrid CaCO3 microparticles coated by sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and aliphatic poly(urethane-amine) (PUA) were developed as thermal-/pH-responsive drug delivery vehicles via LbL self-assembly technique. The DOX release from the CaCO3 microparticles was higher than 60% within 36 h, whereas the value of PUA/PSS-coated microparticles was only 20%. The results demonstrated that the PUA/PSS multilayer coating could reduce the drug release rate and significantly assuage the initial burst release of DOX. In addition, the drug release of the hybrid microparticles was found to be thermal-/pH-dual responsive. More interestingly, more than 90% of DOX was released in 36 h at pH2.1 and 55 °C owing to the combined action of the dissolution of the CaCO3 core and the shrinkage of aliphatic PUA. PMID:23910272

  13. Investigation of the doping efficiency of poly(styrene sulfonic acid) in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonic acid) dispersions by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Diah, Anang W M; Quirino, Joselito P; Belcher, Warwick; Holdsworth, Clovia I

    2014-07-01

    CE can efficiently separate poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT/PSS) complexes and free PSS in dispersions and can be used to estimate the degree of PSS doping. We investigated the doping efficiency of PSS on PEDOT in dispersions using CE and its effect on the conductivity of the resulting PEDOT/PSS films. Results of this study indicate that dispersions containing 1:2.5-3 EDOT:PSS feed ratio (by weight) exhibiting 72-73% PSS doping generate highly processable and highly conductive films. Conductivity can be optimized by limiting the time of reaction to 12 h. At this point of the reaction, the PEDOT/PSS segments, appearing as broad band in the electropherogram, could still exist in an extended coil conformation favoring charge transport resulting in high conductivity. Above a threshold PEDOT length formed at reaction times longer than 12 h, the PEDOT/PSS complex, appearing as spikes in the electropherogram, most likely have undergone a conformational change to coiled core-shell structure restricting charge transport resulting in low conductivity. The optimal conductivity (5.2 S/cm) of films from dispersions synthesized for 12 h is significantly higher than those from its commercial equivalent Clevios P and other reported values obtained under similar conditions without the addition of codopants. PMID:24782292

  14. Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS treated with formic acid for ITO-free polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mengistie, Desalegn A; Ibrahem, Mohammed A; Wang, Pen-Cheng; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2014-02-26

    We proposed a facile film treatment with formic acid to enhance the conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) by 4 orders of magnitude. The effect of formic acid concentration on conductivity was investigated; conductivity increased fast with increasing concentration up to 10 M and then increased slightly, the highest conductivity being 2050 S cm(-1) using 26 M concentration. Formic acid treated PEDOT:PSS films also exhibited very high transmittances. The mechanism of conductivity enhancement was explored through SEM, AFM, and XPS. Formic acid with its high dielectric constant screens the charge between PEDOT and PSS bringing about phase separation between them. Increased carrier concentration, removal of PSS from the film, morphology, and conformation change with elongated and better connected PEDOT chains are the main mechanisms of conductivity enhancement. ITO-free polymer solar cells were also fabricated using PEDOT:PSS electrodes treated with different concentrations of formic acid and showed equal performance to that of ITO electrodes. The concentrated acid treatment did not impair the desirable film properties as well as stability and performance of the solar cells. PMID:24460075

  15. Au Nanocluster assisted PCE improvement in PEDOT: PSS - Si Hybrid Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manisha; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ayon, Arturo A.

    2015-03-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), a P-type organic polymer is frequently employed in the fabrication of heterojunction p-n solar cell devices due to its proper HOMO-LUMO band gap as well as its tunable conductivity. In this report we describe the incorporation of gold (Au) nanoclusters in the PEDOT:PSS blend and its influence on the power-conversion-efficiency (PCE) on planar silicon (Si) hybrid heterojunction solar cell devices. Specifically, the reference samples without the aforementioned nanoclusters, were measured to exhibit a 6.10% PCE, value that increased to 7.55% upon the addition of the Au nanoclusters. The observed increase in the PCE is attributed to the enhanced electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS films due to the incorporation of the nanoclusters, which is directly reflected in their improved fill factor. It is further theorized that the presence of Au nanoclusters in the insulating PSS layer in the PEDOT:PSS blend have a positive influence in the charge collection effectiveness of the devices produced. Considering that the Au nanoparticles involved in this research exercise had an average size of only 4 nm, it is considered that plasmonic effects did not play a relevant role in the observed PCE improvement.

  16. Improving the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS films by binary secondary doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhengyou; Liu, Congcong; Xu, Jingkun; Jiang, Qinglin; Shi, Hui; Liu, Endou

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the electrical conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films was effectively enhanced by binary secondary doping. Initially, doping with 5 vol.% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) improved the electrical conductivity from 0.3 S cm-1 to 437 S cm-1 and a further increase to 950 S cm-1 was achieved by adding LiClO4. The conductivity value we report here is one of the highest reported for pretreated PEDOT:PSS films. The obtained maximum electrical conductivity is almost 3000 times higher than that shown by pristine PEDOT:PSS films. The increase in the electrical conductivity is ascribed to the synergistic effect of the two dopants. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated the absence of any changes to the chemical structure of PEDOT:PSS. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrate an increased surface roughness and suggest the occurrence of conformational changes of PEDOT chains from the coiled to coil-extended one, which is the key reason for the electrical conductivity enhancement. The pretreatments we propose here are rapid, simple and effective for the large-scale preparation of high-conductivity PEDOT:PSS films. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to sodium polystyrene sulfonate, other polystyrene sulfonate resins, any other medications, or any of the ingredients ... salt substitutes containing potassium or foods that are high in potassium.

  18. Effect of glycerol on retention time and electrical properties of polymer bistable memory devices based on glycerol-modified PEDOT:PSS.

    PubMed

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Junhwan; Kim, Ohyun

    2012-01-01

    The addition of glycerol to Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films affected the bipolar switching characteristics of nonvolatile polymer memory devices (PMDs). Increasing the glycerol/PEDOT:PSS ratio caused increase in the OFF-current of the PMDs, but did not affect the ON-current levels. This result demonstrates that highly-conductive current paths occur in the ON-state. The write-read-erase-read cycle test was operated > 10(5) times. And, the ON-retention time is largely dependent on the glycerol to PEDOT:PSS ratio and annealing temperature. In addition, AFM analysis on the G-PEDOT:PSS films to see how the surface morphology of G-PEDOT:PSS layer influences the retention time properties was carried out. PMID:22524004

  19. Spectroscopic studies on the competitive interaction between polystyrene sodium sulfonate with polycations and the N-tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide surfactant.

    PubMed

    Estrela-Lopis, I; Iturri Ramos, J J; Donath, E; Moya, S E

    2010-01-14

    The interaction of N-tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (TTAB) surfactants with poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (PSS), PSS/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), and PSS/poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) complexes has been studied by means of Raman and IR spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of the polyelectrolyte complexes and of the complexes with TTAB has been established. TTAB molecules bind to single PSS molecules in a coiled liquid-like alkyl configuration up to a molar fraction of 67% in dry state. At higher concentrations, TTAB shows a transition to a crystalline phase. In the case of PSS being complexed with PAH, surfactant binds to PSS with a stoichiometry of 2 molecules of TTAB per sulfonic acid group. Spectroscopic data show that TTAB interacting with PSS/PDADMAC complexes is capable of disassembling this polyelectrolyte complex, but when TTAB interacts with the PSS/PAH complexes this polyelectrolyte pair remains stable. Spectroscopic measurements performed at different humidity showed that dry PSS/PAH complexes display the nu(SO(2)) and nu(s)(SO(3)(-)) bands at positions, which are indicative of the presence of hydrogen bonds between PSS and PAH. Red shifts of these bands when mixing the PSS/PAH complexes with TTAB point to structural rearrangements of the complex when interacting with the surfactant. PMID:19938865

  20. Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells with PEDOT:PSS Back Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount, Michael; Duarte, Fernanda; Paudel, Naba; Yan, Yanfa; Wang, Weining

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar cell is one of the most promising thin film solar cells and its highest efficiency has reached 21%. To keep improving the efficiency of CdTe solar cells, a few issues need to be addressed, one of which is the back contact. The back contact of CdTe solar cells are mostly Cu-base, and the problem with Cu-based back contact is that Cu diffuses into the grain boundary and into the CdS/CdTe junction, causing degradation problem at high temperature and under illumination. To continue improving the efficiency of CdTe/CdS solar cells, a good ohmic back contact with high work function and long term stability is needed. In this work, we report our studies on the potential of conducting polymer being used as the back contact of CdTe/CdS solar cells. Conducting polymers are good candidates because they have high work functions and high conductivities, are easy to process, and cost less, meeting all the requirements of a good ohmic back contact for CdTe. In our studies, we used poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) with different conductivities and compared them with traditional Cu-based back contact. It was observed that the CdTe solar cell performance improves as the conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS increase, and the efficiency (9.1%) is approaching those with traditional Cu/Au back contact (12.5%). Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells with PEDOT:PSS Back Contact.

  1. Indium tin oxide-free polymer solar cells using a PEDOT : PSS/Ag/PEDOT : PSS multilayer as a transparent anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongsheng; Qu, Bo; Ma, Shengbo; Chen, Zhijian; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang

    2012-10-01

    Cost-efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on multilayer poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag(15 nm)/PEDOT : PSS (PAP) as the anode were designed and achieved in this work. Compared with the ITO/PEDOT : PSS (IP) and Ag/PEDOT : PSS (AP) layers, the PAP layer showed acceptable optical transparency and electrical conductivity. The average transmittance (350-650 nm) and sheet resistance of PAP were measured to be 50.7% and 2.3 Ω, respectively. In addition, the PAP layer possessed low roughness characterized by atomic force microscopy. In order to investigate the photovoltaic properties of PSCs based on different anodes, devices with the configuration of PAP anode (or IP, AP anode)/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) : 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM)/LiF/Al were fabricated. The PAP-based device exhibited reasonable photovoltaic behaviour compared with other devices, and the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor and power conversion efficiency were calculated to be 0.61 V, 7.01 mA cm-2, 0.69 and 2.99%, respectively. Therefore, PAP was a viable alternative to sputter-grown ITO electrodes, and cost-effective ITO-free PSCs based on a PAP anode could be realized according to this work.

  2. PSS Parameters Tuning Using Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrahim, M.; Almoula, Zakaria Fadl; Al-Hafid, Hafid

    2008-10-01

    Optimal tuning of power system stabilizer (PSS) parameters using genetic algorithm with single objective function is presented in this paper. A Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system is considered. The main objective of this research paper is to investigate the suitability of genetic algorithm for effective tuning of parameters of the power system stabilizer in a single machine infinite bus system. A conventional speed based lead-lag PSS is used. A simple and effective method of tuning the parameters of PSS is proposed which is posed as an optimization formulation by maximizing the damping of modes of oscillations of the SMIB system over a wide range of loading conditions and different system configurations. It is found that GA based PSS with single objective design shows improved dynamic performance over Conventional PSS over a wide range of operating conditions and different system parameters.

  3. Efficient Crystalline Si/Poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulfonate):Graphene Oxide Composite Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Tang, Zeguo; Ishikawa, Ryo; Gotou, Takuya; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime

    2012-03-01

    Efficient crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction solar cells with conductive poly(ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and graphene oxide (GO) composite are demonstrated using a structure of Ag/PEDOT:PSS/PEDOT:PSS:GO composite/c-Si (100)(ρ: 3-5 Ω.cm)/Al. The power-conversion efficiency η increased to 10.7% under illumination of AM1.5 100 mW/cm2 simulated solar light by adjusting the PEDOT:PSS and GO mixing concentration ratio. The GO addition to conductive PEDOT:PSS suppressed electron recombination and/or promoted the hole current at the anode. The soluble PEDOT:PSS:GO composite is promising as a hole-transporting transparent conducting layer for c-Si photovoltaic applications.

  4. Oxidation effects of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) electrodes on high-performance organic thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Yunseok; Jo, Jeongdai; Choi, Young-Man; Woo, Kyoohee; Kwon, Sin; Kim, Kwang-Young

    2015-06-01

    We adjusted the conductivity of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) electrode and an injection barrier between the PEDOT/PSS source/drain (S/D) electrode and a pentacene semiconductor by adding HAuCl4 to a PEDOT/PSS solution. Gold in the PEDOT/PSS S/D electrode was synthesized by a redox reaction between PEDOT/PSS and Au ions. This reaction enhances the conductivity of the PEDOT/PSS S/D electrodes and reduces the injection barrier between the PEDOT/PSS S/D electrodes and the pentacene semiconductor, and causes the field-effect mobility to increase by about 230%. As such, it is considered a very useful method of making high-performance organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs).

  5. Correlation between the fine structure of spin-coated PEDOT:PSS and the photovoltaic performance of organic/crystalline-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funda, Shuji; Ohki, Tatsuya; Liu, Qiming; Hossain, Jaker; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between the fine structure of spin-coated conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films and the photovoltaic performance of PEDOT:PSS crystalline-Si (PEDOT:PSS/c-Si) heterojunction solar cells. Real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry revealed that there were two different time constants for the formation of the PEDOT:PSS network. Upon removal of the polar solvent, the PEDOT:PSS film became optically anisotropic, indicating a conformational change in the PEDOT and PSS chain. Polarized Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements also indicated that thermal annealing promoted an in-plane π-conjugated Cα = Cβ configuration attributed to a thiophene ring in PEDOT and an out-of-plane configuration of -SO3 groups in the PSS chain with increasing composition ratio of oxidized (benzoid) to neutral (quinoid) PEDOT, Iqui/Iben. The highest power conversion efficiency for the spin-coated PEDOT:PSS/c-Si heterojunction solar cells was 13.3% for Iqui/Iben = 9-10 without employing any light harvesting methods.

  6. Morphology of PEDOT:PSS/SWCNT Composites: Insight into Carbon Nanotube Based Organic Thermoelectric Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etampawala, Thusitha; Tehrani, Mehran; Dadmun, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) loaded poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanocomposites are promising materials as the active layer in organic thermoelectric devices. Improvements in the thermoelectric performance of these nanocomposites have been hampered by the lack of an understanding of the correlation between thermo-electrical performance and morphology. In this study, the morphology of highly conducting single walled CNT/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites were probed by small and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (SANS and USANS respectively) as a function of CNT loading (10wt%, 30wt% and 50wt%,), sonication duration to control the CNT dispersion, and presence and absence of ethylene glycol (EG) in the deposition solution of PEDOT:PSS. The morphology of these composites is currently being correlated to their thermo-electric performance. The SANS and USANS profiles were analyzed with the hierarchical Beaucage model. Further, the USANS data were fit to a two ellipsoidal form factor, which is consistent with the analysis of the USANS data by the Beaucage model and SEM results. These results reveal that the sonication duration and presence of EG effectively de-bundle the CNTs and disperse them in the PEDOT:PSS matrix.

  7. Structural, morphological and optical properties of PEDOT:PSS/QDs nano-composite films prepared by spin-casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najeeb, Mansoor Ani; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Aziz, Fakhra; Ahmad, Zubair; Rafique, Saqib; Wageh, S.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Sulaiman, Khaulah; Touati, Farid; Shakoor, R. A.; Al-Thani, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the structural, morphological and optical properties of the nano-composite of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and quantum dots (QDs). The ZnSe and CdSe QDs have been synthesized, with the aid of Mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), by a colloidal method with an average size of ~5 to 7 nm. QDs have been embedded in PEDOT:PSS using a simple solution processing approach and has been deposited as thin films by spin coating technique. The QDs embedded PEDOT:PSS enhances the light absorption spectra of samples, prominently in terms of absorption intensity which may consequently improve sensitivity of the optoelectronic devices.

  8. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaubroeck, David; De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter; Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert

    2016-07-01

    Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  9. Segmentation of conducting domains in PEDOT:PSS films induced by an additive for conductivity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unuma, Takeya; Yoshikawa, Muneki; Nakamura, Arao; Kishida, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the relationship between the morphology and in-plane conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films made from aqueous dispersions with/without ethylene glycol additive. Nanometer-scale current images of the films obtained using a conductive atomic-force microscope reveal that PEDOT-rich highly conducting domains are segmented into smaller ones — with the total area of these domains being nearly constant — for larger percentages of ethylene glycol leading to higher in-plane conductivities. The in-plane transport mechanism is found to have a strong dependence on the effective thickness of insulating barriers formed by excess PSS between neighboring highly conducting domains.

  10. A dye-sensitized solar cell based on natural photosensitizers and a PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 film as a counter electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Fatemeh; Behjat, Abbas; Khoshroo, Ali R.; Ghoshani, Maral

    2015-02-01

    Poly(3, 4-ethylendioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) mixed with TiO2 nanoparticles (PEDOT:PSS/TiO2) was used as a catalyst for tri-iodide reduction in dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural photosensitizers. A PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 film was coated on a conductive glass substrate by the spin coating method. The solar cells were fabricated, having the PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 film as a counter electrode and Pomegranate juice dye-sensitized TiO2 as an anode. The morphology of PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 films was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was employed to characterize the catalytic activity of the PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 film. Based on the analysis of CV, the enhancements for the electrochemical and photochemical performance of the PEDOT:PSS/TiO2 electrode are attributed to the fact that the dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles in the PEDOT:PSS matrix provide an improved catalytic activity and a facilitated diffusion for tri-iodide ions. The energy conversion efficiency is significantly improved after TiO2 nanoparticle incorporation. This improvement might be attributed to an increase in the counter electrode catalytic activity. The highest efficiency of 0.73% was obtained by using 100 nm TiO2 nanoparticles in the counter electrode.

  11. Improving the performance of perovskite solar cells with glycerol-doped PEDOT:PSS buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-Feng, Li; Chuang, Zhao; Heng, Zhang; Jun-Feng, Tong; Peng, Zhang; Chun-Yan, Yang; Yang-Jun, Xia; Duo-Wang, Fan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of glycerol doping on transmittance, conductivity and surface morphology of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)) (PEDOT:PSS) and its influence on the performance of perovskite solar cells. . The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS is improved obviously by doping glycerol. The maximum of the conductivity is 0.89 S/cm when the doping concentration reaches 6 wt%, which increases about 127 times compared with undoped. The perovskite solar cells are fabricated with a configuration of indium tin oxide (ITO)/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3/PC61BM/Al, where PEDOT:PSS and PC61BM are used as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. The results show an improvement of hole charge transport as well as an increase of short-circuit current density and a reduction of series resistance, owing to the higher conductivity of the doped PEDOT:PSS. Consequently, it improves the whole performance of perovskite solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device is improved from 8.57% to 11.03% under AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2 illumination) after the buffer layer has been modified. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61264002, 61166002, 91333206, and 51463011), the Natural Science Foundation of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 1308RJZA159), the New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0840), the Research Project of Graduate Teacher of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 2014A-0042), and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation from Lanzhou Jiaotong University, China.

  12. Junction formation and current transport mechanisms in hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäckle, Sara; Mattiza, Matthias; Liebhaber, Martin; Brönstrup, Gerald; Rommel, Mathias; Lips, Klaus; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-08-01

    We investigated hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells combining monocrystalline n-type silicon (n-Si) and a highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The build-in potential, photo- and dark saturation current at this hybrid interface are monitored for varying n-Si doping concentrations. We corroborate that a high build-in potential forms at the hybrid junction leading to strong inversion of the n-Si surface. By extracting work function and valence band edge of the polymer from ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, a band diagram of the hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction is presented. The current-voltage characteristics were analyzed using Schottky and abrupt pn-junction models. The magnitude as well as the dependence of dark saturation current on n-Si doping concentration proves that the transport is governed by diffusion of minority charge carriers in the n-Si and not by thermionic emission of majorities over a Schottky barrier. This leads to a comprehensive explanation of the high observed open-circuit voltages of up to 634 mV connected to high conversion efficiency of almost 14%, even for simple planar device structures without antireflection coating or optimized contacts. The presented work clearly shows that PEDOT:PSS forms a hybrid heterojunction with n-Si behaving similar to a conventional pn-junction and not, like commonly assumed, a Schottky junction.

  13. Junction formation and current transport mechanisms in hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Jäckle, Sara; Mattiza, Matthias; Liebhaber, Martin; Brönstrup, Gerald; Rommel, Mathias; Lips, Klaus; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-01-01

    We investigated hybrid inorganic-organic solar cells combining monocrystalline n-type silicon (n-Si) and a highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The build-in potential, photo- and dark saturation current at this hybrid interface are monitored for varying n-Si doping concentrations. We corroborate that a high build-in potential forms at the hybrid junction leading to strong inversion of the n-Si surface. By extracting work function and valence band edge of the polymer from ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, a band diagram of the hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction is presented. The current-voltage characteristics were analyzed using Schottky and abrupt pn-junction models. The magnitude as well as the dependence of dark saturation current on n-Si doping concentration proves that the transport is governed by diffusion of minority charge carriers in the n-Si and not by thermionic emission of majorities over a Schottky barrier. This leads to a comprehensive explanation of the high observed open-circuit voltages of up to 634 mV connected to high conversion efficiency of almost 14%, even for simple planar device structures without antireflection coating or optimized contacts. The presented work clearly shows that PEDOT:PSS forms a hybrid heterojunction with n-Si behaving similar to a conventional pn-junction and not, like commonly assumed, a Schottky junction. PMID:26278010

  14. Thermoelectric Power-Generation Characteristics of PEDOT:PSS Thin-Film Devices with Different Thicknesses on Polyimide Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anno, Hiroaki; Nishinaka, Takahiko; Hokazono, Masahiro; Oshima, Nobuaki; Toshima, Naoki

    2015-06-01

    We fabricated cast films of complexes of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and polystyrene sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS) at various thicknesses, t = 3-20 μm, on flexible polyimide substrates, and studied their thermoelectric properties. We also fabricated in-plane film devices consisting of five couples of PEDOT:PSS and Ag electrodes, measuring their output power characteristics as a function of film thickness. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of a PEDOT:PSS film with a thickness of ˜20 μm on a polyimide substrate were ˜15 μV/K and 500 S/cm, respectively, near room temperature. As the film thickness decreased from ˜10 μm to 3 μm, the electrical conductivity increased remarkably to 1200 S/cm, while the Seebeck coefficient remained almost constant with film thickness. The maximum electric power for an in-plane PEDOT:PSS film device with a thickness of 10 μm was 1.3 μW at Δ T = 100 K. Its open-circuit voltage was 7.3 mV, and its internal resistance was 11 Ω. The measured power-generation characteristics of the film device agreed with values estimated from the dependence of thermoelectric properties on film thickness for PEDOT:PSS films on polyimide substrates. Assuming single PEDOT:PSS legs, defined as the direction of heat transport, we estimated the expected electrical power density at Δ T = 100 K as ˜650 μW/cm2 for a film thickness t = 10 μm, and 1400 μW/cm2 for t = 3 μm.

  15. Lorenz number of conducting PEDOT:PSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojia; Coates, Nelson; Segalman, Rachel; Cahill, David

    2014-03-01

    The electronic thermal conductivity is related to the electrical conductivity through the Wiedemann-Franz law (WFL), which predicts that the ratio of the electronic thermal conductivity to the electrical conductivity is proportional to the absolute temperature. The WFL has been validated for various materials; however, deviations may arise under certain circumstances, in which the relaxation times for the electrical and thermal processes are not identical. In this work, we investigate the Lorenz number, the proportionality factor in the WFL, of conjugated polymers. We prepare samples made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) with tunable electrical conductivity. The in-plane electrical resistivity is characterized with setups of both 4-point probe and Van der Pauw configurations. To determine the thermal conductivity along the same direction as that for the electrical resistivity, we measure the through-plane thermal conductivity of the cross section of PEDOT:PSS using time-domain thermoreflectance. The effects of anisotropy and inhomogeneity on the thermal conductivity of PEDOT:PSS are also examined. This work is supported by AFOSR MURI FA9550-12-1-0002.

  16. Characterization of free-standing PEDOT:PSS/iron oxide nanoparticle composite thin films and application as conformable humidity sensors.

    PubMed

    Taccola, Silvia; Greco, Francesco; Zucca, Alessandra; Innocenti, Claudia; Fernández, César de Julián; Campo, Giulio; Sangregorio, Claudio; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2013-07-10

    In this study, a new simple, fast, and inexpensive technique for the preparation of free-standing nanocomposite ultrathin films based on the conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and embedding iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is presented. These nanofilms were fabricated by a single step of spin-coated assisted deposition in conjunction with a release technique ("supporting layer technique") to detach them from the substrate. Free-standing nanofilms can be easily transferred onto several substrates due to their high conformability, preserving their functionalities. The effect of the addition of iron oxide nanoparticles on the structural and functional properties of the PEDOT:PSS nanofilms is investigated through topography, thickness, magnetic, magneto-optical activity, and conductivity characterizations. PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS/iron oxide NP nanofilms were tested as resistive humidity sensors. Their sensitivity to humidity was found to increase with increasing nanoparticle concentration. On the basis of these results, it is expected that these composites may furnish inexpensive and reliable means for relative humidity detection. PMID:23802632

  17. Graphene oxide/PEDOT:PSS composite hole transport layer for efficient and stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Seok-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a graphene oxide (GO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) composite as a promising candidate for the practical application of a 2-D carbonaceous hole transport layer (HTL) to planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) consisting of a transparent electrode/HTL/perovskite/fullerene/metal electrode. Both the insulating properties of GO and the non-uniform coating of the transparent electrode with GO cause the poor morphology of perovskite induced low power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.4%. On the other hand, PeSCs with a GO/PEDOT:PSS composite HTL, exhibited a higher PCE of 9.7% than that of a device fabricated with conventional PEDOT:PSS showing a PCE of 8.2%. The higher performance is attributed to the decreased series resistance (RS) and increased shunt resistance (RSh). The well-matched work-function between GO (4.9 eV) and PEDOT:PSS (5.1 eV) probably results in more efficient charge transport and an overall decrease in RS. The existence of GO with a large bandgap of ~3.6 eV might induce the effective blocking of electrons, leading to an increase of RSh. Moreover, improvement in the long-term stability under atmospheric conditions was observed.

  18. A highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) film with the solvent bath treatment by dimethyl sulfoxide as cathode for polymer tantalum capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaopin; Wang, Xiuyu; Li, Mingxiu; Chen, Tongning; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Qiang; Ding, Bonan; Liu, Yanpeng

    2016-06-01

    The highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films were prepared on porous tantalum pentoxide surface as cathode for polymer tantalum capacitors (PTC). The electrical performances of PTC with PEDOT:PSS films as cathode were optimized by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) bath treatment. With the DMSO-bath treatment of PTC, the equivalent series resistance (ESR) of PTC decreased from 25 mΩ to 9 mΩ. The ultralow ESR led to better capacitance-frequency performance. The device reliability investigation revealed the enhanced environmental stability of PTC. The enhanced performances were attributed to the conductivity improvement of PEDOT:PSS cathode films and the removal of excess PSS from PEDOT:PSS films.

  19. Sulfonated polyphenylene polymers

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, Christopher J.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hickner, Michael A.

    2007-11-27

    Improved sulfonated polyphenylene compositions, improved polymer electrolyte membranes and nanocomposites formed there from for use in fuel cells are described herein. The improved compositions, membranes and nanocomposites formed there from overcome limitations of Nafion.RTM. membranes.

  20. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes as a suspension and as an oral powder for suspension to take by mouth. The suspension ... evenly.If you are taking sodium polystyrene sulfonate powder by mouth, mix the powder with 20 to ...

  1. Sensitive and selective turn-on fluorescence method for cetyltrimethylammonium bromide determination based on acridine orange-polystyrene sulfonate complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hao, Xia; Kang, Bei Hua; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2016-06-01

    This work proposed a rapid and novel fluorescence-sensing system using a complex of acridine orange (AO) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) to sensitively recognize and monitor cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in an aqueous medium. AO can interact with PSS and a complex is formed via electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction. The fluorescence of AO is greatly quenched after the introduction of PSS. Upon its subsequent addition, CTAB can interact and form a complex with PSS because the electrostatic attraction between CTAB and PSS is much stronger than that between AO and PSS, which results in significant fluorescence recovery. Interestingly, the proposed method can be applied for the discrimination and detection of surfactants with different hydrocarbon chain lengths due to their different binding affinity toward PSS. The detection limit for CTAB is as low as 0.2 µg/mL and the linear range is from 0.5 to 3.5 µg/mL. Moreover, we applied the sensor to the successful detection of CTAB in water samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26646302

  2. Thermoelectric Properties and Thermal Stability of PEDOT:PSS Films on a Polyimide Substrate and Application in Flexible Energy Conversion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokazono, Masahiro; Anno, Hiroaki; Toshima, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the flexibility and thermal stability of films consisting of a complex of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSS) cast onto a polyimide substrate. We also prepared a PEDOT:PSS-based flexible device for thermoelectric energy conversion. The thermal stability of a PEDOT:PSS film was evaluated by measuring the Seebeck coefficient ( S) and electrical conductivity ( σ) for 30 heating and cooling cycles at 330 K to 380 K. Furthermore, the durability of the PEDOT:PSS film was examined by heating at 353 K in air for 4000 h. The approximate values of S and σ were 14 μV K-1 and 600 S cm-1, respectively. These values were almost the same before and after repeated bending treatments (10,000 times, radius of curvature 10 mm). In addition, the S and σ values for the PEDOT:PSS film were nearly constant during the heating cycle treatments. In the durability test, σ gradually decreased with increasing heating time (7% at 300 h, 17% at 3600 h). Thus, it was found that PEDOT:PSS films have both flexibility and mechanical toughness as well as relatively good thermal stability in air up to 3600 h. The maximum electric power for the PEDOT:PSS-based flexible device was 0.334 μW at Δ T = 100 K. These results for the power-generating properties of the flexible device are consistent with values calculated from the properties of the constituent materials.

  3. Electrical and Morphological Properties of Inkjet Printed Pedot/PSS Films

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, E.; Ginley, D.

    2005-01-01

    Organic solar cells and LEDs are becoming more popular because their low cost materials, potential manufacturability, and recent gains in efficiency make them feasible for widespread commercialization in the near future. One significant manufacturing problem, especially for OLEDs, is the cost associated with creating patterned devices with spatially non-specific deposition methods such as spincoating. Inkjet printing can remove this problem. In recent years, inkjet printed polyethylene(3,4-dioxythiophene)/ polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT/PSS) has been incorporated into many organic devices to help charge transfer, but there has not been much research regarding the effect of different printing parameters on the electrical and morphological film properties. In this work, an atomic force microscope, four point probe, and Kelvin probe were used to study the effects of printing parameters on roughness, conductivity and workfunction. Inkjet printed PEDOT films were also compared to spincoated films to determine how the polymer deposition method affects the above properties. Generally, inkjet printing created rougher but more conductive films with a smaller workfunction. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the workfunction of PEDOT films could be tuned over a range of about 0.5 V by changing the solvent mixture or substrate surface pretreatment. All additives to the as received PEDOT/PSS suspension caused the workfunction to decrease. It was discovered that workfunction decreases as printing voltage increases, but the trend reverses after annealing the films. This phenomenon suggests that when DMSO interacts with PEDOT, the workfunction changes. Finally, the results support previous publications suggesting that DMSO increases conductivity through a screening effect and also by changing the distribution of PEDOT and PSS in the film.

  4. Humidity Sensor Based on PEDOT:PSS and Zinc Stannate Nano-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Shahid; Chang, Dong Eui; Doh, Yang Hoi; Kang, Chul Ung; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2015-10-01

    A composite of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and zinc stannate (ZnSnO3) has been introduced for impedance-based humidity sensing, owing to its high sensitivity, good stability, very fast response (˜0.2 s) and recovery time (˜0.2 s), small hysteresis, repeatability, low-cost fabrication and wide range of sensitivity. Both materials were mixed in three different weight percentage ratios, to optimize the performance of the sensors. Best response was observed for 5 wt.% PEDOT:PSS and 5 wt.% ZnSnO3. The impedance of the sensor was dropped immensely from 1.5 MΩ to 50 kΩ by changing relative humidity from 0% to 90%. The reason for this improvement in sensitivity was analyzed by virtue of sensing mechanisms and different characterizations (three dimensional (3D) nano-profiler, optical microscope, and fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy) revealing the surface morphology and chemical structure of the film. Due to its response and ability to sense human breath and skin humidity, it is suitable for environmental, artificial skin and food industry applications.

  5. Low Work-function Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene): Poly(styrene sulfonate) as Electron-transport Layer for High-efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Lie; Hu, Xiaotian; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Yiwang

    2015-08-01

    Low-work-function poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) modified with polyethylenimine (PEIE) was used as an electron transport layer (ETL) for polymer solar cells (PSCs). A thin layer of PEIE film was spin-coated onto the surface on the PEDOT:PSS films, thus substantially changing their charge selectivity from supporting hole transport to supporting electron transport. It was also found that the PEDOT:PSS/PEIE ETL exhibited higher interfacial contact, a more favorable active morphology, and improved charge mobility. By virtue of these beneficial properties, inverted PSCs based on low-bandgap semiconducting photoactive layers achieved a notably improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.94%, superior even to the corresponding performance of devices with only a ZnO layer. Surpassing our expectations, compared with the extreme degradation of device stability observed when pure PEDOT:PSS is used, PEIE-modified PEDOT:PSS can considerably suppress device degradation because of the hydrophobic and alkaline nature of PEIE, which not only reduces the hygroscopicity of the PEDOT:PSS but also neutralizes the acidic PEDOT:PSS and thus prevents the corrosion of the ITO cathode. These results demonstrate the potential of PEIE-modified PEDOT:PSS for use as an efficient ETL in commercial printed electronic devices.

  6. Low Work-function Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene): Poly(styrene sulfonate) as Electron-transport Layer for High-efficient and Stable Polymer Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Lie; Hu, Xiaotian; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Yiwang

    2015-01-01

    Low-work-function poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) modified with polyethylenimine (PEIE) was used as an electron transport layer (ETL) for polymer solar cells (PSCs). A thin layer of PEIE film was spin-coated onto the surface on the PEDOT:PSS films, thus substantially changing their charge selectivity from supporting hole transport to supporting electron transport. It was also found that the PEDOT:PSS/PEIE ETL exhibited higher interfacial contact, a more favorable active morphology, and improved charge mobility. By virtue of these beneficial properties, inverted PSCs based on low-bandgap semiconducting photoactive layers achieved a notably improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.94%, superior even to the corresponding performance of devices with only a ZnO layer. Surpassing our expectations, compared with the extreme degradation of device stability observed when pure PEDOT:PSS is used, PEIE-modified PEDOT:PSS can considerably suppress device degradation because of the hydrophobic and alkaline nature of PEIE, which not only reduces the hygroscopicity of the PEDOT:PSS but also neutralizes the acidic PEDOT:PSS and thus prevents the corrosion of the ITO cathode. These results demonstrate the potential of PEIE-modified PEDOT:PSS for use as an efficient ETL in commercial printed electronic devices. PMID:26239868

  7. Modification of conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS layer by SWCNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araźna, Aneta; Janeczek, Kamil; Futera, Konrad; Koziol, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of addition of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on the morphological properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as the surface roughness evaluation by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The spin-coated films of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS with addition of SWNTs (0.5 % by wt.) on glass were compared in our study. Experimental results show that surface roughness of PEDOT:PSS layers increases after addition SWNTs to the solution - from 3.50 nm for the samples without SWNTs to 4.65 nm for the samples with SWNTs. The analysis of SEM images showed that there are some agglomerations of SWNTs on the surface of PEDOT:PSS/SWCNT composite film.

  8. A Hamiltonian Model of Generator With AVR and PSS Parameters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jing.; Zeng, Yun.; Zhang, Lixiang.; Xu, Tianmao.

    Take the typical thyristor excitation system including the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) and the power system stabilizer (PSS) as an example, the supply rate of AVR and PSS branch are selected as the energy function of controller, and that is added to the Hamiltonian function of the generator to compose the total energy function. By proper transformation, the standard form of the Hamiltonian model of the generator including AVR and PSS is derived. The structure matrix and damping matrix of the model include feature parameters of AVR and PSS, which gives a foundation to study the interaction mechanism of parameters between AVR, PSS and the generator. Finally, the structural relationships and interactions of the system model are studied, the results show that the relationship of structure and damping characteristic reflected by model consistent with practical system.

  9. Characterization of Piezoresistive PEDOT:PSS Pressure Sensors with Inter-Digitated and Cross-Point Electrode Structures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jer-Chyi; Karmakar, Rajat Subhra; Lu, Yu-Jen; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The piezoresistive characteristics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) pressure sensors with inter-digitated (IDE) and cross-point electrode (CPE) structures have been investigated. A small variation of the resistance of the pressure sensors with IDE without bottom indium-tin-oxide (b-ITO) film and with CPE structures was observed owing to the single carrier-conducting pathway. For the IDE pressure sensors with b-ITO, the piezoresistive characteristics at low and high pressure were similar to those of the pressure sensors with IDE without b-ITO and with CPE structures, respectively, leading to increased piezoresistive pressure sensitivity as the PEDOT:PSS film thickness decreased. A maximum sensitivity of more than 42 kΩ/Pa was achieved. When the normal pressure was applied, the increased number of conducting points or the reduced distance between the PEDOT oligomers within the PEDOT:PSS film resulted in a decrease of the resistance. The piezoresistive pressure sensors with a single carrier-conducting pathway, i.e., IDE without b-ITO and CPE structures, exhibited a small relaxation time and a superior reversible operation, which can be advantageous for fast piezoresistive response applications. PMID:25569756

  10. PEDOT:PSS Interfaces Support the Development of Neuronal Synaptic Networks with Reduced Neuroglia Response In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cellot, Giada; Lagonegro, Paola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Scaini, Denis; Fabbri, Filippo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Prato, Maurizio; Salviati, Giancarlo; Ballerini, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The design of electrodes based on conductive polymers in brain-machine interface technology offers the opportunity to exploit variably manufactured materials to reduce gliosis, indeed the most common brain response to chronically implanted neural electrodes. In fact, the use of conductive polymers, finely tailored in their physical-chemical properties, might result in electrodes with improved adaptability to the brain tissue and increased charge-transfer efficiency. Here we interfaced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) doped with different amounts of ethylene glycol (EG) with rat hippocampal primary cultures grown for 3 weeks on these synthetic substrates. We used immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined to single cell electrophysiology to assess the biocompatibility of PEDOT:PSS in terms of neuronal growth and synapse formation. We investigated neuronal morphology, density and electrical activity. We reported the novel observation that opposite to neurons, glial cell density was progressively reduced, hinting at the ability of this material to down regulate glial reaction. Thus, PEDOT:PSS is an attractive candidate for the design of new implantable electrodes, controlling the extent of glial reactivity without affecting neuronal viability and function. PMID:26834546

  11. PEDOT/PSS-Halloysite Nanotubes (HNTs) Hybrid Films: Insulating HNTs Enhance Conductivity of the PEDOT/PSS Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hu; Zhang, Ping; Li, Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Bing

    2015-12-01

    We have for the first time found that completely insulating Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) significantly enhance electrical conductivity of PEDOT/PSS films by simply mixing. Based on this accident finding we have created highly porous and conductive PEDOT/PSS films hybridized with the HNTs. Through further optimization of the mixing condition we have obtained flexible and conductive hybrid films with high specific surface area. Based on experimental evidences we proposed a plausible mechanism of the phenomenon where the PEDOT/PSS colloidal particle with particle size of several tens nanometers well pack at the nano-channels into well-ordered structures of PEDOT/PSS particles, which show conductivity as higher as several order of magnitude than that of PEDOT/PSS particles in outside of the HNTs.

  12. PEDOT/PSS-Halloysite Nanotubes (HNTs) Hybrid Films: Insulating HNTs Enhance Conductivity of the PEDOT/PSS Films.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hu; Zhang, Ping; Li, Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    We have for the first time found that completely insulating Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) significantly enhance electrical conductivity of PEDOT/PSS films by simply mixing. Based on this accident finding we have created highly porous and conductive PEDOT/PSS films hybridized with the HNTs. Through further optimization of the mixing condition we have obtained flexible and conductive hybrid films with high specific surface area. Based on experimental evidences we proposed a plausible mechanism of the phenomenon where the PEDOT/PSS colloidal particle with particle size of several tens nanometers well pack at the nano-channels into well-ordered structures of PEDOT/PSS particles, which show conductivity as higher as several order of magnitude than that of PEDOT/PSS particles in outside of the HNTs. PMID:26686395

  13. PEDOT/PSS-Halloysite Nanotubes (HNTs) Hybrid Films: Insulating HNTs Enhance Conductivity of the PEDOT/PSS Films

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hu; Zhang, Ping; Li, Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    We have for the first time found that completely insulating Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) significantly enhance electrical conductivity of PEDOT/PSS films by simply mixing. Based on this accident finding we have created highly porous and conductive PEDOT/PSS films hybridized with the HNTs. Through further optimization of the mixing condition we have obtained flexible and conductive hybrid films with high specific surface area. Based on experimental evidences we proposed a plausible mechanism of the phenomenon where the PEDOT/PSS colloidal particle with particle size of several tens nanometers well pack at the nano-channels into well-ordered structures of PEDOT/PSS particles, which show conductivity as higher as several order of magnitude than that of PEDOT/PSS particles in outside of the HNTs. PMID:26686395

  14. Improved performance of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(stylene sulfonate)/n-Si hybrid solar cell by incorporating silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Ishwor; Liu, Qiming; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime

    2014-11-01

    We report an enhancement in the efficiency of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(stylene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/n-Si hybrid solar cell by incorporating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with PEDOT:PSS. AgNPs were prepared by reducing silver nitrate in green-tea solution, which showed characteristic absorption peak due to the surface plasmonic resonance effect. AgNPs incorporated PEDOT:PSS/n-Si hybrid device shows power conversion efficiency (η) of 10.21%, which is comparatively higher to the performance of pristine device without AgNPs. Here, we noticed that incorporation of AgNPs decreases sheet resistance and enlarged surface roughness of PEDOT:PSS film for the efficient collection of charges, rather than plasmonic effect.

  15. Robust co-ordinated AVR-PSS design

    SciTech Connect

    Law, K.T.; Hill, D.J. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering); Godfrey, N.R. )

    1994-08-01

    This paper considers the design of auto-voltage regulator (AVR) and power system stabilizer (PSS) for the case of single machine connected to the infinite bus. Although it is not a true representation of the real power system, it is hoped that the insights into the single machine can help in the design of AVR-PSS for multi-machine power systems. The framework of Internal Model Control (IMC) is used to explore the properties and structures of an ideal AVR and an ideal PSS. Although these ideal controllers are not implementable in practice, they provide valuable insights and understanding of the design constraints of the problem which help to lead them to an implementable sub-optimal solution. This resulting AVR-PSS is not only robust but it also allows direct trade-off between voltage regulation and damping performance. The proposed PSS is a merely proportional gain, hence it gives considerable promise for ease of tuning especially in a multimachine system. This paper is a summary of a series of work done on robust co-ordinated AVR-PSS design. In particular, due to limited space, details of robust tuning and analysis techniques will not be presented here.

  16. Patterning PEDOT:PSS with Parylene Peel-off Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Seiichi; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    We have developed and characterized a technique of patterning PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate) film with a Parylene peel-off method. PEDOT:PSS has characteristics of transparency and high conductivity which are expected to replace transparent ITO (indium tin oxide) electrodes for flat panel displays. But existing technology of inkjet printing decreased its conductivity by mixing a binder, while the other method with electrochemical etching could not completely remove PEDOT:PSS film. To solve these problems, we proposed a process which consisted of negative patterning of Parylene film, coating of PEDOT:PSS and peeling off of Parylene film with the undesired-area of PEDOT:PSS. To peel off the Parylene from the substrates, the control of heating process of PEDOT:PSS under Parylene glass transition temperature was found to be required. The proposed process revealed that the conductivity was almost the same even after the process and its resolution reached down to 20 μm. Finally, the 300-μm-wide electrodes were fabricated through the process, which leads to replacement of ITO for displays.

  17. Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing pyridine moiety for PEMFC.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hohyoun; Islam, Md Monirul; Lim, Youngdon; Hossain, Md Awlad; Cho, Younggil; Joo, Hyunho; Kim, Whangi; Jeon, Heung-Seok

    2014-10-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s with varied degree of sulfonation (DS) were prepared via post-sulfonation of synthesized pyridine based poly(ether sulfone) (PPES) using concentrated sulfuric acid as sulfonating agent. The DS was varied with different mole ratio of 4,4'-(2,2-diphenylethenylidene)diphenol, DHTPE in the polymer unit. PPES copolymers were synthesized by direct polycondensation of pyridine unit with bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-sulfone, 4, 4'-sulfonyldiphenol and DHTPE. The structure of the resulting PPES copolymer membranes with different sulfonated units were studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymer with water. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity were evaluated according to the increase of DS. The water uptake (WU) of the resulting membranes was in the range of 17-58%, compared to that of Nafion 211 28%. The membranes provided proton conductivities of 65-95 mS/cm in contrast to 103 mS/cm of Nafion 211. PMID:25942869

  18. Interaction between cationic surfactant of 1-methyl-3-tetradecylimidazolium bromide and anionic polymer of sodium polystyrene sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Kang, Wenpei; Sun, Dezhi; Liu, Jie; Wei, Xilian

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between long-chain imidazolium ionic liquid (C14mimBr) and anionic polyelectrolyte of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) has been studied using surface tension, isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scatting (DLS) and conductance methods. The result shows that the surface tension plots have a pronounced hump in the surface tension at surfactant concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the surfactant. The cooperative adsorption of surfactant and polymer on the surface (PSS) and the formation of polymer/surfactant aggregate in bulk solution (PSM) provide a rational explanation about it. The formation of surfactant/polymer complexes is affected by the concentration of the surfactant or NaPSS, which is also ascertained by ITC and DLS measurements. Further, the thermodynamic parameters are derived from calorimetric titration and conductance curves, and the effects of polymer concentration and temperature on the parameters are evaluated in detail.

  19. Super-fast switching of liquid crystals sandwiched between highly conductive graphene oxide/dimethyl sulfate doped PEDOT:PSS composite layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yifan; Oh, Byeong-Yun; Seo, Dae-Shik; Li, Xiangdan

    2016-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)-doped dimethyl sulfate (DMS)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) superconductive alignment layer, aligning liquid crystals (LCs) with super switching and non-residual direct current (non-residual DC) performance, is presented in this manuscript. Doping of GO increased the pristine polar energy of a thin composite layer as well as the corresponding anchoring energy of the LCs sandwiched between these thin layers but only slightly affected the thin layers' morphology. When rubbed GO/DMS/PEDOT:PSS composite layers were used as alignment layers, a homogeneous alignment of nematic LCs was observed with competitive optoelectrical switching properties and non-residual DC performance because of the enhanced field effect and charge transport induced by the doped GO.

  20. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS and Tellurium-PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Composites by Simple Chemical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jin Bae, Eun; Hun Kang, Young; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Yun Cho, Song

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and tellurium-PEDOT:PSS (Te-PEDOT:PSS) hybrid composites were enhanced via simple chemical treatment. The performance of thermoelectric materials is determined by their electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. Significant enhancement of the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites from 787.99 and 11.01 to 4839.92 and 334.68 S cm−1, respectively was achieved by simple chemical treatment with H2SO4. The power factor of the developed materials could be effectively tuned over a very wide range depending on the concentration of the H2SO4 solution used in the chemical treatment. The power factors of the developed thermoelectric materials were optimized to 51.85 and 284 μW m−1 K−2, respectively, which represent an increase of four orders of magnitude relative to the corresponding parameters of the untreated thermoelectric materials. Using the Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites, a flexible thermoelectric generator that could be embedded in textiles was fabricated by a printing process. This thermoelectric array generates a thermoelectric voltage of 2 mV using human body heat. PMID:26728992

  1. Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS and Tellurium-PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Composites by Simple Chemical Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin Bae, Eun; Hun Kang, Young; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Yun Cho, Song

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and tellurium-PEDOT:PSS (Te-PEDOT:PSS) hybrid composites were enhanced via simple chemical treatment. The performance of thermoelectric materials is determined by their electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient. Significant enhancement of the electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS and Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites from 787.99 and 11.01 to 4839.92 and 334.68 S cm-1, respectively was achieved by simple chemical treatment with H2SO4. The power factor of the developed materials could be effectively tuned over a very wide range depending on the concentration of the H2SO4 solution used in the chemical treatment. The power factors of the developed thermoelectric materials were optimized to 51.85 and 284 μW m-1 K-2, respectively, which represent an increase of four orders of magnitude relative to the corresponding parameters of the untreated thermoelectric materials. Using the Te-PEDOT:PSS hybrid composites, a flexible thermoelectric generator that could be embedded in textiles was fabricated by a printing process. This thermoelectric array generates a thermoelectric voltage of 2 mV using human body heat.

  2. Probing the PEDOT:PSS/cell interface with conductive colloidal probe AFM-SECM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, P.; Zhang, H.; Kranz, C.; Wallace, G. G.; Higgins, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Conductive colloidal probe Atomic Force-Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (AFM-SECM) is a new approach, which employs electrically insulated AFM probes except for a gold-coated colloid located at the end of the cantilever. Hence, force measurements can be performed while biasing the conductive colloid under physiological conditions. Moreover, such colloids can be modified by electrochemical polymerization resulting, e.g. in conductive polymer-coated spheres, which in addition may be loaded with specific dopants. In contrast to other AFM-based single cell force spectroscopy measurements, these probes allow adhesion measurements at the cell-biomaterial interface on multiple cells in a rapid manner while the properties of the polymer can be changed by applying a bias. In addition, spatially resolved electrochemical information e.g., oxygen reduction can be obtained simultaneously. Conductive colloid AFM-SECM probes modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) are used for single cell force measurements in mouse fibroblasts and single cell interactions are investigated as a function of the applied potential.Conductive colloidal probe Atomic Force-Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (AFM-SECM) is a new approach, which employs electrically insulated AFM probes except for a gold-coated colloid located at the end of the cantilever. Hence, force measurements can be performed while biasing the conductive colloid under physiological conditions. Moreover, such colloids can be modified by electrochemical polymerization resulting, e.g. in conductive polymer-coated spheres, which in addition may be loaded with specific dopants. In contrast to other AFM-based single cell force spectroscopy measurements, these probes allow adhesion measurements at the cell-biomaterial interface on multiple cells in a rapid manner while the properties of the polymer can be changed by applying a bias. In addition, spatially resolved electrochemical

  3. Surface adsorption of sulfonated poly(phenylene sulfone)/C14TAB mixtures and its correlation with foam film stability.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Martin; Miller, Reinhard; Klitzing, Regine von

    2016-07-21

    Polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures of rigid monosulfonated poly(phenylene sulfone) (sPSO2-220) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C14TAB) were investigated by surface tension, surface elasticity and foam film stability measurements. The results were compared to former measurements of polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures containing more flexible polyelectrolytes (PAMPS or PSS and C14TAB). For all polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures an increased surface adsorption in comparison to the pure surfactant was detected. Moreover, sPSO2-220/C14TAB mixtures showed a much higher surface activity and foam film stability than mixtures with more flexible polyelectrolytes. The results presented give insight into the surface adsorption and foam film formation of rigid polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures. Therefore, this study helps to understand the role of polyelectrolyte backbone rigidity in the formation and stabilization of foam films made from polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures. PMID:27338310

  4. Inkjet printed PEDOT:PSS for organic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arjun; Mandal, Saumen; Singh, Vandana; Garg, Ashish; Katiyar, Monica

    2012-10-01

    Printing technology is a low cost technique for the processing of organic electronic devices. Here, we report printing characteristics of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), typically used as hole injection/transport layer in various organic devices e.g. organic light emitting diodes, solar cells, and field effect transistors. In this work, we optimize drop spacing and substrate temperature during ink-jet printing of PEDOT:PSS films on rigid (glass) and flexible (PET) substrates. Morphological characterization of the films was performed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Optical transmittance was measured using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and sheet resistance of the films was measured using four-point probe technique. We find that substrate temperature and drop spacing significantly affect the morphology, in our case decreasing these lead to smooth morphology of the ink-jet printed PEDOT-PSS films.

  5. Thermal behavior of polyelectrolyte multilayer microcapsules: 2. Insight into molecular mechanisms for the PDADMAC/PSS system.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Karen; Möhwald, Helmuth; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2006-11-30

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer capsules consisting of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) were used as a model system to study the temperature-dependent behavior of polyelectrolyte multilayer films in aqueous media. Shells terminated with PSS shrink upon heating, whereas PDADMAC-terminated ones swell, independent of the nature of the first layer, as measured by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Elemental analysis shows that the initial exponential layer growth of the film leads to a nearly neutral overall charge in the first case or a high positive excess charge in the latter. Depending on this overall charge either surface tension, due to an unfavorable polymer-solvent interaction, or electrostatics dominates, resulting in a shrinkage or expansion of capsules, respectively. Thus, it is possible to swell temperature-shrunk capsules by coating them with an additional PDADMAC layer. Micro-DSC measurements prove that polyelectrolyte multilayers undergo a glass transition in water at which the wall material softens, allowing the rearrangements to occur. It is found that the thermal history has an influence on the temperature behavior of capsules, especially on those ones terminated with PDADMAC. Also, the molecular weight of the polyelectrolytes affects the rearrangement of capsules. The lower the molecular weight and thus the smaller the entanglement of chains, the easier polyelectrolytes can rearrange. PMID:17125370

  6. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As...

  7. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As...

  8. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As...

  9. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As...

  10. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As...

  11. Preparation of conductive PDDA/(PEDOT:PSS) multilayer thin film: influence of polyelectrolyte solution composition.

    PubMed

    Jurin, F E; Buron, C C; Martin, N; Filiâtre, C

    2014-10-01

    Self-assembled multilayer films made of PEDOT:PSS poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) and PDDA poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) were prepared using layer-by-layer method. In order to modify the growth regime of the multilayer, to fabricate an electrical conductive film and to control its thickness, the effects of pH, type of electrolyte, ionic strength and polyelectrolyte concentration were investigated. Optical reflectometry measurements show that the pH of the solutions has no effect on the film growth while the adsorbed amount increases more rapidly when BaCl2 is used instead of NaCl as electrolyte. An increase in the ionic strength (with NaCl) induces a change in the growth regime from a linear to an exponential one at low polyelectrolyte concentration. As UV-vis measurements indicate, no decomplexation of PEDOT was recorded after film preparation. With polyelectrolyte concentration below 1 g L(-1), no conductive films were obtained even if 50 bilayers were deposited. A conductive film was prepared with a polyelectrolyte concentration of 1 g L(-1) and the measured conductivity was 0.3 S m(-1). A slight increase in conductivity was recorded when BaCl2 was used probably due to a modification of the film structure. PMID:24984072

  12. Sulfonated Poly(styrene) Chains Grafted on Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yang; Yevelev, Anton; Parra, Javier; Akcora, Pinar; Stevens Institute of Technology Team

    2014-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with poly(styrene) (PS) chains at various grafting densities and loadings present stable and ordered nanostructures for tuning the mechanical and conductive properties in polymer composites. Strings, spherical and anisotropic clusters and well-dispersed particles are achieved with PS-grafted Fe3O4 nanoparticles in PS matrices upon varying the system parameters. In this work, we report the effect of sulfonic group locations on the aggregation state of polymer-grafted nanoparticles. Structures formed by the random and diblock copolymers of PS-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) grafted particles will be discussed with small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements in solution and melts. The conformational changes in PS-grafted chains and ion-containing grafts will be also presented in small-angle neutron-scattering (SANS) results to understand the role of polymer on the assembly of particles at the low grafting density. We acknowledge support by NSF-CAREER-DMR (#1048865).

  13. A novel composite material of graphene and PEDOT:PSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, C. S.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, R.

    2016-05-01

    A novel composite material has been prepared by using graphene and Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). It shows excellent electrical conductivity and transparency in visible region. The conductivity is enhanced and the films are highly transparent more than 80% in entire visible region. The highly transparent composite material can be used in optoelectronic devices.

  14. Solution-processed highly conductive PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/GO transparent film for efficient organic-Si hybrid solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiaojing; Song, Tao; Cui, Wei; Liu, Yuqiang; Xu, Weidong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Sun, Baoquan

    2015-02-11

    Hybrid solar cells based on n-Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene- sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) heterojunction promise to be a low cost photovoltaic technology by using simple device structure and easy fabrication process. However, due to the low conductivity of PEDOT:PSS, a metal grid deposited by vacuum evaporation method is still required to enhance the charge collection efficiency, which complicates the device fabrication process. Here, a solution-processed graphene oxide (GO)-welded silver nanowires (AgNWs) transparent conductive electrode (TCE) was employed to replace the vacuum deposited metal grid. A unique "sandwich" structure was developed by embedding an AgNW network between PEDOT:PSS and GO with a figure-of-merit of 8.6×10(-3) Ω(-1), which was even higher than that of sputtered indium tin oxide electrode (6.6×10(-3) Ω(-1)). A champion power conversion efficiency of 13.3% was achieved, because of the decreased series resistance of the TCEs as well as the enhanced built-in potential (Vbi) in the hybrid solar cells. The TCEs were obtained by facile low-temperature solution process method, which was compatible with cost-effective mass production technology. PMID:25599588

  15. Sulfonated Polyamide Based IPMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Il-Seok; Bae, Chulsung; Jo, Tae Soo; Truong, Justina; Kim, Sang-Mun; Kim, Kwang J.; Yim, Woosoon; Lee, Joon-Soo

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we introduce a newly developed Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) family that is manufactured using a novel ionic exchange membrane-a randomly sulfonated fluoropoly(ether amide) (TFIPA-90)-as the base material. The thermal behavior and mechanical properties of the ionic polymer were probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Electrochemical properties and the actuation performance of the TFIPA-90 based IPMCs were also investigated in this study. The stiffness of the TFIPA polymer was significantly higher than that of Nafion® and much noted at high temperatures (>100 oC). The thermal behavior of the TFIPA polymer also showed better stability than Nafion(R) at high temperatures due to the more rigid chemical structure of the ionomer. As an actuator, a new IPMC prepared from TFIPA-90 showed improved performance with rapid response time to the electric field and a large bending displacement. The TFIPA-based IPMC may be useful for microwave-driven robotic applications.

  16. Thermal stability of sulfonated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Audibert, A.; Argillier, J.F.

    1995-11-01

    Polyacrylamides which are used in oil applications i.e. polymer flooding and water based muds, are hydrolyzed versus time and temperature. This leads to a lack of tolerance towards electrolyte contamination and to a rapid degradation inducing a loss of their properties. Modifications of polyacrylamide structure have been proposed to postpone their thermal stability to higher temperatures. Monomers such as acrylamido methylpropane sulfonate (AMPS) or sulfonated styrene/maleic anhydride can be used to prevent acrylamide comonomer from hydrolysis. The aim of this work is to study under controlled conditions, i.e. anaerobic atmosphere, neutral pH, the stability of sulfonated polymers in order to distinguish between hydrolysis and radical degradation reactions. It has been observed that up to 100 C, the AMPS group is stable and protects the acrylamide function from hydrolysis up to 80%. At higher temperature, even the hydrolysis of the AMPS group occurs, giving acrylate and {beta},{beta} dimethyl taurine, with a kinetics that depends on temperature and time. Degradation in terms of molecular weight then occurs indicating that it follows a radical decarboxylation reaction. It can be limited either by the use of free radical scavenger or when the polymer is in the presence of a mineral phase such as bentonite. These results provide valuable data for the determination of the limits of use of sulfonated copolymers and guidelines for optimizing chemical structure of sulfonated polymers used in water based formulation, in particular to enhance their thermal stability.

  17. Improved Thermoelectric Properties of PEDOT:PSS Nanofilms Treated with Oxalic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Congcong; Shi, Hui; Xu, Jingkun; Jiang, Qinglin; Song, Haijun; Zhu, Zhengyou

    2015-06-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) nanofilms were prepared by a simple spin-coating method. The thermoelectric properties of PEDOT:PSS nanofilms were improved by treatment with different concentrations of oxalic acid at 140°C. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS nanofilms can be improved from 0.48 to over 800 S cm-1, that is, by a factor of more than 1600 higher than for untreated PEDOT:PSS films. The Seebeck coefficient of the PEDOT:PSS nanofilms decreases slightly and the electrical conductivity increases. The maximum power factor of PEDOT:PSS nanofilms is up to 6.96 μW m-1 K-2. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were conducted to characterize the PEDOT:PSS nanofilms.

  18. Influence of group composition of sulfonic acids on properties of sulfonate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Katrenko, T.I.; Bessonova, R.N.; Kuznetsova, M.G.; Potolovskii, L.A.

    1983-05-01

    Three types of sulfonic acids are formed in sulfonation of petroleum oils-- oil-soluble, oil-insoluble, and water-soluble. This study investigates the influence of the different acids on neutral calcium sulfonates. Samples are recovered from As-14 oil. Oil-insoluble synthesis failed. Water-soluble acid did synthesize with a mix of oil- and water-soluble sulfonates. Neutral calcium sulfonates synthesized from oil-soluble had good properties, from oil-insoluble, bad properties. Oil-insoluble sulfonate also has an inverse effect on cleanup, and it interferes with carbonation. These findings will help with improvements in the sulfonate additive manufacturing process.

  19. Drilling fluids based on a mixture of a sulfonated thermoplastic polymer and a sulfonated elastomeric polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.R.; Lundberg, R.D.; Peiffer, D.G.; Thaler, W.A.; Walker, T.O.

    1984-01-10

    The present invention relates to mixtures of sulfonated thermoplastic polymers and sulfonated elastomeric polymers which function as viscosification agents when added to oil-based drilling muds which are the fluids used to maintain pressure, cool drill bits, and lift cuttings from the holes in the drilling operation for oil and gas wells. The sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers both have about 5 to about 200 meq. of sulfonate groups per 100 grams of the sulfonated thermoplastic or elastomeric polymers, wherein the sulfonated groups are neutralized with a metallic cation or an amine or ammonium counterion. A polar cosolvent can optionally be added to the mixture of oil drilling mud and sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymers, wherein the polar cosolvent increases the solubility of the sulfonated thermoplastic and elastomeric polymer in the oil drilling mud by decreasing the strong ionic interactions between the sulfonate groups of the sulfonated polymers.

  20. A way for studying the impact of PEDOT:PSS interface layer on carrier transport in PCDTBT:PC71BM bulk hetero junction solar cells by electric field induced optical second harmonic generation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Zubair; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Taguchi, Dai; Sulaiman, Khaulah; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-04-01

    Electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement was employed to study the impact of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) interface layer on the carrier transport mechanism of the PCDTBT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). We revealed that the electric fields in the PCDTBT and PC71BM were allowed to be measured individually by choosing fundamental laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 1060 nm, respectively, in dark and under illumination. The results showed that the direction of the internal electric fields in the PCDTBT:PC71BM BHJ layer is reversed by introducing the PEDOT:PSS layer, and this results in longer electron transport time in the BHJ layer. We conclude that TR-EFISHG can be used as a novel way for studying the impact of interfacial layer on the transport of electrons and holes in the bulk-heterojunction OSCs.

  1. Phycotoxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, G.; Viswanathan, P.N.; Devi, S.

    1988-04-01

    Dose- and time-dependent effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate, a major component of synthetic detergent, to the blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum, were studied under laboratory conditions. Toxicity was evident, at doses above 0.001%, from the decrease in biomass, heterocyst number, and protein content and pathomorphological alterations.

  2. p-Chlorophenyl methyl sulfone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Chlorophenyl methyl sulfone ; CASRN 98 - 57 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  3. Influence of salt and rinsing protocol on the structure of PAH/PSS polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Feldötö, Zsombor; Varga, Imre; Blomberg, Eva

    2010-11-16

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and dual polarization interferometry (DPI) have been utilized to study how the structure of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) multilayers is affected by the rinsing method (i.e., the termination of polyelectrolyte adsorption). The effect of the type of counterions used in the deposition solution was also investigated, and the polyelectrolyte multilayers were formed in a 0.5 M electrolyte solution (NaCl and KBr). From the measurements, it was observed that thicker layers were obtained when using KBr in the deposition solution than when using NaCl. Three different rinsing protocols have been studied: (i) the same electrolyte solution as used during multilayer formation, (ii) pure water, and (iii) first a salt solution (0.5 M) and then pure water. When the multilayer with PAH as the outermost layer was exposed to pure water, an interesting phenomenon was discovered: a large change in the energy dissipation was measured with the QCM. This could be attributed to the swelling of the layer, and from both QCM and DPI it is obvious that only the outermost PAH layer swells (to a thickness of 25-30 nm) because of a decrease in ionic strength and hence an increase in intra- and interchain repulsion, whereas the underlying layers retain a very rigid and compact structure with a low water content. Interestingly, the outermost PAH layer seems to obtain very similar thicknesses in water independent of the electrolyte used for the multilayer buildup. Another interesting aspect was that the measured thickness with the DPI evaluated by a single-layer model did not correlate with the estimated thickness from the model calculations performed on the QCM-D data. Thus, we applied a two-layer model to evaluate the DPI data and the results were in excellent agreement with the QCM-D results. To our knowledge, this evaluation of DPI data has not been done previously. PMID:20886835

  4. Effect of alcohol vapor treatment on electrical and optical properties of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) films for indium tin oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahzadeh, Ali; Saghaei, Jaber; Yousefi, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-11-01

    A simple alcohol vapor treatment (AVT) technique was proposed to improve the conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films. In this technique, various alcohols, i.e. methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol and ethylene glycol, were applied to treat the surface of the films formed and then they were annealed. The sheet resistance of PEDOT:PSS films was significantly reduced from 130 kΩ/sq to 60 Ω/sq when treated with methanol vapor. The investigation of the vertical resistance of the films showed that the sample treated with methanol vapor displayed the lowest resistance as well. The mechanism of conductivity enhancement of PEDOT:PSS films through AVT method was explained by surface phase images, UV and IR spectra of PEDOT:PSS films. Optical transmittance spectrum of treated films exhibited that AVT has even enhanced the optical transmittance slightly. Improvement in the morphology, electrical and optical properties of PEDOT:PSS films prompted their applications as a transparent anode in the fabrication of ITO-free organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The OLED manufactured based on methanol-treated PEDOT:PSS films demonstrated the highest luminance.

  5. A Durable Alternative for Proton-Exchange Membranes: Sulfonated Poly(Benzoxazole Thioether Sulfone)s

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Dan; Li, Jin Hui; Song, Min Kyu; Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Meilin

    2011-02-24

    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s ( SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid–base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25°C to 90°C and excellent thermal stability up to 250°C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80°C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications.

  6. Multiple congenital PSS in a dog: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Jessica J; Kim, Stanley E; Reese, David J; Risselada, Marije; Ellison, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    A 4 yr old spayed female mixed-breed dog presented with a 2 yr history of recurring increases in liver enzymes. Two congenital portosystemic shunts (PSSs) were identified using computed tomography (CT) angiography, which included a portoazygous and portorenal extrahepatic shunt. Double right renal veins were also identified. The shunts were successfully identified and attenuated with cellophane banding. Multiple congenital PSS is a rare phenomenon, but should be considered during exploratory laparotomy for PSS and in dogs with poor response to surgical attenuation of a single PSS. CT proved to be a crucial part of accurate diagnosis and surgical planning for this dog with multiple congenital PSS. PMID:23690491

  7. Dynamic response of a vehicle with planar suspension system (PSS) under differential braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian Jun; Khajepour, Amir; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    To absorb the vibrations and shocks caused by road obstacles effectively in any direction within the wheel rotation plane, a planar suspension system (PSS), in which there are spring-damper struts in both the vertical and longitudinal directions, is proposed to improve the ride quality of a vehicle with such novel suspension systems. The longitudinal spring-damper strut in a PSS is considerably soft compared with the longitudinal connection in a conventional suspension. Consequently, the wheels in a vehicle with PSS can move forth and back with respect to the body. The dynamic behaviours of a PSS vehicle under some special conditions, such as a differential braking in which the braking torque applied to the wheels at two sides of an axle are uneven, may exhibit special characteristics. The directional stability of the PSS vehicle in such a case may be one of the major concerns. The dynamic performance of the PSS vehicle in the differential braking condition is thus necessary to be investigated. This paper presents the investigation results of the transient response of a vehicle with the PSS in such a case. The simulation results are also compared with those of a similar vehicle with conventional suspensions. The study demonstrates that the PSS vehicle is directionally stable in differential braking conditions. The dynamic behaviour of the PSS vehicle is generally comparable with that of a conventional vehicle.

  8. Transparent and conductive PEDOT:PSS/Ag NW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films prepared by spin-coating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingqing, Yue; Jinliang, Yan; Delan, Meng

    2015-12-01

    PEDOT:PSS/Ag NW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were deposited on PET substrates by the spin coating technique at room temperature. The optical transmittance, sheet resistance, crystallization and surface morphology were characterized by using the double beam spectrophotometer, Hall effect system, X-ray diffractometer and field emission scanning electron microscopy. XRD patterns of the hybrid films display characteristic diffraction peaks of Ag (111) and Ag (200), and the Ag NW networks have a polycrystalline structure with a Ag (111) preferred orientation. A high transmittance of 83.95% at the 550 nm wavelength and a low sheet resistance of 21.98 Ω/□ are achieved for 3-PEDOT:PSS/5-Ag NW/3-PEDOT:PSS hybrid films. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10974077), and the Innovation Project of Shandong Graduate Education, China (No. SDYY13093).

  9. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    DOEpatents

    Mays, Jimmy W.; Gido, Samuel P.; Huang, Tianzi; Hong, Kunlun

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  10. Hybrid Si nanocones/PEDOT:PSS solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianxiong; Rusli, ᅟ

    2015-04-01

    Periodic silicon nanocones (SiNCs) with different periodicities are fabricated by dry etching of a Si substrate patterned using monolayer polystyrene (PS) nanospheres as a mask. Hybrid Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells based on the SiNCs are then fabricated and characterized in terms of their optical, electrical, and photovoltaic properties. The optical properties of the SiNCs are also investigated using theoretical simulation based on the finite element method. The SiNCs reveal excellent light trapping ability as compared to a planar Si substrate. It is found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the hybrid cells decreases with increasing periodicity of the SiNCs. The highest PCE of 7.1% is achieved for the SiNC hybrid cell with a 400-nm periodicity, due to the strong light trapping near the peak of the solar spectrum and better current collection efficiency.

  11. Model Calibration of Exciter and PSS Using Extended Kalman Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Huang, Zhenyu

    2012-07-26

    Power system modeling and controls continue to become more complex with the advent of smart grid technologies and large-scale deployment of renewable energy resources. As demonstrated in recent studies, inaccurate system models could lead to large-scale blackouts, thereby motivating the need for model calibration. Current methods of model calibration rely on manual tuning based on engineering experience, are time consuming and could yield inaccurate parameter estimates. In this paper, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used as a tool to calibrate exciter and Power System Stabilizer (PSS) models of a particular type of machine in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). The EKF-based parameter estimation is a recursive prediction-correction process which uses the mismatch between simulation and measurement to adjust the model parameters at every time step. Numerical simulations using actual field test data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in calibrating the parameters.

  12. Conductivity of PEDOT:PSS on Spin-Coated and Drop Cast Nanofibrillar Cellulose Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtakari, Dimitar; Liu, Jun; Kumar, Vinay; Xu, Chunlin; Toivakka, Martti; Saarinen, Jarkko J.

    2015-10-01

    Aqueous dispersion of conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was deposited on spin-coated and drop cast nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC)-glycerol (G) matrix on a glass substrate. A thin glycerol film was utilized on plasma-treated glass substrate to provide adequate adhesion for the NFC-glycerol (NFC-G) film. The effects of annealing temperature, the coating method of NFC-G, and the coating time intervals on the electrical performance of the PEDOT:PSS were characterized. PEDOT:PSS on drop cast NFC-G resulted in 3 orders of magnitude increase in the electrical conductivity compared to reference PEDOT:PSS film on a reference glass substrate, whereas the optical transmission was only slightly decreased. The results point out the importance of the interaction between the PEDOT:PSS and the NFC-G for the electrical and barrier properties for thin film electronics applications.

  13. Study on quality control of sulfated polysaccharide drug, propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS).

    PubMed

    Xue, Yi-Ting; Ren, Li; Li, Shuang; Wang, Lin-Lin; He, Xiao-Xi; Zhao, Xia; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi; Li, Chun-Xia

    2016-06-25

    The combination of biological and chemical analysis methods was developed to improve quality control of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide drug. The allergic and anticoagulant assays revealed that PSS fractions with higher Mw and lower M/G ratio may have allergic response and bleeding risks. HPLC with pre-column derivatization, HPGPC and IC methods were combined to analyze 10 batches of PSS samples from different manufacturers. The results showed that the quality of these PSSs varied greatly which in turn led to the unstable anticoagulant activity and side effects. The study indicated that PSS with high purity, M/G ratio above 1.5, Mw of ∼9kD and DS of 9.0-13.0% can ensure clinical efficacy and low incidence of adverse drug reactions. In conclusion, the combined methods would be in favor of guiding manufacture and quality control of PSS to guarantee its effectiveness and safety. PMID:27083824

  14. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Martin C.; Hofmann, Ulrike; Moeder, Monika; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn) within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ), which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants. PMID:26147966

  15. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Martin C; Hofmann, Ulrike; Moeder, Monika; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn) within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ), which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants. PMID:26147966

  16. Role of electroless nickel diffusion barrier on the combinatorial plating characteristics of dense Pd/Ni/PSS composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, Murali; Agarwal, Amrita; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

    2014-06-01

    This work addresses the combinatorial plating characteristics of dense Pd/Ni/porous stainless steel (PSS) composite membranes in comparison with Pd/PSS membranes. While Pd/PSS membranes were fabricated using 0.1 μm nominal pore size PSS supports, Pd/Ni/PSS membranes were fabricated using 0.5 and 0.1 μm nominal pore size PSS supports. Both Ni and Pd films were deposited using an identified novel electroless plating process that characterizes the optimal utilization of surfactant, sonication and reducing agent contacting pattern in Pd electroless plating baths. It was observed that the combinatorial plating characteristics for Pd/Ni/PSS membranes were significantly different and poorer in comparison with those obtained for the Pd/PSS membranes. In summary, it has been inferred that the introduction of nickel interdiffusion barrier was not fruitful to reduce the critical thickness of dense Pd film without jeopardizing upon the pore densification.

  17. Direct catalytic olefination of alcohols with sulfones.

    PubMed

    Srimani, Dipankar; Leitus, Gregory; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2014-10-01

    The synthesis of terminal, as well as internal, olefins was achieved by the one-step olefination of alcohols with sulfones catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex. Furthermore, performing the reaction with dimethyl sulfone under mild hydrogen pressure provides a direct route for the replacement of alcohol hydroxy groups by methyl groups in one step. PMID:25163718

  18. Optical and electroluminescent properties of a number of new derivatives of divinyl dibenzothiophene sulfone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhto, A. V.; Kopylova, T. N.; Gadirov, R. M.; Degtyarenko, K. N.; Nikonova, E. N.; Solodova, T. A.; Kukhto, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of four new bipolar linear derivatives of divinyl dibenzothiophene sulfone are studied. It is found that amorphous films of solutions, as well as films of the compounds under study in the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) matrix, have a rather high quantum yield of photoluminescence in the blue and blue-green spectrum regions. Bright blue electroluminescence is obtained in the samples with a structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/TPD/OC/LiF/Al using vacuum deposition of the compounds under study and in the single-layer ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:OC/LiF/Al structure when applied from the solution with a threshold voltage of 2.5-3.5 V. The influence of a molecule structure on the spectra and quantum yield of fluorescence as well as on the electroluminescent properties of the compounds is shown. Results of quantum-chemical calculations in the context of the density functional theory of the structure and characteristics of main molecular orbitals are presented.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing mesonaphthobifluorene for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youngdon; Seo, Dongwan; Lee, Soonho; Hossain, Md Awlad; Lim, Jinseong; Lee, Sangyoung; Hong, Taehoon; Kim, Whangi

    2014-10-01

    The novel sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing mesonaphthobifluorene (MNF) moiety were synthesized and characterized their properties. The prepared polymers have highly conjugated aromatic structure due to the MNF group which is an allotrope of carbon and one atom thick planar sheets of sp2-bonded carbon atoms. Poly(ether sulfone)s bearing tetraphenylethylene on polymer backbone were synthesized by polycondensation and followed intra-cyclization from tetraphenylethylene to form MNF by Friedel-craft reaction with Lewis acid (FeCl3). The sulfonation was performed selectively on MNF units with conc. sulfuric acid. The structural properties of the sulfonated polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied by ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, and proton conductivity. The synthesized polymer electrolyte membranes showed better thermal and dimensional stabilities owing to the inducted highly conjugated aromatic structure in the polymer backbone. The water uptake of the synthesized membranes ranged from 23-52%, compared with 32.13% for Nafion 211 at 80 degrees C. The synthesized membranes exhibited proton conductivities (80 degrees C, RH 90%) of 74.6-100.4 mS/cm, compared with 102.7 mS/cm for Nafion 211. PMID:25942900

  20. Correlating electronic structure and chemical durability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jimmy; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Many different proton-conducting polymeric materials have been developed for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The development of perfluorosulfonic acid-based, polymer electrolyte membranes (PFSA-PEMs) was followed by aromatic hydrocarbon-based PEMs (HC-PEMs), which allow for tailored design and optimization of their molecular structures. Although many new PFSA-PEMs and HC-PEMs have shown promising proton conductivity and thermal stability, chemical degradation of these materials in an oxidizing environment remains a significant technical barrier in PEMFC development. Here, we used accelerated degradation tests and electronic structure analysis to examine the chemical stability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) copolymers, a highly thermally stable HC-PEM. HOMO levels, the presence of main chain-protecting steric groups, and HOMO-LUMO location along the main chain have significant effects on the chain scission modes and degradation rate of SPES copolymers. Rational design of HC-PEMs to suppress midpoint scission can open many opportunities in the development of highly robust polymer electrolytes for fuel cell and other energy storage applications.

  1. Psychometric properties of a European Spanish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS).

    PubMed

    Remor, Eduardo

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents evidence from a heterogeneous sample of 440 Spanish adults, for the reliability and validity of a European Spanish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), designed to measure the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The European Spanish version PSS (14-item) demonstrated adequate reliability (internal consistency, alpha = .81, and test-retest, r = .73), validity (concurrent), and sensitivity. Additional data indicate adequate reliability (alpha = .82, test-retest, r = .77), validity, and sensitivity of a 10-item short version of the PSS. PMID:16673626

  2. Influence of solvent treatment with fluoro compounds on the properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) polymer as a hole transport layer in polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Palanisamy; Kumar, Abhirami; Shin, Paik-Kyun; Ochiai, Shizuyasu

    2014-01-01

    We prepared high conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) by solvent additives for using as a hole transport layer (HTL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs). PEDOT:PSS films treated with fluoro compounds of hexafluoroacetone (HFA) and hexafluoroisoproponal (HFIPA) with various concentrations show a significant enhancement in electrical conductivity without compromising optical transparency. The conductivity increased from 0.2 to 1053 and 746 S/cm after 4 vol. % HFA and 6 vol. % HFIPA treatments, respectively. The high performance of the PEDOT:PSS layer is attributed to preferential phase segregation of PEDOT:PSS with HFA and HFIPA solvent mixture treatment methods. The improved performance of PSC was dependent on the structure of organic solvents and the concentration of fluoro compounds in PEDOT:PSS solution. Using these optimized layers, conjugated PSCs with a poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5 thiophenediyl] polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl esters (PCDTBT:PC71BM) bulk heterojunction have been produced. The high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.10% and 3.98% were observed for PEDOT:PSS films treated with 4 vol. % HFA and 6 vol. % HFIPA treatments, respectively. The obtained results show that PEDOT:PSS optimized with HFA and HFIPA organic solvents can be a very promising candidate for transparent anode buffer layer in the low cost organic solar cell devices.

  3. Mild oxygen plasma treated PEDOT:PSS as anode buffer layer for vacuum deposited organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yunfei; Yuan, Yongbo; Lian, Jiarong; Zhang, Jie; Pang, Hongqi; Cao, Lingfang; Zhou, Xiang

    2006-08-01

    The surface morphology of PEDOT:PSS after mild oxygen plasma treatment were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nanometer-scale islands on the surface of treated PEDOT:PSS were observed. Vacuum deposited organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with treated PEDOT:PSS as anode buffer layer had been fabricated. The OLEDs with an appropriately treated PEDOT:PSS as anode buffer layer exhibited significantly enhanced lifetime and decreased driving voltage. The results suggest that the appropriate mild oxygen plasma treatment of PEDOT:PSS layers may be useful for the improvement of the interface with the hole transport layer and enhanced device performance.

  4. PEDOT:PSS as multi-functional composite material for enhanced Li-air-battery air electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Dae Ho; Yoon, Seon Hye; Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Park, Yong Joon

    2016-01-01

    We propose PEDOT:PSS as a multi-functional composite material for an enhanced Li-air-battery air electrode. The PEDOT:PSS layer was coated on the surface of carbon (graphene) using simple method. A electrode containing PEDOT:PSS-coated graphene (PEDOT electrode) could be prepared without binder (such as PVDF) because of high adhesion of PEDOT:PSS. PEDOT electrode presented considerable discharge and charge capacity at all current densities. These results shows that PEDOT:PSS acts as a redox reaction matrix and conducting binder in the air electrode. Moreover, after cycling, the accumulation of reaction products due to side reaction in the electrode was significantly reduced through the use of PEDOT:PSS. This implies that PEDOT:PSS coating layer can suppress the undesirable side reactions between the carbon and electrolyte (and/or Li2O2), which causes enhanced Li-air cell cyclic performance.

  5. PEDOT:PSS as multi-functional composite material for enhanced Li-air-battery air electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Ho; Yoon, Seon Hye; Ryu, Kwang-Sun; Park, Yong Joon

    2016-01-01

    We propose PEDOT:PSS as a multi-functional composite material for an enhanced Li-air-battery air electrode. The PEDOT:PSS layer was coated on the surface of carbon (graphene) using simple method. A electrode containing PEDOT:PSS-coated graphene (PEDOT electrode) could be prepared without binder (such as PVDF) because of high adhesion of PEDOT:PSS. PEDOT electrode presented considerable discharge and charge capacity at all current densities. These results shows that PEDOT:PSS acts as a redox reaction matrix and conducting binder in the air electrode. Moreover, after cycling, the accumulation of reaction products due to side reaction in the electrode was significantly reduced through the use of PEDOT:PSS. This implies that PEDOT:PSS coating layer can suppress the undesirable side reactions between the carbon and electrolyte (and/or Li2O2), which causes enhanced Li-air cell cyclic performance. PMID:26813852

  6. CO2 Gas Transport Property of Sulfonated Poly(Arylenen Ether Sulfone) Copolymer Membrane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Jin; Kim, Deuk Ju; Nam, Sang Yong

    2015-03-01

    The effect of functional groups such as sulfuric acid group and metal ions on the CO2 gas transport property of membranes was investigated. Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) was prepared by direct copolymerization with a non-sulfonated monomer and sulfonated monomer. The sulfonation degree of SPAES was controlled from 0 to 50%. Metal ions such as lithium and sodium were substituted for the protons of the -SO3H group. The thermal properties, microstructure of polymer chains, and the permeability and selectivity of membranes were evaluated. The solubility coefficient of CO2 gas increased with an increase in sulfonation degree. But the diffusivity was largely decreased and the CO2/N2 selectivity of the membrane substituted for metal ions was increased. PMID:26413703

  7. Enhanced optical and electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS/Gold nanocomposite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thappily, Praveen; Shiju, K.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we report modification of the electrical and optical properties of widely used transparent conducting polymer, PEDOT:PSS by the incorporation of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) synthesized using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. The variation of workfunction of the PEDOT:PSS with Au Nanoparticles content is investigated and it has been seen that the work function of PEDOT:PSS can be tuned by incorporating nanoparticles. Further the optical absorption of the composite is found to be increasing considerably in the visible region. It has been demonstrated that there exists an optimum weight percentage of Au NPs for the composite formation with highest workfunction and enhanced light absorption in the visible region than pristine PEDOT:PSS.

  8. Charge injection and accumulation in organic light-emitting diode with PEDOT:PSS anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Martin; Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-04-01

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays using flexible substrates have many attractive features. Since transparent conductive oxides do not fit the requirements of flexible devices, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative. The charge injection and accumulation in OLED devices with PEDOT:PSS anodes are investigated and compared with indium tin oxide anode devices. Higher current density and electroluminescence light intensity are achieved for the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode. The electric field induced second-harmonic generation technique is used for direct observation of temporal evolution of electric fields. It is clearly demonstrated that the improvement in the device performance of the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode is associated with the smooth charge injection and accumulation.

  9. Solution-processed PEDOT:PSS/graphene composites as the electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Yuan, Wenjing; Yao, Bowen; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2014-03-12

    Composites of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been prepared by solution mixing and applied as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) after treatment with concentrated H2SO4. The blending of rGO induces the conformational change of PEDOT chains from benzoid to quionoid structure and charge transfer from rGO to PEDOT. H2SO4 post-treatment can remove part of insulating PSS from the surface of the PEDOT:PSS/rGO composite film, resulting in a significant conductivity enhancement of the composite. This synergistic effect makes the H2SO4-treated PEDOT:PSS/rGO composite a promising catalyst for ORR. It exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity, better tolerance to a methanol crossover effect and CO poisoning, and longer durability than those of the platinum/carbon catalyst. PMID:24456474

  10. Improved electrospinning processing of PU/PEDOT:PSS for electronic textile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evke, Erin; Clippinger, Aaron; Spackman, Clayson; Samuel, Johnson; Ozisik, Rahmi

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(4-styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, is an electrically conductive polymer used in electronic textile (e-textile) applications, such as eletrochromic textiles, strain sensors, and resistive heaters. In the current study, PEDOT:PSS is blended with varying concentrations of polyurethane (PU) to investigate the flexibility of PU/PEDOT:PSS fibers that are produced via a modified electrospinning process where the jet is collected close to the tip of the needle, thereby, enabling the collection of straight fibers by a rotating spool. The electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of PU/PEDOT:PSS fibers are characterized to understand the effect of PU concentration and the processing parameters. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730.

  11. Screening for PTSD in motor vehicle accident survivors using the PSS-SR and IES.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Scott F; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Beck, J Gayle; Palyo, Sarah A; Miller, Luana

    2006-02-01

    The current study compares the total scores of two potential posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening tools, the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and the PTSD Symptom Scale, Self-Report (PSS-SR), to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) in a large sample of motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors (N = 229, of whom 43% met criteria for PTSD). For the IES using a cutoff score of 27, sensitivity was .91, specificity was .72, and overall correct classification was .80. For the PSS-SR using a cutoff score of 14, sensitivity was .91, specificity was .62, and overall correct classification was .74. Compared to those in studies of other trauma populations, the identified IES cutoff score is somewhat lower for this population of MVA survivors and the identified PSS-SR cutoff score is consistent with previous findings. These data support the use of the IES and the PSS-SR as PTSD screening tools in MVA samples. PMID:16568464

  12. Charge injection and accumulation in organic light-emitting diode with PEDOT:PSS anode

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, Martin; Otsuka, Takako; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-04-21

    Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays using flexible substrates have many attractive features. Since transparent conductive oxides do not fit the requirements of flexible devices, conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been proposed as an alternative. The charge injection and accumulation in OLED devices with PEDOT:PSS anodes are investigated and compared with indium tin oxide anode devices. Higher current density and electroluminescence light intensity are achieved for the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode. The electric field induced second-harmonic generation technique is used for direct observation of temporal evolution of electric fields. It is clearly demonstrated that the improvement in the device performance of the OLED device with a PEDOT:PSS anode is associated with the smooth charge injection and accumulation.

  13. Soft and flexible PEDOT/PSS films for applications to soft actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuechen; Tanigawa, Ryo; Okuzaki, Hidenori

    2014-07-01

    Stretchable and highly conductive PEDOT/PSS/Xyl films were prepared by casting an aqueous dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) as colloidal gel particles containing xylitol (Xyl) and subsequent heating. The electrical conductivity of the PEDOT/PSS/Xyl film containing 50 wt% of xylitol significantly increased from 115 S cm-1 to 407 S cm-1 by heating at 140 °C in air for 1 h. It was found that the xylitol had two functions as (i) a plasticizer to weaken hydrogen bonds between PSS of colloidal particles by replacing with that between xylitol and PSS and (ii) the additional capability of increasing the mobility of charge carriers between the colloidal particles. The transparent ionic liquid/polyurethane (IL/PU) gels were fabricated by dissolving thermoplastic polyurethane and ionic liquid of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. By increasing the IL content from 0 wt% to 70 wt%, both ionic conductivity and electric-double-layer capacitance under an electric field increased, while Young’s modulus, strength and elongation at break decreased. The IL/PU/PEDOT/PSS/Xyl composites were fabricated by sandwiching the IL/PU gel between two soft and flexible PEDOT/PSS/Xyl films. Upon application of 2 V, the IL/PU/PEDOT/PSS/Xyl composite (IL = 70%) showed quick and intensive bending toward anode, where the bending displacement at 0.1 Hz attained 2.9 mm, corresponding to the strain of 0.15%, and still worked at frequencies higher than 50 Hz.

  14. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, James E.; Park, Ho Bum; Freeman, Benny D.

    2011-10-04

    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  15. Enhanced charge transport in highly conducting PEDOT-PSS films after acid treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, V. Akshaya; Bhatia, Ravi; Menon, Reghu

    The high electrical conductivity, good stability, high strength, flexibility and good transparency of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS), make it useful for many applications including polymeric anodes for organic photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, flexible electrodes, supercapacitors, electrochromic devices, field-effect transistors and antistatic-coatings. However, the electrical conductivity of PEDOT-PSS has to be increased significantly for replacement of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices. The as prepared (pristine) PEDOT-PSS film prepared from the PEDOT-PSS aqueous solution usually has conductivity below 1Scm-1, remarkably lower than ITO. Significant conductivity enhancement has been observed on transparent and conductive PEDOT-PSS films after a treatment with inorganic acids. Our study investigates the charge transport in pristine and H2SO4, HNO3, HCl treated PEDOT-PSS films. We have treated the films with various concentrations of acids to probe the effect of the acid treatment on the conduction mechanism. The study includes the measurement of dc and electric field dependent conductivity of films in the temperature range of 4.2K-300K. We have also performed magneto-resistance measurements in the range of 0-5T. An enhancement by a factor of~103 has been observed in the room temperature conductivity. The detailed magneto-transport studies explain the various mechanisms for the conductivity enhancement observed.

  16. Crystal structure of zwitterionic bisimidazolium sulfonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohmoto, Shigeo; Okuyama, Shinpei; Yokota, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kishikawa, Keiki; Masu, Hyuma; Azumaya, Isao

    2012-05-01

    Crystal structures of three zwitterionic bisimidazolium salts 1-3 in which imidazolium sulfonate moieties were connected with aromatic linkers, p-xylylene, 4,4'-dimethylenebiphenyl, and phenylene, respectively, were examined. The latter two were obtained as hydrates. An S-shaped molecular structure in which the sulfonate moiety was placed on the imidazolium ring was observed for 1. A helical array of hydrated water molecules was obtained for 2 while a linear array of hydrated water molecules was observed for 3.

  17. In-situ characterization of electrochromism based on ITO/PEDOT:PSS towards preparation of high performance device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Jin, Wang; Zheng-Fei, Guo; Jing-Yu, Qu; Kun, Pan; Zheng, Qi; Li, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is usually sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) and a functional polymer in order to improve the performance of the device. However, because of the strong acidic nature of PEDOT:PSS, the instability of ITO/PEDOT:PSS interface is also observed. The mechanism of degradation of the device remains is unclear and needs to be further studied. In this article, we investigate the in-situ electrochromism of PEDOT:PSS to disclose the cause of the degradation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the PEDOT:PSS films, as well as the PEDOT:PSS plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) films with and without indium ions. The electrochromic devices (ECD) based on PEDOT:PSS and PEG with and without indium ions are carried out by in-situ micro-Raman and laser reflective measurement (LRM). For comparison, ECD based on PEDOT:PSS and PEG films with LiCl, KCl, NaCl or InCl3 are also investigated by LRM. The results show that PEDOT:PSS is further reduced when negatively biased, and oxidized when positively biased. This could identify that PEDOT:PSS with indium ions from PEDOT:PSS etching ITO will lose dopants when negatively biased. The LRM shows that the device with indium ions has a stronger effect on the reduction property of PEDOT:PSS-PEG film than the device without indium ions. The contrast of the former device is 44%, that of the latter device is about 3%. The LRM also shows that the contrasts of the device based on PEDOT:PSS+PEG with LiCl, KCl, NaCl, InCl3 are 30%, 27%, 15%, and 18%, respectively. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201) and the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (Grant No. 2015LX002).

  18. Effect of PEDOT Nanofibril Networks on the Conductivity, Flexibility, and Coatability of PEDOT:PSS Films.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin Young; Shin, Minkwan; Lee, Jae Bok; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Baik, Hong Koo; Jeong, Unyong

    2014-05-14

    The use of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in electrodes and electrical circuits presents a number of challenges that are yet to be overcome, foremost amongst which are its relatively low conductivity, low coatability on hydrophobic substrates, and decreased conductivity at large strains. With this in mind, this study suggests a simple way to simultaneously address all of these issues through the addition of a small amount of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) to commercial PEDOT:PSS solutions. This surfactant is shown to considerably reduce the surface tension of the PEDOT:PSS solution, thus permitting conformal coatings of PEDOT:PSS thin film on a diverse range of hydrophobic substrates. Furthermore, this surfactant induces the formation of PEDOT nanofibrils during coating, which led to the high conductivity values and mechanical stability at large strains (ε=10.3%). Taking advantage of the superior characteristics of these PEDOT:PSS thin films, a highly flexible polymer solar cell was fabricated. The power conversion efficiency of this solar cell (3.14% at zero strain) was preserved at large strains (ε=7.0%). PMID:24713072

  19. The synthesis and characterization of metal chalcogenide-pedot:pss polymer composites for thermal energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kimberly L.

    This dissertation describes the synthesis and characterization of metal chalcogenide/PEDOT:PSS polymer composites as possible thermoelectric materials for thermal energy conversion; specifically, Te, Bi2Te3, Bi2S3, and Ag2Te. The inorganic materials have high Seebeck coefficients while the PEDOT:PSS has high electrical conductivity. This approach allows for optimization of electrical conductivity of the PEDOT while still maintaining the high Seebeck coefficient of the inorganic materials. XRD analysis confirms the crystallinity of the Te, Bi2S3, and Ag2Te synthesized in the presence of PEDOT:PSS. A detailed spectroscopy study revealed several key findings, which may explain the enhanced electrical conductivity seen in Te/PEDOT:PSS composites. XPS revealed loss of the insulating PSS during the purification process but no loss of the conducting PEDOT. XPS also showed the role the polymer plays as a passivating agent as there was minimal oxidation of the nanowires. UV-Vis/NIR and Raman spectroscopy indicated the remaining PEDOT segments on the polymer to be partially reduced with a benzoid-like conformation. Transport measurements showed ohmic and linear I/V curves at room temperature for all films. The temperature dependent electrical conductivity for all systems was measured from 80 -- 300 K and Mott's VRH model was used to qualitatively determine the hopping mechanism. All systems are consistent with three dimensional VRH. The temperature dependent measurements also showed that these systems were all thermally activated.

  20. Charge and spin transport in PEDOT:PSS nanoscale lateral devices.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thales V A G; Gobbi, Marco; Porro, José M; Hueso, Luis E; Bittner, Alexander M

    2013-11-29

    The electrical transport of the highly conductive poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) is investigated with Ohmic and spin-polarized tunnel contacts at nanoscale lateral dimensions. Temperature-dependent charge transport measurements reveal that electrical conductivity scales non-linearly as a function of electrode spacing, which is attributed to the localization of carriers induced by the disorder introduced by the PSS polyelectrolyte. In addition, we demonstrate the integration of this conducting polymer in nanoscale lateral spin-valve devices by increasing the pH of the PEDOT:PSS solution. We present charge and magnetotransport measurement results of NiFe/AlOx/PEDOT:PSS/AlOx/NiFe lateral structures for various thicknesses of the alumina tunnel barriers. We discuss the absence of magnetoresistance of our spin valves within the framework of Valet-Fert theory, and estimate an upper limit for the spin lifetime of carriers in PEDOT:PSS to τsf ≤ 50 ns. PMID:24177495

  1. Co-ordinated Design of AVR-PSS Using Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvabala, B.; Devaraj, D.

    Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) regulates the generator terminal voltage by controlling the amount of current supplied to the generator field winding by the exciter. Power system stabilizer (PSS) is installed with AVR to damp the low frequency oscillations in power system by providing a supplementary signal to the excitation system. Optimal tuning of AVR controller and PSS parameters is necessary for the satisfactory operation of the power system. When applying tuning method to obtain the optimal controller parameters individually, AVR improves the voltage regulation of the system and PSS improves the damping of the system. Simultaneous tuning of AVR and PSS is necessary to obtain better both voltage regulation and oscillation damping in the system. This paper deals with the optimal tuning of AVR controller and PSS parameters in the synchronous machine. The problem of obtaining the optimal controller parameters is formulated as an optimization problem and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) is applied to solve the optimization problem. The suitability of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through computer simulation in a Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system.

  2. Investigating the chemical mist deposition technique for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) on textured crystalline-silicon for organic/crystalline-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Jaker; Ohki, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Koki; Fujiyama, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Keiji; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Shirai, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    Chemical mist deposition (CMD) of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was investigated in terms of cavitation frequency f, solvent, flow rate of nitrogen, substrate temperature Ts, and substrate dc bias Vs as variables for efficient PEDOT:PSS/crystalline silicon (c-Si) heterojunction solar cells. The high-speed-camera and differential mobility analysis characterizations revealed that the average size and flux of PEDOT:PSS mist depend on f, type of solvent, and Vs. Film deposition occurred when positive Vs was applied to the c-Si substrate at Ts of 30-40 °C, whereas no deposition of films occurred with negative Vs, implying that the film is deposited mainly from negatively charged mist. The uniform deposition of PEDOT:PSS films occurred on textured c-Si(100) substrates by adjusting Ts and Vs. The adhesion of CMD PEDOT:PSS film to c-Si was greatly enhanced by applying substrate dc bias Vs compared with that of spin-coated film. The CMD PEDOT:PSS/c-Si heterojunction solar cell devices on textured c-Si(100) in 2 × 2 cm2 exhibited a power conversion efficiency η of 11.0% with better uniformity of the solar cell parameters. Furthermore, η was increased to 12.5% by adding an AR coating layer of molybdenum oxide MoOx formed by CMD. These findings suggest that CMD with negatively charged mist has great potential for the uniform deposition of organic and inorganic materials on textured c-Si substrates by suitably adjusting Ts and Vs.

  3. Enhanced conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) film by acid treatment for indium tin oxide-free organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Chiao; Huang, Chih-Kuo; Hung, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Mei-Ying

    2016-08-01

    An acid treatment is used in the enhancement of the conductivity of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin film, which is often used as the anode in organic solar cells. There are three types of acid treatment for PEDOT:PSS thin film: hydrochloric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acid treatments. In this study, we examine and compare these three ways with each other for differences in conductivity. Hydrochloric acid results in the highest conductivity enhancement, from 0.3 to 1109 S/cm. We also discuss the optical transmittance, conductivity, surface roughness, surface morphology, and stability, as well as the factors that can influence device efficiency. The devices are fabricated using an acid-treated PEDOT:PSS thin film as the anode. The highest power conversion efficiency was 1.32%, which is a large improvement over that of the unmodified organic solar cell (0.21%). It is comparable to that obtained when using indium tin oxide (ITO) as an electrode, ca. 1.46%.

  4. Direct AFM force measurements between air bubbles in aqueous polydisperse sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) solutions: effect of collision speed, polyelectrolyte concentration and molar mass.

    PubMed

    Browne, Christine; Tabor, Rico F; Grieser, Franz; Dagastine, Raymond R

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between colliding air bubbles in aqueous solutions of polydisperse sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (NaPSS) using direct force measurements were studied. The forces measured with deformable interfaces were shown to be more sensitive to the presence of the polyelectrolytes when compared to similar measurements using rigid interfaces. The experimental factors that were examined were NaPSS concentration, bubble collision velocity and polyelectrolyte molar mass. These measurements were then compared with an analytical model based on polyelectrolyte scaling theory in order to explain the effects of concentration and bubble deformation on the interaction between bubbles. Typically structural forces from the presence of monodisperse polyelectrolyte between interacting surfaces may be expected, however, it was found that the polydispersity in molar mass resulted in the structural forces to be smoothed and only a depletion interaction was able to be measured between interacting bubbles. It was found that an increase in number density of NaPSS molecules resulted in an increase in the magnitude of the depletion interaction. Conversely this interaction was overwhelmed by an increase in the fluid flow in the system at higher bubble collision velocities. Polymer molar mass dispersity plays a significant role in the interactions present between the bubbles and has implications that also affect the polyelectrolyte overlap concentration of the solution. Further understanding of these implications can be expected to play a role in the improvement in operations in such fields as water treatment and mineral processing where polyelectrolytes are used extensively. PMID:25596872

  5. Adsorption mechanism and dispersion efficiency of three anionic additives [poly(acrylic acid), poly(styrene sulfonate) and HEDP] on zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Dange, C; Phan, T N T; André, V; Rieger, J; Persello, J; Foissy, A

    2007-11-01

    Adsorption on ZnO of sodium poly(acrylate) (PAA), sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and a monomer surfactant [hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP)] was investigated in suspensions initially equilibrated at pH 7. Results demonstrate interplay in the adsorption mechanism between zinc complexation, salt precipitation, and ZnO dissolution. In the case of PAA, the adsorption isotherm exhibits a maximum attributed to the precipitation of zinc polyacrylate. PSS and HEDP formed high-affinity adsorption isotherms, but the plateau adsorption of HEDP was significantly lower than that of PSS. The adsorption isotherm of each additive is divided into two areas. At low additive concentration (high zinc/additive ratio), the total zinc concentration in the solution decreased and the pH increased upon addition. At a higher additive ratio, zinc concentration and pH increased with the organic concentration. The increase in pH is due to the displacement of hydroxyl ions from the surface and the increase in zinc concentration results from the dissolution of ZnO due to the complexation of zinc ions by the organics. The stability of the ZnO dispersions was investigated by measurement of the particle size distribution after addition of various amounts of polymers. The three additives stabilized the ZnO dispersions efficiently once full surface coverage was reached. PMID:17720181

  6. Effect of incorporation of ethylene glycol into PEDOT:PSS on electron phonon coupling and conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Ni, Wei-Shih; Lee, Jhe-You

    2015-06-01

    The effect of incorporation of ethylene glycol (EG) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on electron phonon coupling and conductivity is investigated. It is shown that the carrier density (NC) increases significantly and the carrier mobility (μ) increases slightly at 300 K. The increased intensity of the Raman spectrum between 1400 and 1450 cm-1, following EG treatment (that is, the quinoid-dominated structures of the PEDOT chain), leads to an increase in the number of polarons (bipolarons), which leads to an increase in NC. In addition, μ in PEDOT:PSS samples with or without EG addition exhibits a strong temperature dependence, which demonstrates the dominance of tunneling (hopping) at low (high) temperatures. The high conductivity of PEDOT:PSS samples with the addition of EG is attributed to the combined effect of the modification of the electron-phonon coupling and the increase in NC (μ).

  7. Simulation study of sulfonate cluster swelling in ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2009-12-01

    We have performed simulations to study how increasing humidity affects the structure of Nafion-like ionomers under conditions of low sulfonate concentration and low humidity. At the onset of membrane hydration, the clusters split into smaller parts. These subsequently swell, but then maintain constant the number of sulfonates per cluster. We find that the distribution of water in low-sulfonate membranes depends strongly on the sulfonate concentration. For a relatively low sulfonate concentration, nearly all the side-chain terminal groups are within cluster formations, and the average water loading per cluster matches the water content of membrane. However, for a relatively higher sulfonate concentration the water-to-sulfonate ratio becomes nonuniform. The clusters become wetter, while the intercluster bridges become drier. We note the formation of unusual shells of water-rich material that surround the sulfonate clusters.

  8. Highly stable multi-wall carbon nanotubes@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) core-shell composites with three-dimensional porous nano-network for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Chang, Yunzhen; Fu, Dongying; Xiao, Yaoming

    2015-01-01

    A facile and feasible electrochemical polymerization method has been used to construct the multi-wall carbon nanotubes@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (MWCNTs@PEDOT/PSS) core-shell composites with three-dimensional (3D) porous nano-network microstructure. The composites are characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. This special core-shell nanostructure can significantly reduce the ions diffusion distance and the 3D porous nano-network microstructure effectively enlarges the electrode/electrolyte interface. The electrochemical tests including cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests are performed, the results manifest the MWCNTs@PEDOT/PSS core-shell composites have superior capacitive behaviors and excellent cyclic stability, and a high areal capacitance of 98.1 mF cm-2 is achieved at 5 mV s-1 cyclic voltammetry scan. Furthermore, the MWCNTs@PEDOT/PSS composites exhibit obviously superior capacitive performance than that of PEDOT/PSS and PEDOT/Cl electrodes, indicating the effective composite of MWCNTs and PEDOT noticeably boosts the capacitive performance of PEDOT-based electrodes for electrochemical energy storage. Such a highly stable core-shell 3D network structural composite is very promising to be used as electrode materials for the high-performance electrochemical capacitors.

  9. Simple casting based fabrication of PEDOT:PSS-PVDF-ionic liquid soft actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simaite, Aiva; Tondu, Bertrand; Mathieu, Fabrice; Souéres, Philippe; Bergaud, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Despite a growing interest in conducting polymer based actuators, a robust fabrication technique is still needed. We suggest a fabrication method that allows fast production of conducting polymer actuators from commercially available polyvinylidene flouride membranes (PVDF) and a PEDOT/PSS solution. In order to improve adhesion of those materials, Ar plasma induced grafting is used to create hydrophilic surfaces of up to 40 μm. Hydrophilic PVDF-graft-polyethylene glycol allows diffusion of PEDOT/PSS in the pores of the membranes, while hydrophobic middle layers prevent short circuits. In this way, soft actuators can be fabricated by consequent drop casting and drying of conducting polymer.

  10. Solvent-induced changes in PEDOT:PSS films for organic electrochemical transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shiming; Kumar, Prajwal; Nouas, Amel Sarah; Fontaine, Laurie; Tang, Hao; Cicoira, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are of interest for several bioelectronic applications. In this letter, we investigate the changes induced by immersion of PEDOT:PSS films, processed by spin coating from different mixtures, in water and other solvents of different polarities. We found that the film thickness decreases upon immersion in polar solvents, while the electrical conductivity remains unchanged. The decrease in film thickness is minimized via the addition of a cross-linking agent to the mixture used for the spin coating of the films.

  11. The dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test (DARHT) facility personnel safety system (PSS) control system

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquez, Edward B

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the Dual Axis Radiograph Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility is to conduct experiments on dynamic events of extremely dense materials. The PSS control system is designed specifically to prevent personnel from becoming exposed to radiation and explosive hazards during machine operations and/or the firing site operation. This paper will outline the Radiation Safety System (RSS) and the High Explosive Safety System (HESS) which are computer-controlled sets of positive interlocks, warning devices, and other exclusion mechanisms that together form the PSS.

  12. 40 CFR 721.10035 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10035 Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10035 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10035 Alkylbenzene sulfonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  14. 21 CFR 173.395 - Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. 173.395 Section 173... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.395 Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid... acid) may safely be used in the production of cocoa butter substitute from palm oil...

  15. 21 CFR 173.395 - Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. 173.395 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.395 Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid has the empirical formula CF3SO3H (CAS Reg. No. 1493-13-6). The catalyst...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34636, June... substance identified generically as alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject...

  17. A way for studying the impact of PEDOT:PSS interface layer on carrier transport in PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM bulk hetero junction solar cells by electric field induced optical second harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Zubair Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Sulaiman, Khaulah; Taguchi, Dai; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-04-28

    Electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement was employed to study the impact of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) interface layer on the carrier transport mechanism of the PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). We revealed that the electric fields in the PCDTBT and PC{sub 71}BM were allowed to be measured individually by choosing fundamental laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 1060 nm, respectively, in dark and under illumination. The results showed that the direction of the internal electric fields in the PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM BHJ layer is reversed by introducing the PEDOT:PSS layer, and this results in longer electron transport time in the BHJ layer. We conclude that TR-EFISHG can be used as a novel way for studying the impact of interfacial layer on the transport of electrons and holes in the bulk-heterojunction OSCs.

  18. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Li; Li, Chun-Xia; Xue, Yi-Ting; Li, Hai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; He, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD) at 250 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PSS-NP) in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only) and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP). Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability. PMID:23549283

  19. An HPLC method for microanalysis and pharmacokinetics of marine sulfated polysaccharide PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Li; Li, Chun-Xia; Xue, Yi-Ting; Li, Hai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; He, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with D-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD) at 250 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1-500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PSS-NP) in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only) and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP). Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability. PMID:23549283

  20. A dual-responsive superparamagnetic Fe 3O 4/Silica/PAH/PSS material used for controlled release of chemotherapeutic agent, keggin polyoxotungstate, PM-19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Sun, Guoying; Li, Qiuyu; Wang, Enbo; Gu, Jianmin

    2010-10-01

    A bicontrollable drug release system was developed by layer-by-layer assembly of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) multilayers onto a Fe 3O 4/SiO 2 composite core. The saturated magnetization of this system reaches up to 38.6 emu/g at RT, making targeting easily controlled by an external magnetic field. Meanwhile, the packing of the polyelectrolyte multilayers is sensitive to pH values, generating a pH-switch on-off mode for the release of loaded drugs. In this specific case, the release of a chemotherapeutic polyoxometalate K 7Ti 2W 10PO 40·6H 2O (PM-19) was tested. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the nanostructure of the composite drug release system. UV-vis absorption was used to monitor the drug release. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Powder X-ray diffraction, and Elemental analyses were used to study the composition of tested systems. The structure and composition of the composite system was also studied using magnetism measurement and nitrogen adsorption-desorption.

  1. Sulfonated Polymerized Ionic Liquid Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Meek, Kelly M; Elabd, Yossef A

    2016-07-01

    The successful synthesis of a new diblock copolymer, referred to as sulfonated polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymer, poly(SS-Li-b-AEBIm-TFSI), is reported, which contains both sulfonated blocks (sulfonated styrene: SS) and PIL blocks (1-[(2-acryloyloxy)ethyl]-3-butylimidazolium: AEBIm) with both mobile cations (lithium: Li(+) ) and mobile anions (bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide: TFSI(-) ). Synthesis consists of polymerization via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer, followed by post-functionalization reactions to covalently attach the imidazolium cations and sulfonic acid anions to their respective blocks, followed by ion exchange metathesis resulting in mobile Li(+) cations and mobile TFSI(-) anions. Solid-state films containing 1 m Li-TFSI salt dissolved in ionic liquid result in an ion conductivity of >1.5 mS cm(-1) at 70 °C, where small-angle X-ray scattering data indicate a weakly ordered microphase-separated morphology. These results demonstrate a new ion-conducting block copolymer containing both mobile cations and mobile anions. PMID:27125600

  2. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) depletion in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an industrial chemical that is used as a surfactant in several manufactured consumer products but is also a breakdown product from other chemical surfactants. As a result of its extensive use, PFOS is ubiquitous in the environment and is often detected in biosoli...

  3. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyether sulfone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Olcomendy, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyether sulfone was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Animal response times were relatively short at pyrolysis temperatures of 600 to 800 C, with death occurring within 6 min. The principal toxicant appeared to be a compound other than carbon monoxide.

  4. Secondary recovery process utilizing sulfonated polyphenols

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, W.D.

    1980-10-07

    Hydrocarbons are recovered from subterranean formations by injecting into a hydrocarbon bearing formation via an injection well a fluid comprising water containing a small amount of a water-soluble, sulfonated, ethoxylated polyphenol, forcing the said fluid through the formation and recovering hydrocarbons through a production well. The fluids employed may, if desired, contain an alkaline agent such as sodium hydroxide.

  5. Resistive Switching Memory Phenomena in PEDOT PSS: Coexistence of Switchable Diode Effect and Write Once Read Many Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-01

    We study resistive switching memory phenomena in conducting polymer PEDOT PSS. In the same film, there are two types of memory behavior coexisting; namely, the switchable diode effect and write once read many memory. This is the first report on switchable diode phenomenon based on conducting organic materials. The effect was explained as charge trapping of PEDOT PSS film and movement of proton. The same PEDOT PSS device also exhibits write once read many memory (WORM) phenomenon which arises due to redox reaction that reduces PEDOT PSS and renders it non-conducting. The revelation of these two types of memory phenomena in PEDOT PSS highlights the remarkable versatility of this conducting conjugated polymer.

  6. Resistive Switching Memory Phenomena in PEDOT PSS: Coexistence of Switchable Diode Effect and Write Once Read Many Memory.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-01

    We study resistive switching memory phenomena in conducting polymer PEDOT PSS. In the same film, there are two types of memory behavior coexisting; namely, the switchable diode effect and write once read many memory. This is the first report on switchable diode phenomenon based on conducting organic materials. The effect was explained as charge trapping of PEDOT PSS film and movement of proton. The same PEDOT PSS device also exhibits write once read many memory (WORM) phenomenon which arises due to redox reaction that reduces PEDOT PSS and renders it non-conducting. The revelation of these two types of memory phenomena in PEDOT PSS highlights the remarkable versatility of this conducting conjugated polymer. PMID:26806868

  7. Resistive Switching Memory Phenomena in PEDOT PSS: Coexistence of Switchable Diode Effect and Write Once Read Many Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Viet Cuong; Lee, Pooi See

    2016-01-01

    We study resistive switching memory phenomena in conducting polymer PEDOT PSS. In the same film, there are two types of memory behavior coexisting; namely, the switchable diode effect and write once read many memory. This is the first report on switchable diode phenomenon based on conducting organic materials. The effect was explained as charge trapping of PEDOT PSS film and movement of proton. The same PEDOT PSS device also exhibits write once read many memory (WORM) phenomenon which arises due to redox reaction that reduces PEDOT PSS and renders it non-conducting. The revelation of these two types of memory phenomena in PEDOT PSS highlights the remarkable versatility of this conducting conjugated polymer. PMID:26806868

  8. Inverted, Organic WORM Device Based on PEDOT:PSS with Very Low Turn-On Voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, Robert A.; Galiger, Erin M.; Ostrowski, David P.; Bailey, Brian A.; Jiang, Xin; Voyles, Richard M.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Olson, Dana C.; Shaheen, Sean E.

    2014-05-17

    An organic Write-Once-Read-Many (WORM) device based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the active layer was fabricated with an inverted architecture. Insertion of an ultrathin layer of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) between the bottom electrode and the PEDOT:PSS resulted in a systematic and substantial decrease in turn-on voltage, from 7.0 V to less than 1.0 V. An optimal thickness of the PMMA layer was found to yield the lowest consistent turn-on voltage of ~0.8 V, with 0.5 V being the lowest value of all fabricated devices. The switching mechanism was attributed to filamentary doping of the PEDOT:PSS. Insertion of the PMMA acted to protect the underlying ZnO from being etched by the acidic PEDOT:PSS as well as to improve its wetting properties. Moreover, devices were demonstrated on both ITO and aluminum bottom electrodes, with aluminum yielding the highest ON/OFF ratios in the study. Owing to their inverted architecture, the devices demonstrated good stability, and the retention time of the ON-state was determined to be greater than twenty months while stored in air for devices with ITO bottom electrodes. Blade-coating was demonstrated as a viable processing technique for applications requiring rapid or large-area manufacturing in addition to deposition via spin-coating.

  9. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of PEDOT:PSS flexible bulky papers by treatment with secondary dopants.

    PubMed

    Mengistie, Desalegn A; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Boopathi, Karunakara M; Pranoto, Ferry W; Li, Lain-Jong; Chu, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-14

    For inorganic thermoelectric materials, Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity are interdependent, and hence optimization of thermoelectric performance is challenging. In this work we show that thermoelectric performance of PEDOT:PSS can be enhanced by greatly improving its electrical conductivity in contrast to inorganic thermoelectric materials. Free-standing flexible and smooth PEDOT:PSS bulky papers were prepared using vacuum-assisted filtration. The electrical conductivity was enhanced to 640, 800, 1300, and 1900 S cm(-1) by treating PEDOT:PSS with ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, methanol, and formic acid, respectively. The Seebeck coefficient did not show significant variation with the tremendous conductivity enhancement being 21.4 and 20.6 μV K(-1) for ethylene glycol- and formic acid-treated papers, respectively. This is because secondary dopants, which increase electrical conductivity, do not change oxidation level of PEDOT. A maximum power factor of 80.6 μW m(-1) K(-2) was shown for formic acid-treated samples, while it was only 29.3 μW m(-1) K(-2) for ethylene glycol treatment. Coupled with intrinsically low thermal conductivity of PEDOT:PSS, ZT ≈ 0.32 was measured at room temperature using Harman method. We investigated the reasons behind the greatly enhanced thermoelectric performance. PMID:25475257

  10. Low-cost and broadband terahertz antireflection coatings based on DMSO-doped PEDOT/PSS.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Parrott, Edward P J; Liu, Xu Dong; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2015-06-15

    We report the potential application of 6% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-doped poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly (4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) as a low cost and broadband terahertz (THz) antireflection coating based on the impedance matching effect. The reflected pulses from the quartz and silicon substrates are observed to change with the thickness of the PEDOT/PSS layer. Theoretical analysis based on an equivalent transmission line circuit model and FDTD computational simulations have been used to understand the experimental results. Excellent impedance matching is achieved by a ∼39-nm-thick 6% DMSO-doped PEDOT/PSS layer on quartz, and a ∼101-nm-thick 6% DMSO-doped PEDOT/PSS layer on silicon due to the almost-frequency-independent conductivity of the thin film between 0.3 and 2.5 THz. In the critical conditions, the normalized main pulse transmission remains as high as 74% and 64%, for the quartz and silicon substrates, respectively, significantly higher than the existing state of the art THz antireflection coatings. PMID:26076287

  11. Optical and electrophysical properties of nanocomposites based on PEDOT: PSS and gold/silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhta, A. V.; Pochtenny, A. E.; Misevich, A. V.; Kukhta, I. N.; Semenova, E. M.; Vorobyova, S. A.; Sarantopoulou, E.

    2014-04-01

    The absorption spectra in the visible region and current-voltage characteristics in a wide range of electric fields have been investigated at the macroscopic level (planar structures) and at the microscopic level (using a conductive atomic force microscope) in films based on the electroactive polymer PEDOT: PSS and gold/silver nanoparticles (PEDOT: PSS + Au/AgNP). It has been shown that the behavior of the current-voltage characteristics of the nanocomposite films depends significantly on the electric field strength. It has been found that the introduction of gold nanoparticles into PEDOT: PSS in weak electric fields leads to an increase in the bulk conductance by almost two orders of magnitude (due to donor-acceptor interactions), a 50% decrease in the conduction activation energy, and an increase in the sensitivity to adsorbed oxygen. It has been demonstrated that electrical conduction of PEDOT: PSS + AuNP films is provided by hopping charge transfer both in the system of intrinsic localized states and in the system of impurity states of adsorbed oxygen. In strong electric fields, the current-voltage characteristics exhibit a different behavior in the forward and reverse scanning modes.

  12. Measuring Malaysia School Resource Centers' Standards through iQ-PSS: An Online Management Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainudin, Fadzliaton; Ismail, Kamarulzaman

    2010-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has come up with an innovative way to monitor the progress of 9,843 School Resource Centers (SRCs) using an online management information system called iQ-PSS (Quality Index of SRC). This paper aims to describe the data collection method and analyze the current state of SRCs in Malaysia and explain how the results can be…

  13. Design of H{sub {infinity}}-PSS using numerator-denominator uncertainty representation

    SciTech Connect

    Komla A, F.; Yorino, Naoto; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents a new method of designing a robust H{sub {infinity}}-PSS to deal with some limitations of the existing H{sub {infinity}}-PSSs (standard H{sub {infinity}}-PSSs). These limitations include (1) the inability to treat the system uncertainty when a stable nominal plant becomes an unstable perturbed plant; (2) the cancellation of the plant`s poorly damped poles by the controller`s zeros. The proposed multiple inputs single output controller for the excitation system is based on the numerator-denominator uncertainty representation which is not restricted in the modeling of uncertainty as compared to the standard additive or multiplicative uncertainty representation. Furthermore, the bilinear transformation has been used in the design to prevent the pole-zero cancellation of the poorly damped poles and to improve the control system performance. Simulation results have shown satisfactory performance of the proposed PSS for a wide range of operating conditions and good stability margin as compared to both the conventional PSS and the standard H{sub {infinity}}-PSS.

  14. Determination of energy levels at the interface between O2 plasma treated ITO/P3HT : PCBM and PEDOT : PSS/P3HT : PCBM using angular-resolved x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcher, Thomas J.; Azrina Talik, Noor; Woon, Kailin; Chanlek, Narong; Nakajima, Hideki; Saisopa, Thanit; Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon

    2014-02-01

    Interfacial energy alignments at the anode of solution processable organic photovoltaics are rarely studied. Here we use blended regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) : phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) deposited on top of O2 plasma cleaned indium tin oxide (ITO) and poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) : polystyrene sulfonic acid (PEDOT : PSS) as a platform to obtain the interfacial energy alignment using angular-resolved x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. A strong downward vacuum level bending of 1.3 eV at the interface for plasma-ITO/P3HT : PCBM is observed. This results in an interfacial energetic barrier as high as 2.5 eV for holes and a reduction of barrier for electrons. This could be one of the contributing factors that result in lower device efficiency in O2 plasma-ITO/P3HT : PCBM compared to O2 plasma-ITO/PEDOT : PSS/P3HT : PCBM. The full interfacial energy diagram is determined for O2 plasma-ITO/P3HT : PCBM and PEDOT : PSS/P3HT : PCBM. Such methods can be extended to study various interfacial properties of solution processable organic semiconducting materials.

  15. Sulfonated nanoporous colloidal films and membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joanna Jane

    The objective of this thesis is to describe the preparation and investigation of a new class of proton-conducting membrane materials, namely, nanoporous colloidal membranes whose proton conductivity results from the nanopore surface modification with organic molecules carrying acid functionalities. Both the proton transport and ion transport were studied in nanoporous silica colloidal crystals that were surface modified with sulfonic groups. First, the transport of ions was studied through sulfonated silica colloidal films that were supported on platinum electrodes using cyclic voltammetry. The surface of self-assembled nanoporous silica colloidal crystalline films was sulfonated using 1,3-propanesultone. We found that the flux of anions through the sulfonated colloidal films is reduced, while the flux of cations is increased, compared to the unmodified colloidal films. Second, the proton transport in free-standing assemblies of surface-sulfonated silica nanospheres, either randomly packed or self-assembled into a close-packed arrangement, were studied. It was demonstrated that colloidal assemblies prepared using surface-sulfonated silica nanospheres posses proton conductivity that depends on the ordering of the material, temperature and relative humidity. Based on the comparison between the close-packed and disordered assemblies made of the same spheres, we conclude that the increase in structural organization of the self-assembled colloidal materials leads to increased proton conductivity and better water retention. Next free-standing colloidal membranes with a relatively large area and no mechanical defects were prepared by sintering silica colloidal films. The sintered membranes were then surface rehydroxylated, which restores the surface silanol groups, and then can be chemically modified. Finally, sintered self-assembled nanoporous silica colloidal crystals were modified with poly(sulfopropyl-methacrylate) (pSPM) and poly(stryrenesulfonic acid) (pSSA) brushes

  16. Highly branched sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s membrane for energy efficient vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bibo; Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Lihong; Xi, Jingyu

    2015-07-01

    A series of highly branched sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s (HSPAEK) are synthesized by direct polycondensation reactions. The HSPAEK with 8% degree of branching is further investigated as membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The HSPAEK membrane prepared by solution casting method exhibits smooth, dense and tough morphology. It possesses very low VO2+ permeability and high ion selectivity compared to those of Nafion 117 membrane. When applied to VRFB, this novel membrane shows higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 99%) and energy efficiency (EE, 84%) than Nafion 117 membrane (CE, 92% and EE, 78%) at current density of 80 mA cm-2. Besides, the HSPAEK membrane shows super stable CE and EE as well as excellent discharge capacity retention (83%) during 100 cycles life test. After being soaked in 1.5 mol L-1 VO2+ solution for 21 days, the weight loss of HSPAEK membrane and the amount of VO2+ reduced from VO2+ are only 0.26% and 0.7%, respectively, indicating the superior chemical stability of the membrane.

  17. Fabrication of water-dispersible and highly conductive PSS-doped PANI/graphene nanocomposites using a high-molecular weight PSS dopant and their application in H2S detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sunghun; Lee, Jun Seop; Jun, Jaemoon; Kim, Sung Gun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2014-11-01

    This work describes the fabrication of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PSS-doped PANI/graphene) nanocomposites and their use as sensing elements for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection. PSS with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.96 × 106 was synthesized using low-temperature free-radical polymerization. The PSS was used as both a doping agent and a binding agent for the polymerization of aniline monomers in a biphasic system (water-chloroform) at -50 °C. The high Mw of PSS resulted in relatively large particle sizes and smooth surfaces of the PSS-doped PANI. These physical characteristics, in turn, resulted in low interparticle resistance and high conductivity. In addition, the PSS allowed homogeneous dispersion of reduced graphene sheets through electrostatic repulsion. The prepared PSS-doped PANI/graphene solutions showed good compatibility with flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates, making them suitable for flexible sensor electrodes. Changes in the charge-transport properties, such as protonation level, conjugation length, crystalline structure, and charge-transfer resistance, of the electrode materials were the main factors influencing the electrical and sensor performance of the PSS-doped PANI-based electrodes. PSS-doped PANI/graphene composites containing 30 wt% graphene showed the highest conductivity (168.4 S cm-1) and the lowest minimum detection level (MDL) for H2S gas (1 ppm). This result is consistent with the observed improvements in charge transport in the electrode materials via strong π-π stacking interactions between the PANI and the graphene sheets.This work describes the fabrication of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PSS-doped PANI/graphene) nanocomposites and their use as sensing elements for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection. PSS with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.96 × 106 was synthesized using low-temperature free-radical polymerization. The PSS was

  18. GIbPSs: a toolkit for fast and accurate analyses of genotyping-by-sequencing data without a reference genome.

    PubMed

    Hapke, A; Thiele, D

    2016-07-01

    Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and related methods are increasingly used for studies of non-model organisms from population genetic to phylogenetic scales. We present GIbPSs, a new genotyping toolkit for the analysis of data from various protocols such as RAD, double-digest RAD, GBS, and two-enzyme GBS without a reference genome. GIbPSs can handle paired-end GBS data and is able to assign reads from both strands of a restriction fragment to the same locus. GIbPSs is most suitable for population genetic and phylogeographic analyses. It avoids genotyping errors due to indel variation by identifying and discarding affected loci. GIbPSs creates a genotype database that offers rich functionality for data filtering and export in numerous formats. We performed comparative analyses of simulated and real GBS data with GIbPSs and another program, pyRAD. This program accounts for indel variation by aligning homologous sequences. GIbPSs performed better than pyRAD in several aspects. It required much less computation time and displayed higher genotyping accuracy. GIbPSs retained smaller numbers of loci overall in analyses of real GBS data. It nevertheless delivered more complete genotype matrices with greater locus overlap between individuals and greater numbers of loci sampled in all individuals. PMID:26858004

  19. Sorption of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate by montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lizhong; Xing, Baoshan

    2007-01-01

    Sorption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates by soils and sediments is an important process that may affect their fate, transport, toxicity and their application in remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to elucidate the sorption of a widely used anionic surfactant, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), by montmorillonite. It was observed that: (i) SDBS was sorbed significantly by montmorillonite saturated with Ca(2+), but little by Na-saturated montmorillonite; (ii) the amount of SDBS sorbed by Ca(2+)-montmorillonite was enhanced by NaCl; and (iii) no significant intercalation of SDBS into Ca(2+)-montmorillonite was observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These results indicate that the removal of SDBS by Ca(2+)-montmorillonite was primarily attributed to the precipitation between DBS(-) and Ca(2+) in solution which was released from montmorillonite via cation exchange. These results will help us to understand the sorption behavior and environmental effects of anionic surfactants. PMID:16759775

  20. High Lipophilicty of Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate and Sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Ping; Rodgers, Patrick J.; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Here we report on remarkably high lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate and sulfonate. A lipophilic nature of this emerging class of organic pollutants has been hypothesized as an origin of their bioaccumulation and toxicity. Both carboxylate and sulfonate, however, are considered hydrophilic while perfluroalkyl groups are not only hydrophobic but also oleophobic. Partition coefficients of homologous series of perfluoroalkyl and alkyl carboxylates between water and n-octanol were determined as a measure of their lipophilicity by ion-transfer cyclic voltammetry. Very similar lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl and alkyl chains with the same length is demonstrated experimentally for the first time by fragment analysis of the partition coefficients. This finding is important for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of perfluoroalkyl compounds. Interestingly, ∼2 orders of magnitude higher lipophilicity of a perfluoroalkyl carboxylate or sulfonate in comparison to its alkyl counterpart is ascribed nearly exclusively to their oxoanion groups. The higher lipophilicity originates from a strong electron-withdrawing effect of the perfluoroalkyl group on the adjacent oxoanion group, which is weakly hydrated to decrease its hydrophilicity. In fact, the inductive effect is dramatically reduced for a fluorotelomer with an ethylene spacer between perfluorohexyl and carboxylate groups, which is only as lipophilic as its alkyl counterpart, nonanoate, and is 400 times less lipophilic than perfluorononanoate. The high lipophilicity of perfluoroalkyl carboxylate and sulfonate implies that their permeation across such a thin lipophilic membrane as a bilayer lipid membrane is limited by their transfer at a membrane/water interface. The limiting permeability is lower and less dependent on their lipophilicity than the permeability controlled by their diffusion in the membrane interior as assumed in the classical solubility-diffusion model. PMID:19170492

  1. Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Andrew J.; Yambem, Soniya D.; Johns, Ashley H.; Afre, Rakesh A.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Shapter, Joe G.; Andersson, Gunther G.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Lewis, David A.

    2015-04-01

    Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω-1 is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems.

  2. Exciton quenching at PEDOT:PSS anode in polymer blue-light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, D.; Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Nicolai, H. T.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2014-12-01

    The quenching of excitons at the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) anode in blue polyalkoxyspirobifluorene-arylamine polymer light-emitting diodes is investigated. Due to the combination of a higher electron mobility and the presence of electron traps, the recombination zone shifts from the cathode to the anode with increasing voltage. The exciton quenching at the anode at higher voltages leads to an efficiency roll-off. The voltage dependence of the luminous efficiency is reproduced by a drift-diffusion model under the condition that quenching of excitons at the PEDOT:PSS anode and metallic cathode is of equal strength. Experimentally, the efficiency roll-off at high voltages due to anode quenching is eliminated by the use of an electron-blocking layer between the anode and the light-emitting polymer.

  3. Exciton quenching at PEDOT:PSS anode in polymer blue-light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Abbaszadeh, D.; Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Nicolai, H. T.

    2014-12-14

    The quenching of excitons at the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) anode in blue polyalkoxyspirobifluorene-arylamine polymer light-emitting diodes is investigated. Due to the combination of a higher electron mobility and the presence of electron traps, the recombination zone shifts from the cathode to the anode with increasing voltage. The exciton quenching at the anode at higher voltages leads to an efficiency roll-off. The voltage dependence of the luminous efficiency is reproduced by a drift-diffusion model under the condition that quenching of excitons at the PEDOT:PSS anode and metallic cathode is of equal strength. Experimentally, the efficiency roll-off at high voltages due to anode quenching is eliminated by the use of an electron-blocking layer between the anode and the light-emitting polymer.

  4. Transparent conductive electrodes from graphene/PEDOT:PSS hybrid inks for ultrathin organic photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Parvez, Khaled; Li, Rongjin; Dong, Renhao; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-01-27

    A novel solution fabrication of large-area, highly conductive graphene films by spray-coating of a hybrid ink of exfoliated graphene (EG)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) (PH1000) is demonstrated. The fabricated graphene films exhibit excellent mechanical properties, thus enabling their application as bottom electrodes in ultrathin organic photodetector devices with performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art Si-based inorganic photodetectors. PMID:25448315

  5. Growth Mechanism of Strain-Dependent Morphological Change in PEDOT:PSS Films

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo-Yong; Choi, Gwang Mook; Lim, Seung-Min; Cho, Ju-Young; Choi, In-Suk; Nam, Ki Tae; Joo, Young-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of the strain-dependent conductivity change in polymers in stretched conditions is important. We observed a strain-induced growth of the conductive regions of PEDOT:PSS films, induced by a coalescence of conductive PEDOT-rich cores. This growth due to coalescence leads to a gradual decrease in the electrical resistivity up to 95%, independent of the thickness of the PEDOT:PSS films. The primary mechanism for the evolution of the PEDOT-rich cores proceeds by the cores growing larger as they consuming relatively smaller cores. This process is caused by a strain-induced local rearrangement of PEDOT segments in the vicinity of PSS shells around the cores and also changes the chemical environment in PEDOT, induced by the electron-withdrawing effects around the PEDOT chains. The strain-induced growth mechanism is beneficial to understanding the phenomenon of polymeric chain rearrangement in mechanical deformation and to modulating the electrical conductivity for practical applications. PMID:27125340

  6. Effect of incorporation of ethylene glycol into PEDOT:PSS on electron phonon coupling and conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yow-Jon Ni, Wei-Shih; Lee, Jhe-You

    2015-06-07

    The effect of incorporation of ethylene glycol (EG) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on electron phonon coupling and conductivity is investigated. It is shown that the carrier density (N{sub C}) increases significantly and the carrier mobility (μ) increases slightly at 300 K. The increased intensity of the Raman spectrum between 1400 and 1450 cm{sup −1}, following EG treatment (that is, the quinoid-dominated structures of the PEDOT chain), leads to an increase in the number of polarons (bipolarons), which leads to an increase in N{sub C}. In addition, μ in PEDOT:PSS samples with or without EG addition exhibits a strong temperature dependence, which demonstrates the dominance of tunneling (hopping) at low (high) temperatures. The high conductivity of PEDOT:PSS samples with the addition of EG is attributed to the combined effect of the modification of the electron-phonon coupling and the increase in N{sub C} (μ)

  7. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan; Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz

    2015-02-01

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5 μm thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiOx and Al2O3 terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al2O3/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4 mA/cm2 and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiOx/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al2O3 lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604 mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  8. Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Solar Cells with Advanced Antireflection and Back Surface Field Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiling; Yang, Zhenhai; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Yang, Xi; Sheng, Jiang; Wu, Sudong; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum oxide (MoO3) is one of most suitable antireflection (AR) layers for silicon/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Si/PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cells due to its well-matched refractive index (2.1). A simulation model was employed to predict the optical characteristics of Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells with the MoO3 layers as antireflection coatings (ARCs), as well as to analyze the loss in current density. By adding an optimum thickness of a 34-nm-thick ARC of MoO3 on the front side and an effective rear back surface field (BSF) of phosphorus-diffused N + layer at the rear side, the hybrid cells displayed higher light response in the visible and near infrared regions, boosting a short-circuit current density ( J sc) up to 28.7 mA/cm2. The average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells was thus increased up to 11.90 %, greater than the value of 9.23 % for the reference devices.

  9. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of low-molecular-weight propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS).

    PubMed

    Xin, Meng; Ren, Li; Sun, Yang; Li, Hai-hua; Guan, Hua-Shi; He, Xiao-Xi; Li, Chun-Xia

    2016-05-23

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide derivative, has been used as a heparinoid drug to prevent and treat hyperlipidemia and ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. To extend the applications of PSS, a series of low-molecular-weight PSSs (named FPs) were prepared by oxidative-reductive depolymerization, and the antithrombotic activities were investigated thoroughly in vitro and in vivo. The bioactivity evaluation demonstrated a positive correlation between the molecular weight and the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of FPs. FPs could prolong the APTT and clotting time and reduce platelet aggregation significantly. FPs could also effectively inhibit factor IIa in the presence of AT-III and HC-II. FPs decreased the wet weights and lengths of the thrombus and increased occlusion times in vivo. FP-6k, a PSS fragment with a molecular weight of 6 kDa, is an optimal antithrombotic candidate for further study and showed little chance for hemorrhagic action. PMID:26974373

  10. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz

    2015-02-23

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5 μm thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiO{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4 mA/cm{sup 2} and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiO{sub x}/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604 mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  11. Validation of the Arabic version of the Cohen perceived stress scale (PSS-10) among pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the validity of the Arabic translation of the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in pregnant and postpartum women. Methods A sample of 268 women participated. These included 113 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, 97 in the postpartum period and 58 healthy female university students. GHQ-12 and EPDS were also administered to the participants. Internal consistency reliability, assessed using Cronbach's α, was 0.74. Results PSS-10 significantly correlated with both EPDS and GHQ12 (ρ = 0.58 and ρ = 0.48 respectively), and significantly increased with higher scores on stressful life events. PSS-10 scores were higher among university students who also recorded higher stressful life events scores. Conclusion The Arabic translated version of the PSS-10 showed reasonably adequate psychometric properties. PMID:21159169

  12. Sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, methods for producing the same, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hofmann, Michael A.

    2006-11-14

    The present invention is directed to sulfonimide-containing polymers, specifically sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, and processes for making the sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, for use conductive membranes and fuel cells.

  13. Efficacy of Heparinoid PSS in Treating Cardiovascular Diseases and Beyond-A Review of 27 Years Clinical Experiences in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yangyang; Yang, Desheng; Qiu, Peiju; Han, Zhangrun; Zeng, Pengjiao; He, Yanli; Guo, Zhihua; Xu, Lingling; Cui, Yidi; Zhou, Zijing; Zhang, Meng; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2016-04-01

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) is the world's first oral heparinoid approved by Chinese Food and Drug Administration in 1987. Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate is produced by modifying partially hydrolyzed alginate, one of the most abundant marine polysaccharides isolated from brown algae, by epoxypropane esterification and by chemical sulfation. It is used for treating and preventing cardiovascular-related diseases. The low cost (US$1.29/100 tablets, ∼4 tablets/day), remarkable clinical effects, and convenient oral administration make PSS an ideal long-term prevention drug. Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate is available in most drug stores in China, and millions of patients take PSS routinely during the past 27 years. The 22 784 reported clinical cases as well as the structure, preparation, clinical efficacy, adverse reactions, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and future perspectives of PSS based on the results of peer-reviewed publications will be discussed. This review should bring the knowledge of PSS gained in China to the world to stimulate in depth academic and clinical studies of PSS. PMID:25258421

  14. Boiling significantly promotes photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Xian-Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    The application of photochemical processes for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation has been limited by a low treatment efficiency. This study reports a significant acceleration of PFOS photodegradation under boiling condition compared with the non-boiling control. The PFOS decomposition rate increased with the increasing boiling intensity, but declined at a higher hydronium level or under oxygenation. These results suggest that the boiling state of solution resulted in higher effective concentrations of reactants at the gas-liquid interface and enhanced the interfacial mass transfer, thereby accelerating the PFOS decomposition. This study broadens our knowledge of PFOS photodegradation process and may have implications for development of efficient photodegradation technologies. PMID:26117498

  15. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  17. Sulfonated Nanoplates in Proton Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.F.; Ni’mah, H.; Yu-Cheng Shen, Y.-C.; Kuo, P.-L.

    2011-09-29

    Surface-functionalized nanoplates are synthesized by anchoring sulfonic acid containing siloxanes on zirconium phosphate, and in turn blended with Nafion to fabricate proton conducting membranes. The effects of these sulfonated nanoplates on proton conduction, hydro-characteristics and fuel cell performance are reported.

  18. Synthesis of basic and overbasic sulfonate detergent additives

    SciTech Connect

    Abou El Naga, H.H.; Abd El-Azim, W.M.; Bendary, S.A.; Awad, N.G.

    1993-12-01

    Heavy alkylbenzene, which accumulates as a by-product from linear alkylbenzene synthesis, is evaluated as a starting material for preparation of basic and over basic sulfonate detergent additives. Chemical structure analysis showed that this by-product contains several components in different proportions. Most of these components, as traced via mass spectrometry, showed the presence of paraffinic side chains within the carbon range C{sub 11}--C{sub 22}. Accordingly, sulfonation conditions for it were adjusted to optimize the reaction yield and sulfonic quality. Neutralization of the sulfonic acid was carried out by adding CaO in the presence of methanol as a promoter. Preparation of over basic sulfonate was run via a carbonation process at 55--60 C. Evaluations of synthesized basic calcium sulfonate in comparison to a commercial additive is supported by its efficiency as a detergent additive. The synthesized product has a higher total base number and Ca content than those for the commercial one. On the other hand, evaluation of the synthesized overbasic calcium sulfonate compared with overbasic commercial additives with medium and high alkalinity indicated that the synthesized product can be classified as overbasic calcium sulfonate with medium alkalinity, good dispersive power, and detergent efficiency.

  19. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described...

  1. Synthesis of cyclic sulfones by ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei

    2002-02-01

    A general and highly efficient synthesis of cyclic sulfones based on ring-closing metathesis has been developed. The synthetic utility of the resulting cyclic sulfones was demonstrated by their participation in stereoselective Diels-Alder reactions and transformation to cyclic dienes by the Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction. PMID:11820896

  2. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT.
    C. Lau and J.M. Rogers, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an environmentally persistent compound used ...

  3. Controlling Structure in Sulfonated Block Copolymer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Phuc; Stein, Gila; Strzalka, Joe

    2015-03-01

    In many ionic block copolymer systems, the strong incompatibility between ionic and non-ionic segments will trap non-equilibrium structures in the film, making it difficult to engineer the optimal domain sizes and transport pathways. The goal of this work is to establish a framework for controlling the solid-state structure of sulfonated pentablock copolymer membranes. They have ABCBA block sequence, where A is poly(t-butyl styrene), B is poly(hydrogenated isoprene), and C is poly(styrene sulfonate). To process into films, the polymer is dissolved in toluene/n-propanol solvent mixtures, where the solvent proportions and the polymer loading were both varied. Solution-state structure was measured with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). We detected micelles with radii that depend on the solvent composition and polymer loading. Film structure was measured with grazing-incidence SAXS, which shows (i) domain periodicity is constant throughout film thickness; (ii) domain periodicity depends on solvent composition and polymer loading, and approximately matches the micelle radii in solutions. The solid-state packing is consistent with a hard sphere structure factor. Results suggest that solid-state structure can be tuned by manipulating the solution-state self-assembly.

  4. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Anders S; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-04-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12 LAS), which show that C12 LAS was biodegradable under methanogenic conditions. Sorption of C12 LAS on sewage sludge was described with a Freundlich isotherm. The C12 LAS sorption was determined with different concentrations of total solids (TS). In the semi-continuously stirred tank reactor, 18% of the added C12 LAS was bioavailable and 20% was biotransformed when spiking with 100 mg/L of C12 LAS and a TS concentration of 14.2 mg/L. Enhanced bioavailability of C12 LAS was obtained in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor inoculated with granular sludge and sewage sludge. Biodegradation under thermophilic conditions was 37% with LAS as sole carbon source. Benzaldehyde was produced in the UASB reactor during LAS transformation. PMID:12685701

  5. pH-responsive ion transport in polyelectrolyte multilayers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSS-MA) bearing strong- and weak anionic groups.

    PubMed

    Maza, Eliana; Tuninetti, Jimena S; Politakos, Nikolaos; Knoll, Wolfgang; Moya, Sergio; Azzaroni, Omar

    2015-11-28

    The layer-by-layer construction of interfacial architectures displaying stimuli-responsive control of mass transport is attracting increasing interest in materials science. In this work, we describe the creation of interfacial architectures displaying pH-dependent ionic transport properties which until now have not been observed in polyelectrolyte multilayers. We describe a novel approach to create pH-controlled ion-rectifying systems employing polyelectrolyte multilayers assembled from a copolymer containing both weakly and strongly charged pendant groups, poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSS-MA), alternately deposited with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC). The conceptual framework is based on the very contrasting and differential interactions of PSS and MA units with PDADMAC. In our setting, sulfonate groups play a structural role by conferring stability to the multilayer due to the strong electrostatic interactions with the polycations, while the weakly interacting MA groups remain "silent" within the film and then act as on-demand pH-responsive units. When these multilayers are combined with a strong cationic capping layer that repels the passage of cationic probes, a pH-gateable rectified transport of anions is observed. Concomitantly, we also observed that these functional properties are significantly affected when multilayers are subjected to extensive pH cycling as a consequence of irreversible morphological changes taking place in the film. We envision that the synergy derived from combining weak and strong interactions within the same multilayer will play a key role in the construction of new interfacial architectures displaying tailorable ion transport properties. PMID:26489595

  6. Morphology, conductivity, and wetting characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films deposited by spin and spray coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihi, F.; Xie, Y.; Gao, S.; Eslamian, M.

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the characteristics of PEDOT:PSS thin films and the effects of varying the processing parameters on the structure, functionality, and surface wetting of spun-on and spray-on PEDOT:PSS thin films. PEDOT:PSS is a polymer mixture, which is electrically conductive and transparent and, therefore, is an attractive material for some optoelectronic applications, such as organic and perovskite solar cells. In this work, the films are fabricated using spin coating (a lab-scale method) and spray coating (an up-scalable method). The effects of spinning speed, drying time, and post-annealing temperature on spun-on samples and the effects of the substrate temperature and number of spray passes (deposition layers) on spray-on samples, as well as the effect of precursor solution concentration on both cases are investigated. Various characterization tools, such as AFM, SEM, XRD, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and electrical conductivity measurements are used to determine the film roughness, thickness, structure, and morphology. The solution precursor physical data, such as contact angle on glass substrates, viscosity, and interfacial tension, are also obtained within a practical range of temperatures and concentrations. It is found that in both spin and spray coating routes, only well-controlled operating conditions result in the formation of conductive and defect-free PEDOT:PSS films. The formation of PEDOT:PSS thin films with small grains composed of PEDOT forming the core of the grains and PSS forming a shell or coating, which are evenly distributed in a PSS-rich matrix, is favored. Conditions leading to the above-mentioned electrically conductive scenario are identified. Other topics, such as the formation of defects and dewetting, are also elucidated.

  7. Modelling of organic field effect transistors with inkjet printed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) electrodes: study of the annealing effects.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Immacolata Angelica; Del Mauro, Anna de Girolamo; Loffredo, Fausta; Morvillo, Pasquale; Villani, Fulvia

    2013-07-01

    In the present work, the transport mechanism of organic transistors with bottom-gate/top-contact structure, manufactured by employing traditional and inkjet printing techniques, was studied. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive polymer was used for realizing printed source, drain and gate electrodes. The influence of the printing parameters (substrate temperature, drop overlapping degree, drop emission frequency) on the uniformity and morphology of the PEDOT:PSS layer was investigated. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as organic dielectric and pentacene, deposited by thermal evaporation, was employed as p-type semiconductor. Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated and electrically characterized before and after the thermal annealing process at 120 degrees C for 1 h in nitrogen ambient. The effect of the annealing on the performances of the OFETs was investigated by modelling the measured electrical characteristics and analyzing them in terms of mobility, characteristic temperature and energy distribution of the density of localized states (DOS). In addition, the OFET working under electrical stress in ambient conditions was observed and discussed. PMID:23901549

  8. Modification of Novel Conductive PEDOT:Sulfonated Polyimide Nano-Thin Films by Anionic Surfactant and Poly(vinyl alcohol) for Electronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romyen, Nathavat; Thongyai, Supakanok; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Sotzing, Gregory A.

    2013-12-01

    Conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):sulfonated polyimide (PEDOT: SPI) nanoscale thin films were successfully developed by addition of anionic surfactant and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for potential application in electronic devices. In this work, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant was introduced into PEDOT:SPI aqueous suspensions to improve the dispersion stability of the particles in water, leading to high transparency and low contact angle of PEDOT:SPI thin films. All of the conducting polymer thin films showed high transparency of more than 85% transmission. Conductivity enhancement and good film-formation properties of PEDOT:SPI were achieved by adding various amounts of PVA to each polymer aqueous suspension because of the resulting conformational changes. The highest conductivity of 0.134 S/cm was achieved at 0.08 wt.% PVA in PEDOT:SPI2/SDS/PVA film, increased by a factor of 3.5 compared with the original material. In addition, PVA also improved the thermal stability of the conductive films, as verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The interactions between conducting polymers, PVA, and SDS surfactant affecting nano-thin film properties were revealed and investigated. Moreover, the interactions between SDS and SPI were proven to be different from those between SDS and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) in conventional PEDOT:PSS solutions.

  9. High-efficiency hole extraction/electron-blocking layer to replace poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) in bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hains, Alexander W.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2008-01-01

    An anode interfacial layer is reported for bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells to replace the commonly used poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). A poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-[4-(3-methylpropyl)]-diphenylamine] (TFB)+4,4'-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl (TPDSi2) blend is crosslinked, forming robust ˜10nm thick films covalently bound to indium tin oxide, which transport holes while blocking misdirected electrons. The thermal stability and photovoltaic performance metrics of TFB :TPDSi2-modified BHJ cells are significantly greater than those of cells fabricated in parallel with PEDOT:PSS or with no interfacial layer. For a poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxyl]-1,4-phenylene vinylene: methanofullerene[6 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester cell, Voc=0.89V, Jsc=4.62mA/cm2, FF =54.4%, and ηp=2.23%.

  10. Biomimetic shoulder complex based on 3-PSS/S spherical parallel mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yulei; Hu, Xinzhe; Zeng, Daxing; Zhou, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The application of the parallel mechanism is still limited in the humanoid robot fields, and the existing parallel humanoid robot joint has not yet been reflected the characteristics of the parallel mechanism completely, also failed to solve the problem, such as small workspace, effectively. From the structural and functional bionic point of view, a three degrees of freedom(DOFs) spherical parallel mechanism for the shoulder complex of the humanoid robot is presented. According to the structure and kinetic characteristics analysis of the human shoulder complex, 3-PSS/S(P for prismatic pair, S for spherical pair) is chosen as the original configuration for the shouder complex. Using genetic algorithm, the optimization of the 3-PSS/S spherical parallel mechanism is performed, and the orientation workspace of the prototype mechanism is enlarged obviously. Combining the practical structure characteristics of the human shouder complex, an offset output mode, which means the output rod of the mechanism turn to any direction at the point a certain distance from the rotation center of the mechanism, is put forward, which provide possibility for the consistent of the workspace of the mechanism and the actual motion space of the human body shoulder joint. The relationship of the attitude angles between different coordinate system is derived, which establishs the foundation for the motion descriptions under different conditions and control development. The 3-PSS/S spherical parallel mechanism is proposed for the shoulder complex, and the consistence of the workspace of the mechanism and the human shoulder complex is realized by the stuctural parameter optimization and the offset output design.

  11. Effect of charge accumulation on the stability of PEDOT:PSS during device operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teguh, Jefri S.; Sum, Tze Chien; Yeow, Edwin K. L.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of charge imbalance and accumulation on the stability of the hole transporting layer PEDOT:PSS in devices is studied during device operation. The principal Raman peak of PEDOT at around 1420-1430 cm-1 is weakened and undergoes band broadening cum shift due to oxidation by holes injected from the ITO anode (doping). Upon suspending the applied potential, the oxidized PEDOT converts back to its as-prepared state. The oxidation of PEDOT is found to be reversible as long as the applied potential is kept relatively low as higher potential would induce PEDOT decomposition.

  12. Robust Coordinated AVR-PSS Design Using H∞ Static Output Feedback Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevrani, Hassan; Hiyama, Takashi

    This paper addresses a new robust control methodology to enhance the power system stability and voltage regulation as an integrated design approach. The automatic voltage regulation (AVR) and power system stabilizer (PSS) design problems are reduced to solve a single H∞ based static output feedback control problem. To determine the optimal gains, an iterative linear matrix inequalities (LMI) algorithm is used. A four-machine infinite-bus system example is given to demonstrate the efficiency of developed approach. The proposed robust technique is shown to maintain the robust performance and minimize the effects of disturbances, properly.

  13. Photovoltaic performance of hybrid ITO/PEDOT:PSS/n-SnS/Al solar cell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Priyal; Arun, P.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper discusses the performance of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/n-SnS/Al structured solar cells fabricated by thermal evaporation. The performance characterizing parameters such as the open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, series resistance, parallel resistance, ideality factor and the overall efficiency were found to be dependent on the SnS grain size in the nano-meter regime and incident light intensity. The experimental work directly reconfirms the theoretical results and ideas raised in the literature by early researchers.

  14. Chitin nanowhisker-supported sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) proton exchange for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Zhuang, Xupin; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Bowen; Kang, Weimin; Cai, Zhanjun; Li, Mengqin

    2016-04-20

    To balance the relationship among proton conductivity and mechanic strength of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPES) membrane, chitin nanowhisker-supported nanocomposite membranes were prepared by incorporating whiskers into SPES. The as-prepared chitin whiskers were prepared by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) mediated oxidation of α-chitin from crab shells. The structure and properties of the composite membranes were examined as proton exchange membrane (PEM). Results showed that chitin nanowhiskers were dispersed incompactly in the SPES matrix. Thermal stability, mechanical properties, water uptake and proton conductivity of the nanocomposite films were improved from those of the pure SPES film with increasing whisker content, which ascribed to strong interactions between whiskers and between SPES molecules and chitin whiskers via hydrogen bonding. These indicated that composition of filler and matrix got good properties and whisker-supported membranes are promising materials for PEM. PMID:26876844

  15. Chemical and Mechanical Degradation of Sulfonated Poly(sulfone) Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soowhan; Tighe, Timothy B.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Yan, Jingling; Zhang, Jianlu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Hickner, Michael A.

    2011-10-01

    A sulfonated poly(sulfone) (S-Radel{reg_sign}) membrane with high proton conductivity and low vanadium ion diffusion showed high initial performance in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) but suffered damage during charge/discharge cycling. The S-Radel membrane had different degradation behaviors in flow cell cycling and ex-situ vanadium ion immersion tests. The S-Radel membrane immersed in V5+ solution cracked into small pieces, but in the VRFB cell, the membrane underwent internal delamination preferentially on the side of the membrane that faced the positive electrode. A vanadium-rich interface was observed near the membrane surface that experienced delamination and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the surfaces of the membrane indicated a slightly depressed 1026 cm-1 band corresponding to the sulfonate SO2 stretch for the degraded surface. Even though the S-Radel membrane underwent severe mechanical damage during the flow cell cycling, significant chemical degradation was not obvious from the spectroscopic analyses. For the VRFB containing an S-Radel membrane, an increase in membrane resistance caused an abnormal voltage depression during the discharge cycle. The reversible increase in membrane resistance and severe mechanical degradation of the membrane during cycling may be attributed repeated formation and dissolution of particles inside the membrane. The mechanical stresses imposed by the particles coupled with a small amount of chemical degradation of the polymer by V5+, are likely degradation mechanisms of the S-Radel membrane in VRFBs under high state-of-charge conditions.

  16. Electrical conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes containing sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celso, Fabricio; Mikhailenko, Serguei D.; Rodrigues, Marco A. S.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2016-02-01

    Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) intended for fuel cell applications were prepared by embedding of various amounts of dispersed tri-sulfonic acid ethyl POSS (S-Et-POSS) and tri-sulfonic acid butyl POSS (S-Bu-POSS) in thin films of sulfonated poly ether-ether ketone. The electrical properties of the PEMs were studied by Impedance spectroscopy and it was found that their conductivity σ changes with the filler content following a curve with a maximum. The water uptake of these PEMs showed the same dependence. The investigation of initial isolated S-POSS substances revealed the properties of typical electrolytes, which however in both cases possessed low conductivities of 1. 17 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Et-POSS) and 3.52 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Bu-POSS). At the same time, the insoluble in water S-POSS was found forming highly conductive interface layer when wetted with liquid water and hence producing a strong positive impact on the conductivity of the composite PEM. Electrical properties of the composites were analysed within the frameworks of effective medium theory and bounding models, allowing to evaluate analytically the range of possible conductivity values. It was found that these approaches produced quite good approximation of the experimental data and constituted a fair basis for interpretation of the observed relationship.

  17. Effects of pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS as a hole-conducting layer on the performance characteristics of polymer photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Jungrae; Ok, Sunseong; Choe, Youngson

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of pentacene-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) [PEDOT:PSS] films as a hole-conducting layer on the performance of polymer photovoltaic cells. By increasing the amount of pentacene and the annealing temperature of pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS layer, the changes of performance characteristics were evaluated. Pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS thin films were prepared by dissolving pentacene in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solvent and mixing with PEDOT:PSS. As the amount of pentacene in the PEDOT:PSS solution was increased, UV-visible transmittance also increased dramatically. By increasing the amount of pentacene in PEDOT:PSS films, dramatic decreases in both the work function and surface resistance were observed. However, the work function and surface resistance began to sharply increase above the doping amount of pentacene at 7.7 and 9.9 mg, respectively. As the annealing temperature was increased, the surface roughness of pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS films also increased, leading to the formation of PEDOT:PSS aggregates. The films of pentacene-doped PEDOT:PSS were characterized by AFM, SEM, UV-visible transmittance, surface analyzer, surface resistance, and photovoltaic response analysis. PMID:22221320

  18. Microtexturing of the Conductive PEDOT:PSS Polymer for Superhydrophobic Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Francesco; Coppedè, Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Villani, Marco; Calestani, Davide; Candeloro, Patrizio; Iannotta, Salvatore; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can be quantitatively measured. This original substrate preparation allowed to perform electrochemical measurements on ionized species in solution with decreasing concentration down to 10−7 molar. Moreover, it was demonstrated the ability of the device of realizing specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Collectively, these results demonstrate how a tight, interweaving integration of different disciplines can provide realistic tools for the detection of pathologies. The scheme here introduced offers breakthrough capabilities that are expected to radically improve both the pace and the productivity of biomedical research, creating an access revolution. PMID:24579079

  19. Microtexturing of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer for superhydrophobic organic electrochemical transistors.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Francesco; Coppedè, Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Villani, Marco; Calestani, Davide; Candeloro, Patrizio; Iannotta, Salvatore; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are bioinspired, nanotechnology artifacts, which feature a reduced friction coefficient, whereby they can be used for a number of very practical applications including, on the medical side, the manipulation of biological solutions. In this work, we integrated superhydrophobic patterns with the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, one of the most used polymers in organic electronics because highly sensitive to ionized species in solution. In doing so, we combined geometry and materials science to obtain an advanced device where, on account of the superhydrophobicity of the system, the solutions of interest can be manipulated and, on account of the conductive PEDOT:PSS polymer, the charged molecules dispersed inside can be quantitatively measured. This original substrate preparation allowed to perform electrochemical measurements on ionized species in solution with decreasing concentration down to 10(-7) molar. Moreover, it was demonstrated the ability of the device of realizing specific, combined time and space resolved analysis of the sample. Collectively, these results demonstrate how a tight, interweaving integration of different disciplines can provide realistic tools for the detection of pathologies. The scheme here introduced offers breakthrough capabilities that are expected to radically improve both the pace and the productivity of biomedical research, creating an access revolution. PMID:24579079

  20. Electro-active hybrid actuators based on freeze-dried bacterial cellulose and PEDOT:PSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Si-Seup; Jeon, Jin-Han; Kee, Chang-Doo; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2013-08-01

    We report a high-performance electro-active hybrid actuator based on freeze-dried bacterial cellulose and conducting polymer electrodes. The freeze-dried bacterial cellulose, which has a sponge form, can absorb a much greater amount of ionic liquid, which is a prerequisite for dry-type and high-performance electro-active polymers. In addition, the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting layers are deposited on the top and bottom surfaces of the freeze-dried bacterial cellulose using a simple dipping and drying method. The results show that the freeze-dried bacterial cellulose actuator with conducting polymer electrodes has a much larger tip displacement under electrical stimuli than pure bacterial cellulose actuators with metallic electrodes. The large bending displacement of the freeze-dried bacterial cellulose actuator under low input voltage is due to the synergistic effects of the ion migration of the dissociated ionic liquids inside the bacterial cellulose and the electrochemical doping processes of the PEDOT:PSS electrode layers.

  1. Developing the Psychological Strain Scales (PSS): Reliability, Validity, and Preliminary Hypothesis Tests1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Juncheng; Zhao, Sibo; Lamis, Dorian A.; Li, Ning; Kong, Yuanyuan; Jia, Cunxian; Zhou, Li; Ma, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception, the Strain Theory of Suicide has been tested and supported in a number of empirical studies. This social psychological theory can be employed as a complementary conceptualization to account for suicidal behaviors as well as mental disorders. However, the lack of consistent measurements of the strains limits the application of the theory in scientific research. Our research team has developed such scales for future testing of the Strain Theory of Suicide in a more systematic approach. For the initial items to measure the four strains (value, aspiration, deprivation, and coping), we solicited approximately 40 items for each strain with high face validity by about 30 fellow researchers. A preliminary examination of about 160 items for consistency and validity, with a sample of about 300 college students, yielded 20 consistent items for each of the four strain scales. Then, a second study was conducted at a different university with approximately 500 students to further streamline each of the four strain scales and test the validity of each with corresponding established scales and variables. As a result, 15 items were selected for each of the four Psychological Strain Scales (PSS). In correlation and multiple regression analyses, we found support for the hypotheses regarding the positive associations between psychological strains measured by the PSS and psychopathology including suicidal ideation. Follow up research with the new scales needs to be carried out in order to test the effects of psychological strains on suicide and mental disorders for various populations. PMID:24443628

  2. Thermoelectric Properties of Hybrid Thin Films of PEDOT-PSS and Silver Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akihito; Toshima, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    We report the thermoelectric (TE) properties of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films composed of conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS), and inorganic silver nanowire (AgNW). Two kinds of AgNW with different wire length, 3 μm and 27 μm, were used in this study. The AgNW/PEDOT-PSS hybrid films showed an increase in electrical conductivity ( σ) with increase in AgNW concentration. The maximum value of σ obtained in this system was ca. 10,000 S cm-1. The films containing long AgNWs (L-AgNWs) showed higher σ relative to short AgNWs (S-AgNWs) at given concentration, which results from the fact that longer nanowires can easily form a percolated structure. The formation of a percolated structure was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. On the other hand, the Seebeck coefficient ( S) of the hybrid films showed the opposite dependence on AgNW concentration. This decrease in S with increasing AgNW concentration is probably because of increase in carrier number due to the AgNWs. These results suggest that the presented organic-inorganic hybrid system is one example where the electrical conductivity and TE properties can be tuned by use of a nanocomposite.

  3. Hybrid device based on GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Min Jeong; Gwon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Chan-Mi; Lee, Gang Seok; Jeon, In-Jun; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yi, Sam Nyung; Ha, Dong Han

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A hybrid device was demonstrated by using MEH-PPV, PEDOT:PSS, and GaN nanoneedles. • I–V curve of the hybrid device showed its rectification behaviour, similar to a diode. • EL peak originated by the different potential barriers at MEH-PPV and GaN interface. - Abstract: A hybrid device that combines the properties of organic and inorganic semiconductors was fabricated and studied. It incorporated poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as organic polymers and GaN nanoneedles as an inorganic semiconductor. Layers of the two polymers were spin coated on to the GaN nanoneedles. The one peak in the electroluminescence spectrum originated from the MEH-PPV layer owing to the different potential barriers of electrons and holes at its interface with the GaN nanoneedles. However, the photoluminescence spectrum showed peaks due to both GaN nanoneedles and MEH-PPV. Such hybrid structures, suitably developed, might be able to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  4. AN/PSS-14 mine detection performance on beaches and in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinway, William J.; Perry, Larry; Maningo, Richard; Ngan, Peter; Locke, Mark

    2004-04-01

    Data collections were conducted using the AN/PSS-14 mine detector on three beach areas in Florida. A few samples of inert anti-tank (AT) and anti-personnel (AP) mines were buried at Jacksonville Beach, Cocoa Beach, and Clearwater Beach. The mines were buried in a variety of sand conditions varying from dry to saturated. The saturated sand conditions included the surf zone with up to two feet of water surge over the buried mine area. Test results indicate a good probability of detection (Pd) of all the buried mines by the AN/PSS-14 Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) and Metal Detector (MD), with a low false alarm rate. This paper will detail test conditions under which the mines were buried, soil dielectric and attenuation parameters measured versus water content in each condition, and interpretation of data in such highly attenuated (400-600 dB attenuation per meter) and extremely conductive soil. In addition, the theory of evanescent electromagnetic waves will be discussed in terms of the performance.

  5. Sulfonated-polyethyleneimine for Photosensitizer Conjugation and Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Chitgupi, Upendra; Zhang, Yumiao; Lo, Chi Y.; Shao, Shuai; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Neelamegham, Sriram; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2015-01-01

    Polysulfonated macromolecules are known to bind selectins, adhesion membrane proteins which are broadly implicated in inflammation. Commercially available branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) was reacted with chlorosulfonic acid to generate sulfonated PEI with varying degrees of sulfonation. Remaining unreacted amine groups were then used for straightforward conjugation with pyropheophoribide-a, a near infrared photosensitizer. Photosensitizer-labeled sulfonated PEI conjugates inhibited blood coagulation and were demonstrated to specifically bind to cells genetically programmed to overexpress L-selectin (CD62L) or P-selectin (CD62P). In vitro, following targeting, selectin-expressing cells could be destroyed via photodynamic therapy. PMID:26057017

  6. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  7. Electrochemical Windows of Sulfone-Based Electrolytes for High-Voltage Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Nan; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, Deen

    2011-01-01

    Further development of high-voltage lithium-ion batteries requires electrolytes with electrochemical windows greater than 5 V. Sulfone-based electrolytes are promising for such a purpose. Here we compute the electrochemical windows for experimentally tested sulfone electrolytes by different levels of theory in combination with various solvation models. The MP2 method combined with the polarizable continuum model is shown to be the most accurate method to predict oxidation potentials of sulfone-based electrolytes with mean deviation less than 0.29 V. Mulliken charge analysis shows that the oxidation happens on the sulfone group for ethylmethyl sulfone and tetramethylene sulfone, and on the ether group for ether functionalized sulfones. Large electrochemical windows of sulfone-based electrolytes are mainly contributed by the sulfone group in the molecules which helps lower the HOMO level. This study can help understand the voltage limits imposed by the sulfone-based electrolytes and aid in designing new electrolytes with greater electrochemical windows.

  8. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  9. Triple Activity of Lamivudine Releasing Sulfonated Polymers against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Danial, Maarten; Andersen, Anna H F; Zuwala, Kaja; Cosson, Steffen; Riber, Camilla Frich; Smith, Anton A A; Tolstrup, Martin; Moad, Graeme; Zelikin, Alexander N; Postma, Almar

    2016-07-01

    In this article a library of polymeric therapeutic agents against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is presented. The library of statistical copolymers of varied molar mass was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The synthesized polymers comprise pendent hydroxyl and sulfonated side chains as well as the reverse transcriptase prodrug lamivudine (3TC) attached via a disulfide self-immolative linker. The glutathione mediated release of 3TC is demonstrated as well as the antiviral efficacy against HIV entry and polymerase activity. Although a high degree of polymer sulfonation is required for effective HIV entry inhibition, polymers with approximately ∼50% sulfonated monomer demonstrated potent kinase independent reverse transcriptase inhibition. In addition, the sulfonated polymers demonstrate activity against DNA-DNA polymerase, which suggests that these polymers may exhibit activity against a broad spectrum of viruses. In summary, the polymers described provide a triple-active arsenal against HIV with extracellular activity via entry inhibition and intracellular activity by kinase-dependent lamivudine-based and kinase-independent sulfonated polymer based inhibition. Since these sulfonated copolymers are easily formulated into gels, we envision them to be particularly suited for topical application to prevent the mucosal transmission of viruses, particularly HIV. PMID:27244595

  10. Characterization of a Sulfonated Polycarbonate Resistive Humidity Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Rubinger, Carla P.L.; Calado, Hallen D.R.; Rubinger, Rero M.; Oliveira, Henrique; Donnici, Claudio L.

    2013-01-01

    In this work; resistive moisture sensors were obtained by dip coating sulfonated polycarbonate (SPC) onto silver interdigitated electrodes. Commercial polycarbonate was sulfonated with acetyl sulphate at two different sulfonation degrees corresponding to 9.0 and 18.0 mole %. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the humidity sensing properties at controlled relative humidity (RH%) environments generated from standard saline solutions in the range of 11–90 RH%. For the highest sulfonated sample; in the RH% range investigated (11 to 90%); the sensor impedance changed from 4.7 MΩ to 18 kΩ. Humidity sensors made from sulfonated polycarbonate showed exponential decay behavior of the impedance at constant frequency with the environmental relative humidity. Sample 9SPC presented dielectric relaxation response for environmental humidity between 58 and 90 RH% while sample 18SPC presented dielectric relaxation response for the entire measured range between 11 and 90 RH%. Sulfonated polycarbonate could be a promising material for the fabrication of simple and cheap humidity-sensing sensors for the assessment of relative humidity of the surrounding environment, as suggested by experimental results. PMID:23385415

  11. Spray coated indium-tin-oxide-free organic photodiodes with PEDOT:PSS anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Morten Falco, Aniello; Loch, Marius; Lugli, Paolo; Scarpa, Giuseppe

    2014-10-15

    In this paper we report on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-free spray coated organic photodiodes with an active layer consisting of a poly(3-hexylthiophen) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend and patterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. External quantum efficiency and current voltage characteristics under illuminated and dark conditions as well as cut-off frequencies for devices with varying active and hole conducting layer thicknesses were measured in order to characterize the fabricated devices. 60% quantum efficiency as well as nearly four orders of magnitude on-off ratios have been achieved. Those values are comparable with standard ITO devices.

  12. Neuroendocrine effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Maureen E; Kasturi, Badrinarayanan S; Barber, Matthew; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; MohanKumar, Sheba M J

    2003-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a degradation product of sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals that are used extensively in industrial and household applications. Humans and wildlife are exposed to this class of compounds from several sources. Toxicity tests in rodents have raised concerns about potential developmental, reproductive, and systemic effects of PFOS. However, the effect of PFOS on the neuroendocrine system has not been investigated thus far. In this study, adult female rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1, or 10 mg PFOS/kg body weight (BW) for 2 weeks. Food and water intake, BW, and estrous cycles were monitored daily. At the end of treatment, PFOS levels in tissues were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced with electrospray mass spectrometry. Changes in brain monoamines were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection, and serum corticosterone and leptin were monitored using radioimmunoassay. Treatment with PFOS produced a dose-dependent accumulation of this chemical in various body tissues, including the brain. PFOS exposure decreased food intake and BW in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PFOS affected estrous cyclicity and increased serum corticosterone levels while decreasing serum leptin concentrations. PFOS treatment also increased norepinephrine concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These results indicate that exposure to PFOS can affect the neuroendocrine system in rats. PMID:12948888

  13. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  14. Neuroendocrine effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rats.

    PubMed

    Austin, Maureen E; Kasturi, Badrinarayanan S; Barber, Matthew; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; MohanKumar, Sheba M J

    2003-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a degradation product of sulfonyl-based fluorochemicals that are used extensively in industrial and household applications. Humans and wildlife are exposed to this class of compounds from several sources. Toxicity tests in rodents have raised concerns about potential developmental, reproductive, and systemic effects of PFOS. However, the effect of PFOS on the neuroendocrine system has not been investigated thus far. In this study, adult female rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0, 1, or 10 mg PFOS/kg body weight (BW) for 2 weeks. Food and water intake, BW, and estrous cycles were monitored daily. At the end of treatment, PFOS levels in tissues were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interfaced with electrospray mass spectrometry. Changes in brain monoamines were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection, and serum corticosterone and leptin were monitored using radioimmunoassay. Treatment with PFOS produced a dose-dependent accumulation of this chemical in various body tissues, including the brain. PFOS exposure decreased food intake and BW in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PFOS affected estrous cyclicity and increased serum corticosterone levels while decreasing serum leptin concentrations. PFOS treatment also increased norepinephrine concentrations in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These results indicate that exposure to PFOS can affect the neuroendocrine system in rats. PMID:12948888

  15. Effect of bismuth telluride concentration on the thermoelectric properties of PEDOT:PSS-glycerol organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Airul Azha Abd; Ali Umar, Akrajas; Othman, Mohamad Habrul Ulum

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the effect of bismuth-telluride concentration on the thermoelectric properties of PEDOT:PSS-Glycerol thin films is investigated. A thermoelectric device was fabricated by depositing the n-type and the p-type Bi2Te3 (BT) doped-PEDOT:PSS-Glycerol on a glass substrate via a spin coating method at 500 rpm. Room-temperature electrical properties characterization shows that the electrical conductivity of both type thin film increases with increasing of BT doping concentration and optimum at concentration of 0.8 wt% for both p-type and n-type thin films, i.e. 17.9 S/cm and 7.78 S/cm, respectively. However, the study of the temperature effect on the thin films electrical conductivity suggested that the thermoelectric properties of both types' samples improved with increasing of BT concentration and optimum at 0.8 and 0.6 wt% for p-type and n-type thin films, respectively. It then decreased if the BT concentration further increased. The Sebeeck coefficient for these samples is as high as -11.9 and -15.7 uV/K, which is equivalent to a power factors of 0.26 and 0.19 μS V2/ (m K2), respectively. A thermoelectric device resembling a thermocouple system that was fabricated using the optimum p-type and n-type thin films can generate a voltage as high as 1.1 V at a temperature difference as low as 55 K, which is equivalent to a maximum power of 6.026 μW at Vmax.power of 0.5489 V (for an estimated matched-load of 50 Ω). The present materials system is potential for powering low power consumption electronic devices.

  16. Flexible, Transparent and Conductive Carbon Nanotube Aerogels /PEDOT:PSS Electrodes created by Top-bottom Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Patricia M.; Cerdan Pasaran, Andrea; Zakhidov, Anvar; University of Guanajuato, Mexico Collaboration

    The sheets of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) have proven to be a good substitute for ITO. To improve their conductivity and increase optical transparency we have created composites which incorporate silver nanowires or other evaporated metals. Coating CNT/metals with PEDOT:PSS is important for creating hole transport/electron barrier layer functionality, but it is not easy to achieve using PEDOT:PSS solutions due to the hydrophobicity of CNT. We report a new top-to-bottom approach for the fabrication of highly flexible, transparent and conductive carbon nanotube-based electrodes using PDMS as a substrate. A uniform and smooth layer of approximately 50 nm of PEDOT:PSS was spin coated on top of a PDMS stamp followed by the deposition of vapor densified freestanding Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWNT) aerogels. An incorporation of silver nanowires, silver or Aluminum thin layer can be sprayed or evaporated on top of the freestanding MWNT aerogels in order to lower the sheet resistance even further. The PDMS substrate is drop cast on top of the configuration then the PDMS stamp is lifted-up. The PEDOT:PSS layer is selectively deposited on top of the MWNT only. The composite electrodes can be laminated on photovoltaic devices and on LEDs.

  17. Facile fabrication of PEDOT:PSS/polythiophenes bilayered nanofilms on pure organic electrodes and their thermoelectric performance.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Liu, Congcong; Xu, Jingkun; Song, Haijun; Lu, Baoyang; Jiang, Fengxing; Zhou, Weiqiang; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Qinglin

    2013-12-26

    A pure organic PEDOT:PSS nanofilm was used as a working electrode for the first time to electrodeposit polymer films of polythiophene (PTh) and its derivatives in a boron trifluoride diethyl ether (BFEE) solution, fabricating a novel generation of bilayered nanofilms. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) demonstrated good electrochemical stability of the as-formed films. Structures and surface morphologies were systematically investigated by the characterizations of cross-section SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, SEM, and AFM. The resulting films revealed stable and enhanced thermoelectric (TE) performances. The electrical conductivity values of PEDOT:PSS/PTh, PEDOT:PSS/P3MeT, and PEDOT:PSS/P3HT nanofilms were determined to be 123.9, 136.5, and 200.5 S cm(-1), respectively. The power factor reached up to be a maximum value of 5.79 μW m(-1) k(-2). Thus, this technique offers a facile approach to a class of bilayered nanofilms, and it may provide a general strategy for fabricating a new generation of conducting polymers for more practical applications. PMID:24313672

  18. Preparation of Pt/{PDDA-GN/PSS-GN}n multilayer films and their electrocatalytic activity regarding methanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaomei; Li, Zhongshui; Zhang, Xiaofeng; He, Xiaolei; Lin, Shen

    2013-03-01

    The stable aqueous dispersion solutions of polymer-modified graphene were prepared by reduction with hydrazine hydrate in situ from exfoliated graphite oxides in the presence of poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), respectively. The multilayer films consisting of PDDA-GN and PSS-GN were fabricated on the substrate by layer-by-layer self-assembly technique and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The multilayer films were used as a novel catalyst support for electrodeposition of Pt nanoparticle clusters in situ. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis demonstrated that Pt particles had been immobilized on the surface of {PDDA-GN/PSS-GN}(n) multilayer films. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric curves were used to study electrocatalytic activity of Pt/{PDDA-GN/PSS-GN}(n) multilayer films regarding methanol oxidation. The results indicated good electrocatalytic activity of the titled multilayer composites toward methanol oxidation in the 0.5 M H(2)SO(4). PMID:23200343

  19. Dwindling the resistance value of PEDOT:PSS - coated on fabric yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amba Sankar K., N.; Mohanta, Kallol

    2016-05-01

    Herein we describe by dip coating method to transform typical fabric yarn to conductive fiber. Different types of yarns have been used to coat from a known conductive polymer, Poly (3,4ethylenedioxythiophene) Poly (styrene sulfonic acid). We have optimized the method to have lesser resistance of the conductive yarns. The minimum resistance achieved has a value of 77 Ω/cm. This value is not high as metals but could be comparable to that of metal oxides or semiconducting materials. However, flexibility of yarns and feeling of fabric combining with the conductivity developed in this process is suitable for wearable electronics and also as gas sensors, electromagnetic shielding.

  20. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s ionomers containing quaternized triptycene groups for alkaline fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhuo; Gong, Feixiang; Zhang, Suobo; Li, Shenghai

    2012-11-01

    A series of poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing quaternized triptycene groups are synthesized through a chloromethylation reaction following a quaternization process. The resulting ionomers are soluble in polar aprotic solvents; thus, flexible, tough membranes could be prepared by solution casting. Novel anion exchange membranes based on these ionomers are obtained by anion exchange with hydroxide ions. All anion exchange membranes show conductivities above 10-2 S cm-1 at room temperature. The highest hydroxide conductivity is 7.2 × 10-2 S cm-1, which is achieved by the anion exchange membrane with ion exchange capacity (IEC) = 2.61 mmol g-1. Meanwhile, these anion exchange membranes have low water uptake and good dimensional stability even at high IEC values. For example, the membrane water uptake (IEC = 1.97 mmol g-1) is only 21% at room temperature, and the swelling ratio is 11%. The anion exchange membranes are stable in alkaline conditions. All the membranes have no significant change in 4 M NaOH solution at 25 °C after 30 days. All results suggest that these anion exchange membranes have potential application in alkaline fuel cells.

  1. Studies of the condensation of sulfones with ketones and aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Garst, Michael E; Dolby, Lloyd J; Esfandiari, Shervin; Okrent, Rachel A; Avey, Alfred A

    2006-01-20

    [reaction: see text] The condensation of ketones or aldehydes with sulfones was shown to give a variety of products. Condensation of 2-methylcyclohexanone with dimethyl sulfone using potassium t-butoxide as base gave useful yields of 1,2-dimethylenecyclohexane. Under the same conditions, cycloheptanone, 3-methyl-2-butanone, and 2-butanone were converted to dienes. Remarkably, these reaction conditions converted acetophenone into p-terphenyl (10%) and (E)-1,4-diphenyl-3-penten-1-one (44%). Propiophenone was converted to 2'-methyl-p-terphenyl (61%). Using alpha-tetralone produced 1-methynaphthalene and naphthalene. No reaction took place with beta-tetralone. Using diethyl sulfone with alpha-tetralone lead to pure naphthalene. Condensation of isobutyraldehyde and dimethyl sulfone using potassium t-butoxide gave isoprene in low yield. Using benzaldehyde and benzyl phenyl sulfone in N,N-dimethylacetamide gave 1,2-diphenyl-1-phenylsulfonylethylene, N,N-dimethylcinnamide, and a complex condensation product. Only 1,2-diphenyl-1-phenylsulfonylethylene was obtained when the solvent was THF. PMID:16408963

  2. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) copolymers via direct copolymerization: Candidates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, William Lamont

    A designed series of directly copolymerized homo- and disulfonated copolymers containing controlled degrees of pendant sulfonic acid groups have been synthesized via nucleophilic step polymerization. Novel sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) copolymers using 4,4'-bisphenol A, 4,4'-biphenol, hexafluorinated (6F) bisphenol AF, and hydroquinone, respectively, with dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (DCDPS) and 3,3'-disodiumsulfonyl-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (SDCDPS) were investigated. Molar ratios of DCDPS and SDCDPS were systematically varied to produce copolymers of controlled compositions, which contained up to 70 mol% of disulfonic acid moiety. The goal is to identify thermally, hydrolytically, and oxidatively stable high molecular weight, film-forming, ductile ion conducting copolymers, which had properties desirable for proton exchange membranes (PEM) in fuel cells. Commercially available bisphenols were selected to produce cost effective alternative PEMs. Partially aliphatic bisphenol A and hexafluorinated (6F) bisphenol AF produced amorphous copolymers with different thermal oxidative and surface properties. Biphenol and hydroquinone was utilized to produce wholly aromatic copolymers. The sulfonated copolymers were prepared in the sodium-salt form and converted to the acid moiety via two different methodologies and subsequently investigated as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells. Hydrophilicity increased with the level of disulfonation, as expected. Moreover, water sorption increased with increasing mole percent incorporation of SDCDPS. The copolymers' water uptake was a function of both bisphenol structure and degree of disulfonation. Furthermore, the acidification procedures were shown to influence the Tg values, water uptake, and conductivity of the copolymers. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode confirmed that the morphology of the copolymers could be designed to display nanophase separation in the hydrophobic and hydrophilic (sulfonated

  3. Sulfonation Pathway Inhibitors Block Reactivation of Latent HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Murry, Jeffrey P.; Godoy, Joseph; Mukim, Amey; Swann, Justine; Bruce, James W.; Ahlquist, Paul; Bosque, Alberto; Planelles, Vicente; Spina, Celsa A.; Young, John A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lived pools of latently infected cells are a significant barrier to the development of a cure for HIV-1 infection. A better understanding of the mechanisms of reactivation from latency is needed to facilitate the development of novel therapies that address this problem. Here we show that chemical inhibitors of the sulfonation pathway prevent virus reactivation, both in latently infected J-Lat and U1 cell lines and in a primary human CD4+ T cell model of latency. In each of these models, sulfonation inhibitors decreased transcription initiation from the HIV-1 promoter. These inhibitors block transcription initiation at a step that lies downstream of nucleosome remodeling and affects RNA polymerase II recruitment to the viral promoter. These results suggest that the sulfonation pathway acts by a novel mechanism to regulate efficient virus transcription initiation during reactivation from latency, and further that augmentation of this pathway could be therapeutically useful. PMID:25310595

  4. Characterization of sulfonated silica nanocomposite electrolyte membranes for fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deuk-Ju; Nam, Sang-Yong

    2014-12-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) and sulfonated silica (silica-SO3H) prepared via sol-gel reaction are used as an organic polymer matrix and inorganic nanoparticles. The contents of the silica-SO3H particles in the composite membranes are controlled at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 wt.% in order to evaluate the appropriate content for high proton conductivity. Randomly dispersed silica particles are obtained from all composite membranes as a result of the hydrophilic domains in the polymer and silica-SO3H. In this study, the optimum silica-SO3H content for high proton conductivity is 3 wt.% in fully hydrated conditions and 0.5 wt.% in low humidity conditions. PMID:25970990

  5. Palladium-catalyzed direct α-arylation of methyl sulfones with aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing; Jia, Tiezheng; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-04-01

    A direct and efficient approach for palladium-catalyzed arylation of aryl and alkyl methyl sulfones with aryl bromides has been developed. The catalytic system affords arylated sulfones in good to excellent yields (73-90%). PMID:23517309

  6. Antistiction technique using elastomer contact structure in woven electronic textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Miyake, Koji; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an antistiction technique using an elastomer contact structure in woven electronic textiles (e-textiles). A coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in the form of a solid conductive film on a hemispherical silicone elastomer structure is employed in creating an electrical circuit embedded into the fabric of a woven e-textile, where the contact structure reduces the contact area and capillary force generated by the moisture in air between weft and warp ribbons. Stiction occurs between a weft and a warp without the contact structure under an RH of 80%, and the detachment of the stuck ribbon requires a delamination load of about 0.2 N. On the other hand, in the case of contact between the contact structure and the ribbon coated with plain PEDOT:PSS, stiction does not occur as the relative humidity increases from 20 to 80%.

  7. Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Meteorite Sulfonic Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Teresa L.; Chang, Sherwood

    1997-01-01

    Intramolecular carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were measured on a homologous series of organic sulfonic acids discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionations were observed along with high deuterium/hydrogen ratios. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low-temperature environment that is consistent with that of interstellar clouds. Sulfur-33 enrichments observed in methanesulfonic acid could have resulted from gas-phase ultraviolet irradiation of a precursor, carbon disulfide. The source of the sulfonic acid precursors may have been the reactive interstellar molecule carbon monosulfide.

  8. Aminooxylation Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Sequence for the Synthesis of Enantioenriched γ-Functionalized Vinyl Sulfones.

    PubMed

    Doherty, William; Evans, Paul

    2016-02-19

    An operationally simple protocol for the synthesis of γ-hydroxy vinyl sulfones has been developed using a proline-based aldehyde aminooxylation, followed by a vinyl sulfone forming Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination. The adducts, formed in high enantiopurity, were subsequently converted to γ-azido vinyl sulfones, and azide-alkyne click chemistry enabled the synthesis of vinyl sulfone-based triazoles as potential nonpeptidic cysteine protease inhibitors. PMID:26818590

  9. Exisulind: Aptosyn, FGN 1, Prevatac, sulindac sulfone.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Exisulind [Aptosyn trade mark, FGN 1 trade mark, Prevatac trade mark, sulindac sulfone], the sulfone derivative of sulindac, is the lead compound in a series of selective apoptotic antineoplastic drugs (SAANDs) being developed by OSI Pharmaceuticals. The compounds were originally developed by Cell Pathways, which was acquired by, and integrated into, OSI Pharmaceuticals in June 2003. Exisulind inhibits the enzyme cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (GMP-PDE), overexpressed in precancerous and cancerous colorectal cells, and induces apoptosis in such cells with minimal effects on normal cells. This apoptotic effect is independent of COX I or COX II inhibition, p53, Bcl-2, or cell-cycle arrest. Preclinical evidence suggests that exisulind also inhibits angiogenesis. Cell Pathways has formed sales and distribution agreements with three healthcare-related companies in the US for its future marketing and support campaign for exisulind. Innovex will hire and train sales representatives for Cell Pathways to launch and promote exisulind, Livingston Healthcare Services will be responsible for customer service, order and distribution administration, and Lash Group will be responsible for the development and implementation of reimbursement support services for exisulind. Cell Pathways has issued an exclusive licence for exisulind to Paladin Labs of Montreal, Canada. The agreement allows Paladin exclusive rights to commercialise the drug in Canada. In August 1999 Cell Pathways submitted an NDA application to the US FDA for exisulind (Aptosyn) for the treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, in September 2000, the FDA announced that it had found deficiencies in the safety and efficacy data of Cell Pathways' NDA, and returned a non-approvable letter to the company. Cell Pathways then initiated another phase III study of the agent in combination with Aventis' docetaxel and comparing combination therapy with docetaxel alone. Exisulind has fast-track designation for FAP

  10. Thin Film Silicon Nanowire/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Solar Cells with Surface Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianxiong; Hong, Lei; Tan, Yew Heng; Tan, Chuan Seng; Rusli

    2016-06-01

    SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells are fabricated on 10.6-μm-thick crystalline Si thin films. Cells with Si nanowires (SiNWs) of different lengths fabricated using the metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) technique have been investigated. A surface treatment process using oxygen plasma has been applied to improve the surface quality of the SiNWs, and the optimized cell with 0.7-μm-long SiNWs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.83 %. The surface treatment process is found to remove surface defects and passivate the SiNWs and substantially improve the average open circuit voltage from 0.461 to 0.562 V for the optimized cell. The light harvesting capability of the SiNWs has also been investigated theoretically using optical simulation. It is found that the inherent randomness of the MCEE SiNWs, in terms of their diameter and spacing, accounts for the excellent light harvesting capability. In comparison, periodic SiNWs of comparable dimensions have been shown to exhibit much poorer trapping and absorption of light.

  11. Thin Film Silicon Nanowire/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Solar Cells with Surface Treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianxiong; Hong, Lei; Tan, Yew Heng; Tan, Chuan Seng; Rusli

    2016-12-01

    SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells are fabricated on 10.6-μm-thick crystalline Si thin films. Cells with Si nanowires (SiNWs) of different lengths fabricated using the metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) technique have been investigated. A surface treatment process using oxygen plasma has been applied to improve the surface quality of the SiNWs, and the optimized cell with 0.7-μm-long SiNWs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.83 %. The surface treatment process is found to remove surface defects and passivate the SiNWs and substantially improve the average open circuit voltage from 0.461 to 0.562 V for the optimized cell. The light harvesting capability of the SiNWs has also been investigated theoretically using optical simulation. It is found that the inherent randomness of the MCEE SiNWs, in terms of their diameter and spacing, accounts for the excellent light harvesting capability. In comparison, periodic SiNWs of comparable dimensions have been shown to exhibit much poorer trapping and absorption of light. PMID:27356558

  12. An automatic data acquisition system for optical characterization of PEDOT:PSS-based gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaidi, Aba, La; Triyana, Kuwat

    2015-04-01

    A measurement system that consists of a pair of laser diode and photodiode coupled with an automatic data acquisition system based on microcontroller of AVR ATMega16 (hereafter to be called DAQ MA-16) has been developed for measuring optical response of polymer-based gas sensor. In this case, the optical response was represented by the voltage output of the photodiode. The polymer-based gas sensor was a thin film of polymer of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) or PEDOT:PSS deposited on a glass substrate. For measurement, the sensor was placed in the chamber, and then the gas ammonia with a fix flow rate was flowed into the chamber. The opposite part of the chamber was installed a pump to throw the gas. The National Instrument Data Acquisition (NI DAQ) BNC-2110 has been used to calibrate the DAQ MA-16 system. From the calibration, it can be estimated that the accuracy of DAQ MA-16 is about 99.4%.

  13. Enhancement in electrical properties of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTCDA/Ag by using calcium buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Hassan Sayyad, Muhammad; Wahab, Fazal; Aziz, Fakhra; Ullah, Irfan; Khan, Gulzar

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on electrical characterization of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PTCDA/Ca/Ag device based on 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) and calcium (Ca) buffer layer with improved junction properties. The I-V characteristics have been utilized to extract various electrical parameters such as ideality factor (n), barrier height (ϕB) and series resistance Rs, which are found to be 1.9, 0.79 eV and 2.5 kΩ, respectively. The device shows good rectifying behavior, with a rectification ratio of 528, and also field-lowering mechanism with a linear dependence of log I on V1/2. The device reported in the present work shows 50% improvement in the rectification ratio and ideality factor as compared to our previously fabricated device. It appears from the experimental data that the transport mechanism in the PTCDA thin film is dominated by the Poole-Frenkel model of thermionic emission, which may be associated with high density of structural defects or traps present in the film.

  14. Modification of electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS/p-Si heterojunction diodes by doping with dimethyl sulfoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, C. S.; Singh, J. P.; Singh, R.

    2016-05-01

    We report about the fabrication and electrical characterization of heterojunction diodes between poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) doped with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and p-Si. Electrical characterization of the heterojunction diodes was performed using current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The heterojunction diodes showed good rectifying behavior. Interestingly, for 5 vol.% doping concentration of DMSO, the heterojunction diode showed the best diode characteristics with an ideality factor of 1.9. The doping of DMSO into PEDOT:PSS solution resulted in an increase in the conductivity of films by two orders of magnitude and the films showed high optical transmission (>85%) in the visible region.

  15. Facile preparation and thermoelectric properties of Bi₂Te₃ based alloy nanosheet/PEDOT:PSS composite films.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Cai, K F; Chen, Song; Cizek, Pavel; Lin, Tong

    2014-04-23

    Bi2Te3 based alloy nanosheet (NS)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) composite films were prepared separately by spin coating and drop casting techniques. The drop cast composite film containing 4.10 wt % Bi2Te3 based alloy NSs showed electrical conductivity as high as 1295.21 S/cm, which is higher than that (753.8 S/cm) of a dimethyl sulfoxide doped PEDOT:PSS film prepared under the same condition and that (850-1250 S/cm) of the Bi2Te3 based alloy bulk material. The composite film also showed a very high power factor value, ∼32.26 μWm(-1) K(-2). With the content of Bi2Te3 based alloy NSs increasing from 0 to 4.10 wt %, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the composite films increase simultaneously. PMID:24666341

  16. High-Performance Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor from Large Free-Standing Graphene-PEDOT/PSS Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuqing; Weng, Bo; Razal, Joselito M.; Xu, Qun; Zhao, Chen; Hou, Yuyang; Seyedin, Shayan; Jalili, Rouhollah; Wallace, Gordon G.; Chen, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Although great attention has been paid to wearable electronic devices in recent years, flexible lightweight batteries or supercapacitors with high performance are still not readily available due to the limitations of the flexible electrode inventory. In this work, highly flexible, bendable and conductive rGO-PEDOT/PSS films were prepared using a simple bar-coating method. The assembled device using rGO-PEDOT/PSS electrode could be bent and rolled up without any decrease in electrochemical performance. A relatively high areal capacitance of 448 mF cm-2 was achieved at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 using the composite electrode with a high mass loading (8.49 mg cm-2), indicating the potential to be used in practical applications. To demonstrate this applicability, a roll-up supercapacitor device was constructed, which illustrated the operation of a green LED light for 20 seconds when fully charged.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... Substances § 721.10045 Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... Substances § 721.10045 Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... Substances § 721.10045 Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... Substances § 721.10045 Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.950 - Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sulfonated aromatic (generic name). 721.950 Section 721.950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.950 Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated... chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a... generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a... generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and...

  9. 40 CFR 721.644 - Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates... Substances § 721.644 Amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as amines, C12-14-tert-alkyl, sulfonates...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9620 - Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9620 Aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine. (a) Chemical substance... aromatic sulfonic acid compound with amine (PMN P-93-832) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9674 - Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9674 Sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a... chemical substance identified generically as sulfonated-copper phthalocyanine salt of a triarylmethane...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5450 - α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721... Substances § 721.5450 α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as α-olefin sulfonate, sodium...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5450 - α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721... Substances § 721.5450 α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as α-olefin sulfonate, sodium...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5450 - α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721... Substances § 721.5450 α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as α-olefin sulfonate, sodium...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5450 - α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721... Substances § 721.5450 α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as α-olefin sulfonate, sodium...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5450 - α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. 721... Substances § 721.5450 α-Olefin sulfonate, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as α-olefin sulfonate, sodium...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10564 - Mixed amino diaryl sulfone isomers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed amino diaryl sulfone isomers... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10564 Mixed amino diaryl sulfone isomers (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed amino diaryl sulfone isomers (PMN P-08-39) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10564 - Mixed amino diaryl sulfone isomers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mixed amino diaryl sulfone isomers... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10564 Mixed amino diaryl sulfone isomers (generic). (a) Chemical... as mixed amino diaryl sulfone isomers (PMN P-08-39) is subject to reporting under this section...

  1. Solvent-treated PEDOT:PSS on the improvement PTB7 based on polymer solar cells performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Di; Xu, Zheng; Zhao, Suling; Li, Yang; Zhao, Ling; Jin, Shi Qi

    2015-10-01

    In this manuscript, the effect of the 2-propanol(IPA)-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on the performance enhancement of polymer solar cells(PSCs) based on poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  2. Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS on flexible substrate as ITO-free anode for polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Del Mauro, A. De Girolamo; Ricciardi, R.; Montanino, M.; Morvillo, P.; Minarini, C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, highly conductive anode based on PEDOT:PSS is proposed as substitute of Indio-Tin Oxide (ITO) in flexible solar cells. The anodic conductive polymer was spin coated on a 125 μm thick polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate. The obtained film was characterized in terms of structure and physical- chemical proprieties. The obtained results are very promising and the conductive film will be investigated in future as electrode in a complete polymeric solar cell.

  3. WO3 nanopaticles and PEDOT:PSS/WO3 composite thin films studied for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov Boyadjiev, Stefan; Manduca, Bruno; Szűcs, Júlia; Miklós Szilágyi, Imre

    2016-03-01

    WO3 is a widely studied material for electrochromic and photocatalytic applications. In the present study, WO3 nanoparticles with a controlled structure (monoclinic or hexagonal) were obtained by controlled thermal decomposition of hexagonal ammonium tungsten bronze in air at 500 °C and 600 °C, respectively. The formation, morphology, structure and composition of the as-prepared nanoparticles were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The photocatalytic activity of the monoclinic and hexagonal WO3 nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. In order to study the electrochromic properties of the WO3 nanoparticles, as well to introduce them for self-cleaning photocatalytic surface applications, thin films were prepared from the WO3 particles together with a conductive polymer. For this, PEDOT:PSS was used, which gives excellent opportunities for obtaining transparent and conductive thin films, suitable for both electrochromic and photocatalytic applications. By spin-coating, transparent PEDOT:PSS/WO3 composite thin films were prepared, on which cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied. Our initial results for the PEDOT:PSS/WO3 composite thin films are promising, suggesting that such composites, after further development, might be successfully used in electrochromic devices and photocatalysis.

  4. Electrical transport characterization of PEDOT:PSS/n-Si Schottky diodes and their applications in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Khurelbaatar, Zagarzusem; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Gil-Sung; Park, No-Won; Shim, Kyu-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate locally contacted PEDOT:PSS Schottky diodes with excellent rectifying behavior, fabricated on n-type Si substrates using a spin-coating process and a reactive-ion etching process. Electrical transport characterizations of these Schottky diodes were investigated by both current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. We found that these devices exhibit excellent modulation in the current with an on/off ratio of - 10(6). Schottky junction solar cells composed of PEDOT:PSS and n-Si structures were also examined. From the current density-voltage (J-V) measurement of a solar cell under illumination, the short circuit current (I(sc)), open circuit voltage (V(oc)), and conversion efficiency (eta) were - 19.7 mA/cm2, - 578.5 mV, and - 6.5%, respectively. The simple and low-cost fabrication process of the PEDOT:PSS/n-Si Schottky junctions makes them a promising candidate for further high performance solar cell applications. PMID:24738402

  5. pHEMA Encapsulated PEDOT-PSS-CNT Microsphere Microelectrodes for Recording Single Unit Activity in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Elisa; Maggiolini, Emma; Ceseracciu, Luca; Ciarpella, Francesca; Zucchini, Elena; De Faveri, Sara; Fadiga, Luciano; Ricci, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The long-term reliability of neural interfaces and stability of high-quality recordings are still unsolved issues in neuroscience research. High surface area PEDOT-PSS-CNT composites are able to greatly improve the performance of recording and stimulation for traditional intracortical metal microelectrodes by decreasing their impedance and increasing their charge transfer capability. This enhancement significantly reduces the size of the implantable device though preserving excellent electrical performances. On the other hand, the presence of nanomaterials often rises concerns regarding possible health hazards, especially when considering a clinical application of the devices. For this reason, we decided to explore the problem from a new perspective by designing and testing an innovative device based on nanostructured microspheres grown on a thin tether, integrating PEDOT-PSS-CNT nanocomposites with a soft synthetic permanent biocompatible hydrogel. The pHEMA hydrogel preserves the electrochemical performance and high quality recording ability of PEDOT-PSS-CNT coated devices, reduces the mechanical mismatch between soft brain tissue and stiff devices and also avoids direct contact between the neural tissue and the nanocomposite, by acting as a biocompatible protective barrier against potential nanomaterial detachment. Moreover, the spherical shape of the electrode together with the surface area increase provided by the nanocomposite deposited on it, maximize the electrical contact and may improve recording stability over time. These results have a good potential to contribute to fulfill the grand challenge of obtaining stable neural interfaces for long-term applications. PMID:27147944

  6. pHEMA Encapsulated PEDOT-PSS-CNT Microsphere Microelectrodes for Recording Single Unit Activity in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, Elisa; Maggiolini, Emma; Ceseracciu, Luca; Ciarpella, Francesca; Zucchini, Elena; De Faveri, Sara; Fadiga, Luciano; Ricci, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The long-term reliability of neural interfaces and stability of high-quality recordings are still unsolved issues in neuroscience research. High surface area PEDOT-PSS-CNT composites are able to greatly improve the performance of recording and stimulation for traditional intracortical metal microelectrodes by decreasing their impedance and increasing their charge transfer capability. This enhancement significantly reduces the size of the implantable device though preserving excellent electrical performances. On the other hand, the presence of nanomaterials often rises concerns regarding possible health hazards, especially when considering a clinical application of the devices. For this reason, we decided to explore the problem from a new perspective by designing and testing an innovative device based on nanostructured microspheres grown on a thin tether, integrating PEDOT-PSS-CNT nanocomposites with a soft synthetic permanent biocompatible hydrogel. The pHEMA hydrogel preserves the electrochemical performance and high quality recording ability of PEDOT-PSS-CNT coated devices, reduces the mechanical mismatch between soft brain tissue and stiff devices and also avoids direct contact between the neural tissue and the nanocomposite, by acting as a biocompatible protective barrier against potential nanomaterial detachment. Moreover, the spherical shape of the electrode together with the surface area increase provided by the nanocomposite deposited on it, maximize the electrical contact and may improve recording stability over time. These results have a good potential to contribute to fulfill the grand challenge of obtaining stable neural interfaces for long-term applications. PMID:27147944

  7. PEDOT:PSS with embedded TiO2 nanoparticles as light trapping electrode for organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yoonseok; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl

    2016-06-01

    The performance of organic optoelectronic devices can be improved by employing a suitable optical cavity design beyond the standard plane layer approach, e.g., by the inclusion of periodically or randomly textured structures which increase light incoupling or extraction. One of the simplest approaches is to add an additional layer containing light scattering particles into the device stack. Solution processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films are promising for replacing the brittle and expensive indium tin oxide transparent electrode. We use a blend of 100 nm TiO2 scattering particles in PEDOT:PSS solution to fabricate transparent electrode films which also functions as a scattering layer. When utilized in an organic photovoltaic device, a power conversion efficiency of 7.92% is achieved, which is an 8.6% relative improvement compared to a device with a neat PEDOT:PSS electrode without the nanoparticles. This improvement is caused by an increase in short-circuit current due to an improved photon harvesting in the 320 nm-700 nm spectral wavelength range.

  8. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, and either urine or expired water. The data were then an...

  9. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... produced by chloro-sulfonation of a carbon tetrachloride solution of polyethylene with chlorine and...) Chlorine not to exceed 25 percent by weight. (2) Sulfur not to exceed 1.15 percent by weight. (3) Molecular... “Chlorine and Bromine—Coulometric Titration Method by Aminco Chloridometer,” “Hypolon ® Synthetic...

  10. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyethylene with chlorine and sulfuryl chloride. (b) Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated shall meet the following specifications: (1) Chlorine not to exceed 25 percent by weight. (2) Sulfur not to exceed 1.15... specifications in this paragraph (b), titled “Chlorine and Bromine—Coulometric Titration Method by...

  11. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyethylene with chlorine and sulfuryl chloride. (b) Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated shall meet the following specifications: (1) Chlorine not to exceed 25 percent by weight. (2) Sulfur not to exceed 1.15... specifications in this paragraph (b), titled “Chlorine and Bromine—Coulometric Titration Method by...

  12. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmentally persistent chemical that has been detected in humans and wildlife. PFOS is primarily distributed in liver and blood. The current study evaluated the level of PFOS in the adult and neonatal rat brain and determined whether t...

  13. Use of amine neutralized sulfonated polystyrenes for particle flocculation

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, D.J.; Peiffer, D.G.; Thaler, W.A.; Duvdevani, I.

    1987-10-20

    A process is described for flocculating solid fines selected from the group consisting of coke films, catalyst fines, synthetic fuel fines, coal fines, and shale fines from a solution comprising the solid fines and an organic liquid which comprises the steps of: (a) adding with mixing about 5 to about 10,000 ppm of the water insoluble unneutralized or neutralized sulfonated polystyrene to the solution wherein the sulfonated polystyrene is dissolved in a dissolving organic liquid at a concentration level of about 0.01 to about 20 weight percent, and has about 0.5 to about 100 mole percent of sulfonate groups; and (b) heating at about 25/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C for about 1 to about 45 minutes the mixture of the solution and the unneutralized or neutralized polystyrene wherein the sulfonated polystrene is absorbed on the surface of the solid fines, and the solid fines collide to form agglomerates which precipitate out of the solution.

  14. Absorption and distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an industrial chemical that is found in biosolids, and the application of these biosolids to pastures has raised concerns about human exposure through the accumulation of PFOS in edible tissues of these animals. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) h...

  15. One-pot, three-component arylalkynyl sulfone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Chun; Waser, Jerome

    2015-02-01

    A one-pot three-component protocol for the preparation of arylsulfonyl alkynes through the reaction of ethynyl-benziodoxolone (EBX) reagents, DABSO (DABCO·SO2), and either organomagnesium reagents or aryl iodides with a palladium catalyst is reported. A broad range of aryl and heteroarylalkynyl sulfones were obtained in 46-85% overall yield. PMID:25633719

  16. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only...

  17. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177.2500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only...

  18. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  19. Hydrogen-bonding patterns in pyrimethaminium pyridine-3-sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Nirmalram, Jeyaraman Selvaraj; Thomas Muthiah, Packianathan

    2010-01-01

    In the asymmetric unit of the title salt [systematic name: 2,4-diamino-5-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-6-ethyl­pyrimidin-1-ium pyri­dine-3-sulfonate], C12H14N4Cl+·C5H4NSO3 −, there are two independent pyrimethaminium cations and two 3-pyridine sulfonate anions. Each sulfonate group inter­acts with the corresponding protonated pyrimidine ring through two N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a cyclic hydrogen-bonded bimolecular R 2 2(8) motif. Even though the primary mode of association is the same, the next higher level of supra­molecular architectures are different due to different hydrogen-bonded networks. In one of the independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, the pyrimethamine cation is paired centrosymmetrically through N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, generating an R 2 2(8) ring motif. In the other molecule, the pyrimethamine cation does not form any base pairs; instead it forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-pyridine sulfonate anion. The structure is further stabilized by C—H⋯O, C—H⋯N and π–π stacking [centroid–centroid distance = 3.9465 (13) Å] inter­actions. PMID:21588411

  20. Sulfone-Containing Methacrylate Homopolymers: Wetting and Thermal Properties.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shota; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2016-01-26

    Although the sulfonyl functional group has a large dipole moment and compounds containing them (sulfones) have correspondingly high dielectric constants, this chemical structure has been neglected for use as a functional group to render surfaces hydrophilic. We have prepared three methacrylate polymers containing side chains capped with sulfolane, methylsulfone, and ethylsulfone functionality. The sulfolane-containing polymer exhibits an unusually high glass transition temperature (Tg = 188°C) for a methacrylate polymer and slightly different thermal degradation behavior than the other two sulfone-containing polymers, likely due to the bulky structure of the sulfolane group in the polymer side chain. At macroscopic polymer film/water interfaces, the sulfone-containing side chains exposed to the interface impart hydrophilic properties as assessed by contact angle analysis. The hydrophilicities of sulfolane and methylsulfone surfaces are similar, and greater than the ethylsulfone surface. Although the chemical compositions of the sulfolane and ethylsulfone polymers are almost identical, the five-membered ring structure of sulfolane allows the sulfonyl moiety to be exposed at the interface in a manner similar to that of the methylsulfone polymer. The sulfonyl group at the ethylsulfone polymer/water interface is slightly masked by the ethyl group. Interestingly, the sulfolane surface displays a higher affinity to methylene iodide and n-hexadecane probe fluids compared to the other sulfone surfaces, suggesting that the five-membered ring structure of the sulfolane moiety can orient in a manner that shelters the sulfonyl group at hydrophobic interfaces. PMID:26716766

  1. 21 CFR 173.395 - Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sulfonic acid has the empirical formula CF3SO3H (CAS Reg. No. 1493-13-6). The catalyst (Trifluoromethane... catalyst meets the following specifications: Appearance, Clear liquid. Color, Colorless to amber... esterification reaction is quenched with steam and water and the catalyst is removed with the aqueous...

  2. 21 CFR 173.395 - Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. 173.395 Section 173.395 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives §...

  3. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. 177.2210... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2210 Ethylene polymer,...

  4. Sulfonated polysulfone battery membrane for use in corrosive environments

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Assink, Roger

    1987-01-01

    For batteries containing strong oxidizing electrolyte and a membrane separating two electrolyte solutions, e.g., a zinc ferricyanide battery, an improved membrane is provided comprising an oxidative resistant, conductive, ion-selective membrane fabricated from a catenated aromatic polymer having an absence of tertiary hydrogens, e.g., a sulfonated polysulfone.

  5. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. 177.2210... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2210 Ethylene polymer,...

  6. Three-dimensional porous stretchable and conductive polymer composites based on graphene networks grown by chemical vapour deposition and PEDOT:PSS coating.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengting; Duan, Shasha; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Zhihui; Li, Chunzhong

    2015-02-21

    We have manufactured a highly conductive and stretchable composite by backfilling the 3D graphene-PEDOT:PSS skeleton with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The electrical conductivity of our product can reach 24 S cm(-1) with only 1.5 wt% graphene and 1.5 wt% PEDOT:PSS loading, and its resistance increased only 35% when stretched to 80% strain. PMID:25605259

  7. Improving the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer in polymer solar cells via copper(II) bromide salt doping.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Wu, Qiliang; Xia, Fei; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Yawei; Zhang, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jun; Dai, Songyuan; Yang, Shangfeng

    2015-01-28

    Copper(II) bromide (CuBr2) salt has been applied to dope poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transport layer (HTL) in polymer solar cells (PSCs), improving dramatically the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS film and consequently the device power conversion efficiency (PCE). Under the optimized doping concentration of CuBr2 of 10 mmol·L(-1), PCE of the CuBr2:PEDOT:PSS HTL-incorporated BHJ-PSC device based on poly[N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5- (4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'- benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) (PCDTBT:PC71BM) reaches 7.05%, which is improved by ∼20.7% compared to that of the reference device based on pristine PEDOT:PSS HTL (5.84%) and represents the highest PCE for PCDTBT:PC71BM-based PSC devices without an electron transport layer (ETL) reported so far. The dramatic improvement of the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS film is interpreted by the weakening of the Coulombic attractions between PEDOT and PSS components. The work function of CuBr2:PEDOT:PSS slightly increases compared to that of the undoped PEDOT:PSS as inferred from scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) measurements, contributing to the improved PCE due to the increases of the open-current voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). PMID:25536017

  8. Pyrolysis Pathways of Sulfonated Polyethylene, an Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, Jarod M; Saito, Tomonori; Hunt, Marcus A; Beste, Ariana; Naskar, Amit K

    2013-01-01

    Sulfonated polyethylene is an emerging precursor for the production of carbon fibers. Pyrolysis of sulfonated polyethylene was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). n-heptane-4-sulfonic acid (H4S) was selected as a model compound for the study of sulfonated polyethylene. Density functional theory and conventional transition state theory were used to determine the rate constants of pyrolysis for H4S from 300-1000 K. Multiple reaction channels from two different mechanisms were explored: 1) internal five-centered elimination (Ei 5) and 2) radical chain reaction. The pyrolysis of H4S was simulated with kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to obtain TGA plots that compared favorably to experiment. We observed that at tem- peratures < 550 K, the radical mechanism was dominant and yielded the trans-alkene, whereas cis-alkene was formed at higher temperatures from the internal elimination. The maximum rates of % mass loss became independent of initial OH radical concentration at 440-480 K. Experimentally, the maximum % mass loss occurred from 440-460 K (heating rate dependent). Activation energies derived from the kMC-simulated TGAs of H4S (26-29 kcal/mol) agreed with experiment for sulfonated polyethylene ( 31 kcal/mol). The simulations revealed that in this region, decomposition of radical HOSO2 became competitive to H abstraction by HOSO2, making OH the carrying radical for the reaction chain. The maximum rate of % mass loss for internal elimination was observed at temperatures > 600 K. Low-scale carbonization utilizes temperatures < 620 K; thus, internal elimination will not be competitive. Ei5 elimination has been studied for sulfoxides and sulfones, but this represents the first study of internal elimination in sulfonic acids. Nonlinear Arrhenius plots were found for all bimolecular reactions. The most significant nonlinear behavior was observed for reactions where the barrier was small. For reactions with low activation barriers, nonlinearity was traced to

  9. Highly transparent and efficient counter electrode using SiO2/PEDOT-PSS composite for bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Dandan; Li, Meicheng; Li, Yingfeng; Zhao, Xing; Jiang, Bing; Jiang, Yongjian

    2014-05-28

    A highly transparent and efficient counter electrode was facilely fabricated using SiO2/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) inorganic/organic composite and used in bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The optical properties of SiO2/PEDOT-PSS electrode can be tailored by the blending amount of SiO2 and film thickness, and the incorporation of SiO2 in PEDOT-PSS provides better transmission in the long wavelength range. Meanwhile, the SiO2/PEDOT-PSS counter electrode shows a better electrochemical catalytic activity than PEDOT-PSS electrode for triiodide reduction, and the role of SiO2 in the catalytic process is investigated. The bifacial DSC with SiO2/PEDOT-PSS counter electrode achieves a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.61% under rear-side irradiation, which is about 83% of that obtained under front-side irradiation. Furthermore, the PCE of bifacial DSC can be significantly increased by adding a reflector to achieve bifacial irradiation, which is 39% higher than that under conventional front-side irradiation. PMID:24802383

  10. Maskless selective laser patterning of PEDOT:PSS on barrier/foil for organic electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnakis, Dimitris; Stephens, Tim; Chabrol, Gregoire

    2013-03-01

    Rapid developments in organic electronics promise low cost devices for applications such as OLED, organic transistors and organic photovoltaics on large-area glass or flexible substrates in the near future. The technology is very attractive as most device layers can be solution printed. But when directly patterned deposition is impossible, a post-patterning step is required and laser processing is gradually emerging as a key-enabling tool. DPSS lasers offer several advantages including maskless, non-contact, dry patterning, but also scalable large area processing, well suited to roll-to-roll manufacturing at μm resolutions. However, very few reports discuss in detail the merits of DPSS laser patterning technology, especially on flexible substrates. This paper describes the potential of ultrafast DPSS laser technology for OLED fabrication on foil and, specifically, picosecond laser ablation of PEDOT:PSS on multilayered barrier/foil or metal grids aimed as a synthetic alternative to inorganic transparent conductive electrodes. Key requirements include: (a) the complete removal of PEDOT layers without residue, (b) the complete absence of surface contamination from redeposited laser debris to avoid short circuiting and (c) no loss in performance of from laser exposure. We will demonstrate that with careful optimisation and appropriate choice of ultrafast laser, the above criteria can be fulfilled. A suitable process window exists resulting in clean laser structuring without damage to the underlying heat sensitive barrier layers whilst also containing laser debris. A low temperature ablation most likely proceeds via a stress-assisted (film fracture and ejection) process as opposed to vaporisation or other phase change commonly encountered with longer pulse lasers.

  11. Process for recovering 4,4 prime dihydroxydiphenyl sulfone from an isomer mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Zemlanicky, F.; Cooker, B.

    1991-03-19

    This patent describes a process for the recovery of 4,4{prime}-bisphenol sulfone from an isomer mixture comprising 4,4{prime}-bisphenol sulfone and 2,4{prime}-bisphenol sulfone. It comprises dissolving the isomer mixture in a basic aqueous solution comprising about one mole of base per mole of the mixture of 4,4{prime}-bisphenol sulfone and 2,4{prime}-bisphenol sulfone to form a basic isomer solution and adding acid to the isomer solution in an amount of from about 0.85 to 0.95 mole per mole of the 4,4{prime}-bisphenol sulfone wherein the acid is added in an amount sufficient to cause selective precipitation of crystals of 4,4{prime}-bisphenol sulfone yet in an amount less than sufficient to neutralize the isomer solution and removing the crystals of 4,4{prime}-bisphenol from the aqueous solution.

  12. Arabidopsis nonhost resistance gene PSS1 confers immunity against an oomycete and a fungal pathogen but not a bacterial pathogen that cause diseases in soybean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nonhost resistance (NHR) provides immunity to all members of a plant species against all isolates of a microorganism that is pathogenic to other plant species. Three Arabidopsis thaliana PEN (penetration deficient) genes, PEN1, 2 and 3 have been shown to provide NHR against the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei at the prehaustorial level. Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. We investigated if there is any novel nonhost resistance mechanism in Arabidopsis against the soybean pathogen, P. sojae. Results The P.sojaesusceptible (pss) 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Segregation data suggested that PEN1 is not epistatic to PSS1. Responses of pss1 and pen1-1 to P. sojae invasion were distinct and suggest that PSS1 may act at both pre- and post-haustorial levels, while PEN1 acts at the pre-haustorial level against this soybean pathogen. Therefore, PSS1 encodes a new form of nonhost resistance. The pss1 mutant is also infected by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, which causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. However, PSS1 does not play any role in immunity against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, that causes bacterial blight in soybean. We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. Conclusions The study revealed that Arabidopsis PSS1 is a novel nonhost resistance gene that confers a new form of nonhost resistance against both

  13. Isotopic Measurements of Organic Sulfonates From The Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G. W.; Chang, S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Organic sulfonates and phosphonates have been extracted from the Murchison meteorite for stable isotope measurements. Preliminary stable isotope measurements of individual alkyl sulfonates, R-SO3H (R=C(sub n)H(sub 2n+l)), are shown. These compounds were found in aqueous extracts of Murchison. Both groups show trends similar to other homologous series of organic compounds indigenous to Murchison. Molecular abundances decrease with increasing carbon number, and all possible isomers at each carbon number (through C-4) are present. Carbon isotope measurements of the sulfonates show a decrease in the C-13/C-12 ratio with increasing carbon number. The overall objectives of this project are to obtain dime element carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur - intramolecular isotopic analyses of individual sulfonates, and isotopic measurement of carbon and hydrogen of the phosphonates as a group. The Murchison meteorite is the best characterized carbonaceous chondrite with respect to organic chemistry. The finding of organic sulfonates and phosphonates in Murchison is of interest because they are the first well-characterized series of sulfur and phosphorus containing organic compounds found in meteorites. Also, meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust particles may have been involved in chemical evolution on the early Earth. Because of the critical role of organic phosphorus and sulfur in all living systems, it is particularly interesting to see examples of abiotic syntheses of these classes of compounds. The study of the isotopic composition of the sulfonates and phosphonates can yield insight into their possible interstellar origin as well as their mechanisms of synthesis in the early solar system. Previous isotopic analyses of other classes of organic compounds indigenous to meteorites, e.g., amino acids, carboxylic acids, and hydrocarbons indicate the possibility that interstellar molecules were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies. In these compounds the ratios of heavy to

  14. A Novel and Facile One-Pot Solvothermal Synthesis of PEDOT-PSS/Ni-Mn-Co-O Hybrid as an Advanced Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chengjie; Yang, Chunming; Jiang, Min; Deng, Cuifen; Yang, Lishan; Li, Junhua; Qian, Dong

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a novel and facile one-pot method has been developed for the synthesis of a hybrid consisting of Ni-Mn-Co ternary oxide and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT-PSS/NMCO) with a hierarchical three-dimensional net structure via a solvothermal-coprecipitation coupled with oxidative polymerization route. Apart from the achievement of polymerization, coprecipitation, and solvothermal in one pot, the hydroxyl (OH(-)) ions generated from the oxidative polymerization of organic monomer by neutral KMnO4 solution were skillfully employed as precipitants for metal ions. As compared with the PEDOT-PSS/Ni-Mn binary oxide, PEDOT-PSS/Co-Mn binary oxide, and PEDOT-PSS/MnO2, PEDOT-PSS1.5/NMCO exhibits overwhelmingly superior supercapacitive performance, more specifically, a high specific capacitance of 1234.5 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1), a good capacitance retention of 83.7% at a high current density of 5 A g(-1) after 1000 cycles, an energy density of 51.9 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 275 W kg(-1), and an energy density of 21.4 W h kg(-1) at an extremely elevated power density of 5500 W kg(-1). Noticeably, the energy density and power density of PEDOT-PSS/NMCO are by far higher than those of the existing analogues recently reported. The exceptional performance of PEDOT-PSS/NMCO benefits from its unique mesoporous architecture, which could provide a larger reaction surface area, faster ion and electron transfer ability, and good structural stability. The desirable integrated performance enables the multicomponent composite to be a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. PMID:26794146

  15. Improvement of the SiOx passivation layer for high-efficiency Si/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiang; Fan, Ke; Wang, Dan; Han, Can; Fang, Junfeng; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun

    2014-09-24

    Interfacial properties currently hinder the performance of Si/organic heterojunction solar cells for an alternative to high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaics. Here, we present a simple and repeatable wet oxidation method for developing the surface passivation layer, SiOx, on the Si surface for the fabrication of high-efficiency Si/poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) heterojunction solar cells. The uniform and dense SiOx thin layer introduced by the oxidizing aqueous solution of H2O2 or HNO3 provided the better surface passivation and stronger wettability of the Si surface, compared to those in the native oxide case. These two types of progress helped create a lower defect density at the Si/PEDOT:PSS interface and thus a high-quality p-n junction with a lower interface recombination velocity. As a result, the HNO3-oxidized device displayed better performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11%, representing a 28.96% enhancement from the PCE of 8.53% in the native oxide case. The effects on the performance of the Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells of the wet oxidation treatment procedure, including the differences in surface roughness and wettability of the Si substrate, the quality and thickness of the SiOx, etc., were explored extensively. Such a simple and controllable oxidizing treatment could be an effective way to promote the interfacial properties that are an important cornerstone for more efficient Si/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:25157634

  16. Regioselective synthesis of chiral dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene sulfones

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Enantiopure (R,R) and (S,S)-dimethyl-bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene monosulfones have been synthesized by the aerial oxidation of the chiral dithiolates generated from the propionitrile-protected precursors. Both enantiomers crystallize in the orthorhombic chiral space group P212121. They show a boat-type conformation of the TTF moiety, a rather rigid dithiin sulfone ring and the methyl groups in a bisequatorial conformation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements indicate fully reversible oxidation in radical cation and dication species. PMID:26199666

  17. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Das, Gautam; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 (μA · cm−2·mM−1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM) with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity) after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. PMID:26346240

  18. Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2010-11-16

    Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

  19. Composite plasma polymerized sulfonated polystyrene membrane for PEMFC

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Khan, Aziz; Chutia, Joyanti

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) is used as the sulfonating agent. • The proton conductivity of the membrane is found to be 0.141 S cm{sup −1}. • Power density of fuel cell with styrene/MMS membrane is 0.5 W cm{sup −2}. • The membrane exhibits thermal stability up to 140 °C. - Abstract: This work presents the introduction of an organic compound methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for the first time in fabrication of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane (PEM) by plasma polymerization process. The membrane is fabricated by co-polymerizing styrene and MMS in capacitively coupled continuous RF plasma. The chemical composition of the plasma polymerized polymer membrane is investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which reveals the formation of composite structure of styrene and MMS. The surface morphology studied using AFM and SEM depicts the effect of higher partial pressure of MMS on surface topography of the membrane. The proton transport property of the membrane studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the achievement of maximum proton conductivity of 0.141 S cm{sup −1} which is comparable to Nafion 117 membrane. Fuel cell performance test of the synthesized membrane shows a maximum power density of 500 mW cm{sup −2} and current density of 0.62 A cm{sup −2} at 0.6 V.

  20. Sulfonated polyaniline, a conducting polymer electrode for ion transfer batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero, C.; Miras, M.C.; Koetz, R.; Haas, O.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) was synthesized by sulfonation of polyaniline base with f6ming sulfuric acid. The polymer films were characterized by XPS, FFIR and UV-vis-NIR. XPS in combination with FTIR shows that the preparation procedure leads to a ca. 47% sulfonation of an otherwise unchanged polyaniline backbone. Electrodes modified with SPAN films exhibited two redox steps in aqueous as well as in nonaqueous electrolytes. Probe Beam Deflection and Quartz Crystal Microbalance were used to study the ion exchange mechanism. Protons are predominantly expelled during the first and second oxidation steps in acidic aqueous solution, accompanied by a counterflux of solvent. In nonaqueous electrolyte, expulsion of cations seems to be the dominant flux during SPAN oxidation, while solvent counterflux plays a significant role. The specific charge of SPAN films was found to be ca. 37 Ah/kg in aqueous solution (only first redox process used) and ca. 68 Ah/kg in nonaqueous media (both redox processes). Based on their experimental results, an estimation for a practical SPAN/Li battery would have 50% more specific energy than a PANI/Li one.

  1. Effect of additives on the performance and morphology of sulfonated copoly (phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) composite nanofiltration membranes☆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shanshan; Zhang, Shouhai; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Guozhen; Jian, Xigao

    2014-03-01

    Sulfonated copoly (phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) (SPPBES) composite nanofiltration membranes were fabricated by adding low molecular weight additives into SPPBES coating solutions during a dip coating process. Three selected additives: glycol, glycerol and hydroquinone were used in this work. The effect of additives on the membrane performance was studied and discussed in terms of rejection and permeation flux. Among all the composite membranes, the membrane prepared with glycol as an additive achieved the highest Na2SO4 rejection, and the membrane fabricated with glycerol as an additive exhibited the highest flux. The salts rejection of SPPBES composite membranes increased in the following order MgCl2 < NaCl ≤ MgSO4 < Na2SO4. The morphologies of the SPPBES composite membranes were characterized by SEM, it was found that the membrane prepared with hydroquinone showed a rough membrane surface. Composite membrane fabricated with glycol or glycerol as the additive showed very good chemical stability.

  2. High-Performance Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor from Large Free-Standing Graphene-PEDOT/PSS Films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuqing; Weng, Bo; Razal, Joselito M; Xu, Qun; Zhao, Chen; Hou, Yuyang; Seyedin, Shayan; Jalili, Rouhollah; Wallace, Gordon G; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although great attention has been paid to wearable electronic devices in recent years, flexible lightweight batteries or supercapacitors with high performance are still not readily available due to the limitations of the flexible electrode inventory. In this work, highly flexible, bendable and conductive rGO-PEDOT/PSS films were prepared using a simple bar-coating method. The assembled device using rGO-PEDOT/PSS electrode could be bent and rolled up without any decrease in electrochemical performance. A relatively high areal capacitance of 448 mF cm(-2) was achieved at a scan rate of 10 mV s(-1) using the composite electrode with a high mass loading (8.49 mg cm(-2)), indicating the potential to be used in practical applications. To demonstrate this applicability, a roll-up supercapacitor device was constructed, which illustrated the operation of a green LED light for 20 seconds when fully charged. PMID:26586106

  3. High-Performance Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor from Large Free-Standing Graphene-PEDOT/PSS Films

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuqing; Weng, Bo; Razal, Joselito M.; Xu, Qun; Zhao, Chen; Hou, Yuyang; Seyedin, Shayan; Jalili, Rouhollah; Wallace, Gordon G.; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although great attention has been paid to wearable electronic devices in recent years, flexible lightweight batteries or supercapacitors with high performance are still not readily available due to the limitations of the flexible electrode inventory. In this work, highly flexible, bendable and conductive rGO-PEDOT/PSS films were prepared using a simple bar-coating method. The assembled device using rGO-PEDOT/PSS electrode could be bent and rolled up without any decrease in electrochemical performance. A relatively high areal capacitance of 448 mF cm−2 was achieved at a scan rate of 10 mV s−1 using the composite electrode with a high mass loading (8.49 mg cm−2), indicating the potential to be used in practical applications. To demonstrate this applicability, a roll-up supercapacitor device was constructed, which illustrated the operation of a green LED light for 20 seconds when fully charged. PMID:26586106

  4. Preparation and study of novel poly(sulfone-ester-amide)s

    SciTech Connect

    Bruma, M. , Mercer, F.; Gronewald, S.

    1995-12-31

    A series of novel poly(ester-amide)s containing sulfone groups in the main chain have been prepared and compared with related polymers which do not have sulfone bridges. Incorporation of sulfone moieties into the polymer backbone improved the solubility of these polymers without significant loss of their high thermal stability, and provided a large {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} between T{sub g} and decomposition temperature. Solutions of poly(sulfone-ester-amide)s in NMP have been cast into flexible films, having low dielectric constant. The synthesis and characterization of these new polymers will be presented.

  5. Sulfonates: A novel class of organic sulfur compounds in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairavamurthy, Appathurai; Zhou, Weiqing; Eglinton, Timothy; Manowitz, Bernard

    1994-11-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) used to measure sulfur speciation in a variety of organic-rich marine sediments has established sulfonates as a novel and major component of sedimentary organic sulfur. The origins of sulfonates in sediments are not clear, although both biological and geochemical mechanisms are possible. The accumulation of oxidized sulfonate sulfur in reducing marine sediments was not known previously; hence, a new perspective in sulfur geochemistry is established. The biogeochemical implications of the presence of sulfonates in marine sediments are discussed.

  6. Solution synthesis of telluride-based nano-barbell structures coated with PEDOT:PSS for spray-printed thermoelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Eun Jin; Kang, Young Hun; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Lee, Changjin; Cho, Song Yun

    2016-05-01

    Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and the power factor of those materials can be effectively tuned over a wide range depending on the acid concentration of the treatment. The power factors of the synthesized Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrids were optimized to 60.05 μW m-1 K-2 with a Seebeck coefficient of 93.63 μV K-1 and an electrical conductivity of 69.99 S cm-1. The flexible thermoelectric generator fabricated by spray-printing Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solutions showed an open-circuit voltage of 1.54 mV with six legs at ΔT = 10 °C. This approach presents the potential for realizing printing-processable hybrid thermoelectric materials for application in flexible thermoelectric generators.Solution-processable telluride-based heterostructures coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS) were synthesized through a solution-phase reaction at low temperatures. The water-based synthesis yielded PEDOT:PSS-coated Te-Bi2Te3 nano-barbell structures with a high Seebeck coefficient that can be stably dispersed in water. These hybrid solutions were deposited onto a substrate by the spray-printing method to prepare thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric properties of the Te-Bi2Te3/PEDOT:PSS hybrid films were significantly enhanced by a simple acid treatment due to the increased electrical conductivity, and

  7. Interface investigation of planar hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells with open circuit voltages up to 645 mV and efficiencies of 12.6 %

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietsch, Matthias; Jäckle, Sara; Christiansen, Silke

    2014-06-01

    We have studied interface formation properties of hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS solar cells on planar substrates by varying the silicon substrate doping concentration ( N D). Final power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 12.6 % and open circuit voltages ( V oc) comparable to conventional diffused emitter pn junction solar cells have been achieved. It was observed, that an increase of N D leads to an increase of V oc with a maximal value of 645 mV, which is, to our knowledge, the highest reported value for n-Si/PEDOT:PSS interfaces. The dependence of the solar cell characteristics on N D is analyzed and similarities to minority charge carrier drift-diffusion limited solar cells are presented. The results point out the potential of hybrid n-Si/PEDOT:PSS interfaces to fabricate high performance opto-electronic devices with cost-effective fabrication technologies.

  8. 3D conductive nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Shahini, Aref; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Walker, Kenneth J; Eastman, Margaret A; Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Smith, Brenda J; Ricci, John L; Madihally, Sundar V; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Bone healing can be significantly expedited by applying electrical stimuli in the injured region. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) ceramic conductive tissue engineering scaffold for large bone defects that can locally deliver the electrical stimuli is highly desired. In the present study, 3D conductive scaffolds were prepared by employing a biocompatible conductive polymer, ie, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), in the optimized nanocomposite of gelatin and bioactive glass. For in vitro analysis, adult human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded in the scaffolds. Material characterizations using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance, in vitro degradation, as well as thermal and mechanical analysis showed that incorporation of PEDOT:PSS increased the physiochemical stability of the composite, resulting in improved mechanical properties and biodegradation resistance. The outcomes indicate that PEDOT:PSS and polypeptide chains have close interaction, most likely by forming salt bridges between arginine side chains and sulfonate groups. The morphology of the scaffolds and cultured human mesenchymal stem cells were observed and analyzed via scanning electron microscope, micro-computed tomography, and confocal fluorescent microscope. Increasing the concentration of the conductive polymer in the scaffold enhanced the cell viability, indicating the improved microstructure of the scaffolds or boosted electrical signaling among cells. These results show that these conductive scaffolds are not only structurally more favorable for bone tissue engineering, but also can be a step forward in combining the tissue engineering techniques with the method of enhancing the bone healing by electrical stimuli. PMID:24399874

  9. 3D conductive nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shahini, Aref; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Walker, Kenneth J; Eastman, Margaret A; Hatami-Marbini, Hamed; Smith, Brenda J; Ricci, John L; Madihally, Sundar V; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Bone healing can be significantly expedited by applying electrical stimuli in the injured region. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D) ceramic conductive tissue engineering scaffold for large bone defects that can locally deliver the electrical stimuli is highly desired. In the present study, 3D conductive scaffolds were prepared by employing a biocompatible conductive polymer, ie, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), in the optimized nanocomposite of gelatin and bioactive glass. For in vitro analysis, adult human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded in the scaffolds. Material characterizations using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance, in vitro degradation, as well as thermal and mechanical analysis showed that incorporation of PEDOT:PSS increased the physiochemical stability of the composite, resulting in improved mechanical properties and biodegradation resistance. The outcomes indicate that PEDOT:PSS and polypeptide chains have close interaction, most likely by forming salt bridges between arginine side chains and sulfonate groups. The morphology of the scaffolds and cultured human mesenchymal stem cells were observed and analyzed via scanning electron microscope, micro-computed tomography, and confocal fluorescent microscope. Increasing the concentration of the conductive polymer in the scaffold enhanced the cell viability, indicating the improved microstructure of the scaffolds or boosted electrical signaling among cells. These results show that these conductive scaffolds are not only structurally more favorable for bone tissue engineering, but also can be a step forward in combining the tissue engineering techniques with the method of enhancing the bone healing by electrical stimuli. PMID:24399874

  10. Polyether sulfone/hydroxyapatite mixed matrix membranes for protein purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junfen; Wu, Lishun

    2014-07-01

    This work proposes a novel approach for protein purification from solution using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising of hydroxyapatite (HAP) inside polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. The influence of HAP particle loading on membrane morphology is studied. The MMMs are further characterized concerning permeability and adsorption capacity. The MMMs show purification of protein via both diffusion as well as adsorption, and show the potential of using MMMs for improvements in protein purification techniques. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. The properties and structures of MMMs prepared by immersion phase separation process were characterized by pure water flux, BSA adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  11. Sulfone/Ester Polymers Containing Pendent Ethynyl Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    Two processes make high-performance polymers resistant to solvents, without compromising mechanical characteristics. Polymers show improved solvent resistance while retaining high toughness, thermoformability, and mechanical performance. Multistep process involves conversion of pendent bromo group to ethynyl group, while direct process involves reacting hydroxy-terminated sulfone oligomers or polymers with stoichiometric amount of 5-(4-ethynylphenoxy) isophthaloyl chloride. Applications for new polymers include adhesives, composite resin matrices, moldings, ultrafiltration membranes, protective coatings, and such electrical insulators as thin films for microelectronic circuitry.

  12. The Palladium-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of Vinyl Sulfonates

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Jin; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of cyclohexenyl sulfonates has been developed. Various cyclohexenyl triflates and nonaflates underwent trifluoromethylation under mild reaction conditions using a catalyst system composed of Pd(dba)2 or [(allyl)PdCl]2 and the monodentate biaryl phosphine ligand tBuXPhos. The trifluoromethyl anion (CF3−) or its equivalent for the process was generated in situ from TMSCF3 in combination with KF or TESCF3 in combintion with RbF. PMID:22111687

  13. Study on the disparate transition behaviors of the electrical/physical properties in PEDOT:PSS film depending on solvent species under a follow-up solution-treatment process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Seong Heon; Seol, Minsu; Yu, DaEun; Kwon, Hyukju; Ham, Yongnam; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, Yongsu; Heo, Sung

    2016-04-01

    In most solution-processed organic devices, a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymerized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) film is inevitably affected by various conditions during the subsequent solution-coating processes. To investigate the effects of direct solvent exposure on the properties of PEDOT polymerized with PSS (PEDOT:PSS) films, photoemission spectroscopy-based analytical methods were used before and after solvent-coating processes. Our results clearly indicate that PEDOT:PSS films undergo a different transition mechanism depending on the solubility of the solvent in water. The water-miscible solvents induce the solvation of hydrophilic PSS chains. As a result, this process allows the solvent to diffuse into the PEDOT:PSS film, and a conformational change between PEDOT and PSS occurs. On the other hand, the water-immiscible organic solvents cause the partial adsorption of solvent molecules at the PE surface, which leads to changes in the surface properties, including work function. Based on our finding, we demonstrate that the energy-level alignments at the organic semiconductor/electrode interface for the PEDOT:PSS films can be controlled by simple solvent treatments.

  14. Segmented tetrasulfonated copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s: improving proton transport properties by extending the ionic sequence.

    PubMed

    Takamuku, Shogo; Weiber, E Annika; Jannasch, Patric

    2013-02-01

    The morphologies and proton-transport efficiencies of segmented copoly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers that contain tetrasulfonated sequences are compared with the corresponding copolymers with disulfonated sequences. Tetrasulfonated 4,4'-bis[(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonyl]-1,1'-biphenyl (sBCPSBP) is synthesized by metalation and sulfination. This new monomer is then used in K(2)CO(3)-mediated polycondensations of mixtures with 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (DCDPS) and 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl in dimethyl sulfoxide at 110 °C to prepare segmented copolymers with tetrasulfonated units. The corresponding disulfonated copolymers are prepared by using disulfonated DCDPS instead of sBCPSBP. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of the fully aromatic copolymer membranes show ionomer peaks that indicate significantly larger characteristic separation lengths of the tetrasulfonated copolymers compared to those of the corresponding disulfonated copolymers with similar ionic contents. This implies a much more efficient phase separation of the ionic groups in the segmented tetrasulfonated copolymer membranes, especially at low-to-medium ionic contents. The enhanced phase separation has a pronounced positive effect on water uptake characteristics and proton transport properties. Under a reduced relative humidity (RH), the tetrasulfonated copolymer membranes show a significantly higher conductivity than the disulfonated ones, particularly at low-to-medium ionic contents. At an ion-exchange capacity of 1 meq g(-1), the conductivity of the tetrasulfonated copolymer membrane at 30 % RH is higher than that of the disulfonated membrane at 90 % RH. Because of their relative ease of synthesis, segmented copolymers based on well-designed multisulfonated monomers may provide a viable alternative to the more complex sulfonated block and graft copolymers for use as fuel-cell membranes. PMID:23307760

  15. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, amine salt (PMN P-93-353) are subject to reporting under this section for the...) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4), and (c)(4) (where N = 20 ppb)....

  16. Bis-sulfonic acid ionic liquids for the conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural.

    PubMed

    Sim, Sang Eun; Kwon, Sunjeong; Koo, Sangho

    2012-01-01

    Homogenous bis-sulfonic acid ionic liquids (1 mol equiv.) in DMSO (10 mol equiv.) at 100 °C efficiently mediated the conversion of D-fructose into 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in 75% isolated yield, which was roughly a 10% increment compared to the case of the mono-sulfonic acid ionic liquids. PMID:23114616

  17. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., polyamine condensate. 721.6220 Section 721.6220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a... generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., polyamine condensate. 721.6220 Section 721.6220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a... generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6220 - Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., polyamine condensate. 721.6220 Section 721.6220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6220 Aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate. (a... generically as an aryl sulfonate of a fatty acid mixture, polyamine condensate (PMN P-91-584) is subject...

  20. Water-soluble sulfonated hyperbranched poly(arylene oxindole) catalysts as functional biomimics of cellulases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Feng; Smet, Mario; Dehaen, Wim; Sels, Bert F

    2016-02-14

    A new polymer acid catalyst, sulfonated hyperbranched poly(arylene oxindole), 5-OH-SHPAO, was prepared for selective cellulose hydrolysis. Its superior catalysis, showing high glucose selectivity at almost full cellulose conversion, is attributed to the presence of an hydroxyl group next to the sulfonic acid, therefore mimicking the separate acid-base pair in the cellulase active site. PMID:26759837

  1. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts (generic). 721.10487 Section 721.10487 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.950 - Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of an alkylated... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.950 Sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated... chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of an alkylated, sulfonated aromatic (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10045 - Diazotized substituted heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). 721.10045... derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject... heteromonocycle coupled with naphthalene sulfonic acid derivative, nickel complex, alkaline salt (PMN P-02-737)...

  4. Synthesis and Structure-Property Relationships of Poly(sulfone)s for Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, JL; Moore, HD; Hibbs, MR; Hickner, MA

    2013-10-05

    Membranes based on cationic polymers that conduct anions are important for enabling alkaline membrane fuel cells and other solid-state electrochemical devices that operate at high pH. Anion exchange membranes with poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones are demonstrated by two routes: chloromethylation of commercially available poly(sulfone)s or radical bromination of benzylmethyl moieties in poly(sulfone)s containing tetramethylbisphenol A monomer residues. Polymers with tethered trimethylbenzyl ammonium moieties resulted from conversion of the halomethyl groups by quaternization with trimethyl amine. The water uptake of the chloromethylated polymers was dependent on the type of poly(sulfone) backbone for a given IEC. Bisphenol A-based Udel (R) poly(sulfone) membranes swelled in water to a large extent while membranes from biphenol-based Radel (R) poly(sulfone), a stiffer backbone than Udel, only showed moderate water uptake. The water uptake of cationic poly(sulfone)s was further reduced by synthesizing tetramethylbisphenol A and 4,4-biphenol-containing poly(sulfone) copolymers where the ionic groups were clustered on the tetramethylbisphenol A residues. The conductivity of all samples scaled with the bulk water uptake. The hydration number of the membranes could be increased by casting membranes from the ionic form polymers versus converting the halomethyl form cast polymers to ionic form in the solid state. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2013, 51, 1790-1798, 2013

  5. The role of MgBr2 to enhance the ionic conductivity of PVA/PEDOT:PSS polymer composite

    PubMed Central

    Sheha, Eslam M.; Nasr, Mona M.; El-Mansy, Mabrouk K.

    2014-01-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte system based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(3,4-Etylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) complexed with magnesium bromide (MgBr2) salt was prepared using solution cast technique. The ionic conductivity is observed to increase with increasing MgBr2 concentration. The maximum conductivity was found to be 9.89 × 10−6 S/cm for optimum polymer composite film (30 wt.% MgBr2) at room temperature. The increase in the conductivity is attributed to the increase in the number of ions as the salt concentration is increased. This has been proven by dielectric studies. The increase in conductivity is also attributable to the increase in the fraction of amorphous region in the electrolyte films as confirmed by their structural, thermal, electrical and optical properties. PMID:26199746

  6. Near-Infrared Light-Stimulus-Responsive Film as a Sacrificial Layer for the Preparation of Free-Standing Films.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chunyang; Ma, Benhua; Liu, Jiale; Wu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Yi-Jun; Sun, Junqi

    2016-04-12

    It remains a challenge to fabricate sacrificial films that are stable in most of solvents and can be readily decomposed on demand. Here we report the fabrication of a near-infrared (NIR) light decomposable sacrificial film by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of UV-light-decomposable poly((4-(2-bromoethoxy)-5-methoxy-2-nitrobenzyl acrylate) triethylammonium bromide) (PNBA-TEA), poly(sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate) (PSS), branched polyethyleimine (bPEI), and lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). The [(PNBA-TEA/PSS)*2/(bPEI/UCNPs)*3]*2 films are stable in deposition solutions of various materials and decompose upon NIR light irradiation. In the [(PNBA-TEA/PSS)*2/(bPEI/UCNPs)*3]*2 films, UCNPs can convert NIR light into UV light, which can decompose PNBA-TEA. After immersing the NIR light-irradiated [(PNBA-TEA/PSS)*2/(bPEI/UCNPs)*3]*2 films in 0.1 M aqueous NaHCO3 solution, the disintegration of the entire films occurs because of the repulsive force between the negatively charged photoproduct of PNBA-TEA and PSS. LbL-assembled (PAH/PAA)*50 films deposited on top of the NIR-light-decomposable [(PNBA-TEA/PSS)*2/(bPEI/UCNPs)*3]*2 films can be conveniently released to produce large-area and defect-free (PAH/PAA)*50 free-standing films after NIR light irradiation and subsequent immersion in 0.1 M aqueous NaHCO3 solution. Because of the satisfactory stability and on-demand decomposable property, the [(PNBA-TEA/PSS)*2/(bPEI/UCNPs)*3]*2 films are promising as sacrificial layers for the fabrication of various free-standing films. PMID:27019115

  7. Aryl sulfonates as neutral photoacid generators (PAGs) for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Robert; Blackwell, James M.; Younkin, Todd R.; Putna, E. Steve; Esswein, Katherine; DiPasquale, Antonio G.; Callahan, Ryan; Tsubaki, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Tooru

    2009-03-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is a leading candidate for printing sub-32 nm hp patterns. In order for EUVL to be commercially viable at these dimensions, a continuous evolution of the photoresist material set is required to simultaneously meet the aggressive specifications for resolution, resist sensitivity, LWR, and outgassing rate. Alternative PAG designs, especially if tailored for EUVL, may aid in the formation of a material set that helps achieve these aggressive targets. We describe the preparation, characterization, and lithographic evaluation of aryl sulfonates as non-ionic or neutral photoacid generators (PAGs) for EUVL. Full lithographic characterization is reported for our first generation resist formulation using compound H, MAP-1H-2.5. It is benchmarked against MAP-1P-5.0, which contains the well-known sulfonium PAG, triphenylsulfonium triflate (compound P). Z-factor analysis indicates nZ32 = 81.4 and 16.8 respectively, indicating that our first generation aryl sulfonate formulations require about 4.8x improvement to match the results achieved with a model onium PAG. Improving the acid generation efficiency and use of the generated byproducts is key to the continued optimization of this class of PAGs. To that end, we believe EI-MS fragmentation patterns and molecular simulations can be used to understand and optimize the nature and efficiency of electron-induced PAG fragmentation.

  8. Membrane ultrafiltration of sulfonates and oil from micellar flooding wastewaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, S.; Perez, N.L.; Ramakrishnan, B.; Thompson, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    Two membrane ultrafilters were tested with simulated micellar-flood wastewaters. The waters were brine containing oil, sulfonate, butyl alcohol, and polymer. Two sulfonates, one essentially oil-soluble and one essentially water-soluble, were used. The polymer used was polyacrylamide, except for a few runs done with xanthan gum. The membranes produced permeates containing very little oil, sulfonate or polymer. The butyl alcohol apparently passed through quantitatively. The cellulosic membrane tested was more effective than the polymeric membrane in that it gave better flux rates and was easier to clean when fouled. A field sample was run with the cellulosic membrane. The field sample contained crude-oil sulfonate which, unlike the commercial surfactants used in the simulated wastewaters, passed through the membrane almost quantitatively. Membrane ultrafiltration will not be of use in purifying water containing such sulfonates.

  9. Kinetics of sulfonation of amines of the benzene series with sulfur trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Khelevin, R.N.

    1988-08-20

    The sulfonation of amines of the benzene series with sulfur trioxide in dichloroethane is described by a third-order kinetic equation for an irreversible process, and first order is observed with respect to the compound being sulfonated and second with respect to the sulfur trioxide. The unprotonated molecules of the amines undergo sulfonation, and this leads to the production of the para-aminosulfonic acids with small amounts of the ortho isomers. The reaction mechanism involves electrophilic reaction of the unprotonated amine molecule with the sulfur trioxide dimer S/sub 2/O/sub 6/ and subsequent dissociation of the obtained pyrosulfonate with the production of the amino sulfonic acid and sulfur trioxide. Sulfonation with sulfur trioxide is of interest in connection with the high rate and degree of completion of the reaction and the absence of energy expenditures.

  10. Performance and Long-Term Stability of Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Simona; Iulianelli, Adolfo; Dalena, Francesco; Pinacci, Pietro; Drago, Francesca; Broglia, Maria; Huang, Yan; Basile, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The present work is focused on the investigation of the performance and long-term stability of two composite palladium membranes under different operating conditions. One membrane (Pd/porous stainless steel (PSS)) is characterized by a ~10 µm-thick palladium layer on a porous stainless steel substrate, which is pretreated by means of surface modification and oxidation; the other membrane (Pd/Al2O3) is constituted by a ~7 µm-thick palladium layer on an asymmetric microporous Al2O3 substrate. The operating temperature and pressure ranges, used for studying the performance of these two kinds of membranes, are 350–450 °C and 200–800 kPa, respectively. The H2 permeances and the H2/N2 selectivities of both membranes were investigated and compared with literature data. At 400 °C and 200 kPa as pressure difference, Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 membranes exhibited an H2/N2 ideal selectivity equal to 11700 and 6200, respectively, showing stability for 600 h. Thereafter, H2/N2 selectivity of both membranes progressively decreased and after around 2000 h, dropped dramatically to 55 and 310 for the Pd/PSS and Pd/Al2O3 membranes, respectively. As evidenced by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analyses, the pinholes appear on the whole surface of the Pd/PSS membrane and this is probably due to release of sulphur from the graphite seal rings. PMID:24957126

  11. Sensitive voltammetric sensor based on isopropanol-Nafion-PSS-GR nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of clenbuterol in pork.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Yang, Ran; Chen, Jing; Li, Jianjun; Qu, Lingbo; de B Harrington, Peter

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) functionalized graphene (GR) was synthesised via a simple one-step chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxides in the presence of PSS. Characterisation of as-made nanocomposite using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) clearly demonstrate the successful attachment of PSS to graphene sheets. A novel clenbuterol (CLB) electrochemical sensor was fabricated based on isopropanol-Nafion-PSS-GR composite film modified glassy carbon electrode. In the Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 1.2), the sensor exhibited superior electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of CLB. Applying linear sweep voltammetry, a good linear relationship of the oxidation peak current with respect to concentrations of CLB cross the range of 7.5 × 10(-8)-2.5 × 10(-5)mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 2.2 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) were achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of CLB in pork. PMID:24996313

  12. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  13. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  14. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  15. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  16. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  17. Coupling hydrogen separation with butanone hydrogenation in an electrochemical hydrogen pump with sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shiqi; Wang, Tao; Wu, Xuemei; Xiao, Wu; Yu, Miao; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Fengxiang; He, Gaohong

    2016-09-01

    This work reports the novel work of coupling H2/CO2 separation with biomass-derived butanone hydrogenation in non-fluorinated sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (SPPESK) electrochemical hydrogen pump (EHP) reactor. Due to higher resistance to swelling, SPPESK-based EHP reactor exhibits more excellent reaction rate in elevated temperature (60 °C) and higher butanone concentration (2 M) as 270, 260 nmol cm-2 s-1, respectively, higher than 240, 200 nmol cm-2 s-1of Nafion-based EHP reactors. Also, the SPPESK-based EHP reactor remains 90% of initial hydrogenation rate after 4 batches, better than that of Nafion-based EHP reactors, which is only 62%. The energy efficiency of EHP separator reaches 40% under H2/CO2 mixture feed mode, and electricity of about 0.3 kWh is consumed per Nm3 H2 product, being superior to energy consumption compared with alternative processes like PSA and electrolysis of water. In addition, SPPESK-based EHP exhibits better hydrogenation stability due to lower CO2 permeation than Nafion. With increasing CO2 content in H2 feed, hydrogenation rate almost keeps constant at around 210 nmol cm-2 s-1 in SPPESK-based EHP reactor while decreases fast to 50 nmol cm-2 s-1 in Nafion/PTFE-based EHP reactor. These results show integration of gas separation with hydrogenation reactor is feasible in SPPESK-based EHP reactor.

  18. Effect of the incorporation of sulfonated chitosan/sulfonated graphene oxide on the proton conductivity of chitosan membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirdast, Abbas; Sharif, Alireza; Abdollahi, Mahdi

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan biopolymer (CS) has been attracting considerable interest as polymer electrolyte in fuel cells. However, proton conductivity of chitosan is low and it is necessary to enhance its conductivity. In this work, 10 wt% sulfonated chitosan (SCS) and different amounts of sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) nanosheets are incorporated into a chitosan membrane to investigate their effects on the electrochemical properties of the membrane. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability tests conducted on the CS/SCS/SGO membranes show that the conductivity is increased by 454%, the permeability is reduced by 23% and hence the selectivity is increased by 650%, relative to the neat chitosan, at SGO content of 5 wt%. Furthermore, combined addition of SCS and SGO to chitosan causes much more proton conductivity enhancement than the individual additives due to the synergistic effect of SCS and SGO. The observed synergistic effect reveals the importance of the chemical functionality of chitosan and nanofillers in the formation of ionic cluster domains with enhanced size within the membranes for proton transport. Finally, a Nernst-Planck based model is applied to the experimental proton conductivity data in order to shed more light on the role of GOs in the proton conductivity mechanism of chitosan.

  19. Exploring the nature of interactions among thiophene, thiophene sulfone, dibenzothiophene, dibenzothiophene sulfone and a pyridinium-based ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peng; Lü, Renqing; Liu, Dong; Lu, Yukun; Wang, Shutao

    2014-06-14

    In order to gain an understanding of the nature of the interactions among thiophene (TS), thiophene sulfone (TSO2), dibenzothiophene (DBT), dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO2) and the ionic liquid N-butylpyridinium hydrogen sulfate ([BPY][HSO4]), a systematic investigation has been carried out using ab initio methods. The most stable structures indicate that both [BPY](+) and [HSO4](-) play crucial roles in the interactions between TS, TSO2, DBT, DBTO2 and [BPY][HSO4]. Analyses of the most stable optimized structures suggest the occurrence of steric effects, π-π stacking effects, hydrogen bonds, and dihydrogen bonds. The π-π stacking effect in [BPY][HSO4]-TSO2/[BPY][HSO4]-DBTO2 is less significant than that in [BPY][HSO4]-TS/[BPY][HSO4]-DBT, as TSO2 and DBTO2 are more nucleophilic than TS and DBT, resulting in stronger interactions between [BPY][HSO4] and TSO2/DBTO2 than between [BPY][HSO4] and TS/DBT. Thermodynamical data also demonstrate that TSO2/DBTO2 are more prone to interact with [BPY][HSO4] compared with TS/DBT. PMID:24741670

  20. Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. Tenth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-02-07

    The original conception of the work was that genetic determinants of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate (``4S``) pathway in Pseudomonas spp. would be cloned in vivo and then transferred to Thiobacillus spp. This ambition remains an appealing prospect; however, fulfilling that ambition has been confounded by an instability observed in the DbtS{sup +} phenotype in Pseudomonas spp. But the persisting interest in the phenotype has lead to isolation of fresh strains which have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. One strain in particular, N1-36, has been the focus of extensive characterizations in long-term cultures. During the present quarter, seven cultures maintained in a ``fermentor`` for a week or longer have been run to determine rate and extent of growth, extent of conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT) or dibenzosulfone (DBTO{sub 2}) to monohydroxybiphenyl (OH-BP), effect of pH maintained at 6.0, and the effect of adding glucose to cultures in which the amount of glucose had been diminished by bacterial consumption. In addition, a study of the effectiveness of using R68.445 as a vehicle for in vivo cloning of genes was completed this semester, and introduction of DbtS{sup +} determinants into Thiobacillus spp. continues to be an important goal.

  1. Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. [Pseudomonas, Thiobacillus, Rhodococcus

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-02-07

    The original conception of the work was that genetic determinants of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate ( 4S'') pathway in Pseudomonas spp. would be cloned in vivo and then transferred to Thiobacillus spp. This ambition remains an appealing prospect; however, fulfilling that ambition has been confounded by an instability observed in the DbtS{sup +} phenotype in Pseudomonas spp. But the persisting interest in the phenotype has lead to isolation of fresh strains which have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. One strain in particular, N1-36, has been the focus of extensive characterizations in long-term cultures. During the present quarter, seven cultures maintained in a fermentor'' for a week or longer have been run to determine rate and extent of growth, extent of conversion of dibenzothiophene (DBT) or dibenzosulfone (DBTO{sub 2}) to monohydroxybiphenyl (OH-BP), effect of pH maintained at 6.0, and the effect of adding glucose to cultures in which the amount of glucose had been diminished by bacterial consumption. In addition, a study of the effectiveness of using R68.445 as a vehicle for in vivo cloning of genes was completed this semester, and introduction of DbtS{sup +} determinants into Thiobacillus spp. continues to be an important goal.

  2. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  3. Celecoxib influences steroid sulfonation catalyzed by human recombinant sulfotransferase 2A1

    PubMed Central

    Ambadapadi, Sriram; Wang, Peter L.; Palii, Sergiu P.; James, Margaret O.

    2015-01-01

    Celecoxib has been reported to switch the human SULT2A1-catalyzed sulfonation of 17βestradiol (17β-E2) from the 3- to the 17-position. The effects of celecoxib on the sulfonation of selected steroids catalyzed by human SULT2A1 were assessed through in vitro and in silico studies. Celecoxib inhibited SULT2A1-catalyzed sulfonation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol (AD), testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (Epi-T) in a concentration-dependent manner. Low μM concentrations of celecoxib strikingly enhanced the formation of the 17-sulfates of 6-dehydroestradiol (6D-E2), 17β-dihydroequilenin (17β-Eqn), 17β-dihydroequilin (17β-Eq), and 9-dehydroestradiol (9D-E2) as well as the overall rate of sulfonation. For 6D-E2, 9D-E2 and 17β-Eqn, celecoxib inhibited 3-sulfonation, however 3-sulfonation of 17β-Eq was stimulated at celecoxib concentrations below 40 μM. Ligand docking studies in silico suggest that celecoxib binds in the substrate-binding site of SULT2A1 in a manner that prohibits the usual binding of substrates but facilitates, for appropriately shaped substrates, a binding mode that favors 17-sulfonation. PMID:25960318

  4. Use of ammonium chloride solutions to remove sulfonate surfactants from crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, N.O.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes a method for removal of sulfonate surfactants having a molecular weight of about 600 gram/equivalents or less from crude oil or crude oil emulsions containing from 50 parts per million up to 15 weight percent the surfactants, comprising (a) adding a synthetic brine having a NH/sub 4//sup +/ concentration of from about 0.005 molar to about 0.1 molar to crude oil or crude oil emulsions containing the sulfonate surfactants, the brine comprising water and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of (NH/sub 4/)/sub n/X, where X is at least one ion selected from the group consisting of sulfate, nitrate or halide and n is the valence of X, the brine being prepared from fresh water containing substantially no detrimental salts selected from the group consisting essentially of Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Zn, and Ba salts; (b) agitating at a temperature of from about 90F to about 150F the crude oil or crude oil emulsions containing sulfonate surfactants and synthetic brine to ensure thorough mixing and react the NH/sub 4//sup +/ with the sulfonate surfactants and produce a mixture containing water soluble ammonium sulfonate, and (c) allowing the mixture of (b) to separate into aqueous and organic phases, the aqueous phase containing predominantly brine and ammonium sulfonate, and removing the aqueous phase containing predominately brine and sulfonates from the organic phase containing predominately crude oil.

  5. A model survey meter using undoped poly (ether sulfone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Kanayama, Masaya; Sato, Nobuhiro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2015-04-01

    The large region surrounding the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has necessitated the use of numerous radiation survey meters with large, robust substrates. The survey meters require efficient scintillation materials that do not require doping and have dimensional stability, such as poly (ether sulfone) (PES) resins. Here, we demonstrate the performance of a model survey meter that uses large PES plates with polished, mirrored surfaces and rough, scattering surfaces. Light collection efficiencies from plates having one or more of these surfaces were quantitatively Characterised with 36Cl-, 60Co-, 137Cs-radioactive sources. The count rates of plates having a combination of mirrored/scattering-surfaces are >1.6 times that for plates having two mirrored surfaces. In addition, a significant amount of radiation-induced light generated in the PES is trapped inside the plate because of its relatively high refractive index. The results indicate that large, undoped PES plates can be used in radiation survey meters.

  6. Enhanced performance of polymer solar cells using PEDOT:PSS doped with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles aligned by an external magnetostatic field as an anode buffer layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Hu, Xiaowen; Liu, Chang; Sun, Yan; Hou, Jianhui; Li, Yongfang; Zheng, Jie; Chuang, Steven; Karim, Alamgir; Gong, Xiong

    2014-08-13

    Low efficiency and poor stability are two major obstacles limiting the manufacturing of renewable and cost-effective polymer solar cell (PSCs). To address these problems, solution-processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) doped with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles ((PEDOT:PSS):Fe3O4), and above (PEDOT:PSS):Fe3O4 thin film aligned by an external magnetostatic field ([(PEDOT:PSS):Fe3O4] W/H) were used as the anode buffer layer for PSCs, respectively. As compared with PSCs with PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer, 38.5% enhanced efficiency and twice improved stability are observed from PSCs incorporated with [(PEDOT:PSS):Fe3O4] W/H anode buffer layer. It was found that enhanced efficiency and improved stability resulted from a combination of reduced acidity of PEDOT:PSS and enhanced electrical conductivity that originated from generated counterions and the paramagnetism of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles by an external magnetostatic field. PMID:24980462

  7. Study of sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups as ion conductive binder in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zengbin; Xue, Lixin; Nie, Feng; Sheng, Jianfang; Shi, Qianru; Zhao, Xiulan

    2014-06-01

    In an attempt to reduce the Li+ concentration polarization and electrolyte depletion from the electrode porous space, sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups (SPEEK-FSA-Li) is prepared and attempted as ionic conductivity binder. Sulfonated aromatic poly(ether ether ketone) exhibits strong adhesion and chemical stability, and lithiated fluorinated sulfonic side chains help to enhance the ionic conductivity and Li+ ion diffusion due to the charge delocalization over the sulfonic chain. The performances are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, charge-discharge cycle testing, 180° peel testing, and compared with the cathode prepared with polyvinylidene fluoride binder. The electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li binder forms the relatively smaller resistances of both the SEI and the charge transfer of lithium ion transport. This is beneficial to lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation of the cathode during discharging-charging, therefore the cell prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li shows lower charge plateau potential and higher discharge plateau potential. Compared with PVDF, the electrode with ionic binder shows smaller decrease in capacity with the increasing of cycle rate. Meanwhile, adhesion strength of electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li is more than five times greater than that with PVDF.

  8. Magnetic graphene - polystyrene sulfonic acid nano composite: A dispersive cation exchange sorbent for the enrichment of aminoalcohols and ethanolamines from environmental aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2015-12-01

    Present study aimed at graphene surface modification to achieve selective analyte binding in dispersive solid phase extraction. Magnetic graphene - polystyrene sulfonic acid (MG-PSS) cation exchange nano-composite was prepared by non-covalent wrapping method. Composite was characterized by FT-IR and zeta potential. Material exhibited good dispersion in water and high exchange capacity of 1.97±0.16mMg(-1). Prepared nano-sorbent was then exploited for the cation exchange extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of Chemical Weapons Convention relevant aminoalcohols and ethanolamines from aqueous samples. Extraction parameters such as sorbent amount, extraction time, desorption conditions and sample pH were optimized and effect of common matrix interferences such as polyethylene glycol and metal salts was also studied. Three milligram of sorbent per mL of sample with 20min of extraction time at room temperature afforded 70-81% recoveries of the selected analytes spiked at concentration level of 1μgmL(-1). Method showed good linearity in the studied range with r(2)≥0.993. The limits of detection and limits of quantification ranged from 23 to 54ngmL(-1) and 72 to 147ngmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation for intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 4.6 to 10.2% and 7.4 to 14.8% respectively. Applicability of the method to different environmental samples as well as the proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) was also ascertained. PMID:26554296

  9. 13.2% efficiency Si nanowire/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cell using a transfer-imprinted Au mesh electrode

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwang-Tae; Kim, Han-Jung; Park, Min-Joon; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jihye; Choi, Dae-Geun; Lee, Jung-Ho; Choi, Jun-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, inorganic/organic hybrid solar cell concept has received growing attention for alternative energy solution because of the potential for facile and low-cost fabrication and high efficiency. Here, we report highly efficient hybrid solar cells based on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) using transfer-imprinted metal mesh front electrodes. Such a structure increases the optical absorption and shortens the carrier transport distance, thus, it greatly increases the charge carrier collection efficiency. Compared with hybrid cells formed using indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, we find an increase in power conversion efficiency from 5.95% to 13.2%, which is attributed to improvements in both the electrical and optical properties of the Au mesh electrode. Our fabrication strategy for metal mesh electrode is suitable for the large-scale fabrication of flexible transparent electrodes, paving the way towards low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible solar cells. PMID:26174964

  10. The influence of ionic strength and mixing ratio on the colloidal stability of PDAC/PSS polyelectrolyte complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanpu; Yildirim, Erol; Antila, Hanne S; Valenzuela, Luis D; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L

    2015-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) form by mixing polycation and polyanion solutions together, and have been explored for a variety of applications. One challenge for PEC processing and application is that under certain conditions the as-formed PECs aggregate and precipitate out of suspension over the course of minutes to days. This aggregation is governed by several factors such as electrostatic repulsion, van der Waals attractions, and hydrophobic interactions. In this work, we explore the boundary between colloidally stable and unstable complexes as it is influenced by polycation/polyanion mixing ratio and ionic strength. The polymers examined are poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDAC) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). Physical properties such as turbidity, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential are investigated upon complex formation. We also perform detailed molecular dynamics simulations to examine the structure and effective charge distribution of the PECs at varying mixing ratios and salt concentrations to support the experimental findings. The results suggest that the colloidally stable/unstable boundary possibly marks the screening effects from added salt, resulting in weakly charged complexes that aggregate. At higher salt concentrations, the complexes initially form and then gradually dissolve into solution. PMID:26268471

  11. The electrical characterization of Ag/PTCDA/PEDOT:PSS/p-Si Schottky diode by current-voltage characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Muhammad; Sayyad, Muhammad Hassan; Wahab, Fazal; Khan, Dil Nawaz; Aziz, Fakhra

    2013-04-01

    The Ag/PTCDA/PEDOT:PSS/p-Si Schottky diode has been fabricated by adding a layer of organic compound 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on top of the p-Si for which the junction characteristics have been investigated. The electronic properties of the device have been studied by the conventional I-V and the Norde's methods. For conventional I-V measurements the rectifying behavior has been observed with a rectification ratio of 236. The barrier height and ideality factor values of 0.81 eV and 3.5, respectively, for the structure have been obtained from the forward bias I-V characteristics. Various electrical parameters such as reverse saturation current, series resistance and shunt resistance have been calculated from the analysis of experimental I-V results and discussed in detail. The barrier height and the series resistance determined by the Norde's function are found in good agreement with the values calculated from conventional I-V measurements. The charge conduction mechanism has also been discussed.

  12. Stability of embossed PEI-(PSS-PDADMAC) 20 multilayer films versus storage time and versus a change in ionic strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladhari, Nadia; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Haikel, Youssef; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Schaaf, Pierre; Ball, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    The use of microstructured films increased markedly in many areas of science and technology, notably in the design of microfluidic channels and in the design of parallel biosensing arrays. The concept of imprinting polyelectrolyte multilayer films (PEMs) has been introduced recently [C. Gao, B. Wang, J. Feng, J. Shen, Macromolecules 37 (2004) 8836]. These irreversibly imprinted films, obtained by plastic deformation, have to keep their size and shape after contact with fluids having physicochemical properties comparable to those of biological fluids in order to be used as microfluidic channels. We demonstrate herein that PEI-(PSS-PDADMAC) 20 PEMs built-up by the spray deposition from NaCl 1 M solutions and subsequently imprinted with polydimethylsiloxane stamps keep their morphology over time (up to 9 months) when stored in the dry state. In addition the depth of the imprinted channels does not change over this time duration. When the embossed films are immersed in NaCl 0.15 M solutions, mimicking biological fluids, the depth of the imprinted channels also does not significantly change. But, when the imprinted films prepared in the presence of 1 M NaCl are subsequently dipped in a 4 M NaCl solution, partial film loss and subsequent disappearance of the imprinted channels are observed. An explanation for these findings is furnished by means of FTIR spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflection mode (ATR-FTIR). These observations should offer large opportunities for the use of the imprinted multilayer films as microfluidic channels.

  13. Utilization of common ditch vegetation in the reduction of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide and its oxidative sulfone metabolite are two potential nonpoint source pollutants from treated rice and cotton production. A consequence of these pollutants occurring in surface runoff is degradation of downstream aquatic ecosystems. Utilization of primary inte...

  14. REVISITING NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF AZIDES, THIOCYANATES AND SULFONES IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A practical, rapid and efficient microwave (MW) promoted synthesis of various azides, thiocyanates and sulfones, is described in aqueous medium. This general and expeditious MW-enhanced nucleophilic substitution approach uses easily accessible starting materials such as halides o...

  15. Magnetite-supported sulfonic acid: a retrievable nanocatalyst for the Ritter reaction and multicomponent reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetite-sulfonic acid (NanocatFe-OSO3H), prepared by wet-impregnation method, serves as a magnetically retrievable sustainable catalyst for the Ritter reaction which can be used in several reaction cycles without any loss of activity.

  16. Morphology and Proton Transport in Sulfonated Block Copolymer and Mesoporous Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chelsea; Wong, David; Beers, Keith; Balsara, Nitash

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to understand the fundamentals of proton transport in polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), we have developed a series of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-b-styrene) (SES) membranes. The SES membranes were subsequently sulfonated to yield proton conducting S-SES membranes. We examine the effects of sulfonation level, temperature and thermal history on the morphology of S-SES membranes in both dry and hydrated states. The effects of these parameters on water uptake and proton transport characteristics of the membranes are also examined. Furthermore, building upon the strategy we deployed in sulfonating the SES membranes, we fabricated mesoporous S-SES membranes, with pores lined up with the proton conducting channels. These membranes have three distinct phases: structural block, proton-conducting block, and void. We examine the effects of pore size, domain structure and sulfonation level on water uptake and proton conductivity of the mesoporous PEMs at different temperatures. This work is funded by Department of Energy.

  17. EFFECTS OF PRENATAL PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) EXPOSURE ON LUNG MATURATION IN THE PERINATAL RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), found widely in wildlife and humans, is environmentally and metabolically stable. Environmental PFOS may be from its use as a surfactant, hydrolysis of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride, and degradation of N-alkyl-perfluorooctanesulfon...

  18. Synthesis and characterizations of electrospun sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbullah, N.; Sekak, K. A.; Ibrahim, I.

    2016-07-01

    A novel electrospun polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) based on Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ketone) were prepared and characterized. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature for 60 hours reaction time. The degree sulfonation (DS) of the SPEEK are 58% was determined by H1 NMR using area under the peak of the hydrogen shielding at aromatic ring of the SPEEK. Then, the functional group of the SPEEK was determined using Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) showed O-H vibration at 3433 cm-1 of the sulfonated group (SO2-OH). The effect of the solvent and polymer concentration toward the electrospinning process was investigated which, the DMAc has electrospun ability compared to the DMSO. While, at 20 wt.% of the polymer concentration able to form a fine and uniform nanofiber, this was confirmed by FESEM that shown electrospun fiber mat SPEEK surface at nano scale diameter.

  19. Continuous separation of serum proteins using a stirred cell charged with carboxylated and sulfonated microspheres.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Yoon, J Y; Kim, W S

    1998-01-01

    We contrived a new separation system using a stirred cell charged with uncoupled microsphere similar to the chromatographic separation. Microspheres, carboxylated PS/PMAA and sulfonated PS/PNaSS, were prepared by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. To complement the submicron size weakness and the absence of ligands, we employed the latex form, the dispersion of microsphere, and took advantage of interaction relationships between proteins and microspheres. Adsorption isotherm is contemplated to investigate continuous separation behaviours of serum proteins. Selectivity of separation is in the following order: PS/PNaSS-2.0 (high sulfonated) < PS/PNaSS-0.3 (low sulfonated) < PS/PMAA-0.5 (low carboxylated). Unlike previous works on batch separation, not only the adsorbed amount in equilibrium (Cm), but also adsorption coefficient (K), played an important role in continuous separation. Functional groups (carboxyl and sulfonate), induced from the co-monomer, also affected the adsorption behaviours. PMID:9861492

  20. Preparation of a sulfonated carbonaceous material from lignosulfonate and its usefulness as an esterification catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duckhee

    2013-01-01

    Sulfonated carbonaceous material useful as a solid acid catalyst was prepared from lignosulfonate, a waste of the paper-making industry sulfite pulping process, and characterized by 13C-NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The sulfonic acid group density and total density of all acid groups in the sulfonated carbonaceous material was determined by titration to be 1.24 mmol/g and 5.90 mmol/g, respectively. Its catalytic activity in the esterification of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid with anhydrous ethanol was shown to be comparable to that of the ionic exchange resin Amberlyst-15, when they were used in the same amount. In the meantime, the sulfonic acid group was found to be leached out by 26%-29% after it was exposed to hot water (95 °C) for 5 h. The catalytic usefulness of the prepared carbonaceous material was investigated by performing esterifications. PMID:23846757

  1. Effective catalytic conversion of cellulose into high yields of methyl glucosides over sulfonated carbon based catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dora, Sambha; Bhaskar, Thallada; Singh, Rawel; Naik, Desavath Viswanatha; Adhikari, Dilip Kumar

    2012-09-01

    An amorphous carbon based catalyst was prepared by sulfonation of the bio-char obtained from fast pyrolysis (N(2) atm; ≈ 550°C) of biomass. The sulfonated carbon catalyst contained high acidity of 6.28 mmol/g as determined by temperature programmed desorption of ammonia of sulfonated carbon catalyst and exhibited high catalytic performance for the hydrolysis of cellulose. Amorphous carbon based catalyst containing -SO(3)H groups was successfully tested and the complete conversion of cellulose in methanol at moderate temperatures with high yields ca. ≥ 90% of α, β-methyl glucosides in short reaction times was achieved. The methyl glucosides formed in methanol are more stable for further conversion than the products formed in water. The carbon catalyst was demonstrated to be stable for five cycles with slight loss in catalytic activity. The utilization of bio-char as a sulfonated carbon catalyst provides a green and efficient process for cellulose conversion. PMID:22776237

  2. Titania-based molecularly imprinted polymer for sulfonic acid dyes prepared by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Li, Rong; Tan, Jin; Jiang, Zi-Tao

    2013-03-30

    A novel titania-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized through sol-gel process with sunset yellow (Sun) as template, without use of functional monomer. MIP was used as a solid-phase extraction material for the isolation and enrichment of sulfonic acid dyes in beverages. The results showed that MIP exhibited better selectivity, higher recovery and adsorption capacity for the sulfonic acid dyes compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP). MIP presented highest extraction selectivity to Sun when pH less than or equal to 3. The adsorption capacity was 485.9 mg g(-1), which was larger than that of NIP (384.7 mg g(-1)). The better clean-up ability demonstrated the capability of MIP for the isolation and enrichment of sulfonic acid dyes in complicated food samples. The mean recoveries for the sulfonic acid dyes on MIP were from 81.9% to 97.2% in spiked soft drink. PMID:23598213

  3. Sulfonic acids: catalysts for the liquid-liquid extraction of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Keeney, M.E.

    1980-05-01

    Three sulfonic acid extractants, dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS), didodecylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDDNS) and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT, AOT) are compared as to their effects on the extraction of nickel with LIX63. The acidic extractants interact synergistically with the oxime. Interfacial tension results are presented which demonstrate that the sulfonates form reversed micelles in non-polar organic solvents. It is proposed that the reversed micelles catalyze the extraction by specific solubilization of both the metal and the extractant, resulting in an increase in the interfacial concentration of the reacting species. The ability of LIX63 to chelate with nickel without deprotonating permits the synergism to occur at low pH.

  4. Effect of sulfonation and diethanolamine addition on the mechanical and physicochemical properties of SEPS copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patiño, D.; Correa, E.; Acevedo-Morantes, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modification techniques have been developed to achieve changes in the processing of polymers, and modification of their mechanical, thermal and morphological properties, as well as their hydrophobicity and conductivity. Sulfonation improves ion conductivity, antistatic behaviour, hydrophilicity and solubility of the polymers. These characteristics are related to the presence of sulfonic groups in the polymer matrix. This research project focuses on the evaluation of mechanical, physical and chemical properties of membranes that are based on a sulfonated Styrene-Ethylene-Propylene-Styrene (SEPS) copolymer. The membranes were functionalized with diethanolamine at 5, 15 and 30% w/w, to separate carbon dioxide. FTIR and XRD analyses were used to characterize the membranes. The sulfonated-loaded membrane with 15% of diethanolamine showed the best results in each characterization.

  5. Enhanced Dispersion of TiO2 Nanoparticles in a TiO2/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Nanocomposite via Plasma-Liquid Interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yazi; Sun, Dan; Askari, Sadegh; Patel, Jenish; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Mitra, Somak; Zhang, Richao; Lin, Wen-Feng; Mariotti, Davide; Maguire, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A facile method to synthesize a TiO2/PEDOT:PSS hybrid nanocomposite material in aqueous solution through direct current (DC) plasma processing at atmospheric pressure and room temperature has been demonstrated. The dispersion of the TiO2 nanoparticles is enhanced and TiO2/polymer hybrid nanoparticles with a distinct core shell structure have been obtained. Increased electrical conductivity was observed for the plasma treated TiO2/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite. The improvement in nanocomposite properties is due to the enhanced dispersion and stability in liquid polymer of microplasma treated TiO2 nanoparticles. Both plasma induced surface charge and nanoparticle surface termination with specific plasma chemical species are proposed to provide an enhanced barrier to nanoparticle agglomeration and promote nanoparticle-polymer binding. PMID:26497265

  6. Enhanced Dispersion of TiO2 Nanoparticles in a TiO2/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Nanocomposite via Plasma-Liquid Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yazi; Sun, Dan; Askari, Sadegh; Patel, Jenish; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Mitra, Somak; Zhang, Richao; Lin, Wen-Feng; Mariotti, Davide; Maguire, Paul

    2015-10-01

    A facile method to synthesize a TiO2/PEDOT:PSS hybrid nanocomposite material in aqueous solution through direct current (DC) plasma processing at atmospheric pressure and room temperature has been demonstrated. The dispersion of the TiO2 nanoparticles is enhanced and TiO2/polymer hybrid nanoparticles with a distinct core shell structure have been obtained. Increased electrical conductivity was observed for the plasma treated TiO2/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite. The improvement in nanocomposite properties is due to the enhanced dispersion and stability in liquid polymer of microplasma treated TiO2 nanoparticles. Both plasma induced surface charge and nanoparticle surface termination with specific plasma chemical species are proposed to provide an enhanced barrier to nanoparticle agglomeration and promote nanoparticle-polymer binding.

  7. Improved performances of CuPc/C60-based solar cell by using randomly and irregularly embossed PEDOT:PSS as anode buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiqing; Hao, Yuying; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Qinjun; Li, Zhanfeng; Cui, Yanxia; Wang, Hua; Shi, Fang

    2015-07-01

    An unique organic solar cell (OSC) based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and fullerene C60 as the electron donor and acceptor materials is demonstrated with randomly and irregularly embossed poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) as anode buffer layer. The effect of PEDOT:PSS nanostructure is characterized by optical and electrical measurements. The results indicate that introducing irregular nanostructure with random distribution into OSC leads to longer light paths by efficient scattering of the incident light and thus higher light absorption in active layer. Moreover, such a nanostructure increases the junction area, allowing more efficient exciton dissociation and charge carrier transfer/collection. These combined effects result in a prominent enhancement of 25.5% in average power conversion efficiency relative to the non-structured OSC due to the increases in short-circuit current and fill factor.

  8. Enhanced Dispersion of TiO2 Nanoparticles in a TiO2/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Nanocomposite via Plasma-Liquid Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yazi; Sun, Dan; Askari, Sadegh; Patel, Jenish; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Mitra, Somak; Zhang, Richao; Lin, Wen-Feng; Mariotti, Davide; Maguire, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A facile method to synthesize a TiO2/PEDOT:PSS hybrid nanocomposite material in aqueous solution through direct current (DC) plasma processing at atmospheric pressure and room temperature has been demonstrated. The dispersion of the TiO2 nanoparticles is enhanced and TiO2/polymer hybrid nanoparticles with a distinct core shell structure have been obtained. Increased electrical conductivity was observed for the plasma treated TiO2/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite. The improvement in nanocomposite properties is due to the enhanced dispersion and stability in liquid polymer of microplasma treated TiO2 nanoparticles. Both plasma induced surface charge and nanoparticle surface termination with specific plasma chemical species are proposed to provide an enhanced barrier to nanoparticle agglomeration and promote nanoparticle-polymer binding. PMID:26497265

  9. Electrosteric stabilization and its role in cooperative magnetophoresis of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Pin; Ahmad, Abdul Latif; Ooi, Boon Seng; Lim, Jitkang

    2012-10-23

    A detailed study on the conflicting role that colloid stability plays in magnetophoresis is presented. Magnetic iron oxide particles (MIOPs) that were sterically stabilized via surface modification with poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) of different molecular weights (i.e., 70 and 1000 kDa) were employed as our model system. Both sedimentation kinetics and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements suggested that PSS 70 kDa is a better stabilizer as compared to PSS 1000 kDa. This observation is mostly attributed to the bridging flocculation of PSS 1000 kDa decorated MIOPs originated from the extended polymeric conformation layer. Later, a lab-scale high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) device was designed to study the magnetophoretic collection of MIOPs. Our experimental results revealed that the more colloidally stable the MIOP suspension is, the harder it is to be magnetically isolated by HGMS. At 50 mg/L, naked MIOPs without coating can be easily captured by HGMS at separation efficiency up to 96.9 ± 2.6%. However, the degree of separation dropped quite drastically to 83.1 ± 1.2% and 67.7 ± 4.6%, for MIOPs with PSS 1000k and PSS 70k coating, respectively. This observation clearly implies that polyelectrolyte coating that was usually employed to electrosterically stabilize a colloidal system in turn compromises the magnetic isolation efficiency. By artificially destroying the colloidal stability of the MIOPs with ionic strength increment, the ability for HGMS to recover the most stable suspension (i.e., PSS 70k-coated MIOPs) increased to >86% at 100 mM monovalent ion (Na(+)) or at 10 mM divalent ion (Ca(2+)). This observation has verified the conflicting role of colloidal stability in magnetophoretic separation. PMID:23025323

  10. Anhydrous state proton and lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes based on sulfonated bisphenol-A-poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha Thakurta, Soma

    Sulfonated polymer based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have received considerable interest in recent years because of their wide variety of applications particularly in fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and electrochromic devices. The present research was focused on three interrelated subtopics. First, two different bisphenol-A-poly(arylene ethers), polyetherimide (PEI) and polysulfone (PSU) were sulfonated by a post sulfonation method to various degrees of sulfonation, and their thermal and mechanical properties were examined. The effects of poly(arylene ether) chemical structure, reaction time, concentration, and types of sulfonating agents on sulfonation reaction were investigated. It was found that deactivation of bisphenol A unit caused by the electron withdrawing imide, retarded the sulfonation of PEI compared to PSU. Sulfonation conducted with a high concentration of sulfonating agent and/or prolonged reaction time exhibited evidence of degradation at the isopropylidene unit. The degradation occurred through the same mechanistic pathway with the two different sulfonating agents, chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) and trimethylsilyl chlorosulfonate (TMSCS). The degradation was faster with CSA than its silyl ester, TMSCS, and was evident even at low acid concentration. Second, novel anhydrous proton conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) were prepared by the incorporation of 1H-1,2,4-triazole (Taz) as a proton solvent in sulfonated polyetherimide (SPEI) matrix. The size, shape, and state of dispersion (crystal morphology) of triazole crystals in SPEI were examined as a function of degree of sulfonation and triazole concentration. Increasing sulfonic acid content caused reduction of triazole crystallite size, hence the depression of melting temperature and their uniform distribution throughout the sulfonated polymer matrix. The increased rate of structure diffusion within the smaller size crystals due to the improved molecular mobility contributed

  11. Asymmetrical Self-assembly From Fluorinated and Sulfonated Block Copolymers in Aqueous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Hong, Kunlun; Baskaran, Durairaj; Goswami, Monojoy; Sumpter, Bobby G; Mays, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers of fluorinated isoprene and partially sulfonated styrene form novel tapered rods and ribbon-like micelles in aqueous media due to a distribution of sulfonation sites and a large Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. A combination of microscopy, light scattering, and simulation demonstrates the presence of these unique nanostructures. This study sheds light on the micellization behavior of amphiphilic block polymers by revealing a new mechanism of self-assembly.

  12. Synthesis, structure, theoretical calculations and biological activity of sulfonate active ester new derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazzali, Mohamed; Khattab, Sherine A. N.; Elnakady, Yasser A.; Al-Mekhlafi, Fahd A.; Al-Farhan, Khalid; El-Faham, Ayman

    2013-08-01

    A series of naphthyl and tolyl sulfonate ester were synthesized and characterized by H NMR. X-ray single crystal diffraction experiments established the molecular structure of three new sulfonate esters derivatives, and spectral data agree with these in solution. The observed hydrogen bonding is discussed on the basis of crystal structural analyses and DFT/MP2 geometry optimization quantum calculations. Antimicrobial activities were screened for selected compounds against three human cancer cell lines and Mosquito Culex pipiens larvae.

  13. Viscoelastic Behavior of Low Molecular Weight Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongying

    Ionomers are those hydrophobic polymers having small amounts of bonded ionic groups. The introduction of the ionic groups into polymer chain produces large changes in the physical, mechanical and rheological properties of the parent polymer. Characterization of the effect of the ionic interactions on the rheology is complicated by the difficulty in separating effects due to molecular entanglements and the ionic interactions. In this study, low molecular weight (Mw=4000) sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) was used to study the dynamic and steady shear rheology of SPS ionomers. The polymer chain length used was far below the entanglement molecular weight of polystyrene and effects of molecular entanglements will be absent. Any polymer chain entanglements or lengthening behavior on the melt rheology should be due to the ionic interactions. Random SPS ionomers with two sulfonation levels were examined, 2.5 and 4.8 mol%, which corresponded, respectively, to one and two sulfonate groups per chain on average. The metal counterions was varied across the alkali metal series of the periodic table. Morphology of the ionomer was characterized by using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, and dynamic and steady shear measurements were performed to investigate rheological behavior of the ionomers. Glass transition temperatures of the ionomers increased with increasing ion concentration but were insensitive to cation used. The scattering peak in SAXS indicates the existence of the nanophase separated ionic clusters. The strong ionic nanophase persist up to very high temperatures and is not sensitive to the external stress. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) of G' worked reasonably well while TTS of G" failed for most ionomers. Ionic interactions increased the terminal relaxation time of the melts as much as seven orders of magnitude greater than the unentangled PS melt. The zero shear viscosity and first normal stress coefficients scaled with cq/a, where c was the

  14. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    As the world sets its sight into the future, energy remains a great challenge. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is part of the solution to the energy challenge because of its high efficiency and diverse application. The purpose of the PEM is to provide a path for proton transport and to prevent direct mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the anode and the cathode, respectively. Hence, PEMs must have good proton conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and mechanical durability. The current state-of-the-art PEM is a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, Nafion®. Although Nafion® has many desirable properties, it has high methanol crossover and it is expensive. The objective of this research was to develop a cost effective two-phase, composite PEM wherein a dispersed conductive organic phase preferentially aligned in the transport direction controls proton transport, and a continuous hydrophobic phase provides mechanical durability to the PEM. The hypothesis that was driving this research was that one might expect better dispersion, higher surface to volume ratio and improved proton conductivity of a composite membrane if the dispersed particles were nanometer in size and had high ion exchange capacity (IEC, = [mmol sulfonic acid]/gram of polymer). In view of this, considerable efforts were employed in the synthesis of high IEC organic nanoparticles and fabrication of a composite membrane with controlled microstructure. High IEC, ~ 4.5 meq/g (in acid form, theoretical limit is 5.4 meq/g) nanoparticles were achieved by emulsion copolymerization of a quaternary alkyl ammonium (QAA) neutralized-sulfonated styrene (QAA-SS), styrene, and divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of varying the counterion of the sulfonated styrene (SS) monomer (alkali metal and QAA cations), SS concentration, and the addition of a crosslinking agent (DVB) on the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles to higher IECs were assessed. The nanoparticles were ion exchanged to acid form. The extent of ion

  15. Rear-Sided Passivation by SiNx:H Dielectric Layer for Improved Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiling; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Zhou, Suqiong; Ying, Zhiqin; Yang, Xi; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-06-01

    Silicon/organic hybrid solar cells have recently attracted great attention because they combine the advantages of silicon (Si) and the organic cells. In this study, we added a patterned passivation layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H) onto the rear surface of the Si substrate in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell, enabling an improvement of 0.6 % in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The addition of the SiNx:H layer boosted the open circuit voltage ( V oc) from 0.523 to 0.557 V, suggesting the well-passivation property of the patterned SiNx:H thin layer that was created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and lithography processes. The passivation properties that stemmed from front PEDOT:PSS, rear-SiNx:H, front PEDOT:PSS/rear-SiNx:H, etc. are thoroughly investigated, in consideration of the process-related variations.

  16. Highly efficient polymer-based optoelectronic devices using PEDOT:PSS and a GO composite layer as a hole transport layer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae Choul; Jang, Jeong In; Lee, Bo Ram; Lee, Geon-Woong; Han, Joong Tark; Song, Myoung Hoon

    2014-02-12

    We demonstrate highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs), as well as polymer solar cells (PSCs), using a solution-processable poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS):graphene oxide (GO) (PEDOT:GO) composite layer as hole transport layers (HTLs). The PEDOT:GO composite HTL layer shows enhanced charge carrier transport due to improved conductivity by benzoid-quinoid transitions with a well-matched work function between GO (4.89 eV) and PEDOT:PSS (4.95 eV). Moreover, it reduces remarkably exciton quenching and suppresses recombinations that bring higher charge extraction in PSCs and increases the recombinations of holes and electrons within the active layer by the blocking behavior of the electrons from a fluorescent semiconductor due to the existence of GO with large bandgap (∼3.6 eV) in the PEDOT:GO composite layer, therefore leading to an enhancement of device efficiency in PLEDs and PSCs. The optimized PLEDs and PSCs with a PEDOT:GO composite HTL layer shows the maximum luminous efficiency of 21.74 cd/A (at 6.4 V) for PLEDs, as well as the power conversion efficiency of 8.21% for PSCs, which were improved by ∼220 and 12%, respectively, compared to reference PLEDs and PSCs with a PEDOT:PSS layer. PMID:24433032

  17. Aligned/unaligned conducting polymer cryogels with three-dimensional macroporous architectures from ice-segregation-induced self-assembly of PEDOT-PSS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuetong; Li, Chunyan; Luo, Yunjun

    2011-03-01

    Porous conducting polymers are of great interest because of the huge potential to combine high surface areas in the dry state with physical properties relevant to organic electronics. Aligned or unaligned conducting polymer cryogels with 3D macroporous architectures have been prepared using the ice-segregation-induced self-assembly (ISISA) of different poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) freezing precursors as a dispersion or a formed hydrogel. The chemical composition and molecular structure of the resulting conducting polymer cryogels have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The morphologies of the PEDOT-PSS cryogels, together with their textural structures, have been revealed by scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, and nitrogen sorption tests. Processing PEDOT-PSS via ISISA endows the conducting polymers with novel properties, as demonstrated by a series of X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and electrical conductivity tests. These conducting polymer cryogels with aligned/unaligned macroporous architectures suggest the potential in the development of electronic components, tissue engineering, and next-generation catalytic and separation supports. PMID:21247212

  18. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) block copolymers and their sulfonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun-Young; Song, Ju-Myung; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shul, Yong-Gun; Shin, Junhwa

    2013-12-01

    Several crosslinked poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) (c-SBS) block copolymer films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam with various irradiation doses and the prepared c-SBS film was then subjected to sulfonation using a chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) solution to introduce a sulfonic acid group. To estimate the degree of crosslinking, the gel fractions and FT-IR spectra of the c-SBS films were used and the results indicate that the degree of crosslinking is increased with an increase in the radiation dose. The surface morphology and mechanical property of the c-SBS films were observed using SEM and UTM instruments, respectively. The sulfonated c-SBS films were investigated by measuring the ion exchange capacity (IEC) and by observing the cross-sectional distribution patterns of sulfonic acid group using an SEM-EDX instrument. The IEC and SEM-EDX studies indicate that the sulfonated c-SBS membranes can be successfully prepared through the radiation crosslinking of the SBS film and the subsequent sulfonation with a diluted CSA solution.

  19. Vibrational spectroscopic study of pure and silica-doped sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangasamy, Vijay Shankar; Thayumanasundaram, Savitha; Seo, Jin Won; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    We report the vibrational properties of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes, used as electrolytes in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We discuss the changes in the vibrational modes of the functional groups present in the polymer arising due to the sulfonation process and the subsequent incorporation of silica particles functionalized with sulfonic acid group. From the infrared spectra, we confirm the incorporation of sulfonic acid group in the polymer chain as well as in the functionalized silica particles. We have also measured the variations in the peak area ratio of the characteristic out-of-plane vibrations of the aromatic rings in the PEEK polymer at 1280 cm-1 with respect to a reference peak at 1305 cm-1. These values were correlated to the crystallinity (XC) values experimentally determined by DSC technique, providing a non-destructive means to calculate the crystallinity of polymer membranes. The calculated XC values were in good agreement with the experimental values. The crystallinity was observed to decrease with increasing degree of sulfonation (DS), indicating the crystalline-to-amorphous phase modification of the polymer by sulfonation, which along with the enhanced ion-exchange capacity and water uptake, is responsible for the improved ionic conductivity at higher DS values.

  20. Single-step synthesis of sulfonated polyoxadiazoles and their use as proton conducting membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Dominique; Roeder, Jerusa; Ponce, Mariela L.; Nunes, Suzana P.

    A single-step approach for the synthesis of sulfonated polyoxadiazoles from hydrazine sulfate was developed using non-sulfonated diacids in polyphosphoric acid. The post-sulfonation conditions were optimized by varying reaction time, medium and reagent concentrations in sulfuric acid, oleum and/or their mixtures. For the first time, a series of sulfonated polyoxadiazoles with ion exchange capacity (IEC) ranging from 1.26 to 2.7 meqiv. g -1 and high molecular weight (about 40,0000 g mol -1) were synthesized. The structures of the polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, and FTIR. Sulfonated polyoxadiazole membranes with high thermal stability indicated by observed glass-transition temperatures (T g) ranging from 364 to 442 °C in sodium salt form and from 304 to 333 °C in acid form and with high mechanical properties (storage modulus about 3 GPa at 300 °C) have been prepared. The membrane stability to oxidation was investigated by soaking the film in Fenton's reagent at 80 °C for 1 h. The sulfonated polyoxadiazole membranes exhibited high oxidative stability, retaining 98-100% of their weight after the test. Proton conductivity values with the order of magnitude of 10 -1 to 10 -2 S cm -1 at 80 °C and with relative humidity ranging from 100% to 20% were obtained.

  1. Polymer electrolytes based on sulfonated polysulfone for direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lufrano, F.; Baglio, V.; Staiti, P.; Arico', A. S.; Antonucci, V.

    This paper reports the development and characterization of sulfonated polysulfone (SPSf) polymer electrolytes for direct methanol fuel cells. The synthesis of sulfonated polysulfone was performed by a post sulfonation method using trimethyl silyl chlorosulfonate as a mild sulfonating agent. Bare polysulfone membranes were prepared with two different sulfonation levels (60%, SPSf-60 and 70%, SPSf-70), whereas, a composite membrane of SPSf-60 was prepared with 5 wt% silica filler. These membranes were investigated in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) operating at low (30-40 °C) and high temperatures (100-120 °C). DMFC power densities were about 140 mW cm -2 at 100 °C with the bare SPSf-60 membrane and 180 mW cm -2 at 120 °C with the SPSf-60-SiO2 composite membrane. The best performance achieved at ambient temperature using a membrane with high degree of sulfonation (70%, SPSf-70) was 20 mW cm -2 at atmospheric pressure. This makes the polysulfone-based DMFC suitable for application in portable devices.

  2. Wear Reduction Effects of Ca Sulfonate on Coated Tools in Hobbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Hironori; Ono, Hajime; Tsuda, Yoshihiro

    This paper presents the influence of Ca sulfonate on tool life (flank wear), crater wear and finished surface roughness in hobbing. Experiments were carried out using two kinds of fully coated fly tools with TiN and (Al, Ti)N films respectively. As the results, when using the TiN fully coated tool, Ca sulfonate prolongs the tool life, and decreases the crater wear compared with the machine oil 23 as a base oil. With the (Al, Ti)N fully coated tool, an interesting result was obtained that the base oil containing no additives gives a longer tool life and a smaller crater wear than those obtained with Ca sulfonates added. It was suggested that the increase in the flank wear and the crater wear is caused by the chemical and/or the corrosive actions of Ca sulfonate, when Ca sulfonate was used for the (Al, Ti)N coated tool. Ca sulfonates improve the finished surface roughness for both coated tools.

  3. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tabor, C.F.; Barber, L.B., II

    1996-01-01

    The 2 800-km reach of the Mississippi River between Minneapolis, MN, and New Orleans, LA, was examined for the occurrence and fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), a common anionic surfactant found in municipal sewage effluents. River water and bottom sediment were sampled in the summer and fall of 1991 and in the spring of 1992. LAS was analyzed using solid- phase extraction/derivatization/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. LAS was present on all bottom sediments at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 mg/kg and was identified in 21% of the water samples at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 28.2 ??g/L. The results indicate that LAS is a ubiquitous contaminant on Mississippi River bottom sediments and that dissolved LAS is present mainly downstream from the sewage outfalls of major cities. The removal of the higher LAS homologs and external isomers indicates that sorption and biodegradation are the principal processes affecting dissolved LAS. Sorbed LAS appears to degrade slowly.

  4. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Some Sulfone-Containing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Nahla N.; El Ries, Mohammed A.; Toubar, Safaa; Abd El Hamid, Maha; Walash, Mohammed I.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal behavior of some sulfone-containing drugs, namely, dapsone (DDS), dimethylsulfone (MSM), and topiramate (TOP) in drug substances, and products were investigated using different thermal techniques. These include thermogravimetry (TGA), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermogravimetric data allowed the determination of the kinetic parameters: activation energy (E a), frequency factor (A), and reaction order (n). The thermal degradation of dapsone and topiramate was followed a first-order kinetic behavior. The calculated data evidenced a zero-order kinetic for dimethylsulfone. The relative thermal stabilities of the studied drugs have been evaluated and follow the order DDS > TOP > MSM. The purity was determined using DSC for the studied compounds, in drug substances and products. The results were in agreement with the recommended pharmacopoeia and manufacturer methods. DSC curves obtained from the tablets suggest compatibility between the drugs, excipients and/or coformulated drugs. The fragmentation pathway of dapsone with mass spectrometry was taken as example, to correlate the thermal decomposition with the resulted MS-EI. The decomposition modes were investigated, and the possible fragmentation pathways were suggested by mass spectrometry. PMID:22792516

  5. Chronic perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiangfei; Lv, Suping; Nie, Shangfei; Liu, Jing; Tong, Shoufang; Kang, Ning; Xiao, Yanyan; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Yang, Dongren

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), one persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and human. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity induced by chronic PFOS exposure are still largely unknown. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism using zebrafish as a model system. Our findings revealed a severe hepatic steatosis in the liver of males treated with 0.5μM PFOS as evidenced by hepatosomatic index, histological assessment and liver lipid profiles. Quantitative PCR assay further indicated that PFOS significantly increase the transcriptional expression of nuclear receptors (nr1h3, rara, rxrgb, nr1l2) and the genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (acox1, acadm, cpt1a). In addition, chronic PFOS exposure significantly decreased liver ATP content and serum level of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein in males. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic PFOS exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish via disturbing lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation and excretion of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein, and also demonstrate the validity of using zebrafish as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening. PMID:27108203

  6. Determination of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic, sulfonic, and phosphonic acids in food.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Alsberg, Tomas; Vestergren, Robin; Berger, Urs

    2012-11-01

    A sensitive and accurate method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, and phosphonic acids (PFPAs) at low picograms per gram concentrations in a variety of food matrices. The method employed extraction with acetonitrile/water and cleanup on a mixed-mode co-polymeric sorbent (C8 + quaternary amine) using solid-phase extraction. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using a mobile phase gradient containing 5 mM 1-methyl piperidine for optimal chromatographic resolution of PFPAs. A quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometer operating in negative ion mode was used as detector. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.002 to 0.02 ng g(-1) for all analytes. Sample preparation (extraction and cleanup) recoveries at a spiking level of 0.1 ng g(-1) to a baby food composite were in the range of 59 to 98 %. A strong matrix effect was observed in the analysis of PFPAs in food extracts, which was tentatively assigned to sorption of PFPAs to the injection vial in the solvent-based calibration standard. The method was successfully applied to a range of different food matrices including duplicate diet samples, vegetables, meat, and fish samples. PMID:22955674

  7. Phthalocyanines And Their Sulfonated Derivatives As Photosensitizers In Photodynamic Therapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesz, Peter; Krishna, C. Murali

    1988-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of human tumors with hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) has achieved encouraging results. However, HpD is a complex mixture whose composition varies in different preparations and with time of storage. The future promise of PDT for cancer treatment depends on the development of new chemically defined sensitizers which absorb more strongly than HpD in the 600-800 nm region. A shift to higher wavelengths is desirable since it allows increased light penetration in human tissues. In vivo, these sensitizers should be non-toxic, localize selectively in tumors and generate cytotoxic species upon illumination with a high quantum yield. These damaging species may be singlet oxygen (1O2) produced by the transfer of energy from the triplet state of the sensitizer to oxygen (Type II) or superoxide anion radicals formed by electron transfer to oxygen or substrate radicals generated by electron or hydrogen transfer directly from the sensitizer (Type I). The recent work of several groups indicating that phthalocyanines and their water soluble derivatives are promising candidates for PDT is reviewed. The photophysics, photochemistry, photosensitized killing of cultured mammalian cells and the use for in vivo photodynamic therapy of phthalocyanines is outlined. Our studies of the post-illumination photohemolysis of human red blood cells as a model system for membrane photomodification sensitized by phthalocyanine sulfonates are consistent with the predominant role of 1O2 as the damaging species.

  8. Molecular mobility and cation conduction in sulfonated polyester copolymer ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudryn, Gregory; King, Daniel; O'Reilly, Michael; Winey, Karen; Colby, Ralph

    2011-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) ionomers are candidate materials for electrolytes in energy storage devices due to the ability of ether oxygen to solvate cations. Copolyester ionomers are synthesized via condensation of sulfonated phthalates with mixtures of PEG and PTMG to make random copolymer ionomers with identical ion content. Variation of the PEG/PTMG composition changes Tg, dielectric constant and ionic aggregation; each with consequences for ion transport. Dielectric spectroscopy is used to determine number density of conducting ions, their mobility and extent of aggregation. Conductivity and mobility show Vogel temperature dependence and increase with PEG content; even though PTMG ionomers have lower Tg. Conducting ion densities show Arrhenius temperature dependence and are nearly identical for polymers containing PEG. SAXS confirms the extent of aggregation and temperature response from dielectric results, and exposes phase separation as PTMG content is increased. The tradeoff between ion-solvation and low Tg in this study provides fundamental understanding of ionic aggregation and ion transport in polymer electrolytes.

  9. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) induced embryotoxicity and disruption of cardiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Yu, Zhuo; Feng, Lixin; Wang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is correlated with birth defects and adverse health effects. However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. In current study, the embryonic stem cell test (EST) was performed to evaluate the embryotoxicity of PFOS, and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived cardiomyocytes were used as a model of the early stages of heart development to determine the developmental toxicity of PFOS. One validated endpoint and three molecular endpoints were observed to ensure accurate evaluation of toxicity. According to the criteria of the EST, PFOS was classified as weak embryotoxic. In addition, a cascade of genes related to normal cardiac development was examined at three different time points to monitor cardiogenesis. We found that PFOS significantly interfered with gene expression during cardiogenesis, especially on Nkx2.5 and Myl4. Further, PFOS reduced ATP production in ESCs-derived cardiomyocytes, together with PFOS induced apoptosis, could explain the reduction in beating ability. PFOS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated within cells, which was accompanied by an interfering expression of apoptosis-related genes, ultimately leading to apoptosis. In conclusion, PFOS altered the expression of crucial genes, reduced ATP production, induced ROS, and stimulated apoptosis during the early stages of cardiogenesis; these effects may result in poor developmental outcomes. PMID:23562911

  10. ER Suspensions of Sulfonated Poly(Styrene-CO-Divinylbenzene) Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Toshihiro; Aizawa, Ryuji; Konishi, Masayoshi; Asako, Yoshinobu

    Two ER suspensions (ERF1 and ERF2) containing highly sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) particles (ERP) were newly prepared. The ERP concentration was 20 wt% in ERF1 and 40 wt% in ERF2. The ER properties of the suspensions were investigated in view of applications to practical devices. The investigated properties were zero-field viscosity, dispersion stability, induced shear stress, current density, response time, shear rate and temperature dependence of the induced shear stress and current density, response time, shear rate and temperature dependence of the induced shear stress and the current density. electrical durability. In the results, it was found that ERF1 and ERF2 had a very high potential for practical applicatons. The remarkable characteristic of ERF1 was the very low zero-field viscosity of 35 mPa·s at 25°C. The remarkable characteristic of ERF2 was very large induced shear stress and under applying DC 4 kV/mm at 25°C, the induced shear stress was 5.1 kPa. As an application example, the ERFs can be efficiently used for an ER Cutting Machine incorporating variable speed rodless cylinders. The machine has worked smoothly for one and a half years, although the characteristic of control slightly changed.

  11. Degradation of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate in water by ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Manousaki, Eleni; Psillakis, Elefteria; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2004-10-01

    The potential of using ultrasonic irradiation for the removal of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) from aqueous solutions has been investigated. Experiments were performed at initial concentrations of 15, 30 and 100 mgl(-1), ultrasonic frequencies of 20 and 80 kHz, applied power values of 45, 75 and 150 W and liquid bulk temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 degrees C. At the conditions in question, SDBS conversion was found to decrease with increasing temperature and initial solute concentration and decreasing power and frequency. Investigations using the radical scavengers 1-butanol and KBr revealed that SDBS degradation proceeds through radical reactions occurring predominately at the bubble-liquid interface and, to a lesser extent, in the liquid bulk. Addition of NaCl or H(2)O(2) had little or even an adverse effect on SDBS conversion. Conversely, addition of Fe(2+) either alone or in conjunction with H(2)O(2) (Fenton reagent) had a positive effect on degradation. Finally, shake flask tests with activated sludge were performed to assess the aerobic biodegradability before and after sonochemical treatment. At the conditions under consideration, the use of ultrasound enhanced the aerobic degradability of the substrate in question. PMID:15350427

  12. Kinetics of low frequency sonodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate solutions.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hassan, Mohd A; Kim, Jung K; Metcalfe, Ian S; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2006-02-01

    The decomposition of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) in water by means of ultrasound irradiation at 20kHz was investigated. Experiments were conducted at surfactant concentrations of 175, 260 and 350 mg l(-1), liquid volumes of 120, 170 and 220 ml, temperatures of 20, 30 and 45 degrees C and applied power of 40, 80 and 125 W. The extent of degradation was followed monitoring substrate and organic carbon concentrations, while hydrogen peroxide concentration was also measured; the latter is a product of water sonolysis due to hydroxyl radical recombination. 80% SDBS conversion was achieved after 120 min of sonication at 125 W and 30 degrees C; nonetheless, SDBS and its degradation intermediates proved difficult to oxidise as only about 20-25% of the initial carbon content was transformed to carbon dioxide. At the initial stages of the reaction, degradation rate appears to be only weakly dependent on the substrate concentration with the rate increasing from 3.1 to 4 mg l(-1)min(-1) with increasing concentration from 175 to 350 mg l(-1). Degradation appears to occur at the bubble-liquid interface through hydroxyl radical-mediated reactions whose role was established by performing experiments in the presence of radical scavengers, namely potassium bromide and sodium benzoate. Degradation rates increased with increasing power and decreasing temperature and volume. PMID:15975625

  13. Tissue Distribution Of Chloroaluminium Sulfonated Phthalocyanine In Dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. M.; H. C.; Newman

    1989-06-01

    Chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (A1PCS) was administered intravenously to clinically normal dogs, and A1PCS levels were determined in tissues using a sensitive assay. A1PCS accumulated to high levels in liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and lung. These tissue levels confirm previous determinations in mice and rats. Only a small amount of dye was retained in skin and very small amounts in muscle and brain. A1PCS was cleared from the blood within 24 h, and excreted primarily by urine. Serum clearance was faster in males than in females. There were also significant tissue distribution differences between the genders, particularly during the first 12 h. The low levels of A1PCS in skin suggest that cutaneous photosensitivity and toxic skin reactions using this photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy of cancer may be eliminated. The difference in tissue distribution between genders is not only intriguing, but indicates that the optimal time window for treatment of various tissue sites may vary by gender.

  14. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Consoer, Daniel M; Hoffman, Alex D; Fitzsimmons, Patrick N; Kosian, Patricia A; Nichols, John W

    2016-03-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma and either urine or expired water. The data were then analyzed using a 2-compartment clearance-volume model. Renal and branchial clearance rates (mL/d/kg) determined for all experiments averaged 19% and 81% of total clearance, respectively. Expressed as mean values for all experiments, the steady-state volume of distribution was 277 mL/kg and the terminal half-life was 86.8 d. Additional animals were exposed to PFOS in water, resulting in an average calculated branchial uptake efficiency of 0.36%. The renal clearance rate determined in the present study is approximately 75 times lower than that determined in earlier studies with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Previously, it was suggested that PFOA is a substrate for membrane transporters in the trout kidney. The present study suggests that glomerular filtration may be sufficient to explain the observed renal clearance rate for PFOS, although a role for membrane transporters cannot be ruled out. These findings demonstrate that models developed to predict the bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids by fish must account for differences in renal clearance of individual compounds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:717-727. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26332333

  15. Partitioning characteristics of perfluorooctane sulfonate between water and foods.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Gulliver, John S

    2012-01-01

    As a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic organic pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been found ubiquitously in the environment, including in tap water. For the first time, we studied PFOS sorption from water to foods (nine commonly consumed vegetables, three meats, and cereals) at two temperatures to estimate the daily intake of PFOS attributable to cooking and food preparation. The values of the food water-distribution coefficient (KF/W, l/kg) of PFOS ranged from 7 to 19 l/kg for most vegetables and from 19 to 38 l/kg for meats. Celery exhibited the highest affinity toward PFOS (KF/W=39.8±3.4 l/kg), whereas onions showed the lowest affinity toward PFOS (KF/W=1.1±0.4 l/kg). Adding table salt (sodium chloride) greatly increased PFOS sorption in most foods, except for celery and meats. The results indicate that human exposure to PFOS could result from the sorption of PFOS from water to food during food preparation, especially when using table salt. The average daily intake of PFOS through this route was estimated. Furthermore, raw and unprocessed foods (vegetables, meats, and cereals) bought from farmers' markets and grocery stores were basically free of PFOS and other long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids. PMID:21597984

  16. Rituximab Effectiveness and Safety for Treating Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (pSS): Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Francine Bertolais do Valle; Porfírio, Gustavo José Martiniano; Andriolo, Brenda Nazaré Gomes; de Albuquerque, Julia Vajda; Trevisani, Virginia Fernandes Moça

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that involves the exocrine glands and internal organs. pSS leads to destruction and loss of secretory function due to intense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Therapeutic options include mainly symptomatic and supportive measures, and traditional immunosuppressant drugs have shown no effectiveness in randomized trials. Rituximab (RTX) is a chimeric antibody anti-CD20 that leads to B cell depletion by diverse mechanisms. There is evidence that this drug may be effective for treating pSS. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate Rituximab effectiveness and safety for treating pSS. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review of RCTs published until December 2015, with no language restriction. We registered a protocol on Plataforma Brasil (40654814.6.0000.5505) and developed search strategies for the following scientific databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS. We included adults with established pSS diagnosis and considered the use of Rituximab as intervention and the use of other drugs or placebo as control. Four studies met our eligibility criteria: three with low risk of bias and one with uncertain risk of bias. The total number of participants was 276 (145 RTX, 131 placebo). We assessed the risk of bias of each included study and evaluated the following as primary outcomes: lacrimal gland function, salivary gland function, fatigue improvement and adverse events. We found no significant differences between the groups in the Schirmer test at week 24 meta-analysis (MD 3.59, 95% CI -2.89 to 10.07). Only one study evaluated the lissamine green test and reported a statistically significant difference between the groups at week 24 (MD -2.00, 95% CI -3.52 to -0.48). There was a significant difference between the groups regarding salivary flow rate (MD 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16) and improvement in fatigue VAS at weeks 6 (RR 3.98, 95% CI 1.61 to 9.82) and week 16

  17. Improved Power System Stability Using Backtracking Search Algorithm for Coordination Design of PSS and TCSC Damping Controller.

    PubMed

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M A; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation. PMID:26745265

  18. Improved Power System Stability Using Backtracking Search Algorithm for Coordination Design of PSS and TCSC Damping Controller

    PubMed Central

    Niamul Islam, Naz; Hannan, M. A.; Mohamed, Azah; Shareef, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Power system oscillation is a serious threat to the stability of multimachine power systems. The coordinated control of power system stabilizers (PSS) and thyristor-controlled series compensation (TCSC) damping controllers is a commonly used technique to provide the required damping over different modes of growing oscillations. However, their coordinated design is a complex multimodal optimization problem that is very hard to solve using traditional tuning techniques. In addition, several limitations of traditionally used techniques prevent the optimum design of coordinated controllers. In this paper, an alternate technique for robust damping over oscillation is presented using backtracking search algorithm (BSA). A 5-area 16-machine benchmark power system is considered to evaluate the design efficiency. The complete design process is conducted in a linear time-invariant (LTI) model of a power system. It includes the design formulation into a multi-objective function from the system eigenvalues. Later on, nonlinear time-domain simulations are used to compare the damping performances for different local and inter-area modes of power system oscillations. The performance of the BSA technique is compared against that of the popular particle swarm optimization (PSO) for coordinated design efficiency. Damping performances using different design techniques are compared in term of settling time and overshoot of oscillations. The results obtained verify that the BSA-based design improves the system stability significantly. The stability of the multimachine power system is improved by up to 74.47% and 79.93% for an inter-area mode and a local mode of oscillation, respectively. Thus, the proposed technique for coordinated design has great potential to improve power system stability and to maintain its secure operation. PMID:26745265

  19. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Ames

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate counterparts of similar thickness

  20. Ag (I)-based 2D metal frameworks with helical structures decorated by the homochiral camphor-10-sulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jun; Pan, Daocheng; Xu, Guohai

    2010-12-01

    Two two-dimension homochiral Ag (I) metal frameworks constructed from enantiopure camphor-10-sulfonic acid and hexamethylenetetramine have been synthesized at the room temperature. These two complexes with (6, 3) topology decorated by the homochiral camphor-10-sulfonic acid possess the unique helical structures. The result of Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirms that the bulk materials are homochiral and also indicates the handedness of the single crystals can be controlled by the chirality of the camphor-10-sulfonic acid.

  1. The effect of guanidinium functionalization on the structural properties and anion affinity of polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Gordiichuk, Pavlo I; Loos, Katja; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; de Smet, Louis C P M

    2016-02-01

    Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) is chemically functionalized with guanidinium (Gu) moieties in water at room temperature. The resulting PAH-Gu is used to prepare polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) with poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) via layer-by-layer deposition. The polyelectrolyte (PE) adsorption processes are monitored real-time by optical reflectometry and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Compared to the reference PSS/PAH PEMs, the PSS/PAH-Gu PEMs show a lower amount of deposited PE materials, lower wet thickness, higher stability under alkaline conditions and higher rigidity. These differences are rationalized by the additional Gu-SO3(-) interactions, also affecting the conformation of the PE chains in the PEM. The interactions between the PEMs and various sodium salts (NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4 and NaH2PO4) are also monitored using QCM-D. From the changes in the frequency, dissipation responses and supportive Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy it is concluded that Gu-functionalized PEMs absorb more H2PO4(-) compared to the Gu-free reference PEMs. This can be understood by strong interactions between Gu and H2PO4(-), the differences in the anion hydration energy and the anion valency. It is anticipated that compounds like the presented Gu-functionalized PE may facilitate the further development of H2PO4(-) sensors and ion separation/recovery systems. PMID:26658499

  2. Grafting titanium nitride surfaces with sodium styrene sulfonate thin films.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Gilad; Migonney, Véronique; Castner, David G

    2014-09-01

    The importance of titanium nitride lies in its high hardness and its remarkable resistance to wear and corrosion, which has led to its use as a coating for the heads of hip prostheses, dental implants and dental surgery tools. However, the usefulness of titanium nitride coatings for biomedical applications could be significantly enhanced by modifying their surface with a bioactive polymer film. The main focus of the present work was to graft a bioactive poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (pNaSS) thin film from titanium nitride surfaces via a two-step procedure: first modifying the surface with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) and then grafting the pNaSS film from the MPS modified titanium through free radical polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used after each step to characterize success and completeness of each reaction. The surface region of the titanium nitride prior to MPS functionalization and NaSS grafting contained a mixture of titanium nitride, oxy-nitride, oxide species as well as adventitious surface contaminants. After MPS functionalization, Si was detected by XPS, and characteristic MPS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. After NaSS grafting, Na and S were detected by XPS and characteristic NaSS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. The XPS determined thicknesses of the MPS and NaSS overlayers were ∼1.5 and ∼1.7 nm, respectively. The pNaSS film density was estimated by the toluidine blue colorimetric assay to be 260 ± 70 ng/cm(2). PMID:25280842

  3. Grafting titanium nitride surfaces with sodium styrene sulfonate thin films

    PubMed Central

    Zorn, Gilad; Migonney, Véronique; Castner, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of titanium nitride lies in its high hardness and its remarkable resistance to wear and corrosion, which has led to its use as a coating for the heads of hip prostheses, dental implants and dental surgery tools. However, the usefulness of titanium nitride coatings for biomedical applications could be significantly enhanced by modifying their surface with a bioactive polymer film. The main focus of the present work was to graft a bioactive poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (pNaSS) thin film from titanium nitride surfaces via a two-step procedure: first modifying the surface with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) and then grafting the pNaSS film from the MPS modified titanium through free radical polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used after each step to characterize success and completeness of each reaction. The surface region of the titanium nitride prior to MPS functionalization and NaSS grafting contained a mixture of titanium nitride, oxy-nitride, oxide species as well as adventitious surface contaminants. After MPS functionalization, Si was detected by XPS, and characteristic MPS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. After NaSS grafting, Na and S were detected by XPS and characteristic NaSS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. The XPS determined thicknesses of the MPS and NaSS overlayers were ∼1.5 and ∼1.7 nm, respectively. The pNaSS film density was estimated by the toluidine blue colorimetric assay to be 260 ± 70 ng/cm2. PMID:25280842

  4. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from textiles.

    PubMed

    Supreeyasunthorn, Phenpimuk; Boontanon, Suwanna K; Boontanon, Narin

    2016-05-11

    The goals of this study were to determine the concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in textiles and to determine PFOS and PFOA contamination in textile washing water. Quantification analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 32 textile samples by methanol extraction revealed that the average concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 0.18 µg m(-2) (0.02 to 0.61 µg m(-2)) and 2.74 µg m(-2) (0.31 to 14.14 µg m(-2)), respectively. Although the average concentration of PFOS found in textile samples was below European Union (EU) Commission regulations (<1 µg m(-2)), the average concentration of PFOA was 2.74 µg m(-2), and 68.75% of textile samples had PFOA concentrations exceeding 1 µg m(-2). Thus, based on these results, the concentration of PFOA in products should also be regulated. Experiments on PFOS and PFOA leaching into washing water were conducted. The maximum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were measured after the first washing; the concentrations gradually decreased with each subsequent washing. PFOS and PFOA migrated from textiles and were released into the environment, with disappearance percentages of 29.8% for PFOS and 99% for PFOA. The data presented in this study showed that textiles could be a significant direct and indirect source of PFOS and PFOA exposure for both humans and the environment. PMID:26864911

  5. Direct Olefination of Alcohols with Sulfones by Using Heterogeneous Platinum Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Touchy, Abeda Sultana; Kon, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi

    2016-04-18

    Carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C) were found to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for the direct Julia olefination of alcohols in the presence of sulfones and KOtBu under oxidant-free conditions. Primary alcohols, including aryl, aliphatic, allyl, and heterocyclic alcohols, underwent olefination with dimethyl sulfone and aryl alkyl sulfones to give terminal and internal olefins, respectively. Secondary alcohols underwent methylenation with dimethyl sulfone. Under 2.5 bar H2, the same reaction system was effective for the transformation of alcohol OH groups to alkyl groups. Structural and mechanistic studies of the terminal olefination system suggested that Pt(0) sites on the Pt metal particles are responsible for the rate-limiting dehydrogenation of alcohols and that KOtBu may deprotonate the sulfone reagent. The Pt/C catalyst was reusable after the olefination, and this method showed a higher turnover number (TON) and a wider substrate scope than previously reported methods, which demonstrates the high catalytic efficiency of the present method. PMID:26928740

  6. Tin Coatings Electrodeposited from Sulfonic Acid-Based Electrolytes: Tribological Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengoa, L. N.; Tuckart, W. R.; Zabala, N.; Prieto, G.; Egli, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    A high efficiency methane sulfonic acid electrolyte used for tin electrodeposition was studied, and the properties of the resulting deposits were compared to those of tin coatings obtained from an industrial phenol sulfonic acid electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the effect of organic additives on the reduction process to define the composition of the electrolytic bath. Thick tin electrodeposits were obtained on rotating cylinder steel electrodes, and their surface morphology, preferred crystal orientation, surface roughness, micro hardness, and tribological behavior were measured. Smooth, adherent, and bright tin coatings were obtained from the methane sulfonic acid electrolyte, which differed in morphology and texture from tin electrodeposited from the industrial bath. Influence of organic additives on preferred crystal orientation of the coatings was found to be stronger than changing the supporting sulfonic acid type. Tribological tests showed that the two types of deposits have a similar coefficient of friction. However, tin coatings obtained from methane sulfonic electrolytes presented a lower wear resistance and underwent galling at lower loads.

  7. Hydrocarbon and partially fluorinated sulfonated copolymer blends as functional membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, Natalie Y.; Harrison, William L.; Badami, Anand S.; Roy, Abhishek; Lane, Ozma; Cromer, Frank; Dong, Limin; McGrath, James E.

    Polymer blending is recognized as a valuable technique used to modify and improve the mechanical, thermal, and surface properties of two different polymers or copolymers. This paper investigated the solution properties and membrane properties of a biphenol-based disulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) random copolymer (BPS-35) with hexafluoroisopropylidene bisphenol based sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone) copolymers (6FSH) and an unsulfonated biphenol-based poly (arylene ether sulfone)s. The development of blended membranes with desirable surface characteristics, reduced water swelling and similar proton conductivity is presented. Polymer blends were prepared both in the sodium salt and acid forms from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). Water uptake, specific conductivity, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and contact angles were used to characterize the blended films. Surface enrichment of the fluorinated component is illustrated by an significant increase in the water-surface contact angle was observed when 10 wt.% 6FBPA-00 (106°) was added to BPS 35 (80°). Water weight gain was reduced by a factor of 2.

  8. [Dependence of the anticoagulant activity of starch and inulin on their degree of sulfonation].

    PubMed

    Drozd, N N; Torlopov, M A; Kuzhim, A A; Makarov, V A

    2012-01-01

    We have studied a relationship between the degree of sulfonation and anticoagulant activity of starch from Solanum tuberosum (molecular weight, 25000-30000 Da; sulfonation degree, 0.4-2.5) and inulin from Helianthus tuberosus (molecular weight, 7000-8000 Da; sulfonation degree, 0.6-1.6). Starch and inulin sulfates (i) increased the time of appearance of fibrin clots in plasma in coagulometric tests and (ii) reduced (via antithrombin) the rate of thrombin-induced hydrolysis of a chromogen substrate. The antithrombin (aIIa) activity of starch sulfates reached 16.8-70.0 IU/mg and the activity against factor Xa (aXa activity) was 2.3-16.6 IU/mg. The antithrombin activity of inulin sulfates was within 5.5-11.4 IU/mg and the activity against factor Xa (aXa activity) was within 0-1.4 IU/mg. An increase in the degree of sulfonation led to a growth in the anticoagulant activity of starch sulfates. The anticoagulant activity of starch sulfates and inulin sulfate with sulfonation degree 1.0 is mediated by antithrombin, which is the plasma inhibitor of serine proteases. PMID:22891439

  9. Polymer electrolyte membranes from fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene: Membrane structure and transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sodeye, Akinbode; Huang, Tianzi; Gido, Samuel; Mays, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    With a view to optimizing morphology and ultimately properties, membranes have been cast from relatively inexpensive block copolymer ionomers of fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene (FISS) with various sulfonation levels, in both the acid form and the cesium neutralized form. The morphology of these membranes was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering, as well as water uptake, proton conductivity and methanol permeability within the temperature range from 20 to 60 C. Random phase separated morphologies were obtained for all samples except the cesium sample with 50 mol% sulfonation. The transport properties increased with increasing degree of sulfonation and temperature for all samples. The acid form samples absorbed more water than the cesium samples with a maximum swelling of 595% recorded at 60 C for the acid sample having 50 mol% sulfonation. Methanol permeability for the latter sample was more than an order of magnitude less than for Nafion 112 but so was the proton conductivity within the plane of the membrane at 20 C. Across the plane of the membrane this sample had half the conductivity of Nafion 112 at 60 C.

  10. Ionomers based on multisulfonated perylene dianhydride: Synthesis and properties of water resistant sulfonated polyimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Nanwen; Zhang, Suobo; Li, Shenghai

    A novel locally and densely sulfonated dianhydride with four sulfonic acid groups, 1,6,7,12-tetra[4-(sulfonic acid)phenoxy]perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (SPTDA), was successfully synthesized by direct sulfonation of the parent dianhydride, 1,6,7,12-tetraphenoxyperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTDA). Sulfonated copolyimides were prepared from SPTDA, nonsulfonated dianhydride 4,4‧-binaphthyl-1,1‧,8,8‧-tetracarboxylic dianydride, 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether (a) or dodecane-1,12-diamine (b). The synthesized copolymers, with the -SO 3H group on the polymer side chain, possess high molecular weights and high viscosities, and they form tough, flexible membranes. The copolymer membrane with an ion exchange capacity of 2.69 mequiv. g -1 had a proton conductivity of 0.126 S cm -1 at 20 °C and 0.292 S cm -1 at 100 °C; the latter is much higher than that of Nafion ® 117 under the same conditions. The mechanical properties of the copolymer membranes were almost unchanged after accelerated water stability testing at 140 °C for 100 h; this indicates excellent hydrolytic stability of the synthesized copolyimides.

  11. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Robertson, Gilles; Guiver, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  12. Improving the Serum Stability of Site-Specific Antibody Conjugates with Sulfone Linkers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Current routes for synthesizing antibody–drug conjugates commonly rely on maleimide linkers to react with cysteine thiols. However, thioether exchange with metabolites and serum proteins can compromise conjugate stability and diminish in vivo efficacy. We report the application of a phenyloxadiazole sulfone linker for the preparation of trastuzumab conjugates. This sulfone linker site-specifically labeled engineered cysteine residues in THIOMABs and improved antibody conjugate stability in human plasma at sites previously shown to be labile for maleimide conjugates. Similarly, sulfone conjugation with selenocysteine in an anti-ROR1 scFv-Fc improved human plasma stability relative to maleimide conjugation. Kinetically controlled labeling of a THIOMAB containing two cysteine substitutions was also achieved, offering a strategy for producing antibody conjugates with expanded valency. PMID:25099687

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Identification of New Sulfonic Acid Metabolites of Chloroacetanilide Herbicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, M.D.; Walters, F.H.; Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Larive, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of the sulfonic acid metabolites of the chloroacetanilide herbicides acetochlor, alachlor, butachlor, propachlor, and, more recently, metolachlor in surface and ground water suggests that a common mechanism for dechlorination exists via the glutathione conjugation pathway. The identification of these herbicides and their metabolites is important due to growing public awareness and concern about pesticide levels in drinking water. Although these herbicides are regulated, little is known about the fate of their metabolites in soil. The sulfonic acid metabolites were synthesized by reaction of the parent compounds with an excess of sodium sulfite. Acetochlor, alachlor, butachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor and their sulfonic acid metabolites were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. This paper provides a direct method for the preparation and characterization of these compounds that will be useful in the analysis and study of chloracetanilide herbicides and their metabolites.

  14. Polymer electrolyte membranes from fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene: Structural evolution with hydration and heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sodeye, Akinbode; Huang, Tianzi; Gido, Samuel; Mays, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) have been used to study the structural changes in fluorinated polyisoprene/sulfonated polystyrene (FISS) diblock copolymers as they evolved from the dry state to the water swollen state. A dilation of the nanometer-scale hydrophilic domains has been observed as hydration increased, with greater dilation occurring in the more highly sulfonated samples or upon hydration at higher temperatures. Furthermore, a decrease in the order in these phase separated structures is observed upon swelling. The glass transition temperatures of the fluorinated blocks have been observed to decrease upon hydration of these materials, and at the highest hydration levels, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has shown the presence of tightly bound water. A precipitous drop in the mechanical integrity of the 50% sulfonated materials is also observed upon exceeding the glass transition temperature (Tg), as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).

  15. Synthesis of porous sulfonated carbon as a potential adsorbent for phenol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Azhagapillai; Al Shoaibi, Ahmed; Srinivasakannan, C

    2015-01-01

    The work reports a facile synthesis procedure for preparation of porous sulfonated carbons and its suitability for adsorption of phenol. The sulfonated carbon was synthesized utilizing a simplified, single-step, shorter duration process by sulfonation, dehydration and carbonization of sucrose in sulfuric acid and tetraethylorthosilicate. The surface and internal structures of the adsorbents were characterized utilizing various characterization techniques to understand the porous nature and surface functional groups of the porous matrix. Adsorption capacity was found to be highest for the sample heat treated at 600 °C, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 440 mg/g at 30 °C. The adsorption isotherms were tested with the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms models to identify the appropriate adsorption mechanism. PMID:26524451

  16. QENS investigation of proton confined motions in hydrated perfluorinated sulfonic membranes and self-assembled surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrod, Quentin; Lyonnard, Sandrine; Guillermo, Armel; Ollivier, Jacques; Frick, Bernhard; Gébel, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    We report on QuasiElastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) investigations of the dynamics of protons and water molecules confined in nanostructured perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) materials, namely a commercial Aquivion membrane and the perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) surfactant. The former is used as electrolyte in low-temperature fuel cells, while the latter forms mesomorphous self-assembled phases in water. The dynamics was investigated as a function of the hydration level, in a wide time range by combining time-of-flight and backscattering incoherent QENS experiments. Analysis of the quasielastic broadening revealed for both systems the existence of localized translational diffusive motions, fast rotational motions and slow hopping of protons in the vicinity of the sulfonic charges. The characteristic times and diffusion coefficients have been found to exhibit a very similar behaviour in both membrane and surfactant structures. Our study provides a comprehensive picture of the proton motion mechanisms and the dynamics of confined water in model and real PFSA nanostructures.

  17. [Sensitivity to sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate: a supplementary test for bacterial identification].

    PubMed

    Serov, G D

    1981-01-01

    The susceptibility to sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, an anion-active detergent, was studied with 10 Gram-positive and 18 Gram-negative bacterial cultures. According to this susceptibility, the cultures were subdivided into two groups identical in their tinctorial properties. The bacteria growing at a 0.05% concentration of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate or at its higher concentrations were Gram-negative. The threshold concentration of this compound in the medium at which Gram-positive cultures could grow was 0.008%; some of the bacteria ceased growing even at a 0.002% concentration. The bacteria varied in their susceptibility to the detergent also within one and the same group, and even within one and the same species. The subdivision of bacteria on the basis of their susceptibility to sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate may be considered as a taxonomic feature. PMID:7321918

  18. Mechanoassisted Synthesis of Sulfonated Covalent Organic Frameworks with High Intrinsic Proton Conductivity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yongwu; Xu, Guodong; Hu, Zhigang; Cheng, Youdong; Chi, Chenglong; Yuan, Daqiang; Cheng, Hansong; Zhao, Dan

    2016-07-20

    It is challenging to introduce pendent sulfonic acid groups into modularly built crystalline porous frameworks for intrinsic proton conduction. Herein, we report the mechanoassisted synthesis of two sulfonated covalent organic frameworks (COFs) possessing one-dimensional nanoporous channels decorated with pendent sulfonic acid groups. These COFs exhibit high intrinsic proton conductivity as high as 3.96 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) with long-term stability at ambient temperature and 97% relative humidity (RH). In addition, they were blended with nonconductive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) affording a series of mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with proton conductivity up to 1.58 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) and low activation energy of 0.21 eV suggesting the Grotthuss mechanism for proton conduction. Our study has demonstrated the high intrinsic proton conductivity of COFs shedding lights on their wide applications in proton exchange membranes. PMID:27385672

  19. Cyclization of gold acetylides: synthesis of vinyl sulfonates via gold vinylidene complexes.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Janina; Wurm, Thomas; Nalivela, Kumara Swamy; Rudolph, Matthias; Rominger, Frank; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2014-04-01

    Differently substituted terminal alkynes that bear sulfonate leaving groups at an appropriate distance were converted in the presence of a propynyl gold(I) precatalyst. After initial formation of a gold acetylide, a cyclization takes place at the β-carbon atom of this species. Mechanistic studies support a mechanism that is related to that of dual gold-catalyzed reactions, but for the new substrates, only one gold atom is needed for substrate activation. After formation of a gold vinylidene complex, which forms a tight contact ion pair with the sulfonate leaving group, recombination of the two parts delivers vinyl sulfonates, which are valuable targets that can serve as precursors for cross-coupling reactions, for example. PMID:24596326

  20. Facile construction of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod/PEDOT:PSS hybrid heterojunction-based ultraviolet light sensors: efficient performance and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, K. S.; Rajendra Kumar, R. T.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a simple, planar manufacturing process-compatible fabrication of highly efficient UV sensors based on a hybrid heterojunction of an array of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) and PEDOT:PSS. The ZnO NR array was grown by the solution growth process and the aspect ratio (length 1 to 4 μm, diameter ˜80 nm) of the rods was controlled by varying the growth time. UV sensors based on (i) naked ZnO NRs and (ii) ZnO NR/PEDOT:PSS heterojunctions were fabricated and tested. The UV sensitivity of bare ZnO NRs was found to increase with increasing aspect ratio of the NRs due to the increase in the photogenerated charge carriers as the fraction of material interacting with the light increases. Under 5 V bias, naked ZnO NR arrays showed a photocurrent of 8.84 × 10-5 A, a responsivity of 0.538 A W-1 and a sensitivity of 4.80 under UV (λ = 256 nm, 130 μW) illumination. ZnO NR/PEDOT:PSS hybrid heterojunctions showed diode-like behavior with a leakage current less than 2.54 × 10-8 A at -5 V and forward turn-on voltage of 1.1 V. ZnO NR/polymer-based hybrid heterojunctions show a photocurrent of 6.74 × 10-4 A, responsivity of 5.046 A W-1 and excellent sensitivity of 37.65 under UV (λ = 256 nm, 130 μW) illumination. Compared with bare ZnO NR arrays, the ZnO NR/polymer heterojunction device shows responsivity enhanced by a factor of 10, sensitivity enhanced by a factor of 8 and faster rise and decay time. The enhanced performance may be due to effective charge separation guided by the built-in potential formed at the interface between ZnO NRs and PEDOT:PSS.

  1. PEDOT:PSS-Based Piezo-Resistive Sensors Applied to Reinforcement Glass Fibres for in Situ Measurement during the Composite Material Weaving Process

    PubMed Central

    Trifigny, Nicolas; Kelly, Fern M.; Cochrane, Cédric; Boussu, François; Koncar, Vladan; Soulat, Damien

    2013-01-01

    The quality of fibrous reinforcements used in composite materials can be monitored during the weaving process. Fibrous sensors previously developed in our laboratory, based on PEDOT:PSS, have been adapted so as to directly measure the mechanical stress on fabrics under static or dynamic conditions. The objective of our research has been to develop new sensor yarns, with the ability to locally detect mechanical stresses all along the warp or weft yarn. This local detection is undertaken inside the weaving loom in real time during the weaving process. Suitable electronic devices have been designed in order to record in situ measurements delivered by this new fibrous sensor yarn. PMID:23959238

  2. PEDOT:PSS-based piezo-resistive sensors applied to reinforcement glass fibres for in situ measurement during the composite material weaving process.

    PubMed

    Trifigny, Nicolas; Kelly, Fern M; Cochrane, Cédric; Boussu, François; Koncar, Vladan; Soulat, Damien

    2013-01-01

    The quality of fibrous reinforcements used in composite materials can be monitored during the weaving process. Fibrous sensors previously developed in our laboratory, based on PEDOT:PSS, have been adapted so as to directly measure the mechanical stress on fabrics under static or dynamic conditions. The objective of our research has been to develop new sensor yarns, with the ability to locally detect mechanical stresses all along the warp or weft yarn. This local detection is undertaken inside the weaving loom in real time during the weaving process. Suitable electronic devices have been designed in order to record in situ measurements delivered by this new fibrous sensor yarn. PMID:23959238

  3. Perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations in surface water in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Norimitsu; Harada, Kouji; Inoue, Kayoko; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Yoshinaga, Takeo; Koizumi, Akio

    2004-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are synthetic surfactants used in Japan. An epidemiological study of workers exposed to PFOA revealed a significant increase in prostate cancer mortality. A cross-sectional study of PFOA-exposed workers showed that PFOA perturbs sex hormone homeostasis. We analyzed their concentrations in surface water samples collected from all over Japan by LC/MS with a solid phase extraction method. The lowest limits of detection (LOD) (ng/L) were 0.06 for PFOA and 0.04 for PFOS. The lowest limits of quantification (LOQ) (ng/L) were 0.1 for both analytes. The levels [geometric mean (GM); geometric standard deviation (GS)] (ng/L) of PFOA and PFOS in the surface waters were GM (GS): 0.97 (3.06) and 1.19 (2.44) for Hokkaido-Tohoku (n=16); 2.84(3.56) and 3.69 (3.93) for Kanto (n=14); 2.50 (2.23) and 1.07 (2.36) for Chubu (n=17); 21.5 (2.28) and 5.73 (3.61) for Kinki (n=8); 1.51 (2.28) and 1.00 (3.42) for Chugoku (n=9); 1.93 (2.40) and 0.89 (3.09) for Kyushu-Shikoku (n=15). The GM of PFOA in Kinki was significantly higher than in other areas (ANOVA p<0.01). Systematic searches of Yodo and Kanzaki Rivers revealed two highly contaminated sites, a public-water-disposal site for PFOA and an airport for PFOS. The former was estimated to release 18 kg of PFOA/d. PFOA in drinking water in Osaka city [40 (1.07) ng/L] was significantly higher than in other areas. The present study confirms that recognizable amounts of PFOA are released in the Osaka area and that people are exposed to PFOA through drinking water ingestion. PMID:14960830

  4. Does perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) act as chemosensitizer in zebrafish embryos?

    PubMed

    Keiter, Susanne; Burkhardt-Medicke, Kathleen; Wellner, Peggy; Kais, Britta; Färber, Harald; Skutlarek, Dirk; Engwall, Magnus; Braunbeck, Thomas; Keiter, Steffen H; Luckenbach, Till

    2016-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) increases the toxicity of other chemicals by enhancing their uptake by cells and tissues. The present study aimed at testing whether the underlying mechanism of enhanced uptake of chemicals by zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in the presence of PFOS is by interference of this compound with the cellular efflux transporter Abcb4. Modifications of uptake/clearance and toxicity of two Abcb4 substrates, the fluorescent dye rhodamine B (RhB) and vinblastine, by PFOS were evaluated using 24 and 48h post-fertilization (hpf) embryos. Upon 90min exposure of 24hpf embryos to 1μM RhB and different PFOS concentrations (3-300μM) accumulation of RhB in zebrafish was increased by up to 11.9-fold compared to controls, whereas RhB increases in verapamil treatments were 1.7-fold. Co-administration of PFOS and vinblastine in exposures from 0 to 48hpf resulted in higher vinblastine-caused mortalities in zebrafish embryos indicating increased uptake of this compound. Interference of PFOS with zebrafish Abcb4 activity was further studied using recombinant protein obtained with the baculovirus expression system. PFOS lead to a concentration-dependent decrease of the verapamil-stimulated Abcb4 ATPase activity; at higher PFOS concentrations (250, 500μM), also the basal ATPase activity was lowered indicating PFOS to be an Abcb4 inhibitor. In exposures of 48hpf embryos to a very high RhB concentration (200μM), accumulation of RhB in embryo tissue and adsorption to the chorion were increased in the presence of 50 or 100μM PFOS. In conclusion, the results indicate that PFOS acts as inhibitor of zebrafish Abcb4; however, the exceptionally large PFOS-caused effect amplitude of RhB accumulation in the 1μM RhB experiments and the clear PFOS effects in the experiments with 200μM RhB suggest that an additional mechanism appears to be responsible for the potential of PFOS to enhance uptake of Abcb4 substrates. PMID:26803730

  5. Vibrational spectra of β-lactams—III. potassium 2-azetidinone-1-sulfonate and its isotopic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanai, Kazuhiko; Maki, Yoshifumi; Kuwae, Akio

    1993-07-01

    The IR and Raman spectra of potassium 2-azetidinone-1-sulfonate and its three deuterated and two 15N-substituted compounds have been recorded, and the observed bands have been assigned on the basis of the isotope effects and the normal coordinate analysis. Comparison of the force constants for the amide group among 2-azetidinone, 1-methyl-2-azetidinone and potassium 2-azetidinone-1-sulfonate indicates that there is a correlation between these constants and the ease of hydrolysis which was determined by NMR spectroscopy, depending on the amide resonance.

  6. Desulfonation of amino sulfonic acids of the benzene series in proton-donor media

    SciTech Connect

    Khelevin, R.N.

    1986-11-10

    In this work the desulfonation of amino sulfonic acids was studied by the determination of the kinetics of homogeneous isotopic exchange in radioactive sulfuric acid labeled with the isotope /sup 35/S, either containing HB(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 4/, or not containing it. The radioactive sulfuric acid was taken in an amount of 20 moles per mole of the amino sulfonic acid. Preliminary experiments showed that under these conditions neither the formation of disulfonic acids, nor the accumulation of desulfonated products occurs.

  7. Facile synthesis of 4H-chromene derivatives via base-mediated annulation of ortho-hydroxychalcones and 2-bromoallyl sulfones

    PubMed Central

    Thadkapally, Srinivas; Kunjachan, Athira C

    2016-01-01

    Summary The cesium carbonate-mediated reaction of 2-bromoallyl sulfones and ortho-hydroxychalcones furnished 3-arylsulfonyl-4H-chromene derivatives in 58–67% yield (18 examples). 2-Bromoallyl sulfones functioned as synthetic surrogates for allenyl sulfones in the reaction. PMID:26877804

  8. Sulfonic Acid- and Lithium Sulfonate-Grafted Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Electrospun Mats As Ionic Liquid Host for Electrochromic Device and Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Liu, Wanshuang; Leong, Yew Wei; Xu, Jianwei; Lu, Xuehong

    2015-08-01

    Electrospun polymer nanofibrous mats loaded with ionic liquids (ILs) are promising nonvolatile electrolytes with high ionic conductivity. The large cations of ILs are, however, difficult to diffuse into solid electrodes, making them unappealing for application in some electrochemical devices. To address this issue, a new strategy is used to introduce proton conduction into an IL-based electrolyte. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) copolymer is functionalized with sulfonic acid through covalent attachment of taurine. The sulfonic acid-grafted P(VDF-HFP) electrospun mats consist of interconnected nanofibers, leading to remarkable improvement in dimensional stability of the mats. IL-based polymer electrolytes are prepared by immersing the modified mats in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM(+)BF4(-)). It is found that the SO3(-) groups can have Lewis acid-base interactions with the cations (BMIM(+)) of IL to promote the dissociation of ILs, and provide additional proton conduction, resulting in significantly improved ionic conductivity. Using this novel electrolyte, polyaniline-based electrochromic devices show higher transmittance contrast and faster switching behavior. Furthermore, the sulfonic acid-grafted P(VDF-HFP) electrospun mats can also be lithiated, giving additional lithium ion conduction for the IL-based electrolyte, with which Li/LiCoO2 batteries display enhanced C-rate performance. PMID:26167794

  9. Dipole-induced conductivity enhancement by n-type inclusion in a p-type system: α-Fe₂O₃-PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Raccis, R; Wortmann, L; Ilyas, S; Schläfer, J; Mettenbörger, A; Mathur, S

    2014-08-01

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles of two different shapes but of same size (ca. 40 nm) were dispersed in PEDOT:PSS matrices in various concentration ranges (0-7 wt%) to study the consequent changes in conductivity in the dark and under solar illumination conditions. Within a distinct range of concentration, a distinct increase in the conductivity was observed for both spherical and cubical particle population. We ascribed this effect to the generalized Poole-Frenkel theory of conduction in conjunction with the basic depletion width properties of heterojunctions and electrostatic dipole moments, and verified our assumptions through data fitting. A difference in conductivity between sphere- and cube-based α-Fe2O3-PEDOT:PSS nanocomposites was also observed and ascribed to the electrostatic edge effect on the nanoparticles. The dispersion of α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals was confirmed by high-resolution electron microscopy, whereas the electrical properties and modulations thereof were followed by recording current-voltage characteristics. PMID:24955728

  10. Interfacial micropore defect formation in PEDOT:PSS-Si hybrid solar cells probed by TOF-SIMS 3D chemical imaging.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joseph P; Zhao, Liyan; Abd-Ellah, Marwa; Heinig, Nina F; Leung, K T

    2013-07-16

    Conducting p-type polymer layers on n-type Si have been widely studied for the fabrication of cost-effective hybrid solar cells. In this work, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is used to provide three-dimensional chemical imaging of the interface between poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and SiOx/Si in a hybrid solar cell. To minimize structural damage to the polymer layer, an Ar cluster sputtering source is used for depth profiling. The present result shows the formation of micropore defects in the interface region of the PEDOT:PSS layer on the SiOx/Si substrate. This interfacial micropore defect formation becomes more prominent with increasing thickness of the native oxide layer, which is a key device parameter that greatly affects the hybrid solar cell performance. Three-dimensional chemical imaging coupled with Ar cluster ion sputtering has therefore been demonstrated as an emerging technique for probing the interface of this and other polymer-inorganic systems. PMID:23745755

  11. Pharmacokinetic profiles of perfluorobutane sulfonate and activation of hepatic genes in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are organic chemicals with wide industrial and consumer uses. They are found ubiquitously at low levels in the environment and detectable in humans and wildlife. Perfluorobutane Sulfonate (PFBS) is a short-chained PFAS used to replace perfluorooc...

  12. SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four de-waxed, acid-form peats have been studied by means of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as het-eromolecular sorption isotherms, which plo...

  13. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid and derivatives: convenient reagents for reversible modification of arginine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, C.S.; Pelzig, M.; Glass, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid hydrate was prepared by the action of selenous acid on camphor-10-sulfonic acid. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonylnorleucine was prepared either from the sulfonic acid via the sulfonyl chloride or by selenous acid oxidation of camphor-10-sulfonylnorleucine. These reagents are useful for specific, reversible modification of the guanidino groups of arginine residues. Camphorquinonsulfonic acid is a crystalline water-soluble reagent that is especially suitable for use with small arginine-containing molecules, because the sulfonic acid group of the reagent is a convenient handle for analytical and preparative separation of products. Camphorquinonesulfonylnorleucine is more useful for work with large polypeptides and proteins, because hydrolysates of modified proteins may be analyzed for norleucine to determine the extent of arginine modification. The adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are stable to 0.5 M hydroxylamine solutions at pH 7, the recommended conditions for cleavage of the corresponding cyclohexanedione adducts. At pH 8-9 the adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are cleaved by o-phenylenediamine. The modification and regeneration of arginine, of the dipeptide arginylaspartic acid, of ribonuclease S-peptide, and of soybean trypsin inhibitor are presented as demonstrations of the use of the reagents.The use of camphorquinonesulfonyl chloride to prepare polymers containing arginine-specific ligands is discussed.

  14. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of perfluorooctane sulfonate on nanosized inorganic oxides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinyu; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang

    2016-07-15

    Adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) is critical for understanding their transport and fate in aquatic environments. In this study, the adsorption behavior of PFOS on nanosized Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2 and TiO2 was examined in terms of adsorption isotherms and influences of pH, ionic strength and heavy metallic cations. The nano-oxides had much higher adsorption capacities than bulk particles due to higher surface hydroxyl density. PFOS adsorption showed strong pH dependence due to different species of surface hydroxyl groups on nano-oxides. Besides electrostatic interaction, sulfonic group of PFOS possibly formed hydrogen bonds on the surface of nano-oxides. Because of the bridging effect in the co-adsorption process, the coexisting PFOS and heavy metallic cations greatly enhanced their adsorption onto the nano-oxides. Comparative adsorption of different perfluorinated sulfonates indicated the possible formation of bilayer PFOS adsorption on the nano-oxides, leading to the enhanced Cu(II) adsorption on the sulfonic groups of PFOS on the surfaces through electrostatic interaction. PMID:27127908

  15. Analysis of aromatic sulfonates in water by solid-phase extraction and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Loos, R; Niessner, R

    1998-10-01

    The separation of 14 different aromatic sulfonates of environmental concern by capillary (zone) electrophoresis (CZE) is presented. A new off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) enrichment procedure, that is compatible with CE analysis, was developed, using the styrene-divinylbenzene adsorbent LiChrolut EN. The combined method of SPE and CE allows the determination of aromatic sulfonates in water samples in the low microgram/l range. Separations are performed with a simple sodium borate buffer at pH 9.3. Analytes are detected by UV absorbance and fluorescence emission with a Xe-lamp excitation source, and both principles are compared. The recoveries for most of the sulfonates are > 70% for the extraction from spiked tap and river water. The average method precision is < 20% for replicate analyses. Very hydrophilic sulfonates cannot be extracted by this method. The detection limit of the combined method of SPE enrichment and CE analysis is approximately 0.1 microgram/l for 200-ml water samples. The performance of the method was checked with the analysis of river and contaminated seepage water. PMID:9809447

  16. Effects of prenatal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate on the developing lung in the rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an environmentally stable industrial and household compound, has been detected in human and wildlife sera. Chronic prenatal exposure to PFOS in rodents leads to mortality in newborns within hours to days after birth. We have demonstrated that tr...

  17. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT AND NEONATAL RATS. M.N. Logan1, J.R. Thibodeaux2, R.G. Hanson2, C. Lau2. 1North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC, 2Reprod. Tox. Div. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    Perfluor...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... azo compound (generic). 721.9597 Section 721.9597 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... azo compound (generic). 721.9597 Section 721.9597 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... azo compound (generic). 721.9597 Section 721.9597 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... azo compound (generic). 721.9597 Section 721.9597 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9597 - Salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... azo compound (generic). 721.9597 Section 721.9597 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as salt of a substituted sulfonated aryl azo compound (PMN P-00-0094)...

  3. Remarkable structural diversity and single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations in sulfone functionalized lanthanide MOFs

    SciTech Connect

    Neofotistou, Eleftheria; Malliakas, Christos D.; Trikalitis, Pantelis N.

    2010-04-13

    We report the formation of novel open framework lanthanide (La, Ce, Pr and Dy) MOFs using the ligand 4,4{prime}-bibenzoic acid-2,2{prime}-sulfone. In the case of Ce and Pr, an unprecedented single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation at room temperature was discovered.

  4. Wine metabolomics reveals new sulfonated products in bottled white wines, promoted by small amounts of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Ugliano, Maurizio; Perenzoni, Daniele; Angeli, Andrea; Pangrazzi, Paolo; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2016-01-15

    The impact of minute amounts of oxygen in the headspace on the post-bottling development of wine is generally considered to be very important, since oxygen can either damage or improve the quality of wine. This project aimed to gain new experimental evidence about the chemistry of the interaction between wine and oxygen. The experimental design included 216 bottles of 12 different white wines produced from 6 different cultivars (Inzolia, Muller Thurgau, Chardonnay, Grillo, Traminer and Pinot gris). Half of them were bottled using the standard industrial process with inert headspace and the other half without inert gas and with extra headspace. After 60 days of storage at room temperature, the wines were analysed using an untargeted LC-MS method. The use of a detailed holistic analysis workflow, with several levels of quality control and marker selection, gave 35 metabolites putatively induced by the different amounts of oxygen. These metabolite markers included ascorbic acid, tartaric acid and various sulfonated compounds observed in wine for the first time (e.g. S-sulfonated cysteine, glutathione and pantetheine; and sulfonated indole-3-lactic acid hexoside and tryptophol). The consumption of SO2 mediated by these sulfonation reactions was promoted by the presence of higher levels of oxygen on bottling. PMID:26709023

  5. Distribution and excretion of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a perfluoroalkyl surfactant used in many industrial products, is present in industrial wastes and in wastewater treatment plant biosolids. Biosolids are commonly applied to pastures and crops used for animal feed; consequently, PFOS may accumulate in the edible tis...

  6. Fipronil toxicity in northern bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus: reduced feeding behaviour and sulfone metabolite formation.

    PubMed

    Kitulagodage, Malsha; Isanhart, John; Buttemer, William A; Hooper, Michael J; Astheimer, Lee B

    2011-04-01

    Fipronil is a phenyl pyrazole insecticide registered for agricultural use in many countries. Avian exposure to fipronil occurs mainly by ingesting contaminated insects or seeds. There is little information regarding the toxicological effects of fipronil in avian species and even less research documenting avian behavioural responses to fipronil ingestion. We examined the effects of a single oral dose of fipronil in northern bobwhite quail, the most fipronil-sensitive species tested to date, in respect to signs of intoxication and the metabolic fate of fipronil. Fipronil-treated birds did not eat or drink following pesticide administration, and as a result lost a significant amount of body mass. Treated birds also appeared withdrawn and did not respond to disturbance within the first hour after treatment. Identifiable signs of fipronil toxicity were not observed until at least 2d after treatment. Chemical analyses indicated a difference between fipronil and fipronil-sulfone residue distribution and bioaccumulation, with significantly higher (30- to 1000-fold) tissue concentrations of the sulfone detected at all time points from 8 to 96 h post-dose in brain, liver and adipose tissues. Tissue sulfone concentrations increased significantly in fipronil-treated birds, peaking at 72 h post-dose. Body mass decreased at all time points in dosed birds. The coincidence of the particular intoxication symptoms with the time course of rise in brain sulfone levels after fipronil dosing gives insight into possible mechanisms of toxicity in this highly sensitive species. PMID:21227481

  7. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Binbin; Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng

    2015-01-01

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl2 using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl2 at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of -SO3H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N2 adsorption-desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of -SO3H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of -SO3H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and -SO3H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles.

  8. POLYSTYRENE SULFONIC ACID CATALYZED GREENER SYNTHESIS OF HYDRAZONES IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmentally benign aqueous protocol for the synthesis of cyclic, bi-cyclic, and heterocyclic hydrazones using polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) as a catalyst has been developed; the simple reaction proceeds efficiently in water in the absence of any organic solvent under mi...

  9. Chiral separation of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid as a groundwater dating tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the hydrologic fate of metolachlor and its two predominant metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid, in groundwater and base flows of streams for several years. These two metabolites are excellent markers for groundwater processes related to...

  10. Using chiral identification of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid as a groundwater dating tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have studied the hydrologic fate of metolachlor and its two predominant metabolites, metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (MESA) and metolachlor oxanilic acid, in groundwater and base flows of streams for several years. These two metabolites are excellent markers for groundwater processes related to...

  11. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID STATUS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) ON MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID STATUS IN THE RAT. JR Thibodeaux1, R Hanson1, B Grey1, JM Rogers1, ME Stanton2, and C Lau1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division; 2Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle P...

  12. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The postnatal effects of in utero exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) were evaluated in the rat and mouse. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10 mg/kg PFOS daily by gavage from gestation day (GD) 2 to GD 21; pregnant CD-1 mice were treated ...

  13. Crystal structure of sodium (1S)-d-lyxit-1-yl-sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alan H; Hughes, David L

    2016-05-01

    The title compound, Na(+)·C5H11O8S(-) [systematic name: sodium (1S,2S,3S,4R)-1,2,3,4,5-penta-hydroxy-pentane-1-sulfonate], is formed by reaction of d-lyxose with sodium bis-ulfite (sodium hydrogen sulfite) in water. The anion has an open-chain structure in which one of the oxygen atoms of the sulfonate residue, the S atom, the C atoms of the sugar chain and the O atom of the hy-droxy-methyl group form an essentially planar zigzag chain with the corresponding torsion angles lying between 179.80 (11) and 167.74 (14)°. A three-dimensional bonding network exists in the crystal structure involving hexa-coordination of sodium ions by O atoms, three of which are provided by a single d-lyxose-sulfonate unit and the other three by two sulfonate groups and one hy-droxy-methyl group, each from separate units of the adduct. Extensive inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding supplements this bonding network. PMID:27308005

  14. Sulfonated graphene oxide as effective catalyst for conversion of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural into biofuels.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Margarida M; Russo, Patrícia A; Wiper, Paul V; Veiga, Jacinto M; Pillinger, Martyn; Mafra, Luís; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Pinna, Nicola; Valente, Anabela A

    2014-03-01

    The acid-catalyzed reaction of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural with ethanol is a promising route to produce biofuels or fuel additives within the carbohydrate platform; specifically, this reaction may give 5-ethoxymethylfurfural, 5-(ethoxymethyl)furfural diethylacetal, and/or ethyl levulinate (bioEs). It is shown that sulfonated, partially reduced graphene oxide (S-RGO) exhibits a more superior catalytic performance for the production of bioEs than several other acid catalysts, which include sulfonated carbons and the commercial acid resin Amberlyst-15, which has a much higher sulfonic acid content and stronger acidity. This was attributed to the cooperative effects of the sulfonic acid groups and other types of acid sites (e.g., carboxylic acids), and to the enhanced accessibility to the active sites as a result of the 2D structure. Moreover, the acidic functionalities bonded to the S-RGO surface were more stable under the catalytic reaction conditions than those of the other solids tested, which allowed its efficient reuse. PMID:24497470

  15. FT-IR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    FT-IR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide, and propyl sulfone in hexane, CCl4, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FT-IR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. T...

  16. Sulfonated mesoporous silica-carbon composites and their use as solid acid catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Vigón, Patricia; Sevilla, Marta; Fuertes, Antonio B.

    2012-11-01

    The synthesis of highly functionalized porous silica-carbon composites made up of sulfonic groups attached to a carbon layer coating the pores of three types of mesostructured silica (i.e. SBA-15, KIT-6 and mesocellular silica) is presented. The synthesis procedure involves the following steps: (a) removal of the surfactant, (b) impregnation of the silica pores with a carbon precursor, (c) carbonization and (d) sulfonation. The resulting silica-carbon composites contain ˜30 wt % of carbonaceous matter with a high density of acidic groups attached to the deposited carbon (i.e.sbnd SO3H, sbnd COOH and sbnd OH). The structural characteristics of the parent silica are retained in the composite materials, which exhibit a high surface area, a large pore volume and a well-ordered porosity made up uniform mesopores. The high density of the sulfonic groups in combination with the mesoporous structure of the composites ensures that a large number of active sites are easily accessible to reactants. These sulfonated silica-carbon composites behave as eco-friendly, active, selective, water tolerant and recyclable solid acids. In this study we demonstrate the usefulness of these composites as solid acid catalysts for the esterification of maleic anhydride, succinic acid and oleic acid with ethanol. These composites exhibit a superior intrinsic catalytic activity to other commercial solid acids such as Amberlyst-15.

  17. FTIR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    FTIR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide and propyl sulfone in hexane, CC14, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FTIR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. he C...

  18. Enantioselective and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reactions of vinyl sulfones: total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Beaudry, Christopher M

    2014-09-22

    The total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin is described. The synthesis features an enantio- and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reaction of a vinyl sulfone to construct the cyclophane architecture of the natural product. The Diels-Alder substrate was prepared by a regioselective one-pot three-component Suzuki reaction of a non-symmetric dibromoarene. PMID:25082270

  19. GENE PROFILING IN WILD-TYPE AND PPARα-NULL MICE EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA), is a persistent environmental contaminant found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Over the last decade, health concerns have been raised, in part, because of the long half-life of PFOS and other PFAAs in humans,...

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of heteroanalogues of kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Sankar; Jayakanthan, Kumarasamy; Nasi, Ravindranath; Kuntz, Douglas A; Rose, David R; Pinto, B Mario

    2010-03-01

    The synthesis of nitrogen and selenium analogues of kotalanol and de-O-sulfonated kotalanol, naturally occurring sulfonium-ion glucosidase inhibitors isolated from Salacia reticulata, and their evaluation as glucosidase inhibitors against the N-terminal catalytic domain of human maltase glucoamylase (ntMGAM) are described. PMID:20143790

  1. Perfluoroctane sulfonate-induced changes in fetal rat liver gene expression

    EPA Science Inventory

    In utero exposure of rats to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3), a widely disseminated product of the surfactant and coating industries, is associated with residual hepatoxic complications in the surviving offspring. This hepatocellular hypertrophy resembles that observe...

  2. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOEpatents

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hibbs, Michael; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  3. Distinct sulfonation activities in resveratrol-sensitive and resveratrol-insensitive human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Hong; Shu, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Kong, Qing-You; Wu, Mo-Li; Liu, Jia

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells show different responses to resveratrol, for unknown reasons. Our data from human medulloblastoma cells and primary cultures of rat brain cells revealed an inverse correlation of sulfonation activity with resveratrol sensitivities, providing a clue to the underlying mechanisms of the variable sensitivities of GBM cells to resveratrol. In this study, we found that U251 cells were sensitive and LN229 cells were insensitive to resveratrol. Thus, these two cell lines were taken as comparable models for elucidating the influence of sulfonation activities on resveratrol sensitivity. HPLC showed identical resveratrol metabolic patterns in both cell lines. LC/MS and high-resolution mass MS analyses further demonstrated that resveratrol monosulfate generated by sulfotransferases (SULTs) was the major metabolite of human GBM cells. The levels of brain-associated SULT (SULT1A1, SULT1C2, and SULT4A1) expression in U251 cells were lower than those in LN229 cells, suggesting the inverse relationship of SULT-mediated sulfonation activity with high intracellular resveratrol bioavailability and resveratrol sensitivity of human GBM cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed reductions in expression of the three brain-associated SULTs in 72.8%, 47.5% and 66.3% of astrocytomas, respectively. Therefore, the levels of brain-associated SULTs and sulfonation activity mediated by them could be important parameters for evaluating the potential response of human GBM cells to resveratrol, and may have value in the personalized treatment of GBMs with resveratrol. PMID:22540632

  4. 40 CFR 417.110 - Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. 417.110 Section 417.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  5. 40 CFR 417.90 - Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory. 417.90 Section 417.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  6. 40 CFR 417.90 - Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory. 417.90 Section 417.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT...

  7. 40 CFR 417.110 - Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. 417.110 Section 417.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  8. 40 CFR 417.90 - Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory. 417.90 Section 417.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT...

  9. 40 CFR 417.110 - Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. 417.110 Section 417.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  10. 40 CFR 417.90 - Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory. 417.90 Section 417.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT...

  11. 40 CFR 417.110 - Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. 417.110 Section 417.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  12. 40 CFR 417.90 - Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the oleum sulfonation and sulfation subcategory. 417.90 Section 417.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT...

  13. 40 CFR 417.110 - Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. 417.110 Section 417.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT...

  14. Crystal structure of sodium (1S)-d-lyxit-1-yl­sulfonate

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Alan H.; Hughes, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound, Na+·C5H11O8S− [systematic name: sodium (1S,2S,3S,4R)-1,2,3,4,5-penta­hydroxy­pentane-1-sulfonate], is formed by reaction of d-lyxose with sodium bis­ulfite (sodium hydrogen sulfite) in water. The anion has an open-chain structure in which one of the oxygen atoms of the sulfonate residue, the S atom, the C atoms of the sugar chain and the O atom of the hy­droxy­methyl group form an essentially planar zigzag chain with the corresponding torsion angles lying between 179.80 (11) and 167.74 (14)°. A three-dimensional bonding network exists in the crystal structure involving hexa­coordination of sodium ions by O atoms, three of which are provided by a single d-lyxose–sulfonate unit and the other three by two sulfonate groups and one hy­droxy­methyl group, each from separate units of the adduct. Extensive inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding supplements this bonding network. PMID:27308005

  15. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The maternal and developmental toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) were evaluated in the rat and mouse. PFOS is an environmentally persistent compound used as a surfactant and occurs as a degradation product of both perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluorid...

  16. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE MOUSE. J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenhoff3, J.M. Rogers1, C. Lau1. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Pa...

  17. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT. C. Lau1, J.M. Rogers1, J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenoff3. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF THERMOSPRAY LCMS: QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SULFONATED AZO DYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermospray mass spectra (TSMS) has been used to obtain mass spectra of several di- and tetra- sulfonated azo dyes. Commercial dye preparations were dissolved in various mobile phases and injected into the TSMS system. Mobile phases investigated included pure water and varying co...

  19. High Levels of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Children at the Onset of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Predieri, Barbara; Guerranti, Cristiana; Bruzzi, Patrizia; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Impairments of endocrine system may be associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds that are able to bind nuclear receptors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activating receptors. Aim of this study was to assess perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid concentrations in children and adolescents at the onset of type 1 diabetes compared to healthy controls. Methods. Forty-four children and adolescents were recruited and subdivided into two groups: (A) 25 subjects with type 1 diabetes and (B) 19 healthy controls. Perfluorinated compounds were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed. Results. Perfluorooctane sulfonate concentrations were significantly higher in patients with type 1 diabetes compared to controls (1.53 ± 1.50 versus 0.55 ± 0.15 ng/mL, resp.; p < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis identified lipid levels as significant predictive factors for perfluorooctane sulfonate levels. Conclusions. Our data suggests that higher serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate may be considered a biomarker of exposure and susceptibility to develop type 1 diabetes. PMID:26074959

  20. DETERMINATION OF ALKYLATED & SULFONATED DIPHENYL OXIDE SULFACTANT BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for the determination of the anionic surfactant Dowfax 8390 are described. Dowfax is a complex mixture of various alkylated and sulfonated diphenyl oxides. The primary component of Dowfax is monoalkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide (MADS). This work uses ion pairing chro...