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Sample records for 4-vinylpyridine anchored rhcod2-pic2pf6

  1. Electroless metallization onto pulsed plasma deposited poly(4-vinylpyridine) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bradley, T J; Schofield, W C E; Garrod, R P; Badyal, J P S

    2006-08-29

    Pulsed plasma-chemical deposition of poly(4-vinylpyridine) is found to be a highly effective way of functionalizing solid surfaces with pyridine ring centers. These surfaces can be metallized via complexation to Pd2+ ions from solution, followed by autocatalytic electroless deposition of either copper or nickel films.

  2. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-coated glassy carbon flow detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Golden, T.; Tuzhi, P.

    1987-03-01

    The performance of a thin-layer flow detector with a glassy carbon electrode coated with a film of protonated poly(4-vinylpyridine) is described. Substantial improvement in the selectivity of amperometric detection for liquid chromatography and flow injection systems is observed as a result of excluding cationic species from the surface. The detector response was evaluated with respect to flow rate, solute concentration, coating scheme, film-to-film reproducibility, and other variables. Despite the increase in diffusional resistance, low detection limits of ca. 0.04 and 0.10 ng of ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively, are maintained. Protection from organic surfactants can be coupled to the charge exclusion effect by using a bilayer coating, with a cellulose acetate film atop the poly(4-vinylpyridine) layer. Applicability to urine sample is demonstrated.

  3. Synthesis of Polystyrene and Poly(4-vinylpyridine) Mixed Grafted Silica Nanoparticles via a Combination of ATRP and Cu(I) -Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Glebe, Ulrich; Böker, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Binary polystyrene and poly(4-vinylpyridine) mixed grafted silica nanoparticles (PSt/P4VP-g-SNPs) are fabricated using Cu(I) -catalyzed azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition (CuAAC) via grafting-to method. Azide-terminated PSt and P4VP are synthesized via post- and pre-atom transfer radical polymerization modification, respectively. Then, the polymers are simultaneously anchored onto alkyne-modified SNPs by CuAAC yielding mixed brushes as shown by Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneously grafting two distinct polymer chains to synthesize mixed grafted silica nanoparticles using CuAAC technique via grafting-to method. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Synthesis and Adsorption Properties of 4-Vinylpyridine and Styrene Copolymer In Situ Immobilized on Silica Surface.

    PubMed

    Yanovska, E S; Vretik, L O; Nikolaeva, O A; Polonska, Y; Sternik, D; Kichkiruk, O Yu

    2017-12-01

    Copolymer of 4-vinylpyridine with styrene was in situ immobilized on silica gel surface via the heterogeneous radical polymerization. Anchorage of the copolymer on the surface layer was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. The quantity of copolymer on the silica gel surface was evaluated as 25.73 wt.% by TG and DSC-MS analysis. "Islet" location of polymer layer on the silica surface was confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy. A high adsorption activity of silica gel with immobilized copolymer towards microquantitatives of Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Fe(III), and Ni(II) ions in steady state conditions as well as of Ni(II) ions in dynamic regime was found.

  5. Radiation induced emulsion graft polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine onto PE/PP nonwoven fabric for As(V) adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş Kavaklı, Pınar; Kavaklı, Cengiz; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao; Güven, Olgun

    2016-10-01

    A novel nonwoven fabric adsorbent having 4-vinylpyridine functional groups was prepared by using radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization method and grafting 4-vinylpyridine monomer onto a polyethylene-coated polypropylene nonwoven fabric (NWF) in aqueous emulsion solution. The grafting conditions of the 4-vinylpyridine monomer onto the NWF were optimised and 150% Dg VP-g-NWF was prepared using 30 kGy pre-irradiation dose, 5% VP monomer concentration and 0.5% (w/w) Tween 20 in aqueous emulsion. Grafted 4-vinylpyridine chains on the NWF were then quaternized for the preparation of QVP-g-NWF adsorbent. All fabric structures were characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, x-ray photoelectron spectrometer and scanning electron microscope. QVP-g-NWF adsorbent was used in batch adsorption experiments for As(V) ions by studying the pH, contact time, and initial As(V) ion concentration parameters. Results showed that QVP-g-NWF adsorbent has significant As(V) adsorption and experimental As(V) adsorption capacity was 98.04 mg As(V)/g polymer from 500 mg/L initial As(V) concentration at pH 7.00.

  6. Enzyme-free Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide from Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(4-vinylpyridine) Self-Assembled Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Gaynor, James D.; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Inerbaev, Talgat; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Shutthanandan, V.; Seal, Sudipta; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-05-02

    A single layer of oxygen-deficient cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are immobilized on microscopic glass slide using poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). A specific colorimetric property of CNPs when reacted with hydrogen peroxide allows for the direct, single-step peroxide detection which can be used in medical diagnosis and explosives detection. Multiple PVP-CNP immobilized layers improve sensitivity of detection and the sensor can be regenerated for reuse.

  7. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution by activated carbon coated with quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine).

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Gu, Zhimang; Gang, Dianchen; Liu, Chongxuan; Ilton, Eugene S; Deng, Baolin

    2007-07-01

    A composite sorbent (GAC-QPVP) was prepared by coating poly(4-vinylpyridine) onto a granular activated carbon, followed by cross-linking and quaternization processes. The sorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, point of zero charge measurement, and BET analysis. Batch experiments with variable pH, ionic strength, and concentrations of Cr(VI), sorbent, and competing anions were conducted to evaluate the selective sorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The results showed that Cr(VI) sorption rates could be described by a reversible second-order kinetics, and equilibrium uptake of Cr(VI) increased with decreasing pH, decreasing ionic strength, and increasing sorbent concentration. The estimated maximum equilibrium uptake of chromium was 53.7 mg/g at pH = 2.25, 30.7 mg/g at pH = 3.65, and 18.9 mg/g at pH = 6.03, much higher than the maximum capacity of PVP-coated silica gel, an adsorbent for Cr examined previously. When compared with the untreated granular activated carbon, sorption onto GAC-QPVP resulted in much less Cr(VI) reduction and subsequent release of Cr(III). The effect of phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate was minor on the selective sorption of Cr(VI). An ion exchange model that was linked with aqueous speciation chemistry described Cr(VI) sorption reasonably well as a function of pH, ionic strength, and Cr(VI) concentration. Model simulations suggested that sorbed Cr(VI) was partially reduced to Cr(III) on the sorbent when pH was less than 4. The presence of Cr(III) on the sorbent was confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. Overall, the study has demonstrated that GAC-QPVP can effectively remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions under a wide range of experimental conditions, without significant Cr(III) release associated with the virgin GAC treatment.

  8. Organocatalytic enantioselective direct additions of aldehydes to 4-vinylpyridines and electron-deficient vinylarenes and their synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sinan; Li, Xiangmin; Liu, Hongwei; Xu, Li; Zhuang, Jinchen; Li, Jian; Li, Hao; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-18

    We describe a synergistic catalysis strategy for the asymmetric direct addition of simple aldehydes to 4-vinylpyridines. By means of independent activation of weakly electrophilic 4-vinylpyridines by the Brønsted acid CF3SO3H (TfOH) and aldehydes by chiral diphenylprolinol tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) ether-catalyzed formation of nucleophilic enamines in a cooperative manner, the previously unattainable highly enantioselective addition process has been realized for the first time. Notably, the power of the addition process is fueled by its high efficiency in the production of synthetically valued chiral pyridines. (1)H NMR studies of the process suggested that the nucleophilic enamine formed in situ from the chiral amine catalyst and the aldehyde is directly added to the trimeric 4-vinylpyridinium-derived species as a highly active electrophile generated from the 4-vinylpyridine in the presence of TfOH. Moreover, inspired by the similar electronic natures of pyridine and nitrobenzene, we have achieved an unprecedented chiral diphenylprolinol TBDMS ether-promoted, highly enantioselective direct addition of aldehydes to 2-nitrostyrenes without the use of TfOH as a cocatalyst. In this approach, introducing a strong electron-withdrawing group such as NO2, CF3, SO2Me, etc. on the 2-nitrostyrene creates a highly electrophilic vinyl moiety, which enables the direct addition of the in situ-formed enamine derived from the chiral amine promoter and the aldehyde. This method significantly expands the scope of the enantioselective addition process. While the electron-withdrawing nitro group is essential for activation of the vinyl group, we have demonstrated that it can be readily transformed to diverse functionalities. Furthermore, as shown, a chiral pyridine adduct serves as a key building block in the synthesis of the potent fibrinogen receptor antagonist L-734,217.

  9. Antagonistic activity of poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide) to the inhibition of viral interferon induction by asbestos fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Hahon, N; Booth, J A; Eckert, H L

    1977-01-01

    The depressive activity of both serpentine (Canadian and Rhodesian chrysotiles) and amphibole (amosite, crocidolite, and anthophyllite) asbestos fibres on interferon induction by influenza virus was significantly diminished or abolished completely when either asbestos fibres or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide). Maximal antagonistic activity of the polymer was time and concentration dependent. Pretreating asbestos fibres with the polymer was more rapid and effective in encouraging viral interferon synthesis than pretreating cell monolayers. Virus multiplication in the presence of asbestos fibre-treated cell monolayers attained a twofold higher level than that noted in normal cell monolayers or those containing polymer-pretreated asbestos fibres. These findings were related to the suppression of interferon production. PMID:871442

  10. Characterization of poly(4-vinylpyridine 1-oxide) by free-solution capillary electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Herrero-Martínez, José M; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2008-08-01

    The migration characteristics of poly(4-vinylpyridine 1-oxide) (PVP-NO) in phosphate buffers of acidic pH (20 mM H3PO4 or NaH2PO4) have been studied using both free-solution capillary electrophoresis (FSCE) and MEKC. To inhibit adsorption, 250 mM o-phosphoethanolamine (2-aminoethyl dihydrogen phosphate) was used. In FSCE, PVP-NO showed a narrow peak and a broader band, both having anionic behavior. These peak and band were attributed to the free and aggregated or micellized PVP-NO forms, respectively. According to surface tension measurements, the CMC of SDS in the BGE was 1.8 and 0.48 mM in the absence and in the presence of 1000 microg/mL PVP-NO, respectively, and the association of the polymer with SDS was completed at 9.7 mM SDS. Using MEKC, a narrow peak and a broader band also appeared at SDS concentrations of ca. 1 mM, and their intensity increased with the SDS concentration. These peak and band were attributed to the formation of mixed micelles constituted by both free PVP-NO/SDS and aggregated PVP-NO/SDS, respectively. The determination of PVP-NO by FSCE in commercial additives for laundry was demonstrated.

  11. Intensifying radiation induced grafting of 4-vinylpyridine/glycidyl methacrylate mixtures onto poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) films using ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Sithambaranathan, Paveswari; Ahmad, Arshad; Abouzari-lotf, Ebrahim

    2017-05-01

    A new ultrasound-aided method was used to enhance grafting of 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers mixtures onto electron beam (EB) irradiated poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) film for the first time. The effects of reaction parameters such as absorbed dose, monomer concentration, reaction time on both of degree of grafting (DG) and grafting efficiency (GE) were investigated under sonication and conventional grafting at similar temperatures. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to monitor the impact of the applied ultrasound on composition and surfaces of the grafted films whereas 1H-NMR was used to investigate composition of the grafting residues. The ultrasound-aided grafting of 4-VP/GMA was found to enhance both of DG% and GE remarkably. Moreover, it produced grafted ETFE films having smoother surfaces without homopolymer contamination compared to grafted films obtained from conventional grafting. The results of this study suggest that the use of ultrasound is a promising way for intensifying grafting process and improving its economy.

  12. Synthesis, adsorption and selectivity studies of N-propyl quaternized magnetic poly(4-vinylpyridine) for hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Tavengwa, Nikita Tawanda; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2013-11-15

    The ability of solid N-propyl quaternized magnetic poly(4-vinylpyridine) for the extraction of chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions was investigated. For the synthesized Cr(VI) magnetic polymers, the optimum pH obtained was 4 for both the magnetic ion imprinted polymer (IIP) and the corresponding non-ion imprinted polymer NIP. The amount of the adsorbent which gave the maximum adsorption was determined to be 20 and 65 mg for the magnetic IIP and NIP, respectively. A Cr(VI) concentration which was adsorbed maximally was 5 mg L(-1) which was therefore taken as the optimum. The maximum adsorption capacities for the magnetic polymers were 6.20 and 1.87 mg g(-1) for the magnetic IIP and NIP, respectively. The optimum time for the adsorption of the Cr(VI) analyte was determined as 40 min. The prepared magnetic ion imprinted polymer showed good selectivity towards Cr(VI). The order of selectivity of the investigated anions followed the sequence: Cr2O7(2-)>SO4(2-)>F(-)>NO3(-).

  13. Dual-switchable bioelectrocatalysis synergistically controlled by pH and perchlorate concentration based on poly(4-vinylpyridine) films.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaoling; Hu, Naifei

    2010-09-09

    Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) films were electropolymerized on a pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrode surface. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) response of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH)(2)) at P4VP film electrodes was very sensitive to the pH and perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) concentration in testing solutions. Fc(COOH)(2) was at the "on" state with a relatively large CV oxidation peak current for the films at pH 4.0 but showed the "off" state with significantly suppressed CV response at pH 7.0. The reversible ClO(4)(-) concentration-sensitive on-off property of P4VP films toward Fc(COOH)(2) at pH 4.0 was also observed. In particular, the influence of pH and ClO(4)(-) concentration on the on-off behavior of the system is not independent or separate but synergetic or cooperative, and the electrostatic interaction between the films and the probe plays a predominant role in deciding the pH- and/or ClO(4)(-) concentration-dependent behavior for the system. The dual-responsive property of the P4VP films toward Fc(COOH)(2) could also be used to control the bioelectrocatalysis of glucose by glucose oxidase. This synergetic-triggered bioelectrocatalysis on the basis of the intelligent interface system may establish a foundation for fabricating novel multiple factor-controllable biosensors based on enzymatic electrocatalysis.

  14. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-based Interfacial Passivation to Enhance Voltage and Moisture Stability of Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Chaudhary, Bhumika; Kulkarni, Ashish; Jena, Ajay Kumar; Ikegami, Masashi; Udagawa, Yosuke; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-29

    It is well known that the surface trap states and electronic disorders in the solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film affect the solar cell performance significantly and moisture sensitivity of photo-active perovskite material limits its practical applications. Herein, we show surface modification of perovskite film with a solution-processable hydrophobic polymer namely poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP), which passivates the under-coordinated lead (Pb) atoms (on the surface of perovskite) via its pyridine Lewis base side chains and thereby eliminates surface trap states and non-radiative recombination. Besides, it acts as an electron barrier between the perovskite and hole transport layer (HTL) to reduce interfacial charge recombination, which led to improvement in open-circuit voltage (Voc) by 120 to 160 mV while the standard cell fabricated in same conditions showed Voc as low as 0.9 V due to dominating interfacial recombination processes. Consequently, power conversion efficiency increased by 3% to 5% in the polymer modified devices (PCE=15%) with Voc more than 1.05V and hysteresis-less J-V curves. Advantageously, hydrophobicity of the polymer chain was found to protect the perovskite surface from moisture and improved stability of the non-encapsulated cells, which retained their device performance up to 30 days of exposure to open atmosphere (50% humidity).

  15. Stimuli-responsive color films of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) complexed with cyano-capped chromophores.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Wei; Li, Chien-Lin; Li, Ming-Chia; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2013-07-16

    Here, we develop a method to fabricate stimuli-responsive color films using block copolymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (P4VP-PCL), as a template complexed with functionalized chromophores. The P4VP block in the P4VP-PCL can be associated with a cyano end-capped chromophore via charge transfer, which is a noncovalent interaction that can be conveniently manipulated by external stimuli, giving a specific color. The color of the film can be switched by tuning the charge transfer interaction between the chromophore and P4VP with controlled environmental conditions, such as pH, temperature, and moisture, while maintaining high transmittance for visible light due to the formation of the nanostructure of chromophore/P4VP-PCL complex. However, the association/dissociation process between chromophore and P4VP is diffusion-dominated, which may limit the kinetic response time for color change. A way to create quick and reversible color switching can be achieved by a combination of stimuli. The contrasting color change of the responsive chromophore/P4VP-PCL thin films which exhibit RGB primary colors can provide a sensor film that is flexible, fast-responsive, and convenient.

  16. Counteraction of poly(4-vinylpyridine-n-oxide) on the depression of viral interferon induction by coal dust.

    PubMed Central

    Hahon, N

    1976-01-01

    The depressive activity of coal dust on interferon induction by influenza was markedly subverted when either coal dust or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oside). The polymer alone neither induced interferon synthesis, inhibited viral induction of interferon, influenced viral multiplication, nor affected cellular-induced resistance by interferon. Absorption of the polymer to coal dust not only occurred at a more rapid rate than to cell monolayers, but also less polymer was required to pretreat coal dust than cell monolayers to achieve comparable amelioration of interferon production. The polymer effectively negated the adverse activity of coal dust particles, irrespective of the latter's size (is less than 2.0 to 74.0 mum). Virus multiplication in the presence of coal dust=treated cell monolayers attained a level that was twofol higher than that noted with either polymer-pretreated coal dust or polymer-pretreated cell monolayers. Interferon production was almost completely inhibited in the presence of coal dust; pretreating coal dust or cells with the polymer abrogated this inhibitory activity of coal dust. It is tentatively suggested that coal dust particles per se directly interact with cell membranes to subvert interferon induction and that the formation of an absorbed polymerlayer on these complexes prevents their interaction. PMID:178603

  17. Counteraction of poly(4-vinylpyridine-n-oxide) on the depression of viral interferon induction by coal dust.

    PubMed

    Hahon, N

    1976-05-01

    The depressive activity of coal dust on interferon induction by influenza was markedly subverted when either coal dust or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oside). The polymer alone neither induced interferon synthesis, inhibited viral induction of interferon, influenced viral multiplication, nor affected cellular-induced resistance by interferon. Absorption of the polymer to coal dust not only occurred at a more rapid rate than to cell monolayers, but also less polymer was required to pretreat coal dust than cell monolayers to achieve comparable amelioration of interferon production. The polymer effectively negated the adverse activity of coal dust particles, irrespective of the latter's size (is less than 2.0 to 74.0 mum). Virus multiplication in the presence of coal dust=treated cell monolayers attained a level that was twofol higher than that noted with either polymer-pretreated coal dust or polymer-pretreated cell monolayers. Interferon production was almost completely inhibited in the presence of coal dust; pretreating coal dust or cells with the polymer abrogated this inhibitory activity of coal dust. It is tentatively suggested that coal dust particles per se directly interact with cell membranes to subvert interferon induction and that the formation of an absorbed polymerlayer on these complexes prevents their interaction.

  18. Ion source-dependent performance of 4-vinylpyridine, iodoacetamide, and N-maleoyl derivatives for the detection of cysteine-containing peptides in complex proteomics.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Wiebke; Berg, Regina; Walch, Philipp; Hanke, Sabrina; Baalmann, Mathis; Kerner, Alexander; Trumpp, Andreas; Roesli, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Cysteine is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids due to its ability to form disulfide bonds. While this property is of vital importance for protein structures and biological processes, it causes difficulties for the mass spectrometric identification of cysteine-containing peptides. A common approach to overcome these problems in bottom-up proteomics is the reduction and covalent modification of sulfhydryl groups prior to enzymatic digestion. In this study, established alkylating agents and N-maleoyl amino acids with variable hydrophobicity were characterized with respect to a variety of relevant parameters and subsequently evaluated in a large-scale analysis using different ion sources. Depending on the compound, the ion source had a profound impact on the relative and absolute identification of cysteine-containing peptides. The best results were obtained by derivatization of the cysteine residues with 4-vinylpyridine and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). Modification with 4-vinylpyridine increased the number of cysteine-containing peptides identified with any other compound using LC-MALDI/MS at least by a factor of 2. This experimental observation is mirrored by differences in the gas-phase basicities, which were computed for methyl thiolate derivatives of the compounds using density functional theory. With electrospray ionization (ESI), complementary use of reagents from three different compound classes, e.g., iodoacetamide, 4-vinylpyridine, and N-maleoyl beta-alanine, was beneficial compared to the application of a single reagent.

  19. Immobilization of Carbonylcobalt Catalyst by Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) through N→Co Coordination Bonds: The Promotional Effect of Pyridine and the Reusability of Polymer Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Bing; Wang, Yi-Ning; Lu, Hai-Meng; Liang, Shuang; Xu, Bo-Lian; Fan, Yi-Ning

    2016-11-22

    A carbonylcobalt catalyst, immobilized by poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) through N→Co coordination bonds, has been prepared by solvothermal method. It has been revealed that the pyridine fragments in the polymer catalyst act not only as promoters to improve the catalytic performance of the carbonylcobalt catalyst for alkoxycarbonylation of ethylene oxide to methyl 3-hydroxypropanoate but also as stabilizers to enhance the reusability of the polymer catalyst. Furthermore, the polymer catalyst could be easily separated by filtration and reused with only a slight loss of catalytic efficiency. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nanolayered manganese oxide/poly(4-vinylpyridine) as a biomimetic and very efficient water oxidizing catalyst: toward an artificial enzyme in artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Haghighi, Behzad; Ghobadi, Mohadeseh Zarei; Sedigh, Davood Jafarian

    2013-10-09

    Nanolayered Mn oxide/poly(4-vinylpyridine) as a model for Mn cluster in photosystem II was synthesized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The compound is a very efficient water oxidizing catalyst, and sizable oxygen evolution was detected at 50 mV overpotential at near neutral pH. The number is as low as the overpotential is used by nature in photosystem II of cyanobacteria, algae and green plants for similar reactions.

  1. A practical interface designed for on-line polymer monolith microextraction: synthesis and application of poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin-feng; He, Xu-gan; Qiao, Jun-qin; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2012-09-21

    A simple and facile needle-adapter was designed for constructing manual on-line polymer monolith microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography (PMME-HPLC). A capillary poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(VP-co-EGDMA)] monolith was prepared by in situ polymerization, using 4-vinylpyridine (VP) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. The synthesized monolith was used as the extraction medium for concentrating four EPA priority pollutants, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, from water samples. The effect of the dosage of porogen polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) on back pressure and extraction performance of the capillary monolith was also investigated. Moreover, the influences of several parameters (such as extraction time, desorption time, content of MeOH in sample solution and sample pH) were examined to obtain the optimal PMME conditions. As a result, the established on-line PMME-HPLC protocol, with good extraction efficiency (80.6-91.7%), satisfactory recovery (94.7-106% and 76.8-86.3% for water and serum samples, respectively) and low detection limit (0.3-1.4 μg/L), exhibited potential applicability for the analysis of chlorophenols in environmental and biological samples.

  2. Thermo-Responsive Complexes of c-Myc Antisense Oligonucleotide with Block Copolymer of Poly(OEGMA) and Quaternized Poly(4-Vinylpyridine).

    PubMed

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Elalmis, Yeliz Basaran; Isoglu, Sevil Dincer

    2017-04-01

    Solution behavior of thermo-responsive polymers and their complexes with biological macromolecules may be affected by environmental conditions, such as the concentration of macromolecular components, pH, ion concentration, etc. Therefore, a thermo-responsive polymer and its complexes should be characterized in detail to observe their responses against possible environments under physiological conditions before biological applications. To briefly indicate this important issue, thermo-responsive block copolymer of quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) and poly(oligoethyleneglycol methyl ether methacrylate) as a potential nonviral vector has been synthesized. Polyelectrolyte complexes of this copolymer with the antisense oligonucleotide of c-Myc oncogene are also thermo-responsive but, have lower LCST (lower critical solution temperature) values compared to individual copolymer. LCST values of complexes decrease with molar ratio of macromolecular components and presence of salt. Dilution of solutions also affects solution behavior of complexes and causes a significant decrease in size and an increase in LCST, which indicates possible effects of severe dilutions in the blood stream.

  3. Effect of CaCO₃/HCl pretreatment on the surface modification of chitin gel beads via graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate and 4-vinylpyridine.

    PubMed

    Yalinca, Zulal; Mohammed, Dana Ali Kader; Hadi, Jihad M; Yilmaz, Elvan

    2016-01-01

    Although chitin, poly(N-acetylglucosamine), possesses considerable potential as a biomaterial, it has not been as thoroughly studied as its derivative chitosan. In this study, the potential of chitin gel beads has been evaluated for surface modification via vinyl polymer grafting. Grafting behavior of two well-established vinyl monomers, namely 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) were investigated using cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate as the redox initiator with the aim of obtaining chemically functionalized more hydrophilic chitin surfaces. The intractable nature of chitin, which is one of its primary drawbacks as a grafting substrate was overcome by applying a CaCO3 treatment during bead preparation. The maximum grafting percentage of poly(HEMA) onto chitin bead without CaCO3 treatment was found to be 65%, while the value for CaCO3 treated chitin beads was 515%. The maximum grafting yield of poly(4-VP) on to CaCO3 treated chitin powder was 380% at optimum conditions. The grafting system was extensively characterized before and after grafting by FT-IR, SEM, C-13 NMR and XRD analyses. Significant improvement on the swelling capacities of chitin based gel beads in aqueous acidic, basic and neutral media was obtained. An account of the pros and cons of the system has been presented.

  4. Surface initiated supplemental activator and reducing agent atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-SARA-ATRP) of 4-vinylpyridine on poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Maaz, Mohamad; Elzein, Tamara; Bejjani, Alice; Barroca-Aubry, Nadine; Lepoittevin, Bénédicte; Dragoe, Diana; Mazerat, Sandra; Nsouli, Bilal; Roger, Philippe

    2017-08-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates were modified by means of surface-initiated supplemental activator and reducing agent atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-SARA-ATRP) of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP). Substrates were pretreated in order to graft chloromethylbenzene (CMB) units capable of initiating the radical polymerization reaction of 4VP units. Surface characterization techniques, including Water Contact Angle (WCA), Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) showed a successful grafting of a stable, smooth and homogenous layer of p4VP. This process offers the advantages of a rapid, simplified and low cost strategy to chemically modify polymer substrates with covalently bonded layer of the pH responsive p4VP for different applications. Moreover, by using TOF-SIMS profiling, we were able to track a density gradient along the z-axis generated by the interpenetrating phases of the different layers of the final modified surface. Fact that we correlated to the various positions of initiation sites within the polyethylenimine (PEI) used for PET aminolysis prior to CMB grafting. Our strategy will be used in future work to graft other polymers for different applications where industrial scale viable options are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Retention of heavy metal ions on comb-type hydrogels based on acrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine, synthesized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gómez, Roberto; Ortega, Alejandra; Lazo, Luz M.; Burillo, Guillermina

    2014-09-01

    Two novel comb-type hydrogels based on pH-sensitive monomers (acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) were synthesized by gamma radiation. The systems were as follows: a) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network followed by grafting of 4VP ((net-PAAc)-g-4VP) and b) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network grafted onto polypropylene (PP) followed by grafting of 4VP (net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP). The equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were evaluated for copper and zinc ions in aqueous solutions. The Zn(II) retention obtained was 480 mg g-1 and 1086 mg g-1 for (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP, respectively. At concentrations as low as ppm, retention efficiencies of approximately 90% were achieved for Cu(II) on (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and for Zn(II) on net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP. Desorption of the hydrogels was also studied, and the results indicated that they can be used repeatedly in aqueous solutions. For both systems, the adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) obeyed the Freundlich model, indicating heterogeneous sorption, and the retention process occurred by chemisorption. The sorption process follows a pseudo-second-order model.

  6. Cooperative hydrogen bonds of macromolecules. 2. Two-dimensional cooperativity in the binding of poly(4-vinylpyridine) to poly(4-vinylphenol).

    PubMed

    Kríz, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jirí; Brus, Jirí

    2006-09-21

    The hydrogen bond interaction of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVF), ligated by a 20 mol/mol excess of pyridine-d(5) (PD) in tetrahydrofuran-d(8), with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) was studied using liquid and solid-state NMR and quantum mechanical calculations. Because of its cooperative interaction, PVP substitutes PD in its hydrogen bond with PVF, thus forming a PVF-PVP complex, which gradually precipitates from solution. On the basis of the 1H/13C NMR spin-diffusion experiments and density functional theory quantum calculations, the complex is shown to have the fairly regular structure of a polymer sheet with intermittent H-bond links between PVF and PVP chains. The cooperativity of PVP interaction with PVF was studied by measuring the dependence of the binding degree alpha of PVP on its polymerization degree (P(n), being 10, 17, 30, 36, 48, 65, and 84) at various PVP/PVF molar ratios. The value of alpha was established indirectly by measuring the fraction of liberated PD using its 2H quadrupolar relaxation and pulsed field-gradient spin-echo measurement of self-diffusion. The cooperativity is shown to be of a higher order and two-dimensional, that is, dependent on both the polymerization degree of PVP and its ratio to PVF. A mathematical model of such two-dimensional cooperativity based chiefly on a proximity effect is suggested.

  7. Preparation of styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine magnetic polymer beads by microwave irradiation for analysis of trace 24-epibrassinolide in plant samples using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Wei; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2010-10-15

    In the study, a kind of novel styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine (St-co-4-VP) porous magnetic polymer beads was prepared by microwave irradiation using suspension polymerization. Microwave heating preparation greatly reduced the polymerization time to 1h. Physical characteristic tests suggested that these beads were cross-linking and possessed spherical shape, good magnetic response and porous morphologies with a narrow diameter distribution of 70-180 μm. Therefore, these beads displayed the long-term stability after undergoing 100-time extractions. Then, an analytical method for the determination of trace 24-epiBR in plant samples was developed by magnetic polymer bead extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. St-co-4-VP magnetic polymer beads demonstrated the higher extraction selectivity for 24-epiBR than other reference compounds. Linear range was 10.00-100.0 μg/L with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.7%, and the detection limit was 6.5 μg/kg. This analytical method was successfully applied to analyze the trace 24-epiBR in cole and breaking-wall rape pollen samples with recoveries of 77.2-90.0% and 72.3-83.4%, respectively, and RSDs were less than 4.1%. The amount of 24-epiBR in real breaking-wall rape pollen samples was found to be 26.2 μg/kg finally. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient analytical method for the determination of trace brassinosteroids in complicated plant samples by the use of St-co-4-VP magnetic polymer bead extraction coupled with chromatographic method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. pH effect of coagulation bath on the characteristics of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted and poly(4-vinylpyridine)-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lei; Zhai, Guangqun; Winata, A Y; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G

    2003-09-15

    The poly(acrylic acid)-graft-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PAAc-g-PVDF) and poly(4-vinylpyridine)-graft-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (P4VP-g-PVDF) copolymers were obtained by thermally induced molecular graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP), respectively, with the ozone-pretreated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solution. Microfiltration (MF) membranes were prepared from the respective copolymers by phase inversion in aqueous media. The effects of pH of the coagulation bath on the physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the membranes were investigated. The surface compositions of the membranes were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface graft concentration of the AAc polymer for the PAAc-g-PVDF MF membrane increased with decreasing pH value of the coagulation bath. Completely opposite pH-dependent behavior was observed for the surface graft concentration of the 4VP polymer in the P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes. A substantial increase in mean pore size was observed for the PAAc-g-PVDF MF membranes cast in basic coagulation baths of increasing pH. In the case of the P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes, a substantial increase in mean pore size was observed for membranes cast in low pH (acidic) baths. The permeation rate of aqueous solutions through the PAAc-g-PVDF and P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes exhibited a reversible dependence on the pH of the solution, with the membranes cast near the neutral pH exhibiting the highest sensitivity to changes in permeate pH.

  9. Preparation of magnetic indole-3-acetic acid imprinted polymer beads with 4-vinylpyridine and β-cyclodextrin as binary monomer via microwave heating initiated polymerization and their application to trace analysis of auxins in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Yuanwen; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2010-11-19

    Auxin is a crucial phytohormone for precise control of growth and development of plants. Due to its low concentration in plant tissues which are rich in interfering substances, the accurate determination of auxins remains a challenge. In this paper, a new strategy for isolation and enrichment of auxins from plant tissues was obtained by the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads, which were prepared by microwave heating initiated suspension polymerization using indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as template. In order to obtain higher selective recognition cavities, an enhanced imprinting method based on binary functional monomers, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was adopted for IAA imprinting. The morphological and magnetic characteristics of the mag-MIP beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. A majority of resultant beads were within the size range of 80-150μm. Porous surface morphology and good magnetic property were observed. Furthermore, the mag-MIP beads fabricated with 4-VP and β-CD as binary functional monomers exhibited improved recognition ability to IAA, as compared with the mag-MIP beads prepared with the individual monomer separately. Competitive rebinding experiment results revealed that the mag-MIP beads exhibited a higher specific recognition for the template than the non-imprinted polymer (mag-NIP) beads. An extraction method by mag-MIP beads coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for determination of IAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in plant tissues. Linear ranges for IAA and IBA were in the range of 7.00-100.0μgL(-1) and 10.0-100.0μgL(-1), and the detection limits were 3.9 and 7.4μgL(-1), respectively. The analytical performance was also estimated by seedlings or immature embryos samples from three different plant tissues, pea, rice and wheat. Recoveries were in the range of 70

  10. Anchor Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  11. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  12. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  13. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  14. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  15. The anchor integration model: A descriptive model of anchoring effects.

    PubMed

    Turner, Brandon M; Schley, Dan R

    2016-11-01

    Few experimental effects in the psychology of judgment and decision making have been studied as meticulously as the anchoring effect. Although the existing literature provides considerable insight into the psychological processes underlying anchoring effects, extant theories up to this point have only generated qualitative predictions. While these theories have been productive in advancing our understanding of the underlying anchoring process, they leave much to be desired in the interpretation of specific anchoring effects. In this article, we introduce the Anchor Integration Model (AIM) as a descriptive tool for the measurement and quantification of anchoring effects. We develop two versions the model: one suitable for assessing between-participant anchoring effects, and another for assessing individual differences in anchoring effects. We then fit each model to data from two experiments, and demonstrate the model's utility in describing anchoring effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anchoring the Deficit of the Anchor Deficit: Dyslexia or Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2010-01-01

    In the anchoring deficit hypothesis of dyslexia ("Trends Cogn. Sci.", 2007; 11: 458-465), it is proposed that perceptual problems arise from the lack of forming a perceptual anchor for repeatedly presented stimuli. A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia is presented. Four groups, representing all…

  17. The floating anchored craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Matthew J; How, Elena; Withers, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The "floating anchored" craniotomy is a technique utilized at our tertiary neurosurgery institution in which a traditional decompressive craniectomy has been substituted for a floating craniotomy. The hypothesized advantages of this technique include adequate decompression, reduction in the intracranial pressure, obviating the need for a secondary cranioplasty, maintained bone protection, preventing the syndrome of the trephined, and a potential reduction in axonal stretching. The bone plate is re-attached via multiple loosely affixed vicryl sutures, enabling decompression, but then ensuring the bone returns to its anatomical position once cerebral edema has subsided. From the analysis of 57 consecutive patients analyzed at our institution, we have found that the floating anchored craniotomy is comparable to decompressive craniectomy for intracranial pressure reduction and has some significant theoretical advantages. Despite the potential advantages of techniques that avoid the need for a second cranioplasty, they have not been widely adopted and have been omitted from trials examining the utility of decompressive surgery. This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data suggests that the floating anchored craniotomy may be applicable instead of decompressive craniectomy.

  18. Anchored paired comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalal, E. N.; Handley, J. C.; Wu, W.; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    The method of paired comparisons is often used in image quality evaluations. Psychometric scale values for quality judgments are modeled using Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment in which distance in a psychometric scale space is a function of the probability of preference. The transformation from psychometric space to probability is a cumulative probability distribution. The major drawback of a complete paired comparison experiment is that every treatment is compared to every other, thus the number of comparisons grows quadratically. We ameliorate this difficulty by performing paired comparisons in two stages, by precisely estimating anchors in the psychometric scale space which are spaced apart to cover the range of scale values and comparing treatments against those anchors. In this model, we employ a generalized linear model where the regression equation has a constant offset vector determined by the anchors. The result of this formulation is a straightforward statistical model easily analyzed using any modern statistics package. This enables model fitting and diagnostics. This method was applied to overall preference evaluations of color pictorial hardcopy images. The results were found to be compatible with complete paired comparison experiments, but with significantly less effort.

  19. Bellow seal and anchor

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    An annular seal is made of a collapsible bellows. The bellows can function as an anchor or a seal and is easily set into position using relative component movement. The bellows folds can be slanted and their outer sealing edges can have different profiles to meet expected conditions. The bellows is expanded for insertion to reduce its outer dimension and sets by compaction as a result of relative movement. The bellows can be straight or tapered and is settable with a minimal axial force.

  20. Career anchors of dentist leaders.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Tiina; Lammintakanen, Johanna; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-08-01

    The work of a health care leader is demanding; in order to cope, leaders need motivation and support. The occurrence of intrinsic factors called career anchors (combination of one's competence, motives and values) could be a contributing factor in dentist leaders' career decisions. The aim of our study was to identify dentist leaders' career anchors and their association to dentist leaders' retention or turnover of the leadership position. Materials were gathered in 2014 via an electronic questionnaire from 156 current (Leaders) or former (Leavers) Finnish dentist leaders. Career anchor evaluation was conducted by the questionnaire and scoring-table taken from Edgar Schein's Career Anchors Self-Assessment. Both the most and the least important career anchors were detected by the highest and lowest scores and their occurrence reported as percentages. Associations between career anchor scores and tendency to stay were analyzed with logistic regression. 'Technical/Functional Competence' and 'Lifestyle' were most frequently reported as the most important and 'Entrepreneurial Creativity' and 'General Managerial Competence' as the least important career anchors. However, a higher level of 'General Managerial Competence' anchor was most significantly associated with staying in a leadership position. Instead, 'Pure Challenge' and 'Lifestyle' decreased the odds to stay. The knowledge of the important and essential career anchors of dentist leaders' and individuals' could perform crucial part in career choices and also in planning education, work opportunities and human resource policies promoting retention of dentist leaders and probably also other health care leaders.

  1. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Benjamin M.; Guo, Zhongwu

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cell-surface proteins and glycoproteins are anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), a family of glycolipids that are post-translationally attached to proteins at their C-termini. GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological and pathological events, such as cell recognition and adhesion, signal transduction, host defense, and acting as receptors for viruses and toxins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPI anchors and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems and exploring their potential therapeutic applications. In the first part of this comprehensive article on the chemical synthesis of GPIs, classic syntheses of naturally occurring GPI anchors from protozoan parasites, yeast, and mammals are covered. The second part of the article focuses on recent diversity-oriented strategies for the synthesis of GPI anchors containing unsaturated lipids, “click chemistry” tags, and highly branched and modified structures. PMID:22794184

  2. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  3. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  4. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Plastic Anchors, Topline Nylon Nailins, and Topline Iamnmer Drive Anchors. Similar anchors are made by Rawl (Rawl Nylon Nailin, Rawl Zamac Nailin...Toggle Bolt GSA Specification FF-B-588C, • • • lype 1, Class A. Style 1. . Zamac Nailin GSA Specification FF-S-325. I K ,Group V Type;’ U. Clss3. Tested...instal[ No hole spotting, 3- Tpor’ block, brick fastener needed `1eAt X" 6" removable. 2 head styles. 30 sizes. Zamac Concrete, block. No other Zinc alloy

  5. Model anchor tests in cohesionless soil

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.R.; Taylor, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    Tandem (piggyback), parallel, and single model anchor tests have been performed in cohesionless soil. Tandem anchor arrangements have been found that result in a tandem system capacity that exceeds twice the capacity of a single anchor. These methods are operationally feasible and offer the potential for anchor weight savings.

  6. Analyzing paleomagnetic data: To anchor or not to anchor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2016-11-01

    Paleomagnetic directions provide the basis for use of paleomagnetism in chronological and tectonic reconstructions and for constraining past geomagnetic field behavior over a variety of timescales. Crucial to paleomagnetic analysis is the separation and quantification of a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), which relates to a process of interest, from other remanence components. Principal component analysis (PCA) of stepwise demagnetization data is employed routinely in these situations to estimate magnetic remanence directions and their uncertainties. A given ChRM is often assumed to trend toward the origin of a vector demagnetization diagram and prevailing data analysis frameworks allow remanence directions to be estimated based on PCA fits that are forced to pass through the origin of such diagrams, a process referred to as "anchoring." While this approach is adopted commonly, little attention has been paid to the effects of anchoring and the influence it has on both estimated remanence directions and their associated uncertainties. In almost all cases, anchoring produces an artificially low uncertainty estimation compared to an unanchored fit. Bayesian model selection demonstrates that the effects of anchoring cannot typically be justified from a statistical standpoint. We present an alternative to anchoring that constrains the best fit remanence direction to pass through the origin of a vector demagnetization diagram without unreasonably distorting the representation of the demagnetization data.

  7. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  8. How anchoring proteins shape pain.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J M; McNaughton, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Cellular responsiveness to external stimuli can be altered by extracellular mediators which activate membrane receptors, in turn signalling to the intracellular space via calcium, cyclic nucleotides, membrane lipids or enzyme activity. These signalling events trigger a cascade leading to an effector which can be a channel, an enzyme or a transcription factor. The effectiveness of these intracellular events is enhanced when they are maintained in close proximity by anchoring proteins, which assemble complexes of signalling molecules such as kinases together with their targets, and in this way enhance both the speed and the precision of intracellular signalling. The A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family are adaptor proteins originally named for their ability to associate Protein Kinase A and its targets, but several other enzymes bound by AKAPs have now been found and a wide variety of target structures has been described. This review provides an overview of anchoring proteins involved in pain signalling. The key anchoring proteins and their ion channel targets in primary sensory neurons responding to painful stimuli (nociceptors) are discussed.

  9. ATHLETE : Double Auger Anchoring Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a six-limbed robot designed to support surface explorations on Near Earth Objects, the Moon and Mars. ATHLETE can carry large payloads on its top deck and can carry a fully equipped pressurized habitat in low gravity. The robot has wheels on each of its six articulated limbs, allowing it to actively conform to terrain while driving and to walk when driving is impractical. With the use of a tool adapter, ATHLETE limbs can be equipped with end effectors to support various mission objectives. For work on Near Earth Objects and other microgravity environments, an anchoring mechanism is needed to keep the ATHLETE from floating off the surface. My goal for this spring session at JPL was to design and build a counter rotating, double auger, anchoring mechanism. The mechanism mates to the tool adapter and is driven off the wheel motor. The double auger anchoring mechanism will be tested in a regolith simulant that will determine the uplift capacity of the anchoring mechanism.

  10. ATHLETE : Double Auger Anchoring Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a six-limbed robot designed to support surface explorations on Near Earth Objects, the Moon and Mars. ATHLETE can carry large payloads on its top deck and can carry a fully equipped pressurized habitat in low gravity. The robot has wheels on each of its six articulated limbs, allowing it to actively conform to terrain while driving and to walk when driving is impractical. With the use of a tool adapter, ATHLETE limbs can be equipped with end effectors to support various mission objectives. For work on Near Earth Objects and other microgravity environments, an anchoring mechanism is needed to keep the ATHLETE from floating off the surface. My goal for this spring session at JPL was to design and build a counter rotating, double auger, anchoring mechanism. The mechanism mates to the tool adapter and is driven off the wheel motor. The double auger anchoring mechanism will be tested in a regolith simulant that will determine the uplift capacity of the anchoring mechanism.

  11. High Velocity Implanting of Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    easily by a direct rocket. The sponsors had suggested a water jet approach using cold high pressure gas to supply the energy, instead of propellant gas...development promises to be expensive and lengthy. Fortunately, the water jet does not share this problem. Its development should be timely, and costs should be reasonable. Keyword: Anchors (Marine).

  12. OTEC Anchors: Selection and Plan for Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    Anchor systems capable of maintaining the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion ( OTEC ) power plants on station were identified and compared. Deadweight...for OTEC , however, is probably not necessary because it is expected that such hard seafloor anchor sites are best avoided by OTEC plants. A plan for...structural analysis and design technique for the anchor, and finally a demonstration of a near prototype size OTEC free-fall deadweight anchor in early 1980. (Author)

  13. Anchors Aweigh: A Demonstration of Cross-Modality Anchoring and Magnitude Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M.; LeBoeuf, Robyn A.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that judgments tend to assimilate to irrelevant "anchors." We extend anchoring effects to show that anchors can even operate across modalities by, apparently, priming a general sense of magnitude that is not moored to any unit or scale. An initial study showed that participants drawing long "anchor" lines made higher numerical…

  14. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be anchored...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be anchored...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be anchored...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be anchored...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely. ...

  8. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a) Every... equipped with a stern anchor. (b) Every integrated tug and barge or articulated tug and barge unit greater...

  9. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative foundation system. See § 3285.301. (b) For anchor assembly type installations, the installation instructions... instructions and design for anchor type assemblies must be prepared by a registered professional engineer or...

  10. The ROSETTA Lander anchoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Markus; Stöcker, Jakob; Rohe, Christian; Kömle, Norbert I.; Kargl, Günter; Hillenmaier, Olaf; Lell, Peter

    2003-09-01

    A major goal of the ESA cornerstone mission ROSETTA is to land a package of scientific instruments known as the ROSETTA Lander on the nucleus of a comet. Due to the low gravity a highly reliable fixation of the ROSETTA Lander to the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (3rd) is essential. For that purpose a redundant Anchoring System, consisting of two pyrotechnically actuated Anchoring Harpoons and a redundant Control Electronics has been developed, built and qualified at the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Garching. The pyrotechnical gas generator has been developed jointly by Pyroglobe GmbH and MPE, the procurement of the control electronics has been sub-contracted to Magson GmbH, Berlin. A study to obtain a suitable lubrication method for the commutator of a brushed DC motor has been conducted at the European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL; S. D. Lewis et al., 2003).

  11. Anchoring bias in online voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zimo; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-12-01

    Voting online with explicit ratings could largely reflect people's preferences and objects' qualities, but ratings are always irrational, because they may be affected by many unpredictable factors like mood, weather and other people's votes. By analyzing two real systems, this paper reveals a systematic bias embedding in the individual decision-making processes, namely people tend to give a low rating after a low rating, as well as a high rating following a high rating. This so-called anchoring bias is validated via extensive comparisons with null models, and numerically speaking, the extent of bias decays with voting interval in a logarithmic form. Our findings could be applied in the design of recommender systems and considered as important complementary materials to previous knowledge about anchoring effects on financial trades, performance judgments, auctions, and so on.

  12. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  13. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  14. Anchor for Fiberglas Guy Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Solution to problem of anchoring fiberglas guy rods to install nut with threads on outer circumference, followed by aluminum sleeve. Sleeve has opening oval at upper and round at bottom end. End of rod is split so fiberglas wedge can be inserted to form V-shaped end. Spread end of rod fits into tapered hole in sleeve and threaded aluminum coupling is put over rod and sleeve.

  15. Holding Capacity of Plate Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Engineering Laboratory, Technical Note N-1545. Port Hueneme, Calif., Jan 1979. 4 safe arm device gun barrel reaction vessel Figure 1-2. CEL 20K propell...anchors in cohesive soils, Civil Engineering Laboratory, Technical Note N-1545. Port Hueneme, Calif., Jan 1979. Berger, W. H., and E. L. Winterer...NORTHWESTERN UNIV Z.P. Bazant Evanston IL NY CITY COMMUNITY COLLEGE BROOKLYN, NY (LIBRARY) NYS ENERGY OFFICE Library, Albany NY OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (CE

  16. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ≥2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale.

  17. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  18. Ships at anchor, Gulf of Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    These supertankers, riding at anchor off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman (25.5N, 56.5E) cast long shadows and eddy currents in the late afternoon sun. The ships are anchored just outside the Persian Gulf. Because of a surplus of supertankers in the world, many of them are simply moored in the Gulf of Oman where they can be safely anchored and yet be close to the oil ports when activated.

  19. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  20. Thermal and FTIR Characterization of Poly (4-vinylpyridine) Crosslinked with Metal Salts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    0.8 1 1.2 Molar Equivalent Zn % A sh R em ai ni ng Figure 4. Remaining ash of the P4VP/Zn complex as a function of Zn loading as determined by...Weight Percent ZnCl added W ei gh t P er ce nt   R em ai ni ng Figure 6. Weight percent ZnCl2 added versus total weight percent remaining as...Complexes: An Extended Configurational Entropy Model. Journal of Physical Chemistry 2003, 107, 5901–5905. 8. Fairley , N.; Carrick, A. The Casa

  1. Observed Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and an Anchor with Less Spread of Difficulty: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Two different types of anchors are investigated in this study: a mini-version anchor and an anchor that has a less spread of difficulty than the tests to be equated. The latter is referred to as a midi anchor. The impact of these two different types of anchors on observed score equating are evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error…

  2. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  7. DSSC anchoring groups: a surface dependent decision.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, C; Bowler, D R

    2014-05-14

    Electrodes in dye sensitised solar cells are typically nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with a majority (1 0 1) surface exposed. Generally the sensitising dye employs a carboxylic anchoring moiety through which it adheres to the TiO₂ surface. Recent interest in exploiting the properties of differing TiO₂ electrode morphologies, such as rutile nanorods exposing the (1 1 0) surface and anatase electrodes with high percentages of the (0 0 1) surface exposed, begs the question of whether this anchoring strategy is best, irrespective of the majority surface exposed. Here we address this question by presenting density functional theory calculations contrasting the binding properties of two promising anchoring groups, phosphonic acid and boronic acid, to that of carboxylic acid. Anchor-electrode interactions are studied for the prototypical anatase (1 0 1) surface, along with the anatase (0 0 1) and rutile (1 1 0) surfaces. Finally the effect of using these alternative anchoring groups to bind a typical coumarin dye (NKX-2311) to these TiO₂ substrates is examined. Significant differences in the binding properties are found depending on both the anchor and surface, illustrating that the choice of anchor is necessarily dependent upon the surface exposed in the electrode. In particular the boronic acid is found to show the potential to be an excellent anchor choice for electrodes exposing the anatase (0 0 1) surface.

  8. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  9. Anchoring and Publicity Effects in Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Stockman, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Tested anchoring and publicity effects in clinicians' (N=46) successive judgments of detailed interview notes. Results indicated significant anchoring in one case suggesting a clinical bias. Public justification was related neither to subjects' ratings, to reported confidence in their ratings, nor differentially by case. (JAC)

  10. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  11. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a) Every...

  12. Crossed ring anchored disk resonator for self-alignment of the anchor

    PubMed Central

    Baghelani, Masoud; Ghavifekr, Habib Badri; Ebrahimi, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    Misalignment is a problematic challenge in RF MEMS resonators. It causes asymmetry in the ultra symmetric radial contour mode disk resonators and degrades their performance by increasing the insertion loss and decreasing their quality factors (Q). Self-alignment method seems to be a good solution for misalignment problem, but it cannot be directly applied on high performance ring shape anchored resonators. This paper discusses misalignment effects for the ring shape anchored resonators and proposes a method for reconfiguring its anchor to be compatible with self-alignment process. Simulation results validate that the crossed ring anchor structure has the same resonance characteristics with the complete ring shape anchored resonator. PMID:25685477

  13. Guyline anchor design keys rig stability

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.J.; Laguros, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    Inadequate design and field installation of ground anchors at lease well sites have frequently led to the collapse of well service rigs operating in high surface wind conditions (>50 mph). Such catastrophes incur significant equipment damage and injury to operating personnel. Although collapse of a well service rig can be attributed to inadequate strength in the guyline connection to the mast or anchor or to deformed or inadequate wire rope strength in the guyline itself, most failures result from improperly placed anchors not meeting API specifications to withstand 14,000 lb of force in tension. This article defines the length, diameter, and depth necessary (based on soil conditions) for a buried guyline anchor to meet API specifications. Deficiencies in guyline connection and strength can be alleviated by following the manufacturer's guidance on size of wire rope, its inspection, and size connection criteria in mounting guyline connectors to the mast and anchor.

  14. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  15. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  16. Sutures and suture anchors: update 2003.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Herbert, Morley A; Richards, David P

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate recently introduced sutures and suture anchors for single-pull load-to-failure strength and failure mode. Experimental laboratory biomechanical study. Using an established protocol in fresh porcine femurs, anchors were tested in diaphyseal cortex, metaphyseal cortex, and cancellous troughs after threading them with either steel sutures or strong synthetic material to reduce the likelihood of suture breakage as a mode of failure. An Instron machine (Instron, Canton, MA) applied tensile loads parallel to the axis of insertion at a rate of 12.5 mm/second until failure, and mean anchor failure strengths were calculated. Mode of failure was recorded (anchor pullout, suture eyelet cutout, or wire breakage). Anchors tested included the RotorloC (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA), TwinFix Ti 3.5, TwinFix Ti 5.0, and TwinFix AB (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy), Super Revo and UltraSorb (Linvatec, Largo, FL), Duet (Bionx Implants, Blue Bell, PA), AlloAnchor RC (Regeneration Technologies, Alachua, FL), Opus Magnum anchor (Opus Medical, San Juan Capistrano, CA), and the BioCorkscrew 5.0 and BioCorkscrew 6.5 (Arthrex, Naples, FL). Sutures tested were No.2 and No. 5 Ethibond (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), No. 2 Panacryl (Mitek, a division of Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), and Nos. 2, 5, and 2-0 Fiberwire (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The sutures all broke in the midpoint of their tested strand away from the grips. The No. 2 Ethibond failed at a mean of 21 lb (92 N); No. 5 Ethibond failed at a mean of 44 lb (193 N); No. 2, No. 5, and No. 2-0 Fiberwire at means of 44 lb (188 N), 112 lb (483N), and 19 lb (82 N), respectively; and No. 2 Panacryl at a mean of 22 lb (99 N). The suture anchors all failed at levels higher than the associated sutures. Screw anchors showed higher load to failure values than nonscrew designs, and the new biodegradable anchors showed failure loads lower than the anchors. All anchors were stronger than the suture for which they are

  17. Anchoring Revisited: The Role of the Comparative Question

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Ina; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    When people estimate a numeric value after judging whether it is larger or smaller than a high or low anchor value (comparative question), estimates are biased in the direction of the anchor. One explanation for this anchoring effect is that people selectively access knowledge consistent with the anchor value as part of a positive test strategy. Two studies (total N = 184) supported the alternative explanation that people access knowledge consistent with their own answer to the comparative question. Specifically, anchoring effects emerged when the answer to the comparative question was unexpected (lower than the low anchor or higher than the high anchor). For expected answers (lower than the high anchor or higher than the low anchor), however, anchoring effects were attenuated or reversed. The anchor value itself was almost never reported as an absolute estimate. PMID:24454953

  18. Robust Molecular Anchoring to Graphene Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Hatef; Sangtarash, Sara; Lambert, Colin

    2017-08-09

    Recent advances in the engineering of picoscale gaps between electroburnt graphene electrodes provide new opportunities for studying electron transport through electrostatically gated single molecules. But first we need to understand and develop strategies for anchoring single molecules to such electrodes. Here, for the first time we present a systematic theoretical study of transport properties using four different modes of anchoring zinc-porphyrin monomer, dimer, and trimer molecular wires to graphene electrodes. These involve either amine anchor groups, covalent C-C bonds to the edges of the graphene, or coupling via π-π stacking of planar polyaromatic hydrocarbons formed from pyrene or tetrabenzofluorene (TBF). π-π stacked pyrene anchors are particularly stable, which may be advantageous for forming robust single-molecule transistors. Despite their planar, multiatom coupling to the electrodes, pyrene anchors can exhibit both destructive interference and different degrees of constructive interference, depending on their connectivity to the porphyrin wire, which makes them attractive also for thermoelectricity. TBF anchors are more weakly coupled to both the graphene and the porphyrin wires and induce negative differential conductance at finite source-drain voltages. Furthermore, although direct C-C covalent bonding to the edges of graphene electrodes yields the highest electrical conductance, electron transport is significantly affected by the shape and size of the graphene electrodes because the local density of states at the carbon atoms connecting the electrode edges to the molecule is sensitive to the electrode surface shape. This sensitivity suggests that direct C-C bonding may be the most desirable for sensing applications. The ordering of the low-bias electrical conductances with different anchors is as follows: direct C-C coupling > π-π stacking with the pyrene anchors > direct coupling via amine anchors > π-π stacking with TBF anchors. Despite

  19. Anchor-Less Secure Session Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugenmaier, Alf; Laganier, Julien; Prasad, Anand; Slavov, Kristian

    Communication session mobility relates transferring one endpoint of a communication session including its state from one device to another. Current proposals to deal with this securely require an anchor. We propose an anchor-less solution that takes some ideas from the host identity protocol. We then show how the idea of transferring endpoints simultaneously can be tackled without introducing timeouts as the session initiation protocol currently does.

  20. On the Theory of Ground Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD/A-O06 582 ON THE THEORY OF GROUND ANCHORS COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY JANUARY 1975 DISTRIBUTED BY: National Tocnical -Intonal...ANCHORS Austin Kovacs, Scott Bicuin Bruce McKelvy and Herman Colligan January 1975 PREPARED FOR U.S. ARMY MATERIL’ COMMAND DA PROJECT IT062112A 130...applications as the tie-backs for retaining walls and bulkheads and in foundations subjected to wind, explosions, earthquakes and thermally induced lateral

  1. Lash Transported Anchor for a Tanker Mooring.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    comparable catenary - moored terminal facility is estimated to require an installation time of about 14 days. A Single Anchor Leg Mooring for the OBFS...installing the anchor. A maximum horizontal force of 222 kips (from model tests) on a catenary moored 50,000-dwt tanker in 65 ft water depth with a 4...completed in less than 7 days. A comparable catenary -moored terminal facility is estimated to required an installation time of about 14 days

  2. Experimental and theoretical analysis of CFRP reinforced concrete beam anchored by CF anchors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Ning; Ma, Ye-ming; Dong, Hong-han; Chen, Da

    2017-04-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets is used to strengthen RC members widely. However, in the actual projects, premature separation of the CFRP sheet from the concrete surface is observed frequently, key issue in CFRP application is the performance of the connection between the CFRP sheet and the peripheral RC members. This paper presented the results of an experimental study to investigate mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF) anchor dowels, a new CFRP anchoring method, and based on the experimental results, obtained the bearing capacity calculation formula of concrete beam strengthened with CFRP anchoring by carbon fiber anchor dowels .

  3. Improving performance by anchoring movement and "nerves".

    PubMed

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E; Dotson, Charles O; Jagodinsky, Adam E; Clark, Lily C; Smallwood, Lorraine L; Wilburn, Christopher; Weimar, Wendi H; Miller, Matthew W

    2016-10-01

    Golf's governing bodies' recent decision to ban all putting styles "anchoring one end of the club against the body" bridges an important practical problem with psychological theory. We report the first experiment testing whether anchoring provides technical and/or psychological advantage in competitive performance. Many "greats" of professional golf from Arnold Palmer and Jack Nicklaus to Tiger Woods have argued against anchoring, believing that it takes "nerves" out of competitive performance and therefore artificially levels the playing field. To shed more light on the issue, we tested participants' performance with anchored and unanchored putters under low and high pressure when controlling for the putter length. We found no statistically significant evidence for a technical advantage due to anchoring but a clear psychological advantage: participants who anchored their putters significantly outperformed unanchored counterparts under high, but not low, pressure. Results provide tentative evidence for the ban's justification from a competitive standpoint. However, before any definite conclusions can be made, more research is needed when using high-level golfers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anchoring effects on early autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Bishara, Anthony J; Mugayar-Baldocchi, Marino A

    2017-10-01

    Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, participants answered either a high-anchor or a low-anchor question, and were warned that the anchor was uninformative; they went on to estimate their age during their earliest autobiographical memory. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 and extended the design to examine additional early autobiographical memories. In both experiments, participants in the low-anchor condition gave earlier age estimates than those in the high-anchor condition. These results provide new insights into the methods used to investigate autobiographical memory. Moreover, they show that reports of early autobiographical memories can be influenced by a relatively light touch - a change to a single digit in a single question.

  5. An earth anchor system: installation and design guide.

    Treesearch

    R.L. Copstead; D.D. Studier

    1990-01-01

    A system for anchoring the guylines and skylines of cable yarding equipment is presented. A description of three types of tipping plate anchors is given. Descriptions of the installation equipment and methods specific to each type are given. Procedures for determining the correct number of anchors to install are included, as are guidelines for installing the anchors so...

  6. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  7. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  8. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  9. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  10. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull vessel...

  11. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  12. Further Study of the Choice of Anchor Tests in Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trierweiler, Tammy J.; Lewis, Charles; Smith, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe what factors influence the observed score correlation between an (external) anchor test and a total test. We show that the anchor to full-test observed score correlation is based on two components: the true score correlation between the anchor and total test, and the reliability of the anchor test. Findings using an…

  13. Further Study of the Choice of Anchor Tests in Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trierweiler, Tammy J.; Lewis, Charles; Smith, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe what factors influence the observed score correlation between an (external) anchor test and a total test. We show that the anchor to full-test observed score correlation is based on two components: the true score correlation between the anchor and total test, and the reliability of the anchor test. Findings using an…

  14. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  15. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Li, Diandian; Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  16. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants’ WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  17. Anticonical anchoring and surface transitions in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Faget, L; Lamarque-Forget, S; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph; Auroy, P; Dozov, I

    2006-11-01

    Recent works reported planar and conical azimuthally degenerated nematic anchorings. Here we predict an additional "anticonical" degenerated anchoring. Its energy presents two minima, parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane, separated by a conical energy barrier. We realize this bistable anchoring on a grafted polymer brush and we observe temperature-driven transitions between the conical, planar, and anticonical degenerated anchorings. Under electric field we break the anticonical anchoring and switch between its bistable states.

  18. Anticonical anchoring and surface transitions in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faget, L.; Lamarque-Forget, S.; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph.; Auroy, P.; Dozov, I.

    2006-11-01

    Recent works reported planar and conical azimuthally degenerated nematic anchorings. Here we predict an additional “anticonical” degenerated anchoring. Its energy presents two minima, parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane, separated by a conical energy barrier. We realize this bistable anchoring on a grafted polymer brush and we observe temperature-driven transitions between the conical, planar, and anticonical degenerated anchorings. Under electric field we break the anticonical anchoring and switch between its bistable states.

  19. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Robbany, Z. Handayani, G.

    2015-09-30

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  20. Polymer's anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yue

    The current dissertation mainly discusses about the polymers anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells in two aspects: surface interaction and bulk interaction. The goal of the research is to understand the fundamental physics of anchoring strength and apply the knowledge to liquid crystal display devices. Researchers proposed two main contributors to the surface anchoring strength: the micro grooves generated by external force and the polymer chain's alignment. Both of them has experimental proofs. In the current study, explorations were made to understand the mechanisms of surface anchoring strength and easy axis of surface liquid crystal provided by rubbed polymer alignment layer. The work includes not only the variation of the alignment layer itself such as thickness(Chapter 3) and polymer side chain (Chapter 5), but also the variation of external conditions such as temperature (Chapter 4) and rubbing condition (Chapter 6). To determine the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths, Rapini-Papoular's expression was applied. However, it was discovered that higher order terms may be required in order to fit the experimental result or theoretically predict unique anchoring behaviors (Chapter 2, Chapter 6). SEM and AFM technologies were introduced to gather the actual structures of polymer alignment layer and extrapolate the alignment of liquid crystal in a micro scale. The result shows that the anchoring strength can be adjusted by the layer thickness, side chain structure, while the easy axis direction can be adjusted by a second rubbing direction. In addition, different anchoring conditions combined with liquid crystal's elastic energy can generate quite different forms of liquid crystals (Chapter 7). In the study of bulk alignment, the main contrition from the current dissertation is applying the understanding of anchoring behavior to optimizing actual switchable devices. Conventional PDLC performance can be tuned with the knowledge of the polymer and the liquid

  1. GPI-anchor and GPI-anchored protein expression in PMM2-CDG patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mutations in PMM2 impair phosphomannomutase-2 activity and cause the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation, PMM2-CDG. Mannose-1-phosphate, that is deficient in this disorder, is also implicated in the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchors. Objective To evaluate whether GPI-anchor and GPI-anchored proteins are defective in PMM2-CDG patients. Methods The expression of GPI-anchor and seven GPI-anchored proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry in different cell types from twelve PMM2-CDG patients. Additionally, neutrophil CD16 and plasma hepatic proteins were studied by Western blot. Transferrin glycoforms were evaluated by HPLC. Results Patients and controls had similar surface expression of GPI-anchor and most GPI-anchored proteins. Nevertheless, patients displayed a significantly diminished binding of two anti-CD16 antibodies (3G8 and KD1) to neutrophils and also of anti-CD14 (61D3) to monocytes. Interestingly, CD16 immunostaining and asialotransferrin levels significantly correlated with patients’ age. Analysis by flow cytometry of CD14 with MΦP9, and CD16 expression in neutrophils by Western blot using H-80 ruled out deficiencies of these antigens. Conclusions PMM2 mutations do not impair GPI-anchor or GPI-anchored protein expression. However, the glycosylation anomalies caused by PMM2 mutations might affect the immunoreactivity of monoclonal antibodies and lead to incorrect conclusions about the expression of different proteins, including GPI-anchored proteins. Neutrophils and monocytes are sensitive to PMM2 mutations, leading to abnormal glycosylation in immune receptors, which might potentially affect their affinity to their ligands, and contribute to infection. This study also confirms less severe hypoglycosylation defects in older PMM2-CDG patients. PMID:24139637

  2. Anchoring in rhythmic in-phase and antiphase visuomotor tracking.

    PubMed

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C E; Beek, Peter J

    2013-04-01

    Rhythmic limb movements are often anchored at particular points in the movement cycle. Anchoring may reveal essential task-specific information for motor control. We examined the effect of tracking mode (in-phase, antiphase) and gaze direction (left, right) on anchoring in visuomotor tracking with and without concurrent visual feedback of the hand movement. For in-phase tracking, anchoring was observed at the foveated reversal point whereas for antiphase tracking anchoring was observed at both reversals, suggesting the presence of two reference points instead of one. Anchoring at the foveated reversal reflected gaze anchoring (i.e., coalignment of hand and gaze) while anchoring at the nonfoveated reversal reflected visuomotor synchronization (i.e., the hand was steered to the nonfoveated reversal coincident with a target reversal at the point of gaze). We propose that the number and location of anchor points play a crucial role in the underlying control by providing reference values for error correction processes.

  3. Roles of actin cytoskeleton for regulation of chloroplast anchoring.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yuuki; Takagi, Shingo

    2017-08-22

    Chloroplasts are known to maintain specific intracellular distribution patterns under specific environmental conditions, enabling the optimal performance of photosynthesis. To this end, chloroplasts are anchored in the cortical cytoplasm. In leaf epidermal cells of aquatic monocot Vallisneria, we recently demonstrated that the anchored chloroplasts are rapidly de-anchored upon irradiation with high-intensity blue light and that the process is probably mediated by the blue-light receptor phototropins. Chloroplast de-anchoring is a necessary step rendering the previously anchored chloroplasts mobile to allow their migration. In this article, based on the results obtained in Vallisneria together with those in other plant species, we briefly discussed possible modes of regulation of chloroplast anchoring and de-anchoring by actin cytoskeleton. The topics include roles of photoreceptor systems, actin-filament-dependent and -independent chloroplast anchoring, and independence of chloroplast de-anchoring from actomyosin and microtubule systems.

  4. Priming and Anchoring Effects in Visualizations.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Andre Calero; Ziefle, Martina; Sedlmair, Michael

    2017-08-30

    We investigate priming and anchoring effects on perceptual tasks in visualization. Priming or anchoring effects depict the phenomena that stimulus might influence subsequent human judgements on a perceptual level, or on a cognitive level by providing a frame of reference. Using visual class separability in scatterplots as an example task, we performed a set of five studies to investigate the potential existence of priming and anchoring effects. Our findings show that-under certain circumstances-such effects indeed exist. In other words, humans judge class separability of the same scatterplot differently depending on the scatterplot(s) they have seen before. These findings inform future work on better understanding and more accurately modeling human perception of visual patterns.

  5. Fibre-Reinforced Adhesive for Structure Anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnat, J.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The topic of this paper is the glue-concrete interface of bonded anchors loaded by tension force. The paper is closely focused on bond strength experiments using high strength concrete up to class C50/60 or higher together with pure epoxy resin and fibre-reinforced resin. The goal of this research is to find the limits of the effective use of such glue types in high performance concrete, and also to verify the most commonly used design methods for bonded anchors. The presented research includes experimental analysis of the glue-concrete interface and the influence of its parameters on anchor behaviour. The presented analysis shows some problems of the 'separated failure modes' approach and also presents experimentally verified bond strength values obtained for the currently most widespread glue types. Results of fibre reinforced epoxy resin are also presented in this paper.

  6. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  7. Multiple magnetic microrobot control using electrostatic anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawashe, Chytra; Floyd, Steven; Sitti, Metin

    2009-04-01

    Addressing power and control to individual untethered microrobots is a challenge for small-scale robotics. We present a 250×130×100 μm3 magnetic robot wirelessly driven by pulsed external magnetic fields. An induced stick-slip motion results in translation speeds over 8 mm/s. Control of multiple robots is achieved by an array of addressable electrostatic anchoring pads on the surface, which selectively fixes microrobots, preventing translation. We demonstrate control of two microrobots in both uncoupled individual motion and coupled symmetric motion. An estimated anchoring force of 23.0 μN is necessary to effectively fix each microrobot.

  8. Bond strength of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) grouted anchors

    SciTech Connect

    Bellavance, E.; Xu, H.; Benmokrane, B.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory and field pull-out tests on cement grouted glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) anchors. As an alternative for grouted steel anchors, GFRP bars have many advantages over steel tendons, and can avoid corrosion and some difficulties in transportation, handling, and installation. Three types of 36 GFRP anchors and 20 steel anchors installed in three types of host media: steel pipe, concrete block, and rock mass were tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. The bond strength, load carrying capacity, load-displacement behavior, and critical bond length of cement grouted GFRP anchors were examined in comparison with conventional steel anchors.

  9. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  10. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  11. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  12. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial space... NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992 (15 U.S.C... Competitiveness Act, 15 U.S.C. 5806, allows NASA, subject to appropriations, to enter into multi-year...

  13. A Description of the Anchor Test Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The Anchor Test Study is described as to objectives, the need for the study, tests selected for the study, States' participation, renumeration of School Test Coordinator, teacher participation, schedule of activities, reports of test results, pupil personnel data needed, and the tests administered during the restandardization phase and equating…

  14. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  15. Multimodality of Learning Through Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Mary Susan

    2004-01-01

    Multimodality of learning results from the intertextual relationship between multimodal design and other meaning-making modes. Meaning making is becoming more multimodal because language is continually reshaped by new forms of communication media. This article examines anchored instruction from a multimodal perspective. The first section includes…

  16. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  17. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The installation...

  19. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The installation...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The installation...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The installation...

  2. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  3. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  4. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  5. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  6. 345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS WEST ANCHOR ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 7-1023 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  8. 63. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING LINE REELS, MAIN ANCHOR CHAIN, CHAIN STOPPERS, CAPSTAN AND CONTROLS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. 9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSSCOVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSS-COVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR LEFT OF ANCHOR BOLTS) - Nisqually Suspension Bridge, Spanning Nisqually River on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  10. 62. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD - STARBOARD TO PORT SHOWING WINDLASS CONTROLS (HANDWHEELS) MAIN ANCHOR CHAIN, ANCHOR WINDLASS, LINE HEELS, AND LADDERWAY TO SECONDARY CONNING STATION OR PILOT HOUSE. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  12. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  13. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Na; Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  14. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  15. Anchoring in a novel bimanual coordination pattern.

    PubMed

    Maslovat, Dana; Lam, Melanie Y; Brunke, Kirstin M; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian M

    2009-02-01

    Anchoring in cyclical movements has been defined as regions of reduced spatial or temporal variability [Beek, P. J. (1989). Juggling dynamics. PhD thesis. Amsterdam: Free University Press] that are typically found at movement reversal points. For in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronizing reversal points with a metronome pulse has resulted in decreased anchor point variability and increased pattern stability [Byblow, W. D., Carson, R. G., & Goodman, D. (1994). Expressions of asymmetries and anchoring in bimanual coordination. Human Movement Science, 13, 3-28; Fink, P. W., Foo, P., Jirsa, V. K., & Kelso, J. A. S. (2000). Local and global stabilization of coordination by sensory information. Experimental Brain Research, 134, 9-20]. The present experiment examined anchoring during acquisition, retention, and transfer of a 90 degrees phase-offset continuous bimanual coordination pattern (whereby the right limb lags the left limb by one quarter cycle), involving horizontal flexion about the elbow. Three metronome synchronization strategies were imposed: participants either synchronized maximal flexion of the right arm (i.e., single metronome), both flexion and extension of the right arm (i.e., double metronome within-limb), or flexion of each arm (i.e., double metronome between-limb) to an auditory metronome. In contrast to simpler in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronization of additional reversal points to the metronome did not reduce reversal point variability or increase pattern stability. Furthermore, practicing under different metronome synchronization strategies did not appear to have a significant effect on the rate of acquisition of the pattern.

  16. Resisting anchoring effects: The roles of metric and mapping knowledge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew R; Windschitl, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The biasing influence of anchors on numerical estimates is well established, but the relationship between knowledge level and the susceptibility to anchoring effects is less clear. In two studies, we addressed the potential mitigating effects of having knowledge in a domain on vulnerability to anchoring effects in that domain. Of critical interest was a distinction between two forms of knowledge-metric and mapping knowledge. In Study 1, participants who had studied question-relevant information-that is, high-knowledge participants-were less influenced by anchors than were participants who had studied irrelevant information. The results from knowledge measures suggested that the reduction in anchoring was tied to increases in metric rather than mapping knowledge. In Study 2, participants studied information specifically designed to influence different types of knowledge. As we predicted, increases in metric knowledge-and not mapping knowledge-led to reduced anchoring effects. Implications for debiasing anchoring effects are discussed.

  17. Anchoring-driven spontaneous rotations in active gel droplets.

    PubMed

    Fialho, A R; Blow, M L; Marenduzzo, D

    2017-09-13

    We study the dynamics of an active gel droplet with imposed orientational anchoring (normal or planar) at its surface. We find that if the activity is large enough droplets subject to strong anchoring spontaneously start to rotate, with the sense of rotation randomly selected by fluctuations. Contractile droplets rotate only for planar anchoring and extensile ones only for normal anchoring. This is because such a combination leads to a pair of stable elastic deformations which creates an active torque to power the rotation. Interestingly, under these conditions there is a conflict between the anchoring promoted thermodynamically and that favoured by activity. By tuning activity and anchoring strength, we find a wealth of qualitatively different droplet morphologies and spatiotemporal patterns, encompassing steady rotations, oscillations, and more irregular trajectories. The spontaneous rotations we observe are fundamentally different from previously reported instances of rotating defects in active fluids as they require the presence of strong enough anchoring and entail significant droplet shape deformations.

  18. Electropermanent magnetic anchoring for surgery and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tugwell, Josef; Brennan, Philip; O'Shea, Conor; O'Donoghue, Kilian; Power, Timothy; O'Shea, Michael; Griffiths, James; Cahill, Ronan; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig

    2015-03-01

    The use of magnets for anchoring of instrumentation in minimally invasive surgery and endoscopy has become of increased interest in recent years. Permanent magnets have significant advantages over electromagnets for these applications; larger anchoring and retraction force for comparable size and volume without the need for any external power supply. However, permanent magnets represent a potential hazard in the operating field where inadvertent attraction to surgical instrumentation is often undesirable. The current work proposes an interesting hybrid approach which marries the high forces of permanent magnets with the control of electromagnetic technology including the ability to turn the magnet OFF when necessary. This is achieved through the use of an electropermanent magnet, which is designed for surgical retraction across the abdominal and gastric walls. Our electropermanent magnet, which is hand-held and does not require continuous power, is designed with a center lumen which may be used for trocar or needle insertion. The device in this application has been demonstrated successfully in the porcine model where coupling between an intraluminal ring magnet and our electropermanent magnet facilitated guided insertion of an 18 Fr Tuohy needle for guidewire placement. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated the ability to control the coupling distance of the system alleviating shortcomings with current methods of magnetic coupling due to variation in transabdominal wall thicknesses. With further refinement, the magnet may find application in the anchoring of endoscopic and surgical instrumentation for minimally invasive interventions in the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Short read DNA fragment anchoring algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Peiheng; Liu, Xinchun

    2009-01-30

    The emerging next-generation sequencing method based on PCR technology boosts genome sequencing speed considerably, the expense is also get decreased. It has been utilized to address a broad range of bioinformatics problems. Limited by reliable output sequence length of next-generation sequencing technologies, we are confined to study gene fragments with 30 - 50 bps in general and it is relatively shorter than traditional gene fragment length. Anchoring gene fragments in long reference sequence is an essential and prerequisite step for further assembly and analysis works. Due to the sheer number of fragments produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the huge size of reference sequences, anchoring would rapidly becoming a computational bottleneck. We compared algorithm efficiency on BLAT, SOAP and EMBF. The efficiency is defined as the count of total output results divided by time consumed to retrieve them. The data show that our algorithm EMBF have 3 - 4 times efficiency advantage over SOAP, and at least 150 times over BLAT. Moreover, when the reference sequence size is increased, the efficiency of SOAP will get degraded as far as 30%, while EMBF have preferable increasing tendency. In conclusion, we deem that EMBF is more suitable for short fragment anchoring problem where result completeness and accuracy is predominant and the reference sequences are relatively large.

  20. Complications of bioabsorbable suture anchors in the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Aman; Ghodadra, Neil; Karas, Vasili; Salata, Michael J; Cole, Brian J

    2012-06-01

    The development of the suture anchor has played a pivotal role in the transition from open to arthroscopic techniques of the shoulder. Various suture anchors have been manufactured that help facilitate the ability to create a soft tissue to bone repair. Because of reported complications of loosening, migration, and chondral injury with metallic anchors, bioabsorbable anchors have become increasingly used among orthopaedic surgeons. In this review, the authors sought to evaluate complications associated with bioabsorbable anchors in or about the shoulder and understand these in the context of the total number of bioabsorbable anchors placed. In 2008, 10 bioabsorbable anchor-related complications were reported to the US Food and Drug Administration. The reported literature complications of bioabsorbable anchors implanted about the shoulder include glenoid osteolysis, synovitis, and chondrolysis. These potential complications should be kept in mind when forming a differential diagnosis in a patient in whom a bioabsorbable anchor has been previously used. These literature reports, which amount to but a fraction of the total bioabsorbable anchors implanted in the shoulder on a yearly basis, underscore the relative safety and successful clinical results with use of bioabsorbable suture anchors. Product development continues with newer composites such as PEEK (polyetheretherketone) and calcium ceramics (tricalcium phosphate) in an effort to hypothetically create a mechanically stable construct with and improve biocompatibility of the implant. Bioabsorbable anchors remain a safe, reproducible, and consistent implant to secure soft tissue to bone in and about the shoulder. Meticulous insertion technique must be followed in using bioabsorbable anchors and may obviate many of the reported complications found in the literature. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the existing literature as it relates to the rare complications seen with use of bioabsorbable

  1. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  2. Histologic and morphologic evaluation of explanted bone anchors from bone-anchored hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Robert; Goldberg, Eva; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Scheich, Matthias; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Schwager, Konrad; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa

    2009-05-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a standard option in rehabilitation of patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, and also CROS fitting. However, the skin-penetrating bone anchor repeatedly gives reason for discussion about the risk of infection of surrounding tissues as a major cause of malfunction. In the present study, explanted bone anchors with surrounding bone and soft tissue were examined and compared with the morphology of lost implants. The anchors originated from five patients. Two needed explantation due to deafness with the need of cochlea implantation. A third patient underwent explantation due to meningeal irritation by the bone anchor. Another patient lost the implant due to mechanical stress shortly after implantation. The last implant was lost in a child without apparent reason. All implants were clinically free of infection and had been stable for a median implantation period of 12 months. During the explantation procedure, the fixtures were recovered together with the attached soft tissue and bone. The specimens were examined by light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sectioning for light microscopy was performed with a diamond-coated saw microtome. Histopathologic examination of the surrounding skin and subcutaneous soft tissue showed slight inflammation in one case only. The bone was regularly vital, presenting no signs of inflammation. The threads of the fixtures were filled with bone, with particularly strong attachment to the flank of traction. The SEM investigation exposed the ultrastructural interaction of bone with the implant surface. Filiform- and podocyte-like processes of osteocytes attach to the implant; lost implants did not reflect these features. Implant integration involves both osseointegration as well as soft tissue integration. Titanium oxide as the active implant surface promotes this integration even in unstable implants. The morphologic analysis exposed structural areas of the implant with weak bone

  3. Tail-anchored Protein Insertion in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cardani, Silvia; Maroli, Annalisa; Vitiello, Adriana; Soffientini, Paolo; Crespi, Arianna; Bram, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    The GET (guided entry of tail-anchored proteins)/TRC (transmembrane recognition complex) pathway for tail-anchored protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been characterized in detail in yeast and is thought to function similarly in mammals, where the orthologue of the central ATPase, Get3, is known as TRC40 or Asna1. Get3/TRC40 function requires an ER receptor, which in yeast consists of the Get1/Get2 heterotetramer and in mammals of the WRB protein (tryptophan-rich basic protein), homologous to yeast Get1, in combination with CAML (calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand), which is not homologous to Get2. To better characterize the mammalian receptor, we investigated the role of endogenous WRB and CAML in tail-anchored protein insertion as well as their association, concentration, and stoichiometry in rat liver microsomes and cultured cells. Functional proteoliposomes, reconstituted from a microsomal detergent extract, lost their activity when made with an extract depleted of TRC40-associated proteins or of CAML itself, whereas in vitro synthesized CAML and WRB together were sufficient to confer insertion competence to liposomes. CAML was found to be in ∼5-fold excess over WRB, and alteration of this ratio did not inhibit insertion. Depletion of each subunit affected the levels of the other one; in the case of CAML silencing, this effect was attributable to destabilization of the WRB transcript and not of WRB protein itself. These results reveal unanticipated complexity in the mutual regulation of the TRC40 receptor subunits and raise the question as to the role of the excess CAML in the mammalian ER. PMID:27226539

  4. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    SciTech Connect

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  5. Engineered liquid crystal anchoring energies with nanopatterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gear, Christopher; Diest, Kenneth; Liberman, Vladimir; Rothschild, Mordechai

    2015-01-26

    The anchoring energy of liquid crystals was shown to be tunable by surface nanopatterning of periodic lines and spaces. Both the pitch and height were varied using hydrogen silsesquioxane negative tone electron beam resist, providing for flexibility in magnitude and spatial distribution of the anchoring energy. Using twisted nematic liquid crystal cells, it was shown that this energy is tunable over an order of magnitude. These results agree with a literature model which predicts the anchoring energy of sinusoidal grooves.

  6. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface.

  7. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1998-01-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  8. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, J.E.; King, G.W.

    1998-12-08

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole. 8 figs.

  9. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1997-12-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  10. New Retrievable Coil Anchors: Preliminary In Vivo Experiences in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Konya, A. Wright, K.C.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To design and test retrievable coil anchors to improve the safety and efficacy of coil embolization. Methods. Fifty-two 0.038-inch homemade retrievable stainless steel coils were equipped with one of four different pre-shaped nitinol anchors and tested in 38 pigs. All coils with the anchor were completely retrieved and redeployed 3-18 times (median 7 times) prior to release. Types 1 and 2 anchored coils were acutely deployed in the external iliac arteries (n = 10 each), and chronically tested (1 week) in the common carotid arteries (n = 6 each). Larger type 1 (n = 4), type 3 (n = 6), and type 4 (n = 4) anchored coils were acutely deployed in the abdominal aorta. The largest type 1 anchors (n = 6) were acutely tested in the inferior vena cava. Results. All anchored coils were successfully retrieved and repositioned several times. All but two coils formed a compact plug and there was no coil migration except with two mechanically defective type 3 anchors. Conclusion. The use of retrievable anchors allowed the coils to be retrieved and repositioned, prevented coil migration, and enabled compact coil configuration.

  11. Infrastructure anchor bolt inspection program with NDE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1996-11-01

    In 1990, Wisconsin Department of Transportation found a high mast light pole with two of six anchor bolts failed. This failure along with published reports from Michigan DOT about anchor bolt failures on cantilever sign structures, raised concern about the quality and condition of anchor bolts on the Wisconsin DOT system. Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining material type, cut or rolled threads, and type of coating for anchor bolts. Inspection emphasis are on "hands on" and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on visual conditions of anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating failed anchor bolts and critical cracks before failure of an entire structure.

  12. Venue Recommendation and Web Search Based on Anchor Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    experimented with the use of anchor text representations in the language modeling framework, and base our runs ei- ther on full ClueWeb12 or the subset of...anchor text representations in the language modeling framework, and base our runs ei- ther on full ClueWeb12 or the subset of touristic aggregators...ClueWeb12- full anchor text , and run our proposed model based on this dataset. This model is exactly the same as Model-Anchor, but based on the

  13. End-anchored polymers in good solvents from the single chain limit to high anchoring densities.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Mark D; Grest, Gary S; Douglas, Jack F; Kent, Michael S; Suo, Tongchuan

    2016-11-07

    An increasing number of applications utilize grafted polymer layers to alter the interfacial properties of solid substrates, motivating refinement in our theoretical understanding of such layers. To assess existing theoretical models of them, we have investigated end-anchored polymer layers over a wide range of grafting densities, σ, ranging from a single chain to high anchoring density limits, chain lengths ranging over two orders of magnitude, for very good and marginally good solvent conditions. We compare Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations, numerical self-consistent field calculations, and experimental measurements of the average layer thickness, h, with renormalization group theory, the Alexander-de Gennes mushroom theory, and the classical brush theory. Our simulations clearly indicate that appreciable inter-chain interactions exist at all simulated areal anchoring densities so that there is no mushroom regime in which the layer thickness is independent of σ. Moreover, we find that there is no high coverage regime in which h follows the predicted scaling, h ∼ Nσ(1/3), for classical polymer brushes either. Given that no completely adequate analytic theory seems to exist that spans wide ranges of N and σ, we applied scaling arguments for h as a function of a suitably defined reduced anchoring density, defined in terms of the solution radius of gyration of the polymer chains and N. We find that such a scaling approach enables a smooth, unified description of h in very good solvents over the full range of anchoring density and chain lengths, although this type of data reduction does not apply to marginal solvent quality conditions.

  14. End-anchored polymers in good solvents from the single chain limit to high anchoring densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Mark D.; Grest, Gary S.; Douglas, Jack F.; Kent, Michael S.; Suo, Tongchuan

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of applications utilize grafted polymer layers to alter the interfacial properties of solid substrates, motivating refinement in our theoretical understanding of such layers. To assess existing theoretical models of them, we have investigated end-anchored polymer layers over a wide range of grafting densities, σ, ranging from a single chain to high anchoring density limits, chain lengths ranging over two orders of magnitude, for very good and marginally good solvent conditions. We compare Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations, numerical self-consistent field calculations, and experimental measurements of the average layer thickness, h, with renormalization group theory, the Alexander-de Gennes mushroom theory, and the classical brush theory. Our simulations clearly indicate that appreciable inter-chain interactions exist at all simulated areal anchoring densities so that there is no mushroom regime in which the layer thickness is independent of σ. Moreover, we find that there is no high coverage regime in which h follows the predicted scaling, h ˜ Nσ1/3, for classical polymer brushes either. Given that no completely adequate analytic theory seems to exist that spans wide ranges of N and σ, we applied scaling arguments for h as a function of a suitably defined reduced anchoring density, defined in terms of the solution radius of gyration of the polymer chains and N. We find that such a scaling approach enables a smooth, unified description of h in very good solvents over the full range of anchoring density and chain lengths, although this type of data reduction does not apply to marginal solvent quality conditions.

  15. Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.

  16. Adapting Roof Support Methods for Anchoring Satellites on Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Grant B.

    The use of anchorage in satellite and spacecraft design has been largely restricted to harpoon-inspired technology based on anticipated low strengths of cometary and asteroid material. Initial results from the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko, however, have demonstrated both larger-than-expected compressive strengths of cometary materials and the importance of adequate anchorage to mitigate the risk of mission failure. The field of rock mechanics can provide unique insight into the design of these satellite and lander anchors by drawing on existing roof bolt technology. This study compared the behavior of tensioned point anchor and untensioned fully-grouted roof bolts with a polyurethane-anchored bolt under environmental conditions similar to those anticipated in space. These conditions include variation in possible material types as well as variations in regolith properties, anchorage length, and low operating temperatures. Using a Box-Behnken experimental design, this study first compared the effects of anchor depth and rock strength on each of the three anchorage types in a competent rock strength regime. The study then examined the effects of compaction, water content, and temperature on each anchor type in a regolith environment. The subsequent data analysis identified one anchor type as the overall best anchor for these environments. This finding has led to a preliminary design recommendation to advise space agencies on satellite anchor construction based on the target orbital body's anticipated environmental and "exogeologic" conditions.

  17. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  18. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground anchors...

  19. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  20. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  1. 107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts placed ready for last pour of concrete. Also pile driver driving falsework piles for south anchor arm. Located at end of the old ferry landing slip at Crockett side of straits. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supporting and anchoring. 178.337-13 Section 178.337-13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  3. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  4. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supporting and anchoring. 178.337-13 Section 178.337-13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  5. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  6. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  7. 49 CFR 178.345-6 - Supports and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supports and anchoring. 178.345-6 Section 178.345-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-6 Supports and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  8. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  9. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  10. Anchoring on Self and Others During Social Inferences.

    PubMed

    Willard, Daniel F X; Markman, Arthur B

    2017-07-01

    When making inferences about similar others, people anchor and adjust away from themselves (Tamir & Mitchell, 2013). However, research on relational self theory (Andersen & Chen, 2002) suggests the possibility of using knowledge about others as an anchor when they are more similar to a target. We investigated whether social inferences are made on the basis of significant other knowledge through an anchoring and adjustment process, and whether anchoring on a significant other is more effortful than anchoring on the self. Participants answered questions about their likes and habits, as well as the likes and habits of a significant other, a target similar to their significant other, and a yoked control. We found that prediction differences between the significant other and similar target led to longer response times, and we found the opposite effect for self and target differences, suggesting anchoring and adjustment from the significant other rather than the self. These effects were moderated by the source-relative salience of the dimension being evaluated. The evidence was mixed with respect to the question of whether anchoring on a significant other is more effortful than anchoring on the self. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  12. 49 CFR 178.345-6 - Supports and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supports and anchoring. 178.345-6 Section 178.345-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-6 Supports and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  13. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supporting and anchoring. 178.337-13 Section 178.337-13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  14. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supporting and anchoring. 178.337-13 Section 178.337-13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  16. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  17. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing devices...

  18. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  19. The Critical Role of Anchor Paper Selection in Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn Popp, Sharon E.; Ryan, Joseph M.; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Scoring rubrics are routinely used to evaluate the quality of writing samples produced for writing performance assessments, with anchor papers chosen to represent score points defined in the rubric. Although the careful selection of anchor papers is associated with best practices for scoring, little research has been conducted on the role of…

  20. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  1. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  2. 33 CFR 401.14 - Anchor marking buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchor marking buoys. 401.14 Section 401.14 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.14 Anchor...

  3. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi

    2014-01-29

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  4. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  5. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  6. Anchoring Groups for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M.

    2015-02-18

    The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groupsare employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies.

  7. A magnetically actuated anchoring system for a wireless endoscopic capsule.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Alici, Gursel; Munoz, Fredy

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we propose a new magnetically actuated anchoring system for wireless capsule endoscopes (WCE) by employing the principle of a switchable magnetic spring. A force model is derived to predict the magnetic force needed to support the interaction between the anchors and the intestinal lumen. The theoretical and experimental analysis conducted shows that the magnetic spring is capable of providing the force needed to activate the anchoring mechanism, which consists of four foldable legs. A prototype capsule with a size comparable with the size of a commercial WCE was designed, fabricated, and tested. The in-vitro tests with a real small intestine show that the proposed anchoring mechanism is able to raise the friction force between the anchoring legs and inner wall of the intestine by more than two times after its activation using an external magnetic field. Experimental results presented demonstrate that the proposed anchoring system, which has a low foot-print not taking up too much space on the capsule, can provide a reliable anchoring capability with the capsule inside the intestinal lumen.

  8. Anchorage Behaviors of Frictional Tieback Anchors in Silty Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shih-Tsung; Hsiao, Wen-Ta; Chen, Ke-Ting; Hu, Wen-Chi; Wu, Ssu-Yi

    2017-06-01

    Soil anchors are extensively used in geotechnical applications, most commonly serve as tieback walls in deep excavations. To investigate the anchorage mechanisms of this tieback anchor, a constitutive model that considers both strain hardening and softening and volume dilatancy entitled SHASOVOD model, and FLAC3D software are used to perform 3-D numerical analyses. The results from field anchor tests are compared with those calculated by numerical analyses to enhance the applicability of the numerical method. After the calibration, this research carried out the parameter studies by numerical analyses. The numerical results reveal that whether the yield of soil around an anchor develops to ground surface and/or touches the diaphragm wall depending on the overburden depth H and the embedded depth Z of an anchor, this study suggests the minimum overburden and embedded depths to avoid the yield of soils develop to ground surface and/or touch the diaphragm wall. When the embedded depth, overburden depth or fixed length of an anchor increases, the anchorage capacity also increases. Increasing fixed length should be the optimum method to increase the anchorage capacity for fixed length less than 20m. However, when the fixed length of an anchor exceeds 30 m, the increasing rate of anchorage capacity per fixed length decreases, and progressive yield occurs obviously between the fixed length and surrounding soil.

  9. Anchoring groups for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-18

    The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groups are employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies.

  10. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    PubMed

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2017-07-28

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  11. Anchored multi-DOF MEMS gyroscope having robust drive mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Payal; Khonina, S. N.; Pavelyev, V. S.; Fomchenkov, S. A.; Uma, B. V.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the new architecture of 2-DOF (degree-of-freedom) drive mode and 1-DOF sense mode gyroscope with the concept of additional anchoring that retains all the advantages of the Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA) concept while being operated at high frequencies. These concepts allow reduction of the bandwidth by varying the coupling parameter during the design, thereby increasing the mechanical sensitivity. In the present design, the anchoring concept has been implemented by adding a central anchor for the sense mass. The steady state response and design concept have been devised using analytical modeling.

  12. Material Testing for Robotic Omnidirectional Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkoe, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    To successfully explore near-Earth Asteroids the question of mobility emerges as the key issue for any robotic mission. When small bodies have extremely low escape velocities, traditional methods, such as wheels, would send the robot hurtling off of the asteroid's surface. To solve this problem, JPL has developed an omni-directional anchoring mechanism for use in microgravity that utilizes microspine technology. These microspines are placed in circular arrays with 16 independent carriages biasing the surface of the rock. The asperities in the surface allow the gripper to hold nearly 150N in all directions. While the gripper has been proven successful on consolidated rocks, it had yet to be tested on a variety of other surfaces that are suspected to separate the large boulders on an asteroid. Since asteroid surfaces vary widely, from friable rocks to lose ponds of regolith, the gripper was tested in a large variety of materials such as, bonded pumice, sand, gravel, and loose rocks. The forces are applied tangent, at 45 degrees, and normal to the surface of the material. The immediate results from this experiment will give insight into the gripper's effectiveness across the wide spectrum of materials found on asteroids.

  13. Protein prenyltransferases: anchor size, pseudogenes and parasites.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Washietl, Stefan; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2003-07-01

    Lipid modification of eukaryotic proteins by protein prenyltransferases is required for critical signaling pathways, cell cycle progression, cytoskeleton remodeling, induction of apoptosis and vesicular trafficking. This review analyzes the influence of distinct states of sequential posttranslational processing that can be obtained after single or double prenylation, reversible palmitoylation, proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminus and possible reversible carboxymethylation. This series of modifications, as well as the exact length of the prenyl anchor, are determinants in protein-membrane and specific protein-protein interactions of protein prenyltransferase substrates. Furthermore, the occurrence and distribution of pseudogenes of protein prenyltransferase subunits are discussed. Besides being developed as anti-cancer agents, prenyltransferase inhibitors are effective against an increasing number of parasitic diseases. Extensive screens for protein prenyltransferases in genomic data of fungal and protozoan pathogens unveil a series of new pharmacologic targets for prenyltransferase inhibition, including the parasites Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, Aspergillus nidulans, Pneumocystis carinii, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichinella spiralis and Cryptosporidium parvum.

  14. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework. Using optimal matching, we measure the distance between ideal and experienced relationship sequences to (1) assess the associations between ideological congruence and perceived relationship well-being, (2) compare this ideal-based approach to other experience-based alternatives, and (3) identify individual- and couple-level correlates of congruence between ideals and experiences in the romantic realm. We show that congruence between ideals and experiences conveys relationship well-being along four dimensions: expressions of love and support, robust communication habits, perceived biological safety, and perceived relationship stability. We further show that congruence is patterned by socioeconomic status and supported by shared ideals within romantic dyads. We argue that conceiving of ideals as anchors for how sexual experiences are manifest advances current understandings of romantic relationships, and we suggest that this approach has applications for other domains of life. PMID:27110031

  15. Intranuclear Anchoring of Repetitive DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Weipoltshammer, Klara; Schöfer, Christian; Almeder, Marlene; Philimonenko, Vlada V.; Frei, Klemens; Wachtler, Franz; Hozák, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    Centromeres, telomeres, and ribosomal gene clusters consist of repetitive DNA sequences. To assess their contributions to the spatial organization of the interphase genome, their interactions with the nucleoskeleton were examined in quiescent and activated human lymphocytes. The nucleoskeletons were prepared using “physiological” conditions. The resulting structures were probed for specific DNA sequences of centromeres, telomeres, and ribosomal genes by in situ hybridization; the electroeluted DNA fractions were examined by blot hybridization. In both nonstimulated and stimulated lymphocytes, centromeric alpha-satellite repeats were almost exclusively found in the eluted fraction, while telomeric sequences remained attached to the nucleoskeleton. Ribosomal genes showed a transcription-dependent attachment pattern: in unstimulated lymphocytes, transcriptionally inactive ribosomal genes located outside the nucleolus were eluted completely. When comparing transcription unit and intergenic spacer, significantly more of the intergenic spacer was removed. In activated lymphocytes, considerable but similar amounts of both rDNA fragments were eluted. The results demonstrate that: (a) the various repetitive DNA sequences differ significantly in their intranuclear anchoring, (b) telomeric rather than centromeric DNA sequences form stable attachments to the nucleoskeleton, and (c) different attachment mechanisms might be responsible for the interaction of ribosomal genes with the nucleoskeleton. PMID:10613900

  16. Anchoring of development workings in a zone of influence of mining in case of the level anchoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demin, V. F.; Fofanov, O. B.; Demina, T. V.; Yavorskiy, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of the change of the stress-strain state of coal containing rock masses, depending on mining-geological factors, were revealed. These factors allow establishing rational parameters of anchoring of wall rocks to enhance the stability of development workings. Specific conditions of the deflected mode, displays of rock pressure, terms of maintenance depending on technological parameters are investigated. Researches allowed determining the degree of their development influence on the efficiency of application of the anchoring of the hollow making and will allow a reasonable application of anchoring certificates, provide stability of the rocks mining and reduce expenses on its realization and maintenance.

  17. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  18. 22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER C. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  19. 6. ANCHOR FIXTURES AT STATION "0", EAST END, LAUNCHING PAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANCHOR FIXTURES AT STATION "0", EAST END, LAUNCHING PAD. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 9. LOOKING EAST AT FALLEN CABLE ANCHOR ON NORTH BANK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING EAST AT FALLEN CABLE ANCHOR ON NORTH BANK. TURNOUT STRUCTURE AND WEIR IN BACKGROUND. - Merced Irrigation District, Edendale Creek Turnout & Weir, East of Snelling Highway, Hopeton, Merced County, CA

  1. 7. DETAIL, ANCHOR FIXTURES. Looking to north. Edwards Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL, ANCHOR FIXTURES. Looking to north. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. 23. LOOKING FORWARD FROM BOSUN'S HOLD TOWARD ANCHOR WINDLASS BASE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. LOOKING FORWARD FROM BOSUN'S HOLD TOWARD ANCHOR WINDLASS BASE. WINDLASS BASE DIRECTLY BEHIND VISE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  4. The anchoring bias reflects rational use of cognitive resources.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L; M Huys, Quentin J; Goodman, Noah D

    2017-05-08

    Cognitive biases, such as the anchoring bias, pose a serious challenge to rational accounts of human cognition. We investigate whether rational theories can meet this challenge by taking into account the mind's bounded cognitive resources. We asked what reasoning under uncertainty would look like if people made rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. To answer this question, we applied a mathematical theory of bounded rationality to the problem of numerical estimation. Our analysis led to a rational process model that can be interpreted in terms of anchoring-and-adjustment. This model provided a unifying explanation for ten anchoring phenomena including the differential effect of accuracy motivation on the bias towards provided versus self-generated anchors. Our results illustrate the potential of resource-rational analysis to provide formal theories that can unify a wide range of empirical results and reconcile the impressive capacities of the human mind with its apparently irrational cognitive biases.

  5. 43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM AND SUSPENDED (PANEL 67). VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  6. 21. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER M. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  7. Spin selection at organic spinterface by anchoring group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Qiu, Shuai; Miao, Yuan-yuan; Ren, Jun-feng; Wang, Chuan-kui; Hu, Gui-chao

    2017-07-01

    Control of organic interfacial spin polarization is crucial in organic spintronics. Based on ab initio theory, here we proposed a spin selection at organic interface via anchoring group by adsorbing an organic molecule onto Ni(111) surface. The results demonstrate that either a positive or negative interfacial spin polarization may be obtained by choosing different anchoring groups. The orbital analysis via the projected density of states shows that the interfacial spin polarization is sensitive to the hybridization of the outer orbital of the anchoring atom as well as its energy relative to the d orbital of the ferromagnetic atom. The work indicates a feasible way to realize spin selection at the organic spinterface by anchoring group.

  8. Fluctuation-induced interactions in nematics with disordered anchoring energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Pour Haddadan, Fahimeh; Naji, Ali; Shirzadiani, Nafiseh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2014-12-01

    We examine fluctuation-induced (pseudo-Casimir) interactions in nematic liquid-crystalline films confined between two surfaces, where one of the surfaces imposes a strong homeotropic anchoring (ensuring a uniform mean director profile), while the other one is assumed to be a chemically disordered substrate exhibiting an annealed distribution of anchoring energies. We employ a saddle-point approximation to evaluate the free energy of interaction mediated between the two surfaces and investigate how the interaction force is influenced by the presence of disordered surface anchoring energy. It is shown that the disorder results in a renormalization of the effective surface anchoring parameter in a way that it leads to quantitative and qualitative changes (including a change of sign at intermediate inter-surface separations) in the pseudo-Casimir interaction force when compared with the interaction force in the absence of disorder.

  9. Anchor Casting and Portal Strut at West Bank Abutment, Endpost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Anchor Casting and Portal Strut at West Bank Abutment, Endpost Base and Granite Plinth - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Bollman Bridge, Spanning Potomac River at Harpers Ferry, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  10. 34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm and cantilever arm spans, as seen from shore near pier 4, looking north - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  11. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  12. 3. VIEW EAST TOWARD STAMFORD ANCHOR BRIDGE #374 OF CIRCUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST TOWARD STAMFORD ANCHOR BRIDGE #374 OF CIRCUIT BREAKER INSTALLATION ON CROSS BEAM OF BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Bridge-Type Circuit Breakers, Long Island shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Cos Cob, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 2. VIEW EAST TOWARD DARIEN ANCHOR BRIDGE #465 OF CIRCUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST TOWARD DARIEN ANCHOR BRIDGE #465 OF CIRCUIT BREAKER INSTALLATION ON CROSS BEAM OF BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Bridge-Type Circuit Breakers, Long Island shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Cos Cob, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 27. CIRCUIT BREAKERS AT SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. CIRCUIT BREAKERS AT SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 21. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, LOOKING EASTBOUND - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 24. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, NORTH TRUSS FOR POWER LEAD-IN WIRES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  17. 32. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING ASHAPED SUPPORT, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. OBLIQUE VIEW SHOWING A-SHAPED SUPPORT, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524, NEAR SOUTH NORWALK SWITCH TOWER - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 25. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310 AND COS COB POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310 AND COS COB POWER PLANT STRUCTURES, LOOKING WESTBOUND - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 33. VIEW OF ADJACENT SUBSTATION AND TRANSFORMER, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW OF ADJACENT SUBSTATION AND TRANSFORMER, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 524 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 23. OBLIQUE VIEW, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. OBLIQUE VIEW, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  1. 22. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, LOOKING WESTBOUND - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  2. Anchored but not internalized: shape dependent endocytosis of nanodiamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bokai; Feng, Xi; Yin, Hang; Ge, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yanhuan; Chu, Zhiqin; Raabova, Helena; Vavra, Jan; Cigler, Petr; Liu, Renbao; Wang, Yi; Li, Quan

    2017-04-01

    Nanoparticle-cell interactions begin with the cellular uptake of the nanoparticles, a process that eventually determines their cellular fate. In the present work, we show that the morphological features of nanodiamonds (NDs) affect both the anchoring and internalization stages of their endocytosis. While a prickly ND (with sharp edges/corners) has no trouble of anchoring onto the plasma membrane, it suffers from difficult internalization afterwards. In comparison, the internalization of a round ND (obtained by selective etching of the prickly ND) is not limited by its lower anchoring amount and presents a much higher endocytosis amount. Molecular dynamics simulation and continuum modelling results suggest that the observed difference in the anchoring of round and prickly NDs likely results from the reduced contact surface area with the cell membrane of the former, while the energy penalty associated with membrane curvature generation, which is lower for a round ND, may explain its higher probability of the subsequent internalization.

  3. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Oil House, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  4. Biofilm formation on bone-anchored hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Monksfield, P; Chapple, I L C; Matthews, J B; Grant, M M; Addison, O; Reid, A P; Proops, D W; Sammons, R L

    2011-11-01

    To investigate microbiological biofilm contamination of retrieved bone-anchored hearing aids. Nine failed, retrieved bone-anchored hearing aids and 16 internal screws were examined by scanning electron microscopy. A fixture from a failing implant, which had been removed and disassembled under aseptic conditions, was cultured. Finally, an internal screw from a new, unimplanted fixture was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Debris was seen on the fixture and abutment of all bone-anchored hearing aids, and on the heads of the 16 internal screws. On eight screws, biofilm extended down the shaft to the threads, where it was several micrometres thick. Culture of a failing fixture yielded staphylococcus. The new, unimplanted fixture internal screw showed evidence of scratching and metallic debris on the threads, which may interfere with close fitting of the screw and subsequently facilitate microleakage. There may be a link between internal microbial contamination and failure of bone-anchored hearing aids.

  5. 20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST HALF OF SUSPENDED SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  6. 19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. 2 AND 3, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTH. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  7. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall.

  8. Photoinduced ordering and anchoring properties of azo-dye films.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Alexei D; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Huang, Dan Ding

    2005-12-01

    We study both theoretically and experimentally the anchoring properties of photoaligning azo-dye films in contact with a nematic liquid crystal depending on the photoinduced ordering of azo-dye molecules. In the mean field approximation, we found that the bare surface anchoring energy depends linearly on the azo-dye order parameter and the azimuthal anchoring strength decays to zero in the limit of vanishing photoinduced ordering. From the absorption dichroism spectra measured in azo-dye films that are prepared from an azo-dye derivative with polymerizable terminal groups we obtain the dependence of the dichroic ratio on the irradiation dose. We also measure the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells aligned by the azo-dye films and derive the anchoring strengths as functions of the dichroic ratio, which is proportional to the photoinduced order parameter. Although linear fitting of the experimental data for both anchoring strengths gives reasonable results, it, predicts vanishing of the azimuthal anchoring strength at some nonzero value of the azo-dye order parameter, in contradiction with theory. By using a simple phenomenological model we show that this discrepancy can be attributed to the difference between the surface and bulk order parameters in the films. The measured polar anchoring energy is found to be an order of magnitude higher than the azimuthal strength. Our theory suggests that the quadrupole term of the spherical harmonics expansion for the azo-dye-NLC intermolecular potential might be of importance for the understanding of this difference.

  9. Greedy Successive Anchorization for Localizing Machine Type Communication Devices

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz Ul Haq, Mian; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    Localization of machine type communication (MTC) devices is essential for various types of location-based applications. In this paper, we investigate a distributed localization problem in noisy networks, where an estimated position of blind MTC machines (BMs) is obtained by using noisy measurements of distance between BM and anchor machines (AMs). We allow positioned BMs also to work as anchors that are referred to as virtual AMs (VAMs) in this paper. VAMs usually have greater position errors than (original) AMs, and, if used as anchors, the error propagates through the whole network. However, VAMs are necessary, especially when many BMs are distributed in a large area with an insufficient number of AMs. To overcome the error propagation, we propose a greedy successive anchorization process (GSAP). A round of GSAP consists of consecutive two steps. In the first step, a greedy selection of anchors among AMs and VAMs is done by which GSAP considers only those three anchors that possibly pertain to the localization accuracy. In the second step, each BM that can select three anchors in its neighbor determines its location with a proposed distributed localization algorithm. Iterative rounds of GSAP terminate when every BM in the network finds its location. To examine the performance of GSAP, a root mean square error (RMSE) metric is used and the corresponding Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) is provided. By numerical investigation, RMSE performance of GSAP is shown to be better than existing localization methods with and without an anchor selection method and mostly close to the CRLB. PMID:27983576

  10. Systematic derivation of anchoring forces in permafrost-affected bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pläsken, Regina; Keuschnig, Markus; Krautblatter, Michael

    2017-04-01

    High-alpine environments have been demonstrated to react particularly sensitive to recent climate warming. While the thermal response of mountain permafrost to atmospheric warming is usually lagged and attenuated, it is still widely expected to create major engineering problems for high-alpine infrastructures in the foreseeable future. Degradation of permafrost in high alpine regions potentially causes massive negative changes in bearing capacity of affected bedrock/subsoils. Building structures, which are founded on such permafrost-influenced bedrock/subsoils, can be severly damaged by changes in their support conditions. Piles and anchors are the most common engineering measures for the stabilization of such foundation-systems in bedrock . However, despite their frequent use only very limited long term data are available on the mechanical behaviour of anchors in permafrost affected bedrock. This contribution addresses the need for continuous, high-quality data on subsurface conditions in high-alpine locations. At the open-air laboratory Kitzsteinhorn (OPAL) three anchor load plates were installed to measure anchor load and temperature. Rock temperatures up to a depth of 30 m are available from two deep boreholes located in the immediate vicinity. Anchor loads vary significantly between summer and winter. During summer anchor loads stagnate at approximately 450 kN. In autumn anchor load values constantly increase until they reach a maximum of 530 kN in January. Seasonal variations are quantified and physical phenomena and their possible order of magnitude are considered to derive a mechanical model of the system anchor in permafrost affected bedrock.

  11. Pattern-induced anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gómez, Óscar A; Romero-Enrique, José M; Silvestre, Nuno M; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with patterned substrates. The substrate is modelled as a periodic array of parallel infinite grooves of well-defined cross-section sculpted on a chemically homogeneous substrate which favours local homeotropic anchoring of the nematic. We consider three cases: a sawtooth, a crenellated and a sinusoidal substrate. We analyse this problem within the modified Frank-Oseen formalism. We argue that, for substrate periodicities much larger than the extrapolation length, the existence of different nematic textures with distinct far-field orientations, as well as the anchoring transitions between them, are associated with the presence of topological defects either on or close to the substrate. For the sawtooth and sinusoidal cases, we observe a homeotropic to planar anchoring transition as the substrate roughness increases. On the other hand, a homeotropic to oblique anchoring transition is observed for crenellated substrates. In this case, the anchoring phase diagram shows a complex dependence on the substrate roughness and substrate anchoring strength.

  12. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  13. Filamentous structures in skeletal muscle: anchors for the subsarcolemmal space.

    PubMed

    Khairani, Astrid Feinisa; Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Soenggono, Arifin; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    In skeletal muscle fibers, intermediate filaments and actin filaments provide structural support to the myofibrils and the sarcolemma. For many years, it was poorly understood from ultrastructural observations that how these filamentous structures were kept anchored. The present study was conducted to determine the architecture of filamentous anchoring structures in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. The diaphragms (Dp) of adult wild type and mdx mice (mdx is a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy) were subjected to tension applied perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fibers, with or without treatment with 1% Triton X-100 or 0.03% saponin. These experiments were conducted to confirm the presence and integrity of the filamentous anchoring structures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that these structures provide firm transverse connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. Most of the filamentous structures appeared to be inserted into subsarcolemmal densities, forming anchoring connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. In some cases, actin filaments were found to run longitudinally in the subsarcolemmal space to connect to the sarcolemma or in some cases to connect to the intermyofibrils as elongated thin filaments. These filamentous anchoring structures were less common in the mdx Dp. Our data suggest that the transverse and longitudinal filamentous structures form an anchoring system in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils.

  14. Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-07-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.

  15. Pattern-induced anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Gómez, Óscar A.; Romero-Enrique, José M.; Silvestre, Nuno M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with patterned substrates. The substrate is modelled as a periodic array of parallel infinite grooves of well-defined cross-section sculpted on a chemically homogeneous substrate which favours local homeotropic anchoring of the nematic. We consider three cases: a sawtooth, a crenellated and a sinusoidal substrate. We analyse this problem within the modified Frank-Oseen formalism. We argue that, for substrate periodicities much larger than the extrapolation length, the existence of different nematic textures with distinct far-field orientations, as well as the anchoring transitions between them, are associated with the presence of topological defects either on or close to the substrate. For the sawtooth and sinusoidal cases, we observe a homeotropic to planar anchoring transition as the substrate roughness increases. On the other hand, a homeotropic to oblique anchoring transition is observed for crenellated substrates. In this case, the anchoring phase diagram shows a complex dependence on the substrate roughness and substrate anchoring strength.

  16. Epoxy-coated rock anchors for upper Occoquan Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Bruen, M.P.; Pansic, N.; Schwartz, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    High-capacity, epoxy-coated anchors were installed at Upper Occoquan Dam to increase the stability of the 70-foot-high concrete gravity dam and powerhouse under revised Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) conditions. The post-tensioned anchorage system consisted of 56 multi-strand rock anchors with design loads of 700 to 1855 kips, averaging 1500 kips per tendon. A double corrosion protection system was specified to provide protection throughout the entire anchor length. During anchor stressing and testing, significant creep movement under constant loads equivalent to 133% of the design load was experienced and exceeded the requisite Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) criteria. In addition to the creep phenomena, seating losses during transfer of the load to the end anchorage are at least 2 to 3 times greater than that which has been experienced with bare-wire strand tendons. On the basis of anchor test results, modifications were made to the anchor testing protocol, acceptance criteria, and the approach used for assessment of the long-term performance of the anchorage system.

  17. Use of bone anchors for flap fixation in burned patients.

    PubMed

    Danino, Alain M; Guberman, Daniel S; Robe, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Mitek or Arim anchors were developed for use in orthopaedic surgery to facilitate soft tissue fixation to bone. We believe this tool can be useful in difficult cases when securing various flaps to bone, we present a retrospective study of deep thickness burns patients. We conducted a retrospective study, including severely burned patients who underwent flap reconstruction with Mitek or Arim anchor fixation between 1999 and 2007 in our unit. Characteristics analysed included indications for surgery, and postoperative complications. Nine patients (nine flaps) were included, seven men and two women with age ranging from 22 to 59 years old. Flaps were as follows: one gracilis, two latissimus dorsi, four medial gastrocnemius and two lateral gastrocnemius flaps. Indications for reconstruction were: open fractures or joint exposure in severely burned patient. Only one complication was noted: partial flap necrosis with infection of the bone anchor necessitating ablation and a new mobilisation of the flap. Mitek anchors are a useful tool in plastic surgery. Suture anchors are used when coverage poses a risk of shearing away from the bone or adequate periosteum and soft tissue is not available for standard suture techniques. The anchor system provides a simple, fast, and efficient technique for flap fixation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome mapping by random anchoring: A discrete theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. Q.; Marr, T. G.

    1993-11-01

    As a part of the international human genome project, large-scale genomic maps of human and other model organisms are being generated. More recently, mapping using various anchoring (as opposed to the traditional "fingerprinting") strategies have been proposed based largely on mathematical models. In all of the theoretical work dealing with anchoring, an anchor has been idealized as a point on a continuous, infinite-length genome. In general, it is not desirable to make these assumptions, since in practice they may be violated under a variety of actual biological situations. Here we analyze a discrete model that can be used to predict the expected progress made when mapping by random anchoring. By virtue of keeping all three length scales (genome length, clone length, and probe length) finite, our results for the random anchoring strategy are derived in full generality, which contain previous results as special cases and hence can have broad application for planning mapping experiments or assessing the accuracy of the continuum models. Finally, we pose a challenging nonrandom anchoring model corresponding to a more efficient mapping scheme.

  19. The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Alexander A.; Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    A memory-based scaling model--ANCHOR--is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global…

  20. Two Approaches for Using Multiple Anchors in NEAT Equating: A Description and Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Deng, Weiling; Zhang, Yu-Li

    2011-01-01

    Nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) equating functions that use a single anchor can have accuracy problems when the groups are extremely different and/or when the anchor weakly correlates with the tests being equated. Proposals have been made to address these issues by incorporating more than one anchor into NEAT equating functions. These…

  1. Two Approaches for Using Multiple Anchors in NEAT Equating: A Description and Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Deng, Weiling; Zhang, Yu-Li

    2011-01-01

    Nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) equating functions that use a single anchor can have accuracy problems when the groups are extremely different and/or when the anchor weakly correlates with the tests being equated. Proposals have been made to address these issues by incorporating more than one anchor into NEAT equating functions. These…

  2. Installation and use of epoxy-grouted rock anchors for skyline logging in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    W.L. Schroeder; D.N. Swanston

    1992-01-01

    Field tests of the load-carrying capacity of epoxy-grouted rock anchors in poor quality bedrock on Wrangel Island in southeast Alaska demonstrated the effectiveness of rock anchors as substitutes for stump anchors for logging system guylines. Ultimate capacity depends mainly on rock hardness or strength and length of the imbedded anchor.

  3. Sustained load performance of adhesive anchor systems in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Todd Marshall

    Stemming from a tragic failure of an adhesive anchor system, this research project investigated the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors in concrete under different installation and in-service conditions. The literature review investigated the current state of art of adhesive anchors. Extensive discussion was devoted to the behavior of adhesive anchors in concrete as well as the many factors that can affect their short-term and sustained load strength. Existing standards and specifications for the testing, design, construction, and inspection of adhesive anchors were covered. Based on the results of the literature review and the experience of the research group, a triage was conducted on many parameters identified as possibly affecting the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors and the highest priority parameters were investigated in this project. A stress versus time-to-failure approach was used to evaluate sensitivity of three ICC-ES AC 308 approved adhesive anchor systems. Of the various parameters investigated, only elevated in-service temperature and manufacturer's cure time was shown to exhibit adverse effects on sustained loads more than that predicted by short-term tests of fully cured adhesive over a reasonable structure lifetime of 75 years. In a related study, various tests were conducted on the adhesive alone (time-temperature superposition, time-stress superposition, and dogbone tensile tests). The results of that study were used to investigate the existence of a correlation with long-term anchor pullout testing in concrete. No consistent correlations were detected for the adhesives in the study. Tests were also conducted on the effect of early-age concrete on adhesive anchor bond strength. On the basis of confined test bond-strength alone, adhesive A (vinyl ester) did not show any significant increase after 14 days (102% of 28 day strength at 14 days), and adhesive B and C (epoxies) did not show any significant increase after 7 days

  4. Perceptual Anchoring in Preschool Children: Not Adultlike, but There

    PubMed Central

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. Methodology/Principal Findings Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference), a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference), no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. Conclusions/Significance The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a true deficit rather

  5. Perceptual anchoring in preschool children: not adultlike, but there.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference), a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference), no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a true deficit rather than a developmental delay.

  6. The effect of anchor modality on the reliability of vocal severity ratings.

    PubMed

    Awan, Shaheen N; Lawson, Laura L

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to confirm if anchors (ie, perceptual references) and training affect the inter- and intrarater reliability of perceptual analysis of various voice types and severities compared to receiving training alone, and (2) to determine whether the modality in which the anchor is presented affects rater reliability. In this study, modality refers to whether the anchor is presented auditorily, visually via a written definition (a textual anchor), or a combination of both anchor types. A randomized multigroup comparison was performed. Forty inexperienced judges were selected to rate 36 sustained vowel voice samples of various voice types (ie, normal, breathy, hoarse, and rough) in terms of perceived vocal severity using four different methods (No Anchor, Textual Anchor, Auditory Anchor, and Combined Textual/Auditory Anchors). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. Before the rating task, all subject groups received a brief training sessions (15-20 minutes in duration) in which voice quality type and severity definitions were provided and representative voice samples were listened to. A computer program was developed to present anchors in the form of an auditory sample, written definition, or both. A no anchor condition was also presented. Results indicated that the combination of training and anchors significantly improves the interrater reliability of perceptual voice ratings. In addition, the use of auditory anchors resulted in 95% confidence intervals that were significantly smaller for rating mild voice disorders, and both breathy and hoarse voice qualities. Textual anchors did appear to show some improvement over training alone (ie, no anchors), but were generally not as strong as the use of auditory anchors. However, the combination of textual and auditory anchors resulted in the greatest degree of interrater reliability as assessed via mean correlations. The ratings produced by the Auditory and Combined Anchor

  7. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome.

    PubMed

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I; Schirmer, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both.

  8. Anchoring effect on first passage process in Taiwan financial market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsing; Liao, Chi-Yo; Ko, Jing-Yuan; Lih, Jiann-Shing

    2017-07-01

    Empirical analysis of the price fluctuations of financial markets has received extensive attention because a substantial amount of financial market data has been collected and because of advances in data-mining techniques. Price fluctuation trends can help investors to make informed trading decisions, but such decisions may also be affected by a psychological factors-the anchoring effect. This study explores the intraday price time series of Taiwan futures, and applies diffusion model and quantitative methods to analyze the relationship between the anchoring effect and price fluctuations during first passage process. Our results indicate that power-law scaling and anomalous diffusion for stock price fluctuations are related to the anchoring effect. Moreover, microscopic price fluctuations before switching point in first passage process correspond with long-term price fluctuations of Taiwan's stock market. We find that microscopic trends could provide useful information for understanding macroscopic trends in stock markets.

  9. Motors, anchors, and connectors: orchestrators of organelle inheritance.

    PubMed

    Knoblach, Barbara; Rachubinski, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Organelle inheritance is a process whereby organelles are actively distributed between dividing cells at cytokinesis. Much valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms of organelle inheritance has come from the analysis of asymmetrically dividing cells, which transport a portion of their organelles to the bud while retaining another portion in the mother cell. Common principles apply to the inheritance of all organelles, although individual organelles use specific factors for their partitioning. Inheritance factors can be classified as motors, which are required for organelle transport; anchors, which immobilize organelles at distinct cell structures; or connectors, which mediate the attachment of organelles to motors and anchors. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in the field of organelle inheritance and highlight how motor, anchor, and connector molecules choreograph the segregation of a multicopy organelle, the peroxisome. We also discuss the role of organelle population control in the generation of cellular diversity.

  10. Structural remodeling, trafficking and functions of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2011-10-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a glycolipid that is covalently attached to proteins as a post-translational modification. Such modification leads to the anchoring of the protein to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Proteins that are decorated with GPIs have unique properties in terms of their physical nature. In particular, these proteins tend to accumulate in lipid rafts, which are critical for the functions and trafficking of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Recent studies mainly using mutant cells revealed that various structural remodeling reactions occur to GPIs present in GPI-APs as they are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. This review examines the recent progress describing the mechanisms of structural remodeling of mammalian GPI-anchors, such as inositol deacylation, glycan remodeling and fatty acid remodeling, with particular focus on their trafficking and functions, as well as the pathogenesis involving GPI-APs and their deficiency.

  11. The Effect of Anchoring Sutures on Medicinal Leech Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Victor J.; Hoppe, Ian C.; Landi, Rocco; Ciminello, Frank S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The implementation of leech therapy for surgical flaps is not always logistically easy or comfortable for patients or healthcare providers. We examine different methods of placing sutures in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, to make the implementation of leech therapy easier. Methods: Sixteen leeches were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group, a deep anchoring suture group, and a superficial anchoring suture group. The leeches were observed to determine if either of these methods had an adverse effect on survival compared with the control group. Results: No difference in survival time was observed across the different groups. Conclusion: The placement of anchoring sutures in leeches can ease the implementation of leech therapy by allowing for greater control of the leeches and thus increased patient comfort. PMID:19696874

  12. Protein Targeting to Exosomes/Microvesicles by Plasma Membrane Anchors*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Beiyi; Wu, Ning; Yang, Jr-Ming; Gould, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Animal cells secrete small vesicles, otherwise known as exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs). A short, N-terminal acylation tag can target a highly oligomeric cytoplasmic protein, TyA, into secreted vesicles (Fang, Y., Wu, N., Gan, X., Yan, W., Morell, J. C., and Gould, S. J. (2007) PLoS Biol. 5, 1267–1283). However, it is not clear whether this is true for other membrane anchors or other highly oligomeric, cytoplasmic proteins. We show here that a variety of plasma membrane anchors can target TyA-GFP to sites of vesicle budding and into EMVs, including: (i) a myristoylation tag; (ii) a phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-binding domain; (iii), a phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate-binding domain; (iv) a prenylation/palmitoylation tag, and (v) a type-1 plasma membrane protein, CD43. However, the relative budding efficiency induced by these plasma membrane anchors varied over a 10-fold range, from 100% of control (AcylTyA-GFP) for the myristoylation tag and PIP2-binding domain, to one-third or less for the others, respectively. Targeting TyA-GFP to endosome membranes by fusion to a phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding domain induced only a slight budding of TyA-GFP, ∼2% of control, and no budding was observed when TyA-GFP was targeted to Golgi membranes via a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate-binding domain. We also found that a plasma membrane anchor can target two other highly oligomeric, cytoplasmic proteins to EMVs. These observations support the hypothesis that plasma membrane anchors can target highly oligomeric, cytoplasmic proteins to EMVs. Our data also provide additional parallels between EMV biogenesis and retrovirus budding, as the anchors that induced the greatest budding of TyA-GFP are the same as those that mediate retrovirus budding. PMID:21300796

  13. A reusable suture anchor for arthroscopy psychomotor skills training.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Edward D; Rogers, Rainie; Nyland, John

    2003-03-01

    For residents to adequately develop the early arthroscopy psychomotor skills required to better learn how to manage the improvisational situations they will encounter during actual patient cases, they need to experience sufficient practice repetitions within a contextually relevant environment. Unfortunately, the cost of suture anchors can be a practice repetition-limiting factor in learning arthroscopic knot-tying techniques. We describe a technique for creating inexpensive reusable suture anchors and provide an example of their application to repair the anterior glenoid labrum during an arthroscopy psychomotor skills laboratory training session.

  14. Drag Embedment Anchor Tests in Sand and Mud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    test (5/15) the STArO had 32-degrees fluke angle, normal stabilizer and showed the same instabilities noted with the STAfO with a 37-degree fluke angle...resembles a cast STArO anchor but for equal anchor weights, the STATO is somewhat more than twice as efficient, It is apparent that the STATO has a...Bremerton WA, Code 380 , Portsmouth. VA: Code 400. Puget Sound, Code 410. Mare Is , Vallejo CA, Code 440 Portsmouth NH, Code 440. Puget Sound

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring Processess for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Mazahar, Hammad; Negrut, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent work done in modeling and simulation of anchoring processes in granular media, with applications to anchoring on a Near Earth Object (NEO), where the forces due to interactions with the regolith are much stronger than the local surface gravity field. This effort is part of a larger systems engineering capability developed at JPL to answer key questions, validate requirements, conduct key system and mission trades,and evaluate performance and risk related to NEO operations for any proposed human or robotic missions to a NEO.

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring Processess for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Mazahar, Hammad; Negrut, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent work done in modeling and simulation of anchoring processes in granular media, with applications to anchoring on a Near Earth Object (NEO), where the forces due to interactions with the regolith are much stronger than the local surface gravity field. This effort is part of a larger systems engineering capability developed at JPL to answer key questions, validate requirements, conduct key system and mission trades,and evaluate performance and risk related to NEO operations for any proposed human or robotic missions to a NEO.

  17. 17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG THE MAIN LINE TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. ANCHOR BRIDGES LOCATED AT TWO MILE INTERVALS WITHSTAND CATENARY TENSION AND PROVIDE A PLATFORM FOR MOUNTING OIL FILLED CIRCUIT BREAKERS, LIGHTNING ARRESTORS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. THE ROOF OF THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER CAN BE SEEN DIRECTLY BEHIND THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  18. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  19. 48 CFR 1812.7000 - Anchor tenancy contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchor tenancy contracts. 1812.7000 Section 1812.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Commercial Space Hardware or...

  20. 48 CFR 1812.7000 - Anchor tenancy contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchor tenancy contracts. 1812.7000 Section 1812.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Commercial Space Hardware or...

  1. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  2. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  3. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  4. Promises and Pitfalls of Anchoring Vignettes in Health Survey Research

    PubMed Central

    Verdes-Tennant, Emese; McEniry, Mary; Ispány, Márton

    2016-01-01

    Data harmonization is a topic of growing importance to demographers, who increasingly conduct domestic or international comparative research. Many self-reported survey items cannot be directly compared across demographic groups or countries because these groups differ in how they use subjective response categories. Anchoring vignettes, already appearing in numerous surveys worldwide, promise to overcome this problem. However, many anchoring vignettes have not been formally evaluated for adherence to the key measurement assumptions of vignette equivalence and response consistency. This article tests these assumptions in some of the most widely fielded anchoring vignettes in the world: the health vignettes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) and World Health Survey (WHS) (representing 10 countries; n = 52,388), as well as similar vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,528). Findings are encouraging regarding adherence to response consistency, but reveal substantial violations of vignette equivalence both cross-nationally and across socioeconomic groups. That is, members of different sociocultural groups appear to interpret vignettes as depicting fundamentally different levels of health. The evaluated anchoring vignettes do not fulfill their promise of providing interpersonally comparable measures of health. Recommendations for improving future implementations of vignettes are discussed. PMID:26335547

  5. Anchoring Students' Metaperspective Discussions of History in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses an empirical study on the use of history (as a goal) in mathematics education. A historical module was designed and implemented in a Danish upper secondary class to study how students' discussions of metaperspective issues of the historical development of mathematics may be anchored in the taught and learned subject matter of…

  6. 16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & PLATES FOR PIERS 4, 5, AND 6, DWG. NO. 97, 1-1/2" = 1', MADE BY A.F., JUNE 13, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. Aerothermal Anchoring of CBAERO Using High Fidelity CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Configuration Based Aerodynamics (CBAERO) software package is used to predict the convective and radiative heating environments for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). A limited number of high fidelity CFD solutions are used to "anchor" the engineering level estimates obtained using CBAERO.

  8. When Does Scale Anchoring Work? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Providing information to test takers and test score users about the abilities of test takers at different score levels has been a persistent problem in educational and psychological measurement. Scale anchoring, a technique which describes what students at different points on a score scale know and can do, is a tool to provide such information.…

  9. 20. DETAIL, ANCHOR BLOCK AND BUTTRESS AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, ANCHOR BLOCK AND BUTTRESS AT SOUTH END OF DAM, SHOWING PROMINENT GROOVE WHERE THE NEXT ARCH COULD HAVE BEEN JOINED TO THE NORTH-SOUTH TRENDING DAM. - Rock Creek Dam, East end of Rock Creek Road, Auburn, Placer County, CA

  10. Detecting Anchoring-and-Adjusting in Survey Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Proper survey design is essential to obtain reliable, replicable data from research subjects. One threat to inferences drawn from surveys is anchoring-and-adjusting. Tversky and Kahnemann (1974) observed that participants' responses to questions depended systematically on irrelevant information they received prior to answering. It is important for…

  11. Promises and Pitfalls of Anchoring Vignettes in Health Survey Research.

    PubMed

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna; Verdes-Tennant, Emese; McEniry, Mary; Ispány, Márton

    2015-10-01

    Data harmonization is a topic of growing importance to demographers, who increasingly conduct domestic or international comparative research. Many self-reported survey items cannot be directly compared across demographic groups or countries because these groups differ in how they use subjective response categories. Anchoring vignettes, already appearing in numerous surveys worldwide, promise to overcome this problem. However, many anchoring vignettes have not been formally evaluated for adherence to the key measurement assumptions of vignette equivalence and response consistency. This article tests these assumptions in some of the most widely fielded anchoring vignettes in the world: the health vignettes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) and World Health Survey (WHS) (representing 10 countries; n = 52,388), as well as similar vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,528). Findings are encouraging regarding adherence to response consistency, but reveal substantial violations of vignette equivalence both cross-nationally and across socioeconomic groups. That is, members of different sociocultural groups appear to interpret vignettes as depicting fundamentally different levels of health. The evaluated anchoring vignettes do not fulfill their promise of providing interpersonally comparable measures of health. Recommendations for improving future implementations of vignettes are discussed.

  12. Empirical evidence for resource-rational anchoring and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Falk; Griffiths, Thomas L; M Huys, Quentin J; Goodman, Noah D

    2017-05-08

    People's estimates of numerical quantities are systematically biased towards their initial guess. This anchoring bias is usually interpreted as sign of human irrationality, but it has recently been suggested that the anchoring bias instead results from people's rational use of their finite time and limited cognitive resources. If this were true, then adjustment should decrease with the relative cost of time. To test this hypothesis, we designed a new numerical estimation paradigm that controls people's knowledge and varies the cost of time and error independently while allowing people to invest as much or as little time and effort into refining their estimate as they wish. Two experiments confirmed the prediction that adjustment decreases with time cost but increases with error cost regardless of whether the anchor was self-generated or provided. These results support the hypothesis that people rationally adapt their number of adjustments to achieve a near-optimal speed-accuracy tradeoff. This suggests that the anchoring bias might be a signature of the rational use of finite time and limited cognitive resources rather than a sign of human irrationality.

  13. Implementing Anchored Instruction: Guiding Principles for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Kim; And Others

    A curriculum based on "anchored instruction" was developed to enhance students' literacy development and acquisition of knowledge. The curriculum was designed to create a rich, shared environment that generates interest and enables students to identify and define problems while they explore the content from many perspectives. Based on…

  14. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ground anchor installations. 3285.402 Section 3285.402 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind §...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ground anchor installations. 3285.402 Section 3285.402 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind §...

  16. Modeling Adhesive Anchors in a Discrete Element Framework

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Marco; Vorel, Jan; Ninčević, Krešimir; Wan-Wendner, Roman

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, post-installed anchors are widely used to connect structural members and to fix appliances to load-bearing elements. A bonded anchor typically denotes a threaded bar placed into a borehole filled with adhesive mortar. The high complexity of the problem, owing to the multiple materials and failure mechanisms involved, requires a numerical support for the experimental investigation. A reliable model able to reproduce a system’s short-term behavior is needed before the development of a more complex framework for the subsequent investigation of the lifetime of fasteners subjected to various deterioration processes can commence. The focus of this contribution is the development and validation of such a model for bonded anchors under pure tension load. Compression, modulus, fracture and splitting tests are performed on standard concrete specimens. These serve for the calibration and validation of the concrete constitutive model. The behavior of the adhesive mortar layer is modeled with a stress-slip law, calibrated on a set of confined pull-out tests. The model validation is performed on tests with different configurations comparing load-displacement curves, crack patterns and concrete cone shapes. A model sensitivity analysis and the evaluation of the bond stress and slippage along the anchor complete the study. PMID:28786964

  17. Implementing Anchored Instruction: Guiding Principles for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Kim; And Others

    A curriculum based on "anchored instruction" was developed to enhance students' literacy development and acquisition of knowledge. The curriculum was designed to create a rich, shared environment that generates interest and enables students to identify and define problems while they explore the content from many perspectives. Based on…

  18. Modeling Adhesive Anchors in a Discrete Element Framework.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Marco; Vorel, Jan; Ninčević, Krešimir; Wan-Wendner, Roman

    2017-08-08

    In recent years, post-installed anchors are widely used to connect structural members and to fix appliances to load-bearing elements. A bonded anchor typically denotes a threaded bar placed into a borehole filled with adhesive mortar. The high complexity of the problem, owing to the multiple materials and failure mechanisms involved, requires a numerical support for the experimental investigation. A reliable model able to reproduce a system's short-term behavior is needed before the development of a more complex framework for the subsequent investigation of the lifetime of fasteners subjected to various deterioration processes can commence. The focus of this contribution is the development and validation of such a model for bonded anchors under pure tension load. Compression, modulus, fracture and splitting tests are performed on standard concrete specimens. These serve for the calibration and validation of the concrete constitutive model. The behavior of the adhesive mortar layer is modeled with a stress-slip law, calibrated on a set of confined pull-out tests. The model validation is performed on tests with different configurations comparing load-displacement curves, crack patterns and concrete cone shapes. A model sensitivity analysis and the evaluation of the bond stress and slippage along the anchor complete the study.

  19. Corrected High-Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda L.; Finch, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To improve lingual ultrasound imaging with the Corrected High Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment (CHAUSA; Miller, 2008) method. Method: A production study of the IsiXhosa alveolar click is presented. Articulatory-to-acoustic alignment is demonstrated using a Tri-Modal 3-ms pulse generator. Images from 2 simultaneous…

  20. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  1. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Alternatively, ABS stabilizer plates may be used when listed and certified for such use. (3) Longitudinal... systems that are capable of resisting wind forces in the longitudinal direction. See Figure C to § 3285... engineer or registered architect must certify the longitudinal anchoring method or any alternative system...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Alternatively, ABS stabilizer plates may be used when listed and certified for such use. (3) Longitudinal... systems that are capable of resisting wind forces in the longitudinal direction. See Figure C to § 3285... engineer or registered architect must certify the longitudinal anchoring method or any alternative system...

  3. Equating without an Anchor for Nonequivalent Groups of Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2015-01-01

    An equating procedure for a testing program with evolving distribution of examinee profiles is developed. No anchor is available because the original scoring scheme was based on expert judgment of the item difficulties. Pairs of examinees from two administrations are formed by matching on coarsened propensity scores derived from a set of…

  4. Culturally-Anchored Values and University Education Experience Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsis, Ann; Foley, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether business students' gender, age and culturally-anchored values affect their perceptions of their university course experience. Design/methodology/approach: Culturally diverse business students (n 1/4 548) studying at an Australian university were surveyed using previously established scales.…

  5. Modified Anchor Shaped Post Core Design for Primary Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, R.; Baroudi, Kusai; Reddy, K. Bala Kasi; Praveen, B. H.; Kumar, V. Sumanth; Amit, S.

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention. PMID:25379294

  6. Modified anchor shaped post core design for primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, R; Baroudi, Kusai; Reddy, K Bala Kasi; Praveen, B H; Kumar, V Sumanth; Amit, S

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  7. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  8. Managerial Career Anchors in a Changing Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kniveton, Bromley H.

    2004-01-01

    Trainers need to consider changes in working practices, which, it is argued, influence managers' perceptions of their careers. A total of 540 managers were interviewed, and a questionnaire was used to measure the relative importance of individual career anchors. It was found that younger managers were more orientated towards their own skills and…

  9. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  10. 24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON STATION IN GULF OF MEXICO WITH MOTOR BOAT TIED AT STERN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  11. Corrected High-Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda L.; Finch, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To improve lingual ultrasound imaging with the Corrected High Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment (CHAUSA; Miller, 2008) method. Method: A production study of the IsiXhosa alveolar click is presented. Articulatory-to-acoustic alignment is demonstrated using a Tri-Modal 3-ms pulse generator. Images from 2 simultaneous…

  12. The isotropic-nematic interface with an oblique anchoring condition.

    PubMed

    Kamil, S M; Bhattacharjee, A K; Adhikari, R; Menon, Gautam I

    2009-11-07

    We present numerical and analytic results for uniaxial and biaxial orders at the isotropic-nematic interface within Ginzburg-Landau-de Gennes theory. We study the case where an oblique anchoring condition is imposed asymptotically on the nematic side of the interface, reproducing results of previous work when this condition reduces to planar or homeotropic anchoring. We construct physically motivated and computationally flexible variational profiles for uniaxial and biaxial orders, comparing our variational results to numerical results obtained from a minimization of the Ginzburg-Landau-de Gennes free energy. While spatial variations of the scalar uniaxial and biaxial order parameters are confined to the neighborhood of the interface, nematic elasticity requires that the director orientation interpolate linearly between either planar or homeotropic anchoring at the location of the interface and the imposed boundary condition at infinity. The selection of planar or homeotropic anchoring at the interface is governed by the sign of the Ginzburg-Landau-de Gennes elastic coefficient L(2). Our variational calculations are in close agreement with our numerics and agree qualitatively with results from density functional theory and molecular simulations.

  13. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  14. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  15. Molecular Conductance: Effects of Contact Atomic Structure and Anchoring Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, S.-H.; Baranger, H. U.; Yang, Weitao

    2004-03-01

    The nature of the molecule-lead contact is of crucial importance in molecular transport. As an example, we study the molecular conductance of benzene connected to two Au leads through three different anchoring groups (S, Se, and Te). Our calculations proceed from first-principles by using a density functional theory calculation for the electronic structure and a Green function method for the electron transport. We analyze systematically the effects of contact atomic relaxation, lead orientation, absorption site, chemical trends in the anchoring group, and atomic structure around the contact. Different lead orientations, absorption sites, and anchoring groups can cause a change of several times in conductance. Most significantly, adding an additional Au atom at each contact can increase the conductance by two orders of magnitude because of a LUMO-like resonance peak around the Fermi energy. This also leads to a large negative differential conductance. Finally, the equilibrium conductance decreases with increasing atomic number of the anchoring group. This is opposite to the conclusion of previous work using the jellium model for the leads in which the contact atomic structure cannot be taken into account. Supported in part by the NSF (DMR-0103003).

  16. Memory for Dialogue: Recalling an Anchor through Talk and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Pam

    This paper reports on a project involving student recall of the dialogue in a movie and retention of the "anchor," which in this case refers to a videotape recording of "To Kill a Mockingbird." The project looked at how students retained knowledge over a few days and what kind of activities resulted from expertise with an…

  17. Almost Lie structures on an anchored Banach bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabau, P.; Pelletier, F.

    2012-11-01

    Under appropriate assumptions, we generalize the concept of linear almost Poisson structures, almost Lie algebroids, almost differentials in the framework of Banach anchored bundles and the relation between these objects. We then obtain an adapted formalism for mechanical systems which is illustrated by the evolutionary problem of the "Hilbert snake" as exposed in Pelletier and Saffidine (2011) [9].

  18. 15. DETAIL OF ANCHOR BOLT WHICH FORMERLY SECURED A TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF ANCHOR BOLT WHICH FORMERLY SECURED A TIMBER SILL BEAM TO THE GRANITE SILL ALONG THE EASTERLY EDGE OF THE SPILLWAY APRON (NOTE 3" SWISS ARMY KNIFE TO RIGHT OF BOLT FOR SCALE); VIEW TO WEST. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  19. 33 CFR 164.19 - Requirements for vessels at anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for vessels at anchor. 164.19 Section 164.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.19 Requirements...

  20. 33 CFR 164.19 - Requirements for vessels at anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for vessels at anchor. 164.19 Section 164.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.19 Requirements...

  1. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  2. Culturally-Anchored Values and University Education Experience Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsis, Ann; Foley, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether business students' gender, age and culturally-anchored values affect their perceptions of their university course experience. Design/methodology/approach: Culturally diverse business students (n 1/4 548) studying at an Australian university were surveyed using previously established scales.…

  3. 1. VIEW EAST TOWARD COS COB ANCHOR BRIDGE #310 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST TOWARD COS COB ANCHOR BRIDGE #310 OF CIRCUIT BREAKER INSTALLATION ON CROSS BEAM OF BRIDGE. ABANDONED COS COB POWER STATION IS TO THE SOUTH OF THIS BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Bridge-Type Circuit Breakers, Long Island shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Cos Cob, Fairfield County, CT

  4. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  5. Orbital views of molecular conductance perturbed by anchor units.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yuta; Staykov, Aleksandar; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2011-04-20

    Site-specific electron transport phenomena through benzene and benzenedithiol derivatives are discussed on the basis of a qualitative Hückel molecular orbital analysis for better understanding of the effect of anchoring sulfur atoms. A recent work for the orbital control of electron transport through aromatic hydrocarbons provided an important concept for the design of high-conductance connections of a molecule with anchoring atoms. In this work the origin of the frontier orbitals of benzenedithiol derivatives, the effect of the sulfur atoms on the orbitals and on the electron transport properties, and the applicability of the theoretical concept on aromatic hydrocarbons with the anchoring units are studied. The results demonstrate that the orbital view predictions are applicable to molecules perturbed by the anchoring units. The electron transport properties of benzene are found to be qualitatively consistent with those of benzenedithiol with respect to the site dependence. To verify the result of the Hückel molecular orbital calculations, fragment molecular orbital analyses with the extended Hückel molecular orbital theory and electron transport calculations with density functional theory are performed. Calculated results are in good agreement with the orbital interaction analysis. The phase, amplitude, and spatial distribution of the frontier orbitals play an essential role in the design of the electron transport properties through aromatic hydrocarbons.

  6. Planar anchoring and surface melting in the smectic-A phase

    SciTech Connect

    Lacaze, Emmanuelle; Goldmann, Michel; Michel, Jean-Philippe; Alba, Michel

    2007-10-15

    We study ultrathin films of 8CB in planar anchoring on a MoS{sub 2} inorganic substrate. We evidence an anchoring breakage for 60-nm-thick films, in favor of the homeotropic anchoring at the air interface. This allows one to determine the 8CB-MoS{sub 2} smectic anchoring energy. We then demonstrate for films thinner than 60 nm that, under the homeotropic bulk, an intermediate film remains in planar anchoring, associated with a melting of the smectic layers close to the substrate. Such a melting could be general for planar or tilted anchorings and we show that, for strong anchorings, the anchoring energy can be driven by the deformations of this intermediate nematic film.

  7. Promising anchoring groups for single-molecule conductance measurements.

    PubMed

    Kaliginedi, Veerabhadrarao; Rudnev, Alexander V; Moreno-García, Pavel; Baghernejad, Masoud; Huang, Cancan; Hong, Wenjing; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2014-11-21

    The understanding of the charge transport through single molecule junctions is a prerequisite for the design and building of electronic circuits based on single molecule junctions. However, reliable and robust formation of such junctions is a challenging task to achieve. In this topical review, we present a systematic investigation of the anchoring group effect on single molecule junction conductance by employing two complementary techniques, namely scanning tunneling microscopy break junction (STM-BJ) and mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) techniques, based on the studies published in the literature and important results from our own work. We compared conductance studies for conventional anchoring groups described earlier with the molecular junctions formed through π-interactions with the electrode surface (Au, Pt, Ag) and we also summarized recent developments in the formation of highly conducting covalent Au-C σ-bonds using oligophenyleneethynylene (OPE) and an alkane molecular backbone. Specifically, we focus on the electron transport properties of diaryloligoyne, oligophenyleneethynylene (OPE) and/or alkane molecular junctions composed of several traditional anchoring groups, (dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene (BT), 5-benzothienyl analogue (BTh), thiol (SH), pyridyl (PY), amine (NH2), cyano (CN), methyl sulphide (SMe), nitro (NO2)) and other anchoring groups at the solid/liquid interface. The qualitative and quantitative comparison of the results obtained with different anchoring groups reveals structural and mechanistic details of the different types of single molecular junctions. The results reported in this prospective may serve as a guideline for the design and synthesis of molecular systems to be used in molecule-based electronic devices.

  8. New anchoring method for tarsal tendon transfers in myelomeningocele patients.

    PubMed

    Tomonori, Kenmoku; Makoto, Kamegaya; Takashi, Saisu

    2007-12-01

    We describe a new anchoring method for tarsal tendon transfers in myelomeningocele patients to protect the sole of the foot from pressure sores and skin necrosis and to loosen the tension of the transferred tendon.Tendon transfer procedures were performed in 51 feet (33 patients) with myelomeningocele. We transferred tibialis anterior tendons to the second or third cuneiform in 19 with equinovarus deformities, and transferred tibialis anterior tendons to the calcaneus through the interosseous membrane in 32 with talipes calcaneus. Clinical results were evaluated with the muscle power of transferred tendons using manual muscle testing 6 months after surgery. The muscle test result was classified as good, fair, and poor.After passing the tendon through the bony hole, a 2.0-mm Kirschner wire was inserted from the sole to the tibia through the ankle joint at neutral. (It extended from the sole through the posterior cortex of the tibia.) The remaining part of the wire was bent and formed into a loop shaped like the Greek letter "zeta" (zeta). The thread was then tied to the loop of the wire as tightly as possible. In this way, there was no contact with the sole during anchoring, thus avoiding ulcers. In addition, the transferred tendon could be kept stable because the patient's ankle was fixed by the Kirschner wire.No cases of wound infection or skin necrosis of the sole occurred. In 49 of the 51 cases, transferred tendons were firmly anchored to tarsal bones. Muscle strength was good for 83%, fair for 13%, and poor for 4%. Consequently, 45 feet could obtain plantigrade pattern during their walking with shoe inserts or occasional use of ankle-foot orthoses.Our anchoring method has the advantage of protecting the sole of the foot from pressure sores and skin necrosis, as well as maintaining tension on the transferred tendon until it settles down in an anchor hole.

  9. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome

    PubMed Central

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both. PMID:27200088

  10. Disintegration of an absorbable rotator cuff anchor six weeks after implantation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, James D

    2005-04-01

    Rotator cuff failure by suture-bone or suture anchor pull-out, suture breakage, knot slippage, and tendon pull-out are well described. I report a case of early disintegration of a bioabsorbable suture anchor. A 77-year-old woman underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. On suspecting failure, the repair was repeated 40 days later. Arthroscopy revealed disintegration of the suture loop from the anchor. Open rotator cuff repair was then performed with transosseous suture and metallic anchors.

  11. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  12. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  13. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  14. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  15. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  16. NCME 2008 Presidential Address: The Impact of Anchor Test Configuration on Student Proficiency Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Anne R.

    2008-01-01

    Examined in this study were the effects of reducing anchor test length on student proficiency rates for 12 multiple-choice tests administered in an annual, large-scale, high-stakes assessment. The anchor tests contained 15 items, 10 items, or five items. Five content representative samples of items were drawn at each anchor test length from a…

  17. [Visualisation of bioabsorbable suture anchors with digital projection radiography and magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Steckel, H; Krönke, A; Funke, M; Klinger, H

    2012-03-01

    During the last few years bioabsorbable suture anchors have become widely established along side metallic suture anchors in orthopaedic surgery. However, there are still some difficulties in evaluating the postoperative situation after implanting bioabsorbable suture anchors. The aim of this study was to examine the visualisation of bioabsorbable suture anchors with digital projection radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Ten Mitek-Anchor-Panalok® suture anchors made of polylactic acid were implanted in an ex-vivo animal study design. After implantation the specimens were examined with digital projection radiography and MRI. The analysis was performed with regard to the bony defects and the anchor material itself. With digital projection radiography and MRI, it was possible to detect the bony defects after implantation of the anchors. The anchor material could not be visualised. The results of this study demonstrate that neither digital projection radiography nor MRI is well suited for the detection of the bioabsorbable suture anchors in the postoperative situation. Whereas the bony defects can be well described, the anchors cannot be directly visualised. The visualisation of bioabsorbable anchors remains a clinical problem in orthopaedic surgery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Perception of the Raison d'Etre in Anchored Instruction: An Ecological Psychology Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Barab, Sasha A.

    1999-01-01

    Anchored instruction calls for the establishment of a macrocontext to "anchor" instruction within a realistic situation. Evidence is provided that video anchors encourage students to adopt certain contrived goals over their more naturalistic goals. Suggests that goals that enable the problem solver to detect the "raison d'etre"…

  19. 46 CFR 32.15-15 - Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with an operable anchoring system that includes a cable or chain, and a winch or windlass. All... classification society. Inquiries concerning classification society standards for anchoring systems should be...) 372-1378 or fax (202) 372-1925. If the Coast Guard finds that your anchoring system is not in general...

  20. Development of low anchoring strength liquid crystal mixtures for bistable nematic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Gallaire, D.; Faget, L.; Lamarque-Forget, S.; Joly, S.; Dubois, J.-C.; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph.; Dozov, I.

    2006-02-01

    The recent Bistable Nematic (BiNem (R)) LCD technology presents long term bistability, high level passive matrix multiplexing and high optical quality. The BiNem device, based on anchoring breaking, needs specific low anchoring strength materials - alignment layers and liquid crystal mixtures. We present here our approach to develop nematic mixtures with wide enough temperature range and low zenithal anchoring energy.

  1. Anchoring Errors in Clinical Judgments: Type I Error, Adjustment, or Mitigation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Michael V.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Conducted two studies to clarify nature of anchoring errors in clinical judgments. Judgments from 103 undergraduates in Study 1 evidenced neither anchoring errors nor gender differences. Judgments from 157 psychologists in Study 2 affirmed adjustment and mitigation hypotheses over anchoring hypothesis alone. Mitigation process appeared adaptable…

  2. 75 FR 2152 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessel HOLIDAY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessel... Alternative Compliance was issued for the anchor handling tug supply vessel HOLIDAY as required by 33 U.S.C.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background and Purpose The anchor handling tug supply vessel HOLIDAY will be used for...

  3. Optimal suture anchor direction in arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ichiro; Hagio, Tomonobu; Noda, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Kazuki; Minokawa, So; Yamamoto, Takuaki

    2017-05-26

    In this study, the distance between the insertion point of the suture anchors and posterior surface of the fibula during arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament repair was investigated on computed tomography (CT) images. The hypothesis of this study was that there is an optimal insertional direction of the suture anchor to avoid anchor-related complications. One hundred eleven ankles of 98 patients who had undergone three-dimensional CT scans for foot or ankle disorders without deformity of the fibula were assessed (59 males, 52 females; median age 25.5 years; age range 12-78 years). The shortest distance from the insertion point of the suture anchor to the deepest point of the fossa/top of the convex aspect of the fibula was measured on the axial plane, tilting from the longitudinal axis of the fibula at 90°, 75°, 60°, and 45°. The distance from the insertion point of the suture anchor to the posterior surface of the fibula was also measured in a direction parallel to the sagittal plane of the lateral surface of the talus on the axial plane, tilting from the longitudinal axis of the fibula at 90°, 75°, 60°, and 45°. The posterior fossa was observed in all cases on the 90° and 75° images. The distance from the insertion point to the posterior surface of the fibula in the parallel direction was 15.0 ± 3.4 mm at 90°, 17.5 ± 3.2 mm at 75°, 21.7 ± 3.3 mm at 60°, and 25.7 ± 3.6 mm at 45°. The posterior points in the parallel direction were located on the posterior fossa in 36.0% of cases at 90°, in 12.6% at 75°, and in 0.0% at 60° and 45°. The suture anchor should be directed from anterior to posterior at an angle of <45° to the longitudinal axis of the fibula, parallel to the lateral surface of the talus, to avoid passing through the fibula. Cohort study, Level III.

  4. Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylapudi, Gopi

    The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock

  5. Constrained Active Learning for Anchor Link Prediction Across Multiple Heterogeneous Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junxing; Zhang, Jiawei; Wu, Quanyuan; Jia, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Xiaokai; Yu, Philip S.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, people are usually involved in multiple heterogeneous social networks simultaneously. Discovering the anchor links between the accounts owned by the same users across different social networks is crucial for many important inter-network applications, e.g., cross-network link transfer and cross-network recommendation. Many different supervised models have been proposed to predict anchor links so far, but they are effective only when the labeled anchor links are abundant. However, in real scenarios, such a requirement can hardly be met and most anchor links are unlabeled, since manually labeling the inter-network anchor links is quite costly and tedious. To overcome such a problem and utilize the numerous unlabeled anchor links in model building, in this paper, we introduce the active learning based anchor link prediction problem. Different from the traditional active learning problems, due to the one-to-one constraint on anchor links, if an unlabeled anchor link a=(u,v) is identified as positive (i.e., existing), all the other unlabeled anchor links incident to account u or account v will be negative (i.e., non-existing) automatically. Viewed in such a perspective, asking for the labels of potential positive anchor links in the unlabeled set will be rewarding in the active anchor link prediction problem. Various novel anchor link information gain measures are defined in this paper, based on which several constraint active anchor link prediction methods are introduced. Extensive experiments have been done on real-world social network datasets to compare the performance of these methods with state-of-art anchor link prediction methods. The experimental results show that the proposed Mean-entropy-based Constrained Active Learning (MC) method can outperform other methods with significant advantages. PMID:28771201

  6. Constrained Active Learning for Anchor Link Prediction Across Multiple Heterogeneous Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junxing; Zhang, Jiawei; Wu, Quanyuan; Jia, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Xiaokai; Yu, Philip S

    2017-08-03

    Nowadays, people are usually involved in multiple heterogeneous social networks simultaneously. Discovering the anchor links between the accounts owned by the same users across different social networks is crucial for many important inter-network applications, e.g., cross-network link transfer and cross-network recommendation. Many different supervised models have been proposed to predict anchor links so far, but they are effective only when the labeled anchor links are abundant. However, in real scenarios, such a requirement can hardly be met and most anchor links are unlabeled, since manually labeling the inter-network anchor links is quite costly and tedious. To overcome such a problem and utilize the numerous unlabeled anchor links in model building, in this paper, we introduce the active learning based anchor link prediction problem. Different from the traditional active learning problems, due to the one-to-one constraint on anchor links, if an unlabeled anchor link a = ( u , v ) is identified as positive (i.e., existing), all the other unlabeled anchor links incident to account u or account v will be negative (i.e., non-existing) automatically. Viewed in such a perspective, asking for the labels of potential positive anchor links in the unlabeled set will be rewarding in the active anchor link prediction problem. Various novel anchor link information gain measures are defined in this paper, based on which several constraint active anchor link prediction methods are introduced. Extensive experiments have been done on real-world social network datasets to compare the performance of these methods with state-of-art anchor link prediction methods. The experimental results show that the proposed Mean-entropy-based Constrained Active Learning (MC) method can outperform other methods with significant advantages.

  7. Labeling Cell Surface GPIs and GPI-Anchored Proteins through Metabolic Engineering with Artificial Inositol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Gao, Jian; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-08-10

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins to the cell surface is important for various biological processes, but GPI-anchored proteins are difficult to study. An effective strategy was developed for the metabolic engineering of cell-surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins by using inositol derivatives carrying an azido group. The azide-labeled GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins were then tagged with biotin on live cells through a click reaction, which allows further elaboration with streptavidin-conjugated dyes or other molecules. The strategy can be used to label GPI-anchored proteins with various tags for biological studies.

  8. Effect of anchoring energy and elastic anisotropy on spherical inclusions in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    James, Richard; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores how pairs of spherical particles with homeotropic (normal) surface anchoring cluster when immersed in nematic liquid crystal. By means of the Landau-de Gennes continuum theory we calculate how the equilibrium separation of a particle pair depends on the anchoring energy at the particle surface and the elastic anisotropy of the liquid crystal. We find that, for modest to strong anchoring strengths, the particle separation depends linearly on the elastic anisotropy and the inverse of the anchoring strength. Thus, the anchoring strength can be estimated by measuring the particle-pair separation.

  9. Equilibrium Configuration in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplet with Homeotropic Anchoring of Finite Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanke, Masaki; Sasaki, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Equilibrium configuration of order parameter in a nematic liquid crystal droplet with homeotropic anchoring of finite strength at the surface is studied numerically by using the Landau--de Gennes approach. It is found that a hedgehog-like configuration with a disclination loop of a small radius is stable for strong anchoring while an axial configuration without defect is stable for weak anchoring. A first-order phase transition from one configuration to the other occurs as the strength of the anchoring is varied. The critical anchoring strength turns out to increase almost linearly with the inverse of the droplet radius.

  10. Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita: Autoimmunity to Anchoring Fibril Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei; Kim, Gene H.; Prakash, Lori; Woodley, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a rare and acquired autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease of the skin and mucosa. EBA includes various distinct clinical manifestations resembling Bullous Pemphigus, Brunsting-Perry pemphigoid, or cicatricial pemphigoid. These patients have autoantibodies against type VII collagen, an integral component of anchoring fibrils, which are responsible for attaching the dermis to the epidermis. Destruction or perturbation of the normally functioning anchoring fibrils clinically results in skin fragility, blisters, erosions, scars, milia and nail loss, all features reminiscent of genetic dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. These anti-type VII collagen antibodies are “pathogenic” because when injected into a mouse, the mouse develops an EBA-like blistering disease. Currently treatment is often unsatisfactory, however some success has been achieved with colchichine, dapsone, photopheresis, plasmaphresis, infliximab, rituximab and IVIG. PMID:21955050

  11. Arthroscopic Suture Anchor Tenodesis: Loop-Suture Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Min Soo; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Tae Kang; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Young Eun; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2013-01-01

    With advancements in arthroscopic surgery, arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor recently has been reported to be a reasonable option for the treatment of biceps pathologies, especially for those that are symptomatic or accompanied by a rotator cuff tear. We introduce our technique of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor that we call the loop-suture technique, which is constructed with 1 loop strand and another sutured strand. This technique can help to improve biceps grip and simultaneously minimize longitudinal splitting of the tendon. In addition, it is relatively simple and can be performed with the use of conventional devices and arthroscopic portals used for rotator cuff repair, without the formation of additional portals or a separate incision for the tenodesis. PMID:23875133

  12. Membrane-anchored serine proteases in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bugge, Thomas; Wu, Qingyu

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteases of the trypsin-like family have long been recognized to be critical effectors of biological processes as diverse as digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and immunity. In recent years, a subgroup of these enzymes has been identified that are anchored directly to plasma membranes, either by a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain (Type I), an amino-terminal transmembrane domain with a cytoplasmic extension (Type II or TTSP), or through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Recent biochemical, cellular, and in vivo analyses have now established that membrane-anchored serine proteases are key pericellular contributors to processes vital for development and the maintenance of homeostasis. This chapter will review our current knowledge of the biological and physiological functions of these proteases, their molecular substrates, and their contributions to disease. PMID:21238933

  13. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nam B.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability.

  14. Mussel-inspired anchoring for patterning cells using polydopamine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kang; Xie, Yunyan; Ye, Dekai; Zhao, Yuyun; Cui, Yan; Long, Fei; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2012-01-31

    This Article introduces a simple method of cell patterning, inspired by the mussel anchoring protein. Polydopamine (PDA), artificial polymers made from self-polymerization of dopamine (a molecule that resembles mussel-adhesive proteins), has recently been studied for its ability to make modifications on surfaces in aqueous solutions. We explored the interfacial interaction between PDA and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) using microcontact printing (μCP). We patterned PDA on several substrates such as glass, polystyrene, and poly(dimethylsiloxane) and realized spatially defined anchoring of mammalian cells as well as bacteria. We applied our system in investigating the relationship between areas of mammalian nuclei and that of the cells. The combination of PDA and PEG enables us to make cell patterns on common laboratorial materials in a mild and convenient fashion. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Accessorizing and anchoring the LINC complex for multifunctionality

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wakam; Worman, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, composed of outer and inner nuclear membrane Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology (KASH) and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) proteins, respectively, connects the nucleus to cytoskeletal filaments and performs diverse functions including nuclear positioning, mechanotransduction, and meiotic chromosome movements. Recent studies have shed light on the source of this diversity by identifying factors associated with the complex that endow specific functions as well as those that differentially anchor the complex within the nucleus. Additional diversity may be provided by accessory factors that reorganize the complex into higher-ordered arrays. As core components of the LINC complex are associated with several diseases, understanding the role of accessory and anchoring proteins could provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25559183

  16. Recycling Suture Limbs from Knotless Suture Anchors for Arthroscopic Shoulder Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy S; DiPompeo, Christine M; Ismaeli, Zahra C; Porter, Polly A; Nicholson, Shannon L; Johnson, David C

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent shoulder instability often leads to labral abnormality that requires surgical intervention that may require fixation with suture anchors. The proposed surgical technique allows the surgeon to achieve 2 points of fixation around the labrum and/or capsule with a single suture secured to the glenoid with a knotless anchor. Instead of cutting and discarding the residual suture limbs after anchor insertion, this technique uses the residual suture limbs of the knotless anchor for a second suture pass. This technique (1) creates a more cost- and time-efficient surgical procedure than using multiple single-loaded anchors or double-loaded anchors, (2) decreases the known risk of glenoid fracture from the stress riser at the implant tips of multi-anchor repairs by reducing the number of anchors required for stabilization, (3) decreases the surgical time compared with the use of double-loaded anchors through simpler suture management and less knot tying, (4) allows for the secure reapproximation of the labrum to the glenoid while offering a convenient option for capsulorrhaphy without the need to insert another anchor, and (5) yields more points of soft-tissue fixation with fewer anchors drilled into the glenoid.

  17. Molecular cloning of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CDw108.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Kubo, K; Takeshita, T; Harashima, N; Kawano, K; Mine, T; Sagawa, K; Sugamura, K; Itoh, K

    1999-04-01

    CDw108, also known as the John-Milton-Hagen human blood group Ag, is an 80-kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein that is preferentially expressed on activated lymphocytes and E. The molecular characteristics and biological function of the CDw108 were not clarified previously. In this manuscript, we identify the cDNA clone containing the entire coding sequence of the CDw108 gene and report its molecular characteristics. The 1998-base pairs of the open reading frame of the cloned cDNA encoded a protein of 666 amino acids (aa), including the 46 aa of the signal peptide and the 19 aa of the GPI-anchor motif. Thus, the membrane-anchoring form of CDw108 was the 602 aa, and the estimated molecular mass of the unglycosylated form was 68 kDa. The RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) cell attachment sequence and the five potential N-linked glycosylation sites were located on the membrane-anchoring form. Flow cytometric and immunoprecipitation analyses of the CDw108 cDNA transfectants confirmed that the cloned cDNA encoded the native form of CDw108. The CDw108 mRNA was expressed in activated PBMCs as well as in the spleen, thymus, testis, placenta, and brain, but was not expressed in any other tissues tested. Radiation hybrid mapping indicated that the CDw108 gene was located in the middle of the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q23-24). This molecular information will be critical for understanding the biological function of the CDw108 Ag.

  18. Effect of anchoring 4-anilidopiperidines to opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Ravil R; Lee, Yeon Sun; Vardanyan, Ruben S; Liu, Lu; Ma, Shou-wu; Davis, Peg; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W; Hruby, Victor J

    2013-06-01

    We report here the design, synthesis, and in vitro characterization of new opioid peptides featuring a 4-anilidopiperidine moiety. Despite the fact that the chemical structures of fentanyl surrogates have been found suboptimal per se for the opioid activity, the corresponding conjugates with opioid peptides displayed potent opioid activity. These studies shed an instructive light on the strategies and potential therapeutic values of anchoring the 4-anilidopiperidine scaffold to different classes of opioid peptides.

  19. Anchoring the Self to the Body in Bilateral Vestibular Failure

    PubMed Central

    Toupet, Michel; van Nechel, Christian; Duquesne, Ulla; Hautefort, Charlotte; Lopez, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that vestibular information plays a significant role in anchoring the self to the body. Out-of-body experiences of neurological origin are frequently associated with vestibular sensations, and galvanic vestibular stimulation in healthy participants anchors the self to the body. Here, we provide the first objective measures of anchoring the self to the body in chronic bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). We compared 23 patients with idiopathic BVF to 23 healthy participants in a series of experiments addressing several aspects of visuo-spatial perspective taking and embodiment. In Experiment 1, participants were involved in a virtual “dot-counting task” from their own perspective or the perspective of a distant avatar, to measure implicit and explicit perspective taking, respectively. In both groups, response times increased similarly when the avatar’s and participant’s viewpoint differed, for both implicit and explicit perspective taking. In Experiment 2, participants named ambiguous letters (such as “b” or “q”) traced on their forehead that could be perceived from an internal or external perspective. The frequency of perceiving ambiguous letters from an internal perspective was similar in both groups. In Experiment 3, participants completed a questionnaire measuring the experienced self/body and self/environment “closeness”. Both groups reported a similar embodied experience. Altogether, our data show that idiopathic BVF does not change implicit and explicit perspective taking nor subjective anchoring of the self to the body. Our negative findings offer insight into the multisensory mechanisms of embodiment. Only acute peripheral vestibular disorders and neurological disorders in vestibular brain areas (characterized by strong multisensory conflicts) may evoke disembodied experiences. PMID:28107424

  20. Design Procedures for Embedment Anchors Subjected to Dynamic Loading Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    8217,i ’_- __. .,’,,;: _ L , . - Naval Facilities Engineering Command* (1971). Design man- ual -Soil mechanics, foundations, and earth structures, NAV...expended in deep water L-j but recovered in % hallower depths of less than 600 ft touchdown Dpk{ t anchor established keying penetration Figure 3. Schematic...to 30 significant loading cycles, depending upon the magnitude of the earth - quake), which differ from the preceding category in that the cyclic

  1. 19. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE ROOF OF THE NORTH SIDE OF THE EAST BOILER ROOM. THE ROOF OF THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER IS DIRECTLY BEHIND THE FEEDER TOWER ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THIS TERMINAL IS THE JUNCTION BETWEEN NORTHEAST UTILITIES LINES AND THE RAILROAD CATENARY. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  2. Editorial Commentary: All-Suture Anchors, Foam Blocks, and Biomechanical Testing.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2017-06-01

    Barber's biomechanical work is well known to Arthroscopy's readers as thorough, comprehensive, and inclusive of new designs as they become available. In "All-Suture Anchors: Biomechanical Analysis of Pullout Strength, Displacement, and Failure Mode," the latest iteration, Barber and Herbert test all-suture anchors in both porcine femurs and biphasic foam. While we await in vivo clinical trials that compare all-suture anchors to currently used anchors, Barber and Herbert have provided data to inform anchor choice, and using their biomechanical data at time zero from all-suture anchor trials in an animal model, we can determine the anchors' feasibility for human clinical investigations. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Motility of active nematic films driven by "active anchoring".

    PubMed

    Blow, Matthew L; Aqil, Marco; Liebchen, Benno; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2017-09-20

    We provide a minimal model for an active nematic film in contact with both a solid substrate and a passive isotropic fluid, and explore its dynamics in one and two dimensions using a combination of hybrid Lattice Boltzmann simulations and analytical calculations. By imposing nematic anchoring at the substrate while active flows induce a preferred alignment at the interface ("active anchoring"), we demonstrate that directed fluid flow spontaneously emerges in cases where the two anchoring types are opposing. In one dimension, our model reduces to an analogue of a loaded elastic column. Here, the transition from a stationary to a motile state is akin to the buckling bifurcation, but offers the possibility to reverse the flow direction for a given set of parameters and boundary conditions solely by changing initial conditions. The two-dimensional variant of our model allows for additional tangential instabilities, and it is found that undulations form in the interface above a threshold activity. Our results might be relevant for the design of active microfluidic geometries or curvature-guided self-assembly.

  4. Subcellular distribution of tail-anchored proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Shaw, Rowena; Mukherjee, Joy; Bowsher, Caroline G; Harrison, Anne-Marie; Abell, Ben M

    2009-12-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins function in key cellular processes in eukaryotic cells, such as vesicle trafficking, protein translocation and regulation of transcription. They anchor to internal cell membranes by a C-terminal transmembrane domain, which also serves as a targeting sequence. Targeting occurs post-translationally, via pathways that are specific to the precursor, which makes TA proteins a model system for investigating post-translational protein targeting. Bioinformatics approaches have previously been used to identify potential TA proteins in yeast and humans, yet little is known about TA proteins in plants. The identification of plant TA proteins is important for extending the post-translational model system to plastids, in addition to general proteome characterization, and the identification of functional homologues characterized in other organisms. We identified 454 loci that potentially encode TA proteins in Arabidopsis, and combined published data with new localization experiments to assign localizations to 130 proteins, including 29 associated with plastids. By analysing the tail anchor sequences of characterized proteins, we have developed a tool for predicting localization and estimate that 138 TA proteins are localized to plastids.

  5. Phosphonate-anchored monolayers for antibody binding to magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Benbenishty-Shamir, Helly; Gilert, Roni; Gotman, Irena; Gutmanas, Elazar Y; Sukenik, Chaim N

    2011-10-04

    Targeted delivery of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to a specific tissue can be achieved by conjugation with particular biological ligands on an appropriately functionalized IONP surface. To take best advantage of the unique magnetic properties of IONPs and to maximize their blood half-life, thin, strongly bonded, functionalized coatings are required. The work reported herein demonstrates the successful application of phosphonate-anchored self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as ultrathin coatings for such particles. It also describes a new chemical approach to the anchoring of antibodies on the surface of SAM-coated IONPs (using nucleophilic aromatic substitution). This anchoring strategy results in stable, nonhydrolyzable, covalent attachment and allows the reactivity of the particles toward antibody binding to be activated in situ, such that prior to the activation the modified surface is stable for long-term storage. While the SAMs do not have the well-packed crystallinity of other such monolayers, their structure was studied using smooth model substrates based on an iron oxide layer on a double-side polished silicon wafer. In this way, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, and contact angle goniometry (tools that could not be applied to the nanoparticles' surfaces) could contribute to the determination of their monomolecular thickness and uniformity. Finally, the successful conjugation of IgG antibodies to the SAM-coated IONPs such that the antibodies retain their biological activity is verified by their complexation to a secondary fluorescent antibody.

  6. Creating Order from Chaos: Cellular Regulation by Kinase Anchoring

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Dessauer, Carmen W.; Tasken, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    Second messenger responses rely on where and when the enzymes that propagate these signals become active. Spatial and temporal organization of certain signaling enzymes is controlled in part by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). This family of regulatory proteins was originally classified on the basis of their ability to compartmentalize the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (also known as protein kinase A, or PKA). However, it is now recognized that AKAPs position G protein–coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, G proteins, and their effector proteins in relation to protein kinases and signal termination enzymes such as phosphodiesterases and protein phosphatases. This arrangement offers a simple and efficient means to limit the scope, duration, and directional flow of information to sites deep within the cell. This review focuses on the pros and cons of reagents that define the biological role of kinase anchoring inside cells and discusses recent advances in our understanding of anchored second messenger signaling in the cardiovascular and immune systems. PMID:23043438

  7. Anchor technique: Use of stent retrievers as an anchor to advance thrombectomy catheters in internal carotid artery occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Stacey Q; Janjua, Rashid M; Hedayat, Hirad; Burnette, Christofer

    2015-01-01

    In three recent cases of acute complete internal artery occlusions, we used stent retriever deployed through the mechanical aspiration/distal access catheters to achieve recanalization. In all cases the stent retriever was used as an anchor and supplemented mechanical thrombectomy. This report describes the technical details of the procedure and presents an alternative plan of action in difficult cases when standard thrombectomy techniques do not work. PMID:26494404

  8. 33 CFR 150.905 - Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? 150.905 Section 150.905 Navigation and Navigable...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.905 Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? (a) Safety zones, no anchoring areas (NAAs) and areas...

  9. 33 CFR 150.905 - Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? 150.905 Section 150.905 Navigation and Navigable...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.905 Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? (a) Safety zones, no anchoring areas (NAAs) and areas...

  10. 33 CFR 150.905 - Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? 150.905 Section 150.905 Navigation and Navigable...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.905 Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? (a) Safety zones, no anchoring areas (NAAs) and areas...

  11. 33 CFR 150.905 - Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? 150.905 Section 150.905 Navigation and Navigable...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.905 Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? (a) Safety zones, no anchoring areas (NAAs) and areas...

  12. 33 CFR 150.905 - Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? 150.905 Section 150.905 Navigation and Navigable...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.905 Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? (a) Safety zones, no anchoring areas (NAAs) and areas...

  13. GPI anchor transamidase of Trypanosoma brucei: in vitro assay of the recombinant protein and VSG anchor exchange.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xuedong; Szallies, Alexander; Rawer, Marc; Echner, Hartmut; Duszenko, Michael

    2002-06-15

    GPI8 from Trypanosoma brucei was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. TbGPI8 encodes a 37 kDa protein (35 kDa after removal of the putative signal sequence) with a pI of 5.5. It contains one potential N-glycosylation site near the N-terminus but no C-terminal hydrophobic region. Enzyme activity assays using trypanosomal lysates or recombinant TbGpi8 exhibited cleavage of the synthetic peptide acetyl-S-V-L-N-aminomethyl-coumarine, indicating that TbGpi8 is indeed directly involved in the proteolytic processing of the GPI anchoring signal. Intracellular localization of TbGpi8 within tubular structures, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, was observed by using specific anti-TbGpi8 antibodies. The transamidase mechanism of GPI anchoring was studied in bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei using media containing hydrazine or biotinylated hydrazine. In the presence of the latter nucleophile, part of the newly formed VSG was linked to this instead of the GPI anchor and was not transferred to the cell surface. VSG-hydrazine-biotin was detected by streptavidin in western blots and intracellularly in Golgi-like compartments.

  14. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising.

  15. Understanding the low uptake of bone-anchored hearing aids: a review.

    PubMed

    Powell, R; Wearden, A; Pardesi, S M; Green, K

    2017-03-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids improve hearing for patients for whom conventional behind-the-ear aids are problematic. However, uptake of bone-anchored hearing aids is low and it is important to understand why this is the case. A narrative review was conducted. Studies examining why people accept or decline bone-anchored hearing aids and satisfaction levels of people with bone-anchored hearing aids were reviewed. Reasons for declining bone-anchored hearing aids included limited perceived benefits, concerns about surgery, aesthetic concerns and treatment cost. No studies providing in-depth analysis of the reasons for declining or accepting bone-anchored hearing aids were identified. Studies of patient satisfaction showed that most participants reported benefits with bone-anchored hearing aids. However, most studies used cross-sectional and/or retrospective designs and only included people with bone-anchored hearing aids. Important avenues for further research are in-depth qualitative research designed to fully understand the decision-making process for bone-anchored hearing aids and rigorous quantitative research comparing satisfaction of people who receive bone-anchored hearing aids with those who receive alternative (or no) treatments.

  16. Monitoring lipid anchor organization in cell membranes by PIE-FCCS.

    PubMed

    Triffo, Sara B; Huang, Hector H; Smith, Adam W; Chou, Eldon T; Groves, Jay T

    2012-07-04

    This study examines the dynamic co-localization of lipid-anchored fluorescent proteins in living cells using pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) and fluorescence lifetime analysis. Specifically, we look at the pairwise co-localization of anchors from lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK: myristoyl, palmitoyl, palmitoyl), RhoA (geranylgeranyl), and K-Ras (farnesyl) proteins in different cell types. In Jurkat cells, a density-dependent increase in cross-correlation among RhoA anchors is observed, while LCK anchors exhibit a more moderate increase and broader distribution. No correlation was detected among K-Ras anchors or between any of the different anchor types studied. Fluorescence lifetime data reveal no significant Förster resonance energy transfer in any of the data. In COS 7 cells, minimal correlation was detected among LCK or RhoA anchors. Taken together, these observations suggest that some lipid anchors take part in anchor-specific co-clustering with other existing clusters of native proteins and lipids in the membrane. Importantly, these observations do not support a simple interpretation of lipid anchor-mediated organization driven by partitioning based on binary lipid phase separation.

  17. Mechanical properties of all-suture anchors for rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, N.; Smith, R. D. J.; Carr, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives All-suture anchors are increasingly used in rotator cuff repair procedures. Potential benefits include decreased bone damage. However, there is limited published evidence for the relative strength of fixation for all-suture anchors compared with traditional anchors. Materials and Methods A total of four commercially available all-suture anchors, the ‘Y-Knot’ (ConMed), Q-FIX (Smith & Nephew), ICONIX (Stryker) and JuggerKnot (Zimmer Biomet) and a traditional anchor control TWINFIX Ultra PK Suture Anchor (Smith & Nephew) were tested in cadaveric human humeral head rotator cuff repair models (n = 24). This construct underwent cyclic loading applied by a mechanical testing rig (Zwick/Roell). Ultimate load to failure, gap formation at 50, 100, 150 and 200 cycles, and failure mechanism were recorded. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Overall, mean maximum tensile strength values were significantly higher for the traditional anchor (181.0 N, standard error (se) 17.6) compared with the all-suture anchors (mean 133.1 N se 16.7) (p = 0.04). The JuggerKnot anchor had greatest displacement at 50, 100 and 150 cycles, and at failure, reaching statistical significance over the control at 100 and 150 cycles (22.6 mm se 2.5 versus 12.5 mm se 0.3; and 29.6 mm se 4.8 versus 17.0 mm se 0.7). Every all-suture anchor tested showed substantial (> 5 mm) displacement between 50 and 100 cycles (6.2 to 14.3). All-suture anchors predominantly failed due to anchor pull-out (95% versus 25% of traditional anchors), whereas a higher proportion of traditional anchors failed secondary to suture breakage. Conclusion We demonstrate decreased failure load, increased total displacement, and variable failure mechanisms in all-suture anchors, compared with traditional anchors designed for rotator cuff repair. These findings will aid the surgeon’s choice of implant, in the context of the clinical scenario. Cite this article: N. S. Nagra, N. Zargar, R. D. J. Smith, A. J. Carr

  18. Bacterial tail anchors can target to the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Lutfullahoğlu-Bal, Güleycan; Keskin, Abdurrahman; Seferoğlu, Ayşe Bengisu; Dunn, Cory D

    2017-07-24

    During the generation and evolution of the eukaryotic cell, a proteobacterial endosymbiont was re-fashioned into the mitochondrion, an organelle that appears to have been present in the ancestor of all present-day eukaryotes. Mitochondria harbor proteomes derived from coding information located both inside and outside the organelle, and the rate-limiting step toward the formation of eukaryotic cells may have been development of an import apparatus allowing protein entry to mitochondria. Currently, a widely conserved translocon allows proteins to pass from the cytosol into mitochondria, but how proteins encoded outside of mitochondria were first directed to these organelles at the dawn of eukaryogenesis is not clear. Because several proteins targeted by a carboxyl-terminal tail anchor (TA) appear to have the ability to insert spontaneously into the mitochondrial outer membrane (OM), it is possible that self-inserting, tail-anchored polypeptides obtained from bacteria might have formed the first gate allowing proteins to access mitochondria from the cytosol. Here, we tested whether bacterial TAs are capable of targeting to mitochondria. In a survey of proteins encoded by the proteobacterium Escherichia coli, predicted TA sequences were directed to specific subcellular locations within the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Importantly, TAs obtained from DUF883 family members ElaB and YqjD were abundantly localized to and inserted at the mitochondrial OM. Our results support the notion that eukaryotic cells are able to utilize membrane-targeting signals present in bacterial proteins obtained by lateral gene transfer, and our findings make plausible a model in which mitochondrial protein translocation was first driven by tail-anchored proteins. This article was reviewed by Michael Ryan and Thomas Simmen.

  19. Triple-anchoring sub-SMAS face-lift.

    PubMed

    Basile, Filipe Volpe; Basile, Antonio Roberto; Basile, Vinicius Volpe

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the senior author's (ARB) 10-year experience with a rhytidectomy technique that incorporates concepts of modern facial shaping and contour using a sub-SMAS repositioning of volumetric units with partial sub-SMAS elevation (tunnel dissection), periosteal anchoring of SMAS and volumetric units, and limited skin undermining. The cases of triple-anchoring sub-SMAS face-lift performed from January 2000 to January 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Primary and secondary cases were included. All case data and photography were analyzed. Data regarding patient age, sex, and operative time were gathered. Complication rates were also calculated. A total of 626 patients had a face-lift using the author's technique in this period. A total of 484 patients had a primary face-lift and 142 had secondary surgery. Experience with 626 rhytidectomies performed over a 10-year period indicates that this operation can be completed safely with satisfactory results and a low incidence of complications. To alter effectively the facial contour, a system that reliably elevates the facial volumetric units is needed. After adequate release of the retaining ligaments, the thick SMAS is used as a load-bearing layer. All the tension is transferred from the SMAS to a fixed periosteal anchor point. Each volumetric unit of the face (mala, lateral, and cervical) should be independently mobilized and fixed. The author's technique was shown to be effective in repositioning facial volumes. It was a predictable and reliable technique with few complications over the years. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at http://www.springer.com/00266.

  20. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as <1 %, significantly more patients (73 %) correctly identified the numeric risk as <1 % post-counseling (p < 0.0001). However, the majority of patients' qualitative risk perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p < 0.0001). Participants who elected amniocentesis had a significantly lower perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  1. Complications of bone-anchored hearing aids in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kraai, Tania; Brown, Colin; Neeff, Michel; Fisher, Kate

    2011-06-01

    To describe the range and rate of complications related to bone-anchored hearing aids in pediatric patients. We conducted a retrospective review all children 16 years of age or less who were implanted with a bone-anchored hearing aid from 2002 to 2009. The main outcome measures were post Baha(®) implantation complications including infection, soft tissue hypertrophy, loss of osseointegration, and need for further surgery. Thirty-one patients were identified and 27 had sufficient follow up for complete analysis. Soft tissue reactions were seen in 24 patients (89%), half of which were considered minor. Ten patients (37%) had major complications defined as requiring revision surgery or removal of the implant. Soft tissue overgrowth and infection at the abutment required removal in 5 children (19%) and three implants (11%) failed to osseointegrate. Recurrent antibiotic treatment was required in eight patients (30%). Seven patients (26%) had a history of trauma and one of them lost the implant. To date, three of the children (11%) have been unable to use the device because of chronic infection and overgrowth of the abutment. There was a statistically significant increased risk for major complications in patients from socioeconomically deprived backgrounds and obesity appears to incur additional risk. Complications of bone-anchored hearing aid implants are common in our experience and obesity and socioeconomic factors appear to contribute to a higher risk for complications. Frequent follow up and meticulous care of the implant site may minimize complications but can be challenging in this population. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Aromatic Anchor at an Invariant Hormone-Receptor Interface

    PubMed Central

    Pandyarajan, Vijay; Smith, Brian J.; Phillips, Nelson B.; Whittaker, Linda; Cox, Gabriella P.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda; Menting, John G.; Wan, Zhu-li; Whittaker, Jonathan; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Lawrence, Michael C.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallographic studies of insulin bound to fragments of the insulin receptor have recently defined the topography of the primary hormone-receptor interface. Here, we have investigated the role of PheB24, an invariant aromatic anchor at this interface and site of a human mutation causing diabetes mellitus. An extensive set of B24 substitutions has been constructed and tested for effects on receptor binding. Although aromaticity has long been considered a key requirement at this position, MetB24 was found to confer essentially native affinity and bioactivity. Molecular modeling suggests that this linear side chain can serve as an alternative hydrophobic anchor at the hormone-receptor interface. These findings motivated further substitution of PheB24 by cyclohexanylalanine (Cha), which contains a nonplanar aliphatic ring. Contrary to expectations, [ChaB24]insulin likewise exhibited high activity. Furthermore, its resistance to fibrillation and the rapid rate of hexamer disassembly, properties of potential therapeutic advantage, were enhanced. The crystal structure of the ChaB24 analog, determined as an R6 zinc-stabilized hexamer at a resolution of 1.5 Å, closely resembles that of wild-type insulin. The nonplanar aliphatic ring exhibits two chair conformations with partial occupancies, each recapitulating the role of PheB24 at the dimer interface. Together, these studies have defined structural requirements of an anchor residue within the B24-binding pocket of the insulin receptor; similar molecular principles are likely to pertain to insulin-related growth factors. Our results highlight in particular the utility of nonaromatic side chains as probes of the B24 pocket and suggest that the nonstandard Cha side chain may have therapeutic utility. PMID:25305014

  3. [Effect of abrasion on three types of sutures in a metallic anchor].

    PubMed

    Acosta Rodríguez, Eduardo; Almazán Díaz, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    It is necessary to slide the suture into the articulation in the arthroscopic techniques, this produce friction and abrasion of the suture, this is the principal cause of failure in the union of anchor-suture. We used a Fastak 2.4 anchor, Sawbones, No 2 Ethibond, No 2 Fiberwire and No 2 Herculine. Each suture was introduce to the anchor eyelet and was cycled in four times with 40N. The angles of traction were 0 degrees and 45 degrees at the same direction of the anchor eyelet and 45 degrees with different direction of the anchor eyelet. Five sutures were used in every test. We performed the Kolmogorov-Smirnof and "t" Student tests. In all the tests there were a significant differences. The strength of the suture is affected by the abrasion in the anchor eyelet.

  4. Trafficking of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Manuel; Riezman, Howard

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, many cell surface proteins are attached to the plasma membrane via a glycolipid glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) receive the GPI anchor as a conserved posttranslational modification in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). After anchor attachment, the GPI anchor is structurally remodeled to function as a transport signal that actively triggers the delivery of GPI-APs from the ER to the plasma membrane, via the Golgi apparatus. The structure and composition of the GPI anchor confer a special mode of interaction with membranes of GPI-APs within the lumen of secretory organelles that lead them to be differentially trafficked from other secretory membrane proteins. In this review, we examine the mechanisms by which GPI-APs are selectively transported through the secretory pathway, with special focus on the recent progress made in their actively regulated export from the ER and the trans-Golgi network. PMID:26450970

  5. Molecular rectifiers: a new design based on asymmetric anchoring moieties.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Colin; Ratner, Mark A

    2015-03-11

    The quest for a molecular rectifier is among the major challenges of molecular electronics. We introduce three simple rules to design an efficient rectifying molecule and demonstrate its functioning at the theoretical level, relying on the NEGF-DFT technique. The design rules notably require both the introduction of asymmetric anchoring moieties and a decoupling bridge. They lead to a new rectification mechanism based on the compression and control of the HOMO/LUMO gap by the electrode Fermi levels, arising from a pinning effect. Significant rectification ratios up to 2 orders of magnitude are theoretically predicted as the mechanism opposes resonant to nonresonant tunneling.

  6. Anchoring effects in the development of false childhood memories.

    PubMed

    Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne; Nash, Robert A; Harper, David N

    2010-02-01

    When people receive descriptions or doctored photos of events that never happened, they often come to remember those events. But if people receive both a description and a doctored photo, does the order in which they receive the information matter? We asked people to consider a description and a doctored photograph of a childhood hot air balloon ride, and we varied which medium they saw first. People who saw a description first reported more false images and memories than did people who saw a photo first, a result that fits with an anchoring account of false childhood memories.

  7. 18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG THE MAIN TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER IS SHOWN IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND. AT THIS STATION THE DISPATCHER CONTROLLED POWER OUTPUT TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. THE STRUCTURE SERVES THE SAME PURPOSE IN 1993 AND CAN BE OPERATED LOCALLY OR REMOTELY FROM METRO-NORTH'S HEADQUARTERS IN MANHATTAN. THE STEEL STRUCTURE AND STACK IN THE BACKGROUND ARE PART OF THE BOILER 902-903 INSTALLATION. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. Chemically programmed cell adhesion with membrane-anchored oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Selden, Nicholas S.; Todhunter, Michael E.; Jee, Noel Y.; Liu, Jennifer S.; Broaders, Kyle E.; Gartner, Zev J.

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion organizes the structures of tissues and mediates their mechanical, chemical, and electrical integration with their surroundings. Here, we describe a strategy for chemically controlling cell adhesion using membrane anchored single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. The reagents are pure chemical species prepared from phosphoramidites synthesized in a single chemical step from commercially available starting materials. The approach enables rapid, efficient, tunable cell adhesion, independent of proteins or glycans, by facilitating interactions with complementary labeled surfaces or other cells. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by imaging drug-induced changes in the membrane dynamics of non-adherent human cells while chemically immobilized on a passivated glass surface. PMID:22176556

  9. Simulation of weak anchoring effects on nematic liquid crystal hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Sean; Somers, David A. T.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    The free energy of a nematic liquid crystal droplet depends on an interplay between elastic and surface interactions. When the two contributions are of similar magnitude, there exists a transition of the nematic structure of the droplet. Because the two contributions scale differently with length scales, this transition is visible as a function of the size of the droplet. We carry out numerical simulations to explore the use of this transition in measuring surface anchoring energies. This technique could help elucidate alignment forces on liquid crystals, such as those caused by rubbed surfaces, electric fields, or even the Casimir torque. Electrical and Computer Engineering.

  10. Results of Some Uplift Capacity Tests on Direct Embedment Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    should be expected to vary from those of the terrestrial tesis above. The analysis of direct embedment anchor-holding capacity is complicated by the...was conducted north of the Puerto Rico trench in 5,500 m (18,000 ft) in a pelagic clay or "red clay" deposit. Water contents in the upper 1.2 m (4 ft...north of Puerto Rico Trench. S6 - -~ ~-~d- 70. 60 20 60 j - 12 18 5 fluke 16 embedaent - 10 -0 340 6- -20 20,--6 4 - 10- ൟ 0g 30 2 3 4 5 6 7 4i Time

  11. Conventional Anchor Test Results at San Diego and Indian Island

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    catenary changes, anchor drag distance is readily calculated. Spar Marker. Initially, barge position was to be recorded primarily by means of a...10 STAG6SSAC1L0.6T185.46 DEG fP FLUXES ---0Sh £60808 6110141 3450.00 LI. FLOI8 £I|-TTPI. 46.:006. -1 08O0v I-F IX ANN. ARCH *8 TTN -5.0,AI. alCobR...Berkeley CA (B. Bresler): Berkeley CA (Dept of Naval Arch .): Berkeley CA (E. Pearson): DAVIS. CA iCE DEPT. TAYLOR): La Jolla CA (Acq. Dept. Lib. C

  12. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (288±62 N) compared with type I anchors (179±39 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. An anchoring system for fish habitat structures: field technique, evaluation, and application.

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Fontaine; Thomas D. Merritt

    1988-01-01

    Steel cable can be used to bind rocks and logs together to construct fish habitat structures in streams. Cables must be securely anchored if structures are to withstand floods. This paper describes a way to anchor cables into bedrock or ballast boulders. Anchor tensile strength ranged from 7,500 to 36,500 pounds and was related to type of resin and embedment depth....

  14. Effects of suture site or penetration depth on anchor location in all-inside meniscal repair.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Ryohei; Mae, Tatsuo; Hiramatsu, Kunihiko; Iuchi, Ryo; Kinugasa, Kazutaka; Shino, Konsei; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakata, Ken

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of suture site or penetration depth on anchor location in all-inside meniscal repair. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were evaluated after meniscal repair using eight FasT-Fix360 (FF360) devices (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA) (16 anchors) for each knee. The penetration depth was 14mm, the distance same from the periphery to insertion point, in four knees (Group A) and that in the remaining four knees (Group B) was 18mm. The anchor location in two groups was evaluated after attentive dissection. Of 32 anchors for the medial meniscus, 94% were on the capsule, including the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) in both groups. For the lateral meniscus, 47% anchors in Group A and 44% anchors in Group B were on the capsule. Total three anchors were over the lateral collateral ligament (LCL), whereas 15 anchors were behind the popliteus tendon (POP). Although all three anchors settled in the subcutaneous fat were in Group B, no significant difference was observed in anchor location between two groups. Secure fixation to thin membranous tissue can be achieved for the medial meniscal repair using FF360, while some were located in/on bunchy LCL or POP in lateral meniscal repair. Only anchors with additional four-millimeter penetration depth were in the subcutaneous fat, although there was no effect of the penetration depth to anchor location. Clinically, for lateral meniscal repair, penetrating toward POP/LCL should be avoided and four-millimeter deeper penetration depth might be a risk for the subcutaneous irritation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Feerick, Emer M; Wilson, Joanne; Jarman-Smith, Marcus; Ó'Brádaigh, Conchur M; McGarry, J Patrick

    2014-10-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been conducted. Six CFR-PEEK suture anchor designs were investigated using PEEK-OPTIMA® Reinforced, a medical grade of CFR-PEEK. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the maximum axial force and torque required for self-taping insertion of each anchor design. Additional experimental tests were conducted for some anchor designs using pilot holes. Computational simulations were conducted to determine the maximum stress in each anchor design at various stages of insertion. Simulations also were performed to investigate the effect of wall thickness in the anchor head. The maximum axial force required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 150 N for any anchor design. The maximum torque required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 0.8 Nm. Computational simulations reveal significant stress concentrations in the region of the anchor tip, demonstrating that a re-design of the tip geometry should be performed to avoid fracture during self-tapping, as observed in the experimental component of this study. This study demonstrates the ability of PEEK-OPTIMA Reinforced suture anchors to self-tap polyurethane foam bone analogue. This provides motivation to further investigate the self-tapping ability of CFR-PEEK suture anchors in animal/cadaveric bone. An optimised design for CFR-PEEK suture anchors offers the advantages of radiolucency, and mechanical properties similar to bone with the ability to self-tap. This may have positive implications for reducing surgery times and the associated costs with the procedure.

  16. An Improved Anchor Shot Detection Method Using Fitness of Face Location and Dissimilarity of Icon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Ji-Soo; Lee, Hyon-Soo; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this letter, we propose an improved anchor shot detection (ASD) method in order to effectively retrieve anchor shots from news video. The face location and dissimilarity of icon region are used to reduce false alarms in the proposed method. According to the results of the experiment on several types of news video, the proposed method obtained high anchor detection results compared with previous methods.

  17. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control.

  18. Anchoring in 4- to 6-year-old children relates to predictors of reading.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that anchoring, a short-term dynamic and implicit process that allows individuals to benefit from contextual information embedded in stimulus sequences, might be causally related to reading acquisition. Here we report findings from two experiments in which two previously untested predictions derived from this anchoring hypothesis were tested: (a) that anchoring facilitates rapid naming and phonological short-term memory in children prior to the onset of formal reading instruction and (b) that anchoring makes a unique contribution to performance in two early predictors of reading (letter knowledge and phonological awareness). In line with those predictions, naming times were faster and memory spans were longer under conditions that encouraged the use of anchoring processes than under conditions that afforded little anchoring. Furthermore, performance in the anchoring-affording condition predicted significant amounts of variance in phonological awareness and letter knowledge even after controlling for the contribution of the conditions that did not afford anchoring. Therefore, we suggest that anchoring might contribute to the development of reading-related processes during the preschool years independent of the development of specific reading-related skills such as phonological processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanical advantages of triple-loaded suture anchors compared with double-row rotator cuff repairs.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Herbert, Morley A; Schroeder, F Alexander; Aziz-Jacobo, Jorge; Mays, Matthew M; Rapley, Jay H

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the strength and suture-tendon interface security of various suture anchors triply and doubly loaded with ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene-containing sutures and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of placing these anchors in a single-row or double-row arrangement by cyclic loading and then destructive testing. The infraspinatus muscle was reattached to the original humeral footprint by use of 1 of 5 different repair patterns in 40 bovine shoulders. Two single-row repairs and three double-row repairs were tested. High-strength sutures were used for all repairs. Five groups were studied: group 1, 2 triple-loaded screw suture anchors in a single row with simple stitches; group 2, 2 triple-loaded screw anchors in a single row with simple stitches over a fourth suture passed perpendicularly ("rip-stop" stitch); group 3, 2 medial and 2 lateral screw anchors with a single vertical mattress stitch passed from the medial anchors and 2 simple stitches passed from the lateral anchors; group 4, 2 medial double-loaded screw anchors tied in 2 mattress stitches and 2 push-in lateral anchors capturing the medial sutures in a "crisscross" spanning stitch; and group 5, 2 medial double-loaded screw anchors tied in 2 mattress stitches and 2 push-in lateral anchors creating a "suture-bridge" stitch. The specimens were cycled between 10 and 180 N at 1.0 Hz for 3,500 cycles or until failure. Endpoints were cyclic loading displacement (5 and 10 mm), total displacement, and ultimate failure load. A single row of triply loaded anchors was more resistant to stretching to a 5- and 10-mm gap than the double-row repairs with or without the addition of a rip-stop suture (P < .05). The addition of a rip-stop stitch made the repair more resistant to gap formation than a double row repair (P < .05). The crisscross double row created by 2 medial double-loaded suture anchors and 2 lateral push-in anchors stretched more than any other group (P < .05). Double-row repairs with

  20. A STUDY OF LIFT-OFF TEST METHOD OF GROUND ANCHORS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yuu; Sakai, Toshinori

    Ground anchors (hereinafter anchors) are important to do the maintenance after construction. Residual tensile strength of anchors are generally confirmed by lift-off test that pulls an anchor using a hydraulic jack. However, the lift-off test has not been established a proper testing method. Therefore, it may not have been proper maintenance from measurement variability. In this paper, we conducted various lift-off test at cut slope of the expressway, and made proposals on proper lift-off test method.

  1. Reinforcing mechanism of anchors in slopes: a numerical comparison of results of LEM and FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Fei; Ugai, Keizo

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports the limitation of the conventional Bishop's simplified method to calculate the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors, and proposes a new approach to considering the reinforcing effect of anchors on the safety factor. The reinforcing effect of anchors can be explained using an additional shearing resistance on the slip surface. A three-dimensional shear strength reduction finite element method (SSRFEM), where soil-anchor interactions were simulated by three-dimensional zero-thickness elasto-plastic interface elements, was used to calculate the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors to verify the reinforcing mechanism of anchors. The results of SSRFEM were compared with those of the conventional and proposed approaches for Bishop's simplified method for various orientations, positions, and spacings of anchors, and shear strengths of soil-grouted body interfaces. For the safety factor, the proposed approach compared better with SSRFEM than the conventional approach. The additional shearing resistance can explain the influence of the orientation, position, and spacing of anchors, and the shear strength of soil-grouted body interfaces on the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors.

  2. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N.; Carson, Martin L.; Rines, Howard W.; Obert, Donald E.; Lutz, Joseph D.; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B.; Wight, Charlene P.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D.; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J. Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Howarth, Catherine J.; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L.; McMullen, Michael S.; Murphy, J. Paul; Ohm, Herbert W.; Rossnagel, Brian G.; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J.; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J.; Redman Hulse, Rachel R.; Anderson, Joseph M.; Islamovic, Emir

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  3. Anchored PKA as a gatekeeper for gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Taskén, Kjetil

    2015-01-01

    Anchored protein kinase A (PKA) bound to A Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) mediates effects of localized increases in cAMP in defined subcellular microdomains and retains the specificity in cAMP-PKA signaling to distinct extracellular stimuli. Gap junctions are pores between adjacent cells constituted by connexin proteins that provide means of communication and transfer of small molecules. While the PKA signaling is known to promote human trophoblast cell fusion, the gap junction communication through connexin 43 (Cx43) is a prerequisite for this process. We recently demonstrated that trophoblast fusion is regulated by ezrin, a known AKAP, which binds to Cx43 and delivers PKA in the vicinity gap junctions. We found that disruption of the ezrin-Cx43 interaction abolished PKA-dependent phosphorylation of Cx43 as well as gap junction communication and subsequently cell fusion. We propose that the PKA-ezrin-Cx43 macromolecular complex regulating gap junction communication constitutes a general mechanism to control opening of Cx43 gap junctions by phosphorylation in response to cAMP signaling in various cell types.

  4. Computations of flow in an anchored Solar Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Dahhea; Fischer, Paul F.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2015-11-01

    In regions with high solar insolation, there is a potential to extract mechanical energy from the gravitationally unstable ground-heated air layer, using the substantial axial and azimuthal momentum of an anchored buoyancy-induced columnar vortex to drive a vertical-axis turbine. The seasonal and diurnal availability (which extends well into the late afternoon and even past sunset, due to utilization of the thermal capacity of the ground to heat the air, rather than direct use of photons) is well-matched to air-conditioning loads in the southwestern US. Critical issues in the design of such systems are the geometry of the enclosure that serves to anchor the dust devil-like vortex and prevent it from being blown away by ambient wind, as well as the geometry of the stationary vanes used both to enhance entrainment of ground-heated air into the vortex from a collection area much larger than that of the enclosure, and to utilize any ambient wind to enhance the vortex. Here, we report computations (using the spectral-element code Nek5000) of heated and unheated flows in several geometries of interest. The results are discussed in the context of field experiments. Supported by ARPA-E award DE-AR0000296.

  5. Anchored clathrate waters bind antifreeze proteins to ice.

    PubMed

    Garnham, Christopher P; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2011-05-03

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca(2+)-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFPice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the "anchored clathrate" mechanism of AFP action.

  6. Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

  7. Anchored Clathrate Waters Bind Antifreeze Proteins to Ice

    SciTech Connect

    C Garnham; R Campbell; P Davies

    2011-12-31

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca{sup 2+}-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP{vert_ellipsis}ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the 'anchored clathrate' mechanism of AFP action.

  8. Differential sorting and fate of endocytosed GPI-anchored proteins.

    PubMed

    Fivaz, Marc; Vilbois, Francis; Thurnheer, Sarah; Pasquali, Christian; Abrami, Laurence; Bickel, Perry E; Parton, Robert G; van der Goot, F Gisou

    2002-08-01

    In this paper, we studied the fate of endocytosed glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins (GPI- APs) in mammalian cells, using aerolysin, a bacterial toxin that binds to the GPI anchor, as a probe. We find that GPI-APs are transported down the endocytic pathway to reducing late endosomes in BHK cells, using biochemical, morphological and functional approaches. We also find that this transport correlates with the association to raft-like membranes and thus that lipid rafts are present in late endosomes (in addition to the Golgi and the plasma membrane). In marked contrast, endocytosed GPI-APs reach the recycling endosome in CHO cells and this transport correlates with a decreased raft association. GPI-APs are, however, diverted from the recycling endosome and routed to late endosomes in CHO cells, when their raft association is increased by clustering seven or less GPI-APs with an aerolysin mutant. We conclude that the different endocytic routes followed by GPI-APs in different cell types depend on the residence time of GPI-APs in lipid rafts, and hence that raft partitioning regulates GPI-APs sorting in the endocytic pathway.

  9. Differential sorting and fate of endocytosed GPI-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fivaz, Marc; Vilbois, Francis; Thurnheer, Sarah; Pasquali, Christian; Abrami, Laurence; Bickel, Perry E.; Parton, Robert G.; van der Goot, F. Gisou

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we studied the fate of endocytosed glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins (GPI- APs) in mammalian cells, using aerolysin, a bacterial toxin that binds to the GPI anchor, as a probe. We find that GPI-APs are transported down the endocytic pathway to reducing late endosomes in BHK cells, using biochemical, morphological and functional approaches. We also find that this transport correlates with the association to raft-like membranes and thus that lipid rafts are present in late endosomes (in addition to the Golgi and the plasma membrane). In marked contrast, endocytosed GPI-APs reach the recycling endosome in CHO cells and this transport correlates with a decreased raft association. GPI-APs are, however, diverted from the recycling endosome and routed to late endosomes in CHO cells, when their raft association is increased by clustering seven or less GPI-APs with an aerolysin mutant. We conclude that the different endocytic routes followed by GPI-APs in different cell types depend on the residence time of GPI-APs in lipid rafts, and hence that raft partitioning regulates GPI-APs sorting in the endocytic pathway. PMID:12145200

  10. Adaptation of gaze anchoring through practice in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Rand, Miya K; Stelmach, George E

    2011-03-29

    During visually guided manual movements, gaze is usually fixated to a target until a pointing movement is completed to that target, showing gaze anchoring. We previously examined gaze anchoring during a two-segment eye-hand task under a low accuracy constraint. Eye movements were made to predetermined first and second targets, while hand movements were varied across two conditions: (1) stop at the first target and discontinue (HS1) and (2) stop at both the first and the second targets (HS1S2). Young adults previously broke gaze anchoring at the first target only when the second pointing was excluded (HS1). However, older adults did not break gaze anchoring for either condition. The present study further investigated whether young and older adults break gaze anchoring through short-term practice under the same conditions. An HS1 practice proceeded to an HS1S2 practice. The results showed that the timing of terminating gaze anchoring relative to pointing completion oscillated considerably during the HS1 practice until it was stabilized. Conversely, that timing was stable during the HS1S2 practice. Nevertheless, the young adults benefited from the HS1 practice and broke gaze anchoring even when the second pointing was included in HS1S2. This indicates that gaze anchoring to pointing completion is not a prerequisite for the production of subsequent pointing. By contrast, older adults did not improve the timing of gaze anchoring termination for either practice condition, thereby failing to break gaze anchoring. Thus, aging compromises a predictive control of terminating gaze anchoring relative to pointing completion, which is difficult to overcome through short-term practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptation of gaze anchoring through practice in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Miya K.; Stelmach, George E.

    2011-01-01

    During visually-guided manual movements, gaze is usually fixated to a target until a pointing movement is completed to that target, showing gaze anchoring. We previously examined gaze anchoring during a two-segment eye-hand task under a low accuracy constraint. Eye movements were made to predetermined first and second targets, while hand movements were varied across two conditions: 1) stop at the first target and discontinue (HS1) and 2) stop at both the first and second targets (HS1S2). Young adults previously broke gaze anchoring at the first target only when the second pointing was excluded (HS1). However, older adults did not break gaze anchoring for either condition. The present study further investigated whether young and older adults break gaze anchoring through short-term practice under the same conditions. An HS1 practice proceeded to an HS1S2 practice. The results showed that the timing of terminating gaze anchoring relative to pointing completion oscillated considerably during the HS1 practice until it was stabilized. Conversely, that timing was stable during the HS1S2 practice. Nevertheless, the young adults benefited from the HS1 practice and broke gaze anchoring even when the second pointing was included in HS1S2. This indicates that gaze anchoring to pointing completion is not a prerequisite for the production of subsequent pointing. In contrast, older adults did not improve the timing of gaze anchoring termination for either practice condition, thereby failing to break gaze anchoring. Thus, aging compromises a predictive control of terminating gaze anchoring relative to pointing completion, which is difficult to overcome through short-term practice. PMID:21276832

  12. Biomechanical analysis of suture anchors and suture materials in the canine femur.

    PubMed

    Giles, James T; Coker, Demir; Rochat, Mark C; Payton, Mark E; Subramarian, Vijay; Bartels, Kenneth E

    2008-01-01

    Biomechanical analysis of acute load to failure (ALF) of 3 veterinary and 1 human suture anchor and cyclic load to failure with two suture material/suture anchor constructs in canine femoral condyles. Biomechanical in vitro study. Cadaveric femora from 20-30 kg dogs. Three veterinary and 1 human suture anchor were placed in the cranial and caudal aspects of the femoral condyle and subjected to 0 degrees ALF. Anchors were loaded with 5 USP Fiberwire or 27 kg test nylon leader line (NLL) and subjected to 90 degrees cyclic testing for 10,000 cycles followed by ALF at 90 degrees. No significant difference in ALF for any anchor type was detected in the cranial aspect of the femoral condyle; however all veterinary anchors had higher ALF in the caudal aspect of the femoral condyle. In cyclic testing, the constructs in descending order (most cycles to least) were: (1) FlexiTwist/NLL, (2) Securos/Fiberwire, Securos/NLL, (3) IMEX/Fiberwire, IMEX/NLL, and (4) FlexiTwist/Fiberwire, Fastin/Fiberwire. Fiberwire was significantly stronger than NLL in post-cycling ALF testing. Veterinary anchors had higher ALF in the caudal versus cranial aspect of the femoral condyle. Except for the FlexiTwist in which NLL performed better, Fiberwire and NLL both had similar cyclic performance with each veterinary anchor type. The veterinary anchors exceeded the human anchor in ALF and cycles to failure. The tested veterinary suture anchors with Fiberwire or NLL may be used in the femoral condyle, preferably in the caudal aspect, and should withstand estimated loading conditions in appropriately confined postoperative canine patients.

  13. Multi-day anchor ice cycles and bedload transport in a gravel-bed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Philippe; Leconte, Robert; Jay Lacey, R. W.; Bergeron, Normand

    2014-11-01

    River dynamics in cold regions and the physical processes involving ice formation and release remain relatively understudied topics. Current research suggests that anchor ice forms in diurnal cycles and has the potential to move sediments when released from the bed. Given the importance of river ice dynamics, studies are needed to describe the physical processes of anchor ice and its impact on sediment transport. The study presented in this paper investigated in situ anchor ice formation on the Stoke River in Quebec, Canada. In the fall of 2012, we observed multi-day anchor ice formation cycles and release, which usually ended with a small runoff event. During a cycle, there was little or no release of anchor ice, thus allowing its gradual growth as the air temperature remained cold. Surface and anchor ice layers also often merged, leading to the formation of thick ice masses. Sediment transport was monitored using bed particles individually tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT-tags). Movement of the experimental particles, measured after each multi-day cycle event, ranged from 0.5 to 4 m. Possible transport mechanisms include: (1) anchor ice rafting, (2) ice jam breakup creating a jave with high erosive capacity, (3) flow corridors through anchor ice masses with high erosive capacity, (4) mechanical pushing of particles by drifting ice blocks during ice breakup, and (5) entrainment by flow or drifting ice blocks of anchored ice with strong ice-pebble bonds. Given the coincidental occurrence of anchor ice release and runoff events, it is uncertain which specific mechanism caused the particles to move. This study is a step forward in understanding the behavior of anchor ice processes and ice-related sediment transport.

  14. How up- or downslope anchoring affects root reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Root reinforcement is important for slope stability. In addition to the important contribution of roots to shear strength along the slip surface, root networks are also recognized to impart stabilization through lateral (parallel to slope) redistribution of forces under tension. The most common method to measure lateral root reinforcement is a pullout test where one root or a bundle of root is pulled out of the soil matrix. This condition represents the case where roots within the mass of a landslide slip out from the upper stable part of the slope. There is also, however, the situation where roots anchored in the upper stable part of the slope slip out from the sliding mass. In the latter it is difficult to quantify root reinforcement and no study has discussed this mechanism. We carried out a new series of laboratory and field experiments using Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) roots to quantify how up- or downslope anchoring affects root reinforcement. In addition, we carried out new field pullout tests on coarse roots (larger that 2 mm in diameter, up to 47 mm). Then, considering the state-of-the-art of root reinforcement modeling (the Root Bundle Model), we integrated results from our measurements into the model to verify the magnitude of this effect on overall root reinforcement at the stand scale. Results indicate that the ratio between pullout force and force transferred to the root during soil slip ranges between 0.5 and 1. This indicates that measured pullout force always overestimate the contribution of lateral slipping out roots in situations where the soil slide from anchored roots. This is general the case for root with diameter up to 3-4 mm. Root-size distribution is also a key factor influencing root reinforcement at the forest-stand scale. As most coarse roots break along tension cracks while fine roots slip out, the effect discussed in this study on root reinforcement modeling is negligible when coarse-root diameter classes are represented. Our

  15. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means an...

  17. Effects of Tagcloud-Anchored Group Discussions on Pre-Service Teachers' Collaborative Knowledge Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Yuan; Xie, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Group discussions are critical for students constructing new understanding and knowledge in both classroom and distance education. Tagclouds can provide an intuitive overview about the group's collective knowledge and could potentially be used as an anchor for group discussions. The effect of using tagclouds as anchors for group discussions was…

  18. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians’ motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian’s trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031

  19. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and Systems § 130.240 Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) Each OSV of 100 or more...

  20. Career Anchors: A New Concept in Career Development for the Professional Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, Thomas J.

    Created by Dr. Edgar Schein of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the career anchor model suggests that certain motivational/talent/value drives, formed through work experience, function to guide and constrain entire careers; and that such anchors are the source of stability that permits growth and change in other areas. The concept…

  1. Anchoring Effects on Prospective and Retrospective Metacomprehension Judgments as a Function of Peer Performance Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate anchoring effects on metacomprehension judgments as a function of fictitious information participants received about past peer performance. In Experiment 1 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three anchor groups that, in some cases, provided past peer performance averages in terms of a…

  2. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  3. The Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception: A Comment on Bressan (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Piers D. L.; Sagreiya, Hersh; Curtis, Dwight L.; Zheng, Chengjie; Livingstone, Margaret S.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on an article by Bressan. Recently, a double-anchoring theory (DAT) of lightness perception was proposed (P. Bressan, 2006), which offers explanations for all the data explained by the original anchoring theory (A. Gilchrist et al., 1999), as well as a number of additional lightness phenomena. Consequently, DAT can account for an…

  4. Photonic control of surface anchoring on solid colloids dispersed in liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Prathap Chandran, S; Mondiot, F; Mondain-Monval, O; Loudet, J C

    2011-12-20

    The anchoring of liquid-crystal (LC) mesogens to the surfaces of colloids is an important factor in determining intercolloidal interactions and the symmetry of the ensuing colloidal assembly in nematic colloids. The dynamic control of surface anchoring could therefore provide a handle to tune the colloidal organization and resulting properties in these systems. In this article, we report our results on the study of thermotropic nematic LC (E7) dispersions of silica and glass microcolloids bearing photosensitive surface azobenzene groups. By the photoinduced modulation of the colloidal-LC interfacial properties, due to the trans-cis isomerization of azobenzene units, we tune the anchoring on silica colloids from homeotropic (trans-azobenzene) to homogeneous planar (cis-azobenzene) reversibly. In tune with the change in surface anchoring, the interparticle interactions were also dictated by dipolar and quadrupolar symmetries for homeotropic and homogeneous planar anchoring, respectively. In our experiments, we find that, in addition to the isomerization state of the surface-bound azobenzene units, the nature of the colloid plays a crucial role in determining the anchoring state obtained on applying photostimuli. We also study the LC anchoring on colloids as a function of the azobenzene surface density and find that beyond a threshold value the anchoring properties remain invariant. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Loss of cell surface laminin anchoring promotes tumor growth and is associated with poor clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan, Armin; Griffith, Obi L.; Soroceanu, Liliana; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Luciani-Torres, Maria Gloria; Daemen, Anneleen; Gray, Joe W.; Muschler, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations in the composition and assembly of extracellular matrices (ECMs) contribute to progression of numerous diseases, including cancers. Anchoring of laminins at the cell surface enables assembly and signaling of many ECMs, but the possible contributions of altered laminin anchoring to cancer progression remain undetermined. In this study, we investigated the prominence and origins of defective laminin anchoring in cancer cells and its association with cancer subtypes and clinical outcomes. We found loss of laminin anchoring to be widespread in cancer cells. Perturbation of laminin anchoring originated from several distinct defects which all led to dysfunctional glycosylation of the ECM receptor dystroglycan. In aggressive breast and brain cancers, defective laminin anchoring was often due to suppressed expression of the glycosyltransferase LARGE. Reduced expression of LARGE characterized a broad array of human tumors where it was associated with aggressive cancer subtypes and poor clinical outcomes. Notably, this defect robustly predicted poor survival in patients with brain cancers. Restoring LARGE expression repaired anchoring of exogenous and endogenous laminin and modulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. Together, our findings suggest that defects in laminin anchoring occur commonly in cancer cells, are characteristic of aggressive cancer subtypes, and are important drivers of disease progression. PMID:22589276

  6. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and Systems § 130.240 Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) Each OSV of 100 or more gross tons must be fitted with anchors and chains meeting the applicable standards set by the ABS for classed...

  7. Anchoring Effects on Prospective and Retrospective Metacomprehension Judgments as a Function of Peer Performance Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate anchoring effects on metacomprehension judgments as a function of fictitious information participants received about past peer performance. In Experiment 1 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three anchor groups that, in some cases, provided past peer performance averages in terms of a…

  8. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  9. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  14. Origins of the Stuttering Stereotype: Stereotype Formation through Anchoring-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Sean P.; Hall, Shera; MacIntyre, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    The stereotype of people who stutter is predominantly negative, holding that stutterers are excessively nervous, anxious, and reserved. The anchoring-adjustment hypothesis suggests that the stereotype of stuttering arises from a process of first anchoring the stereotype in personal feelings during times of normal speech disfluency, and then…

  15. Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an invited adaptation of the IEEE Education Society Distinguished Lecture Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning. Interactive video anchors have a cognitive theory base, and they help to enlarge the context of learning with information-rich real-world situations. Carefully selected movie clips and…

  16. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jimin Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  17. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein repertoire of babesia bovis and its significance for erythrocyte invasion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glycosylphosphatidyl-anchored proteins are particularly abundant on the surface of pathogenic protozoans and might play an important role for parasite survival. In the present work the relevance of GPI-anchored proteins for erythrocyte invasion of Babesia bovis, one of the tick-transmitted causative...

  18. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  19. Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an invited adaptation of the IEEE Education Society Distinguished Lecture Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning. Interactive video anchors have a cognitive theory base, and they help to enlarge the context of learning with information-rich real-world situations. Carefully selected movie clips and…

  20. Career Anchors: Distribution and Impact on Job Satisfaction, the Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Nira; Valency, Rony

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the career anchor concept developed by Edgar Schein. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on the distribution of the eight career anchors, on a large heterogeneous sample and the differences in the distribution by gender and type of employment; and the impact of the congruence on job…

  1. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  2. Associative Self-Anchoring Interacts with Obtainability of Chosen Objects

    PubMed Central

    Prévost, Charlotte; Bolger, Niall; Mobbs, Dean

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring), it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has received little attention. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability. PMID:26913011

  3. A-kinase anchoring proteins: scaffolding proteins in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly L.; Li, Jinliang; Kapiloff, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The pleiotropic cyclic nucleotide cAMP is the primary second messenger responsible for autonomic regulation of cardiac inotropy, chronotropy, and lusitropy. Under conditions of prolonged catecholaminergic stimulation, cAMP also contributes to the induction of both cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. The formation of localized, multiprotein complexes that contain different combinations of cAMP effectors and regulatory enzymes provides the architectural infrastructure for the specialization of the cAMP signaling network. Scaffolds that bind protein kinase A are called “A-kinase anchoring proteins” (AKAPs). In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how PKA is compartmentalized within the cardiac myocyte by AKAPs and how AKAP complexes modulate cardiac function in both health and disease. PMID:21856912

  4. Measuring liquid crystal anchoring energy strength by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, A.; Tkachenko, V.; Santamato, E.; Bennis, N.; Quintana, X.; Otón, J. M.; Abbate, G.

    2010-04-01

    We describe an experimental procedure for accurate measurement of anchoring energy strength of liquid crystal cells. This technique is based on the possibility of gathering a large amount of very precise data about the linear optical response of the cell in different experimental conditions, using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Then, a careful data analysis exploiting data inversion method, supplemented by simulations from the elastic theory, is able to provide the searched information. The technique has been applied to vertical aligned nematic cells, chosen for its widespread use in the present display market. The results obtained in this particular case together with a thorough comparison with existing alternative techniques, suggest that our technique can be an optimum candidate for the industrial implementation of such measurement. A particular example is fully worked out, giving a result with a precision of 1.5% and an accuracy of 10%.

  5. Dynamic structure of membrane-anchored Arf•GTP

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yizhou; Kahn, Richard A.; Prestegard, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Arfs (ADP ribosylation factors) are N-myristoylated GTP/GDP switch proteins playing key regulatory roles in vesicle transport in eukaryotic cells. ARFs execute their roles by anchoring to membrane surfaces where they interact with other proteins to initiate budding and maturation of transport vesicles. However, existing structures of Arf•GTP are limited to non-myristoylated and truncated forms with impaired membrane binding. We report a high resolution NMR structure for full-length myristoylated yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Arf1 in complex with a membrane mimic. The two domain structure, in which the myristoylated N-terminal helix is separated from the C-terminal domain by a flexible linker, suggests a level of adaptability in binding modes for the myriad of proteins with which Arf interacts, and allows predictions of specific lipid binding sites on some of these proteins. PMID:20601958

  6. Ideological Differences in Anchoring and Adjustment During Social Inferences.

    PubMed

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V

    2016-09-08

    Recent research has demonstrated that conservatives perceive greater similarity to political ingroup members than do liberals. In two studies, we draw from a framework of "anchoring and adjustment" to understand why liberals and conservatives differ in their perceptions of ingroup similarity. Results indicate that when participants made judgments under time pressure, liberals and conservatives did not differ in assuming ingroup similarity. However, when participants were given sufficient time to make judgments, liberals assumed less similarity than conservatives did, suggesting that liberals adjusted their judgments to a greater extent than conservatives did (Studies 1 and 2). In examining an underlying motivational process, we found that when conservatives' desire to affiliate with others was attenuated, they adjusted their initial judgments of ingroup similarity to a similar extent as liberals did (Study 2). We discuss implications for research on ideology and social judgment.

  7. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used

  8. Structural Basis for Membrane Anchoring of HIV-1 Envelope Spike

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qingshan; Chen, Jia; Ha, Heather Jiwon; Ghantous, Fadi; Herrmann, Tobias; Chang, Weiting; Liu, Zhijun; Frey, Gary; Seaman, Michael S.; Chen, Bing; Chou, James J.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a type I membrane protein that mediates viral entry. We use NMR to determine an atomic structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in bicelles that mimic a lipid bilayer. The TM forms a well-ordered trimer that protects a conserved membrane-embedded arginine. An N-terminal coiled-coil and a C-terminal hydrophilic core stabilize the trimer. Individual mutations of conserved residues did not disrupt the TM trimer and minimally affected membrane fusion and infectivity. Major changes in the hydrophilic core, however, altered the antibody sensitivity of Env. These results show how a TM domain anchors, stabilizes and modulates a viral envelope spike and suggest that its influence on Env conformation is an important consideration for HIV-1 immunogen design. PMID:27338706

  9. Anchoring energy and orientational elasticity of a ferroelectric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kaznacheev, A. V.; Pozhidaev, E. P.

    2012-06-15

    The dielectric susceptibility of a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal layer has been experimentally and theoretically studied as a function of the layer thickness. The investigation has been performed on the inner branch of the polarization hysteresis loop, in the region of a linear dependence of the polarization on the electric field. The experimental results are explained using the notion of effective layer thickness, which involves the characteristic distance {xi} over which the orienting effect of interfaces is operative. Comparison of the experimental data and theoretical results made it possible to estimate this distance as {xi} = 41 {mu}m and evaluate the anchoring energy (W = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}-1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} J/m{sup 2}) and the intralayer elastic constant (K Double-Prime Almost-Equal-To 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} N).

  10. Arginoplexes: an arginine-anchored nanoliposomal carrier for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ketan; Tyagi, Monica; Monpara, Jasmin; Vora, Lalit; Gupta, Sanjay; Vavia, Pradeep

    2014-04-01

    There is a need of an efficient and safe non-viral gene delivery carrier due to promising future of nucleic acid-based therapeutics in the treatment of intractable diseases. Cytotoxicity and cost are the major concerns with current quaternary ammonium-based cationic liposomes. The major aim of current research work was development and in vitro evaluation of arginine-anchored nanoliposomes for gene delivery. l-Arginine-fatty acid conjugate was synthesized and characterized using IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. Synthesized conjugate—lauroyl arginine ethyl ester (LAE) was successfully incorporated into liposomes. Effect of nanocarrier composition on DNA binding was evaluated by preparing solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) and self nanoemulsifying system (SNES) using same LAE concentration. Effect of cationic head on DNA binding was also evaluated. Arginine-anchored nanoliposomes—arginoplexes (APX) showed superior DNA-binding affinity. Surface PEG was expected to cause hindrance in DNA binding in SLNs and SNES. Guanidino group was found to be a better cationic head for DNA binding compared to primary amine or quaternary amine. Gel retardation assay was performed to optimize the ratio of DNA to LAE in nanocarrier. Serum stability, haemolysis, cytotoxicity, and transfection studies were carried out to evaluate APX. Binding of DNA to APX was found to be stable in the presence of serum, and no degradation of DNA was observed. APX containing 2 mg/ml LAE which exhibited particle size of 72 nm with zeta potential of +57.5 mV, showed lower cytotoxicity and better transfection. APX can be a promising carrier for gene delivery.

  11. A Novel Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Anchoring Scaffoldin That Bears Divergent Cohesins

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Barak, Yoav; Kenig, Rina; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    Sequencing of a cellulosome-integrating gene cluster in Acetivibrio cellulolyticus was completed. The cluster contains four tandem scaffoldin genes (scaA, scaB, scaC, and scaD) bounded upstream and downstream, respectively, by a presumed cellobiose phosphorylase and a nucleotide methylase. The sequences and properties of scaA, scaB, and scaC were reported previously, and those of scaD are reported here. The scaD gene encodes an 852-residue polypeptide that includes a signal peptide, three cohesins, and a C-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) module. The calculated molecular weight of the mature ScaD is 88,960; a 67-residue linker segment separates cohesins 1 and 2, and two ∼30-residue linkers separate cohesin 2 from 3 and cohesin 3 from the SLH module. The presence of an SLH module in ScaD indicates its role as an anchoring protein. The first two ScaD cohesins can be classified as type II, similar to the four cohesins of ScaB. Surprisingly, the third ScaD cohesin belongs to the type I cohesins, like the seven ScaA cohesins. ScaD is the first scaffoldin to be described that contains divergent types of cohesins as integral parts of the polypeptide chain. The recognition properties among selected recombinant cohesins and dockerins from the different scaffoldins of the gene cluster were investigated by affinity blotting. The results indicated that the divergent types of ScaD cohesins also differ in their preference of dockerins. ScaD thus plays a dual role, both as a primary scaffoldin, capable of direct incorporation of a single dockerin-borne enzyme, and as a secondary scaffoldin that anchors the major primary scaffoldin, ScaA and its complement of enzymes to the cell surface. PMID:15317783

  12. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  13. 'Over-under' myringoplasty with umbus-anchored graft.

    PubMed

    Fiorino, F; Barbieri, F

    2008-08-01

    'Over-under' myringoplasty is a versatile and effective surgical technique for tympanic membrane repair. The main drawbacks are possible trauma to the inner ear, due to manipulation of the malleus, and graft detachment from the apical portion of the malleus during the healing process, with consequent reduction of sound transfer function. To obviate these disadvantages, we have modified the over-under myringoplasty by maintaining anchorage of the tympanic membrane to the umbus. A total of 78 umbus-anchored over-under myringoplasties were performed from 2004 to 2006 in 63 patients. After elevation of the tympanomeatal flap, the malleus was freed from the tympanic membrane in a superior to inferior direction, up to the region immediately superior to the umbus. A large graft with a radial slit was distended under the tympanic remnants and annulus, and the two tongues were positioned to surround the umbus area and overlapped under a non-perforated portion of the tympanic membrane. Graft take was obtained in 71 ears (91 per cent). The auditory results showed an average residual air-bone gap of 6.7 dB, which was significantly better (p = 0.04) in comparison to that obtained in ears undergoing traditional over-under myringoplasty (11.9 dB). Modification of the over-under myringoplasty by anchoring the graft to the umbus preserves both lever and catenary effects of the tympano-ossicular system, reduces traumatising manoeuvres during dissection of the tympanic membrane from the malleus, and yields excellent results in terms of graft take and auditory outcome.

  14. BEHAVIOR OF POST-INSTALLED ANCHORS TESTED BY STEPWISE INCREASING CYCLIC LOAD PROTOCOLS

    PubMed Central

    Mahrenholtz, Philipp; Eligehausen, Rolf; Hutchinson, Tara C.; Hoehler, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic loads are a characteristic feature of actions acting on structures and anchorages during earthquakes. For this reason, seismic qualification of post-installed concrete anchors according to the internationally recognized American Concrete Institute (ACI) standard ACI 355 is based on cyclic load tests. The protocols for these tests, however, have limited scientific basis. Therefore, in the present paper newly-developed test protocols with stepwise-increasing load amplitudes are utilized to more realistically evaluate anchor seismic performance. The study focuses on the load-displacement behavior of common anchor types installed in cracked concrete and subjected to both cyclic tension and cyclic shear actions. The results confirmed robust behavior for anchors loaded in cyclic tension even in the presence of crack widths in the anchorage material larger than currently required by ACI 355. In addition, the critical influence of low cycle fatigue on the performance of anchors loaded in cyclic shear is demonstrated. PMID:27890969

  15. A Novel Motion Field Anchoring Paradigm for Highly Scalable Wavelet-Based Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Rufenacht, Dominic; Mathew, Reji; Taubman, David

    2016-01-01

    Existing video coders anchor motion fields at frames that are to be predicted. In this paper, we demonstrate how changing the anchoring of motion fields to reference frames has some important advantages over conventional anchoring. We work with piecewise-smooth motion fields, and use breakpoints to signal discontinuities at moving object boundaries. We show how discontinuity information can be used to resolve double mappings arising when motion is warped from reference to target frames. We present an analytical model that allows to determine weights for texture, motion, and breakpoints to guide the rate-allocation for scalable encoding. Compared with the conventional way of anchoring motion fields, the proposed scheme requires fewer bits for the coding of motion; furthermore, the reconstructed video frames contain fewer ghosting artefacts. The experimental results show the superior performance compared with the traditional anchoring, and demonstrate the high scalability attributes of the proposed method.

  16. Anchors weigh more than power: why absolute powerlessness liberates negotiators to achieve better outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schaerer, Michael; Swaab, Roderick I; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-02-01

    The current research shows that having no power can be better than having a little power. Negotiators prefer having some power (weak negotiation alternatives) to having no power (no alternatives). We challenge this belief that having any alternative is beneficial by demonstrating that weak alternatives create low anchors that reduce the value of first offers. In contrast, having no alternatives is liberating because there is no anchor to weigh down first offers. In our experiments, negotiators with no alternatives felt less powerful but made higher first offers and secured superior outcomes compared with negotiators who had weak alternatives. We established the role of anchoring through mediation by first offers and through moderation by showing that weak alternatives no longer led to worse outcomes when negotiators focused on a countervailing anchor or when negotiators faced an opponent with a strong alternative. These results demonstrate that anchors can have larger effects than feelings of power. Absolute powerlessness can be psychologically liberating.

  17. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, D.T.; Briggaman, R.A. ); Zelickson, A.S. ); Hamilton, T.A.; Weiss, J.S.; Ellis, C.N.; Voorhees, J.J. )

    1990-06-13

    Topical 0.1% tretinoin or vehicle control was applied daily to the forearm skin of six caucasian adults for 4 months. Two-millimeter punch biopsy specimens were obtained from treatment sites at the beginning and end of the study period for electron microscopy. Anchoring fibrils within the epidermal-dermal junction of skin treatment sites were quantitated by blinded, standardized, computer-assisted morphometry. After 4 months of continual daily treatment, skin sites that received topical tretinoin showed double the anchoring fibril density compared with vehicle control sites. The possible mechanism by which topical tretinoin increases anchoring fibrils in skin include the drug's property of inhibiting collagenase, a dermal enzyme that degrades anchoring fibril collagen. The authors speculate that increased numbers of collagenous anchoring fibrils within the papillary dermis of human skin is one of the connective-tissue correlates of the clinical improvement observed in photoaged skin after treatment with topical tretinoin.

  18. The detrimental consequences for seagrass of ineffective marine park management related to boat anchoring.

    PubMed

    La Manna, G; Donno, Y; Sarà, G; Ceccherelli, G

    2015-01-15

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows are recognized as priority habitat for conservation by the EU Habitats Directive. The La Maddalena Archipelago National Park (Mediterranean Sea) P. oceanica meadow, the dominant coastal habitat of the area, is mostly threatened by boat anchoring. 12 years after the establishment of mooring fields and anchoring restrictions, a study was conducted to measure their effectiveness on the conservation of seagrass and the mitigation of anchoring damage. We found that: (i) the condition of P. oceanica was disturbed, both in the mooring fields and in control locations; (ii) mooring fields and anchoring restrictions did not show to be an efficient system for the protection of seagrass, in fact anchor scars increased after the tourist season; (iii) the mooring systems had an impact on the surrounding area of the meadow, probably due to their misuse. On the basis of these results, management recommendations for marine parks are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. BEHAVIOR OF POST-INSTALLED ANCHORS TESTED BY STEPWISE INCREASING CYCLIC LOAD PROTOCOLS.

    PubMed

    Mahrenholtz, Philipp; Eligehausen, Rolf; Hutchinson, Tara C; Hoehler, Matthew S

    2016-09-01

    Cyclic loads are a characteristic feature of actions acting on structures and anchorages during earthquakes. For this reason, seismic qualification of post-installed concrete anchors according to the internationally recognized American Concrete Institute (ACI) standard ACI 355 is based on cyclic load tests. The protocols for these tests, however, have limited scientific basis. Therefore, in the present paper newly-developed test protocols with stepwise-increasing load amplitudes are utilized to more realistically evaluate anchor seismic performance. The study focuses on the load-displacement behavior of common anchor types installed in cracked concrete and subjected to both cyclic tension and cyclic shear actions. The results confirmed robust behavior for anchors loaded in cyclic tension even in the presence of crack widths in the anchorage material larger than currently required by ACI 355. In addition, the critical influence of low cycle fatigue on the performance of anchors loaded in cyclic shear is demonstrated.

  20. Using the anchoring device of a comet lander to determine surface mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kömle, Norbert I.; Ball, Andrew J.; Kargl, Günter; Stöcker, Jakob; Thiel, Markus; Jolly, Harjinder S.; Dziruni, Masarapauya; Zarnecki, John C.

    1997-12-01

    Owing to the low surface gravity of the Rosetta target comet 46P/Wirtanen, a means of anchoring the Rosetta Lander to the cometary surface will be necessary. This task can be accomplished by firing an anchor into the cometary soil immediately after touchdown to prevent a rebound of the spacecraft from the surface or subsequent ejection by other forces, and to allow for mechanical activities (drilling, etc.) at the landing site. The rationale for anchoring is examined, based on estimates of the main forces likely to act on the spacecraft after landing. We report on the development of an anchoring device using a pyrotechnic gas generator as a power source and an instrumented anchor. In addition to the anchoring function, which is the primary purpose of this system, the integration of acceleration and temperature sensors into the tip offers the possibility to determine some important material properties of the cometary surface layer. The accelerometer is designed to measure the deceleration history of the projectile and is thus expected to give information on how the material properties (in particular strength) change within the penetrated layer(s), while the temperature sensor will measure temperature variations at the depth at which the anchor finally comes to rest. As the mechanical properties of the material are not known, it is difficult to predict the final depth of the anchor with any great certainty, but it may well be greater than that reached by any other of the lander's instruments. The instrumented anchor will be part of the MUPUS experiment, selected to form part of the Rosetta Lander payload. We report on results of laboratory simulations of anchor penetration performed at the Institut für Weltraumforschung, Graz, and compare these with models of projectile penetration. The value of the results expected from the penetrometry experiment in the context of an improved understanding of cometary processes is discussed.

  1. The portion size effect on food intake. An anchoring and adjustment process?

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K; Klein, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    People consistently over-eat when served a large compared with a small (appropriate) portion of food. However, the mechanism underlying this so-called portion size effect is not well understood. We argue that the process of anchoring and adjustment naturally describes this effect, such that the size of a presented portion works as an anchor that strongly influences consumption. The classical anchoring and adjustment paradigm was applied to six hypothetical eating situations. Participants were asked to imagine being served either a small or a large portion of food (i.e., low and high anchor) and to indicate whether they would consume more or less than this amount. Then, they indicated how much they would eat. These estimates were compared with a no-anchor condition where participants did not imagine a specific portion size but only indicated how much they would eat. In addition, half of participants in the anchoring conditions received a discounting instruction stating that the portion size they had been asked to imagine was randomly selected and thus not informative for their consumption estimate. As expected, participants who imagined to be served larger portions estimated to consume significantly more food than participants in the no-anchor condition, and participants who imagined to be served smaller portions estimated to consume significantly less food than participants in the no-anchor condition. The discounting manipulation did not reduce this effect of the anchors. We suggest that the process of anchoring and adjustment may provide a useful framework to understand the portion size effect and we discuss implications of this perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutational analysis of the variant surface glycoprotein GPI-anchor signal sequence in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Ulrike; Cross, George A M

    2002-02-15

    The variant surface glycoproteins (VSG) of Trypanosoma brucei are anchored to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. All GPI-anchored proteins are synthesized with a C-terminal signal sequence, which is replaced by a GPI-anchor in a rapid post-translational transamidation reaction. VSG GPI signal sequences are extraordinarily conserved. They contain either 23 or 17 amino acids, a difference that distinguishes the two major VSG classes, and consist of a spacer sequence followed by a more hydrophobic region. The omega amino acid, to which GPI is transferred, is either Ser, Asp or Asn, the omega+2 amino acid is always Ser, and the omega+7 amino acid is almost always Lys. In order to determine whether this high conservation is necessary for GPI anchoring, we introduced several mutations into the signal peptide. Surprisingly, changing the most conserved amino acids, at positions omega+1, omega+2 and omega+7, had no detectable effect on the efficiency of GPI-anchoring or on protein abundance. Several more extensive changes also had no discernable impact on GPI-anchoring. Deleting the entire 23 amino-acid signal sequence or the 15 amino-acid hydrophobic region generated proteins that were not anchored. Instead of being secreted, these truncated proteins accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum prior to lysosomal degradation. Replacing the GPI signal sequence with a proven cell-surface membrane-spanning domain reduced expression by about 99% and resulted not in cell surface expression but in accumulation close to the flagellar pocket and in non-lysosomal compartments. These results indicate that the high conservation of the VSG GPI signal sequence is not necessary for efficient expression and GPI attachment. Instead, the GPI anchor is essential for surface expression of VSG. However, because the VSG is a major virulence factor, it is possible that small changes in the efficiency of GPI anchoring, undetectable in our experiments, might have

  3. Career Anchors and the Effects of Downsizing: Implications for Generations and Cultures at Work. A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Verena; Bonner, Dede

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience, and the impact of career planning on downsizing were examined with data from 423 management students (49% had been downsized). Lifestyle was the most valued anchor across age groups, stability/security the least; compared with Schein's earlier anchors research,…

  4. Career Anchors and the Effects of Downsizing: Implications for Generations and Cultures at Work. A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Verena; Bonner, Dede

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience, and the impact of career planning on downsizing were examined with data from 423 management students (49% had been downsized). Lifestyle was the most valued anchor across age groups, stability/security the least; compared with Schein's earlier anchors research,…

  5. The Place of White in a World of Grays: A Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt…

  6. 33 CFR 150.915 - How are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established and modified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established and modified? 150.915 Section 150.915 Navigation and...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.915 How are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established and modified? (a) Safety zones are developed and...

  7. The Place of White in a World of Grays: A Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt…

  8. Examining the Impact of Covariates on Anchor Tests to Ascertain Quality over Time in a College Admissions Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; von Davier, Alina A.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a comprehensive procedure for the implementation of a quality control process of anchor tests for a college admissions test with multiple consecutive administrations. We propose to examine the anchor tests and their items in connection with covariates to investigate if there was any unusual behavior in the anchor test results over time…

  9. Linking Composite Scores: Effects of Anchor Test Length and Content Representativeness. Research Report. ETS RR-16-36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Peng; Dorans, Neil; Weeks, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design is frequently used in test score equating or linking. One important assumption of the NEAT design is that the anchor test is a miniversion of the 2 tests to be equated/linked. When the content of the 2 tests is different, it is not possible for the anchor test to be adequately representative…

  10. A Note on the Choice of an Anchor Test in Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-12-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandip, Sinharay; Haberman, Shelby; Holland, Paul; Lewis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Anchor tests play a key role in test score equating. We attempt to find, through theoretical derivations, an anchor test with optimal item characteristics. The correlation between the scores on a total test and on an anchor test is maximized with respect to the item parameters for data satisfying several item response theory models. Results…

  11. Increasing pullout strength of suture anchors in osteoporotic bone using augmentation--a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Volker; Ockert, Ben; Windolf, Markus; Sprecher, Christoph M; Mutschler, Wolf; Imhoff, Andreas; Postl, Lukas Karl Leo; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2015-03-01

    Rotator cuff tears are of increasing clinical impact in the physically active elderly patients. Recent research revealed, that a high percentage of these patients present with significant loss of bone mineral density at the insertion site of the rotator cuff, thereby compromising suture anchorage for operative repair. We therefore hypothesized that augmentation of suture anchors improves biomechanical properties in low bone quality. 28 osteoporotic humeral heads were included in this biomechanical study. Bone quality at the anchor insertion sites (group 1: posterior-medial; group 2: anterior-lateral) within the greater tuberosity was analyzed using HR-pQCT (voxel size: 82μm). Anchor positions of identical quality were then randomized to either conventional screw anchorage or polymethylmethacrylat augmented screw anchorage. All anchors were cyclically ramp-loaded until pullout. Pullout strength accounted for 226N in group I for conventional anchorage and for 332N in augmented technique. In group 2 (anterior-lateral) the pullout strength was 209N (conventional) and 304N (augmented). Pull-out strength of augmented screw anchors was significantly higher in both groups (p<0.05). Compared to conventional insertion techniques, the cement augmentation technique increases the pullout strength of suture anchors in low bone quality significantly. Cement augmentation could therefore be a helpful tool for improved suture anchor stability, especially in locations of low bone quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Basic Values, Career Orientations, and Career Anchors: Empirical Investigation of Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Abessolo, Marc; Rossier, Jérôme; Hirschi, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In today's dynamic and uncertain career context, values play an important role for career choice and lifelong career self-management. Values are desirable goals that are sought by individuals to satisfy their needs and are important for understanding career orientations in terms of protean and boundaryless career orientations and career anchors. However, how career orientations or career anchors fit into a well-established and supported model and into the structure of basic human values remains an important and under-investigated question. The aim of this study was to use Schwartz's model of structural values to empirically explore the relationships and structural correspondences among basic values, career orientations, and career anchors. A heterogeneous sample of 238 employees from French-speaking Switzerland (Mage = 35.60, SD = 13.03) completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ5X), the Protean and Boundaryless Career Attitudes Scales (PCAS, BCAS), and the Career Orientation Inventory (COI) via an anonymous and confidential survey questionnaire. The results showed that it was possible to meaningfully position both career orientations and career anchors in Schwartz's values structure. The protean and boundaryless career orientations were positively related to Schwartz's basic values that emphasized openness to change and career anchors meaningfully followed the motivational continuum of these basic values. Overall, the overlap among the basic values, career orientations, and career anchors appeared relatively important, suggesting that these basic values, orientations, and anchors should be considered simultaneously to understand and address the factors and processes underlying individuals' career choices and paths. PMID:28955275

  13. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-12-28

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of Streptococcus sanguinis cell wall-anchored proteins in early infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lauren Senty; Kanamoto, Taisei; Unoki, Takeshi; Munro, Cindy L; Wu, Hui; Kitten, Todd

    2009-11-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a member of the viridans group of streptococci and a leading cause of the life-threatening endovascular disease infective endocarditis. Initial contact with the cardiac infection site is likely mediated by S. sanguinis surface proteins. In an attempt to identify the proteins required for this crucial step in pathogenesis, we searched for surface-exposed, cell wall-anchored proteins encoded by S. sanguinis and then used a targeted signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) approach to evaluate their contributions to virulence. Thirty-three predicted cell wall-anchored proteins were identified-a number much larger than those found in related species. The requirement of each cell wall-anchored protein for infective endocarditis was assessed in the rabbit model. It was found that no single cell wall-anchored protein was essential for the development of early infective endocarditis. STM screening was also employed for the evaluation of three predicted sortase transpeptidase enzymes, which mediate the cell surface presentation of cell wall-anchored proteins. The sortase A mutant exhibited a modest (approximately 2-fold) reduction in competitiveness, while the other two sortase mutants were indistinguishable from the parental strain. The combined results suggest that while cell wall-anchored proteins may play a role in S. sanguinis infective endocarditis, strategies designed to interfere with individual cell wall-anchored proteins or sortases would not be effective for disease prevention.

  15. Cranial plate anchoring of spinal cord stimulation paddle leads: technical note.

    PubMed

    Tomycz, Nestor D; Cameron, Jeffrey; Whiting, Donald M; Oh, Michael Y

    2012-09-01

    Lead migration is a frequent complication of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and requires revision surgery. The evolution of wider paddle leads has necessitated more extensive laminotomy and epidural adhesiolysis, which may increase the risk of lead migration. We describe a novel anchoring technique for SCS paddle leads with use of a cranial "dogbone" plate. We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 11 patients who underwent placement of paddle lead spinal cord stimulators with titanium plate anchoring. Patients were followed for a mean of 29.5 months from SCS implantation (range, 5-65 months). A 4-hole linear titanium cranial plate and two 4-mm screws were used to tightly affix the proximal paddle lead wiring to the lamina below the laminotomy defect. All patients continue to have satisfactory spinal cord stimulation with no loss of efficacy or need for revision. No complications have been attributed to titanium plate anchoring, and there have been no cases of lead migration with this technique. Titanium plate anchoring added minimal time (approximately 3-5 minutes) to the operative case. We report a safe and effective anchoring technique for paddle lead SCS with the use of a cranial plate. Our experience has been that this technique, which anchors the proximal lead wiring to the remaining lamina at the inferior laminotomy defect, is superior to anchoring methods that rely on suturing of lead wiring.

  16. Modified method for external attachment of transmitters to birds using two subcutaneous anchors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, T.L.; Flint, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Of the transmitter attachment techniques for birds, the subcutaneous anchor provides a secure attachment that yields relatively few secondary effects. However, the use of subcutaneous anchors has been limited by transmitter size and retention time. Using a modified method of attachment that utilized two subcutaneous anchors, we deployed 69 GPS transmitters, plus 13 VHF transmitters that were similar in size and weight to GPS models, on Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Prior to our study, only harnesses were used for attaching GPS transmitters on birds, mainly because GPS transmitters are too large for other external attachment techniques and implantation in the body cavity attenuates the GPS signal. Thus, to increase the size capacity of anchor attachment and to avoid the well-documented negative effects of harnesses on behavior and survival, we added a second anchor at the transmitter's posterior end. The double-anchor attachment technique was quickly and easily accomplished in the field, requiring bird handling times of <10 min. Incidental recoveries of tagged Brant indicate a high degree of transmitter retention. Five recaptured birds (4-6 weeks after deployment) and eight killed by hunters (3-6 mo after deployment) retained their GPS transmitters. For studies involving the use of relatively large transmitters, the double-anchor method appears to provide a viable alternative for external attachment. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  17. Cellular aspects of M protein and SfbI anchoring to Streptococcus pyogenes wall

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Assaf; Talay, Susanne; Fischetti, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Summary Wall-anchored surface proteins are critical for the in vivo survival of Streptococcus pyogenes. Cues in the signal sequence direct the membrane translocation of surface proteins: M protein to the septum, and SfbI to the poles. Both proteins are subsequently anchored to the wall by the membrane bound enzyme sortase A. However, the cellular features of these pathways are not fully understood. Here we show that M protein and SfbI are anchored simultaneously throughout the cell cycle. M protein is rapidly anchored at the septum, and in part of the cell cycle, is anchored simultaneously at the mother and daughter septa. Conversely, SfbI accumulates gradually on peripheral peptidoglycan, resulting in a polar distribution. Sortase is not required for translocation of M protein or SfbI at their respective locations. Methicillin-induced unbalanced peptidoglycan synthesis diminishes surface M protein but not SfbI. Furthermore, overexpression of the division regulator DivIVA also diminishes surface M protein but increases SfbI. These results demonstrate a close connection between the regulation of cell division and protein anchoring. Better understanding of the spatial regulation of surface anchoring may lead to the identification of novel targets for the development of anti-infective agents, given the importance of surface molecules for pathogenesis. PMID:22512736

  18. Stability calculation method of slope reinforced by prestressed anchor in process of excavation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Wei, Jia; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the effect of supporting structure and anchor on the slope stability of the excavation process into consideration; the stability calculation model is presented for the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam, and the dynamic search model of the critical slip surface also is put forward. The calculation model of the optimal stability solution of each anchor tension of the whole process is also given out, through which the real-time analysis and checking of slope stability in the process of excavation can be realized. The calculation examples indicate that the slope stability is changed with the dynamic change of the design parameters of anchor and grillage beam. So it is relatively more accurate and reasonable by using dynamic search model to determine the critical slip surface of the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam. Through the relationships of each anchor layout and the slope height of various stages of excavation, and the optimal stability solution of prestressed bolt tension design value in various excavation stages can be obtained. The arrangement of its prestressed anchor force reflects that the layout of the lower part of bolt and the calculation of slope reinforcement is in line with the actual. These indicate that the method is reasonable and practical.

  19. Stability Calculation Method of Slope Reinforced by Prestressed Anchor in Process of Excavation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong; Wei, Jia; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the effect of supporting structure and anchor on the slope stability of the excavation process into consideration; the stability calculation model is presented for the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam, and the dynamic search model of the critical slip surface also is put forward. The calculation model of the optimal stability solution of each anchor tension of the whole process is also given out, through which the real-time analysis and checking of slope stability in the process of excavation can be realized. The calculation examples indicate that the slope stability is changed with the dynamic change of the design parameters of anchor and grillage beam. So it is relatively more accurate and reasonable by using dynamic search model to determine the critical slip surface of the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam. Through the relationships of each anchor layout and the slope height of various stages of excavation, and the optimal stability solution of prestressed bolt tension design value in various excavation stages can be obtained. The arrangement of its prestressed anchor force reflects that the layout of the lower part of bolt and the calculation of slope reinforcement is in line with the actual. These indicate that the method is reasonable and practical. PMID:24683319

  20. Characterization of the C-terminal ER membrane anchor of PTP1B

    SciTech Connect

    Anderie, Ines Schulz, Irene; Schmid, Andreas

    2007-09-10

    The tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is an important regulator of cell function. In living cells PTP1B activity is restricted to the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by post-translational C-terminal attachment of PTP1B to the ER membrane network. In our study we investigated the membrane anchor of PTP1B by use of EGFP fusion proteins. We demonstrate that the membrane anchor of PTP1B cannot be narrowed down to a unique amino acid sequence with a defined start and stop point but rather is moveable within several amino acids. Removal of up to seven amino acids from the C-terminus, as well as exchange of single amino acids in the putative transmembrane sequence did not influence subcellular localization of PTP1B. With the method of bimolecular fluorescence complementation we could demonstrate dimerization of PTP1B in vivo. Homodimerization was, in contrast to other tail-anchored proteins, not dependent on the membrane anchor. Our data demonstrate that the C-terminal membrane anchor of PTP1B is formed by a combination of a single stretch transmembrane domain (TMD) followed by a tail. TMD and tail length are variable and there are no sequence-specific features. Our data for PTP1B are consistent with a concept that explains the ER membrane anchor of tail-anchored proteins as a physicochemical structure.

  1. Solid-state NMR spectra of lipid-anchored proteins under magic angle spinning.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kaoru; Harada, Erisa; Sugase, Kenji; Shimamoto, Keiko

    2014-03-06

    Solid-state NMR is a promising tool for elucidating membrane-related biological phenomena. We achieved the measurement of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra for a lipid-anchored protein embedded in lipid bilayers under magic angle spinning (MAS). To date, solid-state NMR measurements of lipid-anchored proteins have not been accomplished due to the difficulty in supplying sufficient amount of stable isotope labeled samples in the overexpression of lipid-anchored proteins requiring complex posttranslational modification. We designed a pseudo lipid-anchored protein in which the protein component was expressed in E. coli and attached to a chemically synthesized lipid-anchor mimic. Using two types of membranes, liposomes and bicelles, we demonstrated different types of insertion procedures for lipid-anchored protein into membranes. In the liposome sample, we were able to observe the cross-polarization and the (13)C-(13)C chemical shift correlation spectra under MAS, indicating that the liposome sample can be used to analyze molecular interactions using dipolar-based NMR experiments. In contrast, the bicelle sample showed sufficient quality of spectra through scalar-based experiments. The relaxation times and protein-membrane interaction were capable of being analyzed in the bicelle sample. These results demonstrated the applicability of two types of sample system to elucidate the roles of lipid-anchors in regulating diverse biological phenomena.

  2. Analysis of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fivaz, M; Vilbois, F; Pasquali, C; van der Goot, F G

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize mammalian glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins y two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using immobilized pH gradients. Analysis was performed on detergent-resistant membrane fractions of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, since such fractions have previously been shown to be highly enriched in GPI-anchored proteins. Although the GPI-anchored proteins were readily separated by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), these proteins were undetectable on two-dimensional (2-D) gels, even though these gels unambiguously revealed high enrichment of known hydrophobic proteins of detergent-resistant membranes such as caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 (identified by Western blotting and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively). Proper separation of GPI-anchored proteins required cleavage of the lipid tail with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, presumably to avoid interference of the hydrophobic phospholipid moiety of GPI-anchors during isoelectric focusing. Using this strategy, BHK cells were observed to contain at least six GPI-anchored proteins. Each protein was also present as multiple isoforms with different isoelectric points and apparent molecular weights, consistent with extensive but differential N-glycosylation. Pretreatment with N-glycosidase F indeed caused the different isoforms of each protein to collapse into a single spot. In addition, quantitative removal of N-linked sugars greatly facilitated the detection of heavily glycosylated proteins and enabled sequencing by nanoelectrospray-tandem mass spectrometry as illustrated for the GPI-anchored protein, Thy-1.

  3. Protozoan parasites glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors: structures, functions and trends for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Morotti, Ana Luísa Malaco; Martins-Teixeira, Maristela Braga; Carvalho, Ivone

    2017-07-27

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors are complex molecules that support certain proteins in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. The GPI anchor scaffold is comprised of a glycan core which contains a phosphoethanolamine linker and a phospholipid chain. GPI-anchored proteins are structurally and functionally diverse and play essential roles in several biological processes, in particular cell-cell interaction. Although all eukaryotes possess GPI anchors in their cell membrane, protozoan parasites use this anchorage much more frequently than higher eukaryotes. There is extensive evidence that parasites' GPI anchors are important for virulence and interaction with host cells, as well as their own survival and viability. Structural and biosynthetic pathway differences between many parasites and mammalian cells have been explored for further understanding about functions and importance of these molecules. Some GPI biosynthesis enzymes have been proposed as alternative targets for therapy against parasitic diseases. This review discusses concisely the main differences between parasitic and mammalian GPI anchor biosynthesis, and highlights the implications of structural variation. Moreover, advances in drug discovery based on GPI anchor structures and biosynthetic pathway are outlined. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Knotless Suture Anchor With Suture Tape Quadriceps Tendon Repair Is Biomechanically Superior to Transosseous and Traditional Suture Anchor-Based Repairs in a Cadaveric Model.

    PubMed

    Kindya, Michael C; Konicek, John; Rizzi, Angelo; Komatsu, David E; Paci, James M

    2017-01-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties of a knotless suture anchor with suture tape quadriceps tendon repair technique with transosseous and suture anchor repair techniques. Twenty matched pairs of cadaveric knees underwent a quadriceps tendon avulsion followed by repair via the use of transosseous tunnels with #2 high-strength sutures, 5.5-mm biocomposite fully threaded suture anchors with #2 high-strength sutures, or 4.75-mm biocomposite knotless suture anchors with suture tape. Ten knees were repaired via transosseous repair and 10 via fully threaded suture anchor repair, and their matched specimens were repaired with suture tape and knotless anchors. Biomechanical analysis included displacement during cyclic loading over 250 cycles, construct stiffness, ultimate load to failure, and failure mode analysis. Compared with transosseous repairs, quadriceps tendons repaired with knotless suture tape demonstrated significantly less displacement during cyclic loading (cycles 1-20 3.6 ± 1.3 vs 6.3 ± 1.9 mm, P = .003; cycles 20-250 2.0 ± 0.4 vs 3.1 ± 0.9 mm, P = .011), improved construct stiffness (67 ± 25 vs 26 ± 12 N/mm, P = .001), and greater ultimate load to failure (616 ± 149 vs 413 ± 107 N, P = .004). Our repair technique also demonstrated improved biomechanical parameters compared with fully threaded suture anchor repair in initial displacement during cyclic loading (cycles 1-20 3.0 ± 0.8 vs 5.1 ± 0.9 mm, P < .001), construct stiffness (62 ± 20 vs 28 ± 10 N/mm, P = .001) and ultimate load to failure (579 ± 129 vs 399 ± 87 N, P = .006). Repair of quadriceps tendon ruptures with this knotless suture anchor with suture tape repair technique is biomechanically superior in cyclic displacement, construct stiffness, and ultimate load to failure compared with transosseous and fully threaded suture anchor techniques in cadaveric specimens. The demonstration that our repair technique is biomechanically superior to previously described techniques

  5. Study of crack patterns in beam column joint due to upwards anchoring beam effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabariman, Bambang; Sofianto, Mochamad Firmansyah

    2017-06-01

    Beam-column joint (BCJ) of reinforced concrete is an area of critical which must be carefully designed to absorb the seismic energy. Inability to absorb seismic energy will cause serious damage to structural failure. It will lead to shear failure, i.e. brittle and endanger users of the building if the BCJ area is not designed properly. In order to get a building structure is safe and resistant to disasters, mainly due to the earthquake, the structure must be designed in accordance to the rules of standard construction (eligible detailing). In general, the anchorages (detailing) reinforcement beams to the column is pointing downwards, however, what if the steel anchoring beams are pointing upwards. Different anchoring will result in the behavior of different structures, such as fracturing pattern. This study observes two anchoring model, by making two test specimens of BCJ. One set of reinforcement beams anchored BCJ upward and downward respectively, which are applied with monotonic static load. The study investigated the pattern of cracks and ductility of the beam displacement on BCJ. The results showed that the downward anchoring in the fracturing pattern out of the area BCJ was anchoring upward pattern rift goes deep into the area BCJ, thus anchoring above makes BCJ unsafe. Downward anchoring are more ductile than the upward anchoring, however the deflection of all BJC specimens was higher than the boundaries maximum deflection prediction (Δprediction = 10.45 mm < eksp Δexp-min = 13.15 mm), which can be assumed that all BCJ specimens were ductile, but it still in ductile limited due to displacement ductility μΔ<3,5.

  6. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  7. Wireless and acoustic hearing with bone-anchored hearing devices

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Arjan J.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A.M.; Hol, Myrthe K.S.; Snik, Ad F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The efficacy of wireless connectivity in bone-anchored hearing was studied by comparing the wireless and acoustic performance of the Ponto Plus sound processor from Oticon Medical relative to the acoustic performance of its predecessor, the Ponto Pro. Study sample: Nineteen subjects with more than two years' experience with a bone-anchored hearing device were included. Thirteen subjects were fitted unilaterally and six bilaterally. Design: Subjects served as their own control. First, subjects were tested with the Ponto Pro processor. After a four-week acclimatization period performance the Ponto Plus processor was measured. In the laboratory wireless and acoustic input levels were made equal. In daily life equal settings of wireless and acoustic input were used when watching TV, however when using the telephone the acoustic input was reduced by 9 dB relative to the wireless input. Results: Speech scores for microphone with Ponto Pro and for both input modes of the Ponto Plus processor were essentially equal when equal input levels of wireless and microphone inputs were used. Only the TV-condition showed a statistically significant (p <5%) lower speech reception threshold for wireless relative to microphone input. In real life, evaluation of speech quality, speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, and annoyance by ambient noise, when using landline phone, mobile telephone, and watching TV showed a clear preference (p <1%) for the Ponto Plus system with streamer over the microphone input. Due to the small number of respondents with landline phone (N = 7) the result for noise annoyance was only significant at the 5% level. Conclusion: Equal input levels for acoustic and wireless inputs results in equal speech scores, showing a (near) equivalence for acoustic and wireless sound transmission with Ponto Pro and Ponto Plus. The default 9-dB difference between microphone and wireless input when using the telephone results in a substantial

  8. Tethered bilayer lipid membranes on mixed self-assembled monolayers of a novel anchoring thiol: impact of the anchoring thiol density on bilayer formation.

    PubMed

    Basit, Hajra; Van der Heyden, Angéline; Gondran, Chantal; Nysten, Bernard; Dumy, Pascal; Labbé, Pierre

    2011-12-06

    Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) are designed on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of a novel synthetic anchoring thiol, 2,3-di-o-palmitoylglycerol-1-tetraethylene glycol mercaptopropanoic acid ester (TEG-DP), and a new short dilution thiol molecule, tetraethylene glycol mercaptopropanoic acid ester (TEG). tBLM formation was accomplished by self-directed fusion of small unilamellar vesicles of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The influence of the dilution of the anchoring thiol molecule in the SAM on the vesicle fusion process and on the properties of the resulting tBLMs is studied. It is observed by quartz crystal microbalance that vesicle fusion is a one-step process for a pure TEG-DP SAM as well as for mixed SAMs containing a high concentration of the anchoring thiol. However, upon dilution of the anchoring thiol to moderate concentrations, this process is decelerated and possibly follows a pathway different from that observed on a pure TEG-DP SAM. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to qualitatively correlate the composition of the SAM to the electrical properties of the tBLM. In this paper we also delineate the necessity of a critical concentration of this anchoring TEG-DP thiol as a requisite for inducing the fusion of vesicles to form a tBLM. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Simultaneous Rotator Cuff Repair and Arthroscopic Biceps Tenodesis Using Lateral Row Anchor

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of concomitant long head of the biceps pathology in the setting of rotator cuff repair is often required. When a tenodesis of the biceps is used, additional anchors and surgical dissection are typically required. This adds additional surgical time, morbidity of additional surgical dissection, and additional anchor load and cost. We describe a novel technique for arthroscopic biceps tenodesis that uses the anterior lateral row anchor of a double-row rotator cuff repair to simultaneously secure the biceps tenodesis and rotator cuff tear. This technique provides a simple, reproducible, cost-effective means of performing a simultaneous biceps tenodesis and double-row rotator cuff repair. PMID:23766961

  10. Autonomous Landing and Smart Anchoring for In-Situ Exploration of Small Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghavimi, Ali R.; Serricchio, Frederick; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Dolgin, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Future NASA missions include in-situ scientific explorations of small interplanetary objects like comets and asteroids. Sample acquisition systems are envisioned to operate directly from the landers that are anchored to the surface. Landing and anchoring proves to be challenging in the absence of an attitude control system and in the presence of nearly zero-gravity environments with uncertain surface terrain and unknown mechanical properties. This paper presents recent advancements in developing a novel landing and anchoring control system for the exploration of small bodies.

  11. Structure of the Cell Wall Anchor of Surface Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneewind, Olaf; Fowler, Audree; Faull, Kym F.

    1995-04-01

    Many surface proteins are anchored to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria and are involved in the pathogenesis of these organisms. A hybrid molecule was designed that, when expressed in Staphylococcus aureus, was anchored to the cell wall and could be released by controlled enzymatic digestion. By a combination of molecular biology and mass spectrometry techniques, the structure of the cell wall anchor of surface proteins in S. aureus was revealed. After cleavage of surface proteins between threonine and glycine of the conserved LPXTG motif, the carboxyl of threonine is amide-linked to the free amino group of the pentaglycine crossbridge in the staphylococcal cell wall.

  12. Dynamics of anchor last deployment of submersible buoy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhongqiang; Xu, Jianpeng; Huang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Chang, Zongyu

    2016-02-01

    Submersible buoy systems are widely used for oceanographic research, ocean engineering and coastal defense. Severe sea environment has obvious effects on the dynamics of submersible buoy systems. Huge tension can occur and may cause the snap of cables, especially during the deployment period. This paper studies the deployment dynamics of submersible buoy systems with numerical and experimental methods. By applying the lumped mass approach, a three-dimensional multi-body model of submersible buoy system is developed considering the hydrodynamic force, tension force and impact force between components of submersible buoy system and seabed. Numerical integration method is used to solve the differential equations. The simulation output includes tension force, trajectory, profile and dropping location and impact force of submersible buoys. In addition, the deployment experiment of a simplified submersible buoy model was carried out. The profile and different nodes' velocities of the submersible buoy are obtained. By comparing the results of the two methods, it is found that the numerical model well simulates the actual process and conditions of the experiment. The simulation results agree well with the results of the experiment such as gravity anchor's location and velocities of different nodes of the submersible buoy. The study results will help to understand the conditions of submersible buoy's deployment, operation and recovery, and can be used to guide the design and optimization of the system.

  13. Collagenous microstructure of the glenoid labrum and biceps anchor

    PubMed Central

    Hill, A M; Hoerning, E J; Brook, K; Smith, C D; Moss, J; Ryder, T; Wallace, A L; Bull, A M J

    2008-01-01

    The glenoid labrum is a significant passive stabilizer of the shoulder joint. However, its microstructural form remains largely unappreciated, particularly in the context of its variety of functions. The focus of labral microscopy has often been histology and, as such, there is very little appreciation of collagen composition and arrangement of the labrum, and hence the micromechanics of the structure. On transmission electron microscopy, significant differences in diameter, area and perimeter were noted in the two gross histological groups of collagen fibril visualized; this suggests a heterogeneous collagenous composition with potentially distinct mechanical function. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated three distinct zones of interest: a superficial mesh, a dense circumferential braided core potentially able to accommodate hoop stresses, and a loosely packed peri-core zone. Confocal microscopy revealed an articular surface fine fibrillar mesh potentially able to reduce surface friction, bundles of circumferential encapsulated fibres in the bulk of the tissue, and bone anchoring fibres at the osseous interface. Varying microstructure throughout the depth of the labrum suggests a role in accommodating different types of loading. An understanding of the labral microstructure can lead to development of hypotheses based upon an appreciation of this component of material property. This may aid an educated approach to surgical timing and repair. PMID:18429974

  14. A new rigid biodegradable anchor for meniscus refixation: biomechanical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zantop, Thore; Eggers, Anne Kathleen; Musahl, Volker; Weimann, Andre; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Petersen, Wolf

    2004-07-01

    All-inside repair devices have been developed to overcome the disadvantages of conventional suture techniques (such as vein and nerve damage and increased OR time). The Contour Meniscus Arrow is a second generation of the first biodegradable all-inside implant, the Meniscus Arrow. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the Contour Meniscus Arrow to the first-generation Meniscus Arrow and vertical or horizontal suture techniques. In fresh frozen bovine menisci, initial fixation strength, stiffness and failure mode of four different meniscus refixation techniques (Meniscus Arrow, Contour Meniscus Arrow, vertical and horizontal 2-0 Ethibond suture techniques) were evaluated in a computer-based material-testing machine at a rate of 12.5 mm/s. Vertical meniscus sutures showed the highest initial fixation strength, followed by the horizontal suture technique and the Contour Arrow. The Meniscus Arrow showed inferior pull-out strength. Subjecting the different refixation techniques to cyclic testing decreased the fixation strength in all groups. The modified Meniscus Anchor (Contour Arrow) provides biomechanical properties that are superior (pull-out strength) or similar (stiffness) compared to the first biodegradable all-inside implant, the Meniscus Arrow. The pull-out strength of the Contour Arrow was comparable to the pull-out strength reported for horizontal meniscus sutures in the literature. These biomechanical characteristics of this new implant justify clinical use.

  15. Molecular Investigations into the Mechanics of a Muscle Anchoring Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bodmer, Nicholas K.; Theisen, Kelly E.; Dima, Ruxandra I.

    2015-01-01

    The titin-telethonin complex, essential for anchoring filaments in the Z-disk of the sarcomere, is composed of immunoglobulin domains. Surprisingly, atomic force microscopy experiments showed that it resists forces much higher than the typical immunoglobulin domain and that the force distribution is unusually broad. To investigate the origin of this behavior, we developed a multiscale simulation approach, combining minimalist and atomistic models (SOP-AT). By following the mechanical response of the complex on experimental timescales, we found that the mechanical stability of titin-telethonin is modulated primarily by the strength of contacts between telethonin and the two titin chains, and secondarily by the timescales of conformational excursions inside telethonin and the pulled titin domains. Importantly, the conformational transitions executed by telethonin in simulations support its proposed role in mechanosensing. Our SOP-AT computational approach thus provides a powerful tool for the exploration of the link between conformational diversity and the broadness of the mechanical response, which can be applied to other multidomain complexes. PMID:25954889

  16. Chemical synthesis and functionalization of clickable glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Benjamin M; Guo, Zhongwu

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchorage is a common posttranslational modification of eukaryotic proteins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPIs and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems. In this work, the synthesis of several functionalized GPI anchors was accomplished using the para-methoxybenzyl (PMB) group for permanent hydroxyl protection, which allowed the incorporation of functionalities that are incompatible with permanent protecting groups traditionally used in carbohydrate synthesis. A flexible convergent-divergent assembly strategy enabled efficient access to a diverse set of target structures, including "clickable" Alkynyl-GPIs 1 and 2 and Azido-GPI 3. For global deprotection, a one-pot reaction was employed to afford the target GPIs in excellent yields (85-97%). Fully deprotected clickable GPIs 2 and 3 were readily conjugated to imaging and affinity probes via Cu(I)-catalyzed and Cu-free strain-promoted [3+2] cycloaddition, respectively, resulting in GPI-Fluor 4 and GPI-Biotin 5.

  17. Application of fiber optic sensing technology in anchor monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lei; Jiang, Desheng; Sun, Dongya

    2000-05-01

    Prestressed steel anchors are widely adopted in the stabilization of rock slope engineering. To ensure the safety of the stabilization system, reliable monitoring techniques should be used to evaluate the operating state of the anchorage system. Fiber optical sensors can achieve the distribution detection of strain along the whole length of the optical fiber. Therefore it will be very suitable to embed optical fiber in motar, esp. concrete to perform strain measurement as well as crack detection. This paper reports the development of a simple intensity modulated fiber optic sensor for detecting internal cracks of concrete structures. This sensor is embedded in a 1-meter-long concrete beam and its reliability and feasibility tests were conducted by loading this beam to failure. Experiments for the embedded sensor show that incipience and propagation of concrete cracks can be well displayed by light intensity meter and the sensor can endure large deformation before it cracks and the maximum concrete crack width endured by the sensor can reach 5 mm.

  18. Development of a prediction system for tail-anchored proteins.

    PubMed

    Shigemitsu, Shunsuke; Cao, Wei; Terada, Tohru; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2016-09-15

    "Tail-anchored (TA) proteins" is a collective term for transmembrane proteins with a C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) and without an N-terminal signal sequence. TA proteins account for approximately 3-5 % of all transmembrane proteins that mediate membrane fusion, regulation of apoptosis, and vesicular transport. The combined use of TMD and signal sequence prediction tools is typically required to predict TA proteins. Here we developed a prediction system named TAPPM that predicted TA proteins solely from target amino acid sequences according to the knowledge of the sequence features of TMDs and the peripheral regions of TA proteins. Manually curated TA proteins were collected from published literature. We constructed hidden markov models of TA proteins as well as three different types of transmembrane proteins with similar structures and compared their likelihoods as TA proteins. Using the HMM models, we achieved high prediction accuracy; area under the receiver operator curve values reaching 0.963. A command line tool written in Python is available at https://github.com/davecao/tappm_cli .

  19. Financial fluctuations anchored to economic fundamentals: A mesoscopic network approach.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kiran; Gopalakrishnan, Balagopal; Chakrabarti, Anindya S; Chakraborti, Anirban

    2017-08-14

    We demonstrate the existence of an empirical linkage between nominal financial networks and the underlying economic fundamentals, across countries. We construct the nominal return correlation networks from daily data to encapsulate sector-level dynamics and infer the relative importance of the sectors in the nominal network through measures of centrality and clustering algorithms. Eigenvector centrality robustly identifies the backbone of the minimum spanning tree defined on the return networks as well as the primary cluster in the multidimensional scaling map. We show that the sectors that are relatively large in size, defined with three metrics, viz., market capitalization, revenue and number of employees, constitute the core of the return networks, whereas the periphery is mostly populated by relatively smaller sectors. Therefore, sector-level nominal return dynamics are anchored to the real size effect, which ultimately shapes the optimal portfolios for risk management. Our results are reasonably robust across 27 countries of varying degrees of prosperity and across periods of market turbulence (2008-09) as well as periods of relative calmness (2012-13 and 2015-16).

  20. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461