Science.gov

Sample records for 4-t cms coil

  1. A multi-slot surface coil for MRI of dual-rat imaging at 4 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, S. E.; Wang, R.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2011-06-01

    A slotted surface coil inspired by the hole-and-slot cavity magnetron was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of obese rats at 4 T. Full-wave analysis of the magnetic field was carried out at 170 MHz for both the slotted and circular-shaped coils. The noise figure values of two coils were investigated via the numerical calculation of the quality factors. Fat simulated phantoms to mimic overweight rats were included in the analysis with weights ranging from 300 to 900 g. The noise figures were 1.2 dB for the slotted coil and 2.4 dB for the circular coil when loaded with 600 g of simulated phantom. A slotted surface coil with eight circular slots and a circular coil with similar dimensions were built and operated in the transceiver mode, and their performances were experimentally compared. The imaging tests in phantoms demonstrated that the slotted surface coil has a deeper RF-sensitivity and better field uniformity than the single-loop RF-coil. High quality images of two overweight Zucker rats were acquired simultaneously with the slotted surface coil using standard spin-echo pulse sequences. Experimental results showed that the slotted surface coil outperformed the circular coil for imaging considerably overweight rats. Thus, the slotted surface coil can be a good tool for MRI experiments in rats on a human whole-body 4 T scanner.

  2. A microstrip transmission line volume coil for human head MR imaging at 4T.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Ugurbil, Kamil; Chen, Wei

    2003-04-01

    A high-frequency RF volume coil based on the use of microstrip transmission line (MTL) has been developed for in vivo 1H MR applications on the human head at 4T. This coil is characterized by major advantages: (i) completely distributed coil circuit, (ii) high-quality factor (Q), (iii) simple coil structure, and (iv) better sensitivity and less signal-intensity variation in the MR image of the human head compared with an RF shielded birdcage coil of similar coil size. The proposed MTL volume coil does not require additional RF shielding for preventing Q degradation from radiation losses due to the unique MTL structure; thus, it provides a maximal useable space inside the volume coil when compared with most volume coils available at high fields with the same overall coil size. The intrinsic B(1) distribution of the MTL volume coil effectively compensates for the dielectric resonance effect at 4T and improves the signal homogeneity in human head MR images in the transaxial planes. The results of this study demonstrate that the MTL volume coil design provides an efficient and simple solution to RF volume coil design for human MR studies at high fields.

  3. A multi-slot surface coil for MRI of dual-rat imaging at 4T

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, S.E.; Tomasi, D.; Solis, S.E.; Wang, R.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A.O.

    2011-07-01

    A slotted surface coil inspired by the hole-and-slot cavity magnetron was developed for magnetic resonance imaging of obese rats at 4 T. Full-wave analysis of the magnetic field was carried out at 170 MHz for both the slotted and circular-shaped coils. The noise figure values of two coils were investigated via the numerical calculation of the quality factors. Fat simulated phantoms to mimic overweight rats were included in the analysis with weights ranging from 300 to 900 g. The noise figures were 1.2 dB for the slotted coil and 2.4 dB for the circular coil when loaded with 600 g of simulated phantom. A slotted surface coil with eight circular slots and a circular coil with similar dimensions were built and operated in the transceiver mode, and their performances were experimentally compared. The imaging tests in phantoms demonstrated that the slotted surface coil has a deeper RF-sensitivity and better field uniformity than the single-loop RF-coil. High quality images of two overweight Zucker rats were acquired simultaneously with the slotted surface coil using standard spin-echo pulse sequences. Experimental results showed that the slotted surface coil outperformed the circular coil for imaging considerably overweight rats. Thus, the slotted surface coil can be a good tool for MRI experiments in rats on a human whole-body 4 T scanner.

  4. 4 T Split TEM Volume Head and Knee Coils for Improved Sensitivity and Patient Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Avdievich, Nikolai I.; Bradshaw, Ken; Lee, Jing-Huei; Kuznetsov, Andrey M.; Hetherington, Hoby P.

    2009-01-01

    Split RF coils offer improved patient access by eliminating the need for the coil to be slid over the region of interest. For unshielded birdcage coils, the presence of end ring currents necessitates a direct electrical connection between two halves of the coil. For high-field (>3T) shielded birdcage coils, both the shield and the coil must be split and reliably connected electrically. This problem can be circumvented by the use of split TEM volume coils. Since the elements of a TEM coil are coupled inductively, no direct electrical connection between the halves is necessary. In this work we demonstrate that the effects of splitting the shield for head and knee TEMs can be compensated for, and performance retained. For the knee, the improved access allowed the coil diameter to be reduced, enhancing the sensitivity by 15–20 %. PMID:17533142

  5. 4T split TEM volume head and knee coils for improved sensitivity and patient accessibility.

    PubMed

    Avdievich, Nikolai I; Bradshaw, Ken; Lee, Jing-Huei; Kuznetsov, Andrey M; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2007-08-01

    Split RF coils offer improved patient access by eliminating the need for the coil to be slid over the region of interest. For unshielded birdcage coils, the presence of end ring currents necessitates a direct electrical connection between two halves of the coil. For high-field (>3T) shielded birdcage coils, both the shield and the coil must be split and reliably connected electrically. This problem can be circumvented by the use of split TEM volume coils. Since the elements of a TEM coil are coupled inductively, no direct electrical connection between the halves is necessary. In this work we demonstrate that the effects of splitting the shield for head and knee TEMs can be compensated for, and performance retained. For the knee, the improved access allowed the coil diameter to be reduced, enhancing the sensitivity by 15-20%.

  6. Parallel imaging of head with a dedicated multi-coil on a 0.4T open MRI.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Masahiro; Shimoda, Takahide; Nonaka, Masayuki; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Shinji; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Miki; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Parallel imaging is widely used for cylindrical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); however, few studies apply parallel imaging to open MRI. We previously developed a parallel method called "RAPID" (rapid acquisition through a parallel imaging design) for imaging the heart on a 0.7T open MRI apparatus, and we have now developed a RAPID head coil and shading correction algorithm for imaging the brain with a 0.4T open MRI apparatus. Images acquired with RAPID were compared with those acquired using a conventional quadrature-detection (QD) head coil. The images were acquired using a dedicated 4-channel RF receiving coil consisting of a solenoid coil and surface coils. For MRI of the brain, we developed 2 methods to acquire the necessary calibration data: a pre-scan method that acquires the calibration data before the main scans and a self-calibration method that acquires the calibration data and imaging data simultaneously. We also modified the algorithm for calculating the shading distribution so that it only uses acquired image data and then corrects the shading. RAPID was applied for T1-weighted, T2-weighted, fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR), time-of-flight (TOF), and diffusion-weighted echo-planar (DW-EPI) imaging. The RAPID images had no visible unfolded artifacts or motion artifacts. Images with the same contrast as that with a conventional QD coil were acquired using the RAPID coil and shading correction. These preliminary results show that RAPID can be applied to imaging of the head using a 0.4T open MRI apparatus.

  7. 4 T Actively-Detuneable Double-Tuned 1H/31P Head Volume Coil and Four-Channel 31P Phased Array for Human Brain Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Avdievich, N.I.; Hetherington1, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    Typically 31P in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies are limited by SNR considerations. Although phased arrays can improve the SNR; to date 31P phased arrays for high-field systems have not been combined with 31P volume transmit coils. Additionally, to provide anatomical reference for the 31P studies, without removal of the coil or patient from the magnet, double-tuning (31P/ 1H) of the volume coil is required. In this work we describe a series of methods for active detuning and decoupling enabling use of phased arrays with double-tuned volume coils. To demonstrate these principles we have built and characterized an actively detuneable 31P/1H TEM volume transmit/ four-channel 31P phased array for 4 T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the human brain. The coil can be used either in volume-transmit/array-receive mode or in TEM transmit/receive mode with the array detuned. Three-fold SNR improvement was obtained at the periphery of the brain using the phased array as compared to the volume coil. PMID:17379554

  8. 4 T Actively detuneable double-tuned 1H/ 31P head volume coil and four-channel 31P phased array for human brain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdievich, N. I.; Hetherington, H. P.

    2007-06-01

    Typically 31P in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies are limited by SNR considerations. Although phased arrays can improve the SNR; to date 31P phased arrays for high-field systems have not been combined with 31P volume transmit coils. Additionally, to provide anatomical reference for the 31P studies, without removal of the coil or patient from the magnet, double-tuning ( 31P/ 1H) of the volume coil is required. In this work we describe a series of methods for active detuning and decoupling enabling use of phased arrays with double-tuned volume coils. To demonstrate these principles we have built and characterized an actively detuneable 31P/ 1H TEM volume transmit/four-channel 31P phased array for 4 T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the human brain. The coil can be used either in volume-transmit/array-receive mode or in TEM transmit/receive mode with the array detuned. Threefold SNR improvement was obtained at the periphery of the brain using the phased array as compared to the volume coil.

  9. Design and construction of a novel (1)H/(19)F double-tuned coil system using PIN-diode switches at 9.4T.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Hoon; Hong, Suk-Min; Ha, YongHyun; Shah, N Jon

    2017-06-01

    A double-tuned (1)H/(19)F coil using PIN-diode switches was developed and its performance evaluated. The is a key difference from the previous developments being that this design used a PIN-diode switch in series with an additionally inserted inductor in parallel to one of the capacitors on the loop. The probe was adjusted to (19)F when the reverse bias voltage was applied (PIN-diode OFF), whilst it was switched to (1)H when forward current was flowing (PIN-diode ON). S-parameters and Q-factors of single- and double-tuned coils were examined and compared with/without a phantom on the bench. Imaging experiments were carried out on a 9.4T preclinical scanner. All coils were tuned at resonance frequencies and matched well. It is shown that the Q-ratio and SNR of double-tuned coil at (19)F frequency are nearly as good as those of a single-tuned coil. Since the operating frequency was tuned to (19)F when the PIN-diodes were turned off, losses due to PIN-diodes were substantially lower resulting in the provision of excellent image quality of X-nuclei. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and construction of a novel 1H/19F double-tuned coil system using PIN-diode switches at 9.4 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chang-Hoon; Hong, Suk-Min; Ha, YongHyun; Shah, N. Jon

    2017-06-01

    A double-tuned 1H/19F coil using PIN-diode switches was developed and its performance evaluated. The is a key difference from the previous developments being that this design used a PIN-diode switch in series with an additionally inserted inductor in parallel to one of the capacitors on the loop. The probe was adjusted to 19F when the reverse bias voltage was applied (PIN-diode OFF), whilst it was switched to 1H when forward current was flowing (PIN-diode ON). S-parameters and Q-factors of single- and double-tuned coils were examined and compared with/without a phantom on the bench. Imaging experiments were carried out on a 9.4 T preclinical scanner. All coils were tuned at resonance frequencies and matched well. It is shown that the Q-ratio and SNR of double-tuned coil at 19F frequency are nearly as good as those of a single-tuned coil. Since the operating frequency was tuned to 19F when the PIN-diodes were turned off, losses due to PIN-diodes were substantially lower resulting in the provision of excellent image quality of X-nuclei.

  11. 35.4 T field generated using a layer-wound superconducting coil made of (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x (RE = rare earth) coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trociewitz, Ulf P.; Dalban-Canassy, Matthieu; Hannion, Muriel; Hilton, David K.; Jaroszynski, Jan; Noyes, Patrick; Viouchkov, Youri; Weijers, Hubertus W.; Larbalestier, David C.

    2011-11-01

    To explore the limits of layer wound (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE = rare earth) coils in a high magnetic field environment >30 T, a series of small insert coils have been built and characterized in background fields. One of the coils repeatedly reached 35.4 T using a single ˜100 m length of REBCO tape wet wound with epoxy and nested in a 31 T background magnet. The coil was quenched safely several times without degradation. Contributing to the success of this coil was the introduction of a thin polyester film that surrounded the conductor. This approach introduces a weak circumferential plane in the coil pack that prevents conductor delamination that has caused degradation of several epoxy impregnated coils previously made by this and other groups.

  12. Longitudinal evaluation of intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) in tibialis anterior muscle of ob/ob and ob/+ control mice using a cryogenic surface coil at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiong; Danzer, Carsten Friedrich; Fuchs, Alexander; Krek, Wilhelm; Mueggler, Thomas; Baltes, Christof; Rudin, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Insulin resistance is a central feature of type II diabetes and is associated with alterations in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, which manifest themselves, in part, in increased intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation. The objective of this study was to assess noninvasively the levels of IMCL longitudinally in the tibialis anterior muscle of Lep(ob) /Lep(ob) (ob/ob) mice, a genetic model of obesity and mild diabetes, and Lep(ob) /+ (ob/+) heterozygous control animals, using (1) H MRS at 9.4 T. The use of a cryogenic surface coil transceiver leads to significant increases in sensitivity. Method implementation included the assessment of the reproducibility and spatial heterogeneity of the IMCL signal and the determination of T(2) relaxation times, as IMCL levels were expressed relative to the total creatine signal, and therefore the signal ratios had to be corrected for differences in T(2) relaxation. IMCL levels were found to be significantly higher in ob/ob mice relative to ob/+ heterozygous control mice that do not develop disease. An increase in IMCL levels was observed for ob/ob mice until weeks 16/17; after this time point, IMCL levels decreased again, reaching final levels that were slightly higher than the initial values. These noninvasively detected alterations in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in ob/ob mice were accompanied by a transient increase in plasma insulin concentrations. This study indicates that IMCL may be reliably assessed in mouse tibialis anterior muscle using a cryogenic surface coil, implying that (1) H MRS at 9.4 T represents a useful technology for the noninvasive measurement of changes in lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle that accompany obesity.

  13. Generation of 24.0 T at 4.2 K and 23.4 T at 27 K with a high-temperature superconductor coil in a 22.54 T background field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkura, K.; Sato, K.; Ueyama, M.; Fujikami, Jun; Iwasa, Y.

    1995-09-01

    The 4.2 K and 27 K current-carrying performance of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coil was measured in background fields up to 22.54 T generated by a hybrid magnet (Hybrid III) at the MIT Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory. The coil, 40 mm winding i.d., 108 mm winding o.d., and 113 mm high, consists of 17 double pancakes, each wound with silver-sheathed BSCCO-2223 tapes. Each pancake is the product of a react-and-wind method. In total, the test coil contains ˜1200 m of BSCCO-2223 conductor weighing ˜7 kg. Prior to the measurements in Hybrid III, the coil was tested in zero background field in the temperature range from 4.2 to 77 K. It was coupled to a Gifford-McMahon type cryocooler and at 15 K generated a peak field of 2.1 T; at 18 K, it generated 1.9 T, operating continuously for ˜50 h. In a 22.54 T background field of Hybrid III, the coil reached critical currents of 116.5 A ([Jc]sc, critical current density based on the BSCCO cross-sectional area only, of 261 A/mm) at 4.2 K and 67 A ([Jc]sc=150 A/mm) at 27 K, establishing record net fields at respective temperatures of 24.0 and 23.4 T for HTS magnets. These currents correspond to overall winding current densities of 47 and 27 A/mm. High-field critical current data for short samples of the tape of the same formulation at 4.2 and 27 K are also presented. Although a [J]sc of 261 A/mm at 24 T and 4.2 K for the test coil is significantly less than ˜600 A/mm for the short samples at the same operating point, if factors such as length, bending, and even differences in defining critical current are considered, the coil and short samples have nearly the same critical current performance. Electromagnetic stresses do not seem to have any negative effects on coil performance. Record fields of 24.0 and 23.4 T were achieved after the test coil had experienced, over a period of 15 months, 20 thermal cycles between room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  14. 9.4T Human MRI: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Thomas; DelaBarre, Lance; Snyder, Carl; Tian, Jinfeng; Akgun, Can; Shrivastava, Devashish; Liu, Wanzahn; Olson, Chris; Adriany, Gregor; Strupp, John; Andersen, Peter; Gopinath, Anand; van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Garwood, Michael; Ugurbil, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the preliminary results of the first human images at the new high-field benchmark of 9.4T. A 65-cm-diameter bore magnet was used together with an asymmetric 40-cm-diameter head gradient and shim set. A multichannel transmission line (transverse electromagnetic (TEM)) head coil was driven by a programmable parallel transceiver to control the relative phase and magnitude of each channel independently. These new RF field control methods facilitated compensation for RF artifacts attributed to destructive interference patterns, in order to achieve homogeneous 9.4T head images or localize anatomic targets. Prior to FDA investigational device exemptions (IDEs) and internal review board (IRB)-approved human studies, preliminary RF safety studies were performed on porcine models. These data are reported together with exit interview results from the first 44 human volunteers. Although several points for improvement are discussed, the preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of safe and successful human imaging at 9.4T. PMID:17075852

  15. Pulse Coil Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Set of relays tested easily and repeatedly. Pulse coil tester causes coil under test to generate transient voltage; waveform indicates condition of coil. Tester accommodates assembly of up to four coils at a time.

  16. Acoustic noise reduction in a 4 T MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Mechefske, Chris K; Geris, Ryan; Gati, Joseph S; Rutt, Brian K

    2002-01-01

    High-field, high-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can generate high levels of noise. There is ongoing concern in the medical and imaging research communities regarding the detrimental effects of high acoustic levels on auditory function, patient anxiety, verbal communication between patients and health care workers and ultimately MR image quality. In order to effectively suppress the noise levels inside MRI scanners, the sound field needs to be accurately measured and characterized. This paper presents the results of measurements of the sound radiation from a gradient coil cylinder within a 4 T MRI scanner under a variety of conditions. These measurement results show: (1) that noise levels can be significantly reduced through the use of an appropriately designed passive acoustic liner; and (2) the true noise levels that are experienced by patients during echo planar imaging.

  17. CMS-Wave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CMS -Wave 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Program CMS -Wave CMS -Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward-marching, finite...difference method to solve the wave action conservation equation. Capabilities of CMS -Wave include wave shoaling, refraction, diffraction, reflection

  18. CMS-Wave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program CMS-Wave CMS-Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind -wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward...estimates. The model can be coupled to the Boussinesq wave model BOUSS-2D for port and harbor applications. CMS-Wave, a phase-averaged spectral wind -wave

  19. Magnetic Coiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-18

    One broad active region sported a wonderful example of coiled magnetic field lines over almost a four-day period (July 15-18, 2016). The magnetic lines are easily visible in this 171 Angstrom wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light be cause charged particles are spiraling along the lines. The active region is a hotbed of struggling magnetic forces that were pushing out above the sun's surface. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA17911

  20. Startup of Large Coil Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Bohanan, R.E.; Fietz, W.A.; Luton, J.N.; May, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is being used to test superconducting toroidal field coils about one-third the size of those for INTOR. Eventually, six different coils from four countries will be tested. Operations began in 1983 with acceptance testing of the helium refrigerator/liquefier system. Comprehensive shakedown of the facility and tests with the first three coils (from Japan, the United States, and Switzerland) were successfully accomplished in the summer of 1984. Currents up to 10,200 A and fields up to 6.4 T were reached. Data were obtained on performance of refrigerator, helium distribution, power supplies, controls, and data acquisition systems and on the acoustic emission, voltages, currents, and mechanical strains during charging and discharging the coils.

  1. Coiled-Coil Design: Updated and Upgraded.

    PubMed

    Woolfson, Derek N

    2017-01-01

    α-Helical coiled coils are ubiquitous protein-folding and protein-interaction domains in which two or more α-helical chains come together to form bundles. Through a combination of bioinformatics analysis of many thousands of natural coiled-coil sequences and structures, plus empirical protein engineering and design studies, there is now a deep understanding of the sequence-to-structure relationships for this class of protein architecture. This has led to considerable success in rational design and what might be termed in biro de novo design of simple coiled coils, which include homo- and hetero-meric parallel dimers, trimers and tetramers. In turn, these provide a toolkit for directing the assembly of both natural proteins and more complex designs in protein engineering, materials science and synthetic biology. Moving on, the increased and improved use of computational design is allowing access to coiled-coil structures that are rare or even not observed in nature, for example α-helical barrels, which comprise five or more α-helices and have central channels into which different functions may be ported. This chapter reviews all of these advances, outlining improvements in our knowledge of the fundamentals of coiled-coil folding and assembly, and highlighting new coiled coil-based materials and applications that this new understanding is opening up. Despite considerable progress, however, challenges remain in coiled-coil design, and the next decade promises to be as productive and exciting as the last.

  2. Forward Physics at CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Solano, Ada

    2009-03-23

    A rich program of forward physics, including very low-x QCD dynamics, photon-induced processes, underlying event and energy flow distributions, diffraction in the presence of a hard scale and even the Higgs boson search in central exclusive production, is being studied by the CMS Collaboration, taking advantage of the forward detector instrumentation around the CMS interaction point at the LHC.

  3. Evolutionary Patterns in Coiled-Coils

    PubMed Central

    Surkont, Jaroslaw; Pereira-Leal, Jose B.

    2015-01-01

    Models of protein evolution are used to describe evolutionary processes, for phylogenetic analyses and homology detection. Widely used general models of protein evolution are biased toward globular domains and lack resolution to describe evolutionary processes for other protein types. As three-dimensional structure is a major constraint to protein evolution, specific models have been proposed for other types of proteins. Here, we consider evolutionary patterns in coiled-coil forming proteins. Coiled-coils are widespread structural domains, formed by a repeated motif of seven amino acids (heptad repeat). Coiled-coil forming proteins are frequently rods and spacers, structuring both the intracellular and the extracellular spaces that often form protein interaction interfaces. We tested the hypothesis that due to their specific structure the associated evolutionary constraints differ from those of globular proteins. We showed that substitution patterns in coiled-coil regions are different than those observed in globular regions, beyond the simple heptad repeat. Based on these substitution patterns we developed a coiled-coil specific (CC) model that in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction outperforms general models in tree likelihood, often leading to different topologies. For multidomain proteins containing both a coiled-coil region and a globular domain, we showed that a combination of the CC model and a general one gives higher likelihoods than a single model. Finally, we showed that the model can be used for homology detection to increase search sensitivity for coiled-coil proteins. The CC model, software, and other supplementary materials are available at http://www.evocell.org/cgl/resources (last accessed January 29, 2015). PMID:25577198

  4. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  5. Coil Welding Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  6. CMS workload management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    From september 2007 the LHC accelerator will start its activity and CMS, one of the four experiments, will begin to take data. The CMS computing model is based on the the Grid paradigm where data is deployed and accessed on a number of geographically distributed computing centers. In addition to real data events, a large number of simulated ones will be produced in a similar, distributed manner. Both real and simulated data will be analyzed by physicist, at an expected rate of 100000 jobs per day submitted to the Grid infrastructure. In order to reach these goals, CMS is developing two tools for the workload management (plus a set of services): ProdAgent and CRAB. The ProdAgent deals with MonteCarlo production system: it creates and configures jobs, interacts with the Framework, merges outputs to a reasonable filesize and publishes the simulated data back into CMS data bookkeeping and data location services. CRAB (Cms Remote Analysis Builder) is the tool deployed ad hoc by CMS to access those remote data. CRAB allows a generic user, without specific knowledge of the Grid infrastructure, to access data and perform its analysis as simply as in a local environment. CRAB takes care to interact with all Data Management services, from data discovery and location to output file management. An overview of the current implementation of the components of the CMS workload management is presented in this work.

  7. CMS Analysis School Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, S.; Shipsey, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Bloom, K.; Chan, Kai-Feng; D'Hondt, J.; Klima, B.; Narain, M.; Palla, F.; Rolandi, G.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.

    2014-06-01

    To impart hands-on training in physics analysis, CMS experiment initiated the concept of CMS Data Analysis School (CMSDAS). It was born over three years ago at the LPC (LHC Physics Centre), Fermilab and is based on earlier workshops held at the LPC and CLEO Experiment. As CMS transitioned from construction to the data taking mode, the nature of earlier training also evolved to include more of analysis tools, software tutorials and physics analysis. This effort epitomized as CMSDAS has proven to be a key for the new and young physicists to jump start and contribute to the physics goals of CMS by looking for new physics with the collision data. With over 400 physicists trained in six CMSDAS around the globe, CMS is trying to engage the collaboration in its discovery potential and maximize physics output. As a bigger goal, CMS is striving to nurture and increase engagement of the myriad talents, in the development of physics, service, upgrade, education of those new to CMS and the career development of younger members. An extension of the concept to the dedicated software and hardware schools is also planned, keeping in mind the ensuing upgrade phase.

  8. CMS Analysis School Model

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, S.; Shipsey, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Bloom, K.; Chan, Kai-Feng; D'Hondt, J.; Klima, B.; Narain, M.; Palla, F.; Rolandi, G.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.

    2014-01-01

    To impart hands-on training in physics analysis, CMS experiment initiated the concept of CMS Data Analysis School (CMSDAS). It was born over three years ago at the LPC (LHC Physics Centre), Fermilab and is based on earlier workshops held at the LPC and CLEO Experiment. As CMS transitioned from construction to the data taking mode, the nature of earlier training also evolved to include more of analysis tools, software tutorials and physics analysis. This effort epitomized as CMSDAS has proven to be a key for the new and young physicists to jump start and contribute to the physics goals of CMS by looking for new physics with the collision data. With over 400 physicists trained in six CMSDAS around the globe, CMS is trying to engage the collaboration in its discovery potential and maximize physics output. As a bigger goal, CMS is striving to nurture and increase engagement of the myriad talents, in the development of physics, service, upgrade, education of those new to CMS and the career development of younger members. An extension of the concept to the dedicated software and hardware schools is also planned, keeping in mind the ensuing upgrade phase.

  9. CMS tracker visualization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennea, M. S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-08-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  10. CMS RATFOR System Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    CMS RATFOR SYSTEM MANUAL.(U) U 79 S M CHOQUETTE, R J ORGASS AFOSR-79-O021 NCLASSIFIED VPI/SU-TM-79- AFOSR -TR-80-0277 NI MEhLlllllElIIIIIIII...GRADUATE PROGRAM IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA FAtheqsow, AC 20041 (703) 471-4600 CMS RATFOR SYSTEM MANUAL*t Stephen M. Choquette and Richard J. Orgass DTIO...the System Manual for the RATFOR preprocessor on the IBM CMS timesharing system . Included in this paper is a language description of RATPOR, an

  11. High-field magnetic resonance imaging using solenoid radiofrequency coils.

    PubMed

    Vegh, Viktor; Gläser, Philipp; Maillet, Donald; Cowin, Gary J; Reutens, David C

    2012-10-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging using dedicated high-field radiofrequency micro-coils at 16.4 T (700 MHz) was investigated. Specific solenoid coils primarily using silver and copper as conductors with enamel and polyurethane coatings were built to establish which coil configuration produces the best image. Image quality was quantified using signal-to-noise ratio and signal variation over regions of interest. Benchmarking was conducted using 5-mm diameter coils, as this size is comparable to an established coil of the same size. Our 1.4-mm-diameter coils were compared directly to each other, from which we deduce performance as a function of conductor material and coating. A variety of materials and conductor coatings allowed us to choose an optimal design, which we used to image a kidney section at 10-micron resolution. We applied zero-fill extrapolation to achieve 5-micron resolution.

  12. CMS Space Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikova, N.; Huang, C.-H.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Wildish, T.; Zhang, X.

    2014-06-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  13. Diffraction with CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Antonio Vilela

    2011-07-15

    The observation of diffraction at LHC with the CMS detector at {radical}(s) = 900 and 2360 GeV is presented, along with a comparison of the data with the predictions of the PYTHIA and PHOJET generators.

  14. CMS Space Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnikova, N.; Huang, C.-H.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Wildish, T.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  15. Protective link for superconducting coil

    DOEpatents

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2009-12-08

    A superconducting coil system includes a superconducting coil and a protective link of superconducting material coupled to the superconducting coil. A rotating machine includes first and second coils and a protective link of superconducting material. The second coil is operable to rotate with respect to the first coil. One of the first and second coils is a superconducting coil. The protective link is coupled to the superconducting coil.

  16. Coiling of viscous jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2004-11-01

    A stream of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a series of regular coils. I use a numerical model for a deformable fluid thread to predict the coiling frequency as a function of the thread's radius, the flow rate, the fall height, and the fluid viscosity. Three distinct modes of coiling can occur: viscous (e.g. toothpaste), gravitational (honey falling from a moderate height) and inertial (honey falling from a great height). When inertia is significant, three states of steady coiling with different frequencies can exist over a range of fall heights. The numerically predicted coiling frequencies agree well with experimental measurements in the inertial coiling regime.

  17. Apoptotic depletion of CD4+ T cells in idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, J; Mitra, D; Steiner, M; Lynch, D H; Siegal, F P; Staiano-Coico, L

    1996-01-01

    Progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, accompanied by opportunistic infections characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, ahs been reported in the absence of any known etiology. The pathogenesis of this syndrome, a subset of idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocytopenia (ICL), is uncertain. We report that CD4+ T cells from seven of eight ICL patients underwent accelerated programmed cell death, a process facilitated by T cell receptor cross-linking. Apoptosis was associated with enhanced expression of Fas and Fas ligand in unstimulated cell populations, and partially inhibited by soluble anti-Fas mAb. In addition, apoptosis was suppressed by aurintricarboxylic acid, an inhibitor of calcium-dependent endonucleases and proteases, in cells from four of seven patients, The in vivo significance of these findings was supported by three factors: the absence of accelerated apoptosis in persons with stable, physiologic CD4 lymphopenia without clinical immune deficiency; detection of serum antihistone H2B autoantibodies, one consequence of DNA fragmentation, in some patients; and its selectivity, with apoptosis limited to the CD4 population in some, and occurring among CD8+ T cells predominantly in those individuals with marked depletion of both CD4+ T lymphocytes linked to clinical immune suppression have evidence for accelerated T cell apoptosis in vitro that may be pathophysiologic and amenable to therapy with apoptosis inhibitors. PMID:8609222

  18. Immune responses to coiled coil supramolecular biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Rudra, Jai S; Tripathi, Pulak K; Hildeman, David A; Jung, Jangwook P; Collier, Joel H

    2010-11-01

    Self-assembly has been increasingly utilized in recent years to create peptide-based biomaterials for 3D cell culture, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine, but the molecular determinants of these materials' immunogenicity have remained largely unexplored. In this study, a set of molecules that self-assembled through coiled coil oligomerization was designed and synthesized, and immune responses against them were investigated in mice. Experimental groups spanned a range of oligomerization behaviors and included a peptide from the coiled coil region of mouse fibrin that did not form supramolecular structures, an engineered version of this peptide that formed coiled coil bundles, and a peptide-PEG-peptide triblock bioconjugate that formed coiled coil multimers and supramolecular aggregates. In mice, the native peptide and engineered peptide did not produce any detectable antibody response, and none of the materials elicited detectable peptide-specific T cell responses, as evidenced by the absence of IL-2 and interferon-gamma in cultures of peptide-challenged splenocytes or draining lymph node cells. However, specific antibody responses were elevated in mice injected with the multimerizing peptide-PEG-peptide. Minimal changes in secondary structure were observed between the engineered peptide and the triblock peptide-PEG-peptide, making it possible that the triblock's multimerization was responsible for this antibody response.

  19. Quench protection design of a 9.4 T whole-body MRI superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shunzhong; Li, Yi; Dai, Yinming; Lei, Yuanzhong; Yan, Luguang

    2014-02-01

    A 9.4 T MRI superconducting magnet with a 800 mm clear warm bore in diameter is designed and fabricated for bioscience research. The superconducting magnet consisting of five coaxial solenoid coils is fabricated with NbTi Wire-in-Channel (WIC) conductor where the ratios of copper to non-copper are from 5 to 10. The four compensation solenoid coils are with rectangular NbTi/Cu strand wires. The magnet will be operated in a relative low nominal current of 224.5 A with a high level of stored energy, about 138 MJ. A protection method with the cold diodes and resistors in series across the subdivided sections and active trigger heater to accelerate quench is adopted to avoid the damage of the magnet. In the paper, the quench simulation results of currents, voltages and hot-spot temperatures based on the protection scheme are analyzed in details.

  20. TPX correction coil studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J.D.

    1994-11-03

    Error correction coils are planned for the TPX (Tokamak Plasma Experiment) in order to avoid error field induced locked modes and disruption. The FT (Fix Tokamak) code is used to evaluate the ability of these correction coils to remove islands caused by symmetry breaking magnetic field errors. The proposed correction coils are capable of correcting a variety of error fields.

  1. Analysis environments for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. D.; Luca, L.; Hegner, B.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS offline software suite uses a layered approach to provide several different environments suitable for a wide range of analysis styles. At the heart of all the environments is the ROOT-based event data model file format. The simplest environment uses 'bare' ROOT to read files directly, without the use of any CMS-specific supporting libraries. This is useful for performing simple checks on a file or plotting simple distributions (such as the momentum distribution of tracks). The second environment supports use of the CMS framework's smart pointers that read data on demand, as well as automatic loading of the libraries holding the object interfaces. This environment fully supports interactive ROOT sessions in either CINT or PyROOT. The third environment combines ROOT's TSelector with the data access API of the full CMS framework, facilitating sharing of code between the ROOT environment and the full framework. The final environment is the full CMS framework that is used for all data production activities as well as full access to all data available on the Grid. By providing a layered approach to analysis environments, physicists can choose the environment that most closely matches their individual work style.

  2. NCSX Trim Coil Design

    SciTech Connect

    M. Kalish, A. Brooks, J. Rushinski, R. Upcavage

    2009-05-29

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure.

  3. Higgs Physics at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, Silvio; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The discovery of the Standard Model Higgs boson performed by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations during the LHC Run 1 has been an important success. This document is a short review of the search for the Higgs boson performed by the CMS collaboration during the LHC Run 1 and Run 2. In the first part, after a brief description of the Higgs boson production and decay channels, the Run-1 results are presented emphasizing the possible hints of New Physics. The main part of this document is devoted to the search for the Higgs boson with the 13-TeV data collected by the CMS experiment in 2015 and 2016, including the Standard Model searches as well as the Beyond Standard Model searches, such as the search for additional Higgs bosons and for resonant and non-resonant double Higgs boson production.

  4. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien who...

  5. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien who...

  6. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien who...

  7. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  8. 32 CFR 1630.46 - Class 4-T: Treaty alien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class 4-T: Treaty alien. 1630.46 Section 1630.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION RULES § 1630.46 Class 4-T: Treaty alien. In Class 4-T shall be placed any registrant who is an alien...

  9. Electromagnetic pump stator coil

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Dahl, L.R.

    1996-06-25

    An electrical stator coil for an electromagnetic pump includes a continuous conductor strip having first and second terminals at opposite ends thereof and an intermediate section disposed therebetween. The strip is configured in first and second coil halves, with the first coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the first terminal to the intermediate section, and the second coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the second terminal to the intermediate section. The first and second coil halves are disposed coaxially, and the first and second terminals are disposed radially inwardly therefrom with the intermediate section being disposed radially outwardly therefrom. 9 figs.

  10. Electromagnetic pump stator coil

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Dahl, Leslie R.

    1996-01-01

    An electrical stator coil for an electromagnetic pump includes a continuous conductor strip having first and second terminals at opposite ends thereof and an intermediate section disposed therebetween. The strip is configured in first and second coil halves, with the first coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the first terminal to the intermediate section, and the second coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the second terminal to the intermediate section. The first and second coil halves are disposed coaxially, and the first and second terminals are disposed radially inwardly therefrom with the intermediate section being disposed radially outwardly therefrom.

  11. Automating the CMS DAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  12. Engineered coiled-coil protein microfibers.

    PubMed

    Hume, Jasmin; Sun, Jennifer; Jacquet, Rudy; Renfrew, P Douglas; Martin, Jesse A; Bonneau, Richard; Gilchrist, M Lane; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2014-10-13

    The fabrication of de novo proteins able to self-assemble on the nano- to meso-length scales is critical in the development of protein-based biomaterials in nanotechnology and medicine. Here we report the design and characterization of a protein engineered coiled-coil that not only assembles into microfibers, but also can bind hydrophobic small molecules. Under ambient conditions, the protein forms fibers with nanoscale structure possessing large aspect ratios formed by bundles of α-helical homopentameric assemblies, which further assemble into mesoscale fibers in the presence of curcumin through aggregation. Surprisingly, these biosynthesized fibers are able to form in conditions of remarkably low concentrations. Unlike previously designed coiled-coil fibers, these engineered protein microfibers can bind the small molecule curcumin throughout the assembly, serving as a depot for encapsulation and delivery of other chemical agents within protein-based 3D microenvironments.

  13. Coil bobbin for stable superconducting coils

    SciTech Connect

    Kashima, T.; Yamanaka, A.; Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.

    1996-12-31

    The coil bobbin for a.c. coils have been prepared with the high strength polyethylene fiber (DF) reinforced plastics (DFRP) or with hybrid composites reinforced by DF and glass fiber (GF). The coils with the bobbin were found to be markedly stable. The DF has a large negative thermal expansion coefficient and hence the circumferential thermal strain of bobbin can be designed by changing the ratio of DF to GF layer thickness (DF/GF). It was found that the thermal expansion coefficient in the circumferential direction of the outer surface changed from negative to positive with increasing DF/GF and became nearly zero at a DF/GF of approximately 5.1 kA rms class a.c. coils having a bobbin with a negative thermal expansion coefficient or small thermal contraction in the circumferential direction were fabricated and were confirmed to show higher quench current than that with a GFRP bobbin.

  14. Exotica in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    Selected results on exotica searches with the CMS detector are presented. The main topics are dark matter, boosted objects, long-lived particles and classic narrow resonance searches. Most of the analyses were performed with data recorded at at centre of-mass energy of 8 TeV, but first results obtained at 13 TeV are also shown.

  15. Design and evaluation of an RF front-end for 9.4 T human MRI.

    PubMed

    Shajan, G; Hoffmann, Jens; Budde, Juliane; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Pohmann, Rolf

    2011-08-01

    At the field strength of 9.4 T, the highest field currently available for human MRI, the wavelength of the MR signals is significantly shorter than the size of the examined structures. Even more than at 7 T, constructive and destructive interferences cause strong inhomogeneities of the B1 field produced by a volume coil, causing shading over large parts of the image. Specialized radio frequency hardware and B1 management methods are required to obtain high-quality images that take full advantage of the high field strength. Here, the design and characteristics of a radio frequency front-end especially developed for proton imaging at 9.4 T are presented. In addition to a 16-channel transceiver array coil, capable of volume transmit mode and independent signal reception, it consists of custom built low noise preamplifiers and TR switches. Destructive interference patterns were eliminated, in virtually the entire brain, using a simple in situ radio frequency phase shimming technique. After mapping the B1+ profile of each transmit channel, a numerical algorithm was used to calculate the appropriate transmit phase offsets needed to obtain a homogeneous excitation field over a user defined region. Between two and three phase settings are necessary to obtain homogeneous images over the entire brain. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Superconducting magnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Aized, Dawood; Schwall, Robert E.

    1999-06-22

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil.

  17. Superconducting magnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Aized, D.; Schwall, R.E.

    1999-06-22

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil. 15 figs.

  18. Superconducting magnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Aized, Dawood; Schwall, Robert E.

    1996-06-11

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil.

  19. 42 CFR 405.800 - Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. 405.800 Section... Part B Program § 405.800 Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. A CMS contractor's (that is, a carrier... supplier enrollment application. If CMS or a CMS contractor denies a provider's or supplier's...

  20. 42 CFR 405.800 - Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. 405.800 Section... Part B Program § 405.800 Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. A CMS contractor's (that is, a carrier... supplier enrollment application. If CMS or a CMS contractor denies a provider's or supplier's...

  1. 42 CFR 405.874 - Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. 405.874 Section... Part B Program § 405.874 Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. A CMS contractor's (that is, a carrier... supplier enrollment application. If CMS or a CMS contractor denies a provider's or supplier's...

  2. 42 CFR 405.874 - Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. 405.874 Section... Part B Program § 405.874 Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. A CMS contractor's (that is, a carrier... supplier enrollment application. If CMS or a CMS contractor denies a provider's or supplier's...

  3. MRI surface-coil pair with strong inductive coupling.

    PubMed

    Mett, Richard R; Sidabras, Jason W; Hyde, James S

    2016-12-01

    A novel inductively coupled coil pair was used to obtain magnetic resonance phantom images. Rationale for using such a structure is described in R. R. Mett et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 084703 (2016)]. The original rationale was to increase the Q-value of a small diameter surface coil in order to achieve dominant loading by the sample. A significant improvement in the vector reception field (VRF) is also seen. The coil assembly consists of a 3-turn 10 mm tall meta-metallic self-resonant spiral (SRS) of inner diameter 10.4 mm and outer diameter 15.1 mm and a single-loop equalization coil of 25 mm diameter and 2 mm tall. The low-frequency parallel mode was used in which the rf currents on each coil produce magnetic fields that add constructively. The SRS coil assembly was fabricated and data were collected using a tissue-equivalent 30% polyacrylamide phantom. The large inductive coupling of the coils produces phase-coherency of the rf currents and magnetic fields. Finite-element simulations indicate that the VRF of the coil pair is about 4.4 times larger than for a single-loop coil of 15 mm diameter. The mutual coupling between coils influences the current ratio between the coils, which in turn influences the VRF and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Data on a tissue-equivalent phantom at 9.4 T show a total SNR increase of 8.8 over the 15 mm loop averaged over a 25 mm depth and diameter. The experimental results are shown to be consistent with the magnetic resonance theory of the emf induced by spins in a coil, the theory of inductively coupled resonant circuits, and the superposition principle. The methods are general for magnetic resonance and other types of signal detection and can be used over a wide range of operating frequencies.

  4. Coiling Viscous Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, L.

    1996-11-01

    A thin stream of glycerine or other viscous fluid poured onto a horizontal plane from a sufficient height piles up in a regular coil. In its steady state, this motion is analogous to the coiling of a flexible rope (L. Mahadevan and J.B. Keller, Proc. Roy. Soc.(A) to appear.). This analogy is used to solve the nonlinear free-boundary problem for the frequency of coiling and the coil radius. The results are compared with experimental results that go back to the the work of G.I. Taylor (1969).

  5. Coil system for plasmoid thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, Richard H. (Inventor); Lee, Michael H. (Inventor); Martin, Adam K. (Inventor); Fimognari, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A coil system for a plasmoid thruster includes a bias coil, a drive coil and field coils. The bias and drive coils are interleaved with one another as they are helically wound about a conical region. A first field coil defines a first passage at one end of the conical region, and is connected in series with the bias coil. A second field coil defines a second passage at an opposing end of the conical region, and is connected in series with the bias coil.

  6. Precise mapping of the magnetic field in the CMS barrel yoke using cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, S.; et al.,

    2010-03-01

    The CMS detector is designed around a large 4 T superconducting solenoid, enclosed in a 12000-tonne steel return yoke. A detailed map of the magnetic field is required for the accurate simulation and reconstruction of physics events in the CMS detector, not only in the inner tracking region inside the solenoid but also in the large and complex structure of the steel yoke, which is instrumented with muon chambers. Using a large sample of cosmic muon events collected by CMS in 2008, the field in the steel of the barrel yoke has been determined with a precision of 3 to 8% depending on the location.

  7. Higgs physics at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzner, André G.

    2016-12-01

    This article reviews recent measurements of the properties of the standard model (SM) Higgs boson using data recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC: its mass, width and couplings to other SM particles. We also summarise highlights from searches for new physical phenomena in the Higgs sector as they are proposed in many extensions of the SM: flavour violating and invisible decay modes, resonances decaying into Higgs bosons and searches for additional Higgs bosons.

  8. Molecular basis of coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Barbara; Bjelic, Saša; Honnappa, Srinivas; Jawhari, Hatim; Jaussi, Rolf; Payapilly, Aishwarya; Jowitt, Thomas; Steinmetz, Michel O; Kammerer, Richard A

    2010-11-16

    Coiled coils are extensively and successfully used nowadays to rationally design multistranded structures for applications, including basic research, biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, and medicine. The wide range of applications as well as the important functions these structures play in almost all biological processes highlight the need for a detailed understanding of the factors that control coiled-coil folding and oligomerization. Here, we address the important and unresolved question why the presence of particular oligomerization-state determinants within a coiled coil does frequently not correlate with its topology. We found an unexpected, general link between coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity and trigger sequences, elements that are indispensable for coiled-coil formation. By using the archetype coiled-coil domain of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 as a model system, we show that well-established trimer-specific oligomerization-state determinants switch the peptide's topology from a dimer to a trimer only when inserted into the trigger sequence. We successfully confirmed our results in two other, unrelated coiled-coil dimers, ATF1 and cortexillin-1. We furthermore show that multiple topology determinants can coexist in the same trigger sequence, revealing a delicate balance of the resulting oligomerization state by position-dependent forces. Our experimental results should significantly improve the prediction of the oligomerization state of coiled coils. They therefore should have major implications for the rational design of coiled coils and consequently many applications using these popular oligomerization domains.

  9. CC+: a relational database of coiled-coil structures

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Oliver D.; Moutevelis, Efrosini; Woolfson, Derek N.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the CC+ Database, a detailed, searchable repository of coiled-coil assignments, which is freely available at http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/ccplus. Coiled coils were identified using the program SOCKET, which locates coiled coils based on knobs-into-holes packing of side chains between α-helices. A method for determining the overall sequence identity of coiled-coil sequences was introduced to reduce statistical bias inherent in coiled-coil data sets. There are two points of entry into the CC+ Database: the ‘Periodic Table of Coiled-coil Structures’, which presents a graphical path through coiled-coil space based on manually validated data, and the ‘Dynamic Interface’, which allows queries of the database at different levels of complexity and detail. The latter entry level, which is the focus of this article, enables the efficient and rapid compilation of subsets of coiled-coil structures. These can be created and interrogated with increasingly sophisticated pull-down, keyword and sequence-based searches to return detailed structural and sequence information. Also provided are means for outputting the retrieved coiled-coil data in various formats, including PyMOL and RasMol scripts, and Position-Specific Scoring Matrices (or amino-acid profiles), which may be used, for example, in protein-structure prediction. PMID:18842638

  10. Efficient high-frequency body coil for high-field MRI.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, J T; Adriany, G; Snyder, C J; Tian, J; Thiel, T; Bolinger, L; Liu, H; DelaBarre, L; Ugurbil, K

    2004-10-01

    The use of body coils is favored for homogeneous excitation, and such coils are often paired with surface coils or arrays for sensitive reception in many MRI applications. While the body coil's physical size and resultant electrical length make this circuit difficult to design for any field strength, recent efforts to build efficient body coils for applications at 3T and above have been especially challenging. To meet this challenge, we developed an efficient new transverse electromagnetic (TEM) body coil and demonstrated its use in human studies at field strengths up to 4 T. Head, body, and breast images were acquired within peak power constraints of <8 kW. Bench studies indicate that these body coils are feasible to 8 T. RF shimming was used to remove a high-field-related cardiac imaging artifact in these preliminary studies. P41RR13230

  11. Rat brain MRI at 16.4T using a capacitively tunable patch antenna in combination with a receive array.

    PubMed

    Shajan, G; Hoffmann, Jens; Balla, Dávid Z; Deelchand, Dinesh K; Scheffler, Klaus; Pohmann, Rolf

    2012-10-01

    For MRI at 16.4T, with a proton Larmor frequency of 698 MHz, one of the principal RF engineering challenges is to generate a spatially homogeneous transmit field over a larger volume of interest for spin excitation. Constructing volume coils large enough to house a receive array along with the subject and to maintain the quadrature symmetry for different loading conditions is difficult at this frequency. This calls for new approaches to RF coil design for ultra-high field MR systems. A remotely placed capacitively tunable patch antenna, which can easily be adjusted to different loading conditions, was used to generate a relatively homogeneous excitation field covering a large imaging volume with a transversal profile similar to that of a birdcage coil. Since it was placed in front of the animal, this created valuable free space in the narrow magnet bore around the subject for additional hardware. To enhance the reception sensitivity, the patch antenna was combined with an actively detunable 3-channel receive coil array. In addition to increased SNR compared to a quadrature transceive surface coil, we were able to get high quality gradient echo and spin-echo images covering the whole rat brain.

  12. Coiled-coil length: Size does matter.

    PubMed

    Surkont, Jaroslaw; Diekmann, Yoan; Ryder, Pearl V; Pereira-Leal, Jose B

    2015-12-01

    Protein evolution is governed by processes that alter primary sequence but also the length of proteins. Protein length may change in different ways, but insertions, deletions and duplications are the most common. An optimal protein size is a trade-off between sequence extension, which may change protein stability or lead to acquisition of a new function, and shrinkage that decreases metabolic cost of protein synthesis. Despite the general tendency for length conservation across orthologous proteins, the propensity to accept insertions and deletions is heterogeneous along the sequence. For example, protein regions rich in repetitive peptide motifs are well known to extensively vary their length across species. Here, we analyze length conservation of coiled-coils, domains formed by an ubiquitous, repetitive peptide motif present in all domains of life, that frequently plays a structural role in the cell. We observed that, despite the repetitive nature, the length of coiled-coil domains is generally highly conserved throughout the tree of life, even when the remaining parts of the protein change, including globular domains. Length conservation is independent of primary amino acid sequence variation, and represents a conservation of domain physical size. This suggests that the conservation of domain size is due to functional constraints. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Impact of sepsis on CD4 T cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Condotta, Stephanie A.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis remains the primary cause of death from infection in hospital patients, despite improvements in antibiotics and intensive-care practices. Patients who survive severe sepsis can display suppressed immune function, often manifested as an increased susceptibility to (and mortality from) nosocomial infections. Not only is there a significant reduction in the number of various immune cell populations during sepsis, but there is also decreased function in the remaining lymphocytes. Within the immune system, CD4 T cells are important players in the proper development of numerous cellular and humoral immune responses. Despite sufficient clinical evidence of CD4 T cell loss in septic patients of all ages, the impact of sepsis on CD4 T cell responses is not well understood. Recent findings suggest that CD4 T cell impairment is a multipronged problem that results from initial sepsis-induced cell loss. However, the subsequent lymphopenia-induced numerical recovery of the CD4 T cell compartment leads to intrinsic alterations in phenotype and effector function, reduced repertoire diversity, changes in the composition of naive antigen-specific CD4 T cell pools, and changes in the representation of different CD4 T cell subpopulations (e.g., increases in Treg frequency). This review focuses on sepsis-induced alterations within the CD4 T cell compartment that influence the ability of the immune system to control secondary heterologous infections. The understanding of how sepsis affects CD4 T cells through their numerical loss and recovery, as well as function, is important in the development of future treatments designed to restore CD4 T cells to their presepsis state. PMID:24791959

  14. Status of RDMS CMS computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, V.; Golutvin, I.; Kodolova, O.; Korenkov, V.; Levchuk, L.; Shmatov, S.; Tikhonenko, E.; Zhiltsov, V.

    2016-09-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a high-performance general-purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. More than twenty institutes from Russia and Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) are involved in Russia and Dubna Member States (RDMS) CMS Collaboration. A proper computing grid-infrastructure has been constructed at the RDMS institutes for the participation in the running phase of the CMS experiment. Current status of RDMS CMS computing and plans of its development to the next LHC start are presented.

  15. Using fullscreen CMS at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1991-05-01

    Fullscreen CMS is an optional console environment introduced in Release 5 of CMS which maintains the context of a VM session across invocations of full screen commands like XEDIT, FILELIST or MAIL. In addition it allows limited scrolling and windowing capabilities. This write-up provides CERNVM users who are interested in Fullscreen CMS with an overview of the concepts and operations which are involved. In that it is an optional environment, this write-up does not constitute an endorsement of Fullscreen CMS.

  16. Commercial applications for COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Wayne C.; Carroll, David L.; King, D. M.; Fockler, L. A.; Stromberg, D. S.; Sexauer, M.; Milmoe, A.; Sentman, Lee H.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number of different industrial applications. COIL is of particular interest because of its short fiber deliverable wavelength, high scaleable continuous wave power, and excellent material interaction properties. In past research the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign identified and decommissioning and decontamination (DD) of nuclear facilities as a primary focus for COIL technology. DD will be a major challenge in the coming decades. The use of a robotically driven fiber delivered cutting/ablation tool in contaminated areas promises to lower risks to workers for the DD mission. Further, the high cutting speed of COIL will significantly reduce the time required to cut contaminated equipment, reducing costs. The high power of COIL will permit the dismantling of thick stacks of piping and equipment as well as reactor vessels. COIL is very promising for the removal of material from contaminated surfaces, perhaps to depths thicker than an inch. Laser cutting and ablation minimizes dust and fumes, which reduces the required number of high efficiency particulate accumulator filters, thus reducing costly waste disposal. Other potential industrial applications for COIL are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there appear to be very promising applications for high powers lasers in the oil industry.

  17. Hadron Correlations in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, Charles F.

    2013-08-01

    The measurements of the anisotropic flow of single particles and particle pairs have provided some of the most compelling evidence for the creation of a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) in relativistic heavy ion collisions, first at RHIC, and more recently at the LHC. Using PbPb collision data taken in the 2010 and 2011 heavy ion runs at the LHC, the CMS experiment has investigated a broad scope of these flow phenomena. The v2 elliptic flow coefficient has been extracted with four different methods to cross-check contributions from initial state fluctuations and non-flow correlations. The measurements of the v2 elliptic anisotropy have been extended to a transverse momentum of 60 GeV/c, which will enable the placement of new quantitative constraints on parton energy loss models as a function of path length in the sQGP medium. Additionally, for the first time at the LHC, the CMS experiment has extracted precise elliptic anisotropy coefficients for the π0 meson in the centrality range 20-80% and over a transverse momentum range 1.6 to 8 GeV/c. These results are compared with both the π0 results reported by the PHENIX detector at RHIC, and with the inclusive charged particle anisotropy results reported from the LHC. Finally, the CMS experiment has mounted an extensive study of charged hadron pair azimuthal correlations using a Fourier harmonic decomposition to fit the data. The relationship between these pair coefficients and the single particle harmonic flow coefficients can be explored for its insight into the early dynamics of this viscous medium.

  18. Photon reconstruction in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nysten, J.

    2004-11-01

    If the mass of the Higgs boson is less than 150 GeV/ c2, the H→γγ channel will provide a clear signature at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). An overview of the general design of photon reconstruction in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is given. The handling of converted photons and rejection of neutral pions pose an additional challenge to triggering and measuring. Topics related to photon reconstruction are presented, such as an algorithm for track building of the electron and the positron coming from the photon conversion.

  19. Photon Physics at CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, J J

    2009-10-20

    The Large Hadron Collider will allow studies of {gamma}{gamma} and photoproduction interactions at energies significantly higher than previous experiments, in both pp and heavy ion collisions. In this article, studies of the feasibility of measuring {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, {gamma}p {yields} {Upsilon}p {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}p, and {gamma}A {yields} {Upsilon}A {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}A processes in early LHC data with the CMS detector are presented.

  20. The design and test of a new volume coil for high field imaging.

    PubMed

    Wen, H; Chesnick, A S; Balaban, R S

    1994-10-01

    A major problem in the development of high field (> 100 MHz) large volume (> 6000 cm3) MR coils is the interaction of the coil with the subject as well as the radiation loss to the environment. To reduce subject perturbation of the coil resonance modes, a volume coil that uses an array of freely rotating resonant elements radially mounted between two concentric cylinders was designed for operation at 170 MHz. Substantial electromagnetic energy is stored in the resonant elements outside the sample region without compromising the efficiency of the overall coil. This stored energy reduces the effect of the subject on the circuit and maintains a high Q, facilitating the tuning and matching of the coil. The unloaded Q of the coil is 680; when loaded with a head, it was 129. The ratio of 5.3 of the unloaded to loaded Q supports the notion that the efficiency of the coil was maintained in comparison with previous designs. The power requirement and signal-to-noise performance are significantly improved. The coil is tuned by a mechanism that imparts the same degree of rotation on all of the elements simultaneously, varying their degree of mutual coupling and preserving the overall coil symmetry. A thin radiofrequency shield is an integral part of the coil to reduce the radiation effect, which is a significant loss mechanism at high fields. MR images were collected at 4T using this coil design with high sensitivity and B1 homogeneity.

  1. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, S.T.

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies for the Superconducting Super Collider. The correction coil cables have wires collected in wire array with a center rib sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly. The core assembly is surrounded by an assembly housing having an inner spiral wrap and a counter wound outer spiral wrap. An alternate embodiment of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable on a particle tube in a particle tube assembly. 7 figs.

  2. ELECTRICAL COIL STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Hartwig, A.

    1962-09-25

    A compactly wound electrical coil is designed for carrying intense pulsed currents such as are characteristic of controlled thermonuclear reaction devices. A flat strip of conductor is tightly wound in a spiral with a matching flat strip of insulator. To provide for a high fluid coolant flow through the coil with minimum pumping pressure, a surface of the conductor is scored with parallel transverse grooves which form short longitudinal coolant pasaages when the conductor is wound in the spiral configuration. Owing to this construction, the coil is extremely resistant to thermal and magnetic shock from sudden high currents. (AEC)

  3. Coil spring venting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-10-21

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed.

  4. Coil Knotting during Endovascular Coil Embolization for Ruptured MCA Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, S.C.; Lyo, I.U.; Shin, S.H.; Park, J.B.; Kim, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Complications during coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms include thromboembolic events, hemorrhagic complications related to procedural aneurysmal rupture and parent vessel perforation, and coil-related complications. The present report describes a rare coil-related complication involving spontaneous coil knotting. PMID:20557732

  5. A periodic table of coiled-coil protein structures.

    PubMed

    Moutevelis, Efrosini; Woolfson, Derek N

    2009-01-23

    Coiled coils are protein structure domains with two or more alpha-helices packed together via interlacing of side chains known as knob-into-hole packing. We analysed and classified a large set of coiled-coil structures using a combination of automated and manual methods. This led to a systematic classification that we termed a "periodic table of coiled coils," which we have made available at http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/ccplus/search/periodic_table. In this table, coiled-coil assemblies are arranged in columns with increasing numbers of alpha-helices and in rows of increased complexity. The table provides a framework for understanding possibilities in and limits on coiled-coil structures and a basis for future prediction, engineering and design studies.

  6. The CMS trigger system

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during datamore » taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.« less

  7. The CMS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. 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B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Kaufman, G. Nicolas; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P., III; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  8. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  9. Mitochondrial Proteins Containing Coiled-Coil-Helix-Coiled-Coil-Helix (CHCH) Domains in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Modjtahedi, Nazanine; Tokatlidis, Kostas; Dessen, Philippe; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Members of the coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix (CHCH) domain-containing protein family that carry (CX9C) type motifs are imported into the mitochondrion with the help of the disulfide relay-dependent MIA import pathway. These evolutionarily conserved proteins are emerging as new cellular factors that control mitochondrial respiration, redox regulation, lipid homeostasis, and membrane ultrastructure and dynamics. We discuss recent insights on the activity of known (CX9C) motif-carrying proteins in mammals and review current data implicating the Mia40/CHCHD4 import machinery in the regulation of their mitochondrial import. Recent findings and the identification of disease-associated mutations in specific (CX9C) motif-carrying proteins have highlighted members of this family of proteins as potential therapeutic targets in a variety of human disorders.

  10. Enhancing Induction Coil Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, K.; Goldstein, R.; Yakey, C.; Nemkov, V.

    2014-12-01

    In induction hardening, thermal fatigue is one of the main copper failure modes of induction heat treating coils. There have been papers published that describe this failure mode and others that describe some good design practices. The variables previously identified as the sources of thermal fatigue include radiation from the part surface, frequency, current, concentrator losses, water pressure and coil wall thickness. However, there is very little quantitative data on the factors that influence thermal fatigue in induction coils is available in the public domain. By using finite element analysis software this study analyzes the effect of common design variables of inductor cooling, and quantifies the relative importance of these variables. A comprehensive case study for a single shot induction coil with Fluxtrol A concentrator applied is used for the analysis.

  11. MRI methodological development of intervertebral disc degeneration: a rabbit in vivo study at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Noury, Fanny; Mispelter, Joël; Szeremeta, Frédéric; Même, Sandra; Doan, Bich-Thuy; Beloeil, Jean-Claude

    2008-12-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a complex process characterized by biochemical and structural changes in both the nucleus pulposus and the anulus fibrosus. In this study, we were able to obtain in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) images of the rabbit spine, with several MR imaging (MRI) contrasts (rho, T(1) and T(2)). We quantified several parameters (T(2), apparent diffusion coefficient, disc height and area) to differentiate between healthy and degenerative IVDs and to characterize the degeneration process. To our knowledge, there has not been any previous in vivo study of rabbit IVDs at high-field MRI (9.4 T). A custom radio frequency (RF) coil for 9.4 T was designed to match rabbit IVD morphology, to study the degeneration in vivo on a model of human lumbar disease. Our new probe, a custom half-birdcage-type coil, obtains the necessary exploration depth while meeting the requirements for signal homogeneity and sensitivity of the study. This design addresses some of the difficulties with constructing RF coils at high field strengths.

  12. Deuterium microimages and microvolume localized spectroscopy at 9.4T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, Bernd; Tannús, Alberto; Vidoto, Edson L. G.; Martins, Mateus J.; Panepucci, Horácio

    2001-10-01

    Deuterium (2H) microscopic images with resolution of tens of microns and localized 2H spectra with volumes in the micro liter range have been obtained on a Varian 400 MHz (9.4T) wide bore spectrometer equipped with a 50 G/cm gradient system. In order to realize 2H experiments at 61.4 MHz, a simple RF coil was built. 2H-Microimaging experiments have been carried out with SE and FLASH pulse sequences and localized 2H-spectroscopy has been tested on a phantom, which consists of a 2×2×2 mm3 cube with CD3OD immersed in D2O. Results show that non-invasive investigation of biological samples is possible. As an example for a biological application, the absorption process of D2O in a plant fragment (Mikania Cordifolia) has been monitored by acquiring consecutive SE microimages along various hours.

  13. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Peter; Hufnagel, Dirk; Dykstra, D.; Gutsche, O.; Tadel, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Letts, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; McCrea, A.; Bockelman, B.; Fajardo, E.; Linares, L.; Wagner, R.; Konstantinov, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bradley, D.

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  14. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, Peter; Hufnagel, Dirk; Dykstra, D.; Gutsche, O.; Tadel, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Letts, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; McCrea, A.; Bockelman, B.; Fajardo, E.; Linares, L.; Wagner, R.; Konstantinov, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bradley, D.; Cms Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  15. The CMS online manual system.

    PubMed

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) explains how health care providers can use the Web-based CMS Online Manual System to learn about the Medicare program and stay up to date with the latest program changes.

  16. Linear Rogowski coil.

    PubMed

    Nassisi, V; Delle Side, D

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the employment and development of fast current pulses require sophisticated systems to perform measurements. Rogowski coils are used to diagnose cylindrical shaped beams; therefore, they are designed and built with a toroidal structure. Recently, to perform experiments of radiofrequency biophysical stresses, flat transmission lines have been developed. Therefore, in this work we developed a linear Rogowski coil to detect current pulses inside flat conductors. The system is first approached by means of transmission line theory. We found that, if the pulse width to be diagnosed is comparable with the propagation time of the signal in the detector, it is necessary to impose a uniform current as input pulse, or to use short coils. We further analysed the effect of the resistance of the coil and the influence of its magnetic properties. As a result, the device we developed is able to record pulses lasting for some hundreds of nanoseconds, depending on the inductance, load impedance, and resistance of the coil. Furthermore, its response is characterized by a sub-nanosecond rise time (∼100 ps). The attenuation coefficient depends mainly on the turn number of the coil, while the fidelity of the response depends both on the magnetic core characteristics and on the current distribution along the plane conductors.

  17. Linear Rogowski coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassisi, V.; Delle Side, D.

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the employment and development of fast current pulses require sophisticated systems to perform measurements. Rogowski coils are used to diagnose cylindrical shaped beams; therefore, they are designed and built with a toroidal structure. Recently, to perform experiments of radiofrequency biophysical stresses, flat transmission lines have been developed. Therefore, in this work we developed a linear Rogowski coil to detect current pulses inside flat conductors. The system is first approached by means of transmission line theory. We found that, if the pulse width to be diagnosed is comparable with the propagation time of the signal in the detector, it is necessary to impose a uniform current as input pulse, or to use short coils. We further analysed the effect of the resistance of the coil and the influence of its magnetic properties. As a result, the device we developed is able to record pulses lasting for some hundreds of nanoseconds, depending on the inductance, load impedance, and resistance of the coil. Furthermore, its response is characterized by a sub-nanosecond rise time (˜100 ps). The attenuation coefficient depends mainly on the turn number of the coil, while the fidelity of the response depends both on the magnetic core characteristics and on the current distribution along the plane conductors.

  18. NCSX Toroidal Field Coil Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kalish, M.; Rushinski, J.; Myatt, L.; Brooks, A.; Dahlgren, F.; Chrzanowski, J.; Reiersen, W.; Freudenberg, K.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is an experimental device whose design and construction is underway at the Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The primary coil systems for the NCSX device consist of the twisted plasma-shaping Modular Coils, the Poloidal Field Coils, and the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils. The TF Coils are D-shaped coils wound from hollow copper conductor, and vacuum impregnated with a glass-epoxy resin system. There are 18 identical, equally spaced TF coils providing 1/R field at the plasma. They operate within a cryostat, and are cooled by LN2, nominally, to 80K. Wedge shaped castings are assembled to the inboard face of these coils, so that inward radial loads are reacted via the nesting of each of the coils against their adjacent partners. This paper outlines the TF Coil design methodology, reviews the analysis results, and summarizes how the design and analysis support the design requirements.

  19. In vivo magnetic resonance microscopy of Drosophilae at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Même, Sandra; Joudiou, Nicolas; Szeremeta, Frédéric; Mispelter, Joël; Louat, Fanny; Decoville, Martine; Locker, Daniel; Beloeil, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    In preclinical research, genetic studies have made considerable progress as a result of the development of transgenic animal models of human diseases. Consequently, there is now a need for higher resolution MRI to provide finer details for studies of small animals (rats, mice) or very small animals (insects). One way to address this issue is to work with high-magnetic-field spectrometers (dedicated to small animal imaging) with strong magnetic field gradients. It is also necessary to develop a complete methodology (transmit/receive coil, pulse sequence, fixing system, air supply, anesthesia capabilities, etc.). In this study, we developed noninvasive protocols, both in vitro and in vivo (from coil construction to image generation), for drosophila MRI at 9.4 T. The 10 10 80-μm resolution makes it possible to visualize whole drosophila (head, thorax, abdomen) and internal organs (ovaries, longitudinal and transverse muscles, bowel, proboscis, antennae and optical lobes). We also provide some results obtained with a Drosophila model of muscle degeneration. This opens the way for new applications of structural genetic modification studies using MRI of drosophila. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dysregulation of CD4(+) T Cell Subsets in Intracranial Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Ming-Guang; Liang, Guo-Biao; Yu, Chun-Yong; He, Wenxiu; Li, Zhi-Qing; Gao, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and potential IA rupture are one of the direct causes of permanent brain damage and mortality. Interestingly, the major risk factors of IA development, including hemodynamic stress, hypertension, smoking, and genetic predispositions, are closely associated with a proinflammatory immune status. Therefore, we examined the roles of CD4(+) T cells in IA pathogenesis. IA patients exhibited peripheral CD4(+) T-cell imbalance, with overrepresented T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 activities and underrepresented Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) activities, including increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17 production and decreased IL-10 production from total CD4(+) T cells. Chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6 were used to identify Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell subsets, and CD4(+)CD25(hi) was used to identify Treg cells. Based on these markers, the data then showed altered cytokine production by each cell type and shifted subpopulation frequency. Moreover, this shift in frequency was directly correlated with IA severity. To examine the underlying mechanism of CD4(+) T cell skewing, we cocultured CD4(+) T cells with autologous monocytes and found that coculture with monocytes could significantly increase IFN-γ and IL-17 production through contact-independent mechanisms, demonstrating that monocytes could potentially contribute to the altered CD4(+) T cell composition in IA. Analyzing mRNA transcripts revealed significantly upregulated IL-1β and TNF-α expression by monocytes from IA patients. We found a loss of CD4(+) T cell subset balance that was likely to promote a higher state of inflammation in IA, which may exacerbate the disease through a positive feedback loop.

  1. Structure and function analysis of the CMS/CIN85 protein family identifies actin-bundling properties and heterotypic-complex formation.

    PubMed

    Gaidos, Gabriel; Soni, Shefali; Oswald, Duane J; Toselli, Paul A; Kirsch, Kathrin H

    2007-07-15

    Members of the CMS/CIN85 protein family participate in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and play a crucial role in maintaining the kidney filtration barrier. The CMS protein structure includes three Src homology 3 (SH3) domains and a proline-rich (PR) region that is connected by a 'linker' sequence to a coiled-coil (CC) domain. We show that CMS is a component of special actin-rich adhesion structures--podosomes--and demonstrate specific actin-binding properties of CMS. We have found that the entire C-terminal half of CMS is necessary for efficient binding to filamentous actin (F-actin). CMS and CIN85 can crosslink F-actin into bundles, a function that depends on the PR region and the CC domain. Removal of these domains reduces migration. CMS can also form heterotypic complexes with CIN85. CIN85 is expressed as multiple isoforms that share the CC domain, suggesting that heterotypic interactions with CMS provides a mechanism to regulate CMS binding to F-actin and thus for modulating dynamic rearrangements of the cytoskeleton.

  2. Human brain imaging at 9.4 T using a tunable patch antenna for transmission.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jens; Shajan, G; Budde, Juliane; Scheffler, Klaus; Pohmann, Rolf

    2013-05-01

    For human brain imaging at ultrahigh fields, the traveling wave concept can provide a more uniform B1+ field over a larger field of view with improved patient comfort compared to conventional volume coils. It suffers, however, from limited transmit efficiency and receive sensitivity and is not readily applicable in systems where the radiofrequency shield is too narrow to allow for unattenuated wave propagation. Here, the near field of a capacitively adjustable patch antenna for excitation is combined with a receive-only array at 9.4 T. The antenna is designed in compact size and placed in close proximity to the subject to improve the transmit efficiency in narrow bores. Experimental and numerical comparisons to conventional microstrip arrays reveal improved B1+ homogeneity and longitudinal coverage, but at the cost of elevated local specific absorption rate. High-resolution functional and anatomical images demonstrate the use of this setup for in vivo human brain imaging at 9.4 T. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Coiled coils and SAH domains in cytoskeletal molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Michelle

    2011-10-01

    Cytoskeletal motors include myosins, kinesins and dyneins. Myosins move along tracks of actin filaments, whereas kinesins and dyneins move along microtubules. Many of these motors are involved in trafficking cargo in cells. However, myosins are mostly monomeric, whereas kinesins are mostly dimeric, owing to the presence of a coiled coil. Some myosins (myosins 6, 7 and 10) contain an SAH (single α-helical) domain, which was originally thought to be a coiled coil. These myosins are now known to be monomers, not dimers. The differences between SAH domains and coiled coils are described and the potential roles of SAH domains in molecular motors are discussed.

  4. Heterotrimeric Coiled Coils with Core Residue Urea Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    Diss, Maria L.; Kennan, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    We report several coiled coil heterotrimers with varying core residue buried polar groups, all with Tm values > 43° C. Introduction of new synthetic side chain structures, including some terminating in mono-substituted ureas, diversifies the pool of viable core residue candidates. A study of core charge pairings demonstrates that, unlike dimeric systems, trimeric coiled coils do not tolerate guanidine-guanidine contacts, even in the presence of a compensating carboxylate. Overall, the roster of feasible coiled coil designs is significantly expanded. PMID:19032043

  5. Normalization of CD4+ T Cell Metabolism Reverses Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yiming; Choi, Seung-Chul; Xu, Zhiwei; Perry, Daniel J.; Seay, Howard; Croker, Byron P.; Sobel, Eric S.; Brusko, Todd M.; Morel, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which autoreactive CD4+ T cells play an essential role. CD4+ T cells rely on glycolysis for inflammatory effector functions, but recent studies have shown that mitochondrial metabolism supports their chronic activation. How these processes contribute to lupus is unclear. Here, we show that both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism are elevated in CD4+ T cells from lupus-prone B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (TC) mice as compared to non-autoimmune controls. In vitro, both the mitochondrial metabolism inhibitor metformin and the glucose metabolism inhibitor 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) reduced IFNγ production, although at different stages of activation. Metformin also restored the defective IL-2 production by TC CD4+ T cells. In vivo, treatment of TC mice and other lupus models with a combination of metformin and 2DG normalized T cell metabolism and reversed disease biomarkers. Further, CD4+ T cells from SLE patients also exhibited enhanced glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism that correlated with their activation status, and their excessive IFNγ production was significantly reduced by metformin in vitro. These results suggest that normalization of T cell metabolism through the dual inhibition of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism is a promising therapeutic venue for SLE. PMID:25673763

  6. CMS Software Notebook. First Edition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    For example, one of my file managing procedures will permit a user to enter the CMS subset to look for a missing file when it is not possible to...Box 17186 Washington, D.C. 20041 CMS userid: ORGASS Please specify if you want the user’s manual or the systems manual. The latter is designed for...8217 CMS SOFTWARE NOTEBOOK*t (First Edition) edited by Richard J. Orgass DT ’ Technical Memorandum No. 79-6 K. July 31, 1979 . ABSTRACT A brief description

  7. Aneurysm permeability following coil embolization: packing density and coil distribution

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, Ju-Yu; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Wakhloo, Ajay K; Carniato, Sarena L; Puri, Ajit S; Bzura, Conrad; Coffin, Spencer; Bogdanov, Alexei A; Gounis, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Background Rates of durable aneurysm occlusion following coil embolization vary widely, and a better understanding of coil mass mechanics is desired. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of packing density and coil uniformity on aneurysm permeability. Methods Aneurysm models were coiled using either Guglielmi detachable coils or Target coils. The permeability was assessed by taking the ratio of microspheres passing through the coil mass to those in the working fluid. Aneurysms containing coil masses were sectioned for image analysis to determine surface area fraction and coil uniformity. Results All aneurysms were coiled to a packing density of at least 27%. Packing density, surface area fraction of the dome and neck, and uniformity of the dome were significantly correlated (p<0.05). Hence, multivariate principal components-based partial least squares regression models were used to predict permeability. Similar loading vectors were obtained for packing and uniformity measures. Coil mass permeability was modeled better with the inclusion of packing and uniformity measures of the dome (r2=0.73) than with packing density alone (r2=0.45). The analysis indicates the importance of including a uniformity measure for coil distribution in the dome along with packing measures. Conclusions A densely packed aneurysm with a high degree of coil mass uniformity will reduce permeability. PMID:25031179

  8. Transcriptional Regulatory Networks for CD4 T Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cells play a central role in controlling the adaptive immune response by secreting cytokines to activate target cells. Naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into at least four subsets, Th1, Th2, Th17, and inducible regulatory T cells, each with unique functions for pathogen elimination. The differentiation of these subsets is induced in response to cytokine stimulation, which is translated into Stat activation, followed by induction of master regulator transcription factors. In addition to these factors, multiple other transcription factors, both subset specific and shared, are also involved in promoting subset differentiation. This review will focus on the network of transcription factors that control CD4+ T cell differentiation. PMID:24839135

  9. CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In 1986, Mosmann and Coffman identified 2 subsets of activated CD4 T cells, Th1 and Th2 cells, which differed from each other in their pattern of cytokine production and their functions. Our understanding of the importance of the distinct differentiated forms of CD4 T cells and of the mechanisms through which they achieve their differentiated state has greatly expanded over the past 2 decades. Today at least 4 distinct CD4 T-cell subsets have been shown to exist, Th1, Th2, Th17, and iTreg cells. Here we summarize much of what is known about the 4 subsets, including the history of their discovery, their unique cytokine products and related functions, their distinctive expression of cell surface receptors and their characteristic transcription factors, the regulation of their fate determination, and the consequences of their abnormal activation. PMID:18725574

  10. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Sou-Tien

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly (10, 310) adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies (532) for the superconducting super collider. The correction coil cables (10, 310) have wires (14, 314) collected in wire arrays (12, 312) with a center rib (16, 316) sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly (18, 318 ). The core assembly (18, 318) is surrounded by an assembly housing (20, 320) having an inner spiral wrap (22, 322) and a counter wound outer spiral wrap (24, 324). An alternate embodiment (410) of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable (410) on a particle tube (733) in a particle tube assembly (732).

  11. Fabrication of superconductor coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorris, S. E.; Dusek, J. T.; Picciolo, J. J.; Leu, H. J.; Singh, J. P.; Cazzato, A.; Poeppel, R. B.

    1989-10-01

    Small coils of superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x)(123) can be formed in the green state using a layered superconductor/insulator tape. In this approach, the insulator prevents contact between the turns of the coil during firing. The insulator must be chemically compatible with 123 during firing, and ideally should match 123 with respect to firing shrinkage and thermal expansion. Fabrication of small coils from the layered superconductor/insulator composites 123/Y2BaCuO5 and 123/BaCuO2 will be discussed. The issue of chemical compatibility will be addressed, and measurements of the firing shrinkage and thermal expansion will be presented for 123 and the two insulators Y2BaO5 and BaCuO2. In addition, the superconducting properties of 123 in the composites will be presented.

  12. TESLA Coil Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Sloan’s work was actually predated by the earlier work of Nikola Tesla . Sloan mistakenly identified " Tesla Coils" as lumped tuned resonators. The...Lefvw WsnJ L REPORT o]i 3. REPRT TYPE AND OATES COVEIRD May 1992 Special/Aug 1992 - May 1992 Z TITLE AND 5U§nUT S. FUNDING NUMIHRS Tesla Coil Research...STATEMENT 1211. ’ISTRIUUTION COOD Approved for public release; dis~ribution is unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Masrmum 200 worw) High repetition rate Tesla

  13. Meiosis specific coiled-coil proteins in Shizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Ayami; Saito, Takamune T; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2007-05-18

    Many meiosis-specific proteins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe contain coiled-coil motifs which play essential roles for meiotic progression. For example, the coiled-coil motifs present in Meu13 and Mcp7 are required for their function as a putative recombinase cofactor complex during meiotic recombination. Mcp6/Hrs1 and Mcp5/Num1 control horsetail chromosome movement by astral microtubule organization and anchoring dynein respectively. Dhc1 and Ssm4 are also required for horsetail chromosome movement. It is clear from these examples that the coiled-coil motif in these proteins plays an important role during the progression of cells through meiosis. However, there are still many unanswered questions on how these proteins operate. In this paper, we briefly review recent studies on the meiotic coiled-coil proteins in Sz. pombe.

  14. Meiosis specific coiled-coil proteins in Shizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaka, Ayami; Saito, Takamune T; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Many meiosis-specific proteins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe contain coiled-coil motifs which play essential roles for meiotic progression. For example, the coiled-coil motifs present in Meu13 and Mcp7 are required for their function as a putative recombinase cofactor complex during meiotic recombination. Mcp6/Hrs1 and Mcp5/Num1 control horsetail chromosome movement by astral microtubule organization and anchoring dynein respectively. Dhc1 and Ssm4 are also required for horsetail chromosome movement. It is clear from these examples that the coiled-coil motif in these proteins plays an important role during the progression of cells through meiosis. However, there are still many unanswered questions on how these proteins operate. In this paper, we briefly review recent studies on the meiotic coiled-coil proteins in Sz. pombe. PMID:17509158

  15. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of the healthy human brain at 9.4 T: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Chadzynski, Grzegorz L; Pohmann, Rolf; Shajan, Gunamony; Kolb, Rupert; Bisdas, Sotirios; Klose, Uwe; Scheffler, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the feasibility of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI) of the healthy human brain at a field strength of 9.4 T, using conventional acquisition techniques, is examined and the initial experience is summarized. MRSI measurements were performed on a 9.4 T MR scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) equipped with head-only gradient insert (AC84, Siemens) and custom-developed, 8-channel transmit/24-channel receive, and 16-channel transmit/31-channel receive coils. Spectra were acquired from the superior part of the human brain with a modified STEAM sequence. Spectral quantification was done with LCModel software. Reasonable quality and signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired spectra allowed reliable quantification of 12 metabolites (Cramer-Rao lower bounds < 20 %), some of which may be difficult to quantify at field strengths below 7 T due to overlapping resonances or low concentrations. While further developments are necessary to minimize chemical shift displacement and homogeneity of the transmit field, it is demonstrated that in vivo (1)H MRSI at a field strength of 9.4 T is possible. However, further studies applying up-to-date techniques to overcome high-field specific problems are needed in order to assess the potential gain in sensitivity that may be offered by MRSI at 9.4 T.

  16. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernandez, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  17. The CMS dataset bookkeeping service

    SciTech Connect

    Afaq, Anzar,; Dolgert, Andrew; Guo, Yuyi; Jones, Chris; Kosyakov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Lueking, Lee; Riley, Dan; Sekhri, Vijay; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    The CMS Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) has been developed to catalog all CMS event data from Monte Carlo and Detector sources. It provides the ability to identify MC or trigger source, track data provenance, construct datasets for analysis, and discover interesting data. CMS requires processing and analysis activities at various service levels and the DBS system provides support for localized processing or private analysis, as well as global access for CMS users at large. Catalog entries can be moved among the various service levels with a simple set of migration tools, thus forming a loose federation of databases. DBS is available to CMS users via a Python API, Command Line, and a Discovery web page interfaces. The system is built as a multi-tier web application with Java servlets running under Tomcat, with connections via JDBC to Oracle or MySQL database backends. Clients connect to the service through HTTP or HTTPS with authentication provided by GRID certificates and authorization through VOMS. DBS is an integral part of the overall CMS Data Management and Workflow Management systems.

  18. Primary antitumor immune response mediated by CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Corthay, Alexandre; Skovseth, Dag K; Lundin, Katrin U; Røsjø, Egil; Omholt, Hilde; Hofgaard, Peter O; Haraldsen, Guttorm; Bogen, Bjarne

    2005-03-01

    Gene-targeted mice have recently revealed a role for lymphocytes and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) in conferring protection against cancer, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we have characterized a successful primary antitumor immune response initiated by naive CD4+ T cells. Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-negative myeloma cells injected subcutaneously into syngeneic mice were surrounded within 3 days by macrophages that captured tumor antigens. Within 6 days, naive myeloma-specific CD4+ T cells became activated in draining lymph nodes and subsequently migrated to the incipient tumor site. Upon recognition of tumor-derived antigenic peptides presented on MHC-II by macrophages, the myeloma-specific CD4+ T cells were reactivated and started to secrete cytokines. T cell-derived IFNgamma activated macrophages in close proximity to the tumor cells. Tumor cell growth was completely inhibited by such locally activated macrophages. These data indicate a mechanism for immunosurveillance of MHC-II-negative cancer cells by tumor-specific CD4+ T cells through collaboration with macrophages.

  19. CD4+ T cells memorize obesity and promote weight regain.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jianghuan; Lai, Beibei; Zheng, Mingzhu; Chen, Qin; Jiang, Shujun; Song, Anying; Huang, Zan; Shi, Peiliang; Tu, Xin; Wang, Di; Lu, Linrong; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2017-06-19

    Body weight regain often causes failure of obesity therapies while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that immune cells, especially CD4+ T cells, mediate the 'memory' of previous obese status. In a weight gain-loss-regain model, we found that C57BL/6J mice with an obesity history showed a much faster rate of body weight regain. This obesity memory could last for at least 2 months after previously obese mice were kept at the same body weight as non-obese mice. Surprisingly, such obesity memory was abrogated by dexamethasone treatment, whereas immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) and H2A(-/-) mice failed to establish such memory. Rag1(-/-) mice repossessed the obesity memory when immune cells or CD4+ T cells isolated from previously obese mice were transferred. Furthermore, depletion of CD4+ T cells led to obesity memory ablation. Taken together, we conclude that CD4+ T cells mediate obesity memory and promote weight regain.Cellular &Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 19 June 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.36.

  20. Inductively-overcoupled coil design for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bilgen, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background Maintaining the quality of magnetic resonance images acquired with the current implantable coil technology is challenging in longitudinal studies. To overcome this challenge, the principle of 'inductive overcoupling' is introduced as a method to tune and match a dual coil system. This system consists of an imaging coil built with fixed electrical elements and a matching coil equipped with tuning and matching capabilities. Overcoupling here refers to the condition beyond which the peak of the current in the imaging coil splits. Methods The combined coils are coupled inductively to operate like a transformer. Each coil circuit is electrically represented by equivalent lumped-elements. A theoretical analysis is given to identify the frequency response characteristics of the currents in each coil. The predictions from this analysis are translated into experiments and applied to locally image rat spinal cord at 9.4 T using an implantable coil as the imaging coil and an external volume coil as the matching coil. Results The theoretical analysis indicated that strong coupling between the coils divides the resonance peaks on the response curves of the currents. Once these newly generated peaks were tuned and matched to the desired frequency and impedance of operation, in vivo images were acquired from the rat spinal cord at high quality and high resolution. Conclusion After proper implementation, inductive overcoupling provides a unique opportunity for tuning and matching the coil system, and allows reliable and repeatable acquisitions of magnetic resonance data. This feature is likely to be useful in experimental studies, such as those aimed at longitudinally imaging the rat following spinal cord injury. PMID:16401343

  1. Improved Coil for Hydrogen Dissociators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, R.

    1984-01-01

    Flat coil has rigid printed circuit substrate. New coil structure minimizes RF electric field near glass walls of plasma vessel; therefore reduces direct electron bombardment of glass. Design lends itself well to high production and standardized dimensions.

  2. Pulse Test of Coil Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroy, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    Waveform of back-electromotive force reveals defects. Simple pulse test reveals defects in inductor coils. Devised for use on servovalve solenoid coils on Space Shuttle, test also applicable to transformer windings, chokes, relays, and the like.

  3. Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Tresa Rae

    2006-01-01

    The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

  4. Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Tresa Rae

    2006-01-01

    The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

  5. An orientable search coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, P. J.; Poblocki, M.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a design for a low cost orientable search coil that can be used to investigate the variation of magnetic flux with angle. This experiment is one of the required practical activities in the current A level physics specification for the AQA examination board in the UK. We demonstrate its performance and suggest other suitable investigations that can be undertaken.

  6. Wet Winding Improves Coil Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Wet-winding process encapsulates electrical coils more uniformily than conventional processes. Process requires no vacuum pump and adapts easily to existing winding machines. Encapsulant applied to each layer of wire as soon as added to coil. Wet-winding process eliminates voids, giving more uniformly encapsulated coil.

  7. Coiled tubing operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworsky, A.S. II )

    1991-11-01

    Coiled tubing offers many advantages over conventional jointed tubing used for drilling in oil fields, including time savings, pumping flexibility, fluid placement, reduced formation damage and safety. The article gives an overview of coiled tubing history and development. Operating concepts are explained, along with descriptions of the major equipment and components associated with coiled tubing use in the oil field today.

  8. Modular coils: a promising toroidal-reactor-coil system

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.K.; Furth, H.P.; Johnson, J.L.; Ludescher, C.; Weimer, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    The concept of modular coils originated from a need to find reactor-relevant stellarator windings, but its usefulness can be extended to provide an externally applied, additional rotational transform in tokamaks. Considerations of (1) basic principles of modular coils, (2) types of coils, (3) types of configurations (general, helically symmetric, helically asymmetric, with magnetic well, with magnetic hill), (4) types of rotational transform profile, and (5) structure and origin of ripples are given. These results show that modular coils can offer a wide range of vacuum magnetic field configurations, some of which cannot be obtained with the classical stellarator or torsatron coil configuration.

  9. Degradation analysis of REBCO coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, D. X.; Matsumoto, S.; Teranishi, R.; Ohmura, T.; Kiyoshi, T.; Otsuka, A.; Hamada, M.; Maeda, H.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Nakagome, H.; Suematsu, H.

    2014-08-01

    RE-Ba-Cu-O (REBCO) layer-wound coils were operated to investigate their properties under electromagnetic forces in an external magnetic field of up to 17.2 T. While REBCO coils were successfully operated under electromagnetic forces over 200 MPa, some showed degradation after quenching. To develop high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets, the reasons for the degradation of REBCO coils should be investigated. In this study, the degraded REBCO coils were carefully rewound. The critical current (Ic) of the rewound REBCO conductor was measured to check the damaged parts in the degraded REBCO coils, and the possible causes for the degradation were discussed.

  10. CD4 T-Cell Memory Generation and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Gasper, David J.; Tejera, Melba Marie; Suresh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic memory is the adaptive immune system's powerful ability to remember a previous antigen encounter and react with accelerated vigor upon antigen re-exposure. It provides durable protection against reinfection with pathogens and is the foundation for vaccine-induced immunity. Unlike the relatively restricted immunologic purview of memory B cells and CD8 T cells, the field of CD4 T-cell memory must account for multiple distinct lineages with diverse effector functions, the issue of lineage commitment and plasticity, and the variable distribution of memory cells within each lineage. Here, we discuss the evidence for lineage-specific CD4 T-cell memory and summarize the known factors contributing to memory-cell generation, plasticity, and long-term maintenance. PMID:24940912

  11. CD4 T-cell memory generation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Gasper, David J; Tejera, Melba Marie; Suresh, M

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic memory is the adaptive immune system's powerful ability to remember a previous antigen encounter and react with accelerated vigor upon antigen re-exposure. It provides durable protection against reinfection with pathogens and is the foundation for vaccine-induced immunity. Unlike the relatively restricted immunologic purview of memory B cells and CD8 T cells, the field of CD4 T-cell memory must account for multiple distinct lineages with diverse effector functions, the issue of lineage commitment and plasticity, and the variable distribution of memory cells within each lineage. Here, we discuss the evidence for lineage-specific CD4 T-cell memory and summarize the known factors contributing to memory-cell generation, plasticity, and long-term maintenance.

  12. Human CD4+ T Cell Response to Human Herpesvirus 6

    PubMed Central

    Nastke, Maria-D.; Becerra, Aniuska; Yin, Liusong; Dominguez-Amorocho, Omar; Gibson, Laura; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Following primary infection, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) establishes a persistent infection for life. HHV-6 reactivation has been associated with transplant rejection, delayed engraftment, encephalitis, muscular dystrophy, and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. The poor understanding of the targets and outcome of the cellular immune response to HHV-6 makes it difficult to outline the role of HHV-6 in human disease. To fill in this gap, we characterized CD4 T cell responses to HHV-6 using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and T cell lines generated from healthy donors. CD4+ T cells responding to HHV-6 in peripheral blood were observed at frequencies below 0.1% of total T cells but could be expanded easily in vitro. Analysis of cytokines in supernatants of PBMC and T cell cultures challenged with HHV-6 preparations indicated that gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were appropriate markers of the HHV-6 cellular response. Eleven CD4+ T cell epitopes, all but one derived from abundant virion components, were identified. The response was highly cross-reactive between HHV-6A and HHV-6B variants. Seven of the CD4+ T cell epitopes do not share significant homologies with other known human pathogens, including the closely related human viruses human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tetramers generated with these epitopes were able to detect HHV-6-specific T cell populations. These findings provide a window into the immune response to HHV-6 and provide a basis for tracking HHV-6 cellular immune responses. PMID:22357271

  13. Design of a conduction-cooled 9.4 T REBCO magnet for whole-body MRI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Iwai, Sadanori; Otani, Yasumi; Takahashi, Masahiko; Tosaka, Taizo; Tasaki, Kenji; Nomura, Shunji; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Ueda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, So; Ishiyama, Atsushi; Urayama, Shinichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2016-10-01

    A project on the development of REBa2Cu3O7-δ (REBCO) magnets for ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was started in 2013. Since REBCO-coated conductors feature high mechanical strength under tensile stress and high critical current density, use of REBCO coils would allow superconducting magnets to be made smaller and lighter than conventional ones. In addition, a conduction-cooled superconducting magnet is simpler to use than one cooled by a liquid helium bath because the operation and maintenance of the cryogenic system become simpler, without the need to handle cryogenic fluid. Superconducting magnets for MRI require homogeneous, stable magnetic fields. The homogeneity of the magnetic field is highly dependent on the coil shape and position. Moreover, in REBCO magnets, the screening-current-induced magnetic field, which changes the magnetic field distribution of the magnet, is one of the critical issues. In order to evaluate the magnetic field homogeneity and the screening-current-induced magnetic field, a 1 T model magnet and some test coils were fabricated. From an evaluation of the 1 T model magnet, it was found that the main reason for magnetic field inhomogeneity was the tolerances in the z-axis positions of the coils, and therefore, it is important to control the gap between the single pancakes. In addition, we have already demonstrated the generation of an 8.27 T central magnetic field at 10 K with a small test coil. The screening-current-induced magnetic field was 0.43 T and was predictable by using an electromagnetic field simulation program. These results were reflected in the design of a conduction-cooled 9.4 T REBCO magnet for whole-body MRI systems. The magnet was composed of six main coils and two active shield coils. The total conductor length was 581 km, and the stored energy was 293 kJ. The field inhomogeneity was 24 ppm peak to peak and 3 ppm volume-root-mean-square (VRMS) for a 500 mm diameter spherical volume (DSV). The axial

  14. CMS@home: Enabling Volunteer Computing Usage for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L.; Borras, H.; Spiga, D.; Riahi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Volunteer computing remains a largely untapped opportunistic resource for the LHC experiments. The use of virtualization in this domain was pioneered by the Test4Theory project and enabled the running of high energy particle physics simulations on home computers. This paper describes the model for CMS to run workloads using a similar volunteer computing platform. It is shown how the original approach is exploited to map onto the existing CMS workflow and identifies missing functionality along with the components and changes that are required. The final implementation of the prototype is detailed along with the identification of areas that would benefit from further development.

  15. An atlas of mouse CD4(+) T cell transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Stubbington, Michael Jt; Mahata, Bidesh; Svensson, Valentine; Deonarine, Andrew; Nissen, Jesper K; Betz, Alexander G; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2015-04-03

    CD4(+) T cells are key regulators of the adaptive immune system and can be divided into T helper (Th) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. During an immune response Th cells mature from a naive state into one of several effector subtypes that exhibit distinct functions. The transcriptional mechanisms that underlie the specific functional identity of CD4(+) T cells are not fully understood. To assist investigations into the transcriptional identity and regulatory processes of these cells we performed mRNA-sequencing on three murine T helper subtypes (Th1, Th2 and Th17) as well as on splenic Treg cells and induced Treg (iTreg) cells. Our integrated analysis of this dataset revealed the gene expression changes associated with these related but distinct cellular identities. Each cell subtype differentially expresses a wealth of 'subtype upregulated' genes, some of which are well known whilst others promise new insights into signalling processes and transcriptional regulation. We show that hundreds of genes are regulated purely by alternative splicing to extend our knowledge of the role of post-transcriptional regulation in cell differentiation. This CD4(+) transcriptome atlas provides a valuable resource for the study of CD4(+) T cell populations. To facilitate its use by others, we have made the data available in an easily accessible online resource at www.th-express.org.

  16. CD4+ T Cells: guardians of the phagosome.

    PubMed

    Tubo, Noah J; Jenkins, Marc K

    2014-04-01

    CD4(+) T cells are key cells of the adaptive immune system that use T cell antigen receptors to recognize peptides that are generated in endosomes or phagosomes and displayed on the host cell surface bound to major histocompatibility complex molecules. These T cells participate in immune responses that protect hosts from microbes such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Leishmania major, and Salmonella enterica, which have evolved to live in the phagosomes of macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we review studies indicating that CD4(+) T cells control phagosomal infections asymptomatically in most individuals by secreting cytokines that activate the microbicidal activities of infected phagocytes but in a way that inhibits the pathogen but does not eliminate it. Indeed, we make the case that localized, controlled, persistent infection is necessary to maintain large numbers of CD4(+) effector T cells in a state of activation needed to eradicate systemic and more pathogenic forms of the infection. Finally, we posit that current vaccines for phagosomal infections fail because they do not produce this "periodic reminder" form of CD4(+) T cell-mediated immune control.

  17. Cellular Plasticity of CD4+ T Cells in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Brucklacher-Waldert, Verena; Carr, Edward J.; Linterman, Michelle A.; Veldhoen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Barrier sites such as the gastrointestinal tract are in constant contact with the environment, which contains both beneficial and harmful components. The immune system at the epithelia must make the distinction between these components to balance tolerance, protection, and immunopathology. This is achieved via multifaceted immune recognition, highly organized lymphoid structures, and the interaction of many types of immune cells. The adaptive immune response in the gut is orchestrated by CD4+ helper T (Th) cells, which are integral to gut immunity. In recent years, it has become apparent that the functional identity of these Th cells is not as fixed as initially thought. Plasticity in differentiated T cell subsets has now been firmly established, in both health and disease. The gut, in particular, utilizes CD4+ T cell plasticity to mold CD4+ T cell phenotypes to maintain its finely poised balance of tolerance and inflammation and to encourage biodiversity within the enteric microbiome. In this review, we will discuss intestinal helper T cell plasticity and our current understanding of its mechanisms, including our growing knowledge of an evolutionarily ancient symbiosis between microbiota and malleable CD4+ T cell effectors. PMID:25339956

  18. Heterodimeric coiled-coil interactions of human GABAB receptor

    PubMed Central

    Burmakina, Svetlana; Geng, Yong; Chen, Yan; Fan, Qing R.

    2014-01-01

    Metabotropic GABAB receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS. It functions as an obligatory heterodimer of GABAB receptor 1 (GBR1) and GABAB receptor 2 (GBR2) subunits. The association between GBR1 and GBR2 masks an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal in the cytoplasmic region of GBR1 and facilitates cell surface expression of both subunits. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first crystal structure of an intracellular coiled-coil heterodimer of human GABAB receptor. We found that polar interactions buried within the hydrophobic core determine the specificity of heterodimer pairing. Disruption of the hydrophobic coiled-coil interface with single mutations in either subunit impairs surface expression of GBR1, confirming that the coiled-coil interaction is required to inactivate the adjacent ER retention signal of GBR1. The coiled-coil assembly buries an internalization motif of GBR1 at the heterodimer interface. The ER retention signal of GBR1 is not part of the core coiled-coil structure, suggesting that it is sterically shielded by GBR2 upon heterodimer formation. PMID:24778228

  19. Electrospun Buckling Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Reneker, Darrell

    2009-03-01

    Electrospinning offers a useful way to produce fibers with micron and nanometer scale diameter. The present work deals with the buckling phenomenon characteristic of a jet impinging upon the surface of collector. A viscous jet may have either tensile or compressive forces along its axis. The periodic buckling that is often observed is attributed to the occurrence of compressive forces as the jet decelerates at the collector. With the increase of axial compressive stresses along the jet, a jet with circular cross sections first buckles by formation of sharp folds, and then by formation of coils. The resulting buckling patterns include zigzag patterns and coils that which can be controlled by changing parameters, such as density, viscosity, conductivity, voltage, polymer concentration, distance and volumetric flow rate. Uniformly buckled polymer fibers can be made at a rate of one turn per microsecond. An experimental apparatus was built to continuously collect buckling coils of nylon 6, from a water surface, into a multilayer sheet. These small ``springs'' and sheets will be tested for mechanical properties needed in biomedical applications.

  20. The Recent Results from CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Jeong

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN sitting astride the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva has accumulated the proton and proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of around 5 fb-1 at the center of mass energy 7 TeV in 2011 and around 20 fb-1 at 8 TeV in 2012 with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. The CMS detector is designed to investigate the wide range of particle physics including testing perturbative QCD and searching for Brout-Englert-Higgs (BEH) boson as well as new physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model. Observation of a new boson has moved the phase from hunting for the SM BEH boson to evaluating the consistency of this new particle with the SM expectation. The latest results from the CMS collaboration will be presented.

  1. Upgrades for the CMS simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, D. J.; Hildreth, M.; Ivantchenko, V. N.; Osborne, I.

    2015-05-22

    Over the past several years, the CMS experiment has made significant changes to its detector simulation application. The geometry has been generalized to include modifications being made to the CMS detector for 2015 operations, as well as model improvements to the simulation geometry of the current CMS detector and the implementation of a number of approved and possible future detector configurations. These include both completely new tracker and calorimetry systems. We have completed the transition to Geant4 version 10, we have made significant progress in reducing the CPU resources required to run our Geant4 simulation. These have been achieved through both technical improvements and through numerical techniques. Substantial speed improvements have been achieved without changing the physics validation benchmarks that the experiment uses to validate our simulation application for use in production. As a result, we will discuss the methods that we implemented and the corresponding demonstrated performance improvements deployed for our 2015 simulation application.

  2. Magnetic resonance microscopy of spinal cord injury in mouse using a miniaturized implantable RF coil.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Mehmet

    2007-01-15

    A magnetic resonance neuroimaging method is described for high-resolution imaging of spinal cord injury in live mouse. The method is based on a specially designed radio frequency coil system formed by a combination of an implantable coil and an external volume coil. The implantable coil is a 5 mm x 10 mm rectangular design with a 9.1 pF capacitor and 22 gauge copper wire and optimal for surgical implantation over the cervical or thoracic spine. The external volume coil is a standard birdcage resonator. The coils are inductively overcoupled for imaging the spinal cord at 9.4 T magnetic field strength. The inductive overcoupling provides flexibility in tuning the resonant frequency and matching the impedance of the implanted coil remotely using the tuning and matching capabilities of the volume coil. After describing the implementation of the imaging setup, in vivo data are gathered to demonstrate the imaging performance of the coil system and the feasibility of performing MR microscopy on injured mouse spinal cord.

  3. A novel protein with anti-metastasis activity on 4T1 carcinoma from medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Yin, Yalin; Yu, Guojun; Jin, Yanxia; Ye, Xiangdong; Shrestha, Alok; Liu, Wei; Yu, Wenhui; Sun, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a famous fungus used in traditional Chinese medicine for nearly one thousand years. And its fruiting body is known to possess anticancer and immunomodulatory activities. This study describes the isolation, characterization, and test of antitumor activity of a C. militaris protein, called here as "C. militaris immunoregulatory protein" (CMIP). CMIP was purified through a three-step chromatographic procedure. The MS analyses showed that CMIP corresponded to an uncharacterized protein (CCM_01955) in the C. militaris transcriptional database. Circular dichroism of CMIP revealed the composition of 35.5% β-sheet, 18.5% α-helix, 17.0% turn and 29.0% random coil. No significant cytotoxicity of CMIP was observed on HeLa, HepG2 and 4T1 tumor cells. However, CMIP demonstrated anti-metastasis activity on a mouse model of 4T1 breast cancer lung metastasis. It reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung of tumor-bearing mice and prolonged their survival time. Furthermore, proliferation of the 4T1 cells was inhibited by macrophage-CMIP conditioned media. And the mRNA levels of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were increased significantly in peritoneal macrophages treated by CMIP. These results reveal the antitumor potential of CMIP, thus reinforcing the importance of biochemical prospecting of C. militaris.

  4. CMS-2 to Ada Translator Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    these translators, and to provide information to CMS -2 project managers to assist them in the evaluation of costs and risks of translating CMS -2 to Ada....The objective of this evaluation was to determine the maturity of the CMS -2 to Ada translators and associated tools, to determine the capabilities of

  5. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  6. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  7. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  8. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  9. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  10. The CMS DBS query language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Valentin; Riley, Daniel; Afaq, Anzar; Sekhri, Vijay; Guo, Yuyi; Lueking, Lee

    2010-04-01

    The CMS experiment has implemented a flexible and powerful system enabling users to find data within the CMS physics data catalog. The Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) comprises a database and the services used to store and access metadata related to CMS physics data. To this, we have added a generalized query system in addition to the existing web and programmatic interfaces to the DBS. This query system is based on a query language that hides the complexity of the underlying database structure by discovering the join conditions between database tables. This provides a way of querying the system that is simple and straightforward for CMS data managers and physicists to use without requiring knowledge of the database tables or keys. The DBS Query Language uses the ANTLR tool to build the input query parser and tokenizer, followed by a query builder that uses a graph representation of the DBS schema to construct the SQL query sent to underlying database. We will describe the design of the query system, provide details of the language components and overview of how this component fits into the overall data discovery system architecture.

  11. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  12. Designing with null flux coils

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, K.R.

    1997-09-01

    Null flux were suggested by Danby and Powell in the late 1960`s as a useful means for realizing induced lift with little drag. As an array of alternating magnets is translated past a set of null flux coils, the currents induced in these coils act to vertically center the magnets on those coils. At present, one Japanese MAGLEV system company and two American-based companies are employing either null flux or flux eliminating coils in their design for high speed magnetically levitated transportation. The principle question addressed in paper is: what is the proper choice of coil length to magnet length in a null flux system? A generic analysis in the time and frequency domain is laid out with the intent of showing the optimal design specification in terms of coil parameters.

  13. Radiofrequency Heating at 9.4T: In Vivo Temperature Measurement Results in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Devashish; Hanson, Timothy; Schlentz, Robert; Gallaghar, William; Snyder, Carl; DelaBarre, Lance; Prakash, Surya; Iaizzo, Paul; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In vivo temperatures were correlated to the whole head average specific absorption rate (SARavg) at 9.4T using 12 anesthetized swine (mean animal weight = 52 kg, standard deviation = 6.7 kg). Correlating the temperatures and SARavg is necessary to ensure safe levels of human heating during ultra-high field MR exams. The temperatures were measured at three depths inside the brain, in the rectum, and at the head-skin of swine. A 400 MHz, continuous wave RF power was deposited to the head using a volume coil. The SARavg values were varied between 2.7–5.8 W/kg. The RF power exposure durations were varied between 1.4 –3.7 hr. To differentiate the temperature response caused by the RF from that of the anesthesia, the temperatures were recorded in four unheated swine. To study the effect of the spatial distribution of the RF and tissue properties, the temperature probes were placed at two brain locations (n = 4 swine for each location). Results showed that the in vivo brain temperatures correlated to the SARavg in a geometry-dependent manner. Additionally, 1) the skin temperature change was not the maximum temperature change; 2) the RF heating caused an inhomogeneous brain temperature distribution; and 3) the maximum temperature occurred inside the brain. PMID:17969077

  14. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces HIPAA requirements to the extent warranted (as determined by CMS)...

  15. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces HIPAA requirements to the extent warranted (as determined by CMS)...

  16. Development of promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-expressing innate CD4 T cells requires stronger T-cell receptor signals than conventional CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yu; Zhu, Lingqiao; Sofi, Hanief; Lapinski, Philip E; Horai, Reiko; Mueller, Kristen; Stritesky, Gretta L; He, Xi; Teh, Hung-Sia; Wiest, David L; Kappes, Dietmar J; King, Philip D; Hogquist, Kristin A; Schwartzberg, Pamela L; Sant'Angelo, Derek B; Chang, Cheong-Hee

    2012-10-02

    MHC class II-expressing thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells can mediate CD4 T-cell selection resulting in functionally distinct thymocyte-selected CD4 (T-CD4) and epithelial-selected CD4 (E-CD4) T cells, respectively. However, little is known about how T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling influences the development of these two CD4 T-cell subsets. To study TCR signaling for T-CD4 T-cell development, we used a GFP reporter system of Nur77 in which GFP intensity directly correlates with TCR signaling strength. T-CD4 T cells expressed higher levels of GFP than E-CD4 T cells, suggesting that T-CD4 T cells received stronger TCR signaling than E-CD4 T cells during selection. Elimination of Ras GTPase-activating protein enhanced E-CD4 but decreased T-CD4 T-cell selection efficiency, suggesting a shift to negative selection. Conversely, the absence of IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase that causes poor E-CD4 T-cell selection due to insufficient TCR signaling improved T-CD4 T-cell generation, consistent with rescue from negative selection. Strong TCR signaling during T-CD4 T-cell development correlates with the expression of the transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein. However, although modulation of the signaling strength affected the efficiency of T-CD4 T-cell development during positive and negative selection, the signaling strength is not as important for the effector function of T-CD4 T cells. These findings indicate that innate T-CD4 T cells, together with invariant natural killer T cells and γδ T cells, receive strong TCR signals during their development and that signaling requirements for the development and the effector functions are distinct.

  17. Functional aortic stiffness: role of CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Beenish A; Eberson, Lance S; Tawinwung, Supannikar; Larmonier, Nicolas; Secomb, Timothy W; Larson, Douglas F

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is suggested to be essential in vascular remodeling and stiffening. To study the dependence upon lymphocytes in vascular stiffening, we compared an angiotensin II-model of vascular stiffening in normal C57BL/6J mice with lymphocyte-deficient RAG 1(-/-) mice and additionally characterized the component of vascular stiffness due to vasoconstriction vs. vascular remodeling. Chronic angiotensin II increased aortic pulse wave velocity, effective wall stiffness, and effective Young's modulus in C57BL/6J mice by three-fold but caused no change in the RAG 1(-/-) mice. These functional measurements were supported by aortic morphometric analysis. Adoptive transfer of CD4(+) T helper lymphocytes restored the angiotensin II-mediated aortic stiffening in the RAG 1(-/-) mice. In order to account for the hydraulic vs. material effects of angiotensin II on pulse wave velocity, subcutaneous osmotic pumps were removed after 21 days of angiotensin II-infusion in the WT mice to achieve normotensive values. The pulse wave velocity (PWV) decreased from three- to two-fold above baseline values up to 7 days following pump removal. This study supports the pivotal role of the CD4(+) T-lymphocytes in angiotensin II-mediated vascular stiffening and that angiotensin II-mediated aortic stiffening is due to the additive effect of active vascular smooth muscle vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling.

  18. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.L.; Stephens, R.K. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports on coiled tubing units which are used for many types of remedial well operations, including sand plugbacks, cement squeezes, fill cleanouts, underreaming, acid stimulations, and fishing. Fishing operations include removal of inflatable bridge plugs, lock mandrels stuck in profile nipples, coiled tubing, coiled tubing bottomhole assemblies (BHAs) and wireline. Recommended guidelines for selecting candidates, proper tool string configuration and operational techniques are presented here to assist coiled tubing supervisors and company representatives in the planning and implementation of efficient and effective fishing operations. Treatment of these areas are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather generally representative of common applications. Each fishing operation requires individualized analysis and planning.

  19. High resolution anatomical and quantitative MRI of the entire human occipital lobe ex vivo at 9.4T.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S; Fritz, F J; Harms, R L; Hildebrand, S; Tse, D H Y; Poser, B A; Goebel, R; Roebroeck, A

    2017-03-20

    Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasts are sensitive to myelin content in gray matter in vivo which has ignited ambitions of MRI-based in vivo cortical histology. Ultra-high field (UHF) MRI, at fields of 7T and beyond, is crucial to provide the resolution and contrast needed to sample contrasts over the depth of the cortex and get closer to layer resolved imaging. Ex vivo MRI of human post mortem samples is an important stepping stone to investigate MRI contrast in the cortex, validate it against histology techniques applied in situ to the same tissue, and investigate the resolutions needed to translate ex vivo findings to in vivo UHF MRI. Here, we investigate key technology to extend such UHF studies to large human brain samples while maintaining high resolution, which allows investigation of the layered architecture of several cortical areas over their entire 3D extent and their complete borders where architecture changes. A 16 channel cylindrical phased array radiofrequency (RF) receive coil was constructed to image a large post mortem occipital lobe sample (~80×80×80mm(3)) in a wide-bore 9.4T human scanner with the aim of achieving high-resolution anatomical and quantitative MR images. Compared with a human head coil at 9.4T, the maximum Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) was increased by a factor of about five in the peripheral cortex. Although the transmit profile with a circularly polarized transmit mode at 9.4T is relatively inhomogeneous over the large sample, this challenge was successfully resolved with parallel transmit using the kT-points method. Using this setup, we achieved 60μm anatomical images for the entire occipital lobe showing increased spatial definition of cortical details compared to lower resolutions. In addition, we were able to achieve sufficient control over SNR, B0 and B1 homogeneity and multi-contrast sampling to perform quantitative T2* mapping over the same volume at 200μm. Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling provided maximum

  20. Competition between Coiled-Coil Structures and the Impact on Myosin-10 Bundle Selection.

    PubMed

    Vavra, Kevin C; Xia, Youlin; Rock, Ronald S

    2016-06-07

    Coiled-coil fusions are a useful approach to enforce dimerization in protein engineering. However, the final structures of coiled-coil fusion proteins have received relatively little attention. Here, we determine the structural outcome of adjacent parallel and antiparallel coiled coils. The targets are coiled coils that stabilize myosin-10 in single-molecule biophysical studies. We reveal the solution structure of a short, antiparallel, myosin-10 coiled-coil fused to the parallel GCN4-p1 coiled coil. Surprisingly, this structure is a continuous, antiparallel coiled coil where GCN4-p1 pairs with myosin-10 rather than itself. We also show that longer myosin-10 segments in these parallel/antiparallel fusions are dynamic and do not fold cooperatively. Our data resolve conflicting results on myosin-10 selection of actin filament bundles, demonstrating the importance of understanding coiled-coil orientation and stability. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Triple Halo Coil: Development and Comparison with Other TMS Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, PTSD, TBI and anxiety by regulating synaptic activity. TMS is FDA approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a critical need to develop deep TMS coils that can stimulate deeper regions of the brain without excessively stimulating the cortex in order to provide an alternative to surgical methods. We have developed a novel multi-coil configuration called ``Triple Halo Coil'' (THC) that can stimulate deep brain regions. Investigation of induced electric and magnetic field in these regions have been achieved by computer modelling. Comparison of the results due to THC configuration have been conducted with other TMS coils such as ``Halo Coil'', circular coil and ``Figure of Eight'' coil. There was an improvement of more than 15 times in the strength of magnetic field, induced by THC configuration at 10 cm below the vertex of the head when compared with the ``Figure of Eight'' coil alone. Carver Charitable Trust.

  2. Status of CMS and B-physics with CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoigne, Yves; CMS Collaboration

    2000-07-01

    The present status of CMS, one of the major experimental facilities at the future LHC is presented. After a short description of the detector and its constituents, the main physics goals and performances of the experiment (Higgs, Supersymmetry, B-Physics) is presented with emphasis on B-physics. Detailed examples are given on sin2β measurement in B-physics, using the channel Bdo, ( overlineBdo) → {J}/{ψ}K So and tagging strategies are reviewed.

  3. Priming of CD4+ T cells and development of CD4+ T cell memory; lessons for malaria.

    PubMed

    Stephens, R; Langhorne, J

    2006-01-01

    CD4 T cells play a central role in the immune response to malaria. They are required to help B cells produce the antibody that is essential for parasite clearance. They also produce cytokines that amplify the phagocytic and parasitocidal response of the innate immune system, as well as dampening this response later on to limit immunopathology. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which T helper cells are activated and the requirements for development of specific, and effective, T cell memory and immunity is essential in the quest for a malaria vaccine. In this paper on the CD4 session of the Immunology of Malaria Infections meeting, we summarize discussions of CD4 cell priming and memory in malaria and in vaccination and outline critical future lines of investigation. B. Stockinger and M.K. Jenkins proposed cutting edge experimental systems to study basic T cell biology in malaria. Critical parameters in T cell activation include the cell types involved, the route of infection and the timing and location and cell types involved in antigen presentation. A new generation of vaccines that induce CD4 T cell activation and memory are being developed with new adjuvants. Studies of T cell memory focus on differentiation and factors involved in maintenance of antigen specific T cells and control of the size of that population. To improve detection of T cell memory in the field, efforts will have to be made to distinguish antigen-specific responses from cytokine driven responses.

  4. A Parallel Coiled-Coil Tetramer with Offset Helices

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,J.; Deng, Y.; Zheng, Q.; Cheng, C.; Kallenbach, N.; Lu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Specific helix-helix interactions are fundamental in assembling the native state of proteins and in protein-protein interfaces. Coiled coils afford a unique model system for elucidating principles of molecular recognition between {alpha} helices. The coiled-coil fold is specified by a characteristic seven amino acid repeat containing hydrophobic residues at the first (a) and fourth (d) positions. Nonpolar side chains spaced three and four residues apart are referred to as the 3-4 hydrophobic repeat. The presence of apolar amino acids at the e or g positions (corresponding to a 3-3-1 hydrophobic repeat) can provide new possibilities for close-packing of {alpha}-helices that includes examples such as the lac repressor tetramerization domain. Here we demonstrate that an unprecedented coiled-coil interface results from replacement of three charged residues at the e positions in the dimeric GCN4 leucine zipper by nonpolar valine side chains. Equilibrium circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation studies indicate that the valine-containing mutant forms a discrete {alpha}-helical tetramer with a significantly higher stability than the parent leucine-zipper molecule. The 1.35 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the tetramer reveals a parallel four-stranded coiled coil with a three-residue interhelical offset. The local packing geometry of the three hydrophobic positions in the tetramer conformation is completely different from that seen in classical tetrameric structures yet bears resemblance to that in three-stranded coiled coils. These studies demonstrate that distinct van der Waals interactions beyond the a and d side chains can generate a diverse set of helix-helix interfaces and three-dimensional supercoil structures.

  5. High-performance radiofrequency coils for (23)Na MRI: brain and musculoskeletal applications.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Graham C; Brown, Ryan; Lakshmanan, Karthik

    2016-02-01

    (23)Na RF coil design for brain and MSK applications presents a number of challenges, including poor coil loading for arrays of small coils and SNR penalties associated with providing (1)H capability with the same coil. The basics of RF coil design are described, as well as a review of historical approaches to dual tuning. There follows a review of published high performance coil designs for MSK and brain imaging. Several coil designs have been demonstrated at 7T and 3T which incorporate close-fitting receive arrays and in some cases design features which provide (1)H imaging with little penalty to (23)Na sensitivity. The "nested coplanar loop" approach is examined, in which small transmit-receive (1)H elements are placed within each (23)Na loop, presenting only a small perturbation to (23)Na performance and minimizing RF shielding issues. Other designs incorporating transmit-receive arrays for (23)Na and (1)H are discussed including a 9.4 T (23)Na/(1)H brain coil. Great gains in (23)Na SNR have been made with many of these designs, but simultaneously achieving high performance for 1H remains elusive.

  6. Control of inflammatory heart disease by CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Barin, Jobert G; Čiháková, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    This review focuses on autoimmune myocarditis and its sequela, inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMI), and the inflammatory and immune mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these diseases. Several mouse models of myocarditis and DCMI have improved our knowledge of the pathogenesis of these diseases, informing more general problems of cardiac remodeling and heart failure. CD4(+) T cells are critical in driving the pathogenesis of myocarditis. We discuss in detail the role of T helper cell subtypes in the pathogenesis of myocarditis, the biology of T cell-derived effector cytokines, and the participation of other leukocytic effectors in mediating disease pathophysiology. We discuss interactions between these subsets in both suppressive and collaborative fashions. These findings indicate that cardiac inflammatory disease, and autoimmunity in general, may be more diverse in divergent effector mechanisms than has previously been appreciated.

  7. Plasticity of Human CD4 T Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Geginat, Jens; Paroni, Moira; Maglie, Stefano; Alfen, Johanna Sophie; Kastirr, Ilko; Gruarin, Paola; De Simone, Marco; Pagani, Massimiliano; Abrignani, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to a variety of different pathogens, which induce tailored immune responses and consequently generate highly diverse populations of pathogen-specific T cells. CD4+ T cells have a central role in adaptive immunity, since they provide essential help for both cytotoxic T cell- and antibody-mediated responses. In addition, CD4+ regulatory T cells are required to maintain self-tolerance and to inhibit immune responses that could damage the host. Initially, two subsets of CD4+ helper T cells were identified that secrete characteristic effector cytokines and mediate responses against different types of pathogens, i.e., IFN-γ secreting Th1 cells that fight intracellular pathogens, and IL-4 producing Th2 cells that target extracellular parasites. It is now well established that this dichotomy is insufficient to describe the complexity of CD4+ T cell differentiation, and in particular the human CD4 compartment contains a myriad of T cell subsets with characteristic capacities to produce cytokines and to home to involved tissues. Moreover, it has become increasingly clear that these T cell subsets are not all terminally differentiated cells, but that the majority is plastic and that in particular central memory T cells can acquire different properties and functions in secondary immune responses. In addition, there is compelling evidence that helper T cells can acquire regulatory functions upon chronic stimulation in inflamed tissues. The plasticity of antigen-experienced human T cell subsets is highly relevant for translational medicine, since it opens new perspectives for immune-modulatory therapies for chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. PMID:25566245

  8. Replaceable Sleeve Protects Welder Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. L.; Simpson, C., E.

    1983-01-01

    New replaceable carbon insert for deflection coil in electron-beam welder promises to decrease maintenance costs. Inserts made from materials other than carbon (not yet tried) are less expensive, thus reducing costs even further. With carbon insert, deflection coils last longer and are easier to maintain.

  9. Collapse pressure of coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-09-01

    The collapse pressure is a measure of an external force required to collapse a tube in the absence of internal pressure. It is defined as the minimum pressure required to yield the tube in the absence of internal pressure. Coiled tubing is sometimes used in high-pressure wells. If the external pressure becomes too high, the coiled tubing will collapse. This could not only lead to serious well-control problems, but may result in extensive fishing operations. A reliable safety criterion of collapse pressure for the coiled tubing is needed by the coiled tubing operators. Theoretical models of collapse pressure are well developed for perfectly round coiled tubing but not for oval coiled tubing. Coiled tubing is initially manufactured with nearly perfect roundness, sometimes having a small ovality (typically {le} 0.5%). Perfectly round CT becomes oval owing to the plastic mechanical deformation of the coiled tubing as it spooled on and off the reel and over the gooseneck. As the cycling continues, the ovality usually increases. This ovality significantly decreases the collapse failure pressure as compared to perfectly round tubing. In this paper, an analytical model of collapse pressure for oval tubing under axial tension or compression is developed based on elastic instability theory and the von Mises criterion. The theoretical model shows satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  10. Replaceable Sleeve Protects Welder Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. L.; Simpson, C., E.

    1983-01-01

    New replaceable carbon insert for deflection coil in electron-beam welder promises to decrease maintenance costs. Inserts made from materials other than carbon (not yet tried) are less expensive, thus reducing costs even further. With carbon insert, deflection coils last longer and are easier to maintain.

  11. COIL technology development at Boeing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlock, Steve C.

    2002-05-01

    The historical COIL contributions at the McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratory, the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International and Boeing's Laser and Electro-Optic Systems organization are briefly described. The latter organization now contains the capabilities of the two heritage organizations. Boeing's new high pressure sealed COIL is also described.

  12. Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkel, J.A.; Biggs, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    The Magnet Coil Shorted Turn Detector has been developed to facilitate the location of shorted turns in magnet coils. Finding these shorted turns is necessary to determine failure modes that are a necessary step in developing future production techniques. Up to this point, coils with shorted turns had the insulation burned off without the fault having been located. This disassembly process destroyed any chance of being able to find the fault. In order to maintain a flux balance in a coupled system such as a magnet coil, the current in a shorted turn must be opposed to the incident current. If the direction of the current in each conductor can be measured relative to the incident current, then the exact location of the short can be determined. In this device, an AC voltage is applied to the magnet under test. A small hand held B-dot pickup coil monitors the magnetic field produced by current in the individual magnet conductors. The relative phase of this pickup coil voltage is compared to a reference signal derived from the input current to detect a current reversal as the B-dot pickup coil is swept over the conductors of the coil under test. This technique however, is limited to only those conductors that are accessible to the hand held probe.

  13. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  14. Virtual data in CMS production

    SciTech Connect

    Arbree, A. et al.

    2004-08-26

    Initial applications of the GriPhyN Chimera Virtual Data System have been performed within the context of CMS Production of Monte Carlo Simulated Data. The GriPhyN Chimera system consists of four primary components: (1) a Virtual Data Language, which is used to describe virtual data products, (2) a Virtual Data Catalog, which is used to store virtual data entries, (3) an Abstract Planner, which resolves all dependencies of a particular virtual data product and forms a location and existence independent plan, (4) a Concrete Planner, which maps an abstract, logical plan onto concrete, physical grid resources accounting for staging in/out files and publishing results to a replica location service. A CMS Workflow Planner, MCRunJob, is used to generate virtual data products using the Virtual Data Language. Subsequently, a prototype workflow manager, known as WorkRunner, is used to schedule the instantiation of virtual data products across a grid.

  15. CMS Web-Based Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Badgett, William; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maeshima, Kaori; Soha, Aron; Sulmanas, Balys; Wan, Zongru

    2010-01-01

    With the growth in size and complexity of High Energy Physics experiments, and the accompanying increase in the number of collaborators spread across the globe, the importance of widely relaying timely monitoring and status information has grown. To this end, we present online Web Based Monitoring solutions from the CMS experiment at CERN. The web tools developed present data to the user from many underlying heterogeneous sources, from real time messaging system to relational databases. We provide the power to combine and correlate data in both graphical and tabular formats of interest to the experimentalist, with data such as beam conditions, luminosity, trigger rates, detector conditions and many others, allowing for flexibility on the user side. We also present some examples of how this system has been used during CMS commissioning and early beam collision running at the Large Hadron Collider.

  16. The Coil Method in Contemporary Ceramics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigrosh, Leon I.

    1976-01-01

    For centuries coil building has been the primary method of making pottery the world over. Many classrooms still reflect this preference for symmetrical coil building. Describes coil building and what forms can be made from it. (Author/RK)

  17. Helically Coiled Graphene Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Maxime; Miao, Dandan; Lucotti, Andrea; Tommasini, Matteo; Morin, Jean-François

    2017-03-07

    Graphene is a zero-gap, semiconducting 2D material that exhibits outstanding charge-transport properties. One way to open a band gap and make graphene useful as a semiconducting material is to confine the electron delocalization in one dimension through the preparation of graphene nanoribbons (GNR). Although several methods have been reported so far, solution-phase, bottom-up synthesis is the most promising in terms of structural precision and large-scale production. Herein, we report the synthesis of a well-defined, helically coiled GNR from a polychlorinated poly(m-phenylene) through a regioselective photochemical cyclodehydrochlorination (CDHC) reaction. The structure of the helical GNR was confirmed by (1) H NMR, FT-IR, XPS, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. This Riemann surface-like GNR has a band gap of 2.15 eV and is highly emissive in the visible region, both in solution and the solid state.

  18. Upgrade of the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricomi, A.

    2014-03-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at the end of that decade. The foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. During the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016-2017 the pixel detector will be exchanged with a new one. The so-called Phase1 Pixel foresees one additional barrel layer and one additional end-cap disk, a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more efficient cooling and powering systems. In the so-called Phase2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) phase, CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the high-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

  19. Upgrades for the CMS simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Lange, D. J.; Hildreth, M.; Ivantchenko, V. N.; ...

    2015-05-22

    Over the past several years, the CMS experiment has made significant changes to its detector simulation application. The geometry has been generalized to include modifications being made to the CMS detector for 2015 operations, as well as model improvements to the simulation geometry of the current CMS detector and the implementation of a number of approved and possible future detector configurations. These include both completely new tracker and calorimetry systems. We have completed the transition to Geant4 version 10, we have made significant progress in reducing the CPU resources required to run our Geant4 simulation. These have been achieved throughmore » both technical improvements and through numerical techniques. Substantial speed improvements have been achieved without changing the physics validation benchmarks that the experiment uses to validate our simulation application for use in production. As a result, we will discuss the methods that we implemented and the corresponding demonstrated performance improvements deployed for our 2015 simulation application.« less

  20. The CMS integration grid testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Gregory E.

    2004-08-26

    The CMS Integration Grid Testbed (IGT) comprises USCMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 hardware at the following sites: the California Institute of Technology, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of California at San Diego, and the University of Florida at Gainesville. The IGT runs jobs using the Globus Toolkit with a DAGMan and Condor-G front end. The virtual organization (VO) is managed using VO management scripts from the European Data Grid (EDG). Gridwide monitoring is accomplished using local tools such as Ganglia interfaced into the Globus Metadata Directory Service (MDS) and the agent based Mona Lisa. Domain specific software is packaged and installed using the Distribution After Release (DAR) tool of CMS, while middleware under the auspices of the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT) is distributed using Pacman. During a continuous two month span in Fall of 2002, over 1 million official CMS GEANT based Monte Carlo events were generated and returned to CERN for analysis while being demonstrated at SC2002. In this paper, we describe the process that led to one of the world's first continuously available, functioning grids.

  1. Protein detection by Western blot via coiled-coil interactions.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Cyril; St-Laurent, Gilles; Jolicoeur, Mario; Crescenzo, Gregory De; Durocher, Yves

    2010-04-01

    We propose an approach for the detection of proteins by Western blot that takes advantage of the high-affinity interaction occurring between two de novo designed peptides, the E and K coils. As a model system, K coil-tagged epidermal growth factor (EGF) was revealed with secreted alkaline phosphatase (SeAP) tagged with E coil (SeAP-Ecoil) as well as with biotinylated E coil. In that respect, we first produced purified SeAP-Ecoil and verified its ability to interact with K coil peptides by surface plasmon resonance biosensing. We demonstrated that protein detection with Ecoil-biotin was more specific than with SeAP-Ecoil. We then showed that our approach is as sensitive as conventional detection strategies relying on nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid-horseradish peroxidase (Ni-NTA-HRP), anti-His-HRP, or anti-EGF. Altogether, our results indicate that the E/K coiled-coil system is a good alternative for protein detection by Western blot. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural and biochemical characterizations of an intramolecular tandem coiled coil protein.

    PubMed

    Shin, Donghyuk; Kim, Gwanho; Kim, Gyuhee; Zheng, Xu; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Lee, Sangho

    2014-12-12

    Coiled coil has served as an excellent model system for studying protein folding and developing protein-based biomaterials. Most designed coiled coils function as oligomers, namely intermolecular coiled coils. However, less is known about structural and biochemical behavior of intramolecular coiled coils where coiled coil domains are covalently linked in one polypeptide. Here we prepare a protein which harbors three coiled coil domains with two short linkers, termed intramolecular tandem coiled coil (ITCC) and characterize its structural and biochemical behavior in solution. ITCC consists of three coiled coil domains whose sequences are derived from Coil-Ser and its domain swapped dimer. Modifications include positioning E (Glu) residue at "e" and K (Lys) at "g" positions throughout heptad repeats to enhance ionic interaction among its constituent coiled coil domains. Molecular modeling of ITCC suggests a compact triple helical bundle structure with the second and the third coiled coil domains forming a canonical coiled coil. ITCC exists as a mixture of monomeric and dimeric species in solution. Small-angle X-ray scattering reveals ellipsoidal molecular envelopes for both dimeric and monomeric ITCC in solution. The theoretically modeled structures of ITCC dock well into the envelopes of both species. Higher ionic strength shifts the equilibrium into monomer with apparently more compact structure while secondary structure remains unchanged. Taken together, our results suggest that our designed ITCC is predominantly monomeric structure through the enhanced ionic interactions, and its conformation is affected by the concentration of ionic species in the buffer.

  3. Transporters for Antiretroviral Drugs in Colorectal CD4+ T Cells and Circulating α4β7 Integrin CD4+ T Cells: Implications for HIV Microbicides.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Murray, Graeme I; Duncan, Linda; Yuecel, Raif; Shattock, Robin; Kelly, Charles; Iannelli, Francesco; Pozzi, Gianni; El-Omar, Emad M; Hold, Georgina L; Hijazi, Karolin

    2016-09-06

    CD4+ T lymphocytes in the colorectal mucosa are key in HIV-1 transmission and dissemination. As such they are also the primary target for antiretroviral (ARV)-based rectal microbicides for pre-exposure prophylaxis. Drug transporters expressed in mucosal CD4+ T cells determine ARV distribution across the cell membrane and, most likely, efficacy of microbicides. We describe transporters for antiretroviral drugs in colorectal mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes and compare gene expression with circulating α4β7+CD4+ T cells, which traffic to the intestine and have been shown to be preferentially infected by HIV-1. Purified total CD4+ T cells were obtained from colorectal tissue and blood samples by magnetic separation. CD4+ T cells expressing α4β7 integrin were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers. Expressions of 15 efflux and uptake drug transporter genes were quantified using Taqman qPCR assays. Expression of efflux transporters MRP3, MRP5, and BCRP and uptake transporter CNT2 were significantly higher in colorectal CD4+ T cells compared to circulating CD4+ T cells (p = 0.01-0.03). Conversely, circulating α4β7+CD4+ T cells demonstrated significantly higher expression of OATPD compared to colorectal CD4+ T cells (p = 0.001). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of drug transporter gene expression in colorectal CD4+ and peripheral α4β7+CD4+ T cells. The qualitative and quantitative differences in drug transporter gene expression profiles between α4β7+CD4+ T cells and total mucosal CD4+ T cells may have significant implications for the efficacy of rectally delivered ARV-microbicides. Most notably, we have identified efflux drug transporters that could be targeted by selective inhibitors or beneficial drug-drug interactions to enhance intracellular accumulation of antiretroviral drugs.

  4. The evolution and structure prediction of coiled coils across all genomes.

    PubMed

    Rackham, Owen J L; Madera, Martin; Armstrong, Craig T; Vincent, Thomas L; Woolfson, Derek N; Gough, Julian

    2010-10-29

    Coiled coils are α-helical interactions found in many natural proteins. Various sequence-based coiled-coil predictors are available, but key issues remain: oligomeric state and protein-protein interface prediction and extension to all genomes. We present SpiriCoil (http://supfam.org/SUPERFAMILY/spiricoil), which is based on a novel approach to the coiled-coil prediction problem for coiled coils that fall into known superfamilies: hundreds of hidden Markov models representing coiled-coil-containing domain families. Using whole domains gives the advantage that sequences flanking the coiled coils help. SpiriCoil performs at least as well as existing methods at detecting coiled coils and significantly advances the state of the art for oligomer state prediction. SpiriCoil has been run on over 16 million sequences, including all completely sequenced genomes (more than 1200), and a resulting Web interface supplies data downloads, alignments, scores, oligomeric state classifications, three-dimensional homology models and visualisation. This has allowed, for the first time, a genomewide analysis of coiled-coil evolution. We found that coiled coils have arisen independently de novo well over a hundred times, and these are observed in 16 different oligomeric states. Coiled coils in almost all oligomeric states were present in the last universal common ancestor of life. The vast majority of occasions that individual coiled coils have arisen de novo were before the last universal common ancestor of life; we do, however, observe scattered instances throughout subsequent evolutionary history, mostly in the formation of the eukaryote superkingdom. Coiled coils do not change their oligomeric state over evolution and did not evolve from the rearrangement of existing helices in proteins; coiled coils were forged in unison with the fold of the whole protein. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coiled tubing - Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Gronseth, J.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Drilling with a continuous (rather than jointed) drill string is an old concept that is gaining new attention as a result of recent advances made in coiled tubing and drilling technology. The development of larger diameter, reliable, high-strength coiled tubing and smaller diameter, positive displacement motors, orienting tools, surveying systems and fixed cutting drill bits have given drilling with a continuous drill string a capability that was previously unattainable. Like its many other uses, (e.g., squeeze cementing, wellbore cleanouts, flow initiation, logging) the continuity of coiled tubing gives it several advantages over conventional drill strings. These include: drilling underbalanced safely, significantly reduced trip time, continuous circulation, smaller surface requirements. Coiled tubing drilling operations have smaller surface lease requirements than most conventional rigs due to the smaller footprint of the coiled tubing unit and associated equipment. Current coiled tubing drilling operations have the following limitations: conventional rig assistance is required for well preparation; conventional rigs must assist in running long protective and production casing strings or liners; hole sizes are smaller; working depth capabilities are shallower, coiled tubing life is less. This paper goes on to discuss the history of continuous drill strings and includes information on tubing units, circulating systems, drilling fluids, well control systems, downhole tools, orientation tools, and bottomhole assemblies. It then gives a cost comparison and an application of this type of drilling.

  6. Optimized quadrature surface coil designs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ananda; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Quadrature surface MRI/MRS detectors comprised of circular loop and figure-8 or butterfly-shaped coils offer improved signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR) compared to single surface coils, and reduced power and specific absorption rates (SAR) when used for MRI excitation. While the radius of the optimum loop coil for performing MRI at depth d in a sample is known, the optimum geometry for figure-8 and butterfly coils is not. Materials and methods The geometries of figure-8 and square butterfly detector coils that deliver the optimum SNR are determined numerically by the electromagnetic method of moments. Figure-8 and loop detectors are then combined to create SNR-optimized quadrature detectors whose theoretical and experimental SNR performance are compared with a novel quadrature detector comprised of a strip and a loop, and with two overlapped loops optimized for the same depth at 3 T. The quadrature detection efficiency and local SAR during transmission for the three quadrature configurations are analyzed and compared. Results The SNR-optimized figure-8 detector has loop radius r8 ∼ 0.6d, so r8/r0 ∼ 1.3 in an optimized quadrature detector at 3 T. The optimized butterfly coil has side length ∼ d and crossover angle of ≥ 150° at the center. Conclusions These new design rules for figure-8 and butterfly coils optimize their performance as linear and quadrature detectors. PMID:18057975

  7. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls regulatory CD4+ T cell function.

    PubMed

    Pot, Caroline

    2012-05-31

    The ligand activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been studied for many decades in toxicology as the ligand for the environmental contaminant dioxin. However, AhR has recently emerged as a critical physiological regulator of immune responses affecting both innate and adaptive systems, and several AhR ligands with different pharmacological profiles have recently been studied. The current review discusses new insights into the role of AhR signalling and AhR ligands on the regulation of the immune system, with a focus on regulatory T cells which maintain immune tolerance. Notably, AhR is expressed and modulates the development of two induced regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets, the forkhead box P3-positive (Foxp3+) regulatory T cells (iTreg) and the IL-10-secreting type 1 regulatory T (T(R)1) cells, through different signalling pathways. We will finally discuss how AhR ligands could be exploited to alleviate human autoimmune diseases. Clearly, drugs targeted against AhR should promote the development of new strategies to fight against autoimmune diseases.

  8. Improved Sensing Coils for SQUIDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob; Eom, Byeong Ho

    2007-01-01

    An improvement in the design and fabrication of sensing coils of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers has been proposed to increase sensitivity. It has been estimated that, in some cases, it would be possible to increase sensitivity by about half or to reduce measurement time correspondingly. The pertinent aspects of the problems of design and fabrication can be summarized as follows: In general, to increase the sensitivity of a SQUID magnetometer, it is necessary to maximize the magnetic flux enclosed by the sensing coil while minimizing the self-inductance of this coil. It is often beneficial to fabricate the coil from a thicker wire to reduce its self-inductance. Moreover, to optimize the design of the coil with respect to sensitivity, it may be necessary to shape the wire to other than a commonly available circular or square cross-section. On the other hand, it is not practical to use thicker superconducting wire for the entire superconducting circuit, especially if the design of a specific device requires a persistent-current loop enclosing a remotely placed SQUID sensor. It may be possible to bond a thicker sensing-coil wire to thinner superconducting wires leading to a SQUID sensor, but it could be difficult to ensure reliable superconducting connections, especially if the bonded wires are made of different materials. The main idea is to mold the sensing coil in place, to more nearly optimum cross sectional shape, instead of making the coil by winding standard pre-fabricated wire. For this purpose, a thin superconducting wire loop that is an essential part of the SQUID magnetometer would be encapsulated in a form that would serve as a mold. A low-melting-temperature superconducting metal (e.g., indium, tin, or a lead/tin alloy) would be melted into the form, which would be sized and shaped to impart the required cross section to the coil thus formed.

  9. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dick

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  10. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  11. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Finally, we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  12. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    DOE PAGES

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enablemore » access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Finally, we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.« less

  13. Cross-linking reveals laminin coiled-coil architecture

    PubMed Central

    Armony, Gad; Jacob, Etai; Moran, Toot; Levin, Yishai; Mehlman, Tevie; Levy, Yaakov; Fass, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Laminin, an ∼800-kDa heterotrimeric protein, is a major functional component of the extracellular matrix, contributing to tissue development and maintenance. The unique architecture of laminin is not currently amenable to determination at high resolution, as its flexible and narrow segments complicate both crystallization and single-particle reconstruction by electron microscopy. Therefore, we used cross-linking and MS, evaluated using computational methods, to address key questions regarding laminin quaternary structure. This approach was particularly well suited to the ∼750-Å coiled coil that mediates trimer assembly, and our results support revision of the subunit order typically presented in laminin schematics. Furthermore, information on the subunit register in the coiled coil and cross-links to downstream domains provide insights into the self-assembly required for interaction with other extracellular matrix and cell surface proteins. PMID:27815530

  14. Limited CD4+ T cell proliferation leads to preservation of CD4+ T cell counts in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ming Liang; Petravic, Janka; Ortiz, Alexandra M; Engram, Jessica; Paiardini, Mirko; Cromer, Deborah; Silvestri, Guido; Davenport, Miles P

    2010-12-22

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections result in chronic virus replication and progressive depletion of CD4+ T cells, leading to immunodeficiency and death. In contrast, 'natural hosts' of SIV experience persistent infection with high virus replication but no severe CD4+ T cell depletion, and remain AIDS-free. One important difference between pathogenic and non-pathogenic infections is the level of activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. We analysed the relationship between CD4+ T cell number and proliferation in HIV, pathogenic SIV in macaques, and non-pathogenic SIV in sooty mangabeys (SMs) and mandrills. We found that CD4+ T cell proliferation was negatively correlated with CD4+ T cell number, suggesting that animals respond to the loss of CD4+ T cells by increasing the proliferation of remaining cells. However, the level of proliferation seen in pathogenic infections (SIV in rhesus macaques and HIV) was much greater than in non-pathogenic infections (SMs and mandrills). We then used a modelling approach to understand how the host proliferative response to CD4+ T cell depletion may impact the outcome of infection. This modelling demonstrates that the rapid proliferation of CD4+ T cells in humans and macaques associated with low CD4+ T cell levels can act to 'fuel the fire' of infection by providing more proliferating cells for infection. Natural host species, on the other hand, have limited proliferation of CD4+ T cells at low CD4+ T cell levels, which allows them to restrict the number of proliferating cells susceptible to infection.

  15. Laminated magnet field coil sheath

    DOEpatents

    Skaritka, J.R.

    1987-05-15

    A method for manufacturing a magnetic cable trim coil in a sheath assembly for use in a cryogenic particle accelerator. A precisely positioned pattern of trim coil turns is bonded to a flexible substrate sheath that is capable of withstanding cryogenic operating conditions. In the method of the invention the flexible substrate sheath, with the trim coil pattern precisely location relative to a bore tube assembly of an accelerator and is then bonded to the bore tube with a tape suitable for cryogenic application. The resultant assembly can be readily handled and installed within an iron magnet yoke assembly of a suitable cryogenic particle accelerator. 1 fig.

  16. Coiling of a viscous filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, A. D. T.; Ryu, W. S.; Mahadevan, L.

    1997-11-01

    A classic demonstration of fluid buckling is a daily occurence at the breakfast table, where a continuous stream of viscous fluid (honey) is often poured onto a flat surface (toast) from a sufficient height. The thin fluid filament quickly settles into a steady state; near the surface it bends into a helical shape while simultaneously rotating about the vertical and is laid out in a regular coil. This behavior is reminiscent of the coiling of a falling flexible rope. We derive a simple scaling law that predicts the coiling frequency in terms of the filament radius and the flow rate. We also verify this scaling law with the results of experiments.

  17. Coiled tubing. operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, C.M. )

    1992-11-01

    Coiled tubing is being used with increasing frequency in conventional or traditional production operations. Demand for coiled pipe in these types of applications is expected to experience rapid growth as standard 2 (3/8) and 2 (7/8)-in. OD tubing sizes and units equipped to run larger pipe become more readily available. This paper reports on a recent market survey which indicated that coiled tubing used for velocity strings and standard production tubing installations are two areas with the most potential for immediate and near-term expansion. Other applications include: well casing and liners, gravel packing, artificial lift, flowlines and pipelines.

  18. Laminated magnet field coil sheath

    DOEpatents

    Skaritka, John R.

    1987-12-01

    a method for manufacturing a magnet cable trim coil in a sheath assembly for use in a cryogenic particle accelerator. A precisely positioned pattern of trim coil turns is bonded to a flexible substrate sheath that is capable of withstanding cryogenic operating conditions. In the method of the invention the flexible sheath, with the trim coil pattern precisely positioned thereon, is accurately positioned at a precise location relative to a bore tube assembly of an accelerator and is then bonded to the bore tube with a tape suitable for cryogenic application. The resultant assembly can be readily handled and installed within an iron magnet yoke assembly of a suitable cryogenic particle accelerator.

  19. Laminated magnet field coil sheath

    DOEpatents

    Skaritka, John R.

    1987-12-01

    a method for manufacturing a magnet cable trim coil in a sheath assembly for use in a cryogenic particle accelerator. A precisely positioned pattern of trim coil turns is bonded to a flexible substrate sheath that is capable of withstanding cryogenic operating conditions. In the method of the invention the flexible sheath, with the trim coil pattern precisely positioned thereon, is accurately positioned at a precise location relative to a bore tube assembly of an accelerator and is then bonded to the bore tube with a tape suitable for cryogenic application. The resultant assembly can be readily handled and installed within an iron magnet yoke assembly of a suitable cryogenic particle accelerator.

  20. Coastal Modeling System (CMS) Users Manuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    AD-A268 830 , INSTRUCTION REPORT CERC-91-1 COASTAL MODELING SYSTEM ( CMS ) USER’S MANUAL by Mary A. Cialone, David J. Mark, Lucia W. Chou, David A...THE COASTAL MODELING SYSTEM USER’S MANUAL Supplement 1 Issued August 1992 Enclosed are additions and corrections to the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ...COVERED1 August 1992 Supplement I to September 1991 Manual 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) User’s Manual WU

  1. The CMS Journey to LHC Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An overview of the design, the construction and physics of CMS will be given. A history of construction, encompassing the R&D; and challenges faced over the last decade and a half, will be recalled using selected examples. CMS is currently in the final stages of installation and commissioning is gathering pace. After a short status report of where CMS stands today some of the expected (great) physics to come will be outlined. * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  2. The CMS Journey to LHC Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-09

    An overview of the design, the construction and physics of CMS will be given. A history of construction, encompassing the R&D; and challenges faced over the last decade and a half, will be recalled using selected examples. CMS is currently in the final stages of installation and commissioning is gathering pace. After a short status report of where CMS stands today some of the expected (great) physics to come will be outlined. * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  3. 42 CFR 422.510 - Termination of contract by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Termination of contract by CMS. 422.510 Section 422... Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.510 Termination of contract by CMS. (a) Termination by CMS. CMS may at any time terminate a contract if CMS determines that the MA organization meets any of...

  4. 42 CFR 422.510 - Termination of contract by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Termination of contract by CMS. 422.510 Section 422... Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.510 Termination of contract by CMS. (a) Termination by CMS. CMS may at any time terminate a contract if CMS determines that the MA organization meets any of...

  5. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces PHS Act requirement to the extent warranted (as determined by...

  6. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces PHS Act requirement to the extent warranted (as determined by...

  7. Optimum coupling and multimode excitation of traveling-waves in a whole-body 9.4T scanner.

    PubMed

    Geschewski, Frank H; Brenner, Daniel; Felder, Jörg; Shah, N Jon

    2013-06-01

    Given the absence of a body coil, the radio frequency screen of a whole-body 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging scanner can be used as a circular waveguide. In the unloaded case, the screen allows propagation of the dominant TE11- as well as the TM01-mode. In the first part of this study, the optimum coupling of a circular polarized TE11-mode was determined empirically for excitation and reception with a rectangular patch antenna. Employing full-wave simulations, two simulation models and two phantoms, different patch positions were tested to find the optimum position with respect to coupled power and homogenous excitation field. The best simulation results were validated with measurements. The second part of this study describes the design and measurements of a multimode excitation device. Using the parallel transmit system of the MR scanner, all propagable traveling wave modes could be excited and detected independently. The performance of the multimode device related to field of view, B1+-efficiency and radio frequency shimming was assessed by phantom measurements. Initial results show that three modes are sufficient to homogeneously excite regions of interest at 9.4 T. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. High-resolution structures of a heterochiral coiled coil

    DOE PAGES

    Mortenson, David E.; Steinkruger, Jay D.; Kreitler, Dale F.; ...

    2015-10-12

    Interactions between polypeptide chains containing amino acid residues with opposite absolute configurations have long been a source of interest and speculation, but there is very little structural information for such heterochiral associations. The need to address this lacuna has grown in recent years because of increasing interest in the use of peptides generated from D amino acids (D peptides) as specific ligands for natural proteins, e.g., to inhibit deleterious protein–protein interactions. Coiled–coil interactions, between or among α-helices, represent the most common tertiary and quaternary packing motif in proteins. Heterochiral coiled–coil interactions were predicted over 50 years ago by Crick, andmore » limited experimental data obtained in solution suggest that such interactions can indeed occur. To address the dearth of atomic-level structural characterization of heterochiral helix pairings, we report in this paper two independent crystal structures that elucidate coiled-coil packing between L- and D-peptide helices. Both structures resulted from racemic crystallization of a peptide corresponding to the transmembrane segment of the influenza M2 protein. Networks of canonical knobs-into-holes side-chain packing interactions are observed at each helical interface. Finally, however, the underlying patterns for these heterochiral coiled coils seem to deviate from the heptad sequence repeat that is characteristic of most homochiral analogs, with an apparent preference for a hendecad repeat pattern.« less

  9. Hydrophobic core packing and backbone flexibility in coiled coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plecs, Joseph John

    1999-11-01

    An understanding of the structure and function of protein molecules requires an understanding of how their hydrophobic cores are assembled, including how the peptide backbone can adjust to accommodate different packing arrangements. Using coiled-coil molecules as a model of protein structures, we studied several cases in which the arrangement of packing groups in the hydrophobic core controls the structure of a folded molecule. First, we consider an example of a prosthetic packing group, where the addition of a hydrophobic ligand permits a new packing arrangement that incorporates the ligand, leading to a new overall structure. Second, the crystal structures of two peptides designed to adopt a novel fold, the right-handed coiled coils, reveal how a small change in core packing can discriminate between two different folds. And last, the design of heterodimers based on core-packing complementarity establishes that core packing can convey specificity of association between different molecules, as well as determining the molecular structure. The heterodimer designs also demonstrate the importance of a combination of backbone freedom and restriction in predicting the energetics of folded molecules. In this case, a parametrized coiled- coil backbone with appropriate parameters and restrictions was required to predict stabilities. We conclude that core packing can exert a great deal of control over the structure of proteins, and that many of its effects can be accurately predicted by modeling the molecular interactions in the context of a flexible overall structure.

  10. MACSYMA at CMS. Version 309.3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    these examples are quite complicated. 1.1 Invoking Macsyma To use Macsvma on the CMS VAX you must first log in to the computer (see the System Manager ...1.8 C MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANOARDS-1963-A % JoI *ur~FILE LJ2 rCMS Technical Summary Report #88-3 f% MACSYMA AT CMS ...MACSYMA AT CMS . VERSION 309.3 Distribution/ W. Hereman, Y. Nagel and J. Strikwerda AvaIlcblflty Cces Technical Summary Report #88-3 ’Dist Sr~ci

  11. ASTROMAG coil cooling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maytal, Ben-Zion; Vansciver, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    ASTROMAG is a planned particle astrophysics magnetic facility. Basically it is a large magnetic spectrometer outside the Earth's atmosphere for an extended period of time in orbit on a space station. A definition team summarized its scientific objectives assumably related to fundamental questions of astrophysics, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. Since magnetic induction of about 7 Tesla is desired, it is planned to be a superconducting magnet cooled to liquid helium 2 temperatures. The general structure of ASTROMAG is based on: (1) two superconducting magnetic coils, (2) dewar of liquid helium 2 to provide cooling capability for the magnets; (3) instrumentation, matter-anti matter spectrometer (MAS) and cosmic ray isotope spectrometer (CRIS); and (4) interfaces to the shuttle and space station. Many configurations of the superconducting magnets and the dewar were proposed and evaluated, since those are the heart of the ASTROMAG. Baseline of the magnet configuration and cryostat as presented in the phase A study and the one kept in mind while doing the present study are presented. ASTROMAG's development schedule reflects the plan of launching to the space station in 1995.

  12. Conditions That Induce Tolerance in Mature CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Astrid; Bona, Constantin; von Boehmer, Harald; Sarukhan, Adelaida

    1997-01-01

    Establishment of antigen-specific tolerance among mature T cells has been a long debated, yet poorly understood issue. In this study we have used transgenic mice bearing a class II–restricted TCR specific for the hemmagglutinin of the influenza virus in order to test the behavior of CD4+ T cells upon exposure to antigen in different forms and doses. We first studied the fate of T cells expressing the transgenic TCR (6.5) in double transgenic mice where HA was expressed as a self antigen by hemapoietic cells. In these mice, we found some mature T cells in periphery that had escaped thymic deletion and that showed signs of activation but which were anergic. Mature CD4+6.5+ cells that were transferred into antigen-containing recipients went through an initial phase of expansion after which most cells were deleted and those remaining became unresponsive, as previously described for CD8+ cells. Inducing tolerance in CD4+6.5+ cells in situ in single transgenic mice proved a difficult task: classical protocols using single doses of soluble or deaggregated antigen as well as feeding antigen all failed to induce antigen-specific unresponsiveness. It was only after decreasing cell numbers by CD4 antibody treatment and by repeatedly reintroducing antigen thereafter that unresponsiveness of 6.5+ cells was achieved and maintained. In no case could we observe the appearance of antigen-specific T cells with a Th2 cytokine profile among the remaining cells and therefore conclude that deletion and anergy represent the major mechanisms of tolerance in our studies. PMID:9053441

  13. Zero-angle helical coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troendle, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Device is constructed of bimetallic stock material formed into segments of small diameters and fastened together by metal strips. Coil is useful in various types of actuators, such as temperature controls.

  14. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  15. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  16. Nylon screws make inexpensive coil forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aucoin, G.; Rosenthal, C.

    1978-01-01

    Standard nylon screws act as coil form copper wire laid down in spiral thread. Completed coil may be bonded to printed-circuit board. However, it is impossible to tune coil by adjusting spacing between windings, technique sometimes used with air-core coils.

  17. Nylon screws make inexpensive coil forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aucoin, G.; Rosenthal, C.

    1978-01-01

    Standard nylon screws act as coil form copper wire laid down in spiral thread. Completed coil may be bonded to printed-circuit board. However, it is impossible to tune coil by adjusting spacing between windings, technique sometimes used with air-core coils.

  18. Dynamics of liquid rope coiling.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mehdi; Maleki, Maniya; Golestanian, Ramin; Ribe, Neil M; Bonn, Daniel

    2006-12-01

    We present a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the coiling of a liquid "rope" falling on a solid surface, focusing on three little-explored aspects of the phenomenon: The time dependence of "inertio-gravitational" coiling, the systematic dependence of the radii of the coil and the rope on the experimental parameters, and the "secondary buckling" of the columnar structure generated by high-frequency coiling. Inertio-gravitational coiling is characterized by oscillations between states with different frequencies, and we present experimental observations of four distinct branches of such states in the frequency-fall height space. The transitions between coexisting states have no characteristic period, may take place with or without a change in the sense of rotation, and usually (but not always) occur via an intermediate "figure of eight" state. We present extensive laboratory measurements of the radii of the coil and of the rope within it, and show that they agree well with the predictions of a "slender-rope" numerical model. Finally, we use dimensional analysis to reveal a systematic variation of the critical column height for secondary buckling as a function of (dimensionless) flow rate and surface tension parameters.

  19. Equilibrium field coil concepts for INTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Brown, T.G.

    1981-08-01

    Methods are presented for reducing ampere-turn requirements in the EF coil system. It is shown that coil currents in an EF coil system external to the toroidal field coils can be substantially reduced by relaxing the triangularity of a D-shaped plasma. Further reductions are realized through a hybrid EF coil system using both internal and external coils. Equilibrium field coils for a poloidally asymmetric, single-null INTOR configuration are presented. It is shown that the shape of field lines in the plasma scrapeoff region and divertor channel improves as triangularity is reduced, but it does so at the possible expense of achievable stable beta values.

  20. CD4+ T-cell deficiency in HIV patients responding to antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Sonia; Tanaskovic, Sara; Helbig, Karla; Rajasuriar, Reena; Kramski, Marit; Murray, John M; Beard, Michael; Purcell, Damian; Lewin, Sharon R; Price, Patricia; French, Martyn A

    2011-12-15

    Most patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who remain CD4(+) T-cell deficient on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit marked immune activation. As CD4(+) T-cell activation may be mediated by microbial translocation or interferon-alpha (IFN-α), we examined these factors in HIV patients with good or poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery on long-term ART. Messenger RNA levels for 3 interferon-stimulated genes were increased in CD4(+) T cells of patients with poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery, whereas levels in patients with good recovery did not differ from those in healthy controls. Poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery was also associated with CD4(+) T-cell expression of markers of activation, senescence, and apoptosis, and with increased serum levels of the lipopolysaccharide receptor and soluble CD14, but these were not significantly correlated with expression of the interferon-stimulated genes. Therefore, CD4(+) T-cell recovery may be adversely affected by the effects of IFN-α, which may be amenable to therapeutic intervention.

  1. The CMS tracker control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  2. 26 CFR 1.469-4T - Definition of activity (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definition of activity (temporary). 1.469-4T Section 1.469-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.469-4T Definition of activity (temporary). (a) Overview—(1)...

  3. 17 CFR 240.11a1-4(T) - Bond transactions on national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. 240.11a1-4(T) Section 240.11a1-4(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND....11a1-4(T) Bond transactions on national securities exchanges. A transaction in a bond, note,...

  4. CMS: Present status, limitations, and upgrade plans

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, H.W.K.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the CMS upgrade plans will be presented. A brief status of the CMS detector will be given, covering some of the issues we have so far experienced. This will be followed by an overview of the various CMS upgrades planned, covering the main motivations for them, and the various R&D efforts for the possibilities under study. The CMS detector has been working extremely well since the start of data-taking at the LHC as is evidenced by the numerous excellent results published by CMS and presented at this workshop and recent conferences. Less well documented are the various issues that have been encountered with the detector. In the spirit of this workshop I will cover some of these issues with particular emphasis on problems that motivate some of the upgrades to the CMS detector for this decade of data-taking. Though the CMS detector has been working extremely well and expectations are great for making the most of the LHC luminosity, there have been a number of issues encountered so far. Some of these have been described and while none currently presents a problem for physics performance, some of them are expected to become more problematic, especially at the highest Phase 1 luminosities for which the majority of the integrated luminosity will be collected. These motivate upgrades for various parts of the CMS detector so that the current excellent physics performance can be maintained or even surpassed in the realm of the highest Phase 1 luminosities.

  5. The Status of the Cms Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Dan

    The CMS experiment was completely assembled in the fall of 2008 after a decade of design, construction and installation. During the last two years, cosmic ray data were taken on a regular basis. These data have enabled CMS to align the detector components, both spatially and temporally. Initial use of muons has also established the relative alignment of the CMS tracking and muon systems. In addition, the CMS calorimetry has been crosschecked with test beam data, thus providing an initial energy calibration of CMS calorimetry to about 5%. The CMS magnet has been powered and field mapped. The trigger and data acquisition systems have been installed and run at full speed. The tiered data analysis system has been exercised at full design bandwidth for Tier0, Tier1 and Tier2 sites. Monte Carlo simulation of the CMS detector has been constructed at a detailed geometric level and has been tuned to test beam and other production data to provide a realistic model of the CMS detector prior to first collisions.

  6. The diverse use of clouds by CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Andronis, Anastasios; Bauer, Daniela; Chaze, Olivier; Colling, David; Dobson, Marc; Fayer, Simon; Girone, Maria; Grandi, Claudio; Huffman, Adam; Hufnagel, Dirk; Khan, Farrukh Aftab; Lahiff, Andrew; McCrae, Alison; Rand, Duncan; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Tiradani, Anthony; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2015-12-23

    The resources CMS is using are increasingly being offered as clouds. In Run 2 of the LHC the majority of CMS CERN resources, both in Meyrin and at the Wigner Computing Centre, will be presented as cloud resources on which CMS will have to build its own infrastructure. This infrastructure will need to run all of the CMS workflows including: Tier 0, production and user analysis. In addition, the CMS High Level Trigger will provide a compute resource comparable in scale to the total offered by the CMS Tier 1 sites, when it is not running as part of the trigger system. During these periods a cloud infrastructure will be overlaid on this resource, making it accessible for general CMS use. Finally, CMS is starting to utilise cloud resources being offered by individual institutes and is gaining experience to facilitate the use of opportunistically available cloud resources. Lastly, we present a snap shot of this infrastructure and its operation at the time of the CHEP2015 conference.

  7. The diverse use of clouds by CMS

    DOE PAGES

    Andronis, Anastasios; Bauer, Daniela; Chaze, Olivier; ...

    2015-12-23

    The resources CMS is using are increasingly being offered as clouds. In Run 2 of the LHC the majority of CMS CERN resources, both in Meyrin and at the Wigner Computing Centre, will be presented as cloud resources on which CMS will have to build its own infrastructure. This infrastructure will need to run all of the CMS workflows including: Tier 0, production and user analysis. In addition, the CMS High Level Trigger will provide a compute resource comparable in scale to the total offered by the CMS Tier 1 sites, when it is not running as part of themore » trigger system. During these periods a cloud infrastructure will be overlaid on this resource, making it accessible for general CMS use. Finally, CMS is starting to utilise cloud resources being offered by individual institutes and is gaining experience to facilitate the use of opportunistically available cloud resources. Lastly, we present a snap shot of this infrastructure and its operation at the time of the CHEP2015 conference.« less

  8. Final Technical Report CMS fast optical calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, David R.

    2012-07-12

    This is the final report of CMS FAST OPTICAL CALORIMETRY, a grant to Fairfield University for development, construction, installation and operation of the forward calorimeter on CMS, and for upgrades of the forward and endcap calorimeters for higher luminosity and radiation damage amelioration.

  9. The status of the CMS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment was completely assembled in the fall of 2008 after a decade of design, construction and installation. During the last two years, cosmic ray data were taken on a regular basis. These data have enabled CMS to align the detector components, both spatially and temporally. Initial use of muons has also established the relative alignment of the CMS tracking and muon systems. In addition, the CMS calorimetry has been crosschecked with test beam data, thus providing an initial energy calibration of CMS calorimetry to about 5%. The CMS magnet has been powered and field mapped. The trigger and data acquisition systems have been installed and run at full speed. The tiered data analysis system has been exercised at full design bandwidth for Tier0, Tier1 and Tier2 sites. Monte Carlo simulation of the CMS detector has been constructed at a detailed geometric level and has been tuned to test beam and other production data to provide a realistic model of the CMS detector prior to first collisions.

  10. CMS: The Midwife of Instruction and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    Gifted students may exhibit a deficit in ability to follow a sequence of verbal instructions, termed Cognition of SeMantic Systems (CMS). Three types of low-CMS students are described, and counseling strategies are outlined. Achievement of academic success and emotional health calls for teachers to build students' self-esteem and be patient. (JDD)

  11. Getting Started with Drupal WebCMS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Drupal WebCMS is accessible to EPA employees, and to onsite and offsite contractors. There are several roles in Drupal WebCMS and each allows a certain set of actions in the system. Users can have different roles in different web areas.

  12. SKIROC2_CMS an ASIC for testing CMS HGCAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, J.; Callier, S.; Coko, D.; Dulucq, F.; de La Taille, C.; Raux, L.; Sculac, T.; Thienpont, D.

    2017-02-01

    SKIROC2_CMS is a chip derived from CALICE SKIROC2 that provides 64 channels of low noise charge preamplifiers optimized for 50 pF pin diodes and 10 pC dynamic range. They are followed by high gain and low gain 25 ns shapers, a 13-deep 40 MHz analog memory used as a waveform sampler at 40 MHz. and 12-bit ADCs. A fast shaper followed by discriminator and TDC provide timing information to an accuracy of 50 ps, in order to test TOT and TOA techniques at system level and in test-beam. The chip was sent to fabrication in January 2016 in AMS SiGe 0,35 μm and was received in May. It was tested in the lab during the summer and will be mounted on sensors for beam-tests in the fall.

  13. Single-molecule observation of helix staggering, sliding, and coiled coil misfolding

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Zhiqun; Gao, Ying; Sirinakis, George; Guo, Honglian; Zhang, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    The biological functions of coiled coils generally depend on efficient folding and perfect pairing of their α-helices. Dynamic changes in the helical registry that lead to staggered helices have only been proposed for a few special systems and not found in generic coiled coils. Here, we report our observations of multiple staggered helical structures of two canonical coiled coils. The partially folded structures are formed predominantly by coiled coil misfolding and occasionally by helix sliding. Using high-resolution optical tweezers, we characterized their energies and transition kinetics at a single-molecule level. The staggered states occur less than 2% of the time and about 0.1% of the time at zero force. We conclude that dynamic changes in helical registry may be a general property of coiled coils. Our findings should have broad and unique implications in functions and dysfunctions of proteins containing coiled coils. PMID:22451899

  14. Computational analysis of residue contributions to coiled-coil topology.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge; Lazaridis, Themis

    2011-11-01

    A variety of features are thought to contribute to the oligomeric and topological specificity of coiled coils. In previous work, we examined the determinants of oligomeric state. Here, we examine the energetic basis for the tendency of six coiled-coil peptides to align their α-helices in antiparallel orientation using molecular dynamics simulations with implicit solvation (EEF1.1). We also examine the effect of mutations known to disrupt the topology of these peptides. In agreement with experiment, ARG or LYS at a or d positions were found to stabilize the antiparallel configuration. The modeling suggests that this is not due to a-a' or d-d' repulsions but due to interactions with e' and g' residues. TRP at core positions also favors the antiparallel configuration. Residues that disfavor parallel dimers, such as ILE at d, are better tolerated in, and thus favor the antiparallel configuration. Salt bridge networks were found to be more stabilizing in the antiparallel configuration for geometric reasons: antiparallel helices point amino acid side chains in opposite directions. However, the structure with the largest number of salt bridges was not always the most stable, due to desolvation and configurational entropy contributions. In tetramers, the extent of stabilization of the antiparallel topology by core residues is influenced by the e' residue on a neighboring helix. Residues at b and c positions in some cases also contribute to stabilization of antiparallel tetramers. This work provides useful rules toward the goal of designing coiled coils with a well-defined and predictable three-dimensional structure.

  15. CMS results on multijet correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Safronov, Grigory

    2015-04-10

    We present recent CMS measurements on multijet correlations using forward and low-p{sub T} jets, focusing on searches for BFKL and saturation phenomena. In pp collisions at √(s)=7 TeV, azimuthal correlations in dijets separated in rapidity by up to 9.4 units were measured. The results are compared to BFKL- and DGLAP-based predictions. In pp collisions at √(s)=8 TeV, cross sections for jets with p{sub T} > 21 GeV and |y| < 4.7, and for track-jets with p{sub T} > 1 GeV (minijets) are presented. The minijet results are sensitive to the bound imposed by the total inelastic cross section, and are compared to various models for taming the growth of the 2 → 2 cross section at low p{sub T}.

  16. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Pefani, Dafni-Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2015-10-31

    The GemC1 coiled-coil structure has subtle differences compared with its homologues Geminin and Idas. Co-expression experiments in cells and biophysical stability analysis of the Geminin-family coiled coils suggest that the GemC1 coiled coil alone is unstable. GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin–Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells.

  17. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated.

  18. Coiled tubing -- Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II ); Blount, C.G. ); Tailby, R.J. )

    1993-06-01

    This paper reviews three industry authority's views on developments that will impact coiled tubing equipment and techniques for conventional land locations, Arctic and harsh offshore environments. Examples which are provided include the development of high-strength steels, composite pipe, integral lift devices, abrasive jet drilling, and extended reach drilling. It discusses the application of coiled tubing to well completion and maintenance, including the applications to plugged pipelines. The use of new steels and alloys help increase the corrosion resistance of the drilling stem along with greater load-bearing capacity. The economic advantages of coiled drilling versus jointed tubing drilling is somewhat more questionable as the cost for downhole motors and directional tools remain prohibitively high and borehole diameters remain small.

  19. CMS centres worldwide: A new collaborative infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Lucas; Gottschalk, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC is establishing a global network of inter-connected 'CMS Centres' for controls, operations and monitoring. These support: (1) CMS data quality monitoring, detector calibrations, and analysis; and (2) computing operations for the processing, storage and distribution of CMS data. We describe the infrastructure, computing, software, and communications systems required to create an effective and affordable CMS Centre. We present our highly successful operations experiences with the major CMS Centres at CERN, Fermilab, and DESY during the LHC first beam data-taking and cosmic ray commissioning work. The status of the various centres already operating or under construction in Asia, Europe, Russia, South America, and the USA is also described. We emphasise the collaborative communications aspects. For example, virtual co-location of experts in CMS Centres Worldwide is achieved using high-quality permanently-running 'telepresence' video links. Generic Web-based tools have been developed and deployed for monitoring, control, display management and outreach.

  20. Tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Jennifer A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Calloway, Clifton P.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2006-02-01

    A tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometer is described and evaluated. The system employs a single tungsten coil as a combined atomizer and excitation source for the determination of metals by atomic emission spectrometry. The tungsten coil is extracted from a 150 W, 15 V commercial slide projector light bulb. A simple, laboratory constructed, computer-controlled power supply provides a constant current to the coil. A high-resolution Czerny-Turner monochromator with a charge coupled device detector completes the system. Simultaneous, multi-element analyses are possible within a 4 nm spectral window. Eleven test elements are used to characterize the system: Al (396.1 nm), Co (353.0 nm), Cr (427.1 nm), Dy (404.6 nm), Ga (403.3 nm), K (404.4 nm), Mn (403.1 nm), Pb (405.8 nm), Rb (420.2 nm), Sc (404.8 nm), and Yb (398.7 nm). Tungsten coil atomic emission detection limits are reported for these elements for the first time: 0.02 ng Al, 0.7 ng Co, 0.003 ng Cr, 0.01 ng Dy, 0.7 ng Ga, 0.3 ng K, 0.04 ng Mn, 10 ng Pb, 0.07 ng Rb, 1 ng Sc, and 0.003 ng Yb. The precision for the new technique is better than 13% relative standard deviation for all metals at concentrations two orders of magnitude above the detection limit. Aluminum, Cr, Mn, and K are determined in a standard reference material (trace elements in water) after simple dilution with water, and found values varied from certified values by up to 26%. The average tungsten coil lifetime was found to be 265 heating cycles. The elimination of the external radiation source needed for atomic absorption measurements results in an emission system that could be quite portable.

  1. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  2. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II )

    1991-12-01

    This article outlines the minimum safety requirements that should be considered for onshore and offshore oil well service operations with coiled tubing equipment. These guidelines comply with Minerals Management Service (MMS) regulations issued on May 31, 1988, for offshore work. Where specific MMS regulations are sited, the regulation reference, Incident of Non-Compliance (INC), number is provided. These guidelines can be used by operators and contractors, and although U.S. offshore operations are emphasized, they are applicable wherever coiled tubing services are used.

  3. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  4. Sedimentation of wormlike coils. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearst, John E.; Reese, Dennis A.

    1980-09-01

    An application of the theories of Hearst and Stockmayer for the sedimentation coefficient of wormlike coils of length shorter than 2.2 Kuhn statistical lengths, and Gray, Bloomfield and Hearst for longer wormlike coils with excluded volume to recent sedimentation data on homogeneous DNA samples is presented. The data is entirely consistent with the predictions of the theories. The molecular parameters obtained from the analysis of the data are a Kuhn statistical length at 0.2 ionic strength of 1150 Å; at 0.1 ionic strength of 1290 Å; and a chain backbone diameter of 20-30 Å.

  5. TGF-β receptor maintains CD4 T helper cell identity during chronic viral infections

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gavin M.; Wehrens, Ellen J.; Labarta-Bajo, Lara; Streeck, Hendrik; Zuniga, Elina I.

    2016-01-01

    Suppression of CD8 and CD4 T cells is a hallmark in chronic viral infections, including hepatitis C and HIV. While multiple pathways are known to inhibit CD8 T cells, the host molecules that restrict CD4 T cell responses are less understood. Here, we used inducible and CD4 T cell–specific deletion of the gene encoding the TGF-β receptor during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice, and determined that TGF-β signaling restricted proliferation and terminal differentiation of antiviral CD4 T cells. TGF-β signaling also inhibited a cytotoxic program that includes granzymes and perforin expression at both early and late stages of infection in vivo and repressed the transcription factor eomesodermin. Overexpression of eomesodermin was sufficient to recapitulate in great part the phenotype of TGF-β receptor–deficient CD4 T cells, while SMAD4 was necessary for CD4 T cell accumulation and differentiation. TGF-β signaling also restricted accumulation and differentiation of CD4 T cells and reduced the expression of cytotoxic molecules in mice and humans infected with other persistent viruses. These data uncovered an eomesodermin-driven CD4 T cell program that is continuously suppressed by TGF-β signaling. During chronic viral infection, this program limits CD4 T cell responses while maintaining CD4 T helper cell identity. PMID:27599295

  6. Regulation of CD4 T cells and their effects on immunopathological inflammation following viral infection.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Mitra; Madden, Patrick; Henning, Nathan; Gregory, Shana; Aid, Malika; Martinot, Amanda J; Barouch, Dan H; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    CD4 T cells help immune responses, but knowledge of how memory CD4 T cells are regulated and how they regulate adaptive immune responses and induce immunopathology is limited. Using adoptive transfer of virus-specific CD4 T cells, we show that naive CD4 T cells undergo substantial expansion following infection, but can induce lethal T helper type 1-driven inflammation. In contrast, memory CD4 T cells exhibit a biased proliferation of T follicular helper cell subsets and were able to improve adaptive immune responses in the context of minimal tissue damage. Our analyses revealed that type I interferon regulates the expansion of primary CD4 T cells, but does not seem to play a critical role in regulating the expansion of secondary CD4 T cells. Strikingly, blockade of type I interferon abrogated lethal inflammation by primary CD4 T cells following viral infection, despite that this treatment increased the numbers of primary CD4 T-cell responses. Altogether, these data demonstrate important aspects of how primary and secondary CD4 T cells are regulated in vivo, and how they contribute to immune protection and immunopathology. These findings are important for rational vaccine design and for improving adoptive T-cell therapies against persistent antigens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A cradle-shaped gradient coil to expand the clear-bore width of an animal MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, K M; Gati, J S; Klassen, L M; Menon, R S

    2010-01-21

    The never ending quest for higher magnetic field strengths in MRI and MRS has led to small and medium bore scanners at 9.4 T and above for both human and animal use; however, these bore diameters restrict the size of object that can be accommodated when using a conventional gradient coil. By replacing a cylindrical gradient-coil insert with a single-sided gradient coil, the scanner's functionality can be extended to include localized imaging of wider samples. As a prototype, a three-axis, cradle-shaped gradient coil was designed, fabricated and implemented in a 9.4 T animal MRI scanner. Since gradient fields are required only to be monotonic over the desired field of view, the cradle gradient coil was designed to produce high gradient efficiencies (up to 2.25 mT m(-1) A(-1) over a 5 cm imaging region) at the expense of gradient linearity. A dedicated three-dimensional algorithm was developed to correct the resultant image distortion. Preliminary images of a grid phantom and a mouse demonstrated the fidelity of the algorithm in correcting image distortion of greater than 200%. Eddy currents were measured along each gradient axis. A large 65.2 (Hz mT(-1) m) B(0) eddy current was produced by the y-axis, suggesting potential limitations of single-sided gradient coils.

  8. The CMS Masterclass and Particle Physics Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Cecire, Kenneth; Bardeen, Marjorie; McCauley, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Masterclass enables high school students to analyse authentic CMS data. Students can draw conclusions on key ratios and particle masses by combining their analyses. In particular, they can use the ratio of W^+ to W^- candidates to probe the structure of the proton, they can find the mass of the Z boson, and they can identify additional particles including, tentatively, the Higgs boson. In the United States, masterclasses are part of QuarkNet, a long-term program that enables students and teachers to use cosmic ray and particle physics data for learning with an emphasis on data from CMS.

  9. CMS for digital photography: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Robert Y.; Sa-areddee, Darunee

    2002-06-01

    The objectives of the study was to compare image quality from digital photography to RGB-printer under two digital imaging workflows: legacy-based and CMS-based. Due to the difference in judging criteria, the study shows that legacy- based digital imaging workflow can produce pleasing images as good as CMS-based workflow. But ICC-based CMS out performs legacy-based workflow in matching the color appearance of the source images. This is a welcome feature in direct mail catalogs whereby printed images need to match the appearance of the merchandise closely.

  10. [Two Cases of Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysm Complicated with Delayed Coil Protrusion after Coil Embolization].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Takashi; Ogata, Atsushi; Ebashi, Ryo; Takase, Yukinori; Masuoka, Jun; Kawashima, Masatou; Abe, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    We report two cases of delayed coil protrusion after coil embolization for ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Case 1:An 82-year-old woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured small anterior communicating artery aneurysm underwent successful coil embolization. Eighteen days after the procedure, coil protrusion from the aneurysm into the right anterior cerebral artery was observed without any symptoms. Further coil protrusion did not develop after 28 days. Case 2:A 78-year-old woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured small left middle cerebral artery aneurysm underwent successful coil embolization. Twenty days after the procedure, coil protrusion from the aneurysm into the left middle cerebral artery was observed, with a transient ischemic attack. Further coil protrusion did not develop. Both patients recovered with antithrombotic treatment. Even though delayed coil protrusion after coil embolization is rare, it should be recognized as a long-term complication of coil embolization for cerebral aneurysms.

  11. A MRI rotary phased array head coil.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing Keong; Weber, Ewald; Crozier, Stuart

    2013-08-01

    A new rotary phased array (RPA) head coil that can provide homogenous brain images comparable to volumetric radiofrequency coils is proposed for magnetic resonance brain imaging applications. The design of the RPA head coil is a departure from conventional circumferential array design method, as coil elements of the RPA head coil have a "paddle-like" structure consisting of a pair of main conductors located on opposite sides, inserted equi-angularly around and over the head. A prototype 2T receive-only 4-element RPA head coil was constructed and experimentally tested against a conventional receive-only 4-element phased array head coil and a commercial receive-only quadrature birdcage head coil. Homogenous phantom images acquired by the RPA head coil show that signal intensity deep at the center of the phantom was improved as compared to the conventional phased array head coil and this improvement allow the RPA head coil to acquire homogenous brain images similar to brain images acquired with the birdcage head coil. In addition, partial parallel imaging was used in conjunction with the RPA head coil to enable rapid imaging.

  12. Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of coil embolization compared with surgical clipping to treat intracranial aneurysms. The Technology Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons. Background Intracranial Aneurysms Intracranial aneurysms are the dilation or ballooning of part of a blood vessel in the brain. Intracranial aneurysms range in size from small (<12 mm in diameter) to large (12–25 mm), and to giant (>25 mm). There are 3 main types of aneurysms. Fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of the artery; saccular aneurysms have outpouchings; and dissecting aneurysms have tears in the arterial wall. Berry aneurysms are saccular aneurysms with well-defined necks. Intracranial aneurysms may occur in any blood vessel of the brain; however, they are most commonly found at the branch points of large arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. In 85% to 95% of patients, they are found in the anterior circulation. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are less frequent, and are more difficult to treat surgically due to inaccessibility. Most intracranial aneurysms are small and asymptomatic. Large aneurysms may have a mass effect, causing compression on the brain and cranial nerves and neurological deficits. When an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds

  13. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may... clinical experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding...

  14. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following...

  15. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following...

  16. 42 CFR 460.20 - Notice of CMS determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of CMS determination. 460.20 Section 460.20... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.20 Notice of CMS determination. (a... application to CMS, CMS takes one of the following actions: (1) Approves the application. (2) Denies...

  17. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may review any new... experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding whether the...

  18. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following...

  19. 42 CFR 460.20 - Notice of CMS determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of CMS determination. 460.20 Section 460.20... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.20 Notice of CMS determination. (a... application to CMS, CMS takes one of the following actions: (1) Approves the application. (2) Denies...

  20. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may... clinical experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding...

  1. 42 CFR 460.20 - Notice of CMS determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of CMS determination. 460.20 Section 460.20... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.20 Notice of CMS determination. (a... application to CMS, CMS takes one of the following actions: (1) Approves the application. (2) Denies...

  2. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may review any new... experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding whether the...

  3. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may... clinical experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding...

  4. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following...

  5. 42 CFR 460.20 - Notice of CMS determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of CMS determination. 460.20 Section 460.20... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.20 Notice of CMS determination. (a... application to CMS, CMS takes one of the following actions: (1) Approves the application. (2) Denies...

  6. Bystander CD4+ T lymphocytes survive in HIV-infected human lymphoid tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grivel, Jean-Charles; Biancotto, Angelique; Ito, Yoshinori; Lima, Rosangela G.; Margolis, Leonid B.

    2003-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with depletion of CD4(+) T cells. The mechanisms of this phenomenon remain to be understood. In particular, it remains controversial whether and to what extent uninfected ("bystander") CD4(+) T cells die in HIV-infected individuals. We address this question using a system of human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. Tissue blocks were inoculated with HIV-1. After productive infection was established, they were treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine to protect from infection those CD4(+) T cells that had not yet been infected. These CD4(+) T cells residing in HIV-infected tissue are by definition bystanders. Our results demonstrate that after nevirapine application the number of bystander CD4(+) T cells is conserved. Thus, in the context of HIV-infected human lymphoid tissue, productive HIV infection kills infected cells but is not sufficient to cause the death of a significant number of uninfected CD4(+) T cells.

  7. Bystander CD4+ T lymphocytes survive in HIV-infected human lymphoid tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grivel, Jean-Charles; Biancotto, Angelique; Ito, Yoshinori; Lima, Rosangela G.; Margolis, Leonid B.

    2003-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with depletion of CD4(+) T cells. The mechanisms of this phenomenon remain to be understood. In particular, it remains controversial whether and to what extent uninfected ("bystander") CD4(+) T cells die in HIV-infected individuals. We address this question using a system of human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. Tissue blocks were inoculated with HIV-1. After productive infection was established, they were treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine to protect from infection those CD4(+) T cells that had not yet been infected. These CD4(+) T cells residing in HIV-infected tissue are by definition bystanders. Our results demonstrate that after nevirapine application the number of bystander CD4(+) T cells is conserved. Thus, in the context of HIV-infected human lymphoid tissue, productive HIV infection kills infected cells but is not sufficient to cause the death of a significant number of uninfected CD4(+) T cells.

  8. Alternating current losses in superconducting coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wipf, S. L.; Guderjahn, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Report examines relationship between coil loss and frequency and heat loss in coil as a function of the magnetic field H. Information is of value to manufacturers of superconducting magnets, motors and generators.

  9. Coupled Coils, Magnets and Lenz's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Great scientists in the past have experimented with coils and magnets. Here we have a variation where coupling occurs between two coils and the oscillatory motion of two magnets to give somewhat surprising results. (Contains 6 figures and 1 footnote.)

  10. Coupled coils, magnets and Lenz's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Frank

    2010-03-01

    Great scientists in the past have experimented with coils and magnets. Here we have a variation where coupling occurs between two coils and the oscillatory motion of two magnets to give somewhat surprising results.

  11. Coupled Coils, Magnets and Lenz's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Great scientists in the past have experimented with coils and magnets. Here we have a variation where coupling occurs between two coils and the oscillatory motion of two magnets to give somewhat surprising results. (Contains 6 figures and 1 footnote.)

  12. Finite element coiled cochlea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isailovic, Velibor; Nikolic, Milica; Milosevic, Zarko; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Radovic, Milos; Filipović, Nenad

    2015-12-01

    Cochlea is important part of the hearing system, and thanks to special structure converts external sound waves into neural impulses which go to the brain. Shape of the cochlea is like snail, so geometry of the cochlea model is complex. The simplified cochlea coiled model was developed using finite element method inside SIFEM FP7 project. Software application is created on the way that user can prescribe set of the parameters for spiral cochlea, as well as material properties and boundary conditions to the model. Several mathematical models were tested. The acoustic wave equation for describing fluid in the cochlea chambers - scala vestibuli and scala timpani, and Newtonian dynamics for describing vibrations of the basilar membrane are used. The mechanical behavior of the coiled cochlea was analyzed and the third chamber, scala media, was not modeled because it does not have a significant impact on the mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Future work is needed for more realistic geometry model. Coiled model of the cochlea was created and results are compared with initial simplified coiled model of the cochlea.

  13. Pulsed COIL initiated by discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuryshev, Nikolai N.

    2004-06-01

    Pulsed mode makes COIL possible to produce pulses which power can significantly exceed that of CW COIL mode at the same flowrate of chemicals. Such a mode can find application in material treatment, in drilling for oil wells, as an optical locator, in laser frequency conversion via non-linear processes, in laser propulsion, etc. The method of volume generation of iodine atoms was shown to be the most effective one in generation of high power pulses. The base of method is substitution of molecular iodine in operation mixture for iodide which is stable in the mixture with singlet oxygen, and subsequent forced dissociation of iodide. In this approach the advantage of direct I-atom injection in laser active medium is demonstrated. The comparison of experimental results obtained with different sources used for iodide dissociation shows the electric discharge provides significantly higher electrical laser efficiency in comparison with photolysis initiation. At the same time, the specific energy of the electric discharge initiated COIL is at disadvantage in relation with that obtained with photolysis initiation. This fact is a result of active medium temperature increase due to insufficient initiation selectivity of electric discharge. Both longitudinal and transverse electric discharges were investigated as possible sources for laser initiation. The transverse discharge is more promising for increased operation pressure of active medium. The operation pressure is limited by dark reaction of iodide with singlet delta oxygen. The repetitively pulsed operation with repetition rate of up to 75 Hz of pulsed COIL is demonstrated.

  14. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.L. ); Whitlow, R.R. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that pulling tubing to clean out a production liner at Prudhoe Bay Unit Western Operating Area (PBU WOA) averages $600,000 to $800,000. Coiled tubing underreaming was developed to accomplish this objective at lower costs. Beginning in 1988, these operations have been improved through several generations of procedures and tool designs. Using current technology, the underreamer, in conjunction with coiled tubing, can reduce the cost of drilling out to a liner to about $50,000 or $100,000, depending on the amount and type of material to be removed. PBU WOA, operated by BP Exploration, produces about 600,000 bopd from 395 wells. Another 61 wells are used to inject produced water, seawater and miscible fluids. Most of the remedial well servicing operations are conducted using coiled tubing (CT). Three contract coiled tubing units (CTUs) work daily, performing wellbore cleanouts, stimulations, inflatable bridge plug installations and cement squeeze operations. About 42 underreaming jobs were performed from 1990 to 1991 at PBU WOA for an average cost of between $75,000 and $100,000, a cost savings of $500,000 power well compared to pulling tubing and cleaning out the wells conventionally.

  15. Wedding ring shaped excitation coil

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency.

  16. Small animal simultaneous PET/MRI: initial experiences in a 9.4 T microMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsha Maramraju, Sri; Smith, S. David; Junnarkar, Sachin S.; Schulz, Daniela; Stoll, Sean; Ravindranath, Bosky; Purschke, Martin L.; Rescia, Sergio; Southekal, Sudeepti; Pratte, Jean-François; Vaska, Paul; Woody, Craig L.; Schlyer, David J.

    2011-04-01

    We developed a non-magnetic positron-emission tomography (PET) device based on the rat conscious animal PET that operates in a small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, thereby enabling us to carry out simultaneous PET/MRI studies. The PET detector comprises 12 detector blocks, each being a 4 × 8 array of lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals (2.22 × 2.22 × 5 mm3) coupled to a matching non-magnetic avalanche photodiode array. The detector blocks, housed in a plastic case, form a 38 mm inner diameter ring with an 18 mm axial extent. Custom-built MRI coils fit inside the positron-emission tomography (PET) device, operating in transceiver mode. The PET insert is integrated with a Bruker 9.4 T 210 mm clear-bore diameter MRI scanner. We acquired simultaneous PET/MR images of phantoms, of in vivo rat brain, and of cardiac-gated mouse heart using [11C]raclopride and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose PET radiotracers. There was minor interference between the PET electronics and the MRI during simultaneous operation, and small effects on the signal-to-noise ratio in the MR images in the presence of the PET, but no noticeable visual artifacts. Gradient echo and high-duty-cycle spin echo radio frequency (RF) pulses resulted in a 7% and a 28% loss in PET counts, respectively, due to high PET counts during the RF pulses that had to be gated out. The calibration of the activity concentration of PET data during MR pulsing is reproducible within less than 6%. Our initial results demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous PET and MRI studies in adult rats and mice using the same PET insert in a small-bore 9.4 T MRI.

  17. Small animal simultaneous PET/MRI: initial experiences in a 9.4T microMRI

    SciTech Connect

    Maramraju, S.H.; Schlyer, D.; Maramraju, S.H.; Smith, S.D.; Junnarkar, S.S.; Schulz, D.; Stoll, S.; Ravindranath, B.; Purschke, M.L.; Rescia, S.; Southekal, S.; Pratte, J.-F.; Vaska, P.; Woody, C.L.; Schlyer, D.J.

    2011-03-25

    We developed a non-magnetic positron-emission tomography (PET) device based on the rat conscious animal PET that operates in a small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, thereby enabling us to carry out simultaneous PET/MRI studies. The PET detector comprises 12 detector blocks, each being a 4 x 8 array of lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystals (2.22 x 2.22 x 5 mm{sup 3}) coupled to a matching non-magnetic avalanche photodiode array. The detector blocks, housed in a plastic case, form a 38 mm inner diameter ring with an 18 mm axial extent. Custom-built MRI coils fit inside the positron-emission tomography (PET) device, operating in transceiver mode. The PET insert is integrated with a Bruker 9.4 T 210 mm clear-bore diameter MRI scanner. We acquired simultaneous PET/MR images of phantoms, of in vivo rat brain, and of cardiac-gated mouse heart using [{sup 11}C]raclopride and 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-d-glucose PET radiotracers. There was minor interference between the PET electronics and the MRI during simultaneous operation, and small effects on the signal-to-noise ratio in the MR images in the presence of the PET, but no noticeable visual artifacts. Gradient echo and high-duty-cycle spin echo radio frequency (RF) pulses resulted in a 7% and a 28% loss in PET counts, respectively, due to high PET counts during the RF pulses that had to be gated out. The calibration of the activity concentration of PET data during MR pulsing is reproducible within less than 6%. Our initial results demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous PET and MRI studies in adult rats and mice using the same PET insert in a small-bore 9.4 T MRI.

  18. Results from CMS on Higgs boson physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzurri, Paolo; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    A selection of measurements and results of Higgs physics obtained by the CMS experiment are presented, obtained with proton collision data collected in 2015 and 2016 at the center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.

  19. Predicting dataset popularity for the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Li, T.; Giommi, L.; Bonacorsi, D.; Wildish, T.

    2016-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN relies on its computing infrastructure to stay at the frontier of High Energy Physics, searching for new phenomena and making discoveries. Even though computing plays a significant role in physics analysis we rarely use its data to predict the system behavior itself. A basic information about computing resources, user activities and site utilization can be really useful for improving the throughput of the system and its management. In this paper, we discuss a first CMS analysis of dataset popularity based on CMS meta-data which can be used as a model for dynamic data placement and provide the foundation of data-driven approach for the CMS computing infrastructure.

  20. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1998-06-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  1. ESTABLISHING MEAN CD4+ T CELL VALUES AMONG HEALTHY JAVANESE ADULTS IN INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Zaini, Khilyat Ulin Nur

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish mean CD4+ T cell values among healthy Javanese adults in Indonesia. Two hundred forty-one healthy adults (119 women and 122 men), aged 18-65 years, were enrolled in the study. CD4+ T cells were analyzed by immunophenotyping. The mean absolute CD4+ T cell count was 753.3 ± 270.3 cells/µl (median = 725.0 cells/µl) and the mean CD4+ T cell percentage was 32.6 ± 7.7%, (median = 31.0%). Women had a slightly higher mean absolute CD4+ T cell count and CD4+ T cell percentage (779.1 ± 271.0 cells/ µl; 33.4 ± 8.2%) than men (728.2 ± 268.3 cells/µl; 31.8 ± 7.1%), but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.126, p = 0.216, respectively). The mean absolute CD4+ T cell varied significantly by age group (p = 0.002). Sixty-one point seven percent of men studied (37/60) had a CD4+ T cell count less than 500 cells/µl (OR 1.8; 95% CI = 1.001-3.300). Absolute CD4+ T cell counts among Javanese Indonesians varied significantly by age.

  2. TNF-α blockade induces IL-10 expression in human CD4+ T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Hayley G.; Roostalu, Urmas; Walter, Gina J.; Gullick, Nicola J.; Frederiksen, Klaus S.; Roberts, Ceri A.; Sumner, Jonathan; Baeten, Dominique L.; Gerwien, Jens G.; Cope, Andrew P.; Geissmann, Frederic; Kirkham, Bruce W.; Taams, Leonie S.

    2014-02-01

    IL-17+ CD4+ T (Th17) cells contribute to the pathogenesis of several human inflammatory diseases. Here we demonstrate that TNF inhibitor (TNFi) drugs induce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in CD4+ T cells including IL-17+ CD4+ T cells. TNFi-mediated induction of IL-10 in IL-17+ CD4+ T cells is Treg-/Foxp3-independent, requires IL-10 and is overcome by IL-1β. TNFi-exposed IL-17+ CD4+ T cells are molecularly and functionally distinct, with a unique gene signature characterized by expression of IL10 and IKZF3 (encoding Aiolos). We show that Aiolos binds conserved regions in the IL10 locus in IL-17+ CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, IKZF3 and IL10 expression levels correlate in primary CD4+ T cells and Aiolos overexpression is sufficient to drive IL10 in these cells. Our data demonstrate that TNF-α blockade induces IL-10 in CD4+ T cells including Th17 cells and suggest a role for the transcription factor Aiolos in the regulation of IL-10 in CD4+ T cells.

  3. Divergent CD4+ T memory stem cell dynamics in pathogenic and nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Emily K; McGary, Colleen S; Cervasi, Barbara; Micci, Luca; Lawson, Benton; Elliott, Sarah T C; Collman, Ronald G; Bosinger, Steven E; Paiardini, Mirko; Vanderford, Thomas H; Chahroudi, Ann; Silvestri, Guido

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies have identified a subset of memory T cells with stem cell-like properties (T(SCM)) that include increased longevity and proliferative potential. In this study, we examined the dynamics of CD4(+) T(SCM) during pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques (RM) and nonpathogenic SIV infection of sooty mangabeys (SM). Whereas SIV-infected RM show selective numeric preservation of CD4(+) T(SCM), SIV infection induced a complex perturbation of these cells defined by depletion of CD4(+)CCR5(+) T(SCM), increased rates of CD4(+) T(SCM) proliferation, and high levels of direct virus infection. The increased rates of CD4(+) T(SCM) proliferation in SIV-infected RM correlated inversely with the levels of central memory CD4(+) T cells. In contrast, nonpathogenic SIV infection of SM evidenced preservation of both CD4(+) T(SCM) and CD4(+) central memory T cells, with normal levels of CD4(+) T(SCM) proliferation, and lack of selective depletion of CD4(+)CCR5(+) T(SCM). Importantly, SIV DNA was below the detectable limit in CD4(+) T(SCM) from 8 of 10 SIV-infected SM. We propose that increased proliferation and infection of CD4(+) T(SCM) may contribute to the pathogenesis of SIV infection in RM.

  4. Multi-Canted Coils, Tubes, and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaster, Mark L. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Coil, tube, and other structures configured with a plurality of individual coils, internal structures, legs or extensions with each having multiple cants per coil, internal structure, leg or extension, and wherein the cants formed therein allow for a load-deflection force when each is compressed. In addition, any horizontal or moment forces are substantially reduced and/or eliminated when a downward vertical force is applied, as minimal or no torsion is created in the individual coils, legs or extensions.

  5. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Snitchler, Gregory L.; Gamble, Bruce B.; Voccio, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  6. Bow-shaped toroidal field coils

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanos, P.

    1981-05-01

    Design features of Bow-Shaped Toroidal Field Coils are described and compared with circular and D shaped coils. The results indicate that bow coils can produce higher field strengths, store more energy and be made demountable. The design offers the potential for the production of ultrahigh toroidal fields. Included are representative coil shapes and their engineering properties, a suggested structural design and an analysis of a specific case.

  7. Coiled tubing solves multiple downhole problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, S. ); Smith, I. )

    1994-11-01

    Declining reservoir pressure and water breakthrough in the UK North Sea Magnus field has coincided with general advances in application of coiled tubing and a continuous drive to reduce operating costs, particularly in a climate of weak oil prices. These factors have led to a dramatic increase in diversity and volume of coiled tubing interventions. In the following article, coiled tubing interventions, and results of those interventions, are discussed. An assessment of future coiled tubing activity on Magnus field is provided.

  8. File level provenance tracking in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.D.; Kowalkowski, J.; Paterno, M.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Tanenbaum, W.; Riley, D.S.; /Cornell U., LEPP

    2009-05-01

    The CMS off-line framework stores provenance information within CMS's standard ROOT event data files. The provenance information is used to track how each data product was constructed, including what other data products were read to do the construction. We will present how the framework gathers the provenance information, the efforts necessary to minimize the space used to store the provenance in the file and the tools that will be available to use the provenance.

  9. Virtual data in CMS analysis

    SciTech Connect

    A. Arbree et al.

    2003-10-01

    The use of virtual data for enhancing the collaboration between large groups of scientists is explored in several ways: by defining ''virtual'' parameter spaces which can be searched and shared in an organized way by a collaboration of scientists in the course of their analysis; by providing a mechanism to log the provenance of results and the ability to trace them back to the various stages in the analysis of real or simulated data; by creating ''check points'' in the course of an analysis to permit collaborators to explore their own analysis branches by refining selections, improving the signal to background ratio, varying the estimation of parameters, etc.; by facilitating the audit of an analysis and the reproduction of its results by a different group, or in a peer review context. We describe a prototype for the analysis of data from the CMS experiment based on the virtual data system Chimera and the object-oriented data analysis framework ROOT. The Chimera system is used to chain together several steps in the analysis process including the Monte Carlo generation of data, the simulation of detector response, the reconstruction of physics objects and their subsequent analysis, histogramming and visualization using the ROOT framework.

  10. CRAB: Distributed analysis tool for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Leonardo; CMS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    CMS has a distributed computing model, based on a hierarchy of tiered regional computing centers and adopts a data driven model for the end user analysis. This model foresees that jobs are submitted to the analysis resources where data are hosted. The increasing complexity of the whole computing infrastructure makes the simple analysis work flow more and more complicated for the end user. CMS has developed and deployed a dedicated tool named CRAB (CMS Remote Analysis Builder) in order to guarantee the physicists an efficient access to the distributed data whilst hiding the underlying complexity. This tool is used by CMS to enable the running of physics analysis jobs in a transparent manner over data distributed across sites. It factorizes out the interaction with the underlying batch farms, grid infrastructure and CMS data management tools, allowing the user to deal only with a simple and intuitive interface. We present the CRAB architecture, as well as the current status and lessons learnt in deploying this tool for use by the CMS collaboration. We also present the future development of the CRAB system.

  11. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  12. Inductively coupled wireless RF coil arrays.

    PubMed

    Bulumulla, S B; Fiveland, E; Park, K J; Foo, T K; Hardy, C J

    2015-04-01

    As the number of coils increases in multi-channel MRI receiver-coil arrays, RF cables and connectors become increasingly bulky and heavy, degrading patient comfort and slowing workflow. Inductive coupling of signals provides an attractive "wireless" approach, with the potential to reduce coil weight and cost while simplifying patient setup. In this work, multi-channel inductively coupled anterior arrays were developed and characterized for 1.5T imaging. These comprised MR receiver coils inductively (or "wirelessly") linked to secondary or "sniffer" coils whose outputs were transmitted via preamps to the MR system cabinet. The induced currents in the imaging coils were blocked by passive diode circuits during RF transmit. The imaging arrays were totally passive, obviating the need to deliver power to the coils, and providing lightweight, untethered signal reception with easily positioned coils. Single-shot fast spin echo images were acquired from 5 volunteers using a 7-element inductively coupled coil array and a conventionally cabled 7-element coil array of identical geometry, with the inductively-coupled array showing a relative signal-to-noise ratio of 0.86 +/- 0.07. The concept was extended to a larger 9-element coil array to demonstrate the effect of coil element size on signal transfer and RF-transmit blocking.

  13. MR spectroscopy for in vivo assessment of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate and its effects on cellular metabolism in human brain gliomas at 9.4T.

    PubMed

    Bisdas, Sotirios; Chadzynski, Grzegorz L; Braun, Christian; Schittenhelm, Jens; Skardelly, Marco; Hagberg, Gisela E; Ethofer, Thomas; Pohmann, Rolf; Shajan, G; Engelmann, Jörn; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Ziemann, Ulf; Ernemann, Ulrike; Scheffler, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    To examine in vivo metabolic alterations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutated gliomas using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at magnetic field 9.4T. Spectra were acquired with a 9.4T whole-body scanner with the use of a custom-built head coil (16 channel transmit and 31 channel receive). A modified stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence was used for localization. Eighteen patients with brain tumors of probable glial origin participated in this study. The study was performed in accordance with the guidelines of the local Ethics Committee. The increased spectral resolution allowed us to directly address metabolic alterations caused by the specific pathophysiology of IDH mutations including the presence of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxglutarate (2HG) and a significant decrease of the pooled glutamate and glutamine (20%, P = 0.024), which probably reflects an attempt to replenish α-ketoglutarate lost by conversion to 2HG. We also observed significantly reduced glutathione (GSH) levels (39%, P = 0.019), which could be similarly caused by depletion of dihydronicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) during this conversion in IDH mutant gliomas. We demonstrate that MRS at 9.4T provides a noninvasive measure of 2HG in vivo, which may be used for therapy planning and prognostication, and may provide insights into related pathophysiologic metabolic alterations associated with IDH mutations. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;44:823-833. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Design of a shielded coil element of a matrix gradient coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Feng; Littin, Sebastian; Layton, Kelvin J.; Kroboth, Stefan; Yu, Huijun; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2017-08-01

    The increasing interest in spatial encoding with non-linear magnetic fields has intensified the need for coils that generates such fields. Matrix coils consisting of multiple coil elements appear to offer a high flexibility in generating customized encoding fields and are particularly promising for localized high resolution imaging applications. However, coil elements of existing matrix coils were primarily designed and constructed for better shimming and therefore are not expected to achieve an optimal performance for local spatial encoding. Moreover, eddy current properties of such coil elements were not fully explored. In this work, an optimization problem is formulated based on the requirement of local non-linear encoding and eddy current reduction that results in novel designs of coil elements for an actively-shielded matrix gradient coil. Two metrics are proposed to assess the performance of different coil element designs. The results are analyzed to reveal new insights into coil element design.

  15. Differential T cell receptor-mediated signaling in naive and memory CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Farber, D L; Acuto, O; Bottomly, K

    1997-08-01

    Naive and memory CD4 T cells differ in cell surface phenotype, function, activation requirements, and modes of regulation. To investigate the molecular bases for the dichotomies between naive and memory CD4 T cells and to understand how the T cell receptor (TCR) directs diverse functional outcomes, we investigated proximal signaling events triggered through the TCR/CD3 complex in naive and memory CD4 T cell subsets isolated on the basis of CD45 isoform expression. Naive CD4 T cells signal through TCR/CD3 similar to unseparated CD4 T cells, producing multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated protein species overall and phosphorylating the T cell-specific ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase which is recruited to the CD3zeta subunit of the TCR. Memory CD4 T cells, however, exhibit a unique pattern of signaling through TCR/CD3. Following stimulation through TCR/CD3, memory CD4 T cells produce fewer species of tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates and fail to phosphorylate ZAP-70, yet unphosphorylated ZAP-70 can associate with the TCR/CD3 complex. Moreover, a 26/28-kDa phosphorylated doublet is associated with CD3zeta in resting and activated memory but not in naive CD4 T cells. Despite these differences in the phosphorylation of ZAP-70 and CD3-associated proteins, the ZAP-70-related kinase, p72syk, exhibits similar phosphorylation in naive and memory T cell subsets, suggesting that this kinase could function in place of ZAP-70 in memory CD4 T cells. These results indicate that proximal signals are differentially coupled to the TCR in naive versus memory CD4 T cells, potentially leading to distinct downstream signaling events and ultimately to the diverse functions elicited by these two CD4 T cell subsets.

  16. The CD4+ T cell methylome contributes to a distinct CD4+ T cell transcriptional signature in Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Rachael; Whiston, Ronan; Cormican, Paul; Finlay, Emma K.; Couldrey, Christine; Brady, Colm; O’Farrelly, Cliona; Meade, Kieran G.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that epigenetic regulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes contributes to a shift toward a dysfunctional T cell phenotype which may impact on their ability to clear mycobacterial infection. Combined RNA-seq transcriptomic profiling and Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing identified 193 significantly differentially expressed genes and 760 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), between CD4+ T cells from M. bovis infected and healthy cattle. 196 DMRs were located within 10 kb of annotated genes, including GATA3 and RORC, both of which encode transcription factors that promote TH2 and TH17 T helper cell subsets respectively. Gene-specific DNA methylation and gene expression levels for the TNFRSF4 and Interferon-γ genes were significantly negatively correlated suggesting a regulatory relationship. Pathway analysis of DMRs identified enrichment of genes involved in the anti-proliferative TGF-β signaling pathway and TGFB1 expression was significantly increased in peripheral blood leukocytes from TB-infected cattle. This first analysis of the bovine CD4+ T cell methylome suggests that DNA methylation directly contributes to a distinct gene expression signature in CD4+ T cells from cattle infected with M. bovis. Specific methylation changes proximal to key inflammatory gene loci may be critical to the emergence of a non-protective CD4+ T cell response during mycobacterial infection in cattle. PMID:27507428

  17. Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK)

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Linda; Olson, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCK) were originally identified as effectors of the RhoA small GTPase.1–5 They belong to the AGC family of serine/threonine kinases6 and play vital roles in facilitating actomyosin cytoskeleton contractility downstream of RhoA and RhoC activation. Since their discovery, ROCK kinases have been extensively studied, unveiling their manifold functions in processes including cell contraction, migration, apoptosis, survival, and proliferation. Two mammalian ROCK homologs have been identified, ROCK1 (also called ROCK I, ROKβ, Rho-kinase β, or p160ROCK) and ROCK2 (also known as ROCK II, ROKα, or Rho kinase), hereafter collectively referred to as ROCK. In this review, we will focus on the structure, regulation, and functions of ROCK. PMID:25010901

  18. Repeats in transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) genes.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Seema

    2013-06-01

    Transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins (TACC1, 2, and 3) are essential proteins associated with the assembly of spindle microtubules and maintenance of bipolarity. Dysregulation of TACCs is associated with tumorigenesis, but studies of microsatellite instability in TACC genes have not been extensive. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat instability is known to cause many types of cancer. The present in silico analysis of SSRs in human TACC gene sequences shows the presence of mono- to hexa-nucleotide repeats, with the highest densities found for mono- and di-nucleotide repeats. Density of repeats is higher in introns than in exons. Some of the repeats are present in regulatory regions and retained introns. Human TACC genes show conservation of many repeat classes. Microsatellites in TACC genes could be valuable markers for monitoring numerical chromosomal aberrations and or cancer.

  19. Membrane fusion mediated by coiled coils: a hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, J

    2000-01-01

    A molecular model of the low-pH-induced membrane fusion by influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is proposed based upon the hypothesis that the conformational change to the extended coiled coil creates a high-energy hydrophobic membrane defect in the viral envelope or HA expressing cell. It is known that 1) an aggregate of at least eight HAs is required at the fusion site, yet only two or three of these HAs need to undergo the "essential" conformational change for the first fusion pore to form (Bentz, J. 2000. Biophys. J. 78:000-000); 2) the formation of the first fusion pore signifies a stage of restricted lipid flow into the nascent fusion site; and 3) some HAs can partially insert their fusion peptides into their own viral envelopes at low pH. This suggests that the committed step for HA-mediated fusion begins with a tightly packed aggregate of HAs whose fusion peptides are inserted into their own viral envelope, which causes restricted lateral lipid flow within the HA aggregate. The transition of two or three HAs in the center of the aggregate to the extended coiled coil extracts the fusion peptide and creates a hydrophobic defect in the outer monolayer of the virion, which is stabilized by the closely packed HAs. These HAs are inhibited from diffusing away from the site to admit lateral lipid flow, in part because that would initially increase the surface area of hydrophobic exposure. The other obvious pathway to heal this hydrophobic defect, or some descendent, is recruitment of lipids from the outer monolayer of the apposed target membrane, i.e., fusion. Other viral fusion proteins and the SNARE fusion protein complex appear to fit within this hypothesis. PMID:10653801

  20. CMS-Wave Model: Part 4. An Automated Procedure for CMS-Wave in Resource-Demanding Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    user’s manual for CMS -Wave are available (Lin et al. 2008, 2006; Demirbilek et al. 2007). CMS -Wave is part of the Coastal Modeling System developed...at the same level as the subfolders. Figure 2 shows the contents of the Visser_1991 example subfolder, including two CMS -Wave simulations, named as...and the surrounding area (red line denotes the CMS domain). The Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) was applied to evaluate current and sedimentation

  1. Ion pairs significantly stabilize coiled-coils in the absence of electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Monera, O D; Hodges, R S; Privalov, P L

    1996-01-26

    We have used a synthetic coiled-coil peptide model system to address the long perplexing issue as to why coiled-coils are in general more stable at acidic pH than at neutral pH. Contrary to the above expectation, our results show that at low ionic strength (10 mM) the coiled-coil was much more stable at neutral pH than at acidic pH against both thermal and urea unfolding, indicating that the Lys(+)-Glu- ions pairs present around the coiled-coil interface at neutral pH contribute significantly to the stability of the coiled-coil. However, while the addition of NaCl had no significant effect on the coiled-coil stability at neutral pH, its stability at acidic pH increased dramatically. The cross-over point between the stability at acidic pH and neutral pH occurred at around 100 mM salt, above which the coiled-coil became more stable at acidic pH, in agreement with published results. Therefore, salt effect, rather than intrinsic property, such as carboxyl-carboxyl hydrogen bonding, causes this coiled-coil to become more stable at acidic pH. The preferential stabilizing effect of salt on the coiled-coil at acidic pH can be best explained in terms of the condensation of anions to the positively charged groups on the coiled-coil, the net density of which increases as glutamic acid residues become protonated in acidic pH.

  2. 26 CFR 1.1001-4T - Modifications of certain derivative contracts (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modifications of certain derivative contracts (temporary). 1.1001-4T Section 1.1001-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...) Expiration date. The applicability of this section expires on or before July 21, 2014. ...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1001-4T - Modifications of certain derivative contracts (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modifications of certain derivative contracts (temporary). 1.1001-4T Section 1.1001-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... section applies to transfers or assignments of derivative contracts on or after July 22, 2011....

  4. RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Direction-Selective T4/T5 Neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pankova, Katarina; Borst, Alexander

    Neuronal computation underlying detection of visual motion has been studied for more than a half-century. In Drosophila, direction-selective T4/T5 neurons show supralinear signal amplification in response to stimuli moving in their preferred direction, in agreement with the prediction made by the Hassenstein-Reichardt detector. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism explaining how the Hassenstein-Reichardt model is implemented in T4/T5 cells has not been identified yet. In the present study, we utilized cell type-specific transcriptome profiling with RNA-seq to obtain a complete gene expression profile of T4/T5 neurons. We analyzed the expression of genes that affect neuronal computational properties and can underlie the molecular implementation of the core features of the Hassenstein-Reichardt model to the dendrites of T4/T5 neurons. Furthermore, we used the acquired RNA-seq data to examine the neurotransmitter system used by T4/T5 neurons. Surprisingly, we observed co-expression of the cholinergic markers and the vesicular GABA transporter in T4/T5 neurons. We verified the previously undetected expression of vesicular GABA transporter in T4/T5 cells using VGAT-LexA knock-in line. The provided gene expression dataset can serve as a useful source for studying the properties of direction-selective T4/T5 neurons on the molecular level.

  5. Viral persistence redirects CD4 T cell differentiation toward T follicular helper cells

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Laura M.; Wilson, Elizabeth B.; Elsaesser, Heidi; Fistonich, Chris D.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2011-01-01

    CD4 T cell responses are crucial to prevent and control viral infection; however, virus-specific CD4 T cell activity is considered to be rapidly lost during many persistent viral infections. This is largely caused by the fact that during viral persistence CD4 T cells do not produce the classical Th1 cytokines associated with control of acute viral infections. Considering that CD4 T cell help is critical for both CD8 T cell and B cell functions, it is unclear how CD4 T cells can lose responsiveness but continue to sustain long-term control of persistent viral replication. We now demonstrate that CD4 T cell function is not extinguished as a result of viral persistence. Instead, viral persistence and prolonged T cell receptor stimulation progressively redirects CD4 T cell development away from the Th1 response induced during an acute infection toward T follicular helper cells. Importantly, this sustained CD4 T cell functionality is critical to maintain immunity and ultimately aid in the control of persistent viral infection. PMID:21536743

  6. 26 CFR 1.25-4T - Qualified mortgage credit certificate program (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (Temporary). 1.25-4T Section 1.25-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... mortgage credit certificates in connection with other Federal, State, and local programs provided that such... in paragraph (d)) shall be filed with the Internal Revenue Service Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania...

  7. RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Direction-Selective T4/T5 Neurons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pankova, Katarina; Borst, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal computation underlying detection of visual motion has been studied for more than a half-century. In Drosophila, direction-selective T4/T5 neurons show supralinear signal amplification in response to stimuli moving in their preferred direction, in agreement with the prediction made by the Hassenstein-Reichardt detector. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism explaining how the Hassenstein-Reichardt model is implemented in T4/T5 cells has not been identified yet. In the present study, we utilized cell type-specific transcriptome profiling with RNA-seq to obtain a complete gene expression profile of T4/T5 neurons. We analyzed the expression of genes that affect neuronal computational properties and can underlie the molecular implementation of the core features of the Hassenstein-Reichardt model to the dendrites of T4/T5 neurons. Furthermore, we used the acquired RNA-seq data to examine the neurotransmitter system used by T4/T5 neurons. Surprisingly, we observed co-expression of the cholinergic markers and the vesicular GABA transporter in T4/T5 neurons. We verified the previously undetected expression of vesicular GABA transporter in T4/T5 cells using VGAT-LexA knock-in line. The provided gene expression dataset can serve as a useful source for studying the properties of direction-selective T4/T5 neurons on the molecular level. PMID:27684367

  8. Decision making during the conception and career of CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Steven L

    2009-02-01

    The mechanisms by which thymocytes commit to becoming CD4+ T cells and how these cells subsequently can adopt various cell fates are becoming important paradigms of developmental programming. Understanding how such CD4+ T-cell diversity accommodates both immune reaction against various challenges and the suppression of undesirable responses is also revealing new therapeutic options.

  9. Selective culling of high avidity antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Ertelt, James M; Johanns, Tanner M; Mysz, Margaret A; Nanton, Minelva R; Rowe, Jared H; Aguilera, Marijo N; Way, Sing Sing

    2011-12-01

    Typhoid fever is a persistent infection caused by host-adapted Salmonella strains adept at circumventing immune-mediated host defences. Given the importance of T cells in protection, the culling of activated CD4+ T cells after primary infection has been proposed as a potential immune evasion strategy used by this pathogen. We demonstrate that the purging of activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection requires SPI-2 encoded virulence determinants, and is not restricted only to cells with specificity to Salmonella-expressed antigens, but extends to CD4+ T cells primed to expand by co-infection with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Unexpectedly, however, the loss of activated CD4+ T cells during Salmonella infection demonstrated using a monoclonal population of adoptively transferred CD4+ T cells was not reproduced among the endogenous repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells identified with MHC class II tetramer. Analysis of T-cell receptor variable segment usage revealed the selective loss and reciprocal enrichment of defined CD4+ T-cell subsets after Salmonella co-infection that is associated with the purging of antigen-specific cells with the highest intensity of tetramer staining. Hence, virulent Salmonella triggers the selective culling of high avidity activated CD4+ T-cell subsets, which re-shapes the repertoire of antigen-specific T cells that persist later after infection.

  10. Chronic exposure to trichloroethylene increases DNA methylation of the Ifng promoter in CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathleen M; Blossom, Sarah J; Erickson, Stephen W; Broadfoot, Brannon; West, Kirk; Bai, Shasha; Li, Jingyun; Cooney, Craig A

    2016-10-17

    CD4(+) T cells in female MRL+/+ mice exposed to solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) skew toward effector/memory CD4(+) T cells, and demonstrate seemingly non-monotonic alterations in IFN-γ production. In the current study we examined the mechanism for this immunotoxicity using effector/memory and naïve CD4(+) T cells isolated every 6 weeks during a 40 week exposure to TCE (0.5mg/ml in drinking water). A time-dependent effect of TCE exposure on both Ifng gene expression and IFN-γ protein production was observed in effector/memory CD4(+) T cells, with an increase after 22 weeks of exposure and a decrease after 40 weeks of exposure. No such effect of TCE was observed in naïve CD4(+) T cells. A cumulative increase in DNA methylation in the CpG sites of the promoter of the Ifng gene was observed in effector/memory, but not naïve, CD4(+) T cells over time. Also unique to the Ifng promoter was an increase in methylation variance in effector/memory compared to naïve CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, the CpG sites of the Ifng promoter in effector/memory CD4(+) T cells were especially sensitive to the effects of TCE exposure, which may help explain the regulatory effect of the chemical on this gene.

  11. Polyfunctional cytokine responses by central memory CD4*T cells in response to bovine tuberculosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CD4 T cells are crucial in immunity to tuberculosis (TB). Polyfunctional CD4 T cells simultaneously produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including human TB. Mycobacterium bovis in...

  12. Polyfunctional CD4 T cells in the response to bovine tuberculosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CD4 T cells are crucial in immunity to tuberculosis (TB). Polyfunctional CD4 T cells simultaneously produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including human TB and HIV. However, the a...

  13. Polyfunctional cytokine responses by central memory CD4+T cells in response to bovine tuberculosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CD4 T cells are crucial in immunity to tuberculosis (TB). Polyfunctional CD4 T cells simultaneously produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including human TB and HIV. Mycobacterium ...

  14. IFNγ-producing CD4(+) T lymphocytes: the double-edged swords in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan

    2017-12-01

    IFNγ-producing CD4(+) T cells (IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells) are the key orchestrators of protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Primarily, these cells act by enabling Mtb-infected macrophages to enforce phagosome-lysosome fusion, produce reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs), and activate autophagy pathways. However, TB is a heterogeneous disease and a host of clinical and experimental findings has also implicated IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells in TB pathogenesis. High frequency of IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells is the most invariable feature of the active disease. Active TB patients mount a heightened IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cell response to mycobacterial antigens and demonstrate an IFNγ-inducible transcriptomic signature. IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells have also been shown to mediate TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) observed in a subset of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV- and Mtb-coinfected people. The pathological face of IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells during mycobacterial infection is further uncovered by studies in the animal model of TB-IRIS and in Mtb-infected PD-1(-/-) mice. This manuscript encompasses the evidence supporting the dual role of IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells during Mtb infection and sheds light on immune mechanisms involved in protection versus pathogenesis.

  15. CD4+ T cell-dependent and CD4+ T cell-independent cytokine-chemokine network changes in the immune responses of HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kelly B; Szeto, Gregory L; Alter, Galit; Irvine, Darrell J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2015-10-20

    A vital defect in the immune systems of HIV-infected individuals is the loss of CD4(+) T cells, resulting in impaired immune responses. We hypothesized that there were CD4(+) T cell-dependent and CD4(+) T cell-independent alterations in the immune responses of HIV-1(+) individuals. To test this, we analyzed the secretion of cytokines and chemokines from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations from HIV(+) donors, healthy donors, and healthy donors with CD4(+) T cells experimentally depleted. Multivariate analyses of 16 cytokines and chemokines at 6 and 72 hours after three stimuli (antibody-coated beads to stimulate T cells and R848 or lipopolysaccharide to stimulate innate immune cells) enabled integrative analysis of secreted profiles. Two major effects in HIV(+) PBMCs were not reproduced upon depletion of CD4(+) T cells in healthy PBMCs: (i) HIV(+) PBMCs maintained T cell-associated secreted profiles after T cell stimulation; (ii) HIV(+) PBMCs showed impaired interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion early after innate stimulation. These changes arose from hyperactive T cells and debilitated natural killer (NK) cell, respectively. Modeling and experiments showed that early IFN-γ secretion predicted later differences in secreted profiles in vitro. This effect was recapitulated in healthy PBMCs by blocking the IFN-γ receptor. Thus, we identified a critical deficiency in NK cell responses of HIV-infected individuals, independent of CD4(+) T cell depletion, which directs secreted profiles. Our findings illustrate a broad approach for identifying key disease-associated nodes in a multicellular, multivariate signaling network. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Perforin-dependent CD4+ T-cell cytotoxicity contributes to control a murine poxvirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Min; Siciliano, Nicholas A.; Hersperger, Adam R.; Roscoe, Felicia; Hu, Angela; Ma, Xueying; Shamsedeen, Ahamed R.; Eisenlohr, Laurence C.; Sigal, Luis J.

    2012-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are generally regarded as helpers and regulators of the immune response. Although cytolytic CD4+ T cells have been described, whether those generated during the course of a viral infection play a role in virus control remains unknown. Here we show that during acute infection with ectromelia virus, the mouse homolog of the human virus of smallpox, large numbers of CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph node and liver of resistant mice have a cytotoxic phenotype. We also show that these cells kill targets in vivo in a perforin-dependent manner and that mice with specific deficiency of perforin in CD4+ T cells have impaired virus control. Thus, perforin-dependent CD4+ T-cell killing of infected cells is an important mechanism of antiviral defense. PMID:22665800

  17. Development and Function of Protective and Pathologic Memory CD4 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jaigirdar, Shafqat Ahrar; MacLeod, Megan K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological memory is one of the defining features of the adaptive immune system. As key orchestrators and mediators of immunity, CD4 T cells are central to the vast majority of adaptive immune responses. Generated following an immune response, memory CD4 T cells retain pertinent information about their activation environment enabling them to make rapid effector responses upon reactivation. These responses can either benefit the host by hastening the control of pathogens or cause damaging immunopathology. Here, we will discuss the diversity of the memory CD4 T cell pool, the signals that influence the transition of activated T cells into that pool, and highlight how activation requirements differ between naïve and memory CD4 T cells. A greater understanding of these factors has the potential to aid the design of more effective vaccines and to improve regulation of pathologic CD4 T cells, such as in the context of autoimmunity and allergy. PMID:26441961

  18. The Interplay Between Monocytes/Macrophages and CD4+ T Cell Subsets in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ceri A.; Dickinson, Abigail K.; Taams, Leonie S.

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation of the synovial lining (synovitis). The inflammation in the RA joint is associated with and driven by immune cell infiltration, synovial hyperproliferation, and excessive production of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-17, eventually resulting in damage to the cartilage and underlying bone. The RA joint harbors a wide range of immune cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells (both proinflammatory and regulatory). The interplay between CD14+ myeloid cells and CD4+ T cells can significantly influence CD4+ T cell function, and conversely, effector vs. regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets can exert profound effects on monocyte/macrophage function. In this review, we will discuss how the interplay between CD4+ T cells and monocytes/macrophages may contribute to the immunopathology of RA. PMID:26635790

  19. Normal conducting transfer coil for SQUID NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Tadayuki; Itozaki, Hideo

    2004-03-01

    We have investigated the performance of a normal conducting transfer coil (n-coil) for nondestructive evaluation with a SQUID. The transfer efficiency, which depends on frequency and wire impedance, has been calculated for several coil designs to determine the performance of the n-coil. We have fabricated a 30 mm diameter n-coil and examined its performance with a high-TC SQUID. If both the pick-up coil and the input coil have 50 turns, then at high frequencies the magnetic field produced by the input coil becomes 50% of the magnetic field at the pick-up coil, with a low cut-off frequency of 2 kHz. The experimental result agrees well with a numerical calculation, which suggests a magnitude of magnetic field detected by our SQUID equal to the magnitude of the quasi-uniform magnetic field produced by the input coil. We also confirmed that the thermal noise of the n-coil, produced by its normal resistance, does not become higher than the intrinsic magnetic field noise of the SQUID.

  20. Performance evaluation of matrix gradient coils.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feng; Schultz, Gerrit; Testud, Frederik; Welz, Anna Masako; Weber, Hans; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new performance measure of a matrix coil (also known as multi-coil) from the perspective of efficient, local, non-linear encoding without explicitly considering target encoding fields. An optimization problem based on a joint optimization for the non-linear encoding fields is formulated. Based on the derived objective function, a figure of merit of a matrix coil is defined, which is a generalization of a previously known resistive figure of merit for traditional gradient coils. A cylindrical matrix coil design with a high number of elements is used to illustrate the proposed performance measure. The results are analyzed to reveal novel features of matrix coil designs, which allowed us to optimize coil parameters, such as number of coil elements. A comparison to a scaled, existing multi-coil is also provided to demonstrate the use of the proposed performance parameter. The assessment of a matrix gradient coil profits from using a single performance parameter that takes the local encoding performance of the coil into account in relation to the dissipated power.

  1. Equations determine coiled tubing collapse pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Avakov, V.; Taliaferro, W.

    1995-07-24

    A set of equations has been developed for calculating pipe collapse pressure for oval tubing such as coiled tubing. When coiled tubing is placed onto a reel, the tubing is forced into an oval shape and never again returns to perfect roundness because the coiling process exceeds the plasticity limits of the tubing. Straightening the tubing for the trip into the well does not restore roundness. The consequence of this physical property is that all coiled tubing collapse pressure calculations should be made considering oval tubing, not round tubing. Tubing collapse can occur when formation pressure against the coiled tubing exceeds the collapse resistance inherent in the coiled tubing. As coiled tubing becomes more oval in shape, it becomes more oval in shape, it becomes more susceptible to collapse from outside pressure.

  2. Rectangular coils optimization for wireless power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhu; Guo, Yong-Xin; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Wirelessly coupled coils are crucial for efficient power transmission in various applications. Previous design methods are only eligible for improving the efficiency of circular or square coils. This paper presents a method of characterizing and optimizing rectangular coils used in inductively coupled systems. After setting up a lumped component model for inductive coils, the efficiency can be expressed in terms of geometrical parameters of the coils. Subsequently, the power efficiency can be plotted versus these parameters in Matlab, thus getting the desired coils for optimum power transfer. With this design procedure from mathematical optimization, we eventually designed two rectangular coils spaced 10 mm apart, which achieves a power transmission efficiency of 46.4% at a frequency of 3 MHz. The design methodology is verified by simulation and measurement.

  3. Practical Aspects of Birdcage Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doty, F. David; Entzminger, George; Hauck, Cory D.; Staab, John P.

    1999-05-01

    Numerical modeling and experimental results are presented for a variety of birdcages for high-field MRI microscopy. The data include the first published numerical calculations and experimental measurements of magnetic filling factors of birdcages or other MRI coils. Fast, 3D calculations for shielded coils are demonstrated using the Biot-Savart law along with energy minimization. It is shown that the near-field, higher-order inhomogeneity effects remaining after a first-order, asymmetry correction may easily exceed 20% in situations where it is desirable to maximize filling factor. It is also found that an order-of-magnitude improvement in the accuracy of predicted capacitor values may be achieved by using a more detailed circuit model of the birdcage resonator.

  4. Practical aspects of birdcage coils.

    PubMed

    Doty, F D; Entzminger, G; Hauck, C D; Staab, J P

    1999-05-01

    Numerical modeling and experimental results are presented for a variety of birdcages for high-field MRI microscopy. The data include the first published numerical calculations and experimental measurements of magnetic filling factors of birdcages or other MRI coils. Fast, 3D calculations for shielded coils are demonstrated using the Biot-Savart law along with energy minimization. It is shown that the near-field, higher-order inhomogeneity effects remaining after a first-order, asymmetry correction may easily exceed 20% in situations where it is desirable to maximize filling factor. It is also found that an order-of-magnitude improvement in the accuracy of predicted capacitor values may be achieved by using a more detailed circuit model of the birdcage resonator.

  5. Starch gelatinization in coiled heaters.

    PubMed

    Kelder, J D H; Ptasinski, K J; Kerkhof, P J A M

    2004-01-01

    A gelatinizing model food derived from a 5% w/w cross-linked waxy maize starch suspension was simulated in coiled heaters to assess the impact of centrifugal forces on flow and heat transfer. For four coil diameters (D = 0.25, 1, 2.5, and infinity m) and three flow rates (w = 0.5, 1, and 2 m/s), heat transfer, viscous development, and the severity of channeling were evaluated. Increasing curvature proved to suppress channeling as a result of more uniform heating and gelatinization. The maximum attainable viscosity was also higher, implying a lower starch consumption for a target viscosity. Higher flow rates necessitated longer heaters, and the maximum viscosity decreased. Moderate product velocities are therefore recommended.

  6. Three-dimensional coil inductor

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional coil inductor is disclosed. The inductor includes a substrate; a set of lower electrically conductive traces positioned on the substrate; a core placed over the lower traces; a set of side electrically conductive traces laid on the core and the lower traces; and a set of upper electrically conductive traces attached to the side traces so as to form the inductor. Fabrication of the inductor includes the steps of forming a set of lower traces on a substrate; positioning a core over the lower traces; forming a set of side traces on the core; connecting the side traces to the lower traces; forming a set of upper traces on the core; and connecting the upper traces to the side traces so as to form a coil structure.

  7. CD137 is a Useful Marker for Identifying CD4(+) T Cell Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Z-H; Zheng, X-F; Yi, L; Wang, J; Wang, X-J; Wei, P-J; Jia, H-Y; Zhou, L-J; Zhao, Y-L; Zhang, H-T

    2017-05-01

    Upregulation of CD137 on recently activated CD8(+) T cells has been used to identify rare viral and tumour antigen-specific T cells from the peripheral blood. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CD137 for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-reactive CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood of infected individuals by flow cytometry and to investigate the characteristics of these CD137(+) CD4(+) T cells. We initially enrolled 31 active tuberculosis (TB) patients, 31 individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) and 25 healthy donors. The intracellular CD137 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by CD4(+) T cells was simultaneously detected under unstimulated and CFP10-stimulated (culture filtrate protein 10, a Mtb-specific antigen) conditions. In unstimulated CD4(+) T cells, we found that the CD137 expression in the TB group was significantly higher than that in the LTBI group. Stimulation with CFP10 largely increased the CD4(+) T cell CD137 expression in both the TB and LTBI groups. After CFP10 stimulation, the frequency of CD137(+) CD4(+) T cells was higher than that of IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) T cells in both the TB and LTBI groups. Most of the CFP10-activated IFN-γ-secreting cells were CD137-positive, but only a small fraction of the CD137-positive cells expressed IFN-γ. An additional 20 patients with TB were enrolled to characterize the CD45RO(+) CCR7(+) , CD45RO(+) CCR7(-) and CD45RO(-) subsets in the CD137(+) CD4(+) T cell populations. The Mtb-specific CD137(+) CD4(+) T cells were mainly identified as having an effector memory phenotype. In conclusion, CD137 is a useful marker that can be used for identifying Mtb-reactive CD4(+) T cells by flow cytometry. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  8. The investigation of CD4+T-cell functions in primary HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu; Fu, Yajing; Zhang, Zining; Tang, Tian; Liu, Jing; Ding, Haibo; Han, Xiaoxu; Xu, Junjie; Chu, Zhenxing; Shang, Hong; Jiang, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to reduced CD4+T-cell counts and immune dysfunction. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV primary infection has been recommended to achieve an optimal clinical outcome, but a comprehensive study on restoration of CD4+T-cell function in primary HIV-infected individuals with ART still needs to be eluciated. We investigated longitudinal changes in the CD4+T-cell counts, phenotypes, and functions in HIV-infected individuals with early ART (initiated within 6 months after HIV infection) or later ART (initiated more than 12 months after HIV infection). Patients from early ART and later ART groups had received ART for at least 1 year. Individuals with early ART had more CD4+T cells, a faster rate of CD4+T-cell recovery than those receiving later ART; the levels of CD4+T-cell activation and senescence were lower in early ART compared to those with later ART (P = .031; P = .016), but the activation was higher than normal controls (NC) (P = .001); thymic emigrant function was more upregulated in early ART than in later ART (P = .015), but still lower than NC (P = .027); proliferative capacity and interferon-γ secretion of CD4+T cells were significantly decreased in primary infection (P < .001; P = .029), and early ART restored these CD4+T-cell functions, there is no difference with NC, later ART could partially restore the functions of CD4+T cells, but it remained lower than that of NC (P = .005; P = .019). Early ART could better improve CD4+T-cell function. PMID:28700479

  9. Segmented Coil Fails In Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil degrades in steps when faults occur, continues to operate at reduced level instead of failing catastrophically. Made in segments connected in series and separated by electrically insulating barriers. Fault does not damage adjacent components or create hazard. Used to control valves in such critical applications as cooling systems of power generators and chemical process equipment, where flammable liquids or gases handled. Also adapts to electrical control of motors.

  10. Underbalanced coiled tubing sidetrack successful

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.; Berry, M.

    1995-12-18

    The technique of drilling through a completion string, underbalanced, with coiled tubing eliminated some of the problems encountered with overbalanced drilling in a group of offset wells. This project confirmed that performing drilling operations in live wells can be carried out safely and effectively. Dalen is a sour gas field in the eastern part of The Netherlands and produces from vertical fractures in the Zechstein carbonate reservoir. The proposal for Dalen 2 was to abandon the lower section of the original hole and subsequently sidetrack conventionally to the top of the reservoir, run and cement a 5-in. liner, complete the well with a 5-in. monobore completion, and install the christmas tree. This part of the operation would be performed with a workover hoist. Thereafter, a 3 3/4-in. hole would be drilled through the completion and into the reservoir, underbalanced with coiled tubing. The drilling proposal had to address a number of key issues: creating underbalanced conditions; handling sour gas production at surface; handling and treating drilling fluids at surface; removing drilled solids from the returned fluid system; and deploying a long coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) into a live well. The paper discusses planning, legislative issues, well preparation, the drilling program, and lessons learned.

  11. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  12. Role of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells in the tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wu; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jia-Hao; Wang, Shi-Jun; Liao, Cun; Cai, Bin; Chen, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Yun; Cao, Yun-Fei; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-21

    To investigate the abundance and potential functions of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). Proportions of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells were examined in peripheral blood and tumor/paratumor tissues of CRC patients and healthy controls using flow cytometry. Expression of phenotypic markers such as forkhead box (Fox)p3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4, chemokine CC receptor (CCR)4 and CCR5 was measured using flow cytometry. LAP(-)CD4(+) and LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells were isolated using a magnetic cell-sorting system and cell purity was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The proportion of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells was significantly higher in peripheral blood from patients (9.44% ± 3.18%) than healthy controls (1.49% ± 1.00%, P < 0.001). Among patients, the proportion of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells was significantly higher in tumor tissues (11.76% ± 3.74%) compared with paratumor tissues (3.87% ± 1.64%, P < 0.001). We also observed positive correlations between the proportion of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells and TNM stage (P < 0.001), distant metastasis (P < 0.001) and serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen (P < 0.05). Magnetic-activated cell sorting gave an overall enrichment of LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells (95.02% ± 2.87%), which was similar for LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells (94.75% ± 2.76%). In contrast to LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells, LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells showed lower Foxp3 expression but significantly higher levels of CTLA-4, CCR4 and CCR5 (P < 0.01). LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells expressed significantly larger amounts of IL-10 and TGF-β but lower levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17 and interferon-γ, compared with LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells. LAP(+)CD4(+) T cells accumulated in the tumor microenvironment of CRC patients and were involved in immune evasion mediated by IL-10 and TGF-β.

  13. Role of LAP+CD4+ T cells in the tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wu; Jiang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Jia-Hao; Wang, Shi-Jun; Liao, Cun; Cai, Bin; Chen, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Yun; Cao, Yun-Fei; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the abundance and potential functions of LAP+CD4+ T cells in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS Proportions of LAP+CD4+ T cells were examined in peripheral blood and tumor/paratumor tissues of CRC patients and healthy controls using flow cytometry. Expression of phenotypic markers such as forkhead box (Fox)p3, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4, chemokine CC receptor (CCR)4 and CCR5 was measured using flow cytometry. LAP-CD4+ and LAP+CD4+ T cells were isolated using a magnetic cell-sorting system and cell purity was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. RESULTS The proportion of LAP+CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in peripheral blood from patients (9.44% ± 3.18%) than healthy controls (1.49% ± 1.00%, P < 0.001). Among patients, the proportion of LAP+CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in tumor tissues (11.76% ± 3.74%) compared with paratumor tissues (3.87% ± 1.64%, P < 0.001). We also observed positive correlations between the proportion of LAP+CD4+ T cells and TNM stage (P < 0.001), distant metastasis (P < 0.001) and serum level of carcinoembryonic antigen (P < 0.05). Magnetic-activated cell sorting gave an overall enrichment of LAP+CD4+ T cells (95.02% ± 2.87%), which was similar for LAP-CD4+ T cells (94.75% ± 2.76%). In contrast to LAP-CD4+ T cells, LAP+CD4+ T cells showed lower Foxp3 expression but significantly higher levels of CTLA-4, CCR4 and CCR5 (P < 0.01). LAP+CD4+ T cells expressed significantly larger amounts of IL-10 and TGF-β but lower levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-17 and interferon-γ, compared with LAP-CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION LAP+CD4+ T cells accumulated in the tumor microenvironment of CRC patients and were involved in immune evasion mediated by IL-10 and TGF-β. PMID:28210081

  14. Design of a superconducting volume coil for magnetic resonance microscopy of the mouse brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouls, John C.; Izenson, Michael G.; Greeley, Harold P.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2008-04-01

    We present the design process of a superconducting volume coil for magnetic resonance microscopy of the mouse brain at 9.4 T. The yttrium barium copper oxide coil has been designed through an iterative process of three-dimensional finite-element simulations and validation against room temperature copper coils. Compared to previous designs, the Helmholtz pair provides substantially higher B1 homogeneity over an extended volume of interest sufficiently large to image biologically relevant specimens. A custom-built cryogenic cooling system maintains the superconducting probe at 60 ± 0.1 K. Specimen loading and probe retuning can be carried out interactively with the coil at operating temperature, enabling much higher through-put. The operation of the probe is a routine, consistent procedure. Signal-to-noise ratio in a mouse brain increased by a factor ranging from 1.1 to 2.9 as compared to a room-temperature solenoid coil optimized for mouse brain microscopy. We demonstrate images encoded at 10 × 10 × 20 μm for an entire mouse brain specimen with signal-to-noise ratio of 18 and a total acquisition time of 16.5 h, revealing neuroanatomy unseen at lower resolution. Phantom measurements show an effective spatial resolution better than 20 μm.

  15. Design of a superconducting volume coil for magnetic resonance microscopy of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Nouls, John C; Izenson, Michael G; Greeley, Harold P; Johnson, G Allan

    2008-04-01

    We present the design process of a superconducting volume coil for magnetic resonance microscopy of the mouse brain at 9.4T. The yttrium barium copper oxide coil has been designed through an iterative process of three-dimensional finite-element simulations and validation against room temperature copper coils. Compared to previous designs, the Helmholtz pair provides substantially higher B(1) homogeneity over an extended volume of interest sufficiently large to image biologically relevant specimens. A custom-built cryogenic cooling system maintains the superconducting probe at 60+/-0.1K. Specimen loading and probe retuning can be carried out interactively with the coil at operating temperature, enabling much higher through-put. The operation of the probe is a routine, consistent procedure. Signal-to-noise ratio in a mouse brain increased by a factor ranging from 1.1 to 2.9 as compared to a room-temperature solenoid coil optimized for mouse brain microscopy. We demonstrate images encoded at 10x10x20mum for an entire mouse brain specimen with signal-to-noise ratio of 18 and a total acquisition time of 16.5h, revealing neuroanatomy unseen at lower resolution. Phantom measurements show an effective spatial resolution better than 20mum.

  16. Multi circular-cavity surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain at 4 Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, A. I.; Solis-Najera, S. E.; Vázquez, F.; Wang, R. L.; Tomasi, D.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2014-11-01

    Animal models in medical research has been used to study humans diseases for several decades. The use of different imaging techniques together with different animal models offers a great advantage due to the possibility to study some human pathologies without the necessity of chirurgical intervention. The employ of magnetic resonance imaging for the acquisition of anatomical and functional images is an excellent tool because its noninvasive nature. Dedicated coils to perform magnetic resonance imaging experiments are obligatory due to the improvement on the signal-to-noise ratio and reduced specific absorption ratio. A specifically designed surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging of monkey's brain is proposed based on the multi circular-slot coil. Numerical simulations of the magnetic and electric fields were also performed using the Finite Integration Method to solve Maxwell's equations for this particular coil design and, to study the behavior of various vector magnetic field configurations and specific absorption ratio. Monkey's brain images were then acquired with a research-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging system at 4T, to evaluate the anatomical images with conventional imaging sequences. This coil showed good quality images of a monkey's brain and full compatibility with standard pulse sequences implemented in research-dedicated imager.

  17. A comparison of coupling efficiencies for a Stix coil and an m equals 1 coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    This theoretical and experimental study compares the ion-cyclotron wave generating characteristics of a Stix coil (which generates waves with azimuthal mode number m = 0) with those of a coil which produces primarily m = + or -1 ion-cyclotron modes. The theoretical work of J.E. Hipp, which predicted very good coupling for the m = 1 coil, was extended to determine the scaling laws for plasma column radius and coil wavelength. Experimentally, an m = 1 coil and an m = 0 coil were used to generate ion-cyclotron waves on a beam generated plasma column with electron density = 10 to the 12th power/cu cm. Coupling resonances with peak efficiencies of approximately 40 to 50 percent were measured for both coils in low power (approximately 10k W) experiments. For equal power transfer to the plasma, the m = 0 coil voltage was more than a factor of two greater than that for the m = 1 coil.

  18. Design, fabrication, and testing of the pulse coils for the Large Coil Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chipley, K.K.; Parrelli, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) will be able to test up to six large superconducting coils similar to those required for a tokamak reactor. In order to simulate the transient vertical field that will be part of the magnetic environment of an operating tokamak reactor, a set of pulse coils will be used in the facility. This set of two coils can be positioned in the bore of any of the test coils to provide a transient magnetic field to that particular coil. This paper describes the final design of the pulse coils and discusses the fabrication techniques used to build these coils. An extensive testing program has been carried out during fabrication to ensure that the coils will function satisfactorily.

  19. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, N.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D. P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data.

  20. Structural implications of conserved aspartate residues located in tropomyosin’s coiled-coil core

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Li, Xiaochuan; Nirody, Jasmine; Fischer, Stefan; Lehman, William

    2011-01-01

    Polar residues lying between adjacent α-helical chains of coiled-coils often contribute to coiled-coil curvature and flexibility, while more typical core hydrophobic residues anneal the chains together. In tropomyosins, ranging from smooth and skeletal muscle to cytoplasmic isoforms, a highly conserved Asp at residue 137 places negative charges within the tropomyosin coiled-coil core in a position which may affect the conformation needed for tropomyosin binding and regulatory movements on actin. Proteolytic susceptibility suggested that substituting a canonical Leu for the naturally occurring Asp at residue 137 increases inter-chain rigidity by stabilizing the tropomyosin coiled-coil. Using molecular dynamics, we now directly assess changes in coiled-coil curvature and flexibility caused by such mutants. Although the coiled-coil flexibility is modestly diminished near the residue 137 mutation site, as expected, a delocalized increase in flexibility along the overall coiled-coil is observed. Even though the average shape of the D137L tropomyosin is straighter than that of wild-type tropomyosin, it is still capable of binding actin due to this increase in flexibility. We conclude that the conserved, non-canonical Asp-137 destabilizes the local structure resulting in a local flexible region in the middle of tropomyosin that normally is important for tropomyosin steady-state equilibrium position on actin. PMID:22754618

  1. Exploring alternate states and oligomerization preferences of coiled-coils by de novo structure modeling.

    PubMed

    Rämisch, Sebastian; Lizatović, Robert; André, Ingemar

    2015-02-01

    Homomeric coiled-coils can self-assemble into a wide range of structural states with different helix topologies and oligomeric states. In this study, we have combined de novo structure modeling with stability calculations to simultaneously predict structure and oligomeric states of homomeric coiled-coils. For dimers an asymmetric modeling protocol was developed. Modeling without symmetry constraints showed that backbone asymmetry is important for the formation of parallel dimeric coiled-coils. Collectively, our results demonstrate that high-resolution structure of coiled-coils, as well as parallel and antiparallel orientations of dimers and tetramers, can be accurately predicted from sequence. De novo modeling was also used to generate models of competing oligomeric states, which were used to compare stabilities and thus predict the native stoichiometry from sequence. In a benchmark set of 33 coiled-coil sequences, forming dimers to pentamers, up to 70% of the oligomeric states could be correctly predicted. The calculations demonstrated that the free energy of helix folding could be an important factor for determining stability and oligomeric state of homomeric coiled-coils. The computational methods developed here should be broadly applicable to studies of sequence-structure relationships in coiled-coils and the design of higher order assemblies with improved oligomerization specificity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Mechanical Coil Insertion System for Endovascular Coil Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Haraguchi, K.; Miyachi, S.; Matsubara, N.; Nagano, Y.; Yamada, H.; Marui, N.; Sano, A.; Fujimoto, H.; Izumi, T.; Yamanouchi, T.; Asai, T.; Wakabayashi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Like other fields of medicine, robotics and mechanization might be introduced into endovascular coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms for effective treatment. We have already reported that coil insertion force could be smaller and more stable when the coil delivery wire is driven mechanically at a constant speed. Another background is the difficulty in synchronizing operators' minds and hands when two operators control the microcatheter and the coil respectively. We have therefore developed a mechanical coil insertion system enabling a single operator to insert coils at a fixed speed while controlling the microcatheter. Using our new system, the operator manipulated the microcatheter with both hands and drove the coil using foot switches simultaneously. A delivery wire force sensor previously reported was used concurrently, allowing the operator to detect excessive stress on the wire. In vitro coil embolization was performed using three methods: simple mechanical advance of the coil; simple mechanical advance of the coil with microcatheter control; and driving (forward and backward) of the coil using foot switches in addition to microcatheter control. The system worked without any problems, and did not interfere with any procedures. In experimental coil embolization, delivery wire control using the foot switches as well as microcatheter manipulation helped to achieve successful insertion of coils. This system could offer the possibility of developing safer and more efficient coil embolization. Although we aim at total mechanization and automation of procedures in the future, microcatheter manipulation and synchronized delivery wire control are still indispensable using this system. PMID:23693038

  3. An inverse methodology for high frequency RF head coil design with preemphasized B/sub 1/ field in MRI.

    PubMed

    Xu, B; Crozier, S; Li, B K; Wei, Q; Liu, F

    2004-01-01

    An inverse methodology to assist in the design of radio-frequency (RF) head coils for high field MRI application is described in this work. Free space time-harmonic electromagnetic Green's functions and preemphasized B/sub 1/ field are used to calculate the current density on the coil cylinder. With B/sub 1/ field preemphasized and lowered in the middle of the RF transverse plane, the calculated current distribution can generate an internal magnetic field that can reduce the EM field/tissue interactions at high frequencies. The current distribution of a head coil operating at 4 T is calculated using inverse methodology with preemphasized B/sub 1/ fields. FDTD is employed to calculate B/sub 1/ field and signal intensity inside a homogenous cylindrical phantom and human head. A comparison with conventional RF birdcage coil is reported here and demonstrated that inverse-method designed coil with preemphasized B/sub 1/ field can help in decreasing the notorious bright region caused by EM field/tissue interactions in the human head images at 4 T.

  4. Studies on the T cell receptor (TCR) revision of autoantibody-inducing CD4 T (aiCD4 T) cell.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Shunichi; Uto, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies into the role of autoantibody-inducing CD4 T cells in autoimmune disease have necessitated studies on the mechanism of TCR revision, a phenomenon that has been difficult to approach experimentally. Here we describe a detailed experimental technique to investigate the molecular events involved in TCR revision.

  5. Exotic quarkonium states in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristella, Leonardo

    2017-03-01

    The studies of the production of the X(3872), either prompt or from B hadron decays, and of the J/ψϕ mass spectrum in B hadron decays have been carried out by using pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The cross-section ratio of the X(3872) with respect to the ψ(2S ) in the J/ψπ+π- decay channel and the fraction of X(3872) coming from B-hadron decays are measured as a function of transverse momentum (pT), covering unprecedentedly high values of pT. For the first time, the prompt production cross section for the X(3872) times the unknown branching fraction for the decay of X(3872) →J/ψπ+π- is extracted differentially in pT and compared to theoretical predictions based on the Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization approach. The dipion invariant-mass spectrum of the J/ψπ+π- system in the X(3872) decay is also investigated. A peaking structure in the J/ψϕ mass spectrum near threshold is observed in B± → J/ψϕK± decays. The data sample, selected on the basis of the dimuon decay mode of the J/ψ, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.2 fb-1. Fitting the structure to an S-wave relativistic Breit-Wigner lineshape above a three-body phase-space nonresonant component gives a signal statistical significance exceeding five standard deviations. The fitted mass and width values are m = 4148.0 ± 2.4(stat.) ± 6.3(syst.) MeV and Γ = 28-11+15 (stat.) ± 19(syst.) MeV, respectively. Evidence for an additional peaking structure at higher J/ψϕ mass is also reported. The search for resonance-like structures in the Bs0π± invariant mass spectrum do not show any unexpected result. An upper limit on the relative production of the claimed X(5568) and Bs multiplied by the unknown branching fraction of the decay X(5568) → Bsπ± is estimated to be 3.9% at 95% CL in the most conservative case.

  6. Transmission of survival signals through Delta-like 1 on activated CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Takahiro; Ishifune, Chieko; Tsukumo, Shin-ichi; Hozumi, Katsuto; Maekawa, Yoichi; Matsui, Naoko; Kaji, Ryuji; Yasutomo, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Notch expressed on CD4+ T cells transduces signals that mediate their effector functions and survival. Although Notch signaling is known to be cis-inhibited by Notch ligands expressed on the same cells, the role of Notch ligands on T cells remains unclear. In this report we demonstrate that the CD4+ T cell Notch ligand Dll1 transduces signals required for their survival. Co-transfer of CD4+ T cells from Dll1−/− and control mice into recipient mice followed by immunization revealed a rapid decline of CD4+ T cells from Dll1−/− mice compared with control cells. Dll1−/− mice exhibited lower clinical scores of experimental autoimmune encephalitis than control mice. The expression of Notch target genes in CD4+ T cells from Dll1−/− mice was not affected, suggesting that Dll1 deficiency in T cells does not affect cis Notch signaling. Overexpression of the intracellular domain of Dll1 in Dll1-deficient CD4+ T cells partially rescued impaired survival. Our data demonstrate that Dll1 is an independent regulator of Notch-signaling important for the survival of activated CD4+ T cells, and provide new insight into the physiological roles of Notch ligands as well as a regulatory mechanism important for maintaining adaptive immune responses. PMID:27659682

  7. Itk Signals Promote Neuroinflammation by Regulating CD4+ T-Cell Activation and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Arun K.; Kim, Do-Geun

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (Itk) signaling in cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4+) T cells promotes experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We show that Itk−/− mice exhibit reduced disease severity, and transfer of Itk−/− CD4+ T cells into T cell-deficient recipients results in lower disease severity. We observed a significant reduction of CD4+ T cells in the CNS of Itk−/− mice or recipients of Itk−/− CD4+ T cells during EAE, which is consistent with attenuated disease. Itk−/− CD4+ T cells exhibit defective response to myelin antigen stimulation attributable to displacement of filamentous actin from the CD4+ coreceptor. This results in inadequate transmigration of Itk−/− CD4+ T cells into the CNS and across brain endothelial barriers in vitro. Finally, Itk−/− CD4+ T cells show significant reduction in production of T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cytokines and exhibit skewed T effector/T regulatory cell ratios. These results indicate that signaling by Itk promotes autoimmunity and CNS inflammation, suggesting that it may be a viable target for treatment of MS. PMID:25568116

  8. Orchestration of CD4 T cell epitope preferences after multi-peptide immunization

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jacqueline; Sant, Andrea J.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie epitope preferences in T cell priming is important for vaccines designed to elicit a broad T cell response. Protein vaccinations generally elicit CD4 T cell responses that are skewed toward a small fraction of epitopes, a phenomenon known as immunodominance. This characteristic of T cell responses, that limits the diversity of CD4 T cell recognition, is generally attributed to intracellular antigen processing. However, we recently discovered that immunodominance hierarchies persist even after vaccination with synthetic peptides. In this study, we probed the regulatory mechanisms that cause diminished CD4 T cell responses to subdominant peptides after such multi-peptide immunization in mice. We have found that the delivery of subdominant and dominant epitopes on separate dendritic cells rescues expansion of less favored CD4 T cells. Furthermore, through the use of genetic models and inhibitors, we have found that selective losses in CD4 T cell responses are mediated by an IFN-γ-induced pathway, involving indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and that regulatory T cell (Treg) activities may also regulate preferences in CD4 T cell specificity. We propose that after multi-peptide immunization, the expansion and differentiation of dominant T cells initiate complex regulatory events that determine the final peptide specificity of the elicited CD4 T cell response. PMID:23772029

  9. Coiled-coil protein composition of 22 proteomes – differences and common themes in subcellular infrastructure and traffic control

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Annkatrin; Schraegle, Shannon J; Stahlberg, Eric A; Meier, Iris

    2005-01-01

    Background Long alpha-helical coiled-coil proteins are involved in diverse organizational and regulatory processes in eukaryotic cells. They provide cables and networks in the cyto- and nucleoskeleton, molecular scaffolds that organize membrane systems and tissues, motors, levers, rotating arms, and possibly springs. Mutations in long coiled-coil proteins have been implemented in a growing number of human diseases. Using the coiled-coil prediction program MultiCoil, we have previously identified all long coiled-coil proteins from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and have established a searchable Arabidopsis coiled-coil protein database. Results Here, we have identified all proteins with long coiled-coil domains from 21 additional fully sequenced genomes. Because regions predicted to form coiled-coils interfere with sequence homology determination, we have developed a sequence comparison and clustering strategy based on masking predicted coiled-coil domains. Comparing and grouping all long coiled-coil proteins from 22 genomes, the kingdom-specificity of coiled-coil protein families was determined. At the same time, a number of proteins with unknown function could be grouped with already characterized proteins from other organisms. Conclusion MultiCoil predicts proteins with extended coiled-coil domains (more than 250 amino acids) to be largely absent from bacterial genomes, but present in archaea and eukaryotes. The structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins and their relatives are the only long coiled-coil protein family clearly conserved throughout all kingdoms, indicating their ancient nature. Motor proteins, membrane tethering and vesicle transport proteins are the dominant eukaryote-specific long coiled-coil proteins, suggesting that coiled-coil proteins have gained functions in the increasingly complex processes of subcellular infrastructure maintenance and trafficking control of the eukaryotic cell. PMID:16288662

  10. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-4T - Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-4T Section 1.103(n)-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-4T Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit... carryforward for any one or more projects described in A-5 of this § 1.103(n)-4T (carryforward projects). Q-2...

  11. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-4T - Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-4T Section 1.103(n)-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-4T Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit... carryforward for any one or more projects described in A-5 of this § 1.103(n)-4T (carryforward projects)....

  12. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-4T - Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bond limit (temporary). 1.103(n)-4T Section 1.103(n)-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-4T Elective carryforward of unused private activity bond limit... carryforward for any one or more projects described in A-5 of this § 1.103(n)-4T (carryforward projects). Q-2...

  13. Prolonged CD4 T Cell Lymphopenia Increases Morbidity and Mortality after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Courivaud, Cécile; Bamoulid, Jamal; Vivet, Bérengère; Chabroux, Aline; Deschamps, Marina; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Ferrand, Christophe; Chalopin, Jean-Marc; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged CD4 T cell lymphopenia after administration of polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulins increases the rate of posttransplantation morbidity, but whether impaired immune reconstitution affects survival is unknown. We studied the effect of CD4 T cell lymphopenia on survival in 302 consecutive prevalent renal transplant recipients and the role of thymic function in CD4 T cell reconstitution and posttransplantation outcomes in 100 consecutive incident renal transplant recipients. We followed the prevalent cohort for a mean duration of 92 months. Of these 302 patients, 81 (27%) had persistent CD4 T cell counts <300/mm3 and 36 (12%) died during follow-up. We observed a higher death rate in patients with CD4 T cell lymphopenia persisting for >1 year (24.1 versus 7.6%; P < 0.001). Furthermore, in Cox regression analysis, CD4 T cell lymphopenia associated with a nearly five-fold risk for death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.91 to 10.65; P = 0.001). In the incident cohort, we estimated thymic function by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) per 150,000 CD3+ cells, which predicted efficient CD4 T cell reconstitution. Higher pretransplantation TREC values associated with lower risks for cancer (adjusted HR 0.39; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.97; P = 0.046) and infection (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.78; P = 0.013). In summary, prolonged polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin–induced CD4 T cell lymphopenia is an independent risk factor for death. Determination of pretransplantation thymic function may identify patients at higher risk for CD4 T cell lymphopenia and posttransplantation morbidity, including cancer and infections. PMID:20203160

  14. Prolonged CD4 T cell lymphopenia increases morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ducloux, Didier; Courivaud, Cécile; Bamoulid, Jamal; Vivet, Bérengère; Chabroux, Aline; Deschamps, Marina; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Ferrand, Christophe; Chalopin, Jean-Marc; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Prolonged CD4 T cell lymphopenia after administration of polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulins increases the rate of posttransplantation morbidity, but whether impaired immune reconstitution affects survival is unknown. We studied the effect of CD4 T cell lymphopenia on survival in 302 consecutive prevalent renal transplant recipients and the role of thymic function in CD4 T cell reconstitution and posttransplantation outcomes in 100 consecutive incident renal transplant recipients. We followed the prevalent cohort for a mean duration of 92 months. Of these 302 patients, 81 (27%) had persistent CD4 T cell counts <300/mm3 and 36 (12%) died during follow-up. We observed a higher death rate in patients with CD4 T cell lymphopenia persisting for >1 year (24.1 versus 7.6%; P < 0.001). Furthermore, in Cox regression analysis, CD4 T cell lymphopenia associated with a nearly five-fold risk for death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.91 to 10.65; P = 0.001). In the incident cohort, we estimated thymic function by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) per 150,000 CD3+ cells, which predicted efficient CD4 T cell reconstitution. Higher pretransplantation TREC values associated with lower risks for cancer (adjusted HR 0.39; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.97; P = 0.046) and infection (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.78; P = 0.013). In summary, prolonged polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin-induced CD4 T cell lymphopenia is an independent risk factor for death. Determination of pretransplantation thymic function may identify patients at higher risk for CD4 T cell lymphopenia and posttransplantation morbidity, including cancer and infections.

  15. DJ-1/Park7 Sensitive Na(+) /H(+) Exchanger 1 (NHE1) in CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuetao; Shi, Xiaolong; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shaqiu; Salker, Madhuri S; Mack, Andreas F; Föller, Michael; Mak, Tak W; Singh, Yogesh; Lang, Florian

    2016-08-10

    DJ-1/Park7 is a redox-sensitive chaperone protein counteracting oxidation and presumably contributing to the control of oxidative stress responses and thus inflammation. DJ-1 gene deletion exacerbates the progression of Parkinson's disease presumably by augmenting oxidative stress. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is paralleled by activation of the Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1). ROS formation in CD4(+) T cells plays a decisive role in regulating inflammatory responses. In the present study we explored whether DJ-1 is expressed in CD4(+) T cells and affects ROS production as well as NHE1 in those cells. To this end, DJ-1 and NHE1 transcript and protein levels were quantified by qRT-PCR and Western blotting respectively, intracellular pH (pHi) utilizing bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) fluorescence, NHE activity from realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, and ROS production utilizing 2',7' -dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence. As a result DJ-1 was expressed in CD4(+) T cells. ROS formation, NHE1 transcript levels, NHE1 protein, and NHE activity were higher in CD4(+) T cells from DJ-1 deficient mice than in CD4(+) T cells from wild type mice. Antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor staurosporine decreased the NHE activity in DJ-1 deficient CD4(+) T cells, and blunted the difference between DJ-1(-/-) and DJ-1(+/+) CD4(+) T cells, an observation pointing to a role of ROS in the up-regulation of NHE1 in DJ-1(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, DJ-1 is a powerful regulator of ROS production as well as NHE1 expression and activity in CD4(+) T cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimized Geometry for Superconducting Sensing Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Pananen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2008-01-01

    An optimized geometry has been proposed for superconducting sensing coils that are used in conjunction with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and related applications in which magnetic fields of small dipoles are detected. In designing a coil of this type, as in designing other sensing coils, one seeks to maximize the sensitivity of the detector of which the coil is a part, subject to geometric constraints arising from the proximity of other required equipment. In MRI or MEG, the main benefit of maximizing the sensitivity would be to enable minimization of measurement time. In general, to maximize the sensitivity of a detector based on a sensing coil coupled with a SQUID sensor, it is necessary to maximize the magnetic flux enclosed by the sensing coil while minimizing the self-inductance of this coil. Simply making the coil larger may increase its self-inductance and does not necessarily increase sensitivity because it also effectively increases the distance from the sample that contains the source of the signal that one seeks to detect. Additional constraints on the size and shape of the coil and on the distance from the sample arise from the fact that the sample is at room temperature but the coil and the SQUID sensor must be enclosed within a cryogenic shield to maintain superconductivity.

  17. Modular Coils with Low Hydrogen Content Especially for MRI of Dry Solids

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Elmar; Gröbner, Jens; Göpper, Michael; Eisenbeiss, Anne-Katrin; Flügge, Tabea; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Hövener, Jan-Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent advances have enabled fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of solid materials. This development has opened up new applications for MRI, but, at the same time, uncovered new challenges. Previously, MRI-invisible materials like the housing of MRI detection coils are now readily depicted and either cause artifacts or lead to a decreased image resolution. In this contribution, we present versatile, multi-nuclear single and dual-tune MRI coils that stand out by (1) a low hydrogen content for high-resolution MRI of dry solids without artifacts; (2) a modular approach with exchangeable inductors of variable volumes to optimally enclose the given object; (3) low cost and low manufacturing effort that is associated with the modular approach; (4) accurate sample placement in the coil outside of the bore, and (5) a wide, single- or dual-tune frequency range that covers several nuclei and enables multinuclear MRI without moving the sample. Materials and Methods The inductors of the coils were constructed from self-supporting copper sheets to avoid all plastic materials within or around the resonator. The components that were mounted at a distance from the inductor, including the circuit board, coaxial cable and holder were manufactured from polytetrafluoroethylene. Results and Conclusion Residual hydrogen signal was sufficiently well suppressed to allow 1H-MRI of dry solids with a minimum field of view that was smaller than the sensitive volume of the coil. The SNR was found to be comparable but somewhat lower with respect to commercial, proton-rich quadrature coils, and higher with respect to a linearly-polarized commercial coil. The potential of the setup presented was exemplified by 1H / 23Na high-resolution zero echo time (ZTE) MRI of a model solution and a dried human molar at 9.4 T. A full 3D image dataset of the tooth was obtained, rich in contrast and similar to the resolution of standard cone-beam computed tomography. PMID:26496192

  18. Calorimeter Simulation with Hadrons in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    CMS is using Geant4 to simulate the detector setup for the forthcoming data from the LHC. Validation of physics processes inside Geant4 is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions using the same framework that is used for the entire CMS detector. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c. The tuned Monte Carlo predictions match many of these measurements within systematic uncertainties.

  19. The Physics of the CMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanabria, J. C.

    2007-10-26

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will start running 2008 producing proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Four large experiments will operate together with this accelerator: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The main scientific goal of this project is to understand in detail the mechanism for electro-weak symmetry breaking and to search for physics beyond the standard model of particles. ATLAS and CMS are general purpose detectors designed for search and discovery of new physics, and optimized to search for Higgs and signals of supersymmetric matter (SUSY). In this paper the main features of the CMS detector will be presented and its potential for Higgs and SUSY discoveries will be discussed.

  20. Plans for Jet Energy Corrections at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Kalanand

    2009-05-01

    We present a plan for Jet Energy Corrections at CMS. Jet corrections at CMS will come initially from simulation tuned on test beam data, directly from collision data when available, and ultimately from a simulation tuned on collision data. The corrections will be factorized into a fixed sequence of sub-corrections associated with different detector and physics effects. The following three factors are minimum requirements for most analysis: offset corrections for pile-up and noise; correction for the response of the calorimeter as a function of jet pseudorapidity relative to the barrel; correction for the absolute response as a function of transverse momentum in the barrel. The required correction gives a jet Lorentz vector equivalent to the sum of particles in the jet cone emanating from a QCD hard collision. We discuss the status of these corrections, the planned data-driven techniques for their derivation, and their anticipated evolution with the stages of the CMS experiment.

  1. Fireworks: A physics event display for CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalskyi, D.; Tadel, M.; Mrak-Tadel, A.; Bellenot, B.; Kuznetsov, V.; Jones, C.D.; Bauerdick, L. Case, M.; Mulmenstadt, J.; Yagil, A.; /UC, San Diego

    2010-01-01

    Fireworks is a CMS event display which is specialized for the physics studies case. This specialization allows us to use a stylized rather than 3D-accurate representation when appropriate. Data handling is greatly simplified by using only reconstructed information and ideal geometry. Fireworks provides an easy-to-use interface which allows a physicist to concentrate only on the data in which he is interested. Data is presented via graphical and textual views. Fireworks is built using the Eve subsystem of the CERN ROOT project and CMS's FWLite project. The FWLite project was part of CMS's recent code redesign which separates data classes into libraries separate from algorithms producing the data and uses ROOT directly for C++ object storage, thereby allowing the data classes to be used directly in ROOT.

  2. Power Studies for the CMS Pixel Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  3. Power distribution studies for CMS forward tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  4. Remote Operations for LHC and CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, E.E.; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    Commissioning the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its experiments will be a vital part of the worldwide high energy physics program beginning in 2007. A remote operations center has been built at Fermilab to contribute to commissioning and operations of the LHC and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, and to develop new capabilities for real-time data analysis and monitoring for LHC, CMS, and grid computing. Remote operations will also be essential to a future International Linear Collider with its multiple, internationally distributed control rooms. In this paper we present an overview of Fermilab's LHC@FNAL remote operations center for LHC and CMS, describe what led up to the development of the center, and describe noteworthy features of the center.

  5. Defining Features of Protective CD4 T cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Shunsuke; Mayer-Barber, Katrin D.; Barber, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    CD4 T cells are critical for control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and represent the best hope for vaccine-elicited protection. However, little is understood about the properties of Mtb-specific CD4 T cells that mediate control, and the lack of correlates of protection present a significant barrier to the rational development of new vaccination and therapeutic strategies which are sorely needed. Here we discuss the features of protective CD4 T cells including recent evidence for IFN-γ dependent and independent mechanisms of protection, poor protection by terminally differentiated cells and the importance of T cell migratory capacity for the control of Mtb infection. PMID:25000593

  6. A transcriptome-based model of central memory CD4 T cell death in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Olvera-García, Gustavo; Aguilar-García, Tania; Gutiérrez-Jasso, Fany; Imaz-Rosshandler, Iván; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Orozco, Lorena; Aguilar-Delfín, Irma; Vázquez-Pérez, Joel A; Zúñiga, Joaquín; Pérez-Patrigeon, Santiago; Espinosa, Enrique

    2016-11-22

    Human central memory CD4 T cells are characterized by their capacity of proliferation and differentiation into effector memory CD4 T cells. Homeostasis of central memory CD4 T cells is considered a key factor sustaining the asymptomatic stage of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, while progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is imputed to central memory CD4 T cells homeostatic failure. We investigated if central memory CD4 T cells from patients with HIV-1 infection have a gene expression profile impeding proliferation and survival, despite their activated state. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed mRNA expression patterns in naive, central memory, and effector memory CD4 T cells from healthy controls, and naive and central memory CD4 T cells from patients with HIV-1 infection. Differentially expressed genes, defined by Log2 Fold Change (FC) ≥ |0.5| and Log (odds) > 0, were used in pathway enrichment analyses. Central memory CD4 T cells from patients and controls showed comparable expression of differentiation-related genes, ruling out an effector-like differentiation of central memory CD4 T cells in HIV infection. However, 210 genes were differentially expressed in central memory CD4 T cells from patients compared with those from controls. Expression of 75 of these genes was validated by semi quantitative RT-PCR, and independently reproduced enrichment results from this gene expression signature. The results of functional enrichment analysis indicated movement to cell cycle phases G1 and S (increased CCNE1, MKI67, IL12RB2, ADAM9, decreased FGF9, etc.), but also arrest in G2/M (increased CHK1, RBBP8, KIF11, etc.). Unexpectedly, the results also suggested decreased apoptosis (increased CSTA, NFKBIA, decreased RNASEL, etc.). Results also suggested increased IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF, and RANTES (CCR5) activity upstream of the central memory CD4 T cells signature, consistent with the demonstrated milieu in HIV infection. Our

  7. Complete genome sequence of the Aneurinibacillus soli CB4(T) from soil of mountain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun Chul; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Lee, Byungwook

    2016-03-10

    Aneurinibacillus soli CB4(T) is a Gram-positive, motile rods and strictly aerobic bacterium. Here we present the 4.1-Mb genome sequence of the type strain of A. soli CB4(T), which consists a chromosome for the total 4,116,770bp with a G+C content of 45.9mol%. Genes related to diverse secondary metabolites were detected in this genome. The genomic data is expected to understand the possibility of industrial and commercial use by strain CB4(T).

  8. In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0004 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to test the hypothesis that cit-specific CD4 T cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients

  9. In Depth Analysis of Citrulline Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0003 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0003...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to test the hypothesis that cit-specific CD4 T cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients

  10. Electromagnetic levitation coil fabrication technique for MSFC containerless processing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C.; Theiss, J.; Curreri, P. A.; Abbaschian, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is described for more reproducible fabrication of electromagnetic levitation coils. A split mandrel was developed upon which the coil is wound. After fabrication the mandrel can be disassembled to remove it from the coil. Previously, a full day was required to fabricate a levitation coil and the success rate for a functional coil was only 50 percent. About eight coils may be completed in one day using the technique developed and 95 percent of them are good levitation coils.

  11. Beyond the discovery: Higgs results from CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankel, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    The observation of a Higgs boson at a mass near 125 GeV in the year 2012 has been a milestone for elementary particle physics. Since this fundamental discovery, the CMS collaboration has scrutinized the complete LHC Run I dataset in depth, and studied the properties of the observed state in full detail. This includes investigations of more elusive production and decay modes, as well as searches for first indications of an extended Higgs sector, which would represent very likely a promising gateway to new physics. This article summarizes recent Higgs results from the CMS experiment.

  12. Experience with the CMS Event Data Model

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, P.; Hegner, B.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    The re-engineered CMS EDM was presented at CHEP in 2006. Since that time we have gained a lot of operational experience with the chosen model. We will present some of our findings, and attempt to evaluate how well it is meeting its goals. We will discuss some of the new features that have been added since 2006 as well as some of the problems that have been addressed. Also discussed is the level of adoption throughout CMS, which spans the trigger farm up to the final physics analysis. Future plans, in particular dealing with schema evolution and scaling, will be discussed briefly.

  13. Physics with CMS and Electronic Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlf, James W.

    2016-08-01

    The current funding is for continued work on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as part of the Energy Frontier experimental program. The current budget year covers the first year of physics running at 13 TeV (Run 2). During this period we have concentrated on commisioning of the μTCA electronics, a new standard for distribution of CMS trigger and timing control signals and high bandwidth data aquistiion as well as participating in Run 2 physics.

  14. Crystal Structure of a Super Leucine Zipper an Extended Two-Stranded Super Long Coiled Coil

    SciTech Connect

    J Diao

    2011-12-31

    Coiled coil is a ubiquitous structural motif in proteins, with two to seven alpha helices coiled together like the strands of a rope, and coiled coil folding and assembly is not completely understood. A GCN4 leucine zipper mutant with four mutations of K3A, D7A, Y17W, and H18N has been designed, and the crystal structure has been determined at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. The peptide monomer shows a helix trunk with short curved N- and C-termini. In the crystal, two monomers cross in 35{sup o} and form an X-shaped dimer, and each X-shaped dimer is welded into the next one through sticky hydrophobic ends, thus forming an extended two-stranded, parallel, super long coiled coil rather than a discrete, two-helix coiled coil of the wild-type GCN4 leucine zipper. Leucine residues appear at every seventh position in the super long coiled coil, suggesting that it is an extended super leucine zipper. Compared to the wild-type leucine zipper, the N-terminus of the mutant has a dramatic conformational change and the C-terminus has one more residue Glu 32 determined. The mutant X-shaped dimer has a large crossing angle of 35{sup o} instead of 18{sup o} in the wild-type dimer. The results show a novel assembly mode and oligomeric state of coiled coil, and demonstrate that mutations may affect folding and assembly of the overall coiled coil. Analysis of the formation mechanism of the super long coiled coil may help understand and design self-assembling protein fibers.

  15. Critical evaluation of in silico methods for prediction of coiled-coil domains in proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Ching Han Chang, Catherine; Nagel, Jeremy; Porebski, Benjamin T; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Song, Jiangning; Buckle, Ashley M

    2016-03-01

    Coiled-coils refer to a bundle of helices coiled together like strands of a rope. It has been estimated that nearly 3% of protein-encoding regions of genes harbour coiled-coil domains (CCDs). Experimental studies have confirmed that CCDs play a fundamental role in subcellular infrastructure and controlling trafficking of eukaryotic cells. Given the importance of coiled-coils, multiple bioinformatics tools have been developed to facilitate the systematic and high-throughput prediction of CCDs in proteins. In this article, we review and compare 12 sequence-based bioinformatics approaches and tools for coiled-coil prediction. These approaches can be categorized into two classes: coiled-coil detection and coiled-coil oligomeric state prediction. We evaluated and compared these methods in terms of their input/output, algorithm, prediction performance, validation methods and software utility. All the independent testing data sets are available at http://lightning.med.monash.edu/coiledcoil/. In addition, we conducted a case study of nine human polyglutamine (PolyQ) disease-related proteins and predicted CCDs and oligomeric states using various predictors. Prediction results for CCDs were highly variable among different predictors. Only two peptides from two proteins were confirmed to be CCDs by majority voting. Both domains were predicted to form dimeric coiled-coils using oligomeric state prediction. We anticipate that this comprehensive analysis will be an insightful resource for structural biologists with limited prior experience in bioinformatics tools, and for bioinformaticians who are interested in designing novel approaches for coiled-coil and its oligomeric state prediction.

  16. Optimum coil insertion speed of various coils in brain aneurysm embolization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoshifumi; Takeuchi, Masataka; Fukasaku, Kazuaki

    2016-10-01

    A coil must comprise material with shape memory to perform optimal coil embolization. To achieve this, the alloy characteristics of the coil (hardness, shape, and thickness) must be understood. In this experiment, a catheter was fixed in the bright position and the movement of the coil was observed under a constant rate of insertion; the optimal insertion rate during clinical use was investigated. The first coil insertion speed was evaluated using simulated aneurysms in an in vivo arterial model. The results showed that the insertion force relates to the deployment shape of the coil, that the feedback through the force indicator using sound is very effective, and that the recorder is useful for analysis of coil embolization. The inserted coils during aneurysm embolization were able to wind uniformly within the aneurysm due to a variety of factors (guiding or micro-catheter position and kick-back phenomenon such as delivery wire). Optimal speed is achieved with proper coil design, which allows the coil to be inserted into the aneurysm. The shape and size of the aneurysm can help determine the necessary size and design of the coil that should be used during the optimal speed range. Aneurysm wall and coil characteristics are considered, along with the friction state of the coil (hardness, shape, and thickness), leading to improvements in safety during the insertion procedure at optimum speed.

  17. Unusually Stable Helical Coil Allotrope of Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Guan, Jie; Jiang, Jingwei; Tománek, David

    2016-12-14

    We have identified an unusually stable helical coil allotrope of phosphorus. Our ab initio density functional theory calculations indicate that the uncoiled, isolated straight one-dimensional chain is equally stable as a monolayer of black phosphorus dubbed phosphorene. The coiling tendency and the attraction between adjacent coil segments add an extra stabilization energy of ∼12 meV/atom to the coil allotrope, similar in value to the ∼16 meV/atom interlayer attraction in bulk black phosphorus. Thus, the helical coil structure is essentially as stable as black phosphorus, the most stable phosphorus allotrope known to date. With an optimum radius of 2.4 nm, the helical coil of phosphorus may fit well and even form inside wide carbon nanotubes.

  18. Characterization of mesoscale coiled-coil peptide-porphyrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Pepe-Mooney, Brian J; Kokona, Bashkim; Fairman, Robert

    2011-12-12

    Photoelectronically conductive self-assembling peptide-porphyrin assemblies have great potential in their use as biomaterials, owing largely to their environmentally responsive properties. We have successfully designed a coiled-coil peptide that can self-assemble to form mesoscale filaments and serve as a scaffold for porphyrin interaction. In our earlier work, peptide-porphyrin-based biomaterials were formed at neutral pH, but the structures were irregular at the nano- to microscale size range, as judged by atomic force microscopy. We identified a pH in which mesoscale fibrils were formed, taking advantage of the types of porphyrin interactions that are present in well-characterized J-aggregates. We used UV-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectropolarimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy to characterize these self-assembling biomaterials. We propose a new assembly paradigm that arises from a set of unique porphyrin-porphyrin and porphyrin-peptide interactions whose structure may be readily modulated by changes in pH or peptide concentration.

  19. The Golgin Family of Coiled-Coil Tethering Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Witkos, Tomasz M.; Lowe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The golgins are a family of predominantly coiled-coil proteins that are localized to the Golgi apparatus. Golgins are present in all eukaryotes, suggesting an evolutionary conserved function. Golgins are anchored to the Golgi membrane by their carboxy terminus and are predicted to adopt an extended conformation that projects into the surrounding cytoplasm. This arrangement is ideal for the capture or tethering of nearby membranes or cytoskeletal elements. Golgin-mediated tethering is thought to be important for vesicular traffic at the Golgi apparatus, the maintenance of Golgi architecture, as well as the positioning of the Golgi apparatus within cells. In addition to acting as tethers, some golgins can also sequester various factors at the Golgi membrane, allowing for the spatiotemporal regulation of downstream cellular functions. Although it is now established that golgins are membrane and cytoskeleton tethers, the mechanisms underlying tethering remain poorly defined. Moreover, the importance of golgin-mediated tethering in a physiological context remains to be fully explored. This review will describe our current understanding of golgin function, highlighting recent progress that has been made, and goes on to discuss outstanding questions and potential avenues for future research with regard to this family of conserved Golgi-associated proteins. PMID:26793708

  20. Force modulated conductance of artificial coiled-coil protein monolayers.

    PubMed

    Atanassov, Alexander; Hendler, Ziv; Berkovich, Inbal; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Ashkenasy, Nurit

    2013-01-01

    Studies of charge transport through proteins bridged between two electrodes have been the subject of intense research in recent years. However, the complex structure of proteins makes it difficult to elucidate transport mechanisms, and the use of simple peptide oligomers may be an over simplified model of the proteins. To bridge this structural gap, we present here studies of charge transport through artificial parallel coiled-coil proteins conducted in dry environment. Protein monolayers uniaxially oriented at an angle of ∼ 30° with respect to the surface normal were prepared. Current voltage measurements, obtained using conductive-probe atomic force microscopy, revealed the mechano-electronic behavior of the protein films. It was found that the low voltage conductance of the protein monolayer increases linearly with applied force, mainly due to increase in the tip contact area. Negligible compression of the films for loads below 26 nN allowed estimating a tunneling attenuation factor, β(0) , of 0.5-0.6 Å(-1) , which is akin to charge transfer by tunneling mechanism, despite the comparably large charge transport distance. These studies show that mechano-electronic behavior of proteins can shed light on their complex charge transport mechanisms, and on how these mechanisms depend on the detailed structure of the proteins. Such studies may provide insightful information on charge transfer in biological systems.

  1. Polyfunctional and IFN-γ monofunctional human CD4+ T cell populations are molecularly distinct

    PubMed Central

    Burel, Julie G.; Apte, Simon H.; Groves, Penny L.; McCarthy, James S.; Doolan, Denise L.

    2017-01-01

    Pathogen-specific polyfunctional T cell responses have been associated with favorable clinical outcomes, but it is not known whether molecular differences exist between polyfunctional and monofunctional cytokine-producing T cells. Here, we report that polyfunctional CD4+ T cells induced during Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) blood-stage infection in humans have a unique transcriptomic profile compared with IFN-γ monofunctional CD4+ T cells and, thus, are molecularly distinct. The 14-gene signature revealed in P. falciparum–reactive polyfunctional T cells is associated with cytokine signaling and lymphocyte chemotaxis, and systems biology analysis identified IL-27 as an upstream regulator of the polyfunctional gene signature. Importantly, the polyfunctional gene signature is largely conserved in Influenza-reactive polyfunctional CD4+ T cells, suggesting that polyfunctional T cells have core characteristics independent of pathogen specificity. This study provides the first evidence to our knowledge that consistent molecular differences exist between polyfunctional and monofunctional CD4+ T cells. PMID:28194431

  2. Clonally expanded CD4+ T cells can produce infectious HIV-1 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Francesco R; Sobolewski, Michele D; Fyne, Elizabeth; Shao, Wei; Spindler, Jonathan; Hattori, Junko; Anderson, Elizabeth M; Watters, Sarah A; Hill, Shawn; Wu, Xiaolin; Wells, David; Su, Li; Luke, Brian T; Halvas, Elias K; Besson, Guillaume; Penrose, Kerri J; Yang, Zhiming; Kwan, Richard W; Van Waes, Carter; Uldrick, Thomas; Citrin, Deborah E; Kovacs, Joseph; Polis, Michael A; Rehm, Catherine A; Gorelick, Robert; Piatak, Michael; Keele, Brandon F; Kearney, Mary F; Coffin, John M; Hughes, Stephen H; Mellors, John W; Maldarelli, Frank

    2016-02-16

    Reservoirs of infectious HIV-1 persist despite years of combination antiretroviral therapy and make curing HIV-1 infections a major challenge. Most of the proviral DNA resides in CD4(+)T cells. Some of these CD4(+)T cells are clonally expanded; most of the proviruses are defective. It is not known if any of the clonally expanded cells carry replication-competent proviruses. We report that a highly expanded CD4(+) T-cell clone contains an intact provirus. The highly expanded clone produced infectious virus that was detected as persistent plasma viremia during cART in an HIV-1-infected patient who had squamous cell cancer. Cells containing the intact provirus were widely distributed and significantly enriched in cancer metastases. These results show that clonally expanded CD4(+)T cells can be a reservoir of infectious HIV-1.

  3. Clonally expanded CD4+ T cells can produce infectious HIV-1 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Simonetti, Francesco R.; Sobolewski, Michele D.; Fyne, Elizabeth; Shao, Wei; Spindler, Jonathan; Hattori, Junko; Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Watters, Sarah A.; Hill, Shawn; Wu, Xiaolin; Wells, David; Su, Li; Luke, Brian T.; Halvas, Elias K.; Besson, Guillaume; Penrose, Kerri J.; Yang, Zhiming; Kwan, Richard W.; Van Waes, Carter; Uldrick, Thomas; Citrin, Deborah E.; Kovacs, Joseph; Polis, Michael A.; Rehm, Catherine A.; Gorelick, Robert; Piatak, Michael; Keele, Brandon F.; Kearney, Mary F.; Coffin, John M.; Hughes, Stephen H.; Mellors, John W.; Maldarelli, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Reservoirs of infectious HIV-1 persist despite years of combination antiretroviral therapy and make curing HIV-1 infections a major challenge. Most of the proviral DNA resides in CD4+T cells. Some of these CD4+T cells are clonally expanded; most of the proviruses are defective. It is not known if any of the clonally expanded cells carry replication-competent proviruses. We report that a highly expanded CD4+ T-cell clone contains an intact provirus. The highly expanded clone produced infectious virus that was detected as persistent plasma viremia during cART in an HIV-1–infected patient who had squamous cell cancer. Cells containing the intact provirus were widely distributed and significantly enriched in cancer metastases. These results show that clonally expanded CD4+T cells can be a reservoir of infectious HIV-1. PMID:26858442

  4. Fighting Viral Infections and Virus-Driven Tumors with Cytotoxic CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Elena; Merlo, Anna; Martorelli, Debora; Cangemi, Michela; Dalla Santa, Silvia; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Rosato, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    CD4+ T cells have been and are still largely regarded as the orchestrators of immune responses, being able to differentiate into distinct T helper cell populations based on differentiation signals, transcription factor expression, cytokine secretion, and specific functions. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence indicates that CD4+ T cells can also exert a direct effector activity, which depends on intrinsic cytotoxic properties acquired and carried out along with the evolution of several pathogenic infections. The relevant role of CD4+ T cell lytic features in the control of such infectious conditions also leads to their exploitation as a new immunotherapeutic approach. This review aims at summarizing currently available data about functional and therapeutic relevance of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in the context of viral infections and virus-driven tumors. PMID:28289418

  5. IL-21 induces IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Ada; Mascanfroni, Ivan D; Nadeau, Meghan; Burns, Evan J; Tukpah, Ann-Marcia; Santiago, Andrezza; Wu, Chuan; Patel, Bonny; Kumar, Deepak; Quintana, Francisco J

    2014-05-06

    Interleukin (IL)-22 produced by innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and CD4+ T cells plays an important role in host defence and mucosal homeostasis, thus it is important to investigate the mechanisms that regulate IL-22 production. We investigated the regulation IL-22 production by CD4+ T cells. Here we show that IL-21 triggers IL-22, but not IL-17 production by CD4+ T cells. STAT3, activated by IL-21, controls the epigenetic status of the il22 promoter and its interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Moreover, IL-21 and AhR signalling in T cells control IL-22 production and the development of dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in ILC-deficient mice. Thus, we have identified IL-21 as an inducer of IL-22 production in CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Revealing the role of CD4+ T cells in viral immunity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Protective immunity to chronic and acute viral infection relies on both the innate and adaptive immune response. Although neutralizing antibody production by B cells and cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells are well-accepted components of the adaptive immune response to viruses, identification of the specific role of CD4+ T cells in protection has been more challenging to establish. Delineating the contribution of CD4+ T cells has been complicated by their functional heterogeneity, breadth in antigen specificity, transient appearance in circulation, and sequestration in tissue sites of infection. In this minireview, we discuss recent progress in identifying the multiple roles of CD4+ T cells in orchestrating and mediating the immune responses against viral pathogens. We highlight several recent reports, including one published in this issue, that have employed comprehensive and sophisticated approaches to provide new evidence for CD4+ T cells as direct effectors in antiviral immunity. PMID:22851641

  7. Interleukin-7 is required for CD4+ T cell activation and autoimmune neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Brian R.; Gonzalez-Quintial, Rosana; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Farrar, Michael A.; Miller, Stephen D.; Sauer, Karsten; McGavern, Dorian B.; Kono, Dwight H.; Baccala, Roberto; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N.

    2015-01-01

    IL-7 is known to be vital for T cell homeostasis but has previously been presumed to be dispensable for TCR-induced activation. Here, we show that IL-7 is critical for the initial activation of CD4+ T cells in that it provides some of the necessary early signaling components, such as activated STAT5 and Akt. Accordingly, short-term in vivo IL-7Rα blockade inhibited the activation and expansion of autoantigen-specific CD4+ T cells and, when used to treat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), prevented and ameliorated disease. Our studies demonstrate that IL-7 signaling is a prerequisite for optimal CD4+ T cell activation and that IL-7R antagonism may be effective in treating CD4+ T cell-mediated neuroinflammation and other autoimmune inflammatory conditions. PMID:26319414

  8. 26 CFR 51.4T - Information provided by the agencies (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sales price (ASP) for each Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code for the sales year...IdentifiableDataFiles/03_PartBNationalSummaryDataFile.asp to obtain the number of allowed billing units per... respective NDCs) manufactured by a single entity, CMS will multiply the annual weighted ASP by the...

  9. 26 CFR 51.4T - Information provided by the agencies (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sales price (ASP) for each Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code for the sales year...IdentifiableDataFiles/03_PartBNationalSummaryDataFile.asp to obtain the number of allowed billing units per... respective NDCs) manufactured by a single entity, CMS will multiply the annual weighted ASP by the...

  10. 26 CFR 51.4T - Information provided by the agencies (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sales price (ASP) for each Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code for the sales year...IdentifiableDataFiles/03_PartBNationalSummaryDataFile.asp to obtain the number of allowed billing units per... respective NDCs) manufactured by a single entity, CMS will multiply the annual weighted ASP by the...

  11. CD4 T-Cell Subsets in Malaria: TH1/TH2 Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Mazliah, Damian; Langhorne, Jean

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T-cells have been shown to play a central role in immune control of infection with Plasmodium parasites. At the erythrocytic stage of infection, IFN-γ production by CD4+ T-cells and CD4+ T-cell help for the B-cell response are required for control and elimination of infected red blood cells. CD4+ T-cells are also important for controlling Plasmodium pre-erythrocytic stages through the activation of parasite-specific CD8+ T-cells. However, excessive inflammatory responses triggered by the infection have been shown to drive pathology. Early classical experiments demonstrated a biphasic CD4+ T-cell response against erythrocytic stages in mice, in which T helper (Th)1 and antibody-helper CD4+ T-cells appear sequentially during a primary infection. While IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells do play a role in controlling acute infections, and they contribute to acute erythrocytic-stage pathology, it became apparent that a classical Th2 response producing IL-4 is not a critical feature of the CD4+ T-cell response during the chronic phase of infection. Rather, effective CD4+ T-cell help for B-cells, which can occur in the absence of IL-4, is required to control chronic parasitemia. IL-10, important to counterbalance inflammation and associated with protection from inflammatory-mediated severe malaria in both humans and experimental models, was originally considered be produced by CD4+ Th2 cells during infection. We review the interpretations of CD4+ T-cell responses during Plasmodium infection, proposed under the original Th1/Th2 paradigm, in light of more recent advances, including the identification of multifunctional T-cells such as Th1 cells co-expressing IFN-γ and IL-10, the identification of follicular helper T-cells (Tfh) as the predominant CD4+ T helper subset for B-cells, and the recognition of inherent plasticity in the fates of different CD4+ T-cells. PMID:25628621

  12. CD4 T cell activation by B cells in human Leishmania (Viannia) infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An effective adaptive immune response requires activation of specific CD4 T cells. The capacity of B cells to activate CD4 T cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) has not been evaluated. Methods CD4 T cell activation by B cells of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was evaluated by culture of PBMCs or purified B cells and CD4 T cells with Leishmania panamensis antigens. CD4 T cell and B cell activation markers were evaluated by flow cytometry and 13 cytokines were measured in supernatants with a bead-based capture assay. The effect of Leishmania antigens on BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin was evaluated in the Ramos human B cell line by targeting the antigen with anti-IgM-biotin and anti-biotin-ovalbumin-FITC. Results Culture of PBMCs from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with Leishmania antigens resulted in upregulation of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 as well as increased frequency of CD25hiCD127- cells among CD4 T cells. Concomitantly, B cells upregulated the costimulatory molecule CD86. These changes were not observed in PBMCs from healthy subjects, indicating participation of Leishmania-specific lymphocytes expanded in vivo. Purified B cells from these patients, when interacting with purified CD4 T cells and Leishmania antigens, were capable of inducing significant increases in CD25 and CD69 expression and CD25hiCD127- frequency in CD4 T cells. These changes were associated with upregulation of CD86 in B cells. Comparison of changes in CD4 T cell activation parameters between PBMC and B cell/CD4 T cell cultures showed no statistically significant differences; further, significant secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 was induced in both types of cultures. Additionally, culture with Leishmania antigens enhanced BCR-mediated endocytosis of ovalbumin in Ramos human B cells. Conclusions The capacity of B cells specific for Leishmania antigens in peripheral blood of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients to

  13. Resonator coiling in thermoacoustic engines

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Coiling the resonator of a thermoacoustic engine is one way to try to minimize the engine`s size. However, flow in bent pipes is known to alter the fluid flow pattern because of centrifugal forces. Theory and measurements will be presented on the energy dissipation caused by oscillating flow in curved pipes. Measurements have been taken using free oscillations of liquids in U-tubes, and using a thermoacoustic engine with straight and bent resonators. [Work supported by the TTI program of the US Department of Energy, and by the Tektronix Corporation.

  14. Current COIL research in Samara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolayev, V. D.

    1996-02-01

    Development of the high pressure singlet oxygen generator (SOG) is a very important aspect for chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). Increasing of oxygen pressure up to 30 torr and more at conserving high O2(1(Delta) ) yield and maintaining BHP temperature at minus (10 divided by 20) degrees Celsius permits us to decrease ration [H2O]/[O2] to 5% and less. In this case COIL can operate successfully without a water vapor trap. With raising the total pressure Reynolds number increases too, diminishing boundary layers in supersonic nozzles and improving pressure recovery. The weight and dimensions of the SOG and laser become reduced for the same gas flow rate. For solving these problems the jet SOG has been suggested and developed in Lebedev Physical Institute, Samara Branch. The advantages of the jet SOG consist of the following: (1) Large and controlled specific surface of contact liquid-gas provides for high mass transfer efficiency. (2) High jets velocity guarantees fast basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) surface renovation. (3) High gas velocity in the reaction zone diminishes O2(1(Delta) ) quenching. (4) Efficient gas-liquid heat exchange eliminates the gas heating and generation water vapor due O2(1(Delta) ) quenching. (5) Counterflowing design of the jet SOG produces the best conditions for self-cleaning gas flow of droplets in the reaction zone and gives the possibility of COIL operation without droplets separator. High pressure jet SOG has some features connected with intrachannel jet formation, free space jets reconstruction, interaction jets ensemble with counter moving gas flow and drag part of gas by jets, disintegrating jets, generation and separation of droplets, heat effects, surface renovation, impoverishment BHP surface by HO2- ions, moving solution film on the reaction zone walls, etc. In this communication our current understanding of the major processes in the jet SOG is set forth. The complex gas and hydrodynamic processes with heat and mass transfer

  15. Coils of Magnetic Field Lines

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-27

    A smallish solar filament looks like it collapsed into the sun and set off a minor eruption that hurled plasma into space (June 20, 2017). Then, the disrupted magnetic field immediately began to reorganize itself, hence the bright series of spirals coiling up over that area. The magnetic field lines are made visible in extreme ultraviolet light as charged particles spin along them. Also of interest are the darker, cooler strands of plasma being pulled and twisted at the edge of the sun just below the active region. The activity here is in a 21-hour period. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21764

  16. Water in a Coiled Hose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Peter; Waiveris, Charles

    2005-04-01

    Sometimes things just don't work the way that you think they should. The problem "Coming up Empty," described in Bet You Can't! Science Impossibilities to Fool You by Vicki Cobb and Kathy Darling is a perfect example. In this problem, when water is poured into the top open end of a coiled garden hose, common sense tells us that it should eventually come out of the other end. However, in this case the water will overflow from the top instead of coming out of the other end!

  17. The structure of the GemC1 coiled coil and its interaction with the Geminin family of coiled-coil proteins.

    PubMed

    Caillat, Christophe; Fish, Alexander; Pefani, Dafni Eleftheria; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2015-11-01

    GemC1, together with Idas and Geminin, an important regulator of DNA-replication licensing and differentiation decisions, constitute a superfamily sharing a homologous central coiled-coil domain. To better understand this family of proteins, the crystal structure of a GemC1 coiled-coil domain variant engineered for better solubility was determined to 2.2 Å resolution. GemC1 shows a less typical coiled coil compared with the Geminin homodimer and the Geminin-Idas heterodimer structures. It is also shown that both in vitro and in cells GemC1 interacts with Geminin through its coiled-coil domain, forming a heterodimer that is more stable that the GemC1 homodimer. Comparative analysis of the thermal stability of all of the possible superfamily complexes, using circular dichroism to follow the unfolding of the entire helix of the coiled coil, or intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of a unique conserved N-terminal tryptophan, shows that the unfolding of the coiled coil is likely to take place from the C-terminus towards the N-terminus. It is also shown that homodimers show a single-state unfolding, while heterodimers show a two-state unfolding, suggesting that the dimer first falls apart and the helices then unfold according to the stability of each protein. The findings argue that Geminin-family members form homodimers and heterodimers between them, and this ability is likely to be important for modulating their function in cycling and differentiating cells.

  18. The Transcription Factor Hobit Identifies Human Cytotoxic CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oja, Anna E.; Vieira Braga, Felipe A.; Remmerswaal, Ester B. M.; Kragten, Natasja A. M.; Hertoghs, Kirsten M. L.; Zuo, Jianmin; Moss, Paul A.; van Lier, René A. W.; van Gisbergen, Klaas P. J. M.; Hombrink, Pleun

    2017-01-01

    The T cell lineage is commonly divided into CD4-expressing helper T cells that polarize immune responses through cytokine secretion and CD8-expressing cytotoxic T cells that eliminate infected target cells by virtue of the release of cytotoxic molecules. Recently, a population of CD4+ T cells that conforms to the phenotype of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells has received increased recognition. These cytotoxic CD4+ T cells display constitutive expression of granzyme B and perforin at the protein level and mediate HLA class II-dependent killing of target cells. In humans, this cytotoxic profile is found within the human cytomegalovirus (hCMV)-specific, but not within the influenza- or Epstein–Barr virus-specific CD4+ T cell populations, suggesting that, in particular, hCMV infection induces the formation of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells. We have previously described that the transcription factor Homolog of Blimp-1 in T cells (Hobit) is specifically upregulated in CD45RA+ effector CD8+ T cells that arise after hCMV infection. Here, we describe the expression pattern of Hobit in human CD4+ T cells. We found Hobit expression in cytotoxic CD4+ T cells and accumulation of Hobit+ CD4+ T cells after primary hCMV infection. The Hobit+ CD4+ T cells displayed highly overlapping characteristics with Hobit+ CD8+ T cells, including the expression of cytotoxic molecules, T-bet, and CX3CR1. Interestingly, γδ+ T cells that arise after hCMV infection also upregulate Hobit expression and display a similar effector phenotype as cytotoxic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These findings suggest a shared differentiation pathway in CD4+, CD8+, and γδ+ T cells that may involve Hobit-driven acquisition of long-lived cytotoxic effector function. PMID:28392788

  19. HIV-specific cytolytic CD4 T cell responses during acute HIV infection predict disease outcome

    PubMed Central

    Soghoian, Damien Z.; Jessen, Heiko; Flanders, Michael; Sierra-Davidson, Kailan; Cutler, Sam; Pertel, Thomas; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Lindqvist, Madelene; Davis, Isaiah; Lane, Kimberly; Rychert, Jenna; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Brass, Abraham L.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Walker, Bruce D.; Streeck, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Early immunological events during acute HIV infection are thought to fundamentally influence long-term disease outcome. Whereas the contribution of HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses to early viral control is well established, the role of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses in the control of viral replication following acute infection is unknown. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4 T cells - besides their helper function - have the capacity to directly recognize and kill virally infected cells. In a longitudinal study of a cohort of individuals acutely infected with HIV, we observed that subjects able to spontaneously control HIV replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy showed a significant expansion of HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses—but not CD8 T cell responses–compared to subjects who progressed to a high viral set point (p=0.038). Strikingly, this expansion occurred prior to differences in viral load or CD4 T cell count and was characterized by robust cytolytic activity and expression of a distinct profile of perforin and granzymes at the earliest time point. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the emergence of Granzyme A+ HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses at baseline was highly predictive of slower disease progression and clinical outcome (average days to CD4 T cell count <350/μl was 575 versus 306, p=0.001). These data demonstrate that HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses can be used during the earliest phase of HIV infection as an immunological predictor of subsequent viral set point and disease outcome. Moreover, these data suggest that expansion of Granzyme A+ HIV-specific cytolytic CD4 T cell responses early during acute HIV infection contributes substantially to the control of viral replication. PMID:22378925

  20. Tracking Virus-Specific CD4+ T Cells during and after Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pfafferot, Katja; Heeg, Malte H.J.; Gaudieri, Silvana; Grüner, Norbert; Rauch, Andri; Gerlach, J. Tilman; Jung, Maria-Christina; Zachoval, Reinhart; Pape, Gerd R.; Schraut, Winfried; Santantonio, Teresa; Nitschko, Hans; Obermeier, Martin; Phillips, Rodney; Scriba, Thomas J.; Semmo, Nasser; Day, Cheryl; Weber, Jonathan N.; Fidler, Sarah; Thimme, Robert; Haberstroh, Anita; Baumert, Thomas F.; Klenerman, Paul; Diepolder, Helmut M.

    2007-01-01

    Background CD4+ T cell help is critical in maintaining antiviral immune responses and such help has been shown to be sustained in acute resolving hepatitis C. In contrast, in evolving chronic hepatitis C CD4+ T cell helper responses appear to be absent or short-lived, using functional assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we used a novel HLA-DR1 tetramer containing a highly targeted CD4+ T cell epitope from the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 4 to track number and phenotype of hepatitis C virus specific CD4+ T cells in a cohort of seven HLA-DR1 positive patients with acute hepatitis C in comparison to patients with chronic or resolved hepatitis C. We observed peptide-specific T cells in all seven patients with acute hepatitis C regardless of outcome at frequencies up to 0.65% of CD4+ T cells. Among patients who transiently controlled virus replication we observed loss of function, and/or physical deletion of tetramer+ CD4+ T cells before viral recrudescence. In some patients with chronic hepatitis C very low numbers of tetramer+ cells were detectable in peripheral blood, compared to robust responses detected in spontaneous resolvers. Importantly we did not observe escape mutations in this key CD4+ T cell epitope in patients with evolving chronic hepatitis C. Conclusions/Significance During acute hepatitis C a CD4+ T cell response against this epitope is readily induced in most, if not all, HLA-DR1+ patients. This antiviral T cell population becomes functionally impaired or is deleted early in the course of disease in those where viremia persists. PMID:17653276

  1. The transcriptome of HIV-1 infected intestinal CD4+ T cells exposed to enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Alyson C; Guo, Kejun; Dillon, Stephanie M; Phang, Tzu; Lee, Eric J; Harper, Michael S; Helm, Karen; Kappes, John C; Ochsenbauer, Christina; McCarter, Martin D; Wilson, Cara C; Santiago, Mario L

    2017-02-01

    Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF) HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a molecular blueprint

  2. A simple theoretical framework for understanding heterogeneous differentiation of CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background CD4+ T cells have several subsets of functional phenotypes, which play critical yet diverse roles in the immune system. Pathogen-driven differentiation of these subsets of cells is often heterogeneous in terms of the induced phenotypic diversity. In vitro recapitulation of heterogeneous differentiation under homogeneous experimental conditions indicates some highly regulated mechanisms by which multiple phenotypes of CD4+ T cells can be generated from a single population of naïve CD4+ T cells. Therefore, conceptual understanding of induced heterogeneous differentiation will shed light on the mechanisms controlling the response of populations of CD4+ T cells under physiological conditions. Results We present a simple theoretical framework to show how heterogeneous differentiation in a two-master-regulator paradigm can be governed by a signaling network motif common to all subsets of CD4+ T cells. With this motif, a population of naïve CD4+ T cells can integrate the signals from their environment to generate a functionally diverse population with robust commitment of individual cells. Notably, two positive feedback loops in this network motif govern three bistable switches, which in turn, give rise to three types of heterogeneous differentiated states, depending upon particular combinations of input signals. We provide three prototype models illustrating how to use this framework to explain experimental observations and make specific testable predictions. Conclusions The process in which several types of T helper cells are generated simultaneously to mount complex immune responses upon pathogenic challenges can be highly regulated, and a simple signaling network motif can be responsible for generating all possible types of heterogeneous populations with respect to a pair of master regulators controlling CD4+ T cell differentiation. The framework provides a mathematical basis for understanding the decision-making mechanisms of CD4+ T cells, and it can be

  3. The transcriptome of HIV-1 infected intestinal CD4+ T cells exposed to enteric bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Stephanie M.; Phang, Tzu; Lee, Eric J.; Helm, Karen; Kappes, John C.; McCarter, Martin D.

    2017-01-01

    Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF) HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a molecular blueprint

  4. Genome sequence of Corynebacterium nuruki S6-4 T, isolated from alcohol fermentation starter.

    PubMed

    Shin, Na-Ri; Whon, Tae Woong; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Mi-Ja; Lee, Jina; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-08-01

    Corynebacterium nuruki S6-4(T), isolated from Korean alcohol fermentation starter, is a strictly aerobic, nonmotile, Gram-positive, and rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the genus Corynebacterium and the actinomycete group. We report here the draft genome sequence of C. nuruki strain S6-4(T) (3,106,595 bp, with a G+C content of 69.5%).

  5. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium nuruki S6-4T, Isolated from Alcohol Fermentation Starter▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Na-Ri; Whon, Tae Woong; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Mi-Ja; Lee, Jina; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Corynebacterium nuruki S6-4T, isolated from Korean alcohol fermentation starter, is a strictly aerobic, nonmotile, Gram-positive, and rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the genus Corynebacterium and the actinomycete group. We report here the draft genome sequence of C. nuruki strain S6-4T (3,106,595 bp, with a G+C content of 69.5%). PMID:21685278

  6. Eight-channel phased array coil and detunable TEM volume coil for 7 T brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, G C; Potthast, A; Triantafyllou, C; Wiggins, C J; Wald, L L

    2005-07-01

    An eight-channel receive-only brain coil and table-top detunable volume transmit coil were developed and tested at 7 T for human imaging. Optimization of this device required attention to sources of interaction between the array elements, between the transmit and receive coils and minimization of common mode currents on the coaxial cables. Circular receive coils (85 mm dia.) were designed on a flexible former to fit tightly around the head and within a 270-mm diameter TEM transmit volume coil. In the near cortex, the array provided a fivefold increase in SNR compared to a TEM transmit-receive coil, a gain larger than that seen in comparable coils at 3 T. The higher SNR gain is likely due to strong dielectric effects, which cause the volume coil to perform poorly in the cortex compared to centrally. The sensitivity and coverage of the array is demonstrated with high-resolution images of the brain cortex.

  7. Expression of fas protein on CD4+T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Fan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence on the Expression of Fas protein on CD4+ T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne laser in the cases of psoriasis. Methods:the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was determined in the casee of psoriasis(n=5) pre and post-low level laser irradiation(30 min、60min and 120min)by flow cytometry as compared withthe control(n=5). Results:In the cases of psoriasis,the expression of CD4+T FAS protein 21.4+/-3.1% was increased significantly than that of control group 16.8+/-2.1% pre-irradiation, p<0.05in the control,there is no difference between pre and post- irradiation,p>0.05in the cases , the expression of CD4+T Fas protein wae positively corelated to the irradiation times, when the energy density arrived to 22.92J/cm2(60 minutes)and 45.84J/cm2(120minutes), the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was increased significantly as compared with pre-irradiation,p<0.05.Conclusion: The expression of CD4+T Fas protein may be increased by low level He-Ne laser irradiation ,the uncontrolled status of apoptosis could be corrected.

  8. Frequency of beryllium-specific, central memory CD4+ T cells in blood determines proliferative response

    PubMed Central

    Fontenot, Andrew P.; Palmer, Brent E.; Sullivan, Andrew K.; Joslin, Fenneke G.; Wilson, Cara C.; Maier, Lisa A.; Newman, Lee S.; Kotzin, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    Beryllium exposure can lead to the development of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells and chronic beryllium disease (CBD), which is characterized by the presence of lung granulomas and a CD4+ T cell alveolitis. Studies have documented the presence of proliferating and cytokine-secreting CD4+ T cells in blood of CBD patients after beryllium stimulation. However, some patients were noted to have cytokine-secreting CD4+ T cells in blood in the absence of beryllium-induced proliferation, and overall, the correlation between the 2 types of responses was poor. We hypothesized that the relative proportion of memory T cell subsets determined antigen-specific proliferation. In most CBD patients, the majority of beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in blood expressed an effector memory T cell maturation phenotype. However, the ability of blood cells to proliferate in the presence of beryllium strongly correlated with the fraction expressing a central memory T cell phenotype. In addition, we found a direct correlation between the percentage of beryllium-specific CD4+ TEM cells in blood and T cell lymphocytosis in the lung. Together, these findings indicate that the functional capability of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is determined by the relative proportion of memory T cell subsets, which may reflect internal organ involvement. PMID:16151531

  9. Impact of nicotine on the interplay between human periodontal ligament cells and CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xin; Liu, Ying-Feng; Wong, Yong; Wu, Li-Zheng; Tan, Ling; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-09-01

    Periodontitis is a common infectious disease associated with destruction of periodontal ligaments and alveolar bones. CD4(+) T cell-mediated immune response is involved in the progression of periodontitis. Tobacco consumption increases the risk of periodontal disease. However, the impact of nicotine on the interaction between human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and CD4(+) T cells remains unrevealed. Our study aims to investigate the effect of nicotine on PDL cells and the cocultured CD4(+) T cells. The PDL cell cultures were established by explants from healthy individuals, exposed to nicotine or α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), and incubated solely or in combination with CD4(+) T cells. Afterwards, cell viability, secreted cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were evaluated. In monoculture of PDL cells, nicotine dramatically repressed cell viability and increased apoptosis. Meanwhile, α-BTX largely reversed the nicotine-induced apoptosis and increased viability of PDL cells. Compared with the monoculture, MMP-1, MMP-3, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-21 in supernatant of cocultures were markedly elevated after treatment with nicotine. Moreover, α-BTX significantly attenuated nicotine-triggered production of these components either in mono- or co-cultures. In addition, PDL cell-derived CXCL12 following nicotine treatment recruited CD4(+) T cells. Above all, nicotine deteriorated periodontitis partially by promoting PDL cell-CD4(+) T cell-mediated inflammatory response and matrix degradation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Myeloid Dendritic Cells Induce HIV-1 Latency in Non-proliferating CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Vanessa A.; Kumar, Nitasha; Filali, Ali; Procopio, Francesco A.; Yegorov, Oleg; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Saleh, Suha; Haddad, Elias K.; da Fonseca Pereira, Candida; Ellenberg, Paula C.; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Cameron, Paul U.; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2013-01-01

    Latently infected resting CD4+ T cells are a major barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how latency is established, maintained and reversed is critical to identifying novel strategies to eliminate latently infected cells. We demonstrate here that co-culture of resting CD4+ T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4+ T cells. Latency was eliminated when cell-to-cell contact was prevented in the mDC-T cell co-cultures and reduced when clustering was minimised in the mDC-T cell co-cultures. Supernatants from infected mDC-T cell co-cultures did not facilitate the establishment of latency, consistent with cell-cell contact and not a soluble factor being critical for mediating latent infection of resting CD4+ T cells. Gene expression in non-proliferating CD4+ T cells, enriched for latent infection, showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular activation and interferon regulated pathways, including the down-regulation of genes controlling both NF-κB and cell cycle. We conclude that mDC play a key role in the establishment of HIV latency in resting memory CD4+ T cells, which is predominantly mediated through signalling during DC-T cell contact. PMID:24339779

  11. Myeloid dendritic cells induce HIV-1 latency in non-proliferating CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Evans, Vanessa A; Kumar, Nitasha; Filali, Ali; Procopio, Francesco A; Yegorov, Oleg; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Saleh, Suha; Haddad, Elias K; da Fonseca Pereira, Candida; Ellenberg, Paula C; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Cameron, Paul U; Lewin, Sharon R

    2013-01-01

    Latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells are a major barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how latency is established, maintained and reversed is critical to identifying novel strategies to eliminate latently infected cells. We demonstrate here that co-culture of resting CD4(+) T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4(+) T cells. Latency was eliminated when cell-to-cell contact was prevented in the mDC-T cell co-cultures and reduced when clustering was minimised in the mDC-T cell co-cultures. Supernatants from infected mDC-T cell co-cultures did not facilitate the establishment of latency, consistent with cell-cell contact and not a soluble factor being critical for mediating latent infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. Gene expression in non-proliferating CD4(+) T cells, enriched for latent infection, showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular activation and interferon regulated pathways, including the down-regulation of genes controlling both NF-κB and cell cycle. We conclude that mDC play a key role in the establishment of HIV latency in resting memory CD4(+) T cells, which is predominantly mediated through signalling during DC-T cell contact.

  12. Stephanthraniline A suppressed CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunological hepatitis through impairing PKCθ function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-Yang; Zhou, Li-Fei; Li, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Jia-Wen; Xu, Shi-Fang; Huang, Wen-Hai; Gao, Li-Juan; Hao, Shu-Juan; Ye, Yi-Ping; Sun, Hong-Xiang

    2016-10-15

    Stephanthraniline A (STA), a C21 steroid isolated from Stephanotis mucronata (Blanco) Merr., was previously shown to inhibit T cells activation and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the in vivo immunosuppressive activity of STA and to elucidate its potential mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with STA significantly attenuated concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis and reduced CD4(+) T cells activation and aggregation in hepatic tissue in mice. STA directly suppressed the activation and proliferation of Con A-induced CD4(+) T cells, and inhibited NFAT, NFκB and MAPK signaling cascades in activated CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Moreover, it was proved that STA inhibited T cells activation and proliferation through proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling- and Ca(2+) signaling-independent way. The molecular docking studies predicted that STA could tight bind to PKCθ via five hydrogen. The further findings indicated STA directly inhibited PKCθ kinase activity, and its phosphorylation in activated CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Collectively, the present study indicated that STA could protect against CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunological hepatitis in mice through PKCθ and its downstream NFAT, NFκB and MAPK signaling cascades. These results highlight the potential of STA as an effective leading compound for use in the treatment of CD4(+) T cell-mediated inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  13. Cocaine Enhances HIV-1–Induced CD4+ T-Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandhare, Jui; Addai, Amma B.; Mantri, Chinmay K.; Hager, Cynthia; Smith, Rita M.; Barnett, Louis; Villalta, Fernando; Kalams, Spyros A.; Dash, Chandravanu

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major barrier in eradication of the HIV epidemic because it serves as a powerful cofactor for viral transmission, disease progression, and AIDS-related mortality. Cocaine, one of the commonly abused drugs among HIV-1 patients, has been suggested to accelerate HIV disease progression. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Therefore, we tested whether cocaine augments HIV-1–associated CD4+ T-cell decline, a predictor of HIV disease progression. We examined apoptosis of resting CD4+ T cells from HIV-1–negative and HIV-1–positive donors in our study, because decline of uninfected cells plays a major role in HIV-1 disease progression. Treatment of resting CD4+ T cells with cocaine (up to 100 μmol/L concentrations) did not induce apoptosis, but 200 to 1000 μmol/L cocaine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, treatment of CD4+ T cells isolated from healthy donors with both HIV-1 virions and cocaine significantly increased apoptosis compared with the apoptosis induced by cocaine or virions alone. Most important, our biochemical data suggest that cocaine induces CD4+ T-cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Collectively, our results provide evidence of a synergy between cocaine and HIV-1 on CD4+ T-cell apoptosis that may, in part, explain the accelerated disease observed in HIV-1–infected drug abusers. PMID:24486327

  14. Piecewise HIV virus dynamic model with CD4+ T cell count-guided therapy: I

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Sanyi; Xiao, Yanni; Wang, Ning; Wu, Hulin

    2012-01-01

    The strategies of structured treatment interruptions (STIs) of antiretroviral therapies have been proposed for clinical management of HIV infected patients, but clinical studies on STIs failed to achieve a consistent conclusion for this strategy. To evaluate the STI strategies, in particular, CD4+ T cell count-guided STIs, and explain these controversial conclusions from different clinical studies, in this paper we propose to use piecewise HIV virus dynamic models to quantitatively explore the STI strategies and investigate their dynamic behaviors. Our analysis results indicate that CD4+ T cell counts can be maintained above a safe level using the STI with a single threshold or a threshold window. Numerical simulations show that the CD4+ T cell counts either fluctuate or approach a stable level for a patient, depending on the prescribed upper or lower threshold values. In particular, the CD4+ T cell counts can be stabilized at a desired level if the threshold policy control is applied. The durations of drug-on and drug-off are very sensitive to the prescribed upper or lower threshold levels, which possibly explains why the on-off strategy with fixed schedule or a STI strategy with frequent switches is associated with the high rate of failure. Our findings suggest that it is critical to carefully choose the thresholds of CD4+ T cell count and individualize the STIs for each individual patient based on initial CD4+ T cell counts. PMID:22659043

  15. Altered Intracellular ATP Production by Activated CD4+ T-Cells in Very Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Gabrielli, Liliana; Chiereghin, Angela; Lazzarotto, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Background. The neonatal immune system is not fully developed at birth; newborns have adequate lymphocytes counts but these cells lack function. Objective. To assess the activity of T-cells and the influence of the main perinatal factors in very preterm infants (birth weight < 1500 g). Design. Blood samples from 59 preterm infants (21/59 were dizygotic twins) were collected at birth and at 30 days of life to measure CD4+ T-cell activity using the ImmuKnow™ assay. Fifteen healthy adults were included as a control group. Results. CD4+ T-cell activity was lower in VLBW infants compared with adults (p < 0.001). Twins showed lower immune activity compared to singletons (p = 0.005). Infants born vaginally showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity compared to those born by C-section (p = 0.031); infants born after prolonged Premature Rupture of Membranes (pPROM) showed higher CD4+ T-cell activity at birth (p = 0.002) compared to infants born without pPROM. Low CD4+ T-cell activity at birth is associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in the first week of life (p = 0.049). Conclusions. Preterm infants show a lack in CD4+ T-cell activity at birth. Perinatal factors such as intrauterine inflammation, mode of delivery, and zygosity can influence the adaptive immune activation capacity at birth and can contribute to exposing these infants to serious complications such as NEC. PMID:28070527

  16. Perturbations in B cell responsiveness to CD4+ T cell help in HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Moir, Susan; Ogwaro, Kisani M.; Malaspina, Angela; Vasquez, Joshua; Donoghue, Eileen T.; Hallahan, Claire W.; Liu, Shuying; Ehler, Linda A.; Planta, Marie A.; Kottilil, Shyamasundaran; Chun, Tae-Wook; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2003-01-01

    HIV infection induces a wide array of B cell dysfunctions. We have characterized the effect of plasma viremia on the responsiveness of B cells to CD4+ T cell help in HIV-infected patients. In HIV-negative donors, B cell proliferation correlated with CD154 expression on activated CD4+ T cells and with the availability of IL-2, whereas in HIV-infected viremic patients, reduced B cell proliferation was observed despite normal CD154 expression on activated CD4+ T cells. Reduced triggering of B cells by activated CD4+ T cells was clearly observed in HIV-infected viremic patients compared with aviremic patients with comparable CD4+ T cell counts, and a dramatic improvement in B cell function was observed in patients whose plasma viremia was controlled by effective antiretroviral therapy. The degree of B cell dysfunction in viremic patients correlated strongly with the inability of B cells to express CD25 in response to activated CD4+ T cells, resulting in an inability to mount a normal proliferative response to IL-2. Similar defects in responsiveness to IL-2 were observed in the B cells of HIV-infected viremic patients in the context of B cell receptor stimulation. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms associated with ineffective humoral responses in HIV disease. PMID:12730375

  17. Key role for CD4 T cells during mixed antibody mediated rejection of renal allografts

    PubMed Central

    Gaughan, A.; Wang, J.; Pelletier, R.P.; Nadasdy, T.; Brodsky, S.; Roy, S.; Lodder, M.; Bobek, D.; Mofatt-Bruce, S.; Fairchild, R.L.; Henry, M.L.; Hadley, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    We utilized mouse models to elucidate the immunologic mechanisms of functional graft loss during mixed antibody mediated rejection of renal allografts (mixed AMR), in which humoral and cellular responses to the graft occur concomitantly. Although the majority of T cells in the graft at the time of rejection were CD8 T cells with only a minor population of CD4 T cells, depletion of CD4 but not CD8 cells prevented acute graft loss during mixed AMR. CD4 depletion eliminated anti-donor alloantibodies and conferred protection from destruction of renal allografts. ELISPOT revealed that CD4 T effectors responded to donor alloantigens by both the direct and indirect pathways of allorecognition. In transfer studies, CD4 T effectors primed to donor alloantigens were highly effective at promoting acute graft dysfunction, and exhibited the attributes of effector T cells. Laser capture microdissection and confirmatory immunostaining studies revealed that CD4 T cells infiltrating the graft produced effector molecules with graft destructive potential. Bioluminescent imaging confirmed that CD4 T effectors traffic to the graft site in immune replete hosts. These data document that host CD4 T cells can promote acute dysfunction of renal allografts by directly mediating graft injury in addition to facilitating anti-donor alloantibody responses. PMID:24410909

  18. A precise technique for manufacturing correction coil

    SciTech Connect

    Schieber, L.

    1992-01-01

    An automated method of manufacturing correction coils has been developed which provides a precise embodiment of the coil design. Numerically controlled machines have been developed to accurately position coil windings on the beam tube. Two types of machines have been built. One machine bonds the wire to a substrate which is wrapped around the beam tube after it is completed while the second machine bonds the wire directly to the beam tube. Both machines use the Multiwire[reg sign] technique of bonding the wire to the substrate utilizing an ultrasonic stylus. These machines are being used to manufacture coils for both the SSC and RHIC.

  19. A precise technique for manufacturing correction coil

    SciTech Connect

    Schieber, L.

    1992-11-01

    An automated method of manufacturing correction coils has been developed which provides a precise embodiment of the coil design. Numerically controlled machines have been developed to accurately position coil windings on the beam tube. Two types of machines have been built. One machine bonds the wire to a substrate which is wrapped around the beam tube after it is completed while the second machine bonds the wire directly to the beam tube. Both machines use the Multiwire{reg_sign} technique of bonding the wire to the substrate utilizing an ultrasonic stylus. These machines are being used to manufacture coils for both the SSC and RHIC.

  20. Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils

    DOEpatents

    Reiman, Allan; Boozer, Allen H.

    1987-01-01

    A helical axis stellarator using only noninterlocking planar, non-circular coils, generates magnetic fields having a magnetic well and large rotational transform with resultant large equilibrium beta.

  1. [Phenotypic characteristics of LAP(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes in colorectal cancer tissues].

    PubMed

    Zhong, W; Jiang, Z Y; Zhong, S B; Zhang, L C; Huang, J H; Zhang, S; Chen, L S; Cao, Y F

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the phenotypic characteristics of LAP(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes and investigate their molecular mechanisms in colorectal cancer (CRC) microenvironment. Fifty colorectal cancer patients treated in our two hospitals from January 2014 to May 2014 were included in this study. Their tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues, peripheral blood samples, and peripheral blood samples of 25 healthy donors (HD) were collected to isolate the lymphocytes. The different expressions of CCR7, CD45RA, Foxp3, CTLA-4, CCR4 and CCR5 in LAP(+) CD4(+) T and LAP(-)CD4(+) T lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). The FCM assay detected that the percentage of LAP(+) CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood of the CRC patients were significantly higher than that of HD [(9.44±3.18)% versus (1.49±1.00)%, P<0.001]. In addition, significantly more LAP(+) CD4(+) T cells were also recruited into tumor tissue than those in the tumor-adjacent normal tissue [(11.76±3.74)% versus (3.87±1.64)%, P<0.001]. LAP(+) CD4(+) T cells in the tumor-adjacent normal tissue and peripheral blood of both HDs and CRC patients mainly displayed a central memory phenotype. However, effector memory lymphocytes were predominant in the tumor tissue.In the tumor tissue, the expression of Foxp3 in the LAP(+) CD4(+) T cells was (3.87±1.12)%, significantly lower than that in the LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells (16.70±2.61)%, (P<0.001); the expression of CTLA-4 in the LAP(+) CD4(+) T cells was (36.36±19.14)%, significantly higher than the (19.60±8.91)% in the LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells (P<0.001); the expression of CCR4 in the LAP(+) CD4(+) T cells was (37.72±11.14)%, significantly higher than the (30.06±9.14)% in the LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells (P<0.001); and the expression of CCR5 in the LAP(+) CD4(+) T cells was (18.86±7.10)%, significantly higher than the (13.92±3.31)% in the LAP(-)CD4(+) T cells (P<0.001). LAP(+) CD4(+) T cells with low expression of Foxp3 and high expressions of CTLA-4, CCR4 and CCR5 are tend to be

  2. 42 CFR 438.724 - Notice to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice to CMS. 438.724 Section 438.724 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.724 Notice to CMS. (a) The State must give the CMS Regional Office written notice whenever it imposes or lifts a sanction for one of the...

  3. 42 CFR 425.200 - Agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agreement with CMS. 425.200 Section 425.200 Public... Agreement § 425.200 Agreement with CMS. (a) General. In order to participate in the Shared Savings Program, an ACO must enter into a participation agreement with CMS for a period of not less than three...

  4. 42 CFR 422.210 - Assurances to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances to CMS. 422.210 Section 422.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to CMS. (a) Assurances to CMS. Each organization will provide assurance satisfactory to the...

  5. 42 CFR 457.1003 - CMS review of waiver requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS review of waiver requests. 457.1003 Section 457.1003 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1003 CMS review of waiver requests. CMS will review the waiver...

  6. 42 CFR 460.18 - CMS evaluation of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS evaluation of applications. 460.18 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.18 CMS evaluation of applications. CMS evaluates an application for approval as a PACE organization on the basis of the...

  7. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter...

  8. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether...

  9. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter...

  10. 42 CFR 405.1834 - CMS reviewing official procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS reviewing official procedure. 405.1834 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1834 CMS reviewing official procedure. (a) Scope. A provider that is a party to... Administrator by a designated CMS reviewing official who considers whether the decision of the...

  11. 42 CFR 438.724 - Notice to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice to CMS. 438.724 Section 438.724 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.724 Notice to CMS. (a) The State must give the CMS Regional Office written notice whenever it imposes or lifts a sanction for one of the...

  12. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether...

  13. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter...

  14. 42 CFR 460.18 - CMS evaluation of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS evaluation of applications. 460.18 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.18 CMS evaluation of applications. CMS evaluates an application for approval as a PACE organization on the basis of the...

  15. 42 CFR 457.1003 - CMS review of waiver requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS review of waiver requests. 457.1003 Section 457.1003 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1003 CMS review of waiver requests. CMS will review the waiver...

  16. 42 CFR 425.200 - Agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agreement with CMS. 425.200 Section 425.200 Public... Agreement § 425.200 Agreement with CMS. (a) General. In order to participate in the Shared Savings Program, an ACO must enter into a participation agreement with CMS for a period of not less than three...

  17. 42 CFR 405.1834 - CMS reviewing official procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS reviewing official procedure. 405.1834 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1834 CMS reviewing official procedure. (a) Scope. A provider that is a party to... Administrator by a designated CMS reviewing official who considers whether the decision of the...

  18. 42 CFR 403.248 - Administrative review of CMS determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administrative review of CMS determinations. 403... Certification Program: General Provisions § 403.248 Administrative review of CMS determinations. (a) This section provides for administrative review if CMS determines— (1) Not to certify a policy; or (2) That...

  19. 42 CFR 422.210 - Assurances to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances to CMS. 422.210 Section 422.210 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Relationships With Providers § 422.210 Assurances to CMS. (a) Assurances to CMS. Each organization will provide assurance satisfactory to the Secretary that...

  20. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter...

  1. 42 CFR 438.724 - Notice to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice to CMS. 438.724 Section 438.724 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.724 Notice to CMS. (a) The State must give the CMS Regional Office written notice whenever it imposes or lifts a sanction for one of the...

  2. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter...

  3. 42 CFR 433.320 - Procedures for refunds to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for refunds to CMS. 433.320 Section 433... Overpayments to Providers § 433.320 Procedures for refunds to CMS. (a) Basic requirements. (1) The agency must refund the Federal share of overpayments that are subject to recovery to CMS through a credit on...

  4. 42 CFR 425.200 - Agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agreement with CMS. 425.200 Section 425.200 Public... Agreement § 425.200 Agreement with CMS. (a) General. In order to participate in the Shared Savings Program, an ACO must enter into a participation agreement with CMS for a period of not less than three...

  5. 42 CFR 405.1834 - CMS reviewing official procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMS reviewing official procedure. 405.1834 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1834 CMS reviewing official procedure. (a) Scope. A provider that is a party to... Administrator by a designated CMS reviewing official who considers whether the decision of the...

  6. 42 CFR 403.248 - Administrative review of CMS determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative review of CMS determinations. 403... Certification Program: General Provisions § 403.248 Administrative review of CMS determinations. (a) This section provides for administrative review if CMS determines— (1) Not to certify a policy; or (2) That...

  7. 42 CFR 422.210 - Assurances to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances to CMS. 422.210 Section 422.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to CMS. (a) Assurances to CMS. Each organization will provide assurance satisfactory to the...

  8. 42 CFR 433.320 - Procedures for refunds to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for refunds to CMS. 433.320 Section 433... Overpayments to Providers § 433.320 Procedures for refunds to CMS. (a) Basic requirements. (1) The agency must refund the Federal share of overpayments that are subject to recovery to CMS through a credit on...

  9. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether...

  10. 42 CFR 460.18 - CMS evaluation of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMS evaluation of applications. 460.18 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.18 CMS evaluation of applications. CMS evaluates an application for approval as a PACE organization on the basis of the...

  11. 42 CFR 422.210 - Assurances to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances to CMS. 422.210 Section 422.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to CMS. (a) Assurances to CMS. Each organization will provide assurance satisfactory to the...

  12. 42 CFR 433.320 - Procedures for refunds to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for refunds to CMS. 433.320 Section 433... Overpayments to Providers § 433.320 Procedures for refunds to CMS. (a) Basic requirements. (1) The agency must refund the Federal share of overpayments that are subject to recovery to CMS through a credit on...

  13. 42 CFR 405.1834 - CMS reviewing official procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS reviewing official procedure. 405.1834 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1834 CMS reviewing official procedure. (a) Scope. A provider that is a party to... Administrator by a designated CMS reviewing official who considers whether the decision of the...

  14. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether...

  15. 42 CFR 460.18 - CMS evaluation of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS evaluation of applications. 460.18 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.18 CMS evaluation of applications. CMS evaluates an application for approval as a PACE organization on the basis of the...

  16. 42 CFR 433.320 - Procedures for refunds to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for refunds to CMS. 433.320 Section 433... Overpayments to Providers § 433.320 Procedures for refunds to CMS. (a) Basic requirements. (1) The agency must refund the Federal share of overpayments that are subject to recovery to CMS through a credit on...

  17. 42 CFR 422.210 - Assurances to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances to CMS. 422.210 Section 422.210 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Relationships With Providers § 422.210 Assurances to CMS. (a) Assurances to CMS. Each organization will provide assurance satisfactory to the Secretary that...

  18. 42 CFR 438.724 - Notice to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice to CMS. 438.724 Section 438.724 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.724 Notice to CMS. (a) The State must give the CMS Regional Office written notice whenever it imposes or lifts a sanction for one of the...

  19. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether...

  20. 42 CFR 457.1003 - CMS review of waiver requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS review of waiver requests. 457.1003 Section 457.1003 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1003 CMS review of waiver requests. CMS will review the waiver...

  1. 42 CFR 403.248 - Administrative review of CMS determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administrative review of CMS determinations. 403... Certification Program: General Provisions § 403.248 Administrative review of CMS determinations. (a) This section provides for administrative review if CMS determines— (1) Not to certify a policy; or (2) That...

  2. 42 CFR 405.1834 - CMS reviewing official procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS reviewing official procedure. 405.1834 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1834 CMS reviewing official procedure. (a) Scope. A provider that is a party to... Administrator by a designated CMS reviewing official who considers whether the decision of the...

  3. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  4. The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB)

    SciTech Connect

    Spiga, D.; Cinquilli, M.; Servoli, L.; Lacaprara, S.; Fanzago, F.; Dorigo, A.; Merlo, M.; Farina, F.; Fanfani, A.; Codispoti, G.; Bacchi, W.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U /CERN /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Trieste /Fermilab

    2008-01-22

    The CMS experiment will produce several Pbytes of data every year, to be distributed over many computing centers geographically distributed in different countries. Analysis of this data will be also performed in a distributed way, using grid infrastructure. CRAB (CMS Remote Analysis Builder) is a specific tool, designed and developed by the CMS collaboration, that allows a transparent access to distributed data to end physicist. Very limited knowledge of underlying technicalities are required to the user. CRAB interacts with the local user environment, the CMS Data Management services and with the Grid middleware. It is able to use WLCG, gLite and OSG middleware. CRAB has been in production and in routine use by end-users since Spring 2004. It has been extensively used in studies to prepare the Physics Technical Design Report (PTDR) and in the analysis of reconstructed event samples generated during the Computing Software and Analysis Challenge (CSA06). This involved generating thousands of jobs per day at peak rates. In this paper we discuss the current implementation of CRAB, the experience with using it in production and the plans to improve it in the immediate future.

  5. 23 CFR 500.109 - CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provides accurate, up-to-date information on transportation system operations and performance and assesses... SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.109 CMS. (a) For purposes of this part, congestion means the level at which transportation system performance is unacceptable due to excessive travel times and delays...

  6. Top quark properties measurements in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazgan, E.; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    Recent top quark properties measurements made with the CMS detector at the LHC are presented. The measurements summarized include spin correlation of top quark pairs, asymmetries, top quark mass, and the underlying event in top quark pair events. The results are compared to the standard model predictions and new physics models.

  7. CMS results on exclusive and diffractive production

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Gilvan A.

    2015-04-10

    We present recent CMS measurements of diffractive and exclusive processes, using data collected at 7 TeV at the LHC. Measurements of soft single- and double-diffractive cross sections are presented, as well as measurements of photon-induced processes including studies of exclusive WW production via photon-photon exchange.

  8. Monte Carlo Production Management at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudoul, G.; Franzoni, G.; Norkus, A.; Pol, A.; Srimanobhas, P.; Vlimant, J.-R.

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of the LHC data at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment requires the production of a large number of simulated events. During the RunI of LHC (20102012), CMS has produced over 12 Billion simulated events, organized in approximately sixty different campaigns each emulating specific detector conditions and LHC running conditions (pile up). In order to aggregate the information needed for the configuration and prioritization of the events production, assure the book-keeping of all the processing requests placed by the physics analysis groups, and to interface with the CMS production infrastructure, the web- based service Monte Carlo Management (McM) has been developed and put in production in 2013. McM is based on recent server infrastructure technology (CherryPy + AngularJS) and relies on a CouchDB database back-end. This contribution covers the one and half year of operational experience managing samples of simulated events for CMS, the evolution of its functionalities and the extension of its capability to monitor the status and advancement of the events production.

  9. Commissioning of the CMS Forward Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Buffalo

    2008-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is scheduled for physics data taking in summer 2009 after the commissioning of high energy proton-proton collisions at Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracker is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution, 3D tracking points, essential for pattern recognition and precise vertexing, while being embedded in a hostile radiation environment. The end disks of the pixel detector, known as the Forward Pixel detector, has been assembled and tested at Fermilab, USA. It has 18 million pixel cells with dimension 100 x 150 {micro}m{sup 2}. The complete forward pixel detector was shipped to CERN in December 2007, where it underwent extensive system tests for commissioning prior to the installation. The pixel system was put in its final place inside the CMS following the installation and bake out of the LHC beam pipe in July 2008. It has been integrated with other sub-detectors in the readout since September 2008 and participated in the cosmic data taking. This report covers the strategy and results from commissioning of CMS forward pixel detector at CERN.

  10. Compact stellarators with modular coils.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, P R

    2000-07-18

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan.

  11. Compact stellarators with modular coils

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2000-01-01

    Compact stellarator designs with modular coils and only two or three field periods are now available; these designs have both good stability and quasiaxial symmetry providing adequate transport for a magnetic fusion reactor. If the bootstrap current assumes theoretically predicted values a three field period configuration is optimal, but if that net current turns out to be lower, a device with two periods and just 12 modular coils might be better. There are also attractive designs with quasihelical symmetry and four or five periods whose properties depend less on the bootstrap current. Good performance requires that there be a satisfactory magnetic well in the vacuum field, which is a property lacking in a stellarator-tokamak hybrid that has been proposed for a proof of principle experiment. In this paper, we present an analysis of stability for these configurations that is based on a mountain pass theorem asserting that, if two solutions of the problem of magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium can be found, then there has to be an unstable solution. We compare results of our theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport with recently announced measurements from the large LHD experiment in Japan. PMID:10899993

  12. Facilitated diffusion with DNA coiling.

    PubMed

    Lomholt, Michael A; van den Broek, Bram; Kalisch, Svenja-Marei J; Wuite, Gijs J L; Metzler, Ralf

    2009-05-19

    When DNA-binding proteins search for their specific binding site on a DNA molecule they alternate between linear 1-dimensional diffusion along the DNA molecule, mediated by nonspecific binding, and 3-dimensional volume excursion events between successive dissociation from and rebinding to DNA. If the DNA molecule is kept in a straight configuration, for instance, by optical tweezers, these 3-dimensional excursions may be divided into long volume excursions and short hops along the DNA. These short hops correspond to immediate rebindings after dissociation such that a rebinding event to the DNA occurs at a site that is close to the site of the preceding dissociation. When the DNA molecule is allowed to coil up, immediate rebinding may also lead to so-called intersegmental jumps, i.e., immediate rebindings to a DNA segment that is far away from the unbinding site when measured in the chemical distance along the DNA, but close by in the embedding 3-dimensional space. This effect is made possible by DNA looping. The significance of intersegmental jumps was recently demonstrated in a single DNA optical tweezers setup. Here we present a theoretical approach in which we explicitly take the effect of DNA coiling into account. By including the spatial correlations of the short hops we demonstrate how the facilitated diffusion model can be extended to account for intersegmental jumping at varying DNA densities. It is also shown that our approach provides a quantitative interpretation of the experimentally measured enhancement of the target location by DNA-binding proteins.

  13. Coiled tubing - Operations and services

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, D.A.; Blue, T.H. )

    1993-03-01

    Sand production can severely impact well performance and profitability by damaging production equipment or plugging wellbores. Sand control in existing wells may be required because of inadequate initial completion design, recompletion to new intervals or changes in reservoir production characteristics. The most durable and reliable sand control is by conventional gravel packing, but in some cases, conventional packs may not be economic or feasible. Improvements in coiled tubing technology and reliability have resulted in better application and increased acceptance of through-tubing sand control. Concentric gravel packing and sand consolidation are being used more because of advances in equipment, services, downhole tools and fluids. Candidates for these techniques include conventional completions that begin producing sand and wells with gravel pack failures. Economical jobs have been performed successfully in several different wellbore configurations. Some initially non-gravel packed wells are now being designed for possible through-tubing gravel packing, anticipating sand production later in the completion's producing life. This paper reviews the general procedures for installing a through-tubing, washdown mechanical gravel pack using coiled tubing conveyance and placement techniques.

  14. Statistical analysis of intrahelical ionic interactions in alpha-helices and coiled coils.

    PubMed

    Meier, Markus; Burkhard, Peter

    2006-08-01

    There are many controversies concerning whether ionic interactions in alpha-helices and coiled coils actually contribute to the stabilisation and formation of these structures. Here we used a statistical approach to probe this question. We extracted unique alpha-helical and coiled coil structures from the protein database and analysed the ionic interactions between positively and negatively charged residues. The ionic interactions were categorized according to the type, spacing and order of the residues involved. Separate datasets were produced depending on the number of alpha-helices in the coiled coils and the mutual orientation of the helices. We compared the frequency of residue configurations able to form ionic interactions with their probability to form the interaction. We found a correlation between the two variables in alpha-helices, antiparallel two-stranded coiled coils and parallel two-stranded coiled coils. This indicates that some ionic interactions are indeed important for the formation and stabilisation of alpha-helices and coiled coils. We concluded that the configurations, which have simultaneously a large probability to form the ionic interaction and a frequent occurrence, are those, which have the most stabilising effect. These are the 4RE, 3ER and 4ER interactions.

  15. Design of the coolant system for the Large Coil Test Facility pulse coils

    SciTech Connect

    Bridgman, C.; Ryan, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The pulse coils will be a part of the Large Coil Test Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which is designed to test six large tokamak-type superconducting coils. The pulse coil set consists of two resistive coaxial solenoid coils, mounted so that their magnetic axis is perpendicular to the toroidal field lines of the test coil. The pulse coils provide transient vertical fields at test coil locations to simulate the pulsed vertical fields present in tokamak devices. The pulse coils are designed to be pulsed for 30 s every 150 s, which results in a Joule heating of 116 kW per coil. In order to provide this capability, the pulse coil coolant system is required to deliver 6.3 L/s (100 gpm) of subcooled liquid nitrogen at 10-atm absolute pressure. The coolant system can also cool down each pulse coil from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature. This paper provides details of the pumping and heat exchange equipment designed for the coolant system and of the associated instrumentation and controls.

  16. Natural templates for coiled-coil biomaterials from praying mantis egg cases.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew A; Weisman, Sarah; Kameda, Tsunenori; Sutherland, Tara D

    2012-12-10

    Whereas there is growing interest in producing biomaterials containing coiled-coils, relatively few studies have made use of naturally occurring fibrous proteins. In this study, we have characterized fibrous proteins used by mother praying mantises to produce an extensive covering for their eggs called an ootheca and demonstrate the production of artificial ootheca using recombinantly produced proteins. Examination of natural oothecae by infrared spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance revealed the material to consist of proteins organized predominately as coiled-coils. Two structural proteins, Mantis Fibroin 1 and Mantis Fibroin 2, were identified in ootheca from each of three species. Between species, the primary sequences of both proteins had diverged considerably, but other features were tightly conserved, including low molecular weight, high abundance of Ala, Glu, Lys, and Ser, and a triblock-like architecture with extensive central coiled-coil domain. Mantis fibroin hydrophobic cores had an unusual composition containing high levels of alanine and aromatic residues. Recombinantly produced mantis fibroins folded into coiled-coils in solution and could be fabricated into solid materials with high coiled-coil content. The structural features of mantis fibroins and their straightforward recombinant production make them promising templates for the production of coiled-coil biomimetics materials.

  17. Visualization of an unstable coiled coil from the scallop myosin rod.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Brown, Jerry H; Reshetnikova, Ludmilla; Blazsek, Antal; Farkas, László; Nyitray, László; Cohen, Carolyn

    2003-07-17

    Alpha-helical coiled coils in muscle exemplify simplicity and economy of protein design: small variations in sequence lead to remarkable diversity in cellular functions. Myosin II is the key protein in muscle contraction, and the molecule's two-chain alpha-helical coiled-coil rod region--towards the carboxy terminus of the heavy chain--has unusual structural and dynamic features. The amino-terminal subfragment-2 (S2) domains of the rods can swing out from the thick filament backbone at a hinge in the coiled coil, allowing the two myosin 'heads' and their motor domains to interact with actin and generate tension. Most of the S2 rod appears to be a flexible coiled coil, but studies suggest that the structure at the N-terminal region is unstable, and unwinding or bending of the alpha-helices near the head-rod junction seems necessary for many of myosin's functional properties. Here we show the physical basis of a particularly weak coiled-coil segment by determining the 2.5-A-resolution crystal structure of a leucine-zipper-stabilized fragment of the scallop striated-muscle myosin rod adjacent to the head-rod junction. The N-terminal 14 residues are poorly ordered; the rest of the S2 segment forms a flexible coiled coil with poorly packed core residues. The unusual absence of interhelical salt bridges here exposes apolar core atoms to solvent.

  18. Coiled-Coil Formation on Lipid Bilayers—Implications for Docking and Fusion Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pähler, Gesa; Panse, Cornelia; Diederichsen, Ulf; Janshoff, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Coiled-coil formation of four different oligopeptides was characterized in solution, on hydrogels, and on membranes by employing circular dichroism spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, and ellipsometry. Peptide sequences rich in either glutamic acid (E: E3Cys, i-E3Cys) or lysine (K: K3Cys, i-K3Cys) were used to represent minimal mimics of eukaryotic SNARE motifs. Half of the peptides were synthesized in reverse sequence, so that parallel and antiparallel heptad coiled-coil structures were formed. Either E-peptides or K-peptides were attached covalently to phospholipid anchors via maleimide chemistry, and served as receptors for the recognition of the corresponding binding partners added to solution. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of single bilayers confirmed the formation of coiled-coil complexes at the membrane interface. Coiled-coil formation in solution, as compared with association at the membrane surface, displays considerably larger binding constants that are largely attributed to loss of translational entropy at the interface. Finally, the fusogenicity of the various coiled-coil motifs was explored, and the results provide clear evidence that hemifusion followed by full fusion requires a parallel orientation of α-helices, whereas antiparallel oriented coiled-coil motifs display only docking. PMID:23283228

  19. A comparative study of flat coil and coil sensor for landslide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjaya, Edi; Muslimin, Ahmad Novi; Djamal, Mitra; Suprijadi, Handayani, Gunawan; Ramli

    2016-03-01

    The landslide is one of the most costly catastrophic events in terms of human lives and infrastructure damage, thus an early warning monitoring for landslides becomes more and more important. Currently existing monitoring systems for early warning are available in terms of monolithic systems. This is a very cost-intensive way, considering installation as well as operational and personal expenses. We have been developing a landslide detection system based on flat coil and coil sensor. The flat coil element being developed is an inductive proximity sensor for detection mass of soil movement. The simple method of flat coil manufactures and low cost, is an attraction that is still inspired to develop flat coil sensors. Meanwhile, although it has a drawback in terms of their size, the coil sensor is still required in many fields due to their sensitivity and robustness. The simple method of coil manufacture and the materials are commonly available and low cost, is an attraction that is still inspired to develop induction coil sensors. A comparative study of alternative configuration of sensor based on flat coil elements and a coil in application to landslide detection has been discussed in this paper. The purpose of this comparison is to show the ideal conditions and the challenges for each sensor. Furthermore, a comparison between flat coil and coil sensor is presented.

  20. Structural characteristics of the redox-sensing coiled coil in the voltage-gated H+ channel.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Takeshita, Kohei; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Okamura, Yasushi

    2013-06-21

    Oxidation is an important biochemical defense mechanism, but it also elicits toxicity; therefore, oxidation must be under strict control. In phagocytotic events in neutrophils, the voltage-gated H(+) (Hv) channel is a key regulator of the production of reactive oxygen species against invading bacteria. The cytoplasmic domain of the Hv channel forms a dimeric coiled coil underpinning a dimerized functional unit. Importantly, in the alignment of the coiled-coil core, a conserved cysteine residue forms a potential intersubunit disulfide bond. In this study, we solved the crystal structures of the coiled-coil domain in reduced, oxidized, and mutated (Cys → Ser) states. The crystal structures indicate that a pair of Cys residues forms an intersubunit disulfide bond dependent on the redox conditions. CD spectroscopy revealed that the disulfide bond increases the thermal stability of the coiled-coil protein. We also reveal that two thiol modifier molecules are able to bind to Cys in a redox-dependent manner without disruption of the dimeric coiled-coil assembly. Thus, the biochemical properties of the cytoplasmic coiled-coil domain in the Hv channel depend on the redox condition, which may play a role in redox sensing in the phagosome.

  1. Accommodation of structural rearrangements in the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 coiled-coil domain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbur, Jeremy D.; Hwang, Peter K.; Brodsky, Frances M.; Fletterick, Robert J.

    2010-03-01

    Variable packing interaction related to the conformational flexibility within the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 coiled coil domain. Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an important link between the actin cytoskeleton and clathrin-mediated endocytosis machinery. HIP1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease. The binding of HIP1 to actin is regulated through an interaction with clathrin light chain. Clathrin light chain binds to a flexible coiled-coil domain in HIP1 and induces a compact state that is refractory to actin binding. To understand the mechanism of this conformational regulation, a high-resolution crystal structure of a stable fragment from the HIP1 coiled-coil domain was determined. The flexibility of the HIP1 coiled-coil region was evident from its variation from a previously determined structure of a similar region. A hydrogen-bond network and changes in coiled-coil monomer interaction suggest that the HIP1 coiled-coil domain is uniquely suited to allow conformational flexibility.

  2. Characterization of Coupled Coil in Seawater for Wireless Power Transfer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    9 8. Quality factor of the coils in air, seawater, and atop a ferrite plate...coils (‘blue’). quality factor of the coils in air, seawater, and atop a ferrite plate...was designed to be inserted inside the transmit coil, as shown in Figure 5(b). The receive coil was filled with a ferrite powder to increase its

  3. Quantitative proteomic analysis of CMS-related changes in Honglian CMS rice anther.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingping; Hu, Chaofeng; Hu, Jun; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Yingguo

    2009-10-01

    Honglian (HL) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is one of the rice CMS types and has been widely used in hybrid rice production in China. The CMS line (Yuetai A, YTA) has a Yuetai B (maintainer line, YTB) nuclear genome, but has a rearranged mitochondrial (mt) genome consisting of Yuetai B. The fertility of hybrid (HL-6) was restored by restorer gene in nuclear genome of restorer line (9311). We used isotope-code affinity tag (ICAT) technology to perform the protein profiling of uninucleate stage rice anther and identify the CMS-HL related proteins. Two separate ICAT analyses were performed in this study: (1) anthers from YTA versus anthers from YTB, and (2) anthers from YTA versus anthers from HL-6. Based on the two analyses, a total of 97 unique proteins were identified and quantified in uninucleate stage rice anther under the error rate of less than 10%, of which eight proteins showed abundance changes of at least twofold between YTA and YTB. Triosephosphate isomerase, fructokinase II, DNA-binding protein GBP16 and ribosomal protein L3B were over-expressed in YTB, while oligopeptide transporter, floral organ regulator 1, kinase and S-adenosyl-L: -methionine synthetase were over-expressed in YTA. Reduction of the proteins associated with energy production and lesser ATP equivalents detected in CMS anther indicated that the low level of energy production played an important role in inducing CMS-HL.

  4. Pharmacological interference with protein-protein interactions mediated by coiled-coil motifs.

    PubMed

    Strauss, H M; Keller, S

    2008-01-01

    Coiled coils are bundles of intertwined alpha-helices that provide protein-protein interaction sites for the dynamic assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. The coiled-coil motif combines structural versatility and adaptability with mechanical strength and specificity. Multimeric proteins that rely on coiled-coil interactions are structurally and functionally very diverse, ranging from simple homodimeric transcription factors to elaborate heteromultimeric scaffolding clusters. Several coiled-coil-bearing proteins are of outstanding pharmacological importance, most notably SNARE proteins involved in vesicular trafficking of neurotransmitters and viral fusion proteins. Together with their crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes, the structural simplicity and reversible nature of coiled-coil associations render them a promising target for pharmacological interference, as successfully exemplified by botulinum toxins and viral fusion inhibitors. The alpha-helical coiled coil is a ubiquitous protein domain that mediates highly specific homo- and heteromeric protein-protein interactions among a wide range of proteins. The coiled-coil motif was first proposed by Crick on the basis of X-ray diffraction data on alpha-keratin more than 50 years ago (Crick 1952, 1953) and nowadays belongs to the best-characterized protein interaction modules. By definition, a coiled coil is an oligomeric protein assembly consisting of several right-handed amphipathic alpha-helices that wind around each other into a superhelix (or a supercoil) in which the hydrophobic surfaces of the constituent helices are in continuous contact, forming a hydrophobic core. Both homomeric and heteromeric coiled coils with different stoichiometries are possible, and the helices can be aligned in either a parallel or an antiparallel topology (Harbury et al. 1993, 1994). Stoichiometry and topology are governed by the primary structure, that is, the sequence of the polypeptide chains

  5. TNFAIP3 promotes survival of CD4 T cells by restricting MTOR and promoting autophagy.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Yu; Oshima, Shigeru; Takahara, Masahiro; Maeyashiki, Chiaki; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Nibe, Yoichi; Nozaki, Kengo; Nagaishi, Takashi; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Ma, Averil; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy plays important roles in metabolism, differentiation, and survival in T cells. TNFAIP3/A20 is a ubiquitin-editing enzyme that is thought to be a negative regulator of autophagy in cell lines. However, the role of TNFAIP3 in autophagy remains unclear. To determine whether TNFAIP3 regulates autophagy in CD4 T cells, we first analyzed Tnfaip3-deficient naïve CD4 T cells in vitro. We demonstrated that Tnfaip3-deficient CD4 T cells exhibited reduced MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) puncta formation, increased mitochondrial content, and exaggerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These results indicate that TNFAIP3 promotes autophagy after T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation in CD4 T cells. We then investigated the mechanism by which TNFAIP3 promotes autophagy signaling. We found that TNFAIP3 bound to the MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) complex and that Tnfaip3-deficient cells displayed enhanced ubiquitination of the MTOR complex and MTOR activity. To confirm the effects of enhanced MTOR activity in Tnfaip3-deficient cells, we analyzed cell survival following treatment with Torin1, an MTOR inhibitor. Tnfaip3-deficient CD4 T cells exhibited fewer cell numbers than the control cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the impaired survival of Tnfaip3-deficient cells was ameliorated with Torin1 treatment in vitro and in vivo. The effect of Torin1 was abolished by Atg5 deficiency. Thus, enhanced MTOR activity regulates the survival of Tnfaip3-deficient CD4 T cells. Taken together, our findings illustrate that TNFAIP3 restricts MTOR signaling and promotes autophagy, providing new insight into the manner in which MTOR and autophagy regulate survival in CD4 T cells.

  6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Epitope-Specific CD4(+) T Cells Are Inflated in HIV(+) CMV(+) Subjects.

    PubMed

    Abana, Chike O; Pilkinton, Mark A; Gaudieri, Silvana; Chopra, Abha; McDonnell, Wyatt J; Wanjalla, Celestine; Barnett, Louise; Gangula, Rama; Hager, Cindy; Jung, Dae K; Engelhardt, Brian G; Jagasia, Madan H; Klenerman, Paul; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Koelle, David M; Kalams, Spyros A; Mallal, Simon A

    2017-10-02

    Select CMV epitopes drive life-long CD8(+) T cell memory inflation, but the extent of CD4 memory inflation is poorly studied. CD4(+) T cells specific for human CMV (HCMV) are elevated in HIV(+) HCMV(+) subjects. To determine whether HCMV epitope-specific CD4(+) T cell memory inflation occurs during HIV infection, we used HLA-DR7 (DRB1*07:01) tetramers loaded with the glycoprotein B DYSNTHSTRYV (DYS) epitope to characterize circulating CD4(+) T cells in coinfected HLA-DR7(+) long-term nonprogressor HIV subjects with undetectable HCMV plasma viremia. DYS-specific CD4(+) T cells were inflated among these HIV(+) subjects compared with those from an HIV(-) HCMV(+) HLA-DR7(+) cohort or with HLA-DR7-restricted CD4(+) T cells from the HIV-coinfected cohort that were specific for epitopes of HCMV phosphoprotein-65, tetanus toxoid precursor, EBV nuclear Ag 2, or HIV gag protein. Inflated DYS-specific CD4(+) T cells consisted of effector memory or effector memory-RA(+) subsets with restricted TCRβ usage and nearly monoclonal CDR3 containing novel conserved amino acids. Expression of this near-monoclonal TCR in a Jurkat cell-transfection system validated fine DYS specificity. Inflated cells were polyfunctional, not senescent, and displayed high ex vivo levels of granzyme B, CX3CR1, CD38, or HLA-DR but less often coexpressed CD38(+) and HLA-DR(+) The inflation mechanism did not involve apoptosis suppression, increased proliferation, or HIV gag cross-reactivity. Instead, the findings suggest that intermittent or chronic expression of epitopes, such as DYS, drive inflation of activated CD4(+) T cells that home to endothelial cells and have the potential to mediate cytotoxicity and vascular disease. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses.

    PubMed

    Madera, Laurence; Greenshields, Anna; Coombs, Melanie R Power; Hoskin, David W

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NFκB pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression.

  8. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Laurence; Greenshields, Anna; Coombs, Melanie R. Power; Hoskin, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NFκB pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression. PMID:26177198

  9. Designed Coiled-Coil Peptides Inhibit the Type Three Secretion System of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Larzábal, Mariano; Mercado, Elsa C.; Vilte, Daniel A.; Salazar-González, Hector; Cataldi, Angel; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are two categories of E. coli strains associated with human disease. A major virulence factor of both pathotypes is the expression of a type three secretion system (TTSS), responsible for their ability to adhere to gut mucosa causing a characteristic attaching and effacing lesion (A/E). The TTSS translocates effector proteins directly into the host cell that subvert mammalian cell biochemistry. Methods/Principal Findings We examined synthetic peptides designed to inhibit the TTSS. CoilA and CoilB peptides, both representing coiled-coil regions of the translocator protein EspA, and CoilD peptide, corresponding to a coiled–coil region of the needle protein EscF, were effective in inhibiting the TTSS dependent hemolysis of red blood cells by the EPEC E2348/69 strain. CoilA and CoilB peptides also reduced the formation of actin pedestals by the same strain in HEp-2 cells and impaired the TTSS-mediated protein translocation into the epithelial cell. Interestingly, CoilA and CoilB were able to block EspA assembly, destabilizing the TTSS and thereby Tir translocation. This blockage of EspA polymerization by CoilA or CoilB peptides, also inhibited the correct delivery of EspB and EspD as detected by immunoblotting. Interestingly, electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with the CoilA peptide showed a reduction of the length of EspA filaments. Conclusions Our data indicate that coiled-coil peptides can prevent the assembly and thus the functionality of the TTSS apparatus and suggest that these peptides could provide an attractive tool to block EPEC and EHEC pathogenesis. PMID:20140230

  10. Optimal Coil Orientation for Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Lars; Neumann, Gunnar; Oung, Stephen; Schweikard, Achim; Trillenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of coil orientation on the motor threshold (MT) and present an optimal coil orientation for stimulation of the foot. The result can be compared to results of models that predict this orientation from electrodynamic properties of the media in the skull and from orientations of cells, respectively. We used a robotized TMS system for precise coil placement and recorded motor-evoked potentials with surface electrodes on the abductor hallucis muscle of the right foot in 8 healthy control subjects. First, we performed a hot-spot search in standard (lateral) orientation and then rotated the coil in steps of 10° or 20°. At each step we estimated the MT. For navigated stimulation and for correlation with the underlying anatomy a structural MRI scan was obtained. Optimal coil orientation was 33.1±18.3° anteriorly in relation to the standard lateral orientation. In this orientation the threshold was 54±18% in units of maximum stimulator output. There was a significant difference of 8.0±5.9% between the MTs at optimal and at standard orientation. The optimal coil orientations were significantly correlated with the direction perpendicular to the postcentral gyrus (). Robotized TMS facilitates sufficiently precise coil positioning and orientation to study even small variations of the MT with coil orientation. The deviations from standard orientation are more closely matched by models based on field propagation in media than by models based on orientations of pyramidal cells. PMID:23593200

  11. Operator coil monitoring acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Erhart, M.F.

    1995-06-05

    The readiness of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide monitoring and control of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) abort coils from the Master and RSS stations will be systematically tested during performance of this procedure. It should be noted that these are not physical abort coils but software coils controlled by the software`s ladder logic. The readiness of the DACS to properly interface with the ENRAF wire level gauge installed in the SY101 storage tank will also be tested. During this test, a verification of all abort coil indications will be conducted at the DACS Development Facility in the 306E Building by injecting an input signal for each DACS sensor that has an associated abort coil until the abort coil actuates, and then ensuring that the status of the abort coil indicated at the Master and RSS stations correct. Each abort coil will also be tested to ensure that the ``ENABLE`` and ``DISABLE`` controls from the Master and RSS stations function correctly, and only with the use of proper passwords.

  12. Operator coil monitoring Acceptance Test Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Erhart, M.F.

    1995-05-16

    The readiness of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide monitoring and control of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) abort coils from the Master and RSS stations will be systematically tested during performance of this procedure. It should be noted that these are not physical abort coils but software coils controlled by the software`s ladder logic. The readiness of the DACS to properly interface with the ENRAF wire level gauge installed in the SY-101 storage tank will also be tested. During this test, a verification of all abort coil indications will be conducted at the DACS Development Facility in the 306E Building by injecting an input signal for each DACS sensor that has an associated abort coil until the abort coil actuates, and then ensuring that the status of the abort coil indicated at the Master and RSS stations is correct. Each abort coil will also be tested to ensure that the ``ENABLE`` and ``DISABLE`` controls from the Master and RSS stations function correctly, and only with the use of proper passwords.

  13. 49 CFR 236.730 - Coil, receiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coil, receiver. 236.730 Section 236.730 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Coil, receiver. Concentric layers of insulated wire wound around the core of a receiver of an...

  14. Precise Fabrication of Electromagnetic-Levitation Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E.; Curreri, P.; Theiss, J.; Abbaschian, G.

    1985-01-01

    Winding copper tubing on jig ensures reproducible performance. Sequence of steps insures consistent fabrication of levitation-and-melting coils. New method enables technician to produce eight coils per day, 95 percent of them acceptable. Method employs precise step-by-step procedure on specially designed wrapping and winding jig.

  15. Evidence-based pathology: umbilical cord coiling.

    PubMed

    Khong, T Y

    2010-12-01

    The generation of a pathology test result must be based on criteria that are proven to be acceptably reproducible and clinically relevant to be evidence-based. This review de-constructs the umbilical cord coiling index to illustrate how it can stray from being evidence-based. Publications related to umbilical cord coiling were retrieved and analysed with regard to how the umbilical coiling index was calculated, abnormal coiling was defined and reference ranges were constructed. Errors and other influences that can occur with the measurement of the length of the umbilical cord or of the number of coils can compromise the generation of the coiling index. Definitions of abnormal coiling are not consistent in the literature. Reference ranges defining hypocoiling or hypercoiling have not taken those potential errors or the possible effect of gestational age into account. Even the way numerical test results in anatomical pathology are generated, as illustrated by the umbilical coiling index, warrants a critical analysis into its evidence base to ensure that they are reproducible or free from errors.

  16. Functional investigation of the plant-specific long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL) in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, Sowmya; Mackey, David; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    We have identified and characterized two Arabidopsis long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL). PICC (147 kDa) and PICL (87 kDa) are paralogs that consist predominantly of a long coiled-coil domain (expanded in PICC), with a predicted transmembrane domain at the immediate C-terminus. Orthologs of PICC and PICL were found exclusively in vascular plants. PICC and PICL GFP fusion proteins are anchored to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a C-terminal transmembrane domain and a short tail domain, via a tail-anchoring mechanism. T-DNA-insertion mutants of PICC and PICL as well as the double mutant show an increased sensitivity to the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in a post-germination growth response. PICC, but not PICL gene expression is induced by the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22. T-DNA insertion alleles of PICC, but not PICL, show increased susceptibility to the non-virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC, but not to the virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This suggests that PICC mutants are compromised in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The data presented here provide first evidence for the involvement of a plant long coiled-coil protein in a plant defense response.

  17. Innovative applications stimulate coiled tubing development

    SciTech Connect

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II; Bell, S.

    1996-06-01

    Coiled tubing (CT) is increasingly becoming a viable option to many conventional well operations worldwide. Advanced technology, new equipment and recent field applications have shown CT to be a lower-cost, reliable and effective tool for drilling and recompleting certain wells. Seven example applications from two recent coiled tubing technical conferences are described.

  18. Prospective motion correction using tracking coils.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Schmidt, Ehud J; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Santos, Juan; Hoge, William S; Tempany-Afdhal, Clare; Butts-Pauly, Kim; Dumoulin, Charles L

    2013-03-01

    Intracavity imaging coils provide higher signal-to-noise than surface coils and have the potential to provide higher spatial resolution in shorter acquisition times. However, images from these coils suffer from physiologically induced motion artifacts, as both the anatomy and the coils move during image acquisition. We developed prospective motion-correction techniques for intracavity imaging using an array of tracking coils. The system had <50 ms latency between tracking and imaging, so that the images from the intracavity coil were acquired in a frame of reference defined by the tracking array rather than by the system's gradient coils. Two-dimensional gradient-recalled and three-dimensional electrocardiogram-gated inversion-recovery-fast-gradient-echo sequences were tested with prospective motion correction using ex vivo hearts placed on a moving platform simulating both respiratory and cardiac motion. Human abdominal tests were subsequently conducted. The tracking array provided a positional accuracy of 0.7 ± 0.5 mm, 0.6 ± 0.4 mm, and 0.1 ± 0.1 mm along the X, Y, and Z directions at a rate of 20 frames-per-second. The ex vivo and human experiments showed significant image quality improvements for both in-plane and through-plane motion correction, which although not performed in intracavity imaging, demonstrates the feasibility of implementing such a motion-correction system in a future design of combined tracking and intracavity coil. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Functional Investigation of the Plant-Specific Long Coiled-Coil Proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL) in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Venkatakrishnan, Sowmya; Mackey, David; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    We have identified and characterized two Arabidopsis long coiled-coil proteins PAMP-INDUCED COILED-COIL (PICC) and PICC-LIKE (PICL). PICC (147 kDa) and PICL (87 kDa) are paralogs that consist predominantly of a long coiled-coil domain (expanded in PICC), with a predicted transmembrane domain at the immediate C-terminus. Orthologs of PICC and PICL were found exclusively in vascular plants. PICC and PICL GFP fusion proteins are anchored to the cytoplasmic surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by a C-terminal transmembrane domain and a short tail domain, via a tail-anchoring mechanism. T-DNA-insertion mutants of PICC and PICL as well as the double mutant show an increased sensitivity to the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) in a post-germination growth response. PICC, but not PICL gene expression is induced by the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22. T-DNA insertion alleles of PICC, but not PICL, show increased susceptibility to the non-virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC, but not to the virulent strain P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. This suggests that PICC mutants are compromised in PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The data presented here provide first evidence for the involvement of a plant long coiled-coil protein in a plant defense response. PMID:23451199

  20. Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…