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Sample records for 4-vinylpyridine anchored rhcod2-pic2pf6

  1. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-coated glassy carbon flow detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Golden, T.; Tuzhi, P.

    1987-03-01

    The performance of a thin-layer flow detector with a glassy carbon electrode coated with a film of protonated poly(4-vinylpyridine) is described. Substantial improvement in the selectivity of amperometric detection for liquid chromatography and flow injection systems is observed as a result of excluding cationic species from the surface. The detector response was evaluated with respect to flow rate, solute concentration, coating scheme, film-to-film reproducibility, and other variables. Despite the increase in diffusional resistance, low detection limits of ca. 0.04 and 0.10 ng of ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively, are maintained. Protection from organic surfactants can be coupled to the charge exclusion effect by using a bilayer coating, with a cellulose acetate film atop the poly(4-vinylpyridine) layer. Applicability to urine sample is demonstrated.

  2. Radiation induced emulsion graft polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine onto PE/PP nonwoven fabric for As(V) adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş Kavaklı, Pınar; Kavaklı, Cengiz; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao; Güven, Olgun

    2016-10-01

    A novel nonwoven fabric adsorbent having 4-vinylpyridine functional groups was prepared by using radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization method and grafting 4-vinylpyridine monomer onto a polyethylene-coated polypropylene nonwoven fabric (NWF) in aqueous emulsion solution. The grafting conditions of the 4-vinylpyridine monomer onto the NWF were optimised and 150% Dg VP-g-NWF was prepared using 30 kGy pre-irradiation dose, 5% VP monomer concentration and 0.5% (w/w) Tween 20 in aqueous emulsion. Grafted 4-vinylpyridine chains on the NWF were then quaternized for the preparation of QVP-g-NWF adsorbent. All fabric structures were characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, x-ray photoelectron spectrometer and scanning electron microscope. QVP-g-NWF adsorbent was used in batch adsorption experiments for As(V) ions by studying the pH, contact time, and initial As(V) ion concentration parameters. Results showed that QVP-g-NWF adsorbent has significant As(V) adsorption and experimental As(V) adsorption capacity was 98.04 mg As(V)/g polymer from 500 mg/L initial As(V) concentration at pH 7.00.

  3. Enzyme-free Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide from Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(4-vinylpyridine) Self-Assembled Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Gaynor, James D.; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Inerbaev, Talgat; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Shutthanandan, V.; Seal, Sudipta; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-05-02

    A single layer of oxygen-deficient cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are immobilized on microscopic glass slide using poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). A specific colorimetric property of CNPs when reacted with hydrogen peroxide allows for the direct, single-step peroxide detection which can be used in medical diagnosis and explosives detection. Multiple PVP-CNP immobilized layers improve sensitivity of detection and the sensor can be regenerated for reuse.

  4. Organocatalytic enantioselective direct additions of aldehydes to 4-vinylpyridines and electron-deficient vinylarenes and their synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sinan; Li, Xiangmin; Liu, Hongwei; Xu, Li; Zhuang, Jinchen; Li, Jian; Li, Hao; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-18

    We describe a synergistic catalysis strategy for the asymmetric direct addition of simple aldehydes to 4-vinylpyridines. By means of independent activation of weakly electrophilic 4-vinylpyridines by the Brønsted acid CF3SO3H (TfOH) and aldehydes by chiral diphenylprolinol tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) ether-catalyzed formation of nucleophilic enamines in a cooperative manner, the previously unattainable highly enantioselective addition process has been realized for the first time. Notably, the power of the addition process is fueled by its high efficiency in the production of synthetically valued chiral pyridines. (1)H NMR studies of the process suggested that the nucleophilic enamine formed in situ from the chiral amine catalyst and the aldehyde is directly added to the trimeric 4-vinylpyridinium-derived species as a highly active electrophile generated from the 4-vinylpyridine in the presence of TfOH. Moreover, inspired by the similar electronic natures of pyridine and nitrobenzene, we have achieved an unprecedented chiral diphenylprolinol TBDMS ether-promoted, highly enantioselective direct addition of aldehydes to 2-nitrostyrenes without the use of TfOH as a cocatalyst. In this approach, introducing a strong electron-withdrawing group such as NO2, CF3, SO2Me, etc. on the 2-nitrostyrene creates a highly electrophilic vinyl moiety, which enables the direct addition of the in situ-formed enamine derived from the chiral amine promoter and the aldehyde. This method significantly expands the scope of the enantioselective addition process. While the electron-withdrawing nitro group is essential for activation of the vinyl group, we have demonstrated that it can be readily transformed to diverse functionalities. Furthermore, as shown, a chiral pyridine adduct serves as a key building block in the synthesis of the potent fibrinogen receptor antagonist L-734,217.

  5. Antagonistic activity of poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide) to the inhibition of viral interferon induction by asbestos fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Hahon, N; Booth, J A; Eckert, H L

    1977-01-01

    The depressive activity of both serpentine (Canadian and Rhodesian chrysotiles) and amphibole (amosite, crocidolite, and anthophyllite) asbestos fibres on interferon induction by influenza virus was significantly diminished or abolished completely when either asbestos fibres or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide). Maximal antagonistic activity of the polymer was time and concentration dependent. Pretreating asbestos fibres with the polymer was more rapid and effective in encouraging viral interferon synthesis than pretreating cell monolayers. Virus multiplication in the presence of asbestos fibre-treated cell monolayers attained a twofold higher level than that noted in normal cell monolayers or those containing polymer-pretreated asbestos fibres. These findings were related to the suppression of interferon production. PMID:871442

  6. Stimuli-responsive color films of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) complexed with cyano-capped chromophores.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Wei; Li, Chien-Lin; Li, Ming-Chia; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2013-07-16

    Here, we develop a method to fabricate stimuli-responsive color films using block copolymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (P4VP-PCL), as a template complexed with functionalized chromophores. The P4VP block in the P4VP-PCL can be associated with a cyano end-capped chromophore via charge transfer, which is a noncovalent interaction that can be conveniently manipulated by external stimuli, giving a specific color. The color of the film can be switched by tuning the charge transfer interaction between the chromophore and P4VP with controlled environmental conditions, such as pH, temperature, and moisture, while maintaining high transmittance for visible light due to the formation of the nanostructure of chromophore/P4VP-PCL complex. However, the association/dissociation process between chromophore and P4VP is diffusion-dominated, which may limit the kinetic response time for color change. A way to create quick and reversible color switching can be achieved by a combination of stimuli. The contrasting color change of the responsive chromophore/P4VP-PCL thin films which exhibit RGB primary colors can provide a sensor film that is flexible, fast-responsive, and convenient.

  7. Counteraction of poly(4-vinylpyridine-n-oxide) on the depression of viral interferon induction by coal dust.

    PubMed Central

    Hahon, N

    1976-01-01

    The depressive activity of coal dust on interferon induction by influenza was markedly subverted when either coal dust or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oside). The polymer alone neither induced interferon synthesis, inhibited viral induction of interferon, influenced viral multiplication, nor affected cellular-induced resistance by interferon. Absorption of the polymer to coal dust not only occurred at a more rapid rate than to cell monolayers, but also less polymer was required to pretreat coal dust than cell monolayers to achieve comparable amelioration of interferon production. The polymer effectively negated the adverse activity of coal dust particles, irrespective of the latter's size (is less than 2.0 to 74.0 mum). Virus multiplication in the presence of coal dust=treated cell monolayers attained a level that was twofol higher than that noted with either polymer-pretreated coal dust or polymer-pretreated cell monolayers. Interferon production was almost completely inhibited in the presence of coal dust; pretreating coal dust or cells with the polymer abrogated this inhibitory activity of coal dust. It is tentatively suggested that coal dust particles per se directly interact with cell membranes to subvert interferon induction and that the formation of an absorbed polymerlayer on these complexes prevents their interaction. PMID:178603

  8. Characterization of poly(4-vinylpyridine 1-oxide) by free-solution capillary electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Herrero-Martínez, José M; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2008-08-01

    The migration characteristics of poly(4-vinylpyridine 1-oxide) (PVP-NO) in phosphate buffers of acidic pH (20 mM H3PO4 or NaH2PO4) have been studied using both free-solution capillary electrophoresis (FSCE) and MEKC. To inhibit adsorption, 250 mM o-phosphoethanolamine (2-aminoethyl dihydrogen phosphate) was used. In FSCE, PVP-NO showed a narrow peak and a broader band, both having anionic behavior. These peak and band were attributed to the free and aggregated or micellized PVP-NO forms, respectively. According to surface tension measurements, the CMC of SDS in the BGE was 1.8 and 0.48 mM in the absence and in the presence of 1000 microg/mL PVP-NO, respectively, and the association of the polymer with SDS was completed at 9.7 mM SDS. Using MEKC, a narrow peak and a broader band also appeared at SDS concentrations of ca. 1 mM, and their intensity increased with the SDS concentration. These peak and band were attributed to the formation of mixed micelles constituted by both free PVP-NO/SDS and aggregated PVP-NO/SDS, respectively. The determination of PVP-NO by FSCE in commercial additives for laundry was demonstrated.

  9. Synthesis, adsorption and selectivity studies of N-propyl quaternized magnetic poly(4-vinylpyridine) for hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Tavengwa, Nikita Tawanda; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2013-11-15

    The ability of solid N-propyl quaternized magnetic poly(4-vinylpyridine) for the extraction of chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions was investigated. For the synthesized Cr(VI) magnetic polymers, the optimum pH obtained was 4 for both the magnetic ion imprinted polymer (IIP) and the corresponding non-ion imprinted polymer NIP. The amount of the adsorbent which gave the maximum adsorption was determined to be 20 and 65 mg for the magnetic IIP and NIP, respectively. A Cr(VI) concentration which was adsorbed maximally was 5 mg L(-1) which was therefore taken as the optimum. The maximum adsorption capacities for the magnetic polymers were 6.20 and 1.87 mg g(-1) for the magnetic IIP and NIP, respectively. The optimum time for the adsorption of the Cr(VI) analyte was determined as 40 min. The prepared magnetic ion imprinted polymer showed good selectivity towards Cr(VI). The order of selectivity of the investigated anions followed the sequence: Cr2O7(2-)>SO4(2-)>F(-)>NO3(-).

  10. Dual-switchable bioelectrocatalysis synergistically controlled by pH and perchlorate concentration based on poly(4-vinylpyridine) films.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaoling; Hu, Naifei

    2010-09-09

    Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) films were electropolymerized on a pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrode surface. The cyclic voltammetric (CV) response of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH)(2)) at P4VP film electrodes was very sensitive to the pH and perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) concentration in testing solutions. Fc(COOH)(2) was at the "on" state with a relatively large CV oxidation peak current for the films at pH 4.0 but showed the "off" state with significantly suppressed CV response at pH 7.0. The reversible ClO(4)(-) concentration-sensitive on-off property of P4VP films toward Fc(COOH)(2) at pH 4.0 was also observed. In particular, the influence of pH and ClO(4)(-) concentration on the on-off behavior of the system is not independent or separate but synergetic or cooperative, and the electrostatic interaction between the films and the probe plays a predominant role in deciding the pH- and/or ClO(4)(-) concentration-dependent behavior for the system. The dual-responsive property of the P4VP films toward Fc(COOH)(2) could also be used to control the bioelectrocatalysis of glucose by glucose oxidase. This synergetic-triggered bioelectrocatalysis on the basis of the intelligent interface system may establish a foundation for fabricating novel multiple factor-controllable biosensors based on enzymatic electrocatalysis.

  11. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-based Interfacial Passivation to Enhance Voltage and Moisture Stability of Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Chaudhary, Bhumika; Kulkarni, Ashish; Jena, Ajay Kumar; Ikegami, Masashi; Udagawa, Yosuke; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-29

    It is well known that the surface trap states and electronic disorders in the solution-processed CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite film affect the solar cell performance significantly and moisture sensitivity of photo-active perovskite material limits its practical applications. Herein, we show surface modification of perovskite film with a solution-processable hydrophobic polymer namely poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP), which passivates the under-coordinated lead (Pb) atoms (on the surface of perovskite) via its pyridine Lewis base side chains and thereby eliminates surface trap states and non-radiative recombination. Besides, it acts as an electron barrier between the perovskite and hole transport layer (HTL) to reduce interfacial charge recombination, which led to improvement in open-circuit voltage (Voc) by 120 to 160 mV while the standard cell fabricated in same conditions showed Voc as low as 0.9 V due to dominating interfacial recombination processes. Consequently, power conversion efficiency increased by 3% to 5% in the polymer modified devices (PCE=15%) with Voc more than 1.05V and hysteresis-less J-V curves. Advantageously, hydrophobicity of the polymer chain was found to protect the perovskite surface from moisture and improved stability of the non-encapsulated cells, which retained their device performance up to 30 days of exposure to open atmosphere (50% humidity).

  12. Counteraction of poly(4-vinylpyridine-n-oxide) on the depression of viral interferon induction by coal dust.

    PubMed

    Hahon, N

    1976-05-01

    The depressive activity of coal dust on interferon induction by influenza was markedly subverted when either coal dust or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oside). The polymer alone neither induced interferon synthesis, inhibited viral induction of interferon, influenced viral multiplication, nor affected cellular-induced resistance by interferon. Absorption of the polymer to coal dust not only occurred at a more rapid rate than to cell monolayers, but also less polymer was required to pretreat coal dust than cell monolayers to achieve comparable amelioration of interferon production. The polymer effectively negated the adverse activity of coal dust particles, irrespective of the latter's size (is less than 2.0 to 74.0 mum). Virus multiplication in the presence of coal dust=treated cell monolayers attained a level that was twofol higher than that noted with either polymer-pretreated coal dust or polymer-pretreated cell monolayers. Interferon production was almost completely inhibited in the presence of coal dust; pretreating coal dust or cells with the polymer abrogated this inhibitory activity of coal dust. It is tentatively suggested that coal dust particles per se directly interact with cell membranes to subvert interferon induction and that the formation of an absorbed polymerlayer on these complexes prevents their interaction.

  13. Ion source-dependent performance of 4-vinylpyridine, iodoacetamide, and N-maleoyl derivatives for the detection of cysteine-containing peptides in complex proteomics.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Wiebke; Berg, Regina; Walch, Philipp; Hanke, Sabrina; Baalmann, Mathis; Kerner, Alexander; Trumpp, Andreas; Roesli, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Cysteine is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids due to its ability to form disulfide bonds. While this property is of vital importance for protein structures and biological processes, it causes difficulties for the mass spectrometric identification of cysteine-containing peptides. A common approach to overcome these problems in bottom-up proteomics is the reduction and covalent modification of sulfhydryl groups prior to enzymatic digestion. In this study, established alkylating agents and N-maleoyl amino acids with variable hydrophobicity were characterized with respect to a variety of relevant parameters and subsequently evaluated in a large-scale analysis using different ion sources. Depending on the compound, the ion source had a profound impact on the relative and absolute identification of cysteine-containing peptides. The best results were obtained by derivatization of the cysteine residues with 4-vinylpyridine and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). Modification with 4-vinylpyridine increased the number of cysteine-containing peptides identified with any other compound using LC-MALDI/MS at least by a factor of 2. This experimental observation is mirrored by differences in the gas-phase basicities, which were computed for methyl thiolate derivatives of the compounds using density functional theory. With electrospray ionization (ESI), complementary use of reagents from three different compound classes, e.g., iodoacetamide, 4-vinylpyridine, and N-maleoyl beta-alanine, was beneficial compared to the application of a single reagent.

  14. Nanolayered manganese oxide/poly(4-vinylpyridine) as a biomimetic and very efficient water oxidizing catalyst: toward an artificial enzyme in artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Haghighi, Behzad; Ghobadi, Mohadeseh Zarei; Sedigh, Davood Jafarian

    2013-10-09

    Nanolayered Mn oxide/poly(4-vinylpyridine) as a model for Mn cluster in photosystem II was synthesized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The compound is a very efficient water oxidizing catalyst, and sizable oxygen evolution was detected at 50 mV overpotential at near neutral pH. The number is as low as the overpotential is used by nature in photosystem II of cyanobacteria, algae and green plants for similar reactions.

  15. A practical interface designed for on-line polymer monolith microextraction: synthesis and application of poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin-feng; He, Xu-gan; Qiao, Jun-qin; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2012-09-21

    A simple and facile needle-adapter was designed for constructing manual on-line polymer monolith microextraction-high performance liquid chromatography (PMME-HPLC). A capillary poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(VP-co-EGDMA)] monolith was prepared by in situ polymerization, using 4-vinylpyridine (VP) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. The synthesized monolith was used as the extraction medium for concentrating four EPA priority pollutants, 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, from water samples. The effect of the dosage of porogen polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) on back pressure and extraction performance of the capillary monolith was also investigated. Moreover, the influences of several parameters (such as extraction time, desorption time, content of MeOH in sample solution and sample pH) were examined to obtain the optimal PMME conditions. As a result, the established on-line PMME-HPLC protocol, with good extraction efficiency (80.6-91.7%), satisfactory recovery (94.7-106% and 76.8-86.3% for water and serum samples, respectively) and low detection limit (0.3-1.4 μg/L), exhibited potential applicability for the analysis of chlorophenols in environmental and biological samples.

  16. Effect of CaCO₃/HCl pretreatment on the surface modification of chitin gel beads via graft copolymerization of 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate and 4-vinylpyridine.

    PubMed

    Yalinca, Zulal; Mohammed, Dana Ali Kader; Hadi, Jihad M; Yilmaz, Elvan

    2016-01-01

    Although chitin, poly(N-acetylglucosamine), possesses considerable potential as a biomaterial, it has not been as thoroughly studied as its derivative chitosan. In this study, the potential of chitin gel beads has been evaluated for surface modification via vinyl polymer grafting. Grafting behavior of two well-established vinyl monomers, namely 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) were investigated using cerium (IV) ammonium nitrate as the redox initiator with the aim of obtaining chemically functionalized more hydrophilic chitin surfaces. The intractable nature of chitin, which is one of its primary drawbacks as a grafting substrate was overcome by applying a CaCO3 treatment during bead preparation. The maximum grafting percentage of poly(HEMA) onto chitin bead without CaCO3 treatment was found to be 65%, while the value for CaCO3 treated chitin beads was 515%. The maximum grafting yield of poly(4-VP) on to CaCO3 treated chitin powder was 380% at optimum conditions. The grafting system was extensively characterized before and after grafting by FT-IR, SEM, C-13 NMR and XRD analyses. Significant improvement on the swelling capacities of chitin based gel beads in aqueous acidic, basic and neutral media was obtained. An account of the pros and cons of the system has been presented.

  17. Retention of heavy metal ions on comb-type hydrogels based on acrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine, synthesized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gómez, Roberto; Ortega, Alejandra; Lazo, Luz M.; Burillo, Guillermina

    2014-09-01

    Two novel comb-type hydrogels based on pH-sensitive monomers (acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) were synthesized by gamma radiation. The systems were as follows: a) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network followed by grafting of 4VP ((net-PAAc)-g-4VP) and b) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network grafted onto polypropylene (PP) followed by grafting of 4VP (net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP). The equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were evaluated for copper and zinc ions in aqueous solutions. The Zn(II) retention obtained was 480 mg g-1 and 1086 mg g-1 for (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP, respectively. At concentrations as low as ppm, retention efficiencies of approximately 90% were achieved for Cu(II) on (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and for Zn(II) on net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP. Desorption of the hydrogels was also studied, and the results indicated that they can be used repeatedly in aqueous solutions. For both systems, the adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) obeyed the Freundlich model, indicating heterogeneous sorption, and the retention process occurred by chemisorption. The sorption process follows a pseudo-second-order model.

  18. Thermo-Responsive Complexes of c-Myc Antisense Oligonucleotide with Block Copolymer of Poly(OEGMA) and Quaternized Poly(4-Vinylpyridine).

    PubMed

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Elalmis, Yeliz Basaran; Isoglu, Sevil Dincer

    2017-04-01

    Solution behavior of thermo-responsive polymers and their complexes with biological macromolecules may be affected by environmental conditions, such as the concentration of macromolecular components, pH, ion concentration, etc. Therefore, a thermo-responsive polymer and its complexes should be characterized in detail to observe their responses against possible environments under physiological conditions before biological applications. To briefly indicate this important issue, thermo-responsive block copolymer of quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) and poly(oligoethyleneglycol methyl ether methacrylate) as a potential nonviral vector has been synthesized. Polyelectrolyte complexes of this copolymer with the antisense oligonucleotide of c-Myc oncogene are also thermo-responsive but, have lower LCST (lower critical solution temperature) values compared to individual copolymer. LCST values of complexes decrease with molar ratio of macromolecular components and presence of salt. Dilution of solutions also affects solution behavior of complexes and causes a significant decrease in size and an increase in LCST, which indicates possible effects of severe dilutions in the blood stream.

  19. Cooperative hydrogen bonds of macromolecules. 2. Two-dimensional cooperativity in the binding of poly(4-vinylpyridine) to poly(4-vinylphenol).

    PubMed

    Kríz, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jirí; Brus, Jirí

    2006-09-21

    The hydrogen bond interaction of poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVF), ligated by a 20 mol/mol excess of pyridine-d(5) (PD) in tetrahydrofuran-d(8), with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) was studied using liquid and solid-state NMR and quantum mechanical calculations. Because of its cooperative interaction, PVP substitutes PD in its hydrogen bond with PVF, thus forming a PVF-PVP complex, which gradually precipitates from solution. On the basis of the 1H/13C NMR spin-diffusion experiments and density functional theory quantum calculations, the complex is shown to have the fairly regular structure of a polymer sheet with intermittent H-bond links between PVF and PVP chains. The cooperativity of PVP interaction with PVF was studied by measuring the dependence of the binding degree alpha of PVP on its polymerization degree (P(n), being 10, 17, 30, 36, 48, 65, and 84) at various PVP/PVF molar ratios. The value of alpha was established indirectly by measuring the fraction of liberated PD using its 2H quadrupolar relaxation and pulsed field-gradient spin-echo measurement of self-diffusion. The cooperativity is shown to be of a higher order and two-dimensional, that is, dependent on both the polymerization degree of PVP and its ratio to PVF. A mathematical model of such two-dimensional cooperativity based chiefly on a proximity effect is suggested.

  20. Preparation of magnetic indole-3-acetic acid imprinted polymer beads with 4-vinylpyridine and β-cyclodextrin as binary monomer via microwave heating initiated polymerization and their application to trace analysis of auxins in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Yuanwen; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2010-11-19

    Auxin is a crucial phytohormone for precise control of growth and development of plants. Due to its low concentration in plant tissues which are rich in interfering substances, the accurate determination of auxins remains a challenge. In this paper, a new strategy for isolation and enrichment of auxins from plant tissues was obtained by the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads, which were prepared by microwave heating initiated suspension polymerization using indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as template. In order to obtain higher selective recognition cavities, an enhanced imprinting method based on binary functional monomers, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was adopted for IAA imprinting. The morphological and magnetic characteristics of the mag-MIP beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. A majority of resultant beads were within the size range of 80-150μm. Porous surface morphology and good magnetic property were observed. Furthermore, the mag-MIP beads fabricated with 4-VP and β-CD as binary functional monomers exhibited improved recognition ability to IAA, as compared with the mag-MIP beads prepared with the individual monomer separately. Competitive rebinding experiment results revealed that the mag-MIP beads exhibited a higher specific recognition for the template than the non-imprinted polymer (mag-NIP) beads. An extraction method by mag-MIP beads coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for determination of IAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in plant tissues. Linear ranges for IAA and IBA were in the range of 7.00-100.0μgL(-1) and 10.0-100.0μgL(-1), and the detection limits were 3.9 and 7.4μgL(-1), respectively. The analytical performance was also estimated by seedlings or immature embryos samples from three different plant tissues, pea, rice and wheat. Recoveries were in the range of 70

  1. Anchor Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  2. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  3. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  4. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  5. Bellow seal and anchor

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    An annular seal is made of a collapsible bellows. The bellows can function as an anchor or a seal and is easily set into position using relative component movement. The bellows folds can be slanted and their outer sealing edges can have different profiles to meet expected conditions. The bellows is expanded for insertion to reduce its outer dimension and sets by compaction as a result of relative movement. The bellows can be straight or tapered and is settable with a minimal axial force.

  6. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Benjamin M.; Guo, Zhongwu

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cell-surface proteins and glycoproteins are anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), a family of glycolipids that are post-translationally attached to proteins at their C-termini. GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological and pathological events, such as cell recognition and adhesion, signal transduction, host defense, and acting as receptors for viruses and toxins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPI anchors and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems and exploring their potential therapeutic applications. In the first part of this comprehensive article on the chemical synthesis of GPIs, classic syntheses of naturally occurring GPI anchors from protozoan parasites, yeast, and mammals are covered. The second part of the article focuses on recent diversity-oriented strategies for the synthesis of GPI anchors containing unsaturated lipids, “click chemistry” tags, and highly branched and modified structures. PMID:22794184

  7. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  8. Analyzing paleomagnetic data: To anchor or not to anchor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslop, David; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2016-11-01

    Paleomagnetic directions provide the basis for use of paleomagnetism in chronological and tectonic reconstructions and for constraining past geomagnetic field behavior over a variety of timescales. Crucial to paleomagnetic analysis is the separation and quantification of a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), which relates to a process of interest, from other remanence components. Principal component analysis (PCA) of stepwise demagnetization data is employed routinely in these situations to estimate magnetic remanence directions and their uncertainties. A given ChRM is often assumed to trend toward the origin of a vector demagnetization diagram and prevailing data analysis frameworks allow remanence directions to be estimated based on PCA fits that are forced to pass through the origin of such diagrams, a process referred to as "anchoring." While this approach is adopted commonly, little attention has been paid to the effects of anchoring and the influence it has on both estimated remanence directions and their associated uncertainties. In almost all cases, anchoring produces an artificially low uncertainty estimation compared to an unanchored fit. Bayesian model selection demonstrates that the effects of anchoring cannot typically be justified from a statistical standpoint. We present an alternative to anchoring that constrains the best fit remanence direction to pass through the origin of a vector demagnetization diagram without unreasonably distorting the representation of the demagnetization data.

  9. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  10. How anchoring proteins shape pain.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J M; McNaughton, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Cellular responsiveness to external stimuli can be altered by extracellular mediators which activate membrane receptors, in turn signalling to the intracellular space via calcium, cyclic nucleotides, membrane lipids or enzyme activity. These signalling events trigger a cascade leading to an effector which can be a channel, an enzyme or a transcription factor. The effectiveness of these intracellular events is enhanced when they are maintained in close proximity by anchoring proteins, which assemble complexes of signalling molecules such as kinases together with their targets, and in this way enhance both the speed and the precision of intracellular signalling. The A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family are adaptor proteins originally named for their ability to associate Protein Kinase A and its targets, but several other enzymes bound by AKAPs have now been found and a wide variety of target structures has been described. This review provides an overview of anchoring proteins involved in pain signalling. The key anchoring proteins and their ion channel targets in primary sensory neurons responding to painful stimuli (nociceptors) are discussed.

  11. ATHLETE : Double Auger Anchoring Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) is a six-limbed robot designed to support surface explorations on Near Earth Objects, the Moon and Mars. ATHLETE can carry large payloads on its top deck and can carry a fully equipped pressurized habitat in low gravity. The robot has wheels on each of its six articulated limbs, allowing it to actively conform to terrain while driving and to walk when driving is impractical. With the use of a tool adapter, ATHLETE limbs can be equipped with end effectors to support various mission objectives. For work on Near Earth Objects and other microgravity environments, an anchoring mechanism is needed to keep the ATHLETE from floating off the surface. My goal for this spring session at JPL was to design and build a counter rotating, double auger, anchoring mechanism. The mechanism mates to the tool adapter and is driven off the wheel motor. The double auger anchoring mechanism will be tested in a regolith simulant that will determine the uplift capacity of the anchoring mechanism.

  12. Holding Capacity of Plate Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    embedded anchor, and a functional sequence is shown in Figure 1-3. On contact- ing the seafloor, the touchdown probe triggers the safe/arm device which...OOC-DG DiGeorge . Washington, DC; Code 0325, Program Mgr, Washington, DC; Code OOC (LT R. MacDougal). Washington DC; Code OOC-D, Washington, DC; Code PMS

  13. OTEC Anchors: Selection and Plan for Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    Anchor systems capable of maintaining the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion ( OTEC ) power plants on station were identified and compared. Deadweight...for OTEC , however, is probably not necessary because it is expected that such hard seafloor anchor sites are best avoided by OTEC plants. A plan for...structural analysis and design technique for the anchor, and finally a demonstration of a near prototype size OTEC free-fall deadweight anchor in early 1980. (Author)

  14. The ROSETTA Lander anchoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Markus; Stöcker, Jakob; Rohe, Christian; Kömle, Norbert I.; Kargl, Günter; Hillenmaier, Olaf; Lell, Peter

    2003-09-01

    A major goal of the ESA cornerstone mission ROSETTA is to land a package of scientific instruments known as the ROSETTA Lander on the nucleus of a comet. Due to the low gravity a highly reliable fixation of the ROSETTA Lander to the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (3rd) is essential. For that purpose a redundant Anchoring System, consisting of two pyrotechnically actuated Anchoring Harpoons and a redundant Control Electronics has been developed, built and qualified at the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Garching. The pyrotechnical gas generator has been developed jointly by Pyroglobe GmbH and MPE, the procurement of the control electronics has been sub-contracted to Magson GmbH, Berlin. A study to obtain a suitable lubrication method for the commutator of a brushed DC motor has been conducted at the European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL; S. D. Lewis et al., 2003).

  15. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  16. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ≥2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale.

  17. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  18. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  19. DSSC anchoring groups: a surface dependent decision.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, C; Bowler, D R

    2014-05-14

    Electrodes in dye sensitised solar cells are typically nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with a majority (1 0 1) surface exposed. Generally the sensitising dye employs a carboxylic anchoring moiety through which it adheres to the TiO₂ surface. Recent interest in exploiting the properties of differing TiO₂ electrode morphologies, such as rutile nanorods exposing the (1 1 0) surface and anatase electrodes with high percentages of the (0 0 1) surface exposed, begs the question of whether this anchoring strategy is best, irrespective of the majority surface exposed. Here we address this question by presenting density functional theory calculations contrasting the binding properties of two promising anchoring groups, phosphonic acid and boronic acid, to that of carboxylic acid. Anchor-electrode interactions are studied for the prototypical anatase (1 0 1) surface, along with the anatase (0 0 1) and rutile (1 1 0) surfaces. Finally the effect of using these alternative anchoring groups to bind a typical coumarin dye (NKX-2311) to these TiO₂ substrates is examined. Significant differences in the binding properties are found depending on both the anchor and surface, illustrating that the choice of anchor is necessarily dependent upon the surface exposed in the electrode. In particular the boronic acid is found to show the potential to be an excellent anchor choice for electrodes exposing the anatase (0 0 1) surface.

  20. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  1. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  6. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  7. Crossed ring anchored disk resonator for self-alignment of the anchor

    PubMed Central

    Baghelani, Masoud; Ghavifekr, Habib Badri; Ebrahimi, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    Misalignment is a problematic challenge in RF MEMS resonators. It causes asymmetry in the ultra symmetric radial contour mode disk resonators and degrades their performance by increasing the insertion loss and decreasing their quality factors (Q). Self-alignment method seems to be a good solution for misalignment problem, but it cannot be directly applied on high performance ring shape anchored resonators. This paper discusses misalignment effects for the ring shape anchored resonators and proposes a method for reconfiguring its anchor to be compatible with self-alignment process. Simulation results validate that the crossed ring anchor structure has the same resonance characteristics with the complete ring shape anchored resonator. PMID:25685477

  8. Guyline anchor design keys rig stability

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.J.; Laguros, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    Inadequate design and field installation of ground anchors at lease well sites have frequently led to the collapse of well service rigs operating in high surface wind conditions (>50 mph). Such catastrophes incur significant equipment damage and injury to operating personnel. Although collapse of a well service rig can be attributed to inadequate strength in the guyline connection to the mast or anchor or to deformed or inadequate wire rope strength in the guyline itself, most failures result from improperly placed anchors not meeting API specifications to withstand 14,000 lb of force in tension. This article defines the length, diameter, and depth necessary (based on soil conditions) for a buried guyline anchor to meet API specifications. Deficiencies in guyline connection and strength can be alleviated by following the manufacturer's guidance on size of wire rope, its inspection, and size connection criteria in mounting guyline connectors to the mast and anchor.

  9. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  10. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  11. Anchoring Revisited: The Role of the Comparative Question

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Ina; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    When people estimate a numeric value after judging whether it is larger or smaller than a high or low anchor value (comparative question), estimates are biased in the direction of the anchor. One explanation for this anchoring effect is that people selectively access knowledge consistent with the anchor value as part of a positive test strategy. Two studies (total N = 184) supported the alternative explanation that people access knowledge consistent with their own answer to the comparative question. Specifically, anchoring effects emerged when the answer to the comparative question was unexpected (lower than the low anchor or higher than the high anchor). For expected answers (lower than the high anchor or higher than the low anchor), however, anchoring effects were attenuated or reversed. The anchor value itself was almost never reported as an absolute estimate. PMID:24454953

  12. Thermal and FTIR Characterization of Poly (4-vinylpyridine) Crosslinked with Metal Salts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    0.8 1 1.2 Molar Equivalent Zn % A sh R em ai ni ng Figure 4. Remaining ash of the P4VP/Zn complex as a function of Zn loading as determined by...Weight Percent ZnCl added W ei gh t P er ce nt   R em ai ni ng Figure 6. Weight percent ZnCl2 added versus total weight percent remaining as...Complexes: An Extended Configurational Entropy Model. Journal of Physical Chemistry 2003, 107, 5901–5905. 8. Fairley , N.; Carrick, A. The Casa

  13. Anchor-Less Secure Session Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugenmaier, Alf; Laganier, Julien; Prasad, Anand; Slavov, Kristian

    Communication session mobility relates transferring one endpoint of a communication session including its state from one device to another. Current proposals to deal with this securely require an anchor. We propose an anchor-less solution that takes some ideas from the host identity protocol. We then show how the idea of transferring endpoints simultaneously can be tackled without introducing timeouts as the session initiation protocol currently does.

  14. On the Theory of Ground Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD/A-O06 582 ON THE THEORY OF GROUND ANCHORS COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY JANUARY 1975 DISTRIBUTED BY: National Tocnical -Intonal...ANCHORS Austin Kovacs, Scott Bicuin Bruce McKelvy and Herman Colligan January 1975 PREPARED FOR U.S. ARMY MATERIL’ COMMAND DA PROJECT IT062112A 130...applications as the tie-backs for retaining walls and bulkheads and in foundations subjected to wind, explosions, earthquakes and thermally induced lateral

  15. Anchoring effects on early autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Bishara, Anthony J; Mugayar-Baldocchi, Marino A

    2017-02-28

    Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, participants answered either a high-anchor or a low-anchor question, and were warned that the anchor was uninformative; they went on to estimate their age during their earliest autobiographical memory. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 and extended the design to examine additional early autobiographical memories. In both experiments, participants in the low-anchor condition gave earlier age estimates than those in the high-anchor condition. These results provide new insights into the methods used to investigate autobiographical memory. Moreover, they show that reports of early autobiographical memories can be influenced by a relatively light touch - a change to a single digit in a single question.

  16. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  17. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  18. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  19. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  20. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  1. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  2. Further Study of the Choice of Anchor Tests in Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trierweiler, Tammy J.; Lewis, Charles; Smith, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe what factors influence the observed score correlation between an (external) anchor test and a total test. We show that the anchor to full-test observed score correlation is based on two components: the true score correlation between the anchor and total test, and the reliability of the anchor test. Findings using an…

  3. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants’ WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  4. Anticonical anchoring and surface transitions in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Faget, L; Lamarque-Forget, S; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph; Auroy, P; Dozov, I

    2006-11-01

    Recent works reported planar and conical azimuthally degenerated nematic anchorings. Here we predict an additional "anticonical" degenerated anchoring. Its energy presents two minima, parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane, separated by a conical energy barrier. We realize this bistable anchoring on a grafted polymer brush and we observe temperature-driven transitions between the conical, planar, and anticonical degenerated anchorings. Under electric field we break the anticonical anchoring and switch between its bistable states.

  5. Anticonical anchoring and surface transitions in a nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faget, L.; Lamarque-Forget, S.; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph.; Auroy, P.; Dozov, I.

    2006-11-01

    Recent works reported planar and conical azimuthally degenerated nematic anchorings. Here we predict an additional “anticonical” degenerated anchoring. Its energy presents two minima, parallel and perpendicular to the substrate plane, separated by a conical energy barrier. We realize this bistable anchoring on a grafted polymer brush and we observe temperature-driven transitions between the conical, planar, and anticonical degenerated anchorings. Under electric field we break the anticonical anchoring and switch between its bistable states.

  6. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Robbany, Z. Handayani, G.

    2015-09-30

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  7. Polymer's anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yue

    The current dissertation mainly discusses about the polymers anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells in two aspects: surface interaction and bulk interaction. The goal of the research is to understand the fundamental physics of anchoring strength and apply the knowledge to liquid crystal display devices. Researchers proposed two main contributors to the surface anchoring strength: the micro grooves generated by external force and the polymer chain's alignment. Both of them has experimental proofs. In the current study, explorations were made to understand the mechanisms of surface anchoring strength and easy axis of surface liquid crystal provided by rubbed polymer alignment layer. The work includes not only the variation of the alignment layer itself such as thickness(Chapter 3) and polymer side chain (Chapter 5), but also the variation of external conditions such as temperature (Chapter 4) and rubbing condition (Chapter 6). To determine the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths, Rapini-Papoular's expression was applied. However, it was discovered that higher order terms may be required in order to fit the experimental result or theoretically predict unique anchoring behaviors (Chapter 2, Chapter 6). SEM and AFM technologies were introduced to gather the actual structures of polymer alignment layer and extrapolate the alignment of liquid crystal in a micro scale. The result shows that the anchoring strength can be adjusted by the layer thickness, side chain structure, while the easy axis direction can be adjusted by a second rubbing direction. In addition, different anchoring conditions combined with liquid crystal's elastic energy can generate quite different forms of liquid crystals (Chapter 7). In the study of bulk alignment, the main contrition from the current dissertation is applying the understanding of anchoring behavior to optimizing actual switchable devices. Conventional PDLC performance can be tuned with the knowledge of the polymer and the liquid

  8. GPI-anchor and GPI-anchored protein expression in PMM2-CDG patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mutations in PMM2 impair phosphomannomutase-2 activity and cause the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation, PMM2-CDG. Mannose-1-phosphate, that is deficient in this disorder, is also implicated in the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchors. Objective To evaluate whether GPI-anchor and GPI-anchored proteins are defective in PMM2-CDG patients. Methods The expression of GPI-anchor and seven GPI-anchored proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry in different cell types from twelve PMM2-CDG patients. Additionally, neutrophil CD16 and plasma hepatic proteins were studied by Western blot. Transferrin glycoforms were evaluated by HPLC. Results Patients and controls had similar surface expression of GPI-anchor and most GPI-anchored proteins. Nevertheless, patients displayed a significantly diminished binding of two anti-CD16 antibodies (3G8 and KD1) to neutrophils and also of anti-CD14 (61D3) to monocytes. Interestingly, CD16 immunostaining and asialotransferrin levels significantly correlated with patients’ age. Analysis by flow cytometry of CD14 with MΦP9, and CD16 expression in neutrophils by Western blot using H-80 ruled out deficiencies of these antigens. Conclusions PMM2 mutations do not impair GPI-anchor or GPI-anchored protein expression. However, the glycosylation anomalies caused by PMM2 mutations might affect the immunoreactivity of monoclonal antibodies and lead to incorrect conclusions about the expression of different proteins, including GPI-anchored proteins. Neutrophils and monocytes are sensitive to PMM2 mutations, leading to abnormal glycosylation in immune receptors, which might potentially affect their affinity to their ligands, and contribute to infection. This study also confirms less severe hypoglycosylation defects in older PMM2-CDG patients. PMID:24139637

  9. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  10. Fibre-Reinforced Adhesive for Structure Anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnat, J.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The topic of this paper is the glue-concrete interface of bonded anchors loaded by tension force. The paper is closely focused on bond strength experiments using high strength concrete up to class C50/60 or higher together with pure epoxy resin and fibre-reinforced resin. The goal of this research is to find the limits of the effective use of such glue types in high performance concrete, and also to verify the most commonly used design methods for bonded anchors. The presented research includes experimental analysis of the glue-concrete interface and the influence of its parameters on anchor behaviour. The presented analysis shows some problems of the 'separated failure modes' approach and also presents experimentally verified bond strength values obtained for the currently most widespread glue types. Results of fibre reinforced epoxy resin are also presented in this paper.

  11. Multiple magnetic microrobot control using electrostatic anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawashe, Chytra; Floyd, Steven; Sitti, Metin

    2009-04-01

    Addressing power and control to individual untethered microrobots is a challenge for small-scale robotics. We present a 250×130×100 μm3 magnetic robot wirelessly driven by pulsed external magnetic fields. An induced stick-slip motion results in translation speeds over 8 mm/s. Control of multiple robots is achieved by an array of addressable electrostatic anchoring pads on the surface, which selectively fixes microrobots, preventing translation. We demonstrate control of two microrobots in both uncoupled individual motion and coupled symmetric motion. An estimated anchoring force of 23.0 μN is necessary to effectively fix each microrobot.

  12. Bond strength of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) grouted anchors

    SciTech Connect

    Bellavance, E.; Xu, H.; Benmokrane, B.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory and field pull-out tests on cement grouted glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) anchors. As an alternative for grouted steel anchors, GFRP bars have many advantages over steel tendons, and can avoid corrosion and some difficulties in transportation, handling, and installation. Three types of 36 GFRP anchors and 20 steel anchors installed in three types of host media: steel pipe, concrete block, and rock mass were tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. The bond strength, load carrying capacity, load-displacement behavior, and critical bond length of cement grouted GFRP anchors were examined in comparison with conventional steel anchors.

  13. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  14. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  17. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  18. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  2. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  3. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  4. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  5. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  6. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    .... ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: NASA proposes to revise the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to include guidance consistent with NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial...

  7. 345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS WEST ANCHOR ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 7-1023 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  9. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  10. 9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSSCOVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSS-COVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR LEFT OF ANCHOR BOLTS) - Nisqually Suspension Bridge, Spanning Nisqually River on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  11. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  12. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han Na; Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  13. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  14. Lash Transported Anchor for a Tanker Mooring.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Port Hueneme, California 93043 L_. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 81 3 26 008 CONVERSION FACTORS, U.S. CUSTOMARY TO SI U.S...DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONSREFORE COMPLETING FORM . EPORT NUMBER F, T CESSION NO. 3 RECiPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER TN-1587 , /" 92__" 4. TITLE (,dSbI1tI...1 ANCHOR LOADING .. .......................... 2 SEAFLOOR CHARACTERISTICS. .............. ........ 3 TRANSPORT SHIP CAPABILITIES

  15. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  16. Anchoring in a novel bimanual coordination pattern.

    PubMed

    Maslovat, Dana; Lam, Melanie Y; Brunke, Kirstin M; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian M

    2009-02-01

    Anchoring in cyclical movements has been defined as regions of reduced spatial or temporal variability [Beek, P. J. (1989). Juggling dynamics. PhD thesis. Amsterdam: Free University Press] that are typically found at movement reversal points. For in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronizing reversal points with a metronome pulse has resulted in decreased anchor point variability and increased pattern stability [Byblow, W. D., Carson, R. G., & Goodman, D. (1994). Expressions of asymmetries and anchoring in bimanual coordination. Human Movement Science, 13, 3-28; Fink, P. W., Foo, P., Jirsa, V. K., & Kelso, J. A. S. (2000). Local and global stabilization of coordination by sensory information. Experimental Brain Research, 134, 9-20]. The present experiment examined anchoring during acquisition, retention, and transfer of a 90 degrees phase-offset continuous bimanual coordination pattern (whereby the right limb lags the left limb by one quarter cycle), involving horizontal flexion about the elbow. Three metronome synchronization strategies were imposed: participants either synchronized maximal flexion of the right arm (i.e., single metronome), both flexion and extension of the right arm (i.e., double metronome within-limb), or flexion of each arm (i.e., double metronome between-limb) to an auditory metronome. In contrast to simpler in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronization of additional reversal points to the metronome did not reduce reversal point variability or increase pattern stability. Furthermore, practicing under different metronome synchronization strategies did not appear to have a significant effect on the rate of acquisition of the pattern.

  17. Resisting anchoring effects: The roles of metric and mapping knowledge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew R; Windschitl, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The biasing influence of anchors on numerical estimates is well established, but the relationship between knowledge level and the susceptibility to anchoring effects is less clear. In two studies, we addressed the potential mitigating effects of having knowledge in a domain on vulnerability to anchoring effects in that domain. Of critical interest was a distinction between two forms of knowledge-metric and mapping knowledge. In Study 1, participants who had studied question-relevant information-that is, high-knowledge participants-were less influenced by anchors than were participants who had studied irrelevant information. The results from knowledge measures suggested that the reduction in anchoring was tied to increases in metric rather than mapping knowledge. In Study 2, participants studied information specifically designed to influence different types of knowledge. As we predicted, increases in metric knowledge-and not mapping knowledge-led to reduced anchoring effects. Implications for debiasing anchoring effects are discussed.

  18. Electropermanent magnetic anchoring for surgery and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tugwell, Josef; Brennan, Philip; O'Shea, Conor; O'Donoghue, Kilian; Power, Timothy; O'Shea, Michael; Griffiths, James; Cahill, Ronan; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig

    2015-03-01

    The use of magnets for anchoring of instrumentation in minimally invasive surgery and endoscopy has become of increased interest in recent years. Permanent magnets have significant advantages over electromagnets for these applications; larger anchoring and retraction force for comparable size and volume without the need for any external power supply. However, permanent magnets represent a potential hazard in the operating field where inadvertent attraction to surgical instrumentation is often undesirable. The current work proposes an interesting hybrid approach which marries the high forces of permanent magnets with the control of electromagnetic technology including the ability to turn the magnet OFF when necessary. This is achieved through the use of an electropermanent magnet, which is designed for surgical retraction across the abdominal and gastric walls. Our electropermanent magnet, which is hand-held and does not require continuous power, is designed with a center lumen which may be used for trocar or needle insertion. The device in this application has been demonstrated successfully in the porcine model where coupling between an intraluminal ring magnet and our electropermanent magnet facilitated guided insertion of an 18 Fr Tuohy needle for guidewire placement. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated the ability to control the coupling distance of the system alleviating shortcomings with current methods of magnetic coupling due to variation in transabdominal wall thicknesses. With further refinement, the magnet may find application in the anchoring of endoscopic and surgical instrumentation for minimally invasive interventions in the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  20. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    SciTech Connect

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  1. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface.

  2. Engineered liquid crystal anchoring energies with nanopatterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gear, Christopher; Diest, Kenneth; Liberman, Vladimir; Rothschild, Mordechai

    2015-01-26

    The anchoring energy of liquid crystals was shown to be tunable by surface nanopatterning of periodic lines and spaces. Both the pitch and height were varied using hydrogen silsesquioxane negative tone electron beam resist, providing for flexibility in magnitude and spatial distribution of the anchoring energy. Using twisted nematic liquid crystal cells, it was shown that this energy is tunable over an order of magnitude. These results agree with a literature model which predicts the anchoring energy of sinusoidal grooves.

  3. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1998-01-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  4. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, J.E.; King, G.W.

    1998-12-08

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole. 8 figs.

  5. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1997-12-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  6. Venue Recommendation and Web Search Based on Anchor Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    experimented with the use of anchor text representations in the language modeling framework, and base our runs ei- ther on full ClueWeb12 or the subset of...anchor text representations in the language modeling framework, and base our runs ei- ther on full ClueWeb12 or the subset of touristic aggregators...ClueWeb12- full anchor text , and run our proposed model based on this dataset. This model is exactly the same as Model-Anchor, but based on the

  7. Infrastructure anchor bolt inspection program with NDE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1996-11-01

    In 1990, Wisconsin Department of Transportation found a high mast light pole with two of six anchor bolts failed. This failure along with published reports from Michigan DOT about anchor bolt failures on cantilever sign structures, raised concern about the quality and condition of anchor bolts on the Wisconsin DOT system. Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining material type, cut or rolled threads, and type of coating for anchor bolts. Inspection emphasis are on "hands on" and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on visual conditions of anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating failed anchor bolts and critical cracks before failure of an entire structure.

  8. New Retrievable Coil Anchors: Preliminary In Vivo Experiences in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Konya, A. Wright, K.C.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To design and test retrievable coil anchors to improve the safety and efficacy of coil embolization. Methods. Fifty-two 0.038-inch homemade retrievable stainless steel coils were equipped with one of four different pre-shaped nitinol anchors and tested in 38 pigs. All coils with the anchor were completely retrieved and redeployed 3-18 times (median 7 times) prior to release. Types 1 and 2 anchored coils were acutely deployed in the external iliac arteries (n = 10 each), and chronically tested (1 week) in the common carotid arteries (n = 6 each). Larger type 1 (n = 4), type 3 (n = 6), and type 4 (n = 4) anchored coils were acutely deployed in the abdominal aorta. The largest type 1 anchors (n = 6) were acutely tested in the inferior vena cava. Results. All anchored coils were successfully retrieved and repositioned several times. All but two coils formed a compact plug and there was no coil migration except with two mechanically defective type 3 anchors. Conclusion. The use of retrievable anchors allowed the coils to be retrieved and repositioned, prevented coil migration, and enabled compact coil configuration.

  9. End-anchored polymers in good solvents from the single chain limit to high anchoring densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, Mark D.; Grest, Gary S.; Douglas, Jack F.; Kent, Michael S.; Suo, Tongchuan

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of applications utilize grafted polymer layers to alter the interfacial properties of solid substrates, motivating refinement in our theoretical understanding of such layers. To assess existing theoretical models of them, we have investigated end-anchored polymer layers over a wide range of grafting densities, σ, ranging from a single chain to high anchoring density limits, chain lengths ranging over two orders of magnitude, for very good and marginally good solvent conditions. We compare Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations, numerical self-consistent field calculations, and experimental measurements of the average layer thickness, h, with renormalization group theory, the Alexander-de Gennes mushroom theory, and the classical brush theory. Our simulations clearly indicate that appreciable inter-chain interactions exist at all simulated areal anchoring densities so that there is no mushroom regime in which the layer thickness is independent of σ. Moreover, we find that there is no high coverage regime in which h follows the predicted scaling, h ˜ Nσ1/3, for classical polymer brushes either. Given that no completely adequate analytic theory seems to exist that spans wide ranges of N and σ, we applied scaling arguments for h as a function of a suitably defined reduced anchoring density, defined in terms of the solution radius of gyration of the polymer chains and N. We find that such a scaling approach enables a smooth, unified description of h in very good solvents over the full range of anchoring density and chain lengths, although this type of data reduction does not apply to marginal solvent quality conditions.

  10. Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.

  11. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  12. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  13. 107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts placed ready for last pour of concrete. Also pile driver driving falsework piles for south anchor arm. Located at end of the old ferry landing slip at Crockett side of straits. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  15. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  16. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi

    2014-01-29

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  17. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  18. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  19. Anchoring groups for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-18

    The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groups are employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies.

  20. Anchored multi-DOF MEMS gyroscope having robust drive mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Payal; Khonina, S. N.; Pavelyev, V. S.; Fomchenkov, S. A.; Uma, B. V.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the new architecture of 2-DOF (degree-of-freedom) drive mode and 1-DOF sense mode gyroscope with the concept of additional anchoring that retains all the advantages of the Dynamic Vibration Absorber (DVA) concept while being operated at high frequencies. These concepts allow reduction of the bandwidth by varying the coupling parameter during the design, thereby increasing the mechanical sensitivity. In the present design, the anchoring concept has been implemented by adding a central anchor for the sense mass. The steady state response and design concept have been devised using analytical modeling.

  1. Intranuclear Anchoring of Repetitive DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Weipoltshammer, Klara; Schöfer, Christian; Almeder, Marlene; Philimonenko, Vlada V.; Frei, Klemens; Wachtler, Franz; Hozák, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    Centromeres, telomeres, and ribosomal gene clusters consist of repetitive DNA sequences. To assess their contributions to the spatial organization of the interphase genome, their interactions with the nucleoskeleton were examined in quiescent and activated human lymphocytes. The nucleoskeletons were prepared using “physiological” conditions. The resulting structures were probed for specific DNA sequences of centromeres, telomeres, and ribosomal genes by in situ hybridization; the electroeluted DNA fractions were examined by blot hybridization. In both nonstimulated and stimulated lymphocytes, centromeric alpha-satellite repeats were almost exclusively found in the eluted fraction, while telomeric sequences remained attached to the nucleoskeleton. Ribosomal genes showed a transcription-dependent attachment pattern: in unstimulated lymphocytes, transcriptionally inactive ribosomal genes located outside the nucleolus were eluted completely. When comparing transcription unit and intergenic spacer, significantly more of the intergenic spacer was removed. In activated lymphocytes, considerable but similar amounts of both rDNA fragments were eluted. The results demonstrate that: (a) the various repetitive DNA sequences differ significantly in their intranuclear anchoring, (b) telomeric rather than centromeric DNA sequences form stable attachments to the nucleoskeleton, and (c) different attachment mechanisms might be responsible for the interaction of ribosomal genes with the nucleoskeleton. PMID:10613900

  2. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework. Using optimal matching, we measure the distance between ideal and experienced relationship sequences to (1) assess the associations between ideological congruence and perceived relationship well-being, (2) compare this ideal-based approach to other experience-based alternatives, and (3) identify individual- and couple-level correlates of congruence between ideals and experiences in the romantic realm. We show that congruence between ideals and experiences conveys relationship well-being along four dimensions: expressions of love and support, robust communication habits, perceived biological safety, and perceived relationship stability. We further show that congruence is patterned by socioeconomic status and supported by shared ideals within romantic dyads. We argue that conceiving of ideals as anchors for how sexual experiences are manifest advances current understandings of romantic relationships, and we suggest that this approach has applications for other domains of life. PMID:27110031

  3. Material Testing for Robotic Omnidirectional Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkoe, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    To successfully explore near-Earth Asteroids the question of mobility emerges as the key issue for any robotic mission. When small bodies have extremely low escape velocities, traditional methods, such as wheels, would send the robot hurtling off of the asteroid's surface. To solve this problem, JPL has developed an omni-directional anchoring mechanism for use in microgravity that utilizes microspine technology. These microspines are placed in circular arrays with 16 independent carriages biasing the surface of the rock. The asperities in the surface allow the gripper to hold nearly 150N in all directions. While the gripper has been proven successful on consolidated rocks, it had yet to be tested on a variety of other surfaces that are suspected to separate the large boulders on an asteroid. Since asteroid surfaces vary widely, from friable rocks to lose ponds of regolith, the gripper was tested in a large variety of materials such as, bonded pumice, sand, gravel, and loose rocks. The forces are applied tangent, at 45 degrees, and normal to the surface of the material. The immediate results from this experiment will give insight into the gripper's effectiveness across the wide spectrum of materials found on asteroids.

  4. Anchoring of development workings in a zone of influence of mining in case of the level anchoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demin, V. F.; Fofanov, O. B.; Demina, T. V.; Yavorskiy, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of the change of the stress-strain state of coal containing rock masses, depending on mining-geological factors, were revealed. These factors allow establishing rational parameters of anchoring of wall rocks to enhance the stability of development workings. Specific conditions of the deflected mode, displays of rock pressure, terms of maintenance depending on technological parameters are investigated. Researches allowed determining the degree of their development influence on the efficiency of application of the anchoring of the hollow making and will allow a reasonable application of anchoring certificates, provide stability of the rocks mining and reduce expenses on its realization and maintenance.

  5. 34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm and cantilever arm spans, as seen from shore near pier 4, looking north - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  6. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  7. 43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM AND SUSPENDED (PANEL 67). VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  8. 20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST HALF OF SUSPENDED SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  9. 19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. 2 AND 3, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTH. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  10. Anchor Casting and Portal Strut at West Bank Abutment, Endpost ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Anchor Casting and Portal Strut at West Bank Abutment, Endpost Base and Granite Plinth - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Bollman Bridge, Spanning Potomac River at Harpers Ferry, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  11. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  12. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF NORTH SECTION, SHOWING STEEL DOOR ANCHORS, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Oil House, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  13. Drag Embedment Anchor Tests in Sand and Mud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    24.0 DISTANCE ACHOR TRAVELLED 24.0 TESI ME 1 FIX 84 FT - 2.185 I11 CHAIN 34 FT - 2 IN WIRE ROPE E BOTTOM 13. ANCHOR FLUKE TIP DEPTH NOTE - POSITIVE SHAN...ANChOIR TYPE .RUCL TIN SHANK ANCHOR "EIGHT 1100.90 Lý. FLUWF ANGLE-TYPE, **4** DEG. - I G= IGV I-FIX "CORING LINE JtSCR’PTI,,N 1l8G FT - 2.0 IN CHAIN

  14. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall.

  15. Photoinduced ordering and anchoring properties of azo-dye films.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Alexei D; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Huang, Dan Ding

    2005-12-01

    We study both theoretically and experimentally the anchoring properties of photoaligning azo-dye films in contact with a nematic liquid crystal depending on the photoinduced ordering of azo-dye molecules. In the mean field approximation, we found that the bare surface anchoring energy depends linearly on the azo-dye order parameter and the azimuthal anchoring strength decays to zero in the limit of vanishing photoinduced ordering. From the absorption dichroism spectra measured in azo-dye films that are prepared from an azo-dye derivative with polymerizable terminal groups we obtain the dependence of the dichroic ratio on the irradiation dose. We also measure the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells aligned by the azo-dye films and derive the anchoring strengths as functions of the dichroic ratio, which is proportional to the photoinduced order parameter. Although linear fitting of the experimental data for both anchoring strengths gives reasonable results, it, predicts vanishing of the azimuthal anchoring strength at some nonzero value of the azo-dye order parameter, in contradiction with theory. By using a simple phenomenological model we show that this discrepancy can be attributed to the difference between the surface and bulk order parameters in the films. The measured polar anchoring energy is found to be an order of magnitude higher than the azimuthal strength. Our theory suggests that the quadrupole term of the spherical harmonics expansion for the azo-dye-NLC intermolecular potential might be of importance for the understanding of this difference.

  16. Greedy Successive Anchorization for Localizing Machine Type Communication Devices

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz Ul Haq, Mian; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    Localization of machine type communication (MTC) devices is essential for various types of location-based applications. In this paper, we investigate a distributed localization problem in noisy networks, where an estimated position of blind MTC machines (BMs) is obtained by using noisy measurements of distance between BM and anchor machines (AMs). We allow positioned BMs also to work as anchors that are referred to as virtual AMs (VAMs) in this paper. VAMs usually have greater position errors than (original) AMs, and, if used as anchors, the error propagates through the whole network. However, VAMs are necessary, especially when many BMs are distributed in a large area with an insufficient number of AMs. To overcome the error propagation, we propose a greedy successive anchorization process (GSAP). A round of GSAP consists of consecutive two steps. In the first step, a greedy selection of anchors among AMs and VAMs is done by which GSAP considers only those three anchors that possibly pertain to the localization accuracy. In the second step, each BM that can select three anchors in its neighbor determines its location with a proposed distributed localization algorithm. Iterative rounds of GSAP terminate when every BM in the network finds its location. To examine the performance of GSAP, a root mean square error (RMSE) metric is used and the corresponding Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) is provided. By numerical investigation, RMSE performance of GSAP is shown to be better than existing localization methods with and without an anchor selection method and mostly close to the CRLB. PMID:27983576

  17. Pattern-induced anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Gómez, Óscar A.; Romero-Enrique, José M.; Silvestre, Nuno M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with patterned substrates. The substrate is modelled as a periodic array of parallel infinite grooves of well-defined cross-section sculpted on a chemically homogeneous substrate which favours local homeotropic anchoring of the nematic. We consider three cases: a sawtooth, a crenellated and a sinusoidal substrate. We analyse this problem within the modified Frank-Oseen formalism. We argue that, for substrate periodicities much larger than the extrapolation length, the existence of different nematic textures with distinct far-field orientations, as well as the anchoring transitions between them, are associated with the presence of topological defects either on or close to the substrate. For the sawtooth and sinusoidal cases, we observe a homeotropic to planar anchoring transition as the substrate roughness increases. On the other hand, a homeotropic to oblique anchoring transition is observed for crenellated substrates. In this case, the anchoring phase diagram shows a complex dependence on the substrate roughness and substrate anchoring strength.

  18. Genome mapping by random anchoring: A discrete theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. Q.; Marr, T. G.

    1993-11-01

    As a part of the international human genome project, large-scale genomic maps of human and other model organisms are being generated. More recently, mapping using various anchoring (as opposed to the traditional "fingerprinting") strategies have been proposed based largely on mathematical models. In all of the theoretical work dealing with anchoring, an anchor has been idealized as a point on a continuous, infinite-length genome. In general, it is not desirable to make these assumptions, since in practice they may be violated under a variety of actual biological situations. Here we analyze a discrete model that can be used to predict the expected progress made when mapping by random anchoring. By virtue of keeping all three length scales (genome length, clone length, and probe length) finite, our results for the random anchoring strategy are derived in full generality, which contain previous results as special cases and hence can have broad application for planning mapping experiments or assessing the accuracy of the continuum models. Finally, we pose a challenging nonrandom anchoring model corresponding to a more efficient mapping scheme.

  19. Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-07-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.

  20. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  1. Pattern-induced anchoring transitions in nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gómez, Óscar A; Romero-Enrique, José M; Silvestre, Nuno M; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2017-02-15

    In this paper we revisit the problem of a nematic liquid crystal in contact with patterned substrates. The substrate is modelled as a periodic array of parallel infinite grooves of well-defined cross-section sculpted on a chemically homogeneous substrate which favours local homeotropic anchoring of the nematic. We consider three cases: a sawtooth, a crenellated and a sinusoidal substrate. We analyse this problem within the modified Frank-Oseen formalism. We argue that, for substrate periodicities much larger than the extrapolation length, the existence of different nematic textures with distinct far-field orientations, as well as the anchoring transitions between them, are associated with the presence of topological defects either on or close to the substrate. For the sawtooth and sinusoidal cases, we observe a homeotropic to planar anchoring transition as the substrate roughness increases. On the other hand, a homeotropic to oblique anchoring transition is observed for crenellated substrates. In this case, the anchoring phase diagram shows a complex dependence on the substrate roughness and substrate anchoring strength.

  2. Filamentous structures in skeletal muscle: anchors for the subsarcolemmal space.

    PubMed

    Khairani, Astrid Feinisa; Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Soenggono, Arifin; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    In skeletal muscle fibers, intermediate filaments and actin filaments provide structural support to the myofibrils and the sarcolemma. For many years, it was poorly understood from ultrastructural observations that how these filamentous structures were kept anchored. The present study was conducted to determine the architecture of filamentous anchoring structures in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. The diaphragms (Dp) of adult wild type and mdx mice (mdx is a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy) were subjected to tension applied perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fibers, with or without treatment with 1% Triton X-100 or 0.03% saponin. These experiments were conducted to confirm the presence and integrity of the filamentous anchoring structures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that these structures provide firm transverse connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. Most of the filamentous structures appeared to be inserted into subsarcolemmal densities, forming anchoring connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. In some cases, actin filaments were found to run longitudinally in the subsarcolemmal space to connect to the sarcolemma or in some cases to connect to the intermyofibrils as elongated thin filaments. These filamentous anchoring structures were less common in the mdx Dp. Our data suggest that the transverse and longitudinal filamentous structures form an anchoring system in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils.

  3. Two Approaches for Using Multiple Anchors in NEAT Equating: A Description and Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Deng, Weiling; Zhang, Yu-Li

    2011-01-01

    Nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) equating functions that use a single anchor can have accuracy problems when the groups are extremely different and/or when the anchor weakly correlates with the tests being equated. Proposals have been made to address these issues by incorporating more than one anchor into NEAT equating functions. These…

  4. The effect of anchor modality on the reliability of vocal severity ratings.

    PubMed

    Awan, Shaheen N; Lawson, Laura L

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to confirm if anchors (ie, perceptual references) and training affect the inter- and intrarater reliability of perceptual analysis of various voice types and severities compared to receiving training alone, and (2) to determine whether the modality in which the anchor is presented affects rater reliability. In this study, modality refers to whether the anchor is presented auditorily, visually via a written definition (a textual anchor), or a combination of both anchor types. A randomized multigroup comparison was performed. Forty inexperienced judges were selected to rate 36 sustained vowel voice samples of various voice types (ie, normal, breathy, hoarse, and rough) in terms of perceived vocal severity using four different methods (No Anchor, Textual Anchor, Auditory Anchor, and Combined Textual/Auditory Anchors). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions. Before the rating task, all subject groups received a brief training sessions (15-20 minutes in duration) in which voice quality type and severity definitions were provided and representative voice samples were listened to. A computer program was developed to present anchors in the form of an auditory sample, written definition, or both. A no anchor condition was also presented. Results indicated that the combination of training and anchors significantly improves the interrater reliability of perceptual voice ratings. In addition, the use of auditory anchors resulted in 95% confidence intervals that were significantly smaller for rating mild voice disorders, and both breathy and hoarse voice qualities. Textual anchors did appear to show some improvement over training alone (ie, no anchors), but were generally not as strong as the use of auditory anchors. However, the combination of textual and auditory anchors resulted in the greatest degree of interrater reliability as assessed via mean correlations. The ratings produced by the Auditory and Combined Anchor

  5. Structural remodeling, trafficking and functions of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2011-10-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a glycolipid that is covalently attached to proteins as a post-translational modification. Such modification leads to the anchoring of the protein to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Proteins that are decorated with GPIs have unique properties in terms of their physical nature. In particular, these proteins tend to accumulate in lipid rafts, which are critical for the functions and trafficking of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Recent studies mainly using mutant cells revealed that various structural remodeling reactions occur to GPIs present in GPI-APs as they are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. This review examines the recent progress describing the mechanisms of structural remodeling of mammalian GPI-anchors, such as inositol deacylation, glycan remodeling and fatty acid remodeling, with particular focus on their trafficking and functions, as well as the pathogenesis involving GPI-APs and their deficiency.

  6. A reusable suture anchor for arthroscopy psychomotor skills training.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Edward D; Rogers, Rainie; Nyland, John

    2003-03-01

    For residents to adequately develop the early arthroscopy psychomotor skills required to better learn how to manage the improvisational situations they will encounter during actual patient cases, they need to experience sufficient practice repetitions within a contextually relevant environment. Unfortunately, the cost of suture anchors can be a practice repetition-limiting factor in learning arthroscopic knot-tying techniques. We describe a technique for creating inexpensive reusable suture anchors and provide an example of their application to repair the anterior glenoid labrum during an arthroscopy psychomotor skills laboratory training session.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring Processess for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Mazahar, Hammad; Negrut, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent work done in modeling and simulation of anchoring processes in granular media, with applications to anchoring on a Near Earth Object (NEO), where the forces due to interactions with the regolith are much stronger than the local surface gravity field. This effort is part of a larger systems engineering capability developed at JPL to answer key questions, validate requirements, conduct key system and mission trades,and evaluate performance and risk related to NEO operations for any proposed human or robotic missions to a NEO.

  8. 17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG THE MAIN LINE TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. ANCHOR BRIDGES LOCATED AT TWO MILE INTERVALS WITHSTAND CATENARY TENSION AND PROVIDE A PLATFORM FOR MOUNTING OIL FILLED CIRCUIT BREAKERS, LIGHTNING ARRESTORS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. THE ROOF OF THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER CAN BE SEEN DIRECTLY BEHIND THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  9. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  10. Modified anchor shaped post core design for primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, R; Baroudi, Kusai; Reddy, K Bala Kasi; Praveen, B H; Kumar, V Sumanth; Amit, S

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  11. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  12. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  13. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  14. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  17. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo tank that is not permanently attached to or integral with a vehicle chassis must be secured by the...

  18. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo tank that is not permanently attached to or integral with a vehicle chassis must be secured by the...

  19. 49 CFR 178.345-6 - Supports and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-6 Supports and anchoring. (a) A cargo..., or turning of the cargo tank motor vehicle. The design calculations of the support elements...

  20. 49 CFR 178.338-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) On a cargo tank motor vehicle designed and constructed so that the cargo tank constitutes in whole or in...

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo tank that is not permanently attached to or integral with a vehicle chassis must be secured by the...

  2. 49 CFR 178.345-6 - Supports and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-6 Supports and anchoring. (a) A cargo..., or turning of the cargo tank motor vehicle. The design calculations of the support elements...

  3. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-13 Supporting and anchoring. (a) A cargo tank that is not permanently attached to or integral with a vehicle chassis must be secured by the...

  4. Modified Anchor Shaped Post Core Design for Primary Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, R.; Baroudi, Kusai; Reddy, K. Bala Kasi; Praveen, B. H.; Kumar, V. Sumanth; Amit, S.

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention. PMID:25379294

  5. 15. DETAIL OF ANCHOR BOLT WHICH FORMERLY SECURED A TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF ANCHOR BOLT WHICH FORMERLY SECURED A TIMBER SILL BEAM TO THE GRANITE SILL ALONG THE EASTERLY EDGE OF THE SPILLWAY APRON (NOTE 3" SWISS ARMY KNIFE TO RIGHT OF BOLT FOR SCALE); VIEW TO WEST. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  6. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  7. Corrected High-Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda L.; Finch, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To improve lingual ultrasound imaging with the Corrected High Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment (CHAUSA; Miller, 2008) method. Method: A production study of the IsiXhosa alveolar click is presented. Articulatory-to-acoustic alignment is demonstrated using a Tri-Modal 3-ms pulse generator. Images from 2 simultaneous…

  8. 20. DETAIL, ANCHOR BLOCK AND BUTTRESS AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, ANCHOR BLOCK AND BUTTRESS AT SOUTH END OF DAM, SHOWING PROMINENT GROOVE WHERE THE NEXT ARCH COULD HAVE BEEN JOINED TO THE NORTH-SOUTH TRENDING DAM. - Rock Creek Dam, East end of Rock Creek Road, Auburn, Placer County, CA

  9. 33 CFR 164.19 - Requirements for vessels at anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for vessels at anchor. 164.19 Section 164.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.19 Requirements...

  10. 33 CFR 164.19 - Requirements for vessels at anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for vessels at anchor. 164.19 Section 164.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.19 Requirements...

  11. Detecting Anchoring-and-Adjusting in Survey Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Proper survey design is essential to obtain reliable, replicable data from research subjects. One threat to inferences drawn from surveys is anchoring-and-adjusting. Tversky and Kahnemann (1974) observed that participants' responses to questions depended systematically on irrelevant information they received prior to answering. It is important for…

  12. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ground anchor installations. 3285.402 Section 3285.402 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind §...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ground anchor installations. 3285.402 Section 3285.402 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind §...

  14. Implementing Anchored Instruction: Guiding Principles for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Kim; And Others

    A curriculum based on "anchored instruction" was developed to enhance students' literacy development and acquisition of knowledge. The curriculum was designed to create a rich, shared environment that generates interest and enables students to identify and define problems while they explore the content from many perspectives. Based on…

  15. Equating without an Anchor for Nonequivalent Groups of Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2015-01-01

    An equating procedure for a testing program with evolving distribution of examinee profiles is developed. No anchor is available because the original scoring scheme was based on expert judgment of the item difficulties. Pairs of examinees from two administrations are formed by matching on coarsened propensity scores derived from a set of…

  16. Anchor Test Study Supplement. Final Report. Volume 31, Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, John C.; Loret, Peter G.

    The Anchor Test Study provides a method for translating a pupil's score on any one of eight widely used standardized reading tests for Grades 4, 5, and 6 to a corresponding score on any of the other seven tests, as well as furnishing new nationally representative norms for each of the eight tests. In addition, the Study presents new estimates of…

  17. 24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON STATION IN GULF OF MEXICO WITH MOTOR BOAT TIED AT STERN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  18. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  19. Orbital views of molecular conductance perturbed by anchor units.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yuta; Staykov, Aleksandar; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2011-04-20

    Site-specific electron transport phenomena through benzene and benzenedithiol derivatives are discussed on the basis of a qualitative Hückel molecular orbital analysis for better understanding of the effect of anchoring sulfur atoms. A recent work for the orbital control of electron transport through aromatic hydrocarbons provided an important concept for the design of high-conductance connections of a molecule with anchoring atoms. In this work the origin of the frontier orbitals of benzenedithiol derivatives, the effect of the sulfur atoms on the orbitals and on the electron transport properties, and the applicability of the theoretical concept on aromatic hydrocarbons with the anchoring units are studied. The results demonstrate that the orbital view predictions are applicable to molecules perturbed by the anchoring units. The electron transport properties of benzene are found to be qualitatively consistent with those of benzenedithiol with respect to the site dependence. To verify the result of the Hückel molecular orbital calculations, fragment molecular orbital analyses with the extended Hückel molecular orbital theory and electron transport calculations with density functional theory are performed. Calculated results are in good agreement with the orbital interaction analysis. The phase, amplitude, and spatial distribution of the frontier orbitals play an essential role in the design of the electron transport properties through aromatic hydrocarbons.

  20. Promises and Pitfalls of Anchoring Vignettes in Health Survey Research

    PubMed Central

    Verdes-Tennant, Emese; McEniry, Mary; Ispány, Márton

    2016-01-01

    Data harmonization is a topic of growing importance to demographers, who increasingly conduct domestic or international comparative research. Many self-reported survey items cannot be directly compared across demographic groups or countries because these groups differ in how they use subjective response categories. Anchoring vignettes, already appearing in numerous surveys worldwide, promise to overcome this problem. However, many anchoring vignettes have not been formally evaluated for adherence to the key measurement assumptions of vignette equivalence and response consistency. This article tests these assumptions in some of the most widely fielded anchoring vignettes in the world: the health vignettes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) and World Health Survey (WHS) (representing 10 countries; n = 52,388), as well as similar vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,528). Findings are encouraging regarding adherence to response consistency, but reveal substantial violations of vignette equivalence both cross-nationally and across socioeconomic groups. That is, members of different sociocultural groups appear to interpret vignettes as depicting fundamentally different levels of health. The evaluated anchoring vignettes do not fulfill their promise of providing interpersonally comparable measures of health. Recommendations for improving future implementations of vignettes are discussed. PMID:26335547

  1. Culturally-Anchored Values and University Education Experience Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsis, Ann; Foley, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether business students' gender, age and culturally-anchored values affect their perceptions of their university course experience. Design/methodology/approach: Culturally diverse business students (n 1/4 548) studying at an Australian university were surveyed using previously established scales.…

  2. New anchoring method for tarsal tendon transfers in myelomeningocele patients.

    PubMed

    Tomonori, Kenmoku; Makoto, Kamegaya; Takashi, Saisu

    2007-12-01

    We describe a new anchoring method for tarsal tendon transfers in myelomeningocele patients to protect the sole of the foot from pressure sores and skin necrosis and to loosen the tension of the transferred tendon.Tendon transfer procedures were performed in 51 feet (33 patients) with myelomeningocele. We transferred tibialis anterior tendons to the second or third cuneiform in 19 with equinovarus deformities, and transferred tibialis anterior tendons to the calcaneus through the interosseous membrane in 32 with talipes calcaneus. Clinical results were evaluated with the muscle power of transferred tendons using manual muscle testing 6 months after surgery. The muscle test result was classified as good, fair, and poor.After passing the tendon through the bony hole, a 2.0-mm Kirschner wire was inserted from the sole to the tibia through the ankle joint at neutral. (It extended from the sole through the posterior cortex of the tibia.) The remaining part of the wire was bent and formed into a loop shaped like the Greek letter "zeta" (zeta). The thread was then tied to the loop of the wire as tightly as possible. In this way, there was no contact with the sole during anchoring, thus avoiding ulcers. In addition, the transferred tendon could be kept stable because the patient's ankle was fixed by the Kirschner wire.No cases of wound infection or skin necrosis of the sole occurred. In 49 of the 51 cases, transferred tendons were firmly anchored to tarsal bones. Muscle strength was good for 83%, fair for 13%, and poor for 4%. Consequently, 45 feet could obtain plantigrade pattern during their walking with shoe inserts or occasional use of ankle-foot orthoses.Our anchoring method has the advantage of protecting the sole of the foot from pressure sores and skin necrosis, as well as maintaining tension on the transferred tendon until it settles down in an anchor hole.

  3. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome

    PubMed Central

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both. PMID:27200088

  4. Disintegration of an absorbable rotator cuff anchor six weeks after implantation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, James D

    2005-04-01

    Rotator cuff failure by suture-bone or suture anchor pull-out, suture breakage, knot slippage, and tendon pull-out are well described. I report a case of early disintegration of a bioabsorbable suture anchor. A 77-year-old woman underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. On suspecting failure, the repair was repeated 40 days later. Arthroscopy revealed disintegration of the suture loop from the anchor. Open rotator cuff repair was then performed with transosseous suture and metallic anchors.

  5. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  6. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  7. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  8. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  9. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  10. Development of low anchoring strength liquid crystal mixtures for bistable nematic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Gallaire, D.; Faget, L.; Lamarque-Forget, S.; Joly, S.; Dubois, J.-C.; Martinot-Lagarde, Ph.; Dozov, I.

    2006-02-01

    The recent Bistable Nematic (BiNem (R)) LCD technology presents long term bistability, high level passive matrix multiplexing and high optical quality. The BiNem device, based on anchoring breaking, needs specific low anchoring strength materials - alignment layers and liquid crystal mixtures. We present here our approach to develop nematic mixtures with wide enough temperature range and low zenithal anchoring energy.

  11. 78 FR 45104 - Model Manufactured Home Installation Standards: Ground Anchor Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... methods to determine ground anchor performance and resistance. The performance of conventional ground... apparatus for comparative testing purposes. Overall, 104 tests were performed. Ground anchor resistance... performance and should not be relied upon to determine anchor resistance, unless a significantly higher...

  12. Perception of the Raison d'Etre in Anchored Instruction: An Ecological Psychology Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Barab, Sasha A.

    1999-01-01

    Anchored instruction calls for the establishment of a macrocontext to "anchor" instruction within a realistic situation. Evidence is provided that video anchors encourage students to adopt certain contrived goals over their more naturalistic goals. Suggests that goals that enable the problem solver to detect the "raison d'etre"…

  13. NCME 2008 Presidential Address: The Impact of Anchor Test Configuration on Student Proficiency Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Anne R.

    2008-01-01

    Examined in this study were the effects of reducing anchor test length on student proficiency rates for 12 multiple-choice tests administered in an annual, large-scale, high-stakes assessment. The anchor tests contained 15 items, 10 items, or five items. Five content representative samples of items were drawn at each anchor test length from a…

  14. Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylapudi, Gopi

    The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock

  15. Equilibrium Configuration in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplet with Homeotropic Anchoring of Finite Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanke, Masaki; Sasaki, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Equilibrium configuration of order parameter in a nematic liquid crystal droplet with homeotropic anchoring of finite strength at the surface is studied numerically by using the Landau--de Gennes approach. It is found that a hedgehog-like configuration with a disclination loop of a small radius is stable for strong anchoring while an axial configuration without defect is stable for weak anchoring. A first-order phase transition from one configuration to the other occurs as the strength of the anchoring is varied. The critical anchoring strength turns out to increase almost linearly with the inverse of the droplet radius.

  16. Labeling Cell Surface GPIs and GPI-Anchored Proteins through Metabolic Engineering with Artificial Inositol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Gao, Jian; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-08-10

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins to the cell surface is important for various biological processes, but GPI-anchored proteins are difficult to study. An effective strategy was developed for the metabolic engineering of cell-surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins by using inositol derivatives carrying an azido group. The azide-labeled GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins were then tagged with biotin on live cells through a click reaction, which allows further elaboration with streptavidin-conjugated dyes or other molecules. The strategy can be used to label GPI-anchored proteins with various tags for biological studies.

  17. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nam B.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability.

  18. Membrane-anchored serine proteases in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bugge, Thomas; Wu, Qingyu

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteases of the trypsin-like family have long been recognized to be critical effectors of biological processes as diverse as digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and immunity. In recent years, a subgroup of these enzymes has been identified that are anchored directly to plasma membranes, either by a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain (Type I), an amino-terminal transmembrane domain with a cytoplasmic extension (Type II or TTSP), or through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Recent biochemical, cellular, and in vivo analyses have now established that membrane-anchored serine proteases are key pericellular contributors to processes vital for development and the maintenance of homeostasis. This chapter will review our current knowledge of the biological and physiological functions of these proteases, their molecular substrates, and their contributions to disease. PMID:21238933

  19. Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita: Autoimmunity to Anchoring Fibril Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei; Kim, Gene H.; Prakash, Lori; Woodley, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a rare and acquired autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease of the skin and mucosa. EBA includes various distinct clinical manifestations resembling Bullous Pemphigus, Brunsting-Perry pemphigoid, or cicatricial pemphigoid. These patients have autoantibodies against type VII collagen, an integral component of anchoring fibrils, which are responsible for attaching the dermis to the epidermis. Destruction or perturbation of the normally functioning anchoring fibrils clinically results in skin fragility, blisters, erosions, scars, milia and nail loss, all features reminiscent of genetic dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. These anti-type VII collagen antibodies are “pathogenic” because when injected into a mouse, the mouse develops an EBA-like blistering disease. Currently treatment is often unsatisfactory, however some success has been achieved with colchichine, dapsone, photopheresis, plasmaphresis, infliximab, rituximab and IVIG. PMID:21955050

  20. Accessorizing and anchoring the LINC complex for multifunctionality

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wakam; Worman, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, composed of outer and inner nuclear membrane Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology (KASH) and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) proteins, respectively, connects the nucleus to cytoskeletal filaments and performs diverse functions including nuclear positioning, mechanotransduction, and meiotic chromosome movements. Recent studies have shed light on the source of this diversity by identifying factors associated with the complex that endow specific functions as well as those that differentially anchor the complex within the nucleus. Additional diversity may be provided by accessory factors that reorganize the complex into higher-ordered arrays. As core components of the LINC complex are associated with several diseases, understanding the role of accessory and anchoring proteins could provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25559183

  1. Recycling Suture Limbs from Knotless Suture Anchors for Arthroscopic Shoulder Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Timothy S; DiPompeo, Christine M; Ismaeli, Zahra C; Porter, Polly A; Nicholson, Shannon L; Johnson, David C

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent shoulder instability often leads to labral abnormality that requires surgical intervention that may require fixation with suture anchors. The proposed surgical technique allows the surgeon to achieve 2 points of fixation around the labrum and/or capsule with a single suture secured to the glenoid with a knotless anchor. Instead of cutting and discarding the residual suture limbs after anchor insertion, this technique uses the residual suture limbs of the knotless anchor for a second suture pass. This technique (1) creates a more cost- and time-efficient surgical procedure than using multiple single-loaded anchors or double-loaded anchors, (2) decreases the known risk of glenoid fracture from the stress riser at the implant tips of multi-anchor repairs by reducing the number of anchors required for stabilization, (3) decreases the surgical time compared with the use of double-loaded anchors through simpler suture management and less knot tying, (4) allows for the secure reapproximation of the labrum to the glenoid while offering a convenient option for capsulorrhaphy without the need to insert another anchor, and (5) yields more points of soft-tissue fixation with fewer anchors drilled into the glenoid.

  2. Effect of anchoring 4-anilidopiperidines to opioid peptides.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Ravil R; Lee, Yeon Sun; Vardanyan, Ruben S; Liu, Lu; Ma, Shou-wu; Davis, Peg; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; Vanderah, Todd W; Hruby, Victor J

    2013-06-01

    We report here the design, synthesis, and in vitro characterization of new opioid peptides featuring a 4-anilidopiperidine moiety. Despite the fact that the chemical structures of fentanyl surrogates have been found suboptimal per se for the opioid activity, the corresponding conjugates with opioid peptides displayed potent opioid activity. These studies shed an instructive light on the strategies and potential therapeutic values of anchoring the 4-anilidopiperidine scaffold to different classes of opioid peptides.

  3. Anchoring the Self to the Body in Bilateral Vestibular Failure

    PubMed Central

    Toupet, Michel; van Nechel, Christian; Duquesne, Ulla; Hautefort, Charlotte; Lopez, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that vestibular information plays a significant role in anchoring the self to the body. Out-of-body experiences of neurological origin are frequently associated with vestibular sensations, and galvanic vestibular stimulation in healthy participants anchors the self to the body. Here, we provide the first objective measures of anchoring the self to the body in chronic bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). We compared 23 patients with idiopathic BVF to 23 healthy participants in a series of experiments addressing several aspects of visuo-spatial perspective taking and embodiment. In Experiment 1, participants were involved in a virtual “dot-counting task” from their own perspective or the perspective of a distant avatar, to measure implicit and explicit perspective taking, respectively. In both groups, response times increased similarly when the avatar’s and participant’s viewpoint differed, for both implicit and explicit perspective taking. In Experiment 2, participants named ambiguous letters (such as “b” or “q”) traced on their forehead that could be perceived from an internal or external perspective. The frequency of perceiving ambiguous letters from an internal perspective was similar in both groups. In Experiment 3, participants completed a questionnaire measuring the experienced self/body and self/environment “closeness”. Both groups reported a similar embodied experience. Altogether, our data show that idiopathic BVF does not change implicit and explicit perspective taking nor subjective anchoring of the self to the body. Our negative findings offer insight into the multisensory mechanisms of embodiment. Only acute peripheral vestibular disorders and neurological disorders in vestibular brain areas (characterized by strong multisensory conflicts) may evoke disembodied experiences. PMID:28107424

  4. 19. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE ROOF OF THE NORTH SIDE OF THE EAST BOILER ROOM. THE ROOF OF THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER IS DIRECTLY BEHIND THE FEEDER TOWER ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THIS TERMINAL IS THE JUNCTION BETWEEN NORTHEAST UTILITIES LINES AND THE RAILROAD CATENARY. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  5. Phosphonate-anchored monolayers for antibody binding to magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Benbenishty-Shamir, Helly; Gilert, Roni; Gotman, Irena; Gutmanas, Elazar Y; Sukenik, Chaim N

    2011-10-04

    Targeted delivery of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to a specific tissue can be achieved by conjugation with particular biological ligands on an appropriately functionalized IONP surface. To take best advantage of the unique magnetic properties of IONPs and to maximize their blood half-life, thin, strongly bonded, functionalized coatings are required. The work reported herein demonstrates the successful application of phosphonate-anchored self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as ultrathin coatings for such particles. It also describes a new chemical approach to the anchoring of antibodies on the surface of SAM-coated IONPs (using nucleophilic aromatic substitution). This anchoring strategy results in stable, nonhydrolyzable, covalent attachment and allows the reactivity of the particles toward antibody binding to be activated in situ, such that prior to the activation the modified surface is stable for long-term storage. While the SAMs do not have the well-packed crystallinity of other such monolayers, their structure was studied using smooth model substrates based on an iron oxide layer on a double-side polished silicon wafer. In this way, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, and contact angle goniometry (tools that could not be applied to the nanoparticles' surfaces) could contribute to the determination of their monomolecular thickness and uniformity. Finally, the successful conjugation of IgG antibodies to the SAM-coated IONPs such that the antibodies retain their biological activity is verified by their complexation to a secondary fluorescent antibody.

  6. Subcellular distribution of tail-anchored proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Shaw, Rowena; Mukherjee, Joy; Bowsher, Caroline G; Harrison, Anne-Marie; Abell, Ben M

    2009-12-01

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins function in key cellular processes in eukaryotic cells, such as vesicle trafficking, protein translocation and regulation of transcription. They anchor to internal cell membranes by a C-terminal transmembrane domain, which also serves as a targeting sequence. Targeting occurs post-translationally, via pathways that are specific to the precursor, which makes TA proteins a model system for investigating post-translational protein targeting. Bioinformatics approaches have previously been used to identify potential TA proteins in yeast and humans, yet little is known about TA proteins in plants. The identification of plant TA proteins is important for extending the post-translational model system to plastids, in addition to general proteome characterization, and the identification of functional homologues characterized in other organisms. We identified 454 loci that potentially encode TA proteins in Arabidopsis, and combined published data with new localization experiments to assign localizations to 130 proteins, including 29 associated with plastids. By analysing the tail anchor sequences of characterized proteins, we have developed a tool for predicting localization and estimate that 138 TA proteins are localized to plastids.

  7. Anchor technique: Use of stent retrievers as an anchor to advance thrombectomy catheters in internal carotid artery occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Stacey Q; Janjua, Rashid M; Hedayat, Hirad; Burnette, Christofer

    2015-01-01

    In three recent cases of acute complete internal artery occlusions, we used stent retriever deployed through the mechanical aspiration/distal access catheters to achieve recanalization. In all cases the stent retriever was used as an anchor and supplemented mechanical thrombectomy. This report describes the technical details of the procedure and presents an alternative plan of action in difficult cases when standard thrombectomy techniques do not work. PMID:26494404

  8. GPI anchor transamidase of Trypanosoma brucei: in vitro assay of the recombinant protein and VSG anchor exchange.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xuedong; Szallies, Alexander; Rawer, Marc; Echner, Hartmut; Duszenko, Michael

    2002-06-15

    GPI8 from Trypanosoma brucei was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. TbGPI8 encodes a 37 kDa protein (35 kDa after removal of the putative signal sequence) with a pI of 5.5. It contains one potential N-glycosylation site near the N-terminus but no C-terminal hydrophobic region. Enzyme activity assays using trypanosomal lysates or recombinant TbGpi8 exhibited cleavage of the synthetic peptide acetyl-S-V-L-N-aminomethyl-coumarine, indicating that TbGpi8 is indeed directly involved in the proteolytic processing of the GPI anchoring signal. Intracellular localization of TbGpi8 within tubular structures, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, was observed by using specific anti-TbGpi8 antibodies. The transamidase mechanism of GPI anchoring was studied in bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei using media containing hydrazine or biotinylated hydrazine. In the presence of the latter nucleophile, part of the newly formed VSG was linked to this instead of the GPI anchor and was not transferred to the cell surface. VSG-hydrazine-biotin was detected by streptavidin in western blots and intracellularly in Golgi-like compartments.

  9. Monitoring lipid anchor organization in cell membranes by PIE-FCCS.

    PubMed

    Triffo, Sara B; Huang, Hector H; Smith, Adam W; Chou, Eldon T; Groves, Jay T

    2012-07-04

    This study examines the dynamic co-localization of lipid-anchored fluorescent proteins in living cells using pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) and fluorescence lifetime analysis. Specifically, we look at the pairwise co-localization of anchors from lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK: myristoyl, palmitoyl, palmitoyl), RhoA (geranylgeranyl), and K-Ras (farnesyl) proteins in different cell types. In Jurkat cells, a density-dependent increase in cross-correlation among RhoA anchors is observed, while LCK anchors exhibit a more moderate increase and broader distribution. No correlation was detected among K-Ras anchors or between any of the different anchor types studied. Fluorescence lifetime data reveal no significant Förster resonance energy transfer in any of the data. In COS 7 cells, minimal correlation was detected among LCK or RhoA anchors. Taken together, these observations suggest that some lipid anchors take part in anchor-specific co-clustering with other existing clusters of native proteins and lipids in the membrane. Importantly, these observations do not support a simple interpretation of lipid anchor-mediated organization driven by partitioning based on binary lipid phase separation.

  10. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising.

  11. Mechanical properties of all-suture anchors for rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, N.; Smith, R. D. J.; Carr, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives All-suture anchors are increasingly used in rotator cuff repair procedures. Potential benefits include decreased bone damage. However, there is limited published evidence for the relative strength of fixation for all-suture anchors compared with traditional anchors. Materials and Methods A total of four commercially available all-suture anchors, the ‘Y-Knot’ (ConMed), Q-FIX (Smith & Nephew), ICONIX (Stryker) and JuggerKnot (Zimmer Biomet) and a traditional anchor control TWINFIX Ultra PK Suture Anchor (Smith & Nephew) were tested in cadaveric human humeral head rotator cuff repair models (n = 24). This construct underwent cyclic loading applied by a mechanical testing rig (Zwick/Roell). Ultimate load to failure, gap formation at 50, 100, 150 and 200 cycles, and failure mechanism were recorded. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Overall, mean maximum tensile strength values were significantly higher for the traditional anchor (181.0 N, standard error (se) 17.6) compared with the all-suture anchors (mean 133.1 N se 16.7) (p = 0.04). The JuggerKnot anchor had greatest displacement at 50, 100 and 150 cycles, and at failure, reaching statistical significance over the control at 100 and 150 cycles (22.6 mm se 2.5 versus 12.5 mm se 0.3; and 29.6 mm se 4.8 versus 17.0 mm se 0.7). Every all-suture anchor tested showed substantial (> 5 mm) displacement between 50 and 100 cycles (6.2 to 14.3). All-suture anchors predominantly failed due to anchor pull-out (95% versus 25% of traditional anchors), whereas a higher proportion of traditional anchors failed secondary to suture breakage. Conclusion We demonstrate decreased failure load, increased total displacement, and variable failure mechanisms in all-suture anchors, compared with traditional anchors designed for rotator cuff repair. These findings will aid the surgeon’s choice of implant, in the context of the clinical scenario. Cite this article: N. S. Nagra, N. Zargar, R. D. J. Smith, A. J. Carr

  12. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as <1 %, significantly more patients (73 %) correctly identified the numeric risk as <1 % post-counseling (p < 0.0001). However, the majority of patients' qualitative risk perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p < 0.0001). Participants who elected amniocentesis had a significantly lower perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  13. Aromatic Anchor at an Invariant Hormone-Receptor Interface

    PubMed Central

    Pandyarajan, Vijay; Smith, Brian J.; Phillips, Nelson B.; Whittaker, Linda; Cox, Gabriella P.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda; Menting, John G.; Wan, Zhu-li; Whittaker, Jonathan; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Lawrence, Michael C.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallographic studies of insulin bound to fragments of the insulin receptor have recently defined the topography of the primary hormone-receptor interface. Here, we have investigated the role of PheB24, an invariant aromatic anchor at this interface and site of a human mutation causing diabetes mellitus. An extensive set of B24 substitutions has been constructed and tested for effects on receptor binding. Although aromaticity has long been considered a key requirement at this position, MetB24 was found to confer essentially native affinity and bioactivity. Molecular modeling suggests that this linear side chain can serve as an alternative hydrophobic anchor at the hormone-receptor interface. These findings motivated further substitution of PheB24 by cyclohexanylalanine (Cha), which contains a nonplanar aliphatic ring. Contrary to expectations, [ChaB24]insulin likewise exhibited high activity. Furthermore, its resistance to fibrillation and the rapid rate of hexamer disassembly, properties of potential therapeutic advantage, were enhanced. The crystal structure of the ChaB24 analog, determined as an R6 zinc-stabilized hexamer at a resolution of 1.5 Å, closely resembles that of wild-type insulin. The nonplanar aliphatic ring exhibits two chair conformations with partial occupancies, each recapitulating the role of PheB24 at the dimer interface. Together, these studies have defined structural requirements of an anchor residue within the B24-binding pocket of the insulin receptor; similar molecular principles are likely to pertain to insulin-related growth factors. Our results highlight in particular the utility of nonaromatic side chains as probes of the B24 pocket and suggest that the nonstandard Cha side chain may have therapeutic utility. PMID:25305014

  14. 18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG THE MAIN TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER IS SHOWN IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND. AT THIS STATION THE DISPATCHER CONTROLLED POWER OUTPUT TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. THE STRUCTURE SERVES THE SAME PURPOSE IN 1993 AND CAN BE OPERATED LOCALLY OR REMOTELY FROM METRO-NORTH'S HEADQUARTERS IN MANHATTAN. THE STEEL STRUCTURE AND STACK IN THE BACKGROUND ARE PART OF THE BOILER 902-903 INSTALLATION. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  15. Simulation of weak anchoring effects on nematic liquid crystal hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Sean; Somers, David A. T.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    The free energy of a nematic liquid crystal droplet depends on an interplay between elastic and surface interactions. When the two contributions are of similar magnitude, there exists a transition of the nematic structure of the droplet. Because the two contributions scale differently with length scales, this transition is visible as a function of the size of the droplet. We carry out numerical simulations to explore the use of this transition in measuring surface anchoring energies. This technique could help elucidate alignment forces on liquid crystals, such as those caused by rubbed surfaces, electric fields, or even the Casimir torque. Electrical and Computer Engineering.

  16. Results of Some Uplift Capacity Tests on Direct Embedment Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    should be expected to vary from those of the terrestrial tesis above. The analysis of direct embedment anchor-holding capacity is complicated by the...was conducted north of the Puerto Rico trench in 5,500 m (18,000 ft) in a pelagic clay or "red clay" deposit. Water contents in the upper 1.2 m (4 ft...north of Puerto Rico Trench. S6 - -~ ~-~d- 70. 60 20 60 j - 12 18 5 fluke 16 embedaent - 10 -0 340 6- -20 20,--6 4 - 10- ൟ 0g 30 2 3 4 5 6 7 4i Time

  17. [Effect of abrasion on three types of sutures in a metallic anchor].

    PubMed

    Acosta Rodríguez, Eduardo; Almazán Díaz, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    It is necessary to slide the suture into the articulation in the arthroscopic techniques, this produce friction and abrasion of the suture, this is the principal cause of failure in the union of anchor-suture. We used a Fastak 2.4 anchor, Sawbones, No 2 Ethibond, No 2 Fiberwire and No 2 Herculine. Each suture was introduce to the anchor eyelet and was cycled in four times with 40N. The angles of traction were 0 degrees and 45 degrees at the same direction of the anchor eyelet and 45 degrees with different direction of the anchor eyelet. Five sutures were used in every test. We performed the Kolmogorov-Smirnof and "t" Student tests. In all the tests there were a significant differences. The strength of the suture is affected by the abrasion in the anchor eyelet.

  18. Self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Feerick, Emer M; Wilson, Joanne; Jarman-Smith, Marcus; Ó'Brádaigh, Conchur M; McGarry, J Patrick

    2014-10-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been conducted. Six CFR-PEEK suture anchor designs were investigated using PEEK-OPTIMA® Reinforced, a medical grade of CFR-PEEK. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the maximum axial force and torque required for self-taping insertion of each anchor design. Additional experimental tests were conducted for some anchor designs using pilot holes. Computational simulations were conducted to determine the maximum stress in each anchor design at various stages of insertion. Simulations also were performed to investigate the effect of wall thickness in the anchor head. The maximum axial force required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 150 N for any anchor design. The maximum torque required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 0.8 Nm. Computational simulations reveal significant stress concentrations in the region of the anchor tip, demonstrating that a re-design of the tip geometry should be performed to avoid fracture during self-tapping, as observed in the experimental component of this study. This study demonstrates the ability of PEEK-OPTIMA Reinforced suture anchors to self-tap polyurethane foam bone analogue. This provides motivation to further investigate the self-tapping ability of CFR-PEEK suture anchors in animal/cadaveric bone. An optimised design for CFR-PEEK suture anchors offers the advantages of radiolucency, and mechanical properties similar to bone with the ability to self-tap. This may have positive implications for reducing surgery times and the associated costs with the procedure.

  19. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N.; Carson, Martin L.; Rines, Howard W.; Obert, Donald E.; Lutz, Joseph D.; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B.; Wight, Charlene P.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D.; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J. Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Howarth, Catherine J.; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L.; McMullen, Michael S.; Murphy, J. Paul; Ohm, Herbert W.; Rossnagel, Brian G.; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J.; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J.; Redman Hulse, Rachel R.; Anderson, Joseph M.; Islamovic, Emir

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  20. Reinforcing mechanism of anchors in slopes: a numerical comparison of results of LEM and FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Fei; Ugai, Keizo

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports the limitation of the conventional Bishop's simplified method to calculate the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors, and proposes a new approach to considering the reinforcing effect of anchors on the safety factor. The reinforcing effect of anchors can be explained using an additional shearing resistance on the slip surface. A three-dimensional shear strength reduction finite element method (SSRFEM), where soil-anchor interactions were simulated by three-dimensional zero-thickness elasto-plastic interface elements, was used to calculate the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors to verify the reinforcing mechanism of anchors. The results of SSRFEM were compared with those of the conventional and proposed approaches for Bishop's simplified method for various orientations, positions, and spacings of anchors, and shear strengths of soil-grouted body interfaces. For the safety factor, the proposed approach compared better with SSRFEM than the conventional approach. The additional shearing resistance can explain the influence of the orientation, position, and spacing of anchors, and the shear strength of soil-grouted body interfaces on the safety factor of slopes stabilized with anchors.

  1. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control.

  2. Anchored Clathrate Waters Bind Antifreeze Proteins to Ice

    SciTech Connect

    C Garnham; R Campbell; P Davies

    2011-12-31

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca{sup 2+}-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP{vert_ellipsis}ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the 'anchored clathrate' mechanism of AFP action.

  3. Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

  4. Anchored clathrate waters bind antifreeze proteins to ice.

    PubMed

    Garnham, Christopher P; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2011-05-03

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca(2+)-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFPice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the "anchored clathrate" mechanism of AFP action.

  5. Computations of flow in an anchored Solar Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Dahhea; Fischer, Paul F.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2015-11-01

    In regions with high solar insolation, there is a potential to extract mechanical energy from the gravitationally unstable ground-heated air layer, using the substantial axial and azimuthal momentum of an anchored buoyancy-induced columnar vortex to drive a vertical-axis turbine. The seasonal and diurnal availability (which extends well into the late afternoon and even past sunset, due to utilization of the thermal capacity of the ground to heat the air, rather than direct use of photons) is well-matched to air-conditioning loads in the southwestern US. Critical issues in the design of such systems are the geometry of the enclosure that serves to anchor the dust devil-like vortex and prevent it from being blown away by ambient wind, as well as the geometry of the stationary vanes used both to enhance entrainment of ground-heated air into the vortex from a collection area much larger than that of the enclosure, and to utilize any ambient wind to enhance the vortex. Here, we report computations (using the spectral-element code Nek5000) of heated and unheated flows in several geometries of interest. The results are discussed in the context of field experiments. Supported by ARPA-E award DE-AR0000296.

  6. Multi-day anchor ice cycles and bedload transport in a gravel-bed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Philippe; Leconte, Robert; Jay Lacey, R. W.; Bergeron, Normand

    2014-11-01

    River dynamics in cold regions and the physical processes involving ice formation and release remain relatively understudied topics. Current research suggests that anchor ice forms in diurnal cycles and has the potential to move sediments when released from the bed. Given the importance of river ice dynamics, studies are needed to describe the physical processes of anchor ice and its impact on sediment transport. The study presented in this paper investigated in situ anchor ice formation on the Stoke River in Quebec, Canada. In the fall of 2012, we observed multi-day anchor ice formation cycles and release, which usually ended with a small runoff event. During a cycle, there was little or no release of anchor ice, thus allowing its gradual growth as the air temperature remained cold. Surface and anchor ice layers also often merged, leading to the formation of thick ice masses. Sediment transport was monitored using bed particles individually tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT-tags). Movement of the experimental particles, measured after each multi-day cycle event, ranged from 0.5 to 4 m. Possible transport mechanisms include: (1) anchor ice rafting, (2) ice jam breakup creating a jave with high erosive capacity, (3) flow corridors through anchor ice masses with high erosive capacity, (4) mechanical pushing of particles by drifting ice blocks during ice breakup, and (5) entrainment by flow or drifting ice blocks of anchored ice with strong ice-pebble bonds. Given the coincidental occurrence of anchor ice release and runoff events, it is uncertain which specific mechanism caused the particles to move. This study is a step forward in understanding the behavior of anchor ice processes and ice-related sediment transport.

  7. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  8. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. 401.49 Section 401.49 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.49 Dropping anchor or tying to canal...

  9. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jimin Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  10. Anchoring Effects on Prospective and Retrospective Metacomprehension Judgments as a Function of Peer Performance Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate anchoring effects on metacomprehension judgments as a function of fictitious information participants received about past peer performance. In Experiment 1 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three anchor groups that, in some cases, provided past peer performance averages in terms of a…

  11. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein repertoire of babesia bovis and its significance for erythrocyte invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycosylphosphatidyl-anchored proteins are particularly abundant on the surface of pathogenic protozoans and might play an important role for parasite survival. In the present work the relevance of GPI-anchored proteins for erythrocyte invasion of Babesia bovis, one of the tick-transmitted causative...

  12. Origins of the Stuttering Stereotype: Stereotype Formation through Anchoring-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Sean P.; Hall, Shera; MacIntyre, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    The stereotype of people who stutter is predominantly negative, holding that stutterers are excessively nervous, anxious, and reserved. The anchoring-adjustment hypothesis suggests that the stereotype of stuttering arises from a process of first anchoring the stereotype in personal feelings during times of normal speech disfluency, and then…

  13. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians’ motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian’s trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031

  14. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and Systems § 130.240 Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) Each OSV of 100 or more...

  15. Career Anchors: A New Concept in Career Development for the Professional Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, Thomas J.

    Created by Dr. Edgar Schein of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the career anchor model suggests that certain motivational/talent/value drives, formed through work experience, function to guide and constrain entire careers; and that such anchors are the source of stability that permits growth and change in other areas. The concept…

  16. Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an invited adaptation of the IEEE Education Society Distinguished Lecture Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning. Interactive video anchors have a cognitive theory base, and they help to enlarge the context of learning with information-rich real-world situations. Carefully selected movie clips and…

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  2. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  3. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  4. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  5. Career Anchors: Distribution and Impact on Job Satisfaction, the Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Nira; Valency, Rony

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the career anchor concept developed by Edgar Schein. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on the distribution of the eight career anchors, on a large heterogeneous sample and the differences in the distribution by gender and type of employment; and the impact of the congruence on job…

  6. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used

  7. Dynamic structure of membrane-anchored Arf•GTP

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yizhou; Kahn, Richard A.; Prestegard, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Arfs (ADP ribosylation factors) are N-myristoylated GTP/GDP switch proteins playing key regulatory roles in vesicle transport in eukaryotic cells. ARFs execute their roles by anchoring to membrane surfaces where they interact with other proteins to initiate budding and maturation of transport vesicles. However, existing structures of Arf•GTP are limited to non-myristoylated and truncated forms with impaired membrane binding. We report a high resolution NMR structure for full-length myristoylated yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Arf1 in complex with a membrane mimic. The two domain structure, in which the myristoylated N-terminal helix is separated from the C-terminal domain by a flexible linker, suggests a level of adaptability in binding modes for the myriad of proteins with which Arf interacts, and allows predictions of specific lipid binding sites on some of these proteins. PMID:20601958

  8. Ideological Differences in Anchoring and Adjustment During Social Inferences.

    PubMed

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V

    2016-09-08

    Recent research has demonstrated that conservatives perceive greater similarity to political ingroup members than do liberals. In two studies, we draw from a framework of "anchoring and adjustment" to understand why liberals and conservatives differ in their perceptions of ingroup similarity. Results indicate that when participants made judgments under time pressure, liberals and conservatives did not differ in assuming ingroup similarity. However, when participants were given sufficient time to make judgments, liberals assumed less similarity than conservatives did, suggesting that liberals adjusted their judgments to a greater extent than conservatives did (Studies 1 and 2). In examining an underlying motivational process, we found that when conservatives' desire to affiliate with others was attenuated, they adjusted their initial judgments of ingroup similarity to a similar extent as liberals did (Study 2). We discuss implications for research on ideology and social judgment.

  9. Structural Basis for Membrane Anchoring of HIV-1 Envelope Spike

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qingshan; Chen, Jia; Ha, Heather Jiwon; Ghantous, Fadi; Herrmann, Tobias; Chang, Weiting; Liu, Zhijun; Frey, Gary; Seaman, Michael S.; Chen, Bing; Chou, James J.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a type I membrane protein that mediates viral entry. We use NMR to determine an atomic structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in bicelles that mimic a lipid bilayer. The TM forms a well-ordered trimer that protects a conserved membrane-embedded arginine. An N-terminal coiled-coil and a C-terminal hydrophilic core stabilize the trimer. Individual mutations of conserved residues did not disrupt the TM trimer and minimally affected membrane fusion and infectivity. Major changes in the hydrophilic core, however, altered the antibody sensitivity of Env. These results show how a TM domain anchors, stabilizes and modulates a viral envelope spike and suggest that its influence on Env conformation is an important consideration for HIV-1 immunogen design. PMID:27338706

  10. Associative Self-Anchoring Interacts with Obtainability of Chosen Objects

    PubMed Central

    Prévost, Charlotte; Bolger, Niall; Mobbs, Dean

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring), it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has received little attention. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability. PMID:26913011

  11. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  12. A Novel Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Anchoring Scaffoldin That Bears Divergent Cohesins

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Barak, Yoav; Kenig, Rina; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    Sequencing of a cellulosome-integrating gene cluster in Acetivibrio cellulolyticus was completed. The cluster contains four tandem scaffoldin genes (scaA, scaB, scaC, and scaD) bounded upstream and downstream, respectively, by a presumed cellobiose phosphorylase and a nucleotide methylase. The sequences and properties of scaA, scaB, and scaC were reported previously, and those of scaD are reported here. The scaD gene encodes an 852-residue polypeptide that includes a signal peptide, three cohesins, and a C-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) module. The calculated molecular weight of the mature ScaD is 88,960; a 67-residue linker segment separates cohesins 1 and 2, and two ∼30-residue linkers separate cohesin 2 from 3 and cohesin 3 from the SLH module. The presence of an SLH module in ScaD indicates its role as an anchoring protein. The first two ScaD cohesins can be classified as type II, similar to the four cohesins of ScaB. Surprisingly, the third ScaD cohesin belongs to the type I cohesins, like the seven ScaA cohesins. ScaD is the first scaffoldin to be described that contains divergent types of cohesins as integral parts of the polypeptide chain. The recognition properties among selected recombinant cohesins and dockerins from the different scaffoldins of the gene cluster were investigated by affinity blotting. The results indicated that the divergent types of ScaD cohesins also differ in their preference of dockerins. ScaD thus plays a dual role, both as a primary scaffoldin, capable of direct incorporation of a single dockerin-borne enzyme, and as a secondary scaffoldin that anchors the major primary scaffoldin, ScaA and its complement of enzymes to the cell surface. PMID:15317783

  13. Arginoplexes: an arginine-anchored nanoliposomal carrier for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ketan; Tyagi, Monica; Monpara, Jasmin; Vora, Lalit; Gupta, Sanjay; Vavia, Pradeep

    2014-04-01

    There is a need of an efficient and safe non-viral gene delivery carrier due to promising future of nucleic acid-based therapeutics in the treatment of intractable diseases. Cytotoxicity and cost are the major concerns with current quaternary ammonium-based cationic liposomes. The major aim of current research work was development and in vitro evaluation of arginine-anchored nanoliposomes for gene delivery. l-Arginine-fatty acid conjugate was synthesized and characterized using IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. Synthesized conjugate—lauroyl arginine ethyl ester (LAE) was successfully incorporated into liposomes. Effect of nanocarrier composition on DNA binding was evaluated by preparing solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) and self nanoemulsifying system (SNES) using same LAE concentration. Effect of cationic head on DNA binding was also evaluated. Arginine-anchored nanoliposomes—arginoplexes (APX) showed superior DNA-binding affinity. Surface PEG was expected to cause hindrance in DNA binding in SLNs and SNES. Guanidino group was found to be a better cationic head for DNA binding compared to primary amine or quaternary amine. Gel retardation assay was performed to optimize the ratio of DNA to LAE in nanocarrier. Serum stability, haemolysis, cytotoxicity, and transfection studies were carried out to evaluate APX. Binding of DNA to APX was found to be stable in the presence of serum, and no degradation of DNA was observed. APX containing 2 mg/ml LAE which exhibited particle size of 72 nm with zeta potential of +57.5 mV, showed lower cytotoxicity and better transfection. APX can be a promising carrier for gene delivery.

  14. Anchors weigh more than power: why absolute powerlessness liberates negotiators to achieve better outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schaerer, Michael; Swaab, Roderick I; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-02-01

    The current research shows that having no power can be better than having a little power. Negotiators prefer having some power (weak negotiation alternatives) to having no power (no alternatives). We challenge this belief that having any alternative is beneficial by demonstrating that weak alternatives create low anchors that reduce the value of first offers. In contrast, having no alternatives is liberating because there is no anchor to weigh down first offers. In our experiments, negotiators with no alternatives felt less powerful but made higher first offers and secured superior outcomes compared with negotiators who had weak alternatives. We established the role of anchoring through mediation by first offers and through moderation by showing that weak alternatives no longer led to worse outcomes when negotiators focused on a countervailing anchor or when negotiators faced an opponent with a strong alternative. These results demonstrate that anchors can have larger effects than feelings of power. Absolute powerlessness can be psychologically liberating.

  15. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, D.T.; Briggaman, R.A. ); Zelickson, A.S. ); Hamilton, T.A.; Weiss, J.S.; Ellis, C.N.; Voorhees, J.J. )

    1990-06-13

    Topical 0.1% tretinoin or vehicle control was applied daily to the forearm skin of six caucasian adults for 4 months. Two-millimeter punch biopsy specimens were obtained from treatment sites at the beginning and end of the study period for electron microscopy. Anchoring fibrils within the epidermal-dermal junction of skin treatment sites were quantitated by blinded, standardized, computer-assisted morphometry. After 4 months of continual daily treatment, skin sites that received topical tretinoin showed double the anchoring fibril density compared with vehicle control sites. The possible mechanism by which topical tretinoin increases anchoring fibrils in skin include the drug's property of inhibiting collagenase, a dermal enzyme that degrades anchoring fibril collagen. The authors speculate that increased numbers of collagenous anchoring fibrils within the papillary dermis of human skin is one of the connective-tissue correlates of the clinical improvement observed in photoaged skin after treatment with topical tretinoin.

  16. The detrimental consequences for seagrass of ineffective marine park management related to boat anchoring.

    PubMed

    La Manna, G; Donno, Y; Sarà, G; Ceccherelli, G

    2015-01-15

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows are recognized as priority habitat for conservation by the EU Habitats Directive. The La Maddalena Archipelago National Park (Mediterranean Sea) P. oceanica meadow, the dominant coastal habitat of the area, is mostly threatened by boat anchoring. 12 years after the establishment of mooring fields and anchoring restrictions, a study was conducted to measure their effectiveness on the conservation of seagrass and the mitigation of anchoring damage. We found that: (i) the condition of P. oceanica was disturbed, both in the mooring fields and in control locations; (ii) mooring fields and anchoring restrictions did not show to be an efficient system for the protection of seagrass, in fact anchor scars increased after the tourist season; (iii) the mooring systems had an impact on the surrounding area of the meadow, probably due to their misuse. On the basis of these results, management recommendations for marine parks are proposed.

  17. BEHAVIOR OF POST-INSTALLED ANCHORS TESTED BY STEPWISE INCREASING CYCLIC LOAD PROTOCOLS

    PubMed Central

    Mahrenholtz, Philipp; Eligehausen, Rolf; Hutchinson, Tara C.; Hoehler, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic loads are a characteristic feature of actions acting on structures and anchorages during earthquakes. For this reason, seismic qualification of post-installed concrete anchors according to the internationally recognized American Concrete Institute (ACI) standard ACI 355 is based on cyclic load tests. The protocols for these tests, however, have limited scientific basis. Therefore, in the present paper newly-developed test protocols with stepwise-increasing load amplitudes are utilized to more realistically evaluate anchor seismic performance. The study focuses on the load-displacement behavior of common anchor types installed in cracked concrete and subjected to both cyclic tension and cyclic shear actions. The results confirmed robust behavior for anchors loaded in cyclic tension even in the presence of crack widths in the anchorage material larger than currently required by ACI 355. In addition, the critical influence of low cycle fatigue on the performance of anchors loaded in cyclic shear is demonstrated. PMID:27890969

  18. Mutational analysis of the variant surface glycoprotein GPI-anchor signal sequence in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Ulrike; Cross, George A M

    2002-02-15

    The variant surface glycoproteins (VSG) of Trypanosoma brucei are anchored to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. All GPI-anchored proteins are synthesized with a C-terminal signal sequence, which is replaced by a GPI-anchor in a rapid post-translational transamidation reaction. VSG GPI signal sequences are extraordinarily conserved. They contain either 23 or 17 amino acids, a difference that distinguishes the two major VSG classes, and consist of a spacer sequence followed by a more hydrophobic region. The omega amino acid, to which GPI is transferred, is either Ser, Asp or Asn, the omega+2 amino acid is always Ser, and the omega+7 amino acid is almost always Lys. In order to determine whether this high conservation is necessary for GPI anchoring, we introduced several mutations into the signal peptide. Surprisingly, changing the most conserved amino acids, at positions omega+1, omega+2 and omega+7, had no detectable effect on the efficiency of GPI-anchoring or on protein abundance. Several more extensive changes also had no discernable impact on GPI-anchoring. Deleting the entire 23 amino-acid signal sequence or the 15 amino-acid hydrophobic region generated proteins that were not anchored. Instead of being secreted, these truncated proteins accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum prior to lysosomal degradation. Replacing the GPI signal sequence with a proven cell-surface membrane-spanning domain reduced expression by about 99% and resulted not in cell surface expression but in accumulation close to the flagellar pocket and in non-lysosomal compartments. These results indicate that the high conservation of the VSG GPI signal sequence is not necessary for efficient expression and GPI attachment. Instead, the GPI anchor is essential for surface expression of VSG. However, because the VSG is a major virulence factor, it is possible that small changes in the efficiency of GPI anchoring, undetectable in our experiments, might have

  19. A Note on the Choice of an Anchor Test in Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-12-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandip, Sinharay; Haberman, Shelby; Holland, Paul; Lewis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Anchor tests play a key role in test score equating. We attempt to find, through theoretical derivations, an anchor test with optimal item characteristics. The correlation between the scores on a total test and on an anchor test is maximized with respect to the item parameters for data satisfying several item response theory models. Results…

  20. Linking Composite Scores: Effects of Anchor Test Length and Content Representativeness. Research Report. ETS RR-16-36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Peng; Dorans, Neil; Weeks, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design is frequently used in test score equating or linking. One important assumption of the NEAT design is that the anchor test is a miniversion of the 2 tests to be equated/linked. When the content of the 2 tests is different, it is not possible for the anchor test to be adequately representative…

  1. The Place of White in a World of Grays: A Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt…

  2. Career Anchors and the Effects of Downsizing: Implications for Generations and Cultures at Work. A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Verena; Bonner, Dede

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience, and the impact of career planning on downsizing were examined with data from 423 management students (49% had been downsized). Lifestyle was the most valued anchor across age groups, stability/security the least; compared with Schein's earlier anchors research,…

  3. Stability calculation method of slope reinforced by prestressed anchor in process of excavation.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Wei, Jia; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the effect of supporting structure and anchor on the slope stability of the excavation process into consideration; the stability calculation model is presented for the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam, and the dynamic search model of the critical slip surface also is put forward. The calculation model of the optimal stability solution of each anchor tension of the whole process is also given out, through which the real-time analysis and checking of slope stability in the process of excavation can be realized. The calculation examples indicate that the slope stability is changed with the dynamic change of the design parameters of anchor and grillage beam. So it is relatively more accurate and reasonable by using dynamic search model to determine the critical slip surface of the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam. Through the relationships of each anchor layout and the slope height of various stages of excavation, and the optimal stability solution of prestressed bolt tension design value in various excavation stages can be obtained. The arrangement of its prestressed anchor force reflects that the layout of the lower part of bolt and the calculation of slope reinforcement is in line with the actual. These indicate that the method is reasonable and practical.

  4. Modified method for external attachment of transmitters to birds using two subcutaneous anchors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, T.L.; Flint, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Of the transmitter attachment techniques for birds, the subcutaneous anchor provides a secure attachment that yields relatively few secondary effects. However, the use of subcutaneous anchors has been limited by transmitter size and retention time. Using a modified method of attachment that utilized two subcutaneous anchors, we deployed 69 GPS transmitters, plus 13 VHF transmitters that were similar in size and weight to GPS models, on Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Prior to our study, only harnesses were used for attaching GPS transmitters on birds, mainly because GPS transmitters are too large for other external attachment techniques and implantation in the body cavity attenuates the GPS signal. Thus, to increase the size capacity of anchor attachment and to avoid the well-documented negative effects of harnesses on behavior and survival, we added a second anchor at the transmitter's posterior end. The double-anchor attachment technique was quickly and easily accomplished in the field, requiring bird handling times of <10 min. Incidental recoveries of tagged Brant indicate a high degree of transmitter retention. Five recaptured birds (4-6 weeks after deployment) and eight killed by hunters (3-6 mo after deployment) retained their GPS transmitters. For studies involving the use of relatively large transmitters, the double-anchor method appears to provide a viable alternative for external attachment. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  5. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-12-28

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  6. Stability Calculation Method of Slope Reinforced by Prestressed Anchor in Process of Excavation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong; Wei, Jia; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the effect of supporting structure and anchor on the slope stability of the excavation process into consideration; the stability calculation model is presented for the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam, and the dynamic search model of the critical slip surface also is put forward. The calculation model of the optimal stability solution of each anchor tension of the whole process is also given out, through which the real-time analysis and checking of slope stability in the process of excavation can be realized. The calculation examples indicate that the slope stability is changed with the dynamic change of the design parameters of anchor and grillage beam. So it is relatively more accurate and reasonable by using dynamic search model to determine the critical slip surface of the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam. Through the relationships of each anchor layout and the slope height of various stages of excavation, and the optimal stability solution of prestressed bolt tension design value in various excavation stages can be obtained. The arrangement of its prestressed anchor force reflects that the layout of the lower part of bolt and the calculation of slope reinforcement is in line with the actual. These indicate that the method is reasonable and practical. PMID:24683319

  7. Comprehensive evaluation of Streptococcus sanguinis cell wall-anchored proteins in early infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lauren Senty; Kanamoto, Taisei; Unoki, Takeshi; Munro, Cindy L; Wu, Hui; Kitten, Todd

    2009-11-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a member of the viridans group of streptococci and a leading cause of the life-threatening endovascular disease infective endocarditis. Initial contact with the cardiac infection site is likely mediated by S. sanguinis surface proteins. In an attempt to identify the proteins required for this crucial step in pathogenesis, we searched for surface-exposed, cell wall-anchored proteins encoded by S. sanguinis and then used a targeted signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) approach to evaluate their contributions to virulence. Thirty-three predicted cell wall-anchored proteins were identified-a number much larger than those found in related species. The requirement of each cell wall-anchored protein for infective endocarditis was assessed in the rabbit model. It was found that no single cell wall-anchored protein was essential for the development of early infective endocarditis. STM screening was also employed for the evaluation of three predicted sortase transpeptidase enzymes, which mediate the cell surface presentation of cell wall-anchored proteins. The sortase A mutant exhibited a modest (approximately 2-fold) reduction in competitiveness, while the other two sortase mutants were indistinguishable from the parental strain. The combined results suggest that while cell wall-anchored proteins may play a role in S. sanguinis infective endocarditis, strategies designed to interfere with individual cell wall-anchored proteins or sortases would not be effective for disease prevention.

  8. Wireless and acoustic hearing with bone-anchored hearing devices

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Arjan J.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A.M.; Hol, Myrthe K.S.; Snik, Ad F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The efficacy of wireless connectivity in bone-anchored hearing was studied by comparing the wireless and acoustic performance of the Ponto Plus sound processor from Oticon Medical relative to the acoustic performance of its predecessor, the Ponto Pro. Study sample: Nineteen subjects with more than two years' experience with a bone-anchored hearing device were included. Thirteen subjects were fitted unilaterally and six bilaterally. Design: Subjects served as their own control. First, subjects were tested with the Ponto Pro processor. After a four-week acclimatization period performance the Ponto Plus processor was measured. In the laboratory wireless and acoustic input levels were made equal. In daily life equal settings of wireless and acoustic input were used when watching TV, however when using the telephone the acoustic input was reduced by 9 dB relative to the wireless input. Results: Speech scores for microphone with Ponto Pro and for both input modes of the Ponto Plus processor were essentially equal when equal input levels of wireless and microphone inputs were used. Only the TV-condition showed a statistically significant (p <5%) lower speech reception threshold for wireless relative to microphone input. In real life, evaluation of speech quality, speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, and annoyance by ambient noise, when using landline phone, mobile telephone, and watching TV showed a clear preference (p <1%) for the Ponto Plus system with streamer over the microphone input. Due to the small number of respondents with landline phone (N = 7) the result for noise annoyance was only significant at the 5% level. Conclusion: Equal input levels for acoustic and wireless inputs results in equal speech scores, showing a (near) equivalence for acoustic and wireless sound transmission with Ponto Pro and Ponto Plus. The default 9-dB difference between microphone and wireless input when using the telephone results in a substantial

  9. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  10. Structure of the Cell Wall Anchor of Surface Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneewind, Olaf; Fowler, Audree; Faull, Kym F.

    1995-04-01

    Many surface proteins are anchored to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria and are involved in the pathogenesis of these organisms. A hybrid molecule was designed that, when expressed in Staphylococcus aureus, was anchored to the cell wall and could be released by controlled enzymatic digestion. By a combination of molecular biology and mass spectrometry techniques, the structure of the cell wall anchor of surface proteins in S. aureus was revealed. After cleavage of surface proteins between threonine and glycine of the conserved LPXTG motif, the carboxyl of threonine is amide-linked to the free amino group of the pentaglycine crossbridge in the staphylococcal cell wall.

  11. Dynamics of anchor last deployment of submersible buoy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhongqiang; Xu, Jianpeng; Huang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Chang, Zongyu

    2016-02-01

    Submersible buoy systems are widely used for oceanographic research, ocean engineering and coastal defense. Severe sea environment has obvious effects on the dynamics of submersible buoy systems. Huge tension can occur and may cause the snap of cables, especially during the deployment period. This paper studies the deployment dynamics of submersible buoy systems with numerical and experimental methods. By applying the lumped mass approach, a three-dimensional multi-body model of submersible buoy system is developed considering the hydrodynamic force, tension force and impact force between components of submersible buoy system and seabed. Numerical integration method is used to solve the differential equations. The simulation output includes tension force, trajectory, profile and dropping location and impact force of submersible buoys. In addition, the deployment experiment of a simplified submersible buoy model was carried out. The profile and different nodes' velocities of the submersible buoy are obtained. By comparing the results of the two methods, it is found that the numerical model well simulates the actual process and conditions of the experiment. The simulation results agree well with the results of the experiment such as gravity anchor's location and velocities of different nodes of the submersible buoy. The study results will help to understand the conditions of submersible buoy's deployment, operation and recovery, and can be used to guide the design and optimization of the system.

  12. Multiple sequence alignment with user-defined anchor points

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Burkhard; Prohaska, Sonja J; Pöhler, Dirk; Stadler, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    Background Automated software tools for multiple alignment often fail to produce biologically meaningful results. In such situations, expert knowledge can help to improve the quality of alignments. Results Herein, we describe a semi-automatic version of the alignment program DIALIGN that can take pre-defined constraints into account. It is possible for the user to specify parts of the sequences that are assumed to be homologous and should therefore be aligned to each other. Our software program can use these sites as anchor points by creating a multiple alignment respecting these constraints. This way, our alignment method can produce alignments that are biologically more meaningful than alignments produced by fully automated procedures. As a demonstration of how our method works, we apply our approach to genomic sequences around the Hox gene cluster and to a set of DNA-binding proteins. As a by-product, we obtain insights about the performance of the greedy algorithm that our program uses for multiple alignment and about the underlying objective function. This information will be useful for the further development of DIALIGN. The described alignment approach has been integrated into the TRACKER software system. PMID:16722533

  13. Chemical synthesis and functionalization of clickable glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Benjamin M; Guo, Zhongwu

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchorage is a common posttranslational modification of eukaryotic proteins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPIs and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems. In this work, the synthesis of several functionalized GPI anchors was accomplished using the para-methoxybenzyl (PMB) group for permanent hydroxyl protection, which allowed the incorporation of functionalities that are incompatible with permanent protecting groups traditionally used in carbohydrate synthesis. A flexible convergent-divergent assembly strategy enabled efficient access to a diverse set of target structures, including "clickable" Alkynyl-GPIs 1 and 2 and Azido-GPI 3. For global deprotection, a one-pot reaction was employed to afford the target GPIs in excellent yields (85-97%). Fully deprotected clickable GPIs 2 and 3 were readily conjugated to imaging and affinity probes via Cu(I)-catalyzed and Cu-free strain-promoted [3+2] cycloaddition, respectively, resulting in GPI-Fluor 4 and GPI-Biotin 5.

  14. Application of fiber optic sensing technology in anchor monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Lei; Jiang, Desheng; Sun, Dongya

    2000-05-01

    Prestressed steel anchors are widely adopted in the stabilization of rock slope engineering. To ensure the safety of the stabilization system, reliable monitoring techniques should be used to evaluate the operating state of the anchorage system. Fiber optical sensors can achieve the distribution detection of strain along the whole length of the optical fiber. Therefore it will be very suitable to embed optical fiber in motar, esp. concrete to perform strain measurement as well as crack detection. This paper reports the development of a simple intensity modulated fiber optic sensor for detecting internal cracks of concrete structures. This sensor is embedded in a 1-meter-long concrete beam and its reliability and feasibility tests were conducted by loading this beam to failure. Experiments for the embedded sensor show that incipience and propagation of concrete cracks can be well displayed by light intensity meter and the sensor can endure large deformation before it cracks and the maximum concrete crack width endured by the sensor can reach 5 mm.

  15. Collagenous microstructure of the glenoid labrum and biceps anchor

    PubMed Central

    Hill, A M; Hoerning, E J; Brook, K; Smith, C D; Moss, J; Ryder, T; Wallace, A L; Bull, A M J

    2008-01-01

    The glenoid labrum is a significant passive stabilizer of the shoulder joint. However, its microstructural form remains largely unappreciated, particularly in the context of its variety of functions. The focus of labral microscopy has often been histology and, as such, there is very little appreciation of collagen composition and arrangement of the labrum, and hence the micromechanics of the structure. On transmission electron microscopy, significant differences in diameter, area and perimeter were noted in the two gross histological groups of collagen fibril visualized; this suggests a heterogeneous collagenous composition with potentially distinct mechanical function. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated three distinct zones of interest: a superficial mesh, a dense circumferential braided core potentially able to accommodate hoop stresses, and a loosely packed peri-core zone. Confocal microscopy revealed an articular surface fine fibrillar mesh potentially able to reduce surface friction, bundles of circumferential encapsulated fibres in the bulk of the tissue, and bone anchoring fibres at the osseous interface. Varying microstructure throughout the depth of the labrum suggests a role in accommodating different types of loading. An understanding of the labral microstructure can lead to development of hypotheses based upon an appreciation of this component of material property. This may aid an educated approach to surgical timing and repair. PMID:18429974

  16. A new rigid biodegradable anchor for meniscus refixation: biomechanical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zantop, Thore; Eggers, Anne Kathleen; Musahl, Volker; Weimann, Andre; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Petersen, Wolf

    2004-07-01

    All-inside repair devices have been developed to overcome the disadvantages of conventional suture techniques (such as vein and nerve damage and increased OR time). The Contour Meniscus Arrow is a second generation of the first biodegradable all-inside implant, the Meniscus Arrow. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the Contour Meniscus Arrow to the first-generation Meniscus Arrow and vertical or horizontal suture techniques. In fresh frozen bovine menisci, initial fixation strength, stiffness and failure mode of four different meniscus refixation techniques (Meniscus Arrow, Contour Meniscus Arrow, vertical and horizontal 2-0 Ethibond suture techniques) were evaluated in a computer-based material-testing machine at a rate of 12.5 mm/s. Vertical meniscus sutures showed the highest initial fixation strength, followed by the horizontal suture technique and the Contour Arrow. The Meniscus Arrow showed inferior pull-out strength. Subjecting the different refixation techniques to cyclic testing decreased the fixation strength in all groups. The modified Meniscus Anchor (Contour Arrow) provides biomechanical properties that are superior (pull-out strength) or similar (stiffness) compared to the first biodegradable all-inside implant, the Meniscus Arrow. The pull-out strength of the Contour Arrow was comparable to the pull-out strength reported for horizontal meniscus sutures in the literature. These biomechanical characteristics of this new implant justify clinical use.

  17. Molecular Investigations into the Mechanics of a Muscle Anchoring Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bodmer, Nicholas K.; Theisen, Kelly E.; Dima, Ruxandra I.

    2015-01-01

    The titin-telethonin complex, essential for anchoring filaments in the Z-disk of the sarcomere, is composed of immunoglobulin domains. Surprisingly, atomic force microscopy experiments showed that it resists forces much higher than the typical immunoglobulin domain and that the force distribution is unusually broad. To investigate the origin of this behavior, we developed a multiscale simulation approach, combining minimalist and atomistic models (SOP-AT). By following the mechanical response of the complex on experimental timescales, we found that the mechanical stability of titin-telethonin is modulated primarily by the strength of contacts between telethonin and the two titin chains, and secondarily by the timescales of conformational excursions inside telethonin and the pulled titin domains. Importantly, the conformational transitions executed by telethonin in simulations support its proposed role in mechanosensing. Our SOP-AT computational approach thus provides a powerful tool for the exploration of the link between conformational diversity and the broadness of the mechanical response, which can be applied to other multidomain complexes. PMID:25954889

  18. Dynamic Effects of Anchor Positional Tolerance on Tension Moored Floating Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher; Pakrashi, Vikram; Murphy, Jimmy

    2016-09-01

    For water depths greater than 60m floating wind turbines will become the most economical option for generating offshore wind energy. Tension mooring stabilised units are one type of platform being considered by the offshore wind energy industry. The complex mooring arrangement used by this type of platform means that the dynamics are greatly effected by offsets in the positioning of the anchors. This paper examines the issue of tendon anchor position tolerances. The dynamic effects of three positional tolerances are analysed in survival state using the time domain FASTLink. The severe impact of worst case anchor positional offsets on platform and turbine survivability is shown. The worst anchor misposition combinations are highlighted and should be strongly avoided. Novel methods to mitigate this issue are presented.

  19. Suture slippage in knotless suture anchors resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis.

    PubMed

    Hayeri, Mohammad Reza; Keefe, Daniel T; Chang, Eric Y

    2016-05-01

    Rotator cuff repair using a suture bridge and knotless suture anchors is a relatively new, but increasingly used technique. The suture bridge technique creates an anatomically similar and more secure rotator cuff repair compared with conventional arthroscopic techniques and the use of knotless anchors eliminates the challenges associated with knot tying during arthroscopic surgery. However, previous in vitro biomechanical tests have shown that the hold of the suture in a knotless suture anchor is far lower than the pullout strength of the anchor from bone. Up until now slippage has been a theoretical concern. We present a prospectively diagnosed case of in vivo suture loosening after rotator cuff repair using a knotless bridge technique resulting in subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis.

  20. 480mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  1. 480mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  2. Installation of concrete expansion anchors at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Installation criteria utilized at the Fast Flux Test Facility for concrete expansion anchors are presented. Static and dynamic load capabilities of various anchor types are discussed in relation to design loads, with particular emphasis placed on the yield load (the proportional limit). Effects of several variables (i.e., installation torque, hole diameter) are also investigated. Resolution and documentation of field problems (e.g., improper spacing, embedment, angularity) are also described. Recommendations for improving and controlling future installations are given.

  3. Setting sail for glucose homeostasis with the AKAP150-PP2B-anchor.

    PubMed

    Teo, Adrian Kee Keong; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2012-10-17

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, controlled by multiple protein phosphorylation events, is critical for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. Protein kinase A (PKA) is known to play a role in β cell physiology, but the role of its anchoring protein is not fully understood. Hinke et al (2012) illustrate the significance of A-kinase anchoring protein 150 in tethering protein phosphatase 2B to mediate nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion and thus modulate glucose homeostasis.

  4. Evaluation of Vinylester Resin for Anchor Embedment in Concrete. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    the relatively small annulus present when a 1-1/4-in.-diam anchor is embedded in a hole drilled with a 1-1/2-in.-diam core drill. In essence, the...installation condition, and testing age. This result is attributed to the relatively small annulus present when a 1-1/4-in.-diam anchor is embedded in a

  5. Dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M.; Yong-gang Zhang; Lotze, D.

    1995-04-01

    In early 1993, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission began a research program at The University of Texas at Austin, dealing with the dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete. In this paper, the progress of that research program is reviewed. The test program is summarized, the work performed to date is reviewed, with emphasis on the dynamic and static behavior of single tensile anchors in uncracked concrete. General conclusions from that work are discussed, and future plans are presented.

  6. Study on interaction between soil and anchor chain with finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sa; Xu, Bao-zhao; Wu, Yun-zhou; Li, Zhong-gang

    2016-12-01

    With the development of offshore engineering, deeply embedded anchors are needed to be penetrated to appreciable depth and attached at the pad-eye. The interaction between anchor chain and soil is a very complex process and has not been thoroughly understood yet. In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) was used to study the interaction of soil-chain system. Results of the analysis show that when the attachment point is at a shallow depth, the load-development characteristics of the chain from FEM are in good agreement with that from the model tests and theoretical analysis. But with the depth increment, the results are different obviously in different methods. This phenomenon is resulted from a variety of reasons, and the plastic zone around the chain was studied to try finding the mechanism behind it. It could be seen that the plastic zone extended in different modes at different depths of attachment points. The interaction between the soil and anchor chain makes the load acting on the anchor decrease, but the soil disturbed surrounding the chain increases the anchor failure possibility. When the anchor bearing capacity is evaluated, these two factors should be considered properly at the same time.

  7. Liposome surface functionalization based on different anchoring lipids via Staudinger ligation.

    PubMed

    Vabbilisetty, Pratima; Sun, Xue-Long

    2014-02-28

    Liposome surface functionalization facilitates numerous potential applications of liposomes, such as enhanced stability, bioactive liposome conjugates, and targeted drug, gene and image agent delivery. Anchoring lipids are needed for grafting ligands of interest and play important roles in ligand grafting density, liposome stability, and liposome chemical and physical characteristics as well. In this report, glyco-functionalized liposome systems based on two kinds of anchoring lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and cholesterol (Chol), were prepared by post chemically selective functionalization via Staudinger ligation. The size and stability of the liposomes were confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Particularly, the impact of anchor lipids on the stability of glyco-functionalized liposomes was investigated by comparing two different anchor lipids, namely Chol-PEG2000-TP and DSPE-PEG2000-TP. In addition, the encapsulation and releasing capacity of the glycosylated liposome based on the two anchoring lipids were investigated by entrapping 5,6-carboxyfluorescein (CF) dye and monitoring the fluorescence leakage, respectively. Furthermore, the density and accessibility of grafted carbohydrate residues on the liposome surface were evaluated for the two anchoring lipid-derived liposomes with lectin binding, respectively.

  8. Experimental research on anchoring force in intestine for the motion of capsule robot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenwen; Ke, Quan; He, Shu; Luo, Weijie; Ji, Xing Chun; Yan, Guozheng

    2013-07-01

    Multiple research groups are currently attempting to develop less-invasive robotic capsule endoscopes (RCEs) with better outcomes for enteroscopic procedures. Understanding the biomechanical response of the bowel to RCE is crucial for optimizing the design of these devices. For this reason, this study aims to develop an analytical model to predict the anchoring force of the model when travelling through the intestine. Previous work has developed, characterized and tested the frictional characteristics of the intestine with microgroove structures that had different surface contours. This work tested basic anchoring force characteristics with custom-built testers and clamping mechanism dummies to analyse the robot clamping movement (which is vital to improving movement efficiency). Balloon-shaped and leg-based clamping mechanisms were developed, which were found to have variable anchoring forces from 0.01 N to 1.2 N. After analysing the experimental results it was found that: (a) robot weight does not play a major role in anchoring force; (b) an increase in anchoring force corresponded to an increase in diameter of the clamping mechanism; and (c) textured contact surfaces effectively increased friction. These results could be explained by the biomechanical response of the intestine, friction and mucoadhesion characteristics of the small intestine material. With these factors considered, a model was developed for determining anchoring force in the small intestine.

  9. Effects of GPI-anchored TNAP on the dynamic structure of model membranes

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, A. F.; Simão, A. M. S.; Bolean, M; Hoylaerts, M. F.; Millán, J. L.; Ciancaglini, P; Costa-Filho, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) plays a crucial role during skeletal mineralization, and TNAP deficiency leads to the soft bone disease hypophosphatasia. TNAP is anchored to the external surface of the plasma membranes by means of a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor. Membrane-anchored and solubilized TNAP displays different kinetic properties against physiological substrates, indicating that membrane anchoring influences the enzyme function. Here, we used Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) measurements along with spin labeled phospholipids to probe the possible dynamic changes prompted by the interaction of GPI-anchored TNAP with model membranes. The goal was to systematically analyze the ESR data in terms of line shape changes and of alterations in parameters such as rotational diffusion rates and order parameters obtained from non-linear least-squares simulations of the ESR spectra of probes incorporated into DPPC liposomes and proteoliposomes. Overall, the presence of TNAP increased the dynamics and decreased the ordering in the three distinct regions probed by the spin labeled lipids DOPTC (headgroup), and 5- and 16-PCSL (acyl chains). The largest change was observed for 16-PCSL, thus suggesting that GPI-anchored TNAP can give rise to long reaching modifications that could influence membrane processes halfway through the bilayer. PMID:26389140

  10. Effects of surface anchoring on the electric Frederiks transition in ferronematic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhbin, Mojtaba; Kadivar, Erfan

    2016-11-01

    The effects of anchoring phenomenon on the electric Frederiks transition threshold field in a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric nanoparticles are discussed. The polarizability of these nanoparticles in combination with confinement effects cause the drastic effects on the ferronematic systems. This study is based on Frank free energy and Rapini-Papoular surface energy for ferronematic liquid crystal having finite anchoring condition. In the case of different anchoring boundary conditions, the Euler-Lagrange equation of the total free energy is numerically solved by using the finite difference method together with the relaxation method and Maxwell construction to select the physical solutions and therefore investigate the effects of different anchoring strengths on the Frederiks transition threshold field. Maxwell construction method is employed to select three periodic solutions for nematic liquid crystal director at the interfaces of a slab. In the interval from zero to half- π, there is only one solution for the director orientation. In this way, NLC director rotates toward the normal to the surface as the applied electric field increases at the walls. Our numerical results illustrate that above Frederiks transition and in the intermediate anchoring strength, nematic molecules illustrate the different orientation at slab boundaries. We also study the effects of different anchoring strengths, nanoparticle volume fractions and polarizations on the Frederiks transition threshold field. We report that decreasing in the nanoparticle polarization results in the saturation Frederiks threshold. However, this situation does not happen for the nanoparticles volume fraction.

  11. The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for Ly-6A/E- mediated T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Ly-6E, a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored murine alloantigen that can activate T cells upon antibody cross-linking, has been converted into an integral membrane protein by gene fusion. This fusion product, designated Ly-6EDb, was characterized in transiently transfected COS cells and demonstrated to be an integral cell surface membrane protein. Furthermore, the fusion antigen can be expressed on the surface of the BW5147 class "E" mutant cell line, which only expresses integral membrane proteins but not GPI-anchored proteins. The capability of this fusion antigen to activate T cells was examined by gene transfer studies in D10G4.1, a type 2 T cell helper clones. When transfected into D10 cells, the GPI-anchored Ly-6E antigen, as well as the endogenous GPI-anchored Ly-6A antigen, can initiate T cell activation upon antibody cross-linking. In contrast, the transmembrane anchored Ly-6EDb antigen was unable to mediate T cell activation. Our results demonstrate that the GPI-anchor is critical to Ly-6A/E-mediated T cell activation. PMID:1825084

  12. An Accessory Protein Required for Anchoring and Assembly of Amyloid Fibers in B. subtilis Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Cells within Bacillus subtilis biofilms are held in place by an extracellular matrix that contains cell-anchored amyloid fibers, composed of the amyloidogenic protein TasA. As biofilms age they disassemble because the cells release the amyloid fibers. This release appears to be the consequence of incorporation of D-tyrosine, D-leucine, D-tryptophan and D-methionine into the cell wall. Here, we characterize the in vivo roles of an accessory protein TapA (TasA anchoring/assembly protein; previously YqxM) that serves both to anchor the fibers to the cell wall and to assemble TasA into fibers. TapA is found in discrete foci in the cell envelope and these foci disappear when cells are treated with a mixture of D-amino acids. Purified cell wall sacculi retain a functional form of this anchoring protein such that purified fibers can be anchored to the sacculi in vitro. In addition, we show that TapA is essential for the proper assembly of the fibers. Its absence results in a dramatic reduction in TasA levels and what little TasA is left produces only thin fibers that are not anchored to the cell. PMID:21477127

  13. Feasibility study of a sea-anchored stratospheric balloon for long-duration flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Daisuke

    2012-08-01

    Sea-anchored balloons are stratospheric super-pressure balloons that are anchored to the sea. The sea-anchored balloon is a simple system that has the capability for long-duration flights, fixed-point observations, flexible launch windows, easy telemetry links to ground stations, and quick recoveries. Such balloons are not required to fly through the jet stream while tethered to the ground or sea, because the tether is deployed from a reel on the balloon after reaching a floating altitude. In this study, the feasibility of the sea-anchored balloon is investigated, with particular emphasis on the tether strength, balloon altitude, and system mass, based on the present technological level of the tether's specific strength. Although the wind distribution with altitude is a dominant factor for feasibility, a sea-anchored balloon with an altitude of about 25 km would be feasible if the velocity of the jet stream is sufficiently low. The sea-anchored balloon can be simply flight-tested, since additional ground facilities and special flight operations are not necessary.

  14. Chalcogenopyrylium Dyes with Anchors to Nanoparticle and Semiconductor Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedics, Matthew Allen

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has gained widespread attention as a biomedical imaging technique due to its multiplexing capabilities and the low limits of detection (LODs) of SERS-nanoprobes. The library of available reporter molecules, which are used to generate unique SERS spectra, was previously limited to commercially available dyes or a small group of cyanine reporters. Herein, the design and synthesis of a novel group of chalcogenopyrylium SERS reporters is described. These dyes have a high affinity for Au and absorption maxima that range into the NIR region. These reporter molecules enabled the use of the 1280 nm laser, which was previously incompatible with SERS imaging. Also, nanoprobe LODs using these dyes as reporters are lower than any previously documented systems, with a 100 aM LOD using a 785 nm excitation and multiple examples of fM to pM LODs using a 1064 nm or 1280 nm excitation source. Nanoprobes functionalized with these compounds have also been successfully utilized in vivo, and produce more intense SERS spectra as compared to a commonly used cyanine reporter. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have produced considerable interest as an alternative to conventionally used Si-based solar cells. Specifically, DSSCs that use metal-free organic dyes as sensitizers are important due to the lower cost and the use of earth abundant materials as starting materials. Herein, a group of chalcogenopyrylium dyes were appended with an anchoring group to TiO2, which enables the use of these dyes as sensitizers. Structural modifications were used to extend absorption maxima into the near-infrared region of the light spectrum and to evaluate the effect that dye aggregation has on device performance. The monomethine dyes successfully produced a photocurrent, with incident photon to current efficiency values as high as 20%. Aggregation was found to benefit these systems due to the spectral broadening of aggregated dyes, and consequent increased range of

  15. Anchoring of surface proteins to the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus. III. Lipid II is an in vivo peptidoglycan substrate for sortase-catalyzed surface protein anchoring.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adrienne M; Ton-That, Hung; Mazmanian, Sarkis K; Schneewind, Olaf

    2002-05-03

    Surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus are anchored to the cell wall peptidoglycan by a mechanism requiring a C-terminal sorting signal with an LPXTG motif. Surface proteins are first synthesized in the bacterial cytoplasm and then transported across the cytoplasmic membrane. Cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide of the cytoplasmic surface protein P1 precursor generates the extracellular P2 species, which is the substrate for the cell wall anchoring reaction. Sortase, a membrane-anchored transpeptidase, cleaves P2 between the threonine (T) and the glycine (G) of the LPXTG motif and catalyzes the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of threonine and the amino group of cell wall cross-bridges. We have used metabolic labeling of staphylococcal cultures with [(32)P]phosphoric acid to reveal a P3 intermediate. The (32)P-label of immunoprecipitated surface protein is removed by treatment with lysostaphin, a glycyl-glycine endopeptidase that separates the cell wall anchor structure. Furthermore, the appearance of P3 is prevented in the absence of sortase or by the inhibition of cell wall synthesis. (32)P-Labeled cell wall anchor species bind to nisin, an antibiotic that is known to form a complex with lipid II. Thus, it appears that the P3 intermediate represents surface protein linked to the lipid II peptidoglycan precursor. The data support a model whereby lipid II-linked polypeptides are incorporated into the growing peptidoglycan via the transpeptidation and transglycosylation reactions of cell wall synthesis, generating mature cell wall-linked surface protein.

  16. Mantle plume capture, anchoring and outflow during ridge interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. A.; Richards, M. A.; Geist, D.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical and geophysical studies have shown that >40% of the world's mantle plumes are currently interacting with the global ridge system and such interactions may continue for up to 180 Myr[1]. At sites of plume-ridge interaction up to 1400 km of the spreading centre is influenced by dispersed plume material but there are few constraints on how and where the ridge-ward transfer of deep-sourced material occurs, and also how it is sustained over long time intervals. Galápagos is an archetypal example of an off-axis plume and sheds important light on these mechanisms. The Galápagos plume stem is located ~200 km south of the spreading axis and its head influences 1000 km of the ridge. Nevertheless, the site of enriched basalts, greatest crustal thickness and elevated topography on the ridge, together with active volcanism in the archipelago, correlate with a narrow zone (~150 km) of low-velocity, high-temperature mantle that connects the plume stem and ridge at depths of ~100 km[2]. The enriched ridge basalts contain a greater amount of partially-dehydrated, recycled oceanic crust than basalts elsewhere on the spreading axis, or indeed basalts erupted in the region between the plume stem and ridge. The presence of these relatively volatile-rich ridge basalts requires flow of plume material below the peridotite solidus (i.e.>80 km). We propose a 2-stage model for the development and sustainment of a confined zone of deep ridge-ward plume flow. This involves initial on-axis capture and establishment of a sub-ridge channel of plume flow. Subsequent anchoring of the plume stem to a contact point on the ridge during axis migration results in confined ridge-ward flow of plume material via a deep network of melt channels embedded in the normal spreading and advection of the plume head[2]. Importantly, sub-ridge flow is maintained. The physical parameters and styles of mantle flow we have defined for Galápagos are less-well known at other sites of plume

  17. NDE applications in an anchor bolt and sign bridge inspection program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1998-03-01

    Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program and Sign Bridge Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever & overhead sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. All cantilever & overhead sign structures and high mast light towers have been inspected in-depth 'hands on' during this time period while implementation of inspection continues for interstate light towers and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining type of structure, type of material, welding details. For anchor bolts, type of material, cut or rolled threads, type of coating, and method of placement are important issues. Inspection emphasis are on 'hands on' and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed visual conditions of sign structures and anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension, etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations for anchor bolts, are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating critical cracks and failed members on existing sign structures and new sign structures less than six months old. Also, failed anchor bolts and critical cracks have been located on high mast light

  18. An apparent association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and a sphingolipid in Tetrahymena mimbres.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Thompson, G A

    1997-01-01

    Sphingolipids are thought to stabilize glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein-rich membrane domains of yeast and polarized higher animal cells during the processing and targeting of these proteins to the plasma membrane. A widely used criterion for identifying the stable sphingolipid- and GPI-anchored protein-enriched membrane domains is the resistance of these lipid-modified proteins to solubilization by the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) at low temperature. Surprisingly, there have been no reports of sphingolipid/GPI-anchored protein association in protozoans, despite the fact that these cells contain considerably higher levels of GPI-anchored proteins than does any other organism. We report here the presence in Tetrahymena mimbres of a significant pool of GPI-anchored proteins which resisted extraction by 1% TX-100 at 4 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C. Of the total cellular complement of GPI-anchored proteins, which together accounted for more than 2% of whole-cell protein and were especially enriched in surface membranes, 10% of the major 63kDa component (gpi63) and 23% of a somewhat less abundant component (gpi23) were insoluble in TX-100 at 4 degrees C. A substantial proportion of the cell's only abundant sphingolipid, ceramideaminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), was also insoluble in 1% TX-100 at 4 degrees C. Radiolabelling studies involving [3H]leucine incorporation into proteins and [3H]palmitic acid incorporation into lipids revealed that the TX-100-resistant gpi63, gpi23 and CAEP molecules were all metabolically distinct from their TX-100-soluble counterparts in other compartments of the cell. The presence of detergent-resistant sphingolipid/GPI-anchored protein domains in non-polarized ciliate and trypanosomatid cells was probably obscured in previous studies by the profusion of accompanying detergent-soluble molecules. PMID:9173882

  19. Binding constants of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands depend strongly on the nanoscale roughness of membranes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinglei; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2013-09-17

    Cell adhesion and the adhesion of vesicles to the membranes of cells or organelles are pivotal for immune responses, tissue formation, and cell signaling. The adhesion processes depend sensitively on the binding constant of the membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins that mediate adhesion, but this constant is difficult to measure in experiments. We have investigated the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the binding constant of the anchored proteins strongly decreases with the membrane roughness caused by thermally excited membrane shape fluctuations on nanoscales. We present a theory that explains the roughness dependence of the binding constant for the anchored proteins from membrane confinement and that relates this constant to the binding constant of soluble proteins without membrane anchors. Because the binding constant of soluble proteins is readily accessible in experiments, our results provide a useful route to compute the binding constant of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins.

  20. The place of white in a world of grays: a double-anchoring theory of lightness perception.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-07-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt grouping principles, and (b) is independently anchored, within each framework, to both the highest luminance and the surround luminance. The region's final lightness is a weighted average of the values computed, relative to both anchors, in all frameworks. The new model accounts not only for all lightness illusions that are qualitatively explained by the anchoring theory but also for a number of additional effects, and it does so quantitatively, with the support of mathematical simulations.

  1. Mining Tasks from the Web Anchor Text Graph: MSR Notebook Paper for the TREC 2015 Tasks Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    Mining Tasks from the Web Anchor Text Graph: MSR Notebook Paper for the TREC 2015 Tasks Track Paul N. Bennett Microsoft Research Redmond, USA pauben...anchor text graph has proven useful in the general realm of query reformulation [2], we sought to quantify the value of extracting key phrases from...anchor text in the broader setting of the task understanding track. Given a query, our approach considers a simple method for identifying a relevant

  2. A-kinase Anchoring Protein 79/150 Recruits Protein Kinase C to Phosphorylate Roundabout Receptors.

    PubMed

    Samelson, Bret K; Gore, Bryan B; Whiting, Jennifer L; Nygren, Patrick J; Purkey, Alicia M; Colledge, Marcie; Langeberg, Lorene K; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Zweifel, Larry S; Scott, John D

    2015-05-29

    Anchoring proteins direct protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases toward selected substrates to control the efficacy, context, and duration of neuronal phosphorylation events. The A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP79/150 interacts with protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin) to modulate second messenger signaling events. In a mass spectrometry-based screen for additional AKAP79/150 binding partners, we have identified the Roundabout axonal guidance receptor Robo2 and its ligands Slit2 and Slit3. Biochemical and cellular approaches confirm that a linear sequence located in the cytoplasmic tail of Robo2 (residues 991-1070) interfaces directly with sites on the anchoring protein. Parallel studies show that AKAP79/150 interacts with the Robo3 receptor in a similar manner. Immunofluorescent staining detects overlapping expression patterns for murine AKAP150, Robo2, and Robo3 in a variety of brain regions, including hippocampal region CA1 and the islands of Calleja. In vitro kinase assays, peptide spot array mapping, and proximity ligation assay staining approaches establish that human AKAP79-anchored PKC selectively phosphorylates the Robo3.1 receptor subtype on serine 1330. These findings imply that anchored PKC locally modulates the phosphorylation status of Robo3.1 in brain regions governing learning and memory and reward.

  3. COMPLICATIONS RESULTING FROM THE USE OF METAL ANCHORS IN SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; França, Flavio Oliveira; Alves Freitas, José Marcio; Aguiar, Paulo Nascimento; de Carvalho Leite, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    To identify the complications concerning the use of metal anchors in shoulder arthroscopic procedures. Methods: 28 shoulders of 28 patients (23 male and 5 female) have been re-operated in the period between December 1997 and August 2007, at Hospital Ortopédico, Belo Horizonte Hospital and Military Police Hospital in Belo Horizonte, MG, as a result of complications such as loose anchors and prominent anchors. The primary surgeries intended to treat 20 anterior traumatic instabilities (71.5%), one posterior instability (3.5%), one slap injury (3.5%), six procedures for treating injuries on the rotator cuff (21.5%). We used the X-ray classification suggested by Samilson and Prieto and Outerbridge arthroscopic classification for assessing patients' degree of arthrosis. All patients were evaluated by the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) index criteria. Results: In all patients, arthroscopic reviews were made. In two cases, after anchors removal, clinical signs of instability were seen, leading to the decision of providing open stabilization by Latarjet-Patte technique. Conclusion: the complications with metallic-suture anchors result from inappropriate surgical techniques applied in arthroscopy. PMID:26998465

  4. Crucial role for prion protein membrane anchoring in the neuroinvasion and neural spread of prion infection.

    PubMed

    Klingeborn, Mikael; Race, Brent; Meade-White, Kimberly D; Rosenke, Rebecca; Striebel, James F; Chesebro, Bruce

    2011-02-01

    In nature prion diseases are usually transmitted by extracerebral prion infection, but clinical disease results only after invasion of the central nervous system (CNS). Prion protein (PrP), a host-encoded glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein, is necessary for prion infection and disease. Here, we investigated the role of the anchoring of PrP on prion neuroinvasion by studying various inoculation routes in mice expressing either anchored or anchorless PrP. In control mice with anchored PrP, intracerebral or sciatic nerve inoculation resulted in rapid CNS neuroinvasion and clinical disease (154 to 156 days), and after tongue, ocular, intravenous, or intraperitoneal inoculation, CNS neuroinvasion was only slightly slower (193 to 231 days). In contrast, in anchorless PrP mice, these routes resulted in slow and infrequent CNS neuroinvasion. Only intracerebral inoculation caused brain PrPres, a protease-resistant isoform of PrP, and disease in both types of mice. Thus, anchored PrP was an essential component for the rapid neural spread and CNS neuroinvasion of prion infection.

  5. AKAP-anchored PKA maintains neuronal L-type calcium channel activity and NFAT transcriptional signaling.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jonathan G; Sanderson, Jennifer L; Gorski, Jessica A; Scott, John D; Catterall, William A; Sather, William A; Dell'Acqua, Mark L

    2014-06-12

    L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (LTCC) couple neuronal excitation to gene transcription. LTCC activity is elevated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and depressed by the Ca2+-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), and both enzymes are localized to the channel by A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150). AKAP79/150 anchoring of CaN also promotes LTCC activation of transcription through dephosphorylation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). We report here that the basal activity of AKAP79/150-anchored PKA maintains neuronal LTCC coupling to CaN-NFAT signaling by preserving LTCC phosphorylation in opposition to anchored CaN. Genetic disruption of AKAP-PKA anchoring promoted redistribution of the kinase out of postsynaptic dendritic spines, profound decreases in LTCC phosphorylation and Ca2+ influx, and impaired NFAT movement to the nucleus and activation of transcription. Thus, LTCC-NFAT transcriptional signaling in neurons requires precise organization and balancing of PKA and CaN activities in the channel nanoenvironment, which is only made possible by AKAP79/150 scaffolding.

  6. Study of intrinsic anchoring in nematic liquid crystals based on modified Gruhn Hess pair potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Jun

    2008-01-01

    A nematic liquid crystal slab composed of N molecular layers is investigated using a simple cubic lattice model, based upon the molecular pair potential which is spatially anisotropic and dependent on elastic constants of liquid crystals. A perfect nematic order is assumed in the theoretical treatment, which means the orientation of the molecular long axis coincides with the director of liquid crystal and the total free energy equals to the total interaction energy. We present a modified Gruhn Hess model, which is relative to the splay-bend elastic constant K. Furthermore, we have studied the free nematic interfacial behavior (intrinsic anchoring) by this model in the assumption of the perfect nematic order. We find that the preferred orientation at the free interface and the intrinsic anchoring strength change with the value of modification, and that the director profile can be determined by the competition of the intrinsic anchoring with external forces present in the system. Also we simulate the intrinsic anchoring at different temperatures using Monte Carlo method and the simulation results show that the intrinsic anchoring favors planar alignment and the free interface is more disordered than the bulk.

  7. Miniature magnetically anchored and controlled camera system for trocar-less laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Hao-Yang; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Hong-Ke; Xiang, Jun-Xi; Xue, Fei; Wu, Rong-Qian; Lv, Yi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To design a miniature magnetically anchored and controlled camera system to reduce the number of trocars which are required for laparoscopy. METHODS The system consists of a miniature magnetically anchored camera with a 30° downward angle, an external magnetically anchored unit, and a vision output device. The camera weighs 12 g, measures Φ10.5 mm × 55 mm and has two magnets, a vision model, a light source, and a metal hexagonal nut. To test the prototype, the camera was inserted through a 12-mm conventional trocar in an ex vivo real liver laparoscopic training system. A trocar-less laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed 6 times using a 12-mm and a 5-mm conventional trocar. In addition, the same procedure was performed in four canine models. RESULTS Both procedures were successfully performed using only two conventional laparoscopic trocars. The cholecystectomy was completed without any major complication in 42 min (38-45 min) in vitro and in 50 min (45-53 min) using an animal model. This camera was anchored and controlled by an external unit magnetically anchored on the abdominal wall. The camera could generate excellent image. with no instrument collisions. CONCLUSION The camera system we designed provides excellent optics and can be easily maneuvered. The number of conventional trocars is reduced without adding technical difficulties.

  8. Anchor and visible implant elastomer tag retention by hatchery rainbow trout stocked into an Ozark stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.G.; Winkelman, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to evaluate the stocking of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in an Oklahoma Ozark stream, we tagged 2,542 hatchery-reared rainbow trout (123-366 mm total length) with individually numbered Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant fluorescent elastomer (VIE) tags. We experimentally stocked double-marked rainbow trout into a small northeastern Oklahoma stream from November 2001 to March 2002 and resampled them monthly from December 2001 to October 2002 by electrofishing. Anchor tag retention was 91% through 6 months, and VIE tag retention was 96% through 6 months despite extensive handling of fish within 24 h of tagging. Based on the ease of application, high visibility, and high retention observed in this study, we recommend the use of VIE tags as a batch mark in similarly sized, similarly pigmented fish. The retention of VIE tags was slightly higher than that of anchor tags, and cost per fish was less for VIE than for anchor tags. However, VIE tags would have limited utility if numerous individual tags are necessary; therefore, we recommend anchor tags as individual marks in similarly sized salmonids. Retention for both tag types was relatively high and could be corrected for when estimating population parameters from tagging data.

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic direct peroral cholangioscopy using an intraductal anchoring balloon

    PubMed Central

    Parsi, Mansour A; Stevens, Tyler; Vargo, John J

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience using a recently introduced anchoring balloon for diagnostic and therapeutic direct peroral cholangioscopy (DPOC). METHODS: Consecutive patients referred for diagnostic or therapeutic peroral cholangioscopy were evaluated in a prospective cohort study. The patients underwent DPOC using an intraductal anchoring balloon, which was recently introduced to allow consistent access to the biliary tree with an ultraslim upper endoscope. The device was later voluntarily withdrawn from the market by the manufacturer. RESULTS: Fourteen patients underwent DPOC using the anchoring balloon. Biliary access with an ultraslim upper endoscope was accomplished in all 14 patients. In 12 (86%) patients, ductal access required sphincteroplasty with a 10-mm dilating balloon. Intraductal placement of the ultraslim upper endoscope allowed satisfactory visualization of the biliary mucosa to the level of the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts in 13 of 14 patients (93%). Therapeutic interventions by DPOC were successfully completed in all five attempted cases (intraductal biopsy in one and DPOC guided laser lithotripsy in four). Adverse events occurred in a patient on immunosuppressive therapy who developed an intrahepatic biloma at the site of the anchoring balloon. This required hospitalization and antibiotics. Repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 8 wk after the index procedure showed resolution of the biloma. CONCLUSION: Use of this anchoring balloon allowed consistent access to the biliary tree for performance of diagnostic and therapeutic DPOC distal to the biliary bifurcation. PMID:22912549

  10. Labeling cell surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins through cell metabolic engineering with artificial inositol derivatives**

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    Protein GPI anchorage to the cell surface is important for various biological processes, but GPI-anchored proteins are difficult to study. This paper developed an effective strategy for metabolic engineering of cell surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins by using inositol derivatives carrying an azido group. The azide-labeled GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins on live cells were then tagged with biotin via click reaction and with a fluorescent molecule. The strategy can be used to label GPI-anchored proteins with various tags for biological studies. PMID:26102235

  11. Effect of an applied electric field on a weakly anchored non-planar Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mema, Ensela; Cummings, Linda J.; Kondic, Lou

    We consider a mathematical model that consists of a NLC layer sandwiched between two parallel bounding plates, across which an external field is applied. We investigate its effect on the director orientation by considering the dielectric and flexoelectric contributions and varying parameters that represent the anchoring conditions and the electric field strength. In particular, we investigate possible director configurations that occur in weakly anchored and non-planar systems. We observe that non-planar anchoring angles destroy any hysteresis seen in a planar system by eliminating the fully vertical director configuration and the ''saturation threshold'' seen in weakly anchored planar Freedericksz cells. Supported by NSF Grant No. DMS-1211713.

  12. Optical monitoring of anchoring change in vertically aligned thin liquid crystal film for chemical and biological sensor.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yang; Namkung, Jun; Lin, Yongbin; Lindquist, Robert

    2010-04-01

    A significant advance in sensitivity of liquid-crystal (LC)-based chemical and biological sensors can be achieved by actively monitoring anchoring energy change. We simulate the deformation of a LC director with different anchoring energies using the finite element method and the optical properties of the LC film using the finite-difference time-domain method. Polarizing micrographs are collected and compared with simulated textures. Measurement of optical transmission is used to monitor the anchoring change. Experimental and simulation results both demonstrate the optical method can effectively monitor the surface anchoring change due to the presence of targeted analytes.

  13. Inositolphosphoglycan mediators structurally related to glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors: synthesis, structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lomas, M; Khiar, N; García, S; Koessler, J L; Nieto, P M; Rademacher, T W

    2000-10-02

    The preparation of the pseudopentasaccharide 1a, an inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG) that contains the conserved linear structure of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors (GPI anchors), was carried out by using a highly convergent 2+3-block synthesis approach which involves imidate and sulfoxide glycosylation reactions. The preferred solution conformation of this structure was determined by using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations prior to carrying out quantitative structure--activity relationship studies in connection with the insulin signalling process. The ability of 1a to stimulate lipogenesis in rat adipocytes as well as to inhibit cAMP dependent protein kinase and to activate pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase was investigated. Compound 1a did not show any significant activity, which may be taken as a strong indication that the GPI anchors are not the precursors of the IPG mediators.

  14. Preparing a magnetically responsive single-wall carbon nanohorn colloid by anchoring magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Shigenori; Urita, Koki; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Yudasaka, Masako; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Iijima, Sumio; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2006-04-13

    A single-wall carbon nanohorn (SWNH) colloid was made to be magnetically responsive by anchoring magnetite nanoparticles prepared by the homogeneous mixing of FeCl(2)-FeCl(3) and NaOH solutions. Transmission electron microscopy observation showed the high dispersion of magnetite particles of 2-9 nm on the surface of the SWNH colloid, coinciding with the broad X-ray diffraction peaks of the magnetites. The magnetization measurements showed that the magnetite nanoparticles-anchored SWNH (mag-SWNH) colloid has the hybrid property of ferrimagnetism and superparamagnetism. It was demonstrated that mag-SWNH colloid dispersed in water by sonication responded to an external magnetic field, gathering toward a magnet. N(2) adsorption experiments showed the high nanoporosity of mag-SWNHs and that magnetite nanoparticles were preferably anchored at "nanowindow" sites and the entrance sites of interstitial pores. This magnetically responsive SWNH colloid should contribute to the field of drug delivery.

  15. The tale of tail-anchored proteins: coming from the cytosol and looking for a membrane.

    PubMed

    Borgese, Nica; Colombo, Sara; Pedrazzini, Emanuela

    2003-06-23

    A group of integral membrane proteins, known as C-tail anchored, is defined by the presence of a cytosolic NH2-terminal domain that is anchored to the phospholipid bilayer by a single segment of hydrophobic amino acids close to the COOH terminus. The mode of insertion into membranes of these proteins, many of which play key roles in fundamental intracellular processes, is obligatorily posttranslational, is highly specific, and may be subject to regulatory processes that modulate the protein's function. Although recent work has elucidated structural features in the tail region that determine selection of the correct target membrane, the molecular machinery involved in interpreting this information, and in modulating tail-anchored protein localization, has not been identified yet.

  16. Construction of a Highly Active Xylanase Displaying Oleaginous Yeast: Comparison of Anchoring Systems

    PubMed Central

    Duquesne, Sophie; Bozonnet, Sophie; Bordes, Florence; Dumon, Claire; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Marty, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Three Yarrowia lipolytica cell wall proteins (YlPir, YlCWP1 and YlCBM) were evaluated for their ability to display the xylanase TxXYN from Thermobacillus xylanilyticus on the cell surface of Y. lipolytica. The fusion proteins were produced in Y. lipolytica JMY1212, a strain engineered for mono-copy chromosomal insertion, and enabling accurate comparison of anchoring systems. The construction using YlPir enabled cell bound xylanase activity to be maximised (71.6 U/g). Although 48% of the activity was released in the supernatant, probably due to proteolysis at the fusion zone, this system is three times more efficient for the anchoring of TxXYN than the YlCWP1 system formerly developed for Y. lipolytica. As far as we know it represents the best displayed xylanase activity ever published. It could be an attractive alternative anchoring system to display enzymes in Y. lipolytica. PMID:24743311

  17. Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-based Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2010-02-01

    This paper is an invited adaptation of the IEEE Education Society Distinguished Lecture Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning. Interactive video anchors have a cognitive theory base, and they help to enlarge the context of learning with information-rich real-world situations. Carefully selected movie clips and custom-developed regular videos and virtual simulations have been successfully used as anchors in problem-based science learning. Examples discussed include a range of situations such as Indiana Jones tackling a trap, a teenager misrepresenting lead for gold, an agriculture inspection at the US border, counterintuitive events, analyzing a river ecosystem for pollution, and finding the cause of illness in a nineteenth century river city. Suggestions for teachers are provided.

  18. EXTENSIVE OSTEOLYSIS AFTER THE USE OF A BIOABSORBABLE SUTURE ANCHOR: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Dal Molin, Fabio Farina

    2015-01-01

    Bioabsorbable implants are very frequently used to treat rotator cuff and shoulder labrum injuries. Many researchers have observed small areas of osteolysis after treating pathological conditions of the shoulder using bioabsorbable anchors. Biological and mechanical theories have been put forward to account for the osteolysis caused by these materials. The case of a patient who was simultaneously treated for a rotator cuff lesion using the double-row technique and a Bankart lesion using bioabsorbable PLLA anchors and Fiber Wire®, and developed extensive osteolysis of the anatomical neck of the humerus, is described. Given that an anchor was used in the glenoid, and this did not present osteolysis, the hypothesis that mechanical factors are important in the etiology of this complication is raised. PMID:27026956

  19. Mussel-Inspired Anchoring of Polymer Loops That Provide Superior Surface Lubrication and Antifouling Properties.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taegon; Banquy, Xavier; Heo, Jinhwa; Lim, Chanoong; Lynd, Nathaniel A; Lundberg, Pontus; Oh, Dongyeop X; Lee, Han-Koo; Hong, Yong-Ki; Hwang, Dong Soo; Waite, John Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Hawker, Craig J

    2016-01-26

    We describe robustly anchored triblock copolymers that adopt loop conformations on surfaces and endow them with unprecedented lubricating and antifouling properties. The triblocks have two end blocks with catechol-anchoring groups and a looping poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) midblock. The loops mediate strong steric repulsion between two mica surfaces. When sheared at constant speeds of ∼2.5 μm/s, the surfaces exhibit an extremely low friction coefficient of ∼0.002-0.004 without any signs of damage up to pressures of ∼2-3 MPa that are close to most biological bearing systems. Moreover, the polymer loops enhance inhibition of cell adhesion and proliferation compared to polymers in the random coil or brush conformations. These results demonstrate that strongly anchored polymer loops are effective for high lubrication and low cell adhesion and represent a promising candidate for the development of specialized high-performance biomedical coatings.

  20. Anchoring Strength of Thin Aligned-Polymer Films Formed by Liquid Crystalline Monomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashige, Takeshi; Fujikake, Hideo; Ikehata, Seiichiro; Sato, Fumio

    2003-04-01

    We have evaluated the polar anchoring strength of a thin molecule-aligned polymer film formed by a liquid crystalline monomer. The polymer film was obtained by photopolymerization of the monomer oriented by a rubbed polyimide alignment layer in a chamber filled with N2 gas. We fabricated a nematic liquid crystal cell using the thin aligned-polymer films as alignment layers, and then evaluated the anchoring strength of the polymer by measuring the optical retardation curve of the cell driven by voltages. The experimental result showed that the anchoring strength was one order of magnitude lower than that of a conventional rubbed polyimide alignment layer, and decreased with increasing the cure temperature of the monomer film.

  1. Fluid-structure interaction in straight pipelines with different anchoring conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferras, David; Manso, Pedro A.; Schleiss, Anton J.; Covas, Dídia I. C.

    2017-04-01

    This investigation aims at assessing the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) occurring during hydraulic transients in straight pipeline systems fixed to anchor blocks. A two mode 4-equation model is implemented incorporating the main interacting mechanisms: Poisson, friction and junction coupling. The resistance to movement due to inertia and dry friction of the anchor blocks is treated as junction coupling. Unsteady skin friction is taken into account in friction coupling. Experimental waterhammer tests collected from a straight copper pipe-rig are used for model validation in terms of wave shape, timing and damping. Numerical results successfully reproduce laboratory measurements for realistic values of calibration parameters. The novelty of this paper is the presentation of a 1D FSI solver capable of describing the resistance to movement of anchor blocks and its effect on the transient pressure wave propagation in straight pipelines.

  2. Anchor Node Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Video and Compass Information Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Pescaru, Dan; Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Distributed sensing, computing and communication capabilities of wireless sensor networks require, in most situations, an efficient node localization procedure. In the case of random deployments in harsh or hostile environments, a general localization process within global coordinates is based on a set of anchor nodes able to determine their own position using GPS receivers. In this paper we propose another anchor node localization technique that can be used when GPS devices cannot accomplish their mission or are considered to be too expensive. This novel technique is based on the fusion of video and compass data acquired by the anchor nodes and is especially suitable for video- or multimedia-based wireless sensor networks. For these types of wireless networks the presence of video cameras is intrinsic, while the presence of digital compasses is also required for identifying the cameras' orientations. PMID:24594614

  3. Lipid-anchored Synaptobrevin Provides Little or No Support for Exocytosis or Liposome Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Che-Wei; Chiang, Chung-Wei; Gaffaney, Jon D.; Chapman, Edwin R.; Jackson, Meyer B.

    2016-01-01

    SNARE proteins catalyze many forms of biological membrane fusion, including Ca2+-triggered exocytosis. Although fusion mediated by SNAREs generally involves proteins anchored to each fusing membrane by a transmembrane domain (TMD), the role of TMDs remains unclear, and previous studies diverge on whether SNAREs can drive fusion without a TMD. This issue is important because it relates to the question of the structure and composition of the initial fusion pore, as well as the question of whether SNAREs mediate fusion solely by creating close proximity between two membranes versus a more active role in transmitting force to the membrane to deform and reorganize lipid bilayer structure. To test the role of membrane attachment, we generated four variants of the synaptic v-SNARE synaptobrevin-2 (syb2) anchored to the membrane by lipid instead of protein. These constructs were tested for functional efficacy in three different systems as follows: Ca2+-triggered dense core vesicle exocytosis, spontaneous synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and Ca2+-synaptotagmin-enhanced SNARE-mediated liposome fusion. Lipid-anchoring motifs harboring one or two lipid acylation sites completely failed to support fusion in any of these assays. Only the lipid-anchoring motif from cysteine string protein-α, which harbors many lipid acylation sites, provided support for fusion but at levels well below that achieved with wild type syb2. Thus, lipid-anchored syb2 provides little or no support for exocytosis, and anchoring syb2 to a membrane by a TMD greatly improves its function. The low activity seen with syb2-cysteine string protein-α may reflect a slower alternative mode of SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. PMID:26663078

  4. Interactions of frazil and anchor ice with sedimentary particles in a flume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kempema, E.W.; Reimnitz, E.; Clayton, J.R.; Payne, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Frazil and anchor ice forming in turbulent, supercooled water have been studied extensively because of problems posed to man-made hydraulic structures. In spite of many incidental observations of interactions of these ice forms with sediment, their geologic effects remain unknown. The present flume study was designed to learn about the effects of salinity, current speed, and sediment type on sediment dynamics in supercooled water. In fresh-water, frazil ice formed flocs as large as 8 cm in diameter that tended to roll along a sandy bottom and collect material from the bed. The heavy flocs often came to rest in the shelter of ripples, forming anchor ice that subsequently was buried by migrating ripples. Burial compressed porous anchor ice into ice-bonded, sediment-rich masses. This process disrupts normal ripple cross-bedding and may produce unique sedimentary structures. Salt-water flocs were smaller, incorporated less bed load, and formed less anchor ice than their fresh-water counterparts. In four experiments, frazil carried a high sediment load only for a short period in supercooled salt water, but released it with slight warming. This suggests that salt-water frazil is either sticky or traps particles only while surrounded by supercooled water (0.05 to 0.1 ??C supercooling), a short-lived phase in simple, small tanks. Salt water anchor ice formed readily on blocks of ice-bonded sediment, which may be common in nature. The theoretical maximum sediment load in neutrally-buoyant ice/sediment mixture is 122 g/l, never reported in nature so far. The maximum sediment load measured in this laboratory study was 88 g/l. Such high theoretical and measured sediment concentrations suggest that frazil and anchor ice are important sediment transport agents in rivers and oceans. ?? 1993.

  5. Liquid-crystal-anchoring transitions at surfaces created by polymerization-induced phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundson, Karl R.; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    1998-08-01

    A surface anchoring transition of a nematic at polymer surfaces created by polymerization-induced phase separation is presented. This transition is unusual in that it occurs far from bulk nematic phase transitions and it is tunable across nearly the entire nematic temperature range by modification of the polymer side group. Anchoring behavior is qualitatively understood by considerating enthalpic and entropic contributions to surface energy. Interesting behavior of some polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films is explained, and observations provide a pathway to control properties.

  6. Photosensitizer anchored gold nanorods for targeted combinational photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tham, Huijun Phoebe; Chen, Hongzhong; Tan, Yu Hui; Qu, Qiuyu; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Lingzhi; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-07-07

    Silylated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was anchored onto silica-coated gold nanorods (AuNR) with retained local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Independent LSPR and singlet oxygen production of anchored ZnPc enhance the photothermal and photodynamic efficacy of the obtained AuNR-Si-ZnPc under NIR light excitation. AuNR-Si-ZnPc was further grafted with hyaluronic acid (HA). Since HA has selective targeting capability to CD44 antigens, the final hybrid could target cancer cells directly for synergistic photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

  7. Molecular and Genomic Analysis of Genes Encoding Surface-Anchored Proteins from Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Karjalainen, Tuomo; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Cerquetti, Marina; Spigaglia, Patrizia; Maggioni, Andrea; Mauri, Pierluigi; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2001-01-01

    The gene slpA, encoding the S-layer precursor protein in the virulent Clostridium difficile strains C253 and 79–685, was identified. The precursor protein carries a C-terminal highly conserved anchoring domain, similar to the one found in the Cwp66 adhesin (previously characterized in strain 79–685), an SLH domain, and a variable N-terminal domain mediating cell adherence. The genes encoding the S-layer precursor proteins and the Cwp66 adhesin are present in a genetic locus carrying 17 open reading frames, 11 of which encode a similar two-domain architecture, likely to include surface-anchored proteins. PMID:11292772

  8. Anchor ice, seabed freezing, and sediment dynamics in shallow arctic seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Kempema, E.W.; Barnes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Diving investigations confirm previous circumstantial evidence of seafloor freezing and anchor ice accretion during freeze-up storms in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. These related bottom types were found to be continuous from shore to 2 m depth and spotty to 4.5 m depth. The concretelike nature of frozen bottom, where present, should prohibit sediment transport by any conceivable wave or current regime during the freezing storm. But elsewhere, anchor ice lifts coarse material off the bottom and incorporates it into the ice canopy, thereby leading to significant ice rafting of shallow shelf sediment and likely sediment loss to the deep sea. -from Authors

  9. Deflected mode of marginal rock massif around mine working boundaries depending on anchoring parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demin, V. F.; Fofanov, O. B.; Demina, T. V.; Yavorskiy, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    The deflected mode, rock pressure manifestations, conditions of maintenance of mine workings depending on geological and technological parameters have been studied. Researches have allowed establishing the degree of these parameters impact on the effectiveness of anchoring of mine workings. The paper researches such aspects of the problem as rock pressures, terms of maintenance of mine workings, technological parameters and others. The authors consider the expediency of the introduction of anchor certificates which will allow for stability of the rock mining and a reduction of the expenses on realization and maintenance of mine workings.

  10. Focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique: rapid self-hypnosis for pain management.

    PubMed

    Donatone, Brooke

    2013-04-01

    This article details a self-hypnosis technique designed to teach patients how to manage acute or chronic pain through directed focus. The focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique has been used with various types of pain, including somatic pain (arthritis, post-injury pain from bone breaks, or muscle tears), visceral pain (related to irritable bowel disease), and neuropathic pain (related to multiple sclerosis). This technique combines cognitive restructuring and mindfulness meditation with indirect and direct suggestions during hypnosis. The case examples demonstrate how the focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique is used with both acute and chronic pain conditions when use of long-term medication has been relatively ineffective.

  11. The Role of Anchor Stations in the Validation of Earth Observation Satellite Data and Products. The Valencia and the Alacant Anchor Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar

    Space technology facilitates humanity and science with a global revolutionary view of the Earth through the acquisition of Earth Observation satellite data. Satellites capture information over different spatial and temporal scales and assist in understanding natural climate processes and in detecting and explaining climate change. Accurate Earth Observation data is needed to describe climate processes by improving the parameterisations of different climate elements. Algorithms to produce geophysical parameters from raw satellite observations should go through selection processes or participate in inter-comparison programmes to ensure performance reliability. Geophysical parameter datasets, obtained from satellite observations, should pass a quality control before they are accepted in global databases for impact, diagnostic or sensitivity studies. Calibration and Validation, or simply "Cal/Val", is the activity that endeavours to ensure that remote sensing products are highly consistent and reproducible. This is an evolving scientific activity that is becoming increasingly important as more long-term studies on global change are undertaken, and new satellite missions are launched. Calibration is the process of quantitatively defining the system responses to known, controlled signal inputs. Validation refers to the process of assessing, by independent means, the quality of the data products derived from the system outputs. These definitions are generally accepted and most often used in the remote sensing context to refer specifically and respectively to sensor radiometric calibration and geophysical parameter validation. Anchor Stations are carefully selected locations at which instruments measure quantities that are needed to run, calibrate or validate models and algorithms. These are needed to quanti-tatively evaluate satellite data and convert it into geophysical information. The instruments collect measurements of basic quantities over a long timescale

  12. Loss of cell-surface laminin anchoring promotes tumor growth and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Armin; Griffith, Obi L; Soroceanu, Liliana; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Luciani-Torres, Maria Gloria; Daemen, Anneleen; Gray, Joe W; Muschler, John L

    2012-05-15

    Perturbations in the composition and assembly of extracellular matrices (ECM) contribute to progression of numerous diseases, including cancers. Anchoring of laminins at the cell surface enables assembly and signaling of many ECMs, but the possible contributions of altered laminin anchoring to cancer progression remain undetermined. In this study, we investigated the prominence and origins of defective laminin anchoring in cancer cells and its association with cancer subtypes and clinical outcomes. We found loss of laminin anchoring to be widespread in cancer cells. Perturbation of laminin anchoring originated from several distinct defects, which all led to dysfunctional glycosylation of the ECM receptor dystroglycan. In aggressive breast and brain cancers, defective laminin anchoring was often due to suppressed expression of the glycosyltransferase LARGE. Reduced expression of LARGE characterized a broad array of human tumors in which it was associated with aggressive cancer subtypes and poor clinical outcomes. Notably, this defect robustly predicted poor survival in patients with brain cancers. Restoring LARGE expression repaired anchoring of exogenous and endogenous laminin and modulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. Together, our findings suggest that defects in laminin anchoring occur commonly in cancer cells, are characteristic of aggressive cancer subtypes, and are important drivers of disease progression.

  13. Investigating Measurement Invariance in Computer-Based Personality Testing: The Impact of Using Anchor Items on Effect Size Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.; Tendeiro, Jorge N.

    2015-01-01

    A popular method to assess measurement invariance of a particular item is based on likelihood ratio tests with all other items as anchor items. The results of this method are often only reported in terms of statistical significance, and researchers proposed different methods to empirically select anchor items. It is unclear, however, how many…

  14. Slipping Anchor? Testing the Vignettes Approach to Identification and Correction of Reporting Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Uva, Teresa Bago; Lindeboom, Maarten; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2011-01-01

    We propose tests of the two assumptions under which anchoring vignettes identify heterogeneity in reporting of categorical evaluations. Systematic variation in the perceived difference between any two vignette states is sufficient to reject "vignette equivalence." "Response consistency"--the respondent uses the same response…

  15. Substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive anti-inflammatory coatings for implant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Duo; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Tianchan; Ding, Chunmei; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-06-01

    Implant materials need to be highly biocompatible to avoid inflammation in clinical practice. Although biodegradable polymeric implants can eliminate the need for a second surgical intervention to remove the implant materials, they may produce acidic degradation products in vivo and cause non-bacterial inflammation. Here we show the strategy of “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coatings” for biodegradable implants. Using poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite as an implant material model, we constructed a layer-by-layer coating using pH-sensitive star polymers and dendrimers loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, which was immobilised through a hydroxyapatite-anchored layer. The multifunctional coating can effectively suppress the local inflammation caused by the degradation of implant materials for at least 8 weeks in vivo. Moreover, the substrate-anchored coating is able to modulate the degradation of the substrate in a more homogeneous manner. The “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coating” strategy therefore exhibits potential for the design of various self-anti-inflammatory biodegradable implant materials.

  16. Biosynthesis of GPI-anchored proteins: special emphasis on GPI lipid remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Taroh; Fujita, Morihisa

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) act as membrane anchors of many eukaryotic cell surface proteins. GPIs in various organisms have a common backbone consisting of ethanolamine phosphate (EtNP), three mannoses (Mans), one non-N-acetylated glucosamine, and inositol phospholipid, whose structure is EtNP-6Manα-2Manα-6Manα-4GlNα-6myoinositol-P-lipid. The lipid part is either phosphatidylinositol of diacyl or 1-alkyl-2-acyl form, or inositol phosphoceramide. GPIs are attached to proteins via an amide bond between the C-terminal carboxyl group and an amino group of EtNP. Fatty chains of inositol phospholipids are inserted into the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. More than 150 different human proteins are GPI anchored, whose functions include enzymes, adhesion molecules, receptors, protease inhibitors, transcytotic transporters, and complement regulators. GPI modification imparts proteins with unique characteristics, such as association with membrane microdomains or rafts, transient homodimerization, release from the membrane by cleavage in the GPI moiety, and apical sorting in polarized cells. GPI anchoring is essential for mammalian embryogenesis, development, neurogenesis, fertilization, and immune system. Mutations in genes involved in remodeling of the GPI lipid moiety cause human diseases characterized by neurological abnormalities. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has >60 GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). GPI is essential for growth of yeast. In this review, we discuss biosynthesis of GPI-APs in mammalian cells and yeast with emphasis on the lipid moiety. PMID:26563290

  17. Robust CNT field emitters: patterning, growth, transfer, and in situ anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Valerie J.; Manohara, Harish; Toda, Risaku; Del Castillo, Linda; Murthy, Rakesh; Mulder, Jerry; Murty, Eshwari; Clark Thompson, M.

    2016-12-01

    Robust carbon nanotube (CNT)-based cold cathodes were fabricated on titanium (Ti) substrates. Methods to grow vertically aligned CNTs directly on Ti substrates were developed. These cathodes can be treated post-growth at elevated temperatures under inert atmosphere which causes the surface-grown CNTs to become anchored to the substrate surface. These samples offer improvements in field emission properties over previously studied silicon (Si) substrate-based cathodes with no anchoring, displaying low threshold voltages, high field enhancement factors, and long operating lifetimes. Current densities of 25 mA cm-2 were held for over 24 h with anchored samples at low electric fields (observed thresholds as low as 0.5 V μm-1) and more current stability. Higher current densities of up to 150 mA cm-2 could be reached with anchored samples, limited only by the experimental setup. In efforts to generate even more stable and reproducible field emission, a transfer process of CNTs from polished Si to Ti with copper (Cu) was developed (flipCNTs). These cathodes display extreme improvements over previous results, with observed thresholds as low as 0.2 V μm-1 and γ-factors as high as 30 000. To demonstrate the utility of these robust cathodes, a flipCNT-based cathode was assembled into a fully functioning vacuum triode.

  18. Anchoring Effects in World University Rankings: Exploring Biases in Reputation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Bastedo, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite ongoing debates about their uses and validity, university rankings are a popular means to compare institutions within a country and around the world. Anchoring theory suggests that these rankings may influence assessments of institutional reputation, and this effect may be particularly strong when a new rankings system is introduced. We…

  19. The Study of Collective Actions in a University Anchored Community Wireless Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchibhotla, Hari N.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of wireless devices and the ease in setting up wireless devices has created opportunities for various entities, and in particular to universities, by partnering with their local communities in the form of a university anchored community wireless network. This provides opportunities for students to be part of the community-based…

  20. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  1. Lipid-Sorting Specificity Encoded in K-Ras Membrane Anchor Regulates Signal Output.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Prakash, Priyanka; Liang, Hong; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Hancock, John F

    2017-01-12

    K-Ras is targeted to the plasma membrane by a C-terminal membrane anchor that comprises a farnesyl-cysteine-methyl-ester and a polybasic domain. We used quantitative spatial imaging and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to examine molecular details of K-Ras plasma membrane binding. We found that the K-Ras anchor binds selected plasma membrane anionic lipids with defined head groups and lipid side chains. The precise amino acid sequence and prenyl group define a combinatorial code for lipid binding that extends beyond simple electrostatics; within this code lysine and arginine residues are non-equivalent and prenyl chain length modifies nascent polybasic domain lipid preferences. The code is realized by distinct dynamic tertiary structures of the anchor on the plasma membrane that govern amino acid side-chain-lipid interactions. An important consequence of this specificity is the ability of such anchors when aggregated to sort subsets of phospholipids into nanoclusters with defined lipid compositions that determine K-Ras signaling output.

  2. Delivery of a secreted soluble protein to the vacuole via a membrane anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Barrieu, F.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1999-08-01

    To further understand how membrane proteins are sorted in the secretory system, the authors devised a strategy that involves the expression of a membrane-anchored yeast invertase in transgenic plants. The construct consisted of a signal peptide followed by the coding region of yeast invertase and the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of calnexin. The substitution of a lysine near the C terminus of calnexin with a glutamic acid residue ensured progression through the secretory system rather than retention in or return to the endoplasmic reticulum. In the transformed plants, invertase activity and a 70-kD cross-reacting protein were found in the vacuoles. This yeast invertase had plant-specific complex glycans, indicating that transport to the vacuole was mediated by the Golgi apparatus. The microsomal fraction contained a membrane-anchored 90-kD cross-reacting polypeptide, but was devoid of invertase activity. Their results indicate that this membrane-anchored protein proceeds in the secretory system beyond the point where soluble proteins are sorted for secretion, and is detached from its membrane anchor either just before or just after delivery to the vacuole.

  3. Use of anchor protein modules in fluorescence polarisation aptamer assay for ochratoxin A determination.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Alexey V; Safenkova, Irina V; Eremin, Sergei A; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2017-04-15

    A new strategy for sensitive fluorescence polarisation (FP) analysis is proposed which uses aptamer as the receptor and anchor protein modules as the enhancers by including the aptamers in complexes with protein modules. This approach is based on increasing the size differences of bound and unbound fluorophores. The strategy was applied in an ochratoxin A (ОТА) assay with the competitive binding of fluorophore-labelled and free OTA with aptamer-based receptors. We showed that the binding of labelled OTA with aptamer included in complexes with anchors led to higher a FP than binding with free aptamer. This allowed the aptamer concentration to be reduced, thus lowering the limit of detection by a factor of 40, down to 3.6 nM. The assay time was 15 min. To evaluate the applicability of the FP assay with aptamer-anchor complex to real samples, we conducted OTA measurements in spiked white wine. The OTA limit of detection in wine was 2.8 nM (1.1 μg/kg), and the recoveries ranged from 83% to 113%. The study shows that the proposed anchor strategy is efficient for increasing the sensitivity of FP-based aptamer assays.

  4. Making the Work of Anchor Institutions Stick: Building Coalitions and Collective Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Nancy; Englot, Peter; Higgins, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    As more colleges and universities commit to a public mission, it is critical that our work as anchor institutions have a sustainable and positive impact, and that we collaborate fully with the diverse voices and expertise beyond our campuses--the most valuable assets of our multicultural cities. Taking Syracuse, New York, as a microcosm, the…

  5. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Adults with Dyslexia: A Test of the Anchoring Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijnen, Frank; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Vlutters, Leoni D.; Winkel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measured auditory frequency discrimination thresholds…

  6. Comparing General and Special Education Preservice Teachers' Test Performance Using Traditional and Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, D. Michael; Langone, John

    2005-01-01

    Data comparing the effects of traditional lectures and instruction paired with video anchors on test scores of general education and special education preservice teachers are presented. The sample in both the experimental and control groups included a mixture of preservice teachers including those beginning a general education early childhood…

  7. Photomanipulation of the anchoring strength using a spontaneously adsorbed layer of azo dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Nádasi, Hajnalka; Stannarius, Ralf; Eremin, Alexey; Ito, Atsuki; Ishikawa, Ken; Haba, Osamu; Yonetake, Koichiro; Takezoe, Hideo; Araoka, Fumito

    2017-03-15

    We systematically studied the photoinduced anchoring transition in a nematic liquid crystal containing azo dendrimers. Because the azo dendrimers in the trans-isomer state were spontaneously adsorbed at substrate surfaces, which was confirmed by optical second-harmonic generation (SHG), a homeotropic orientation was established at the first stage. Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation triggered a transition into a planar state which was accompanied by a suppression of the SH generation. The monotonic decrease of the effective scalar order parameter with increasing UV light intensity was determined by polarized attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The variation of anchoring strength and extrapolation length was evaluated by observing the Fréedericksz transition as a function of UV light intensity at a certain visible (VIS) light intensity. Such a photoinduced variation can be interpreted as a variation of the anchoring strength depending on the trans/cis ratio at the surfaces based on a modified Rapini-Papoular model. Thus, this system provides the opportunity for a controlled change in the anchoring strength.

  8. Anchoring Problem-Solving and Computation Instruction in Context-Rich Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottge, Brian A.; Rueda, Enrique; Grant, Timothy S.; Stephens, Ana C.; Laroque, Perry T.

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students with learning disabilities in math (MLD) used two versions of Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI). In one condition, students learned how to compute with fractions on an as-needed basis while they worked to solve the EAI problems. In the other condition, teachers used a computer-based instructional module in place of one of…

  9. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>500) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitochondrial...

  10. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>600) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitoc...

  11. Academic judgments under uncertainty: A study of collective anchoring effects in Swedish Research Council panel groups.

    PubMed

    Roumbanis, Lambros

    2017-02-01

    This article focuses on anchoring effects in the process of peer reviewing research proposals. Anchoring effects are commonly seen as the result of flaws in human judgment, as cognitive biases that stem from specific heuristics that guide people when they involve their intuition in solving a problem. Here, the cognitive biases will be analyzed from a sociological point of view, as interactional and aggregated phenomena. The article is based on direct observations of ten panel groups evaluating research proposals in the natural and engineering sciences for the Swedish Research Council. The analysis suggests that collective anchoring effects emerge as a result of the combination of the evaluation techniques that are being used (grading scales and average ranking) and the efforts of the evaluators to reach consensus in the face of disagreements and uncertainty in the group. What many commentators and evaluators have interpreted as an element of chance in the peer review process may also be understood as partly a result of the dynamic aspects of collective anchoring effects.

  12. Arthroscopic double-row suture anchor fixation of minimally displaced greater tuberosity fractures.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Kim, Weon-Yoo; Ra, Ki-Hang

    2007-10-01

    In cases of displaced greater tuberosity fractures, treatments by arthroscopic-assisted reduction and percutaneous screw fixation have been reported. However, in cases in which there is a comminuted fracture or a minimally displaced fracture combined with concomitant lesions such as rotator cuff tear or labral pathology, it is difficult to reduce the fracture and to treat other pathologies by use of a percutaneous screw. Recently, many surgeons have used the double-row repair method in rotator cuff repair, which provides a tendon-bone interface better suited for biologic healing and restoring normal anatomy. In accordance with this method, we used the arthroscopic technique of double-row suture anchor fixation for a minimally displaced greater tuberosity fracture without additional incision. Initially, debridement was performed on the fracture surface by use of a shaver, and the medial-row anchor was inserted through the anterior portal or the intact cuff. Two lateral-row anchors were inserted just anterior and posterior to the lower margin of the fractured fragment under C-arm guidance. The medial-row sutures and lateral-row sutures were then placed. Arthroscopic double-row suture anchor fixation of a displaced greater tuberosity fracture restores the original footprint of the rotator cuff and normal tendon-bone interface of the displaced greater tuberosity fracture.

  13. A cell-surface-anchored ratiometric i-motif sensor for extracellular pH detection.

    PubMed

    Ying, Le; Xie, Nuli; Yang, Yanjing; Yang, Xiaohai; Zhou, Qifeng; Yin, Bincheng; Huang, Jin; Wang, Kemin

    2016-06-14

    A FRET-based sensor is anchored on the cell surface through streptavidin-biotin interactions. Due to the excellent properties of the pH-sensitive i-motif structure, the sensor can detect extracellular pH with high sensitivity and excellent reversibility.

  14. Tritium labelling of a cholesterol amphiphile designed for cell membrane anchoring of proteins.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Balázs; Orbán, Erika; Kele, Zoltán; Tömböly, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane association of proteins can be achieved by the addition of lipid moieties to the polypeptide chain, and such lipid-modified proteins have important biological functions. A class of cell surface proteins contains a complex glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) glycolipid at the C-terminus, and they are accumulated in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains, that is, lipid rafts. Semisynthetic lipoproteins prepared from recombinant proteins and designed lipids are valuable probes and model systems of the membrane-associated proteins. Because GPI-anchored proteins can be reinserted into the cell membrane with the retention of the biological function, they are appropriate candidates for preparing models via reduction of the structural complexity. A synthetic headgroup was added to the 3β-hydroxyl group of cholesterol, an essential lipid component of rafts, and the resulting cholesterol derivative was used as a simplified GPI mimetic. In order to quantitate the membrane integrated GPI mimetic after the exogenous addition to live cells, a tritium labelled cholesterol anchor was prepared. The radioactive label was introduced into the headgroup, and the radiolabelled GPI mimetic anchor was obtained with a specific activity of 1.37 TBq/mmol. The headgroup labelled cholesterol derivative was applied to demonstrate the sensitive detection of the cell membrane association of the anchor under in vivo conditions.

  15. Improving Services for Secondary Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Project ANCHOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagen, Stanley A.

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of Project Anchor, a 3-year federally funded model demonstration project that was created to address how service providers, families, employers, and the community could work together to improve educational services and results for secondary students with emotional and behavioral disorders.…

  16. Hearing rehabilitation in Treacher Collins Syndrome with bone anchored hearing aid

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, José Fernando; Plawiak, Anna Clara; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression. It was prescribed a model of bone-anchored hearing aid, in soft band format. The results were evaluated through behavioral hearing tests and questionnaires Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) and Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS). Comments: The patient had a higher acceptance of the bone-anchored hearing aid compared to the traditional bone vibration arch. Audiological tests and the speech and auditory skills assessments also showed better communication and hearing outcomes. The bone-anchored hearing aid is a good option in hearing rehabilitation in this syndrome. PMID:26298651

  17. The Role of Anchored Instruction in the Design of a Hypermedia Science Museum Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Benjamin; And Others

    A hypermedia simulation, Sickle Cell Counselor, has been developed to anchor instruction for museum visitors using the task of advising couples about the decision to have children when there is a substantial genetic risk of sickle cell disease. A visitor can perform simulated laboratory tests and ask questions via interactive video. The anchored…

  18. Statistical Procedures to Evaluate Quality of Scale Anchoring. Research Report. ETS RR-11-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Sinharay, Sandip; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Providing information to test takers and test score users about the abilities of test takers at different score levels has been a persistent problem in educational and psychological measurement (Carroll, 1993). Scale anchoring (Beaton & Allen, 1992), a technique that describes what students at different points on a score scale know and can do,…

  19. Nanofabricated racks of aligned and anchored DNA substrates for single-molecule imaging.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jason; Fazio, Teresa; Wang, Feng; Wind, Shalom; Greene, Eric C

    2010-01-19

    Single-molecule studies of biological macromolecules can benefit from new experimental platforms that facilitate experimental design and data acquisition. Here we develop new strategies to construct curtains of DNA in which the molecules are aligned with respect to one another and maintained in an extended configuration by anchoring both ends of the DNA to the surface of a microfluidic sample chamber that is otherwise coated with an inert lipid bilayer. This "double-tethered" DNA substrate configuration is established through the use of nanofabricated rack patterns comprised of two distinct functional elements: linear barriers to lipid diffusion that align DNA molecules anchored by one end to the bilayer and antibody-coated pentagons that provide immobile anchor points for the opposite ends of the DNA. These devices enable the alignment and anchoring of thousands of individual DNA molecules, which can then be visualized using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy under conditions that do not require continuous application of buffer flow to stretch the DNA. This unique strategy offers the potential for studying protein-DNA interactions on large DNA substrates without compromising measurements through application of hydrodynamic force. We provide a proof-of-principle demonstration that double-tethered DNA curtains made with nanofabricated rack patterns can be used in a one-dimensional diffusion assay that monitors the motion of quantum dot-tagged proteins along DNA.

  20. The Effect of Listener Experience and Anchors on Judgments of Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Kapsner-Smith, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of auditory anchors on judgments of overall severity (OS) and vocal effort (VE) in dysphonic speech when judgments are made by experienced and inexperienced listeners, and when self-rated by individuals with dysphonia (speaker-listeners). Method: Twenty individuals with dysphonia and 4 normal controls provided…

  1. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Calibrate Teachers' Self-Assessment of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun; Engberg, John; Kaufman, Julia; Hamilton, Laura; Hill, Heather; Umland, Kristin; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    High-quality measures of instructional practice are essential for research and evaluation of innovative instructional policies and programs, as well as for providing feedback to teachers and administrators. In this study, the authors examined whether using anchoring vignettes in web-based surveys improved the validity of teachers' self-assessments…

  2. Preparation and characterization of Ag nanoparticle-embedded blank and ligand-anchored silica gels.

    PubMed

    Im, Hee-Jung; Lee, Byung Cheol; Yeon, Jei-Won

    2013-11-01

    Ag nanoparticles, used for halogen (especially iodine) adsorption and an evaluation of halogen behavior, were embedded in synthesized inorganic-organic hybrid gels. In particular, an irradiation method using an electron beam plays a part in introducing Ag nanoparticles to the organofunctionalized silica gels from AgNO3 solutions in a simple way at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. For preparation of the Ag nanoparticle-embedded inorganic-organic hybrid gels, ligands of ethylenediamine (NH2CH2CH2NH-, TMSen) and mercapto (HS-) functionalized three-dimensional porous SiO2 sol-gels were first synthesized through hydrolysis and condensation reactions, and Ag nanoparticles were then embedded into the ethylenediamine- and mercapto-anchored silica gels each, through electron-beam irradiation. The addition of ligands yielded larger average pore sizes than the absence of any ligand. Moreover, the ethylenediamine ligand led to looser structures and better access of the Ag nanoparticles to the ethylenediamine-anchored gel. As a result, more Ag nanoparticles were introduced into the ethylenediamine-anchored gel. The preparation and characterization of Ag nanoparticle-embedded blank and ligand-anchored silica gels are discussed in detail.

  3. Anchor-based classification and type-C inhibitors for tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Chih-Ta; Chiu, Yi-Yuan; Hsu, John T.-A.; Hung, Hui-Chen; Sun, Chung-Ming; Barve, Indrajeet; Chen, Wen-Liang; Huang, Wen-Chien; Huang, Chin-Ting; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Yang, Jinn-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases regulate various biological processes and are drug targets for cancers. At present, the design of selective and anti-resistant inhibitors of kinases is an emergent task. Here, we inferred specific site-moiety maps containing two specific anchors to uncover a new binding pocket in the C-terminal hinge region by docking 4,680 kinase inhibitors into 51 protein kinases, and this finding provides an opportunity for the development of kinase inhibitors with high selectivity and anti-drug resistance. We present an anchor-based classification for tyrosine kinases and discover two type-C inhibitors, namely rosmarinic acid (RA) and EGCG, which occupy two and one specific anchors, respectively, by screening 118,759 natural compounds. Our profiling reveals that RA and EGCG selectively inhibit 3% (EGFR and SYK) and 14% of 64 kinases, respectively. According to the guide of our anchor model, we synthesized three RA derivatives with better potency. These type-C inhibitors are able to maintain activities for drug-resistant EGFR and decrease the invasion ability of breast cancer cells. Our results show that the type-C inhibitors occupying a new pocket are promising for cancer treatments due to their kinase selectivity and anti-drug resistance. PMID:26077136

  4. Substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive anti-inflammatory coatings for implant materials

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Duo; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Tianchan; Ding, Chunmei; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-01-01

    Implant materials need to be highly biocompatible to avoid inflammation in clinical practice. Although biodegradable polymeric implants can eliminate the need for a second surgical intervention to remove the implant materials, they may produce acidic degradation products in vivo and cause non-bacterial inflammation. Here we show the strategy of “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coatings” for biodegradable implants. Using poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite as an implant material model, we constructed a layer-by-layer coating using pH-sensitive star polymers and dendrimers loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, which was immobilised through a hydroxyapatite-anchored layer. The multifunctional coating can effectively suppress the local inflammation caused by the degradation of implant materials for at least 8 weeks in vivo. Moreover, the substrate-anchored coating is able to modulate the degradation of the substrate in a more homogeneous manner. The “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coating” strategy therefore exhibits potential for the design of various self-anti-inflammatory biodegradable implant materials. PMID:26077243

  5. Effects of Thinking Style and Spatial Ability on Anchoring Behavior in Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dai-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    The authors propose an instructional use for Google Earth (a GIS application) as an anchoring tool for knowledge integration. Google Earth can be used to support student explorations of world geography based on Wikipedia articles on earth science and history topics. We asked 66 Taiwanese high-school freshmen to make place marks with explanatory…

  6. Sound Ways of Learning: Anchoring Music Education to the PDS P-16 Reform Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frierson-Campbell, Carol

    Anchoring, a term rooted in the seafaring world, is a useful metaphor for contemplating the role of music in schooling, and particularly for thinking about the implications of including music in the professional development school (PDS) reform movement. In 1999, the College of Education at William Paterson University (Wayne, New Jersey) joined two…

  7. Anchoring Globalization in Hong Kong's Research Universities: Network Agents, Institutional Arrangements, and Brain Circulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2013-01-01

    International competition drives research universities to find ways to anchor globalization for academic productivity and innovation through cross-border collaboration. This article examines the case of pre- and post-colonial Hong Kong and how its universities transited from undergraduate institutions to highly ranked research universities within…

  8. Arrows as Anchors: An Analysis of the Material Features of Electric Field Vector Arrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Representations in physics possess both physical and conceptual aspects that are fundamentally intertwined and can interact to support or hinder sense making and computation. We use distributed cognition and the theory of conceptual blending with material anchors to interpret the roles of conceptual and material features of representations in…

  9. Anchoring in 4- to 6-Year-Old Children Relates to Predictors of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that anchoring, a short-term dynamic and implicit process that allows individuals to benefit from contextual information embedded in stimulus sequences, might be causally related to reading acquisition. Here we report findings from two experiments in which two previously untested predictions derived from this anchoring…

  10. Application and analysis of anchored geosynthetic systems for stabilization of abandoned mine land slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Vitton, S.J.; Whitman, F.; Liang, R.Y.; Harris, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    An anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) was used in the remediation of a landslide associated with an abandoned coal mine located near Hindman, Kentucky. In concept, AGS is a system that provides in-situ stabilization of soil slopes by combining a surface-deployed geosynthetic with an anchoring system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system involves tensioning a geosynthetic over a slope`s surface by driving anchors through the geosynthetic at a given spacing and distance. By tensioning the geosynthetic over the slope`s surface, a compressive load is applied to the slope. Benefits of AGS are described to include the following: (1) increase soil strength due to soil compression including increased compressive loading on potential failure surfaces, (2) soil reinforcement through soil nailing, (3), halt of soil creep, (4) erosion control, and (5) long term soil consolidation. Following installation of the AGS and one year of monitoring, it was found that the anchored geosynthetic system only provided some of the reported benefits and in general did not function as an active stabilization system. This was due in part to the inability of the system to provide and maintain loading on the geosynthetic. The geosynthetic, however, did tension when slope movement occurred and prevented the slope from failing. Thus, the system functioned more as a passive restraint system and appeared to function well over the monitoring period.

  11. Influence of the order parameter on the anchoring energy of liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dadivanyan, A. K. Chausov, D. N.; Noa, O. V.; Belyaev, V. V.; Chigrinov, V. G.; Pashinina, Yu. M.

    2012-12-15

    No theory of the polar and azimuthal anchoring energies of liquid crystals (LCs) has been developed on a molecular level, despite the scientific and practical topicality of the problem. The interaction energies of mesogenic molecules with graphite and polyethylene surfaces calculated previously by the method of atom-atom potentials are in good agreement with the experimental data, but, at the same time, the calculated polar and azimuthal anchoring energies are larger than their experimental values by one and two orders of magnitude, respectively. To explain these values, the anchoring energy has been assumed to depend not only on the interaction with the surface but also on the interaction between the LC molecules arranged in the model in the form of quasi-layers. The mesogenic molecules have been modeled by rods with virtual C' atoms (carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them) 'threaded' on them. The molecule orientation has been specified by the polar and azimuthal angles {theta}{sub i}, {phi}{sub i} and {theta}{sub j}, {phi}{sub j} relative to the directors of the ith and jth layers. The derived polar and azimuthal anchoring energies as well as their dependences on the order parameter have turned out to be close to the experimental data.

  12. Use of the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale in Evaluating Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Robert J.

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS), a new quantitative method of employee performance evaluation, is advocated for teacher evaluation. Development of a BARS consists generally of five steps: a representative sample of potential raters generates the scales; the group identifies the broad qualities to be evaluated; the group formulates…

  13. A Deformable Generic 3D Model of Haptoral Anchor of Monogenean

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation. PMID:24204903

  14. VIP21/caveolin, glycosphingolipid clusters and the sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zurzolo, C; van't Hof, W; van Meer, G; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1994-01-01

    We studied the role of the association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and glycosphingolipid (GSL) clusters in apical targeting using gD1-DAF, a GPI-anchored protein that is differentially sorted by three epithelial cell lines. Differently from MDCK cells, where both gD1-DAF and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) are sorted to the apical membrane, in MDCK Concanavalin A-resistant cells (MDCK-ConAr) gD1-DAF was mis-sorted to both surfaces, but GlcCer was still targeted to the apical surface. In both MDCK and MDCK-ConAr cells, gD1-DAF became associated with TX-100-insoluble GSL clusters during transport to the cell surface. In dramatic contrast with MDCK cells, the Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cell line targeted both gD1-DAF and GlcCer basolaterally. The targeting differences for GSLs in FRT and MDCK cells cannot be accounted for by a differential ability to form clusters because, in spite of major differences in the GSL composition, both cell lines assembled GSLs into TX-100-insoluble complexes with identical isopycnic densities. Surprisingly, in FRT cells, gD1-DAF did not form clusters with GSLs and, therefore, remained completely soluble. This clustering defect in FRT cells correlated with the lack of expression of VIP21/caveolin, a protein localized to both the plasma membrane caveolae and the trans Golgi network. This suggests that VIP21/caveolin may have an important role in recruiting GPI-anchored proteins into GSL complexes necessary for their apical sorting. However, since MDCK-ConAr cells expressed caveolin and clustered GPI-anchored proteins normally, yet mis-sorted them, our results also indicate that clustering and caveolin are not sufficient for apical targeting, and that additional factors are required for the accurate apical sorting of GPI-anchored proteins. Images PMID:8306971

  15. A deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of Monogenean.

    PubMed

    Teo, Bee Guan; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a digital 3D model which allows for visualisation in three dimensions and interactive manipulation is explored as a tool to help us understand the structural morphology and elucidate the functions of morphological structures of fragile microorganisms which defy live studies. We developed a deformable generic 3D model of haptoral anchor of dactylogyridean monogeneans that can subsequently be deformed into different desired anchor shapes by using direct manipulation deformation technique. We used point primitives to construct the rectangular building blocks to develop our deformable 3D model. Point primitives are manually marked on a 2D illustration of an anchor on a Cartesian graph paper and a set of Cartesian coordinates for each point primitive is manually extracted from the graph paper. A Python script is then written in Blender to construct 3D rectangular building blocks based on the Cartesian coordinates. The rectangular building blocks are stacked on top or by the side of each other following their respective Cartesian coordinates of point primitive. More point primitives are added at the sites in the 3D model where more structural variations are likely to occur, in order to generate complex anchor structures. We used Catmull-Clark subdivision surface modifier to smoothen the surface and edge of the generic 3D model to obtain a smoother and more natural 3D shape and antialiasing option to reduce the jagged edges of the 3D model. This deformable generic 3D model can be deformed into different desired 3D anchor shapes through direct manipulation deformation technique by aligning the vertices (pilot points) of the newly developed deformable generic 3D model onto the 2D illustrations of the desired shapes and moving the vertices until the desire 3D shapes are formed. In this generic 3D model all the vertices present are deployed for displacement during deformation.

  16. Root hairs aid soil penetration by anchoring the root surface to pore walls

    PubMed Central

    Bengough, A. Glyn; Loades, Kenneth; McKenzie, Blair M.

    2016-01-01

    The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip during soil penetration was examined. Experiments using a hairless maize mutant (Zea mays: rth3–3) and its wild-type counterpart measured the anchorage force between the primary root of maize and the soil to determine whether root hairs enabled seedling roots in artificial biopores to penetrate sandy loam soil (dry bulk density 1.0–1.5g cm−3). Time-lapse imaging was used to analyse root and seedling displacements in soil adjacent to a transparent Perspex interface. Peak anchorage forces were up to five times greater (2.5N cf. 0.5N) for wild-type roots than for hairless mutants in 1.2g cm−3 soil. Root hair anchorage enabled better soil penetration for 1.0 or 1.2g cm−3 soil, but there was no significant advantage of root hairs in the densest soil (1.5g cm−3). The anchorage force was insufficient to allow root penetration of the denser soil, probably because of less root hair penetration into pore walls and, consequently, poorer adhesion between the root hairs and the pore walls. Hairless seedlings took 33h to anchor themselves compared with 16h for wild-type roots in 1.2g cm−3 soil. Caryopses were often pushed several millimetres out of the soil before the roots became anchored and hairless roots often never became anchored securely.The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip may be important in loose seed beds above more compact soil layers and may also assist root tips to emerge from biopores and penetrate the bulk soil. PMID:26798027

  17. The role of anchor residues in the binding of peptides to HLA-A*1101 molecules.

    PubMed

    Chujoh, Y; Sobao, Y; Miwa, K; Kaneko, Y; Takiguchi, M

    1998-12-01

    The binding of 136 8- to 12-mer peptides carrying anchor residues at position 2 (P2) and the C-terminus to HLA-A*1101 molecules was analyzed by a stabilization assay using RMA-S transfectants expressing HLA-A*1101 and human beta2-microglobulin. 72.1% of these peptides bound to HLA-A*1101 molecules. Two known HLA-All-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope peptides showed high affinity to HLA-A*1101. The results confirmed a previous pool sequencing study of HLA-A*1101 binding self-peptides, which showed that Lys at the C-terminus and Val, Ile, Phe, Tyr, and Thr at P2 are anchor residues for HLA-A*1101. Thr and aliphatic hydrophobic residues Val, Ile, and Leu at P2 are stronger anchor residues than the aromatic hydrophobic residues Phe and Tyr. In addition, hydrophobic residues Leu, Phe, Tyr, Ile, and Ala at position 3 (P3) are secondary anchors but are weaker than those at P2. The affinities of the 8- and 12-mer peptides were significantly lower than those of 9- to 11-mer peptides. There was however no difference in affinity between 9-, 10- and 11-mer peptides. Furthermore, the analysis using peptides mutated at the C-terminus showed that HLA-A*1101 molecules can bind peptides carrying another positively charged residue, Arg. The present study clarified the role of the anchor residues at P2, P3 and the C-terminus in the binding of HLA-A*1101 molecules.

  18. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Rudd, C E; Finberg, R W

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the generation of intracellular signals is not clear. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins are associated with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins) in both human and murine lymphocytes. When the GPI-anchored proteins CD59, CD48, and Thy-1 were immunoprecipitated from various cell lines or freshly isolated lymphocytes, all were found to be associated with a 41-kDa phosphoprotein that we have identified, by using specific antisera, as a mixture of tyrosine phosphorylated G protein alpha subunits: a small amount of Gialpha1, and substantial amounts of Gialpha2 and Gialpha3. GTP binding assays performed with immunoprecipitations of CD59 indicated that there was GTP-binding activity associated with this molecule. Thus, we have shown by both immunochemical and functional criteria that GPI-anchored proteins are physically associated with G proteins. These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8650218

  19. Structural variations in anchoring fibrils in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: correlation with type VII collagen expression.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J A; Ishida-Yamamoto, A; O'Grady, A; Leigh, I M; Eady, R A

    1993-04-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is characterized by various abnormalities of anchoring fibrils, which are mainly composed of type VII collagen, at the dermal-epidermal junction. To define these changes more clearly, we examined skin samples from 22 patients with different forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy using an antibody (LH 7:2) that binds to the NC-1 globular domain of type VII collagen, followed by 1 nm colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibodies and subsequent silver enhancement. In dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa cases, there was only a slight but variable reduction in the immunolabeling density on anchoring fibrils and on the lamina densa, in parts similar to normal human skin. In localized recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa skin, some fibrillar structures just below the lamina densa (and particularly subjacent to hemidesmosomes) had specific antibody labeling despite their lack of resemblance to definitive anchoring fibrils. Immunolabeling with LH 7:2 was also seen within basal keratinocyte endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic vesicles in some dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa patients, usually with milder phenotypic features. Even in the most severe cases of generalized recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, occasional immunolabeling was found within the lamina densa and on scanty thin filamentous structures at sub-lamina densa sites usually occupied by anchoring fibrils. This study suggests that dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa patients express some type VII collagen NC-1 domain epitopes that may be variably reduced at the dermal-epidermal junction or retained within basal keratinocytes. The clinical heterogeneity in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is mirrored by a range of immunoelectron microscopy findings, indicating variability in completeness of anchoring fibril formation and a possible spectrum of underlying type VII collagen structural protein abnormalities.

  20. Lactobacillus acidophilus CP23 with weak immunomodulatory activity lacks anchoring structure for surface layer protein.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Sae; Kato, Shinji; Ashida, Nobuhisa; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2015-05-01

    To determine the reason for the low levels of Surface layer protein A (SlpA) on CP23 cells, which might play a crucial role in the immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus, the DNA sequence of the slpA gene of CP23 and L-92 strains, including the upstream region, were analyzed. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the predicted amino acid sequence of the C-terminus needed for cell anchoring, and only an additional Ala-Val-Ala sequence inserted in the N-terminal region of the mature CP23 protein. Therefore, anchoring of SlpA on the cell wall of CP23 and L-92 was evaluated by a reconstitution assay, which showed that SlpA released by LiCl treatment from both CP23 and L-92 was successfully anchored on LiCl-treated L-92 cells, but not on LiCl-treated CP23 cells. Moreover, quantitative analysis of SlpA protein in the culture medium of CP23 and L-92 by ELISA revealed higher levels of SlpA secretion in CP23 cells than in L-92 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that the lower levels of SlpA on the surface of CP23 cells might be caused by less cell wall capacity for SlpA anchoring, leading to an accumulation of SlpA in the culture medium of CP23 cells. The present study supports the importance of cell surface structure of L. acidophilus L-92 for SlpA anchoring on the cell surface needed for immunomodulatory effect.

  1. Protein Kinase A Activity and Anchoring Are Required for Ovarian Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Andrew J.; Campbell, Shirley L.; Howe, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest of the gynecological malignancies, due in part to its clinically occult metastasis. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms governing EOC dissemination and invasion may provide new targets for antimetastatic therapies or new methods for detection of metastatic disease. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is often dysregulated in EOC. Furthermore, PKA activity and subcellular localization by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are important regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. Thus, we sought to study the role of PKA and AKAP function in both EOC cell migration and invasion. Using the plasma membrane-directed PKA biosensor, pmAKAR3, and an improved migration/invasion assay, we show that PKA is activated at the leading edge of migrating SKOV-3 EOC cells, and that inhibition of PKA activity blocks SKOV-3 cell migration. Furthermore, we show that while the PKA activity within the leading edge of these cells is mediated by anchoring of type-II regulatory PKA subunits (RII), inhibition of anchoring of either RI or RII PKA subunits blocks cell migration. Importantly, we also show – for the first time – that PKA activity is up-regulated at the leading edge of SKOV-3 cells during invasion of a three-dimensional extracellular matrix and, as seen for migration, inhibition of either PKA activity or AKAP-mediated PKA anchoring blocks matrix invasion. These data are the first to demonstrate that the invasion of extracellular matrix by cancer cells elicits activation of PKA within the invasive leading edge and that both PKA activity and anchoring are required for matrix invasion. These observations suggest a role for PKA and AKAP activity in EOC metastasis. PMID:22028904

  2. Examining the Impact of Drifted Polytomous Anchor Items on Test Characteristic Curve (TCC) Linking and IRT True Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-12-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yanmei

    2012-01-01

    In a common-item (anchor) equating design, the common items should be evaluated for item parameter drift. Drifted items are often removed. For a test that contains mostly dichotomous items and only a small number of polytomous items, removing some drifted polytomous anchor items may result in anchor sets that no longer resemble mini-versions of…

  3. Does Linking Mixed-Format Tests Using a Multiple-Choice Anchor Produce Comparable Results for Male and Female Subgroups? Research Report. ETS RR-11-44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of subpopulation invariance indices to evaluate the appropriateness of using a multiple-choice (MC) item anchor in mixed-format tests, which include both MC and constructed-response (CR) items. Linking functions were derived in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design using an MC-only anchor set for 4…

  4. The Glycophosphatidylinositol Anchor of the MCMV Evasin, m157, Facilitates Optimal Cell Surface Expression and Ly49 Receptor Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Lindsey E.; Guseva, Natalya V.; Shey, Michael R.; Ballas, Zuhair K.; Heusel, Jonathan W.

    2013-01-01

    The murine cytomegalovirus-encoded protein m157 is a cognate ligand for both inhibitory and activating receptors expressed by natural killer cells. Additionally, m157 is expressed on the surface of infected cells by a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Although endogenous GPI-anchored proteins are known to be ligands for the NK cell receptor, NKG2D, the contribution of the GPI anchor for viral m157 ligand function is unknown. To determine whether the GPI anchor for m157 is dispensable for m157 function, we generated m157 variants expressed as transmembrane fusion proteins and tested cells expressing transmembrane m157 for the capacity to activate cognate Ly49 receptors. We found that the GPI anchor is required for high-level cell surface expression of m157, and that the transmembrane m157 ligand retains the capacity to activate reporter cells and NK cells expressing Ly49H, as well as Ly49I129 reporter cells, but with reduced potency. Importantly, target cells expressing the transmembrane form of m157 were killed less efficiently and failed to mediate Ly49H receptor downregulation on fresh NK cells compared to targets expressing GPI-anchored m157. Taken together, these results show that the GPI anchor for m157 facilitates robust cell surface expression, and that NK cells are sensitive to the altered cell surface expression of this potent viral evasin. PMID:23840655

  5. Anchorage performance of a high-pressure pre-tightening resin anchor with a compressed grouting body

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jiansheng; Hu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Supports for deep mine roadways located in soft surrounding rock face several problems: difficulty in applying pre-tightening force, low bearing capacity, and poor initial support. To solve these problems, this study proposes a high-pressure pre-tightening resin anchor with a compressed grouting body for use in soft and fractured rock surrounding a deep roadway. Using model experiments, we analyzed the anchorage performance of the proposed anchor and a conventional tensile-type anchor for three different values of the elastic modulus of the surrounding rock. The results showed that regardless of the surrounding rock type, the peak micro-strain (642–541) and displacement (6.09–6.5 mm) at the pull-out end of the proposed anchor were always smaller than the peak micro-strain (1433–1105) and displacement (8.77–9.2 mm) at the pull-out end of the conventional anchor. Furthermore, as the anchor’s pre-tightening force increased from 20 kN to 120 kN, the anchor’s strain remained concentrated over a length of 0.4 m from the bearing end. Compared with conventional tensile-type anchors, the proposed high-pressure pre-tightening resin anchor with a compressed grouting body has a higher ultimate bearing capacity, allows the grouting length to be decreased to 0.4 m, and provides initial support resistance. PMID:28196084

  6. Constructive and problem-based learning using blended learning anchored instruction approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Based on an anchored instruction approach, an enriched blended learning lecture course ("Introduction into GNSS positioning") was established in order to enable constructive and problem-based learning. The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The presented higher education technique "anchored instruction" uses a real and up-to-date and therefore authentic scientific paper dealing with a recent large-scale geodetic project (Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link) in order to introduce the topic of GNSS-based positioning to the students. In the beginning of the semester, the students have to read the paper individually and carefully. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated focusing on new, unclear or not-understood aspects of the paper. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them throughout the semester. During the lecture course this paper is referred, e.g., in the middle of the semester, the paper has to be read again in order to check which questions have been answered; in addition, new question arise. At the end of the lecture course, the author of the scientific paper gave a concluding lecture. The framing anchor technique enables the students to anchor their GNSS knowledge. The presented case study uses a teaching resp. learning setting consisting of classroom lectures (given by teachers and learners), practical trainings (e.g., field exercises, students select topics individually), and online lectures (learning management system ILIAS is used as data, result, and asynchronous communication platform). The implementation and the elements of the anchoring technique, which enables student

  7. Preliminary feasibility study of sea-anchored stratospheric balloon for long duration flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akita, Daisuke

    Long duration flights are required for many scientific observations on stratospheric balloons. The flight duration of a super-pressure balloon is limited mainly by the flight distance due to limitations of the telemetry link, recovery possibility and national borders. A stratospheric super-pressure balloon which is anchored to the sea would have following ca-pabilities. 1) Long duration flight 2) Easy telemetry link to ground station 3) Wide launch window 4) Rapid gondola recovery 5) Fixed-point observation 6) Safety flight operation On the other hand, free-flying super-pressure balloons would be required to develop a flight trajectory control system for the long duration flight. Conventional quasi-static launch of a tethered bal-loon is difficult to ascent into the stratosphere through the jet stream. Because the dynamic pressure of the jet stream is significantly high for the balloon structure. The sea-anchored stratospheric balloon system consists of a long tether, a tether reel and a drag sail at the tether end. The flight sequence of the balloon is as follows. 1) Balloon launch with the reeled-in tether 2) Level flight at a designed altitude on the sea 3) Reel-out the tether with the drag sail 4) Sink the drag sail into the sea 5) Anchor the balloon by the drag sail 6) Observation 7) Cut the tether and terminate the flight The sea-anchored balloon does not require additional ground systems. The flight operation is same as normal balloon flights except for the reel-out and the cut of the tether. The sea-anchored balloon would have an appropriate altitude for its feasibility. The lower balloon altitude in the stratosphere results in significant increase of the dynamic pressure due to the jet stream, while the stress on the tether increases with increasing the balloon altitude by its own weight. In this study, the feasibility of the sea-anchored ballon is investigated in particular on the tether strength, balloon altitude and the system mass based on the present

  8. Triple labrum tears repaired with the JuggerKnot™ soft anchor: Technique and results

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vivek; Pietrzak, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The 2-year outcomes of patients undergoing repair of triple labrum tears using an all-suture anchor device were assessed. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients (17 male, one female; mean age 36.4 years, range: 14.2-62.3 years) with triple labrum tears underwent arthroscopic repair using the 1.4 mm JuggerKnot Soft Anchor (mean number of anchors 11.5, range: 9-19 anchors). Five patients had prior surgeries performed on their operative shoulder. Patients were followed for a mean of 2.0 years (range: 1.6-3.0 years). Constant–Murley shoulder score (CS) and Flexilevel scale of shoulder function (FLEX-SF) scores were measured, with preoperative and final postoperative mean scores compared with a paired Student's t-test (P < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also performed at final postoperative. Results: Overall total CS and FLEX-SF scores increased from 52.9 ± 20.4 to 84.3 ± 10.7 (P < 0.0001) and from 29.3 ± 4.7 to 42.0 ± 7.3 (P < 0.0001), respectively. When divided into two groups by whether or not glenohumeral arthrosis was present at the time of surgery (n = 9 each group), significant improvements in CS and FLEX-SF were obtained for both groups (P < 0.0015). There were no intraoperative complications. All patients, including contact athletes, returned to their preinjury level of sports activity and were satisfied. MRI evaluation revealed no instances of subchondral cyst formation or tunnel expansion. Anchor tracts appeared to heal with fibrous tissue, complete bony healing, or combined fibro-osseous healing. Conclusion: Our results are encouraging, demonstrating a consistent healing of the anchor tunnels through arthroscopic treatment of complex labrum lesions with a completely suture-based implant. It further demonstrates a meaningful improvement in patient outcomes, a predictable return to activity, and a high rate of patient satisfaction. Level of Evidence: Level IV case series. PMID:26288537

  9. Strategy to improve photovoltaic performance of DSSC sensitized by zinc prophyrin using salicylic acid as a tridentate anchoring group.

    PubMed

    Gou, Faliang; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Ran; Jing, Huanwang; Zhu, Zhenping

    2014-05-14

    Three new zinc porphyrin dyes attached to ethynyl benzoic acid as an electron transmission and anchoring group have been designed, synthesized, and well-characterized. The performances of their sensitized solar cells have been investigated by optical, photovoltaic, and electrochemical methods. The photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cells sensitized by the dye with salicylic acid as an anchoring group demonstrated obvious enhancement when compared with that sensitized by the dye with carboxylic acid as an anchoring group. The density functional theory calculations and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopies revealed that tridentate binding modes could increase the efficiency of electron injection from dyes to the TiO2 nanoparticles by more electron pathways.

  10. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Libo; Chien, Liang-Chy; Liao, Pei-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chun; Ting, Tien-Lun; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Su, Jenn-Jia

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA). The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  11. Novel biopsy forceps anchoring technique for completion of direct cholangioscopy after freehand intubation.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, V

    2017-03-16

    The widespread dissemination of direct cholangioscopy (DC) has been hindered by the need for special equipment and the perceived high procedure-related technical complexity. DC with freehand intubation has been reported to have high technical success rates in a single report, albeit the pervasive expert opinion question its clinical applicability, thus most centers resort to anchoring techniques for intubation and/or scope advancement.[1] However, although newer anchoring balloons are being developed, first-generation balloons have been withdrawn from the market.[2] Of interest, in a recent study a next-generation double bending cholangioscope has been reported to yield high rates of intubation success without endoscopic accessories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Num1 anchors mitochondria to the plasma membrane via two domains with different lipid binding specificities.

    PubMed

    Ping, Holly A; Kraft, Lauren M; Chen, WeiTing; Nilles, Amy E; Lackner, Laura L

    2016-06-06

    The mitochondria-ER cortex anchor (MECA) is required for proper mitochondrial distribution and functions by tethering mitochondria to the plasma membrane. The core component of MECA is the multidomain protein Num1, which assembles into clusters at the cell cortex. We show Num1 adopts an extended, polarized conformation. Its N-terminal coiled-coil domain (Num1CC) is proximal to mitochondria, and the C-terminal pleckstrin homology domain is associated with the plasma membrane. We find that Num1CC interacts directly with phospholipid membranes and displays a strong preference for the mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin. This direct membrane interaction is critical for MECA function. Thus, mitochondrial anchoring is mediated by a protein that interacts directly with two different membranes through lipid-specific binding domains, suggesting a general mechanism for interorganelle tethering.

  13. Modifying the adsorption characteristic of inert silica films by inserting anchoring sites.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Stefan; Nilius, Niklas; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Martinez, Umberto; Giordano, Livia; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2009-01-09

    The adsorption properties of thin silica films on Mo(112) have been tailored by embedding single Pd atoms into the nanopores of the oxide material. The embedded Pd is able to anchor metal adatoms that would not bind to the inert silica surface otherwise. Several adsorption structures, e.g., Pd-Pd, Ag-Pd, and Au-Pd complexes, have been prepared in this way and analyzed with the STM and density functional theory. The binding strength of the different adatoms to the surface is determined by the number of electrons in their frontier orbitals, which introduce a repulsive interaction with the oxide electronic states and weaken the covalent bond to the Pd anchor.

  14. Tropolone as a High-Performance Robust Anchoring Group for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Fujimori, Yamato; Sugiura, Kenichi; Tsuji, Yukihiro; Ito, Seigo; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2015-07-27

    A tropolone group has been employed for the first time as an anchoring group for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on a porphyrin, YD2-o-C8T, with a tropolone moiety exhibited a power-conversion efficiency of 7.7 %, which is only slightly lower than that observed for a reference porphyrin, YD2-o-C8, with a conventional carboxylic group. More importantly, YD2-o-C8T was found to be superior to YD2-o-C8 with respect to DSSC durability and binding ability to TiO2 . These results unambiguously demonstrate that tropolone is a highly promising dye-anchoring group for DSSCs in terms of device durability as well as photovoltaic performance.

  15. Playing dice with criminal sentences: the influence of irrelevant anchors on experts' judicial decision making.

    PubMed

    Englich, Birte; Mussweiler, Thomas; Strack, Fritz

    2006-02-01

    Judicial sentencing decisions should be guided by facts, not by chance. The present research however demonstrates that the sentencing decisions of experienced legal professionals are influenced by irrelevant sentencing demands even if they are blatantly determined at random. Participating legal experts anchored their sentencing decisions on a given sentencing demand and assimilated toward it even if this demand came from an irrelevant source (Study 1), they were informed that this demand was randomly determined (Study 2), or they randomly determined this demand themselves by throwing dice (Study 3). Expertise and experience did not reduce this effect. This sentencing bias appears to be produced by a selective increase in the accessibility of arguments that are consistent with the random sentencing demand: The accessibility of incriminating arguments was higher if participants were confronted with a high rather than a low anchor (Study 4). Practical and theoretical implications of this research are discussed.

  16. One for all: social power increases self-anchoring of traits, attitudes, and emotions.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, Jennifer R; Droutman, Vitaliya

    2013-08-01

    We argue that powerful people tend to engage in social projection. Specifically, they self-anchor: They use the self as a reference point when judging others' internal states. In Study 1, which used a reaction-time paradigm, powerful people used their own traits as a reference when assessing the traits of group members, classifying group descriptors more quickly if they had previously reported that those terms described themselves. Study 2, which used a classic false-consensus paradigm, showed that powerful people believed that their group-related attitudes were shared by group members. Study 3 showed that more-powerful people relied more on their own state affect when judging other people's ambiguous emotional expressions. These results support our argument that power fosters self-anchoring, because powerful individuals are often called on to act as the representative face of their groups, and the association between power and representation prompts the heuristic use of the self to infer group properties.

  17. The effects of earthquake measurement concepts and magnitude anchoring on individuals' perceptions of earthquake risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celsi, R.; Wolfinbarger, M.; Wald, D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore earthquake risk perceptions in California. Specifically, we examine the risk beliefs, feelings, and experiences of lay, professional, and expert individuals to explore how risk is perceived and how risk perceptions are formed relative to earthquakes. Our results indicate that individuals tend to perceptually underestimate the degree that earthquake (EQ) events may affect them. This occurs in large part because individuals' personal felt experience of EQ events are generally overestimated relative to experienced magnitudes. An important finding is that individuals engage in a process of "cognitive anchoring" of their felt EQ experience towards the reported earthquake magnitude size. The anchoring effect is moderated by the degree that individuals comprehend EQ magnitude measurement and EQ attenuation. Overall, the results of this research provide us with a deeper understanding of EQ risk perceptions, especially as they relate to individuals' understanding of EQ measurement and attenuation concepts. ?? 2005, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  18. Durability enhancement of intermetallics electrocatalysts via N-anchor effect for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; An, Li; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Nanlin; Xia, Dingguo; Huang, Weifeng; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-11-18

    Insufficient durability and catalytic activity of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst are key issues that have to be solved for the practical application of low temperature fuel cell. This paper introduces a new catalyst design strategy using N-anchor to promote the corrosion resistance of electrocatalyst. The as-synthesized N-Pt3Fe1/C shows a high electrocatalytic activity and a superior durability towards ORR. The kinetic current density of N-Pt3Fe1/C as normalized by ECSA is still as high as 0.145 mA cm(-2) and only 7% loss after 20,000 potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.2 V (vs. NHE) in O2-bubbling perchloric acid solution, whereas Pt3Fe1/C shows 49% loss under the same tests. The N-anchor approach offers novel opportunities for the development of ORR catalyst with excellent electrochemical properties.

  19. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes anchored with maghemite nanocrystals for high-performance lithium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping Xie, Kongwei; Xu, Xiali; Li, Jianping; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Yiming Lu, Tianhong

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals uniformly anchored on MWCNT via facile layer-by-layer technique. • The hybrid exhibits enhanced structural stability and charge transport capability. • Superior lithium storage performance by virtue of unique structural characteristics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have anchored maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocrystals compactly and uniformly on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) via a polyelectrolyte-assisted layer-by-layer assembly approach based on electrostatic attraction. When evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the as-synthesized MWCNT-γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanohybrid displays high reversible capacities, remarkable cycling stability, and magnificent high rate capability, facilitating its application as an advanced anode for high-energy, long-life, and high-power LIBs.

  20. On the importance of anchoring and the consequences of its impairment in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Ahissar, Merav

    2010-08-01

    One of the main impediments of individuals with reading difficulties and individuals with language difficulties is poor working memory. Typically measured using verbal stimuli, working memory deficits have often been considered as one aspect of the phonological difficulty putatively underlying dyslexia. Over the years it has been shown that a broad range of auditory discrimination abilities are also mildly impaired. Here we present evidence that a domain general, rather than a phonology specific, deficits in the ability to implicitly use contextual information, which we term anchoring, can account for both types of deficits. We propose that anchoring ability, which reflects a basic biological mechanism for replacing effortful mechanisms of explicit working memory with automatic mechanisms of implicit memory, and consequently boost performance in both perceptual and cognitive tasks, is a crucial factor in our ability to be expert users of oral and written language.

  1. Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Harris, Danny W.; Morse, Brian J.; Reed, Cheryl L.; Eng, Doug A.; Kirby, Karen W.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate s (SMD) International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes Mission continues its concept development and is scheduled to complete the first formal milestone gate of a Mission Concept Review (MCR) in Autumn 2009. The mission will establish two-four nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar geophysical stations envisioned to be emplaced by the many nations collaborating on this joint endeavor. This mission will operate over six years or more and make significant progress in satisfying many of the National Research Council s lunar science objectives, while strategically contributing to the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration Policy's objective for a robust robotic lunar program. This paper will provide a status report on the ILN Anchor Nodes mission and overview of the concept to date, which is being implemented jointly by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

  2. Anchoring energy enhancement and pretilt angle control of liquid crystal alignment on polymerized surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Libo; Liao, Pei-Chun; Lin, Chen-Chun; Ting, Tien-Lun; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Su, Jenn-Jia; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate enhanced surface anchoring energy and control of pretilt angle in a nematic liquid crystal cell with vertical alignment and polymerized surfaces (PS-VA). The polymerized surfaces are formed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced phase separation of a minute amount of a reactive monomer in the vertical-aligned nematic liquid crystal. By introducing a bias voltage during UV curing, surface-localized polymer protrusions with a dimension of 100nm and a field-induced pretilt angle are observed. Experimental evidences and theoretical analyses validate that PS-VA has increased surface anchoring strength by two folds and pretilt angle has been changed from 89° to 86° compared to those of a VA cell. The enabling PS-VA cell technique with excel electro-optical properties such as very good dark state, high optical contrast, and fast rise and decay times may lead to development of a wide range of applications.

  3. Prototypicality and intensity of emotional faces using an anchor-point method.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alvaro; Vázquez, Carmelo

    2013-01-01

    Emotional faces are commonly used as stimuli in a wide number of research fields. The present study provides values of 198 pictures from one of the amplest available face databases, the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF). We used a new validation strategy that consisted of presenting pairs of faces which included an emotional face (i.e., angry, happy, sad) and its corresponding neutral face from the same model. This design allowed participants to keep a comparison face (i.e., neutral) as a constant anchor point to evaluate parameters on each emotional expression presented. Raters were asked to judge both the prototypicality of the emotional expressions (i.e., the degree to which they represent their corresponding emotional prototypes) as well as their emotional intensity. We finally discuss the potential advantages of this anchor-point method as a system to elicit judgments on facial emotional expressions.

  4. NASA's International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes and Robotic Lunar Lander Project Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Brian J.; Reed, Cheryl L. B.; Kirby, Karen W.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Harris, Danny W.; Chavers, D. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    In early 2008, NASA established the Lunar Quest Program, a new lunar science research program within NASA s Science Mission Directorate. The program included the establishment of the anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar science stations envisioned to be emplaced by multiple nations. This paper describes the current status of the ILN Anchor Nodes mission development and the lander risk-reduction design and test activities implemented jointly by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The lunar lander concepts developed by this team are applicable to multiple science missions, and this paper will describe a mission combining the functionality of an ILN node with an investigation of lunar polar volatiles.

  5. Solution structure of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor glycan of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Homans, S.W.; Edge, C.J.; Ferguson, M.A.J.; Dwek, R.A.; Rademacher, T.W. )

    1989-04-04

    The average solution conformation of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) has been determined by using a combination of two-dimensional {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H NMR methods together with molecular orbital calculations and restrained molecular dynamics simulations. This allows the generation of a model to describe the orientation of the glycan with respect to the membrane. This shows that the glycan exists in an extended configuration along the plane of the membrane and spans an area of 600 {angstrom}{sup 2}, which is similar to the cross-sectional area of a monomeric N-terminal VSG domain. Taken together, these observations suggest a possible space-filling role for the GPI anchor that may maintain the integrity of the VSG coat. The potential importance of the GPI glycan as a chemotherapeutic target is discussed in light of these observations.

  6. The Interplay of Axonal Energy Homeostasis and Mitochondrial Trafficking and Anchoring.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2017-02-19

    Mitochondria are key cellular power plants essential for neuronal growth, survival, function, and regeneration after injury. Given their unique morphological features, neurons face exceptional challenges in maintaining energy homeostasis at distal synapses and growth cones where energy is in high demand. Efficient regulation of mitochondrial trafficking and anchoring is critical for neurons to meet altered energy requirements. Mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired transport have been implicated in several major neurological disorders. Thus, research into energy-mediated regulation of mitochondrial recruitment and redistribution is an important emerging frontier. In this review, I discuss new insights into the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial trafficking and anchoring, and provide an updated overview of how mitochondrial motility maintains energy homeostasis in axons, thus contributing to neuronal growth, regeneration, and synaptic function.

  7. The Role of Plasmalemmal-Cortical Anchoring on the Stability of Transmembrane Electropores

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, S. M.; Ji, Z.; Rockweiler, N. B.; Hahn, A. R.; Booske, J. H.; Hagness, S. C.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of eukaryotic cells is maintained by a network of filamentous actin anchored subjacently to the plasma membrane. This structure is referred to as the actin cortex. We present a locally constrained surface tension model for electroporation in order to address the influence of plasmalemmal-cortical anchoring on electropore dynamics. This model predicts that stable electropores are possible under certain conditions. The existence of stable electropores has been suggested in several experimental studies. The electropore radius at which stability is achieved is a function of the characteristic radii of locally constrained regions about the plasma membrane. This model opens the possibility of using actin-modifying compounds to physically manipulate cortical density, thereby manipulating electroporation dynamics. It also underscores the need to improve electroporation models further by incorporating the influence of trans-electropore ionic and aqueous flow, cortical flexibility, transmembrane protein mobility, and active cellular wound healing mechanisms. PMID:20490371

  8. β-Carotene as a membrane antioxidant probed by cholesterol-anchored daidzein.

    PubMed

    Hu, Feng; Jia, Zhi-Yu; Liang, Ran; Wang, Peng; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H

    2014-09-01

    β-Carotene is found to be more effective as an antioxidant in phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes when protecting against hydrophilic radicals compared to lipophilic radicals, as measured by the rate of formation of conjugated dienes. Daidzein alone is without effect, but decreases the antioxidative effect of β-carotene for hydrophilic initiation and increases the effect for lipophilic initiation. The newly synthesized 7-cholesterylglycol daidzein has the opposite effect for β-carotene as antioxidant, with a strong enhancement for hydrophilic initiation and a slight decrease for lipophilic initiation. Redistributing β-carotene to membrane surfaces by cholesterol-anchoring of daidzein enhances protection against aqueous radicals significantly at the expense of protection against lipid-derived radicals. Anchoring of daidzein to cholesterol is concluded to be useful as a mechanistic tool for controlling antioxidant distribution in membranes sensitive to radical damage, as supported by quantum mechanical calculation within the density function theory and further supported by fluorescence probes and fluorescence polarization probes.

  9. Num1 anchors mitochondria to the plasma membrane via two domains with different lipid binding specificities

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Holly A.; Kraft, Lauren M.; Chen, WeiTing; Nilles, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondria–ER cortex anchor (MECA) is required for proper mitochondrial distribution and functions by tethering mitochondria to the plasma membrane. The core component of MECA is the multidomain protein Num1, which assembles into clusters at the cell cortex. We show Num1 adopts an extended, polarized conformation. Its N-terminal coiled-coil domain (Num1CC) is proximal to mitochondria, and the C-terminal pleckstrin homology domain is associated with the plasma membrane. We find that Num1CC interacts directly with phospholipid membranes and displays a strong preference for the mitochondria-specific phospholipid cardiolipin. This direct membrane interaction is critical for MECA function. Thus, mitochondrial anchoring is mediated by a protein that interacts directly with two different membranes through lipid-specific binding domains, suggesting a general mechanism for interorganelle tethering. PMID:27241910

  10. Synaptic transmission and plasticity require AMPA receptor anchoring via its N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jake F; Ho, Hinze; Greger, Ingo H

    2017-03-14

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and are selectively recruited during activity-dependent plasticity to increase synaptic strength. A prerequisite for faithful signal transmission is the positioning and clustering of AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. The mechanisms underlying this positioning have largely been ascribed to the receptor cytoplasmic C-termini and to AMPAR-associated auxiliary subunits, both interacting with the postsynaptic scaffold. Here, using mouse organotypic hippocampal slices, we show that the extracellular AMPAR N-terminal domain (NTD), which projects midway into the synaptic cleft, plays a fundamental role in this process. This highly sequence-diverse domain mediates synaptic anchoring in a subunit-selective manner. Receptors lacking the NTD exhibit increased mobility in synapses, depress synaptic transmission and are unable to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP). Thus, synaptic transmission and the expression of LTP are dependent upon an AMPAR anchoring mechanism that is driven by the NTD.

  11. Finite element analysis of bridge steel pedestal anchor bolts in reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan Hancock, B.; Hite Head, Monique

    2009-10-01

    Steel pedestals are short, column-like structures currently being used to elevate highway bridges to reduce the risk of collisions with over-height vehicles. Previous full-scale experimental research has been done to examine the efficacy of these steel pedestals and their components under quasi-static loading to evaluate any added instability in the event of an earthquake. As part of the Undergraduate Summer Research Grant (USRG) program at Texas A&M University, this specific project was focused on observing the behavior of the post-installed steel pedestal anchor bolts under applied shear and tensile loading using the finite element (FE) software Abaqus. The results from some of the preliminary analyses are compared to theoretical anchorage calculations with the aim of producing a benchmark for future steel pedestal anchor bolt embedment design. Future research improvements regarding FE modeling and structural design suggestions are proposed as well.

  12. Communication: Electrical rectification of C{sub 59}N: The role of anchoring and doping sites

    SciTech Connect

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader Stampfl, C.; Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P.

    2016-01-14

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism and density-functional theory, we investigate the onset of electrical rectification in a single C{sub 59}N molecule in conjunction with gold electrodes. Our calculations reveal that rectification is dependent upon the anchoring of the Au atom on C{sub 59}N; when the Au electrode is singly bonded to a C atom (labeled here as A), the system does not exhibit rectification, whereas when the electrode is connected to the C–C bridge site between two hexagonal rings (labeled here as B), transmission asymmetry is observed, where the rectification ratio reaches up to 2.62 at ±1 V depending on the N doping site relative to the anchoring site. Our analysis of the transmission mechanism shows that N doping of the B configuration causes rectification because more transmission channels are available for transmission in the B configuration than in the A configuration.

  13. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E. Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong; Ruiz, Bernardo; Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

  14. Subcutaneous anchor attachment increases retention of radio transmitters on Xantus' and marbled murrelets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Whitworth, Darrell L.; Burkett, Esther E.

    1999-01-01

    We modified a subcutaneous anchor attachment and achieved transmitter reten- tion times that exceeded those reported previously for other attachments used on alcids. Traditional suture and epoxy attachment methods were used on Xantus' Murrelets in 1995 and 1996, while the modified attachment was used for Xantus' Murrelets in 1996 and 1997 and Marbled Murrelets in 1997. Modifications included use of an inhalant anesthetic, placing the anchor in a more cranial position on the back, application of marine epoxy, and place- ment of a single subcutaneous non-absorbable suture at the caudal end of the radio to hold the radio in place initially. We located 22 of 56 (39%) Xantus' Murrelets radio-marked using suture and epoxy during aerial surveys in 1995 and 1996. Of birds radio-marked using the subcutaneous anchor attachment, we located 92 of 113 (81%) Xantus' Murrelets marked in 1996 and 1997 and all 28 (100%) Marbled Murrelets marked in 1997 during aerial surveys. The maximum confirmed duration for the subcutaneous anchor transmitter attachment was 51 d for Xantus' Murrelets and 78 d for Marbled Murrelets versus 41 d for the suture and epoxy attachment used on Xantus' Murrelets. Recapture rates of radio-marked Xantus' Mur- relets were similar to recapture rates of unmarked Xantus' Murrelets. Our post-release ob- servations indicated negligible short-term physical effects from the attachment procedure, while telemetry data and examination of recaptured murrelets indicated no evidence of infection or other long-term physical effects. Breeding behavior of some murrelets was not disrupted; however, further evaluation of potential effects of this attachment technique on breeding and behavior is needed.

  15. Self-anchoring mast for deploying a high-speed submersible mixer in a tank

    SciTech Connect

    Cato, Jr., Joseph E.; Shearer, Paul M.; Rodwell, Philip O.

    2004-10-12

    A self-anchoring mast for deploying a high-speed submersible mixer in a tank includes operably connected first and second mast members (20, 22) and a foot member 46 operably connected to the second mast member for supporting the mast in a tank. The second mast member includes a track (36, 38) for slidably receiving a bearing of the mixer to change the orientation of the mixer in the tank.

  16. Self-Anchoring Mast for Deploying a High-Speed Submersible Mixer in a Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Cato, Joseph E. Jr.; Shearer, Paul M.; Rodwell, Philip 0.

    2004-10-12

    A self-anchoring mast for deploying a high-speed submersible mixer in a tank includes operably connected first and second mast members (20, 22) and a foot member 46 operably connected to the second mast member for supporting the mast in a tank. The second mast member includes a track (36, 38) for slidably receiving a bearing of the mixer to change the orientation of the mixer in the tank.

  17. Cytodifferentiation in Tetrahymena vorax is linked to glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein assembly.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Ryals, P E

    1994-03-15

    The role of glycosyl-PtdIns (GPI)-anchored proteins in the cytodifferentiation of Tetrahymena vorax was examined. Labelling of cells with [3H]myristate or [3H]palmitate followed by electrophoresis showed an array of proteins carrying covalently bound lipids. Electrophoresis of protein from cells labelled with the GPI-anchor components [3H]Ins and [14C]ethanolamine revealed three polypeptides on fluorograms which have apparent molecular masses of approx. 28, 50 and 82 kDa. Labelled lipid associated with these polypeptides was susceptible to release by in vitro exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis PtdIns-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Using labelled fatty acids, cells induced to differentiate showed altered GPI-anchored protein-labelling patterns in comparison with undifferentiated control cells, with a heavily labelled 32 kDa band appearing upon differentiation. Pre-incubation of cells in 10 mM D-mannosamine, an inhibitor of GPI incorporation into protein, resulted in a reduction of the incorporation of label into the three GPI-anchored proteins, nearly complete inhibition of differentiation and a reduction in the rate of digestive vacuole formation. A 50% inhibition of differentiation was obtained using 500 microM mannosamine. The inhibitory impact of D-mannosamine on differentiation could be competitively and completely reversed by the inclusion of D-mannose, but not D-glucose. Neither glucosamine nor tunicamycin inhibited differentiation. Incubation of cells in PI-PLC (5 units/ml) plus the differentiation inducer resulted in an acceleration of differentiation and generally higher percentages of differentiated cells versus controls.

  18. Delirium screening anchored in child development: The Cornell Assessment for Pediatric Delirium

    PubMed Central

    SILVER, GABRIELLE; KEARNEY, JULIA; TRAUBE, CHANI; HERTZIG, MARGARET

    2016-01-01

    Objective The recently validated Cornell Assessment for Pediatric Delirium (CAPD) is a new rapid bedside nursing screen for delirium in hospitalized children of all ages. The present manuscript provides a “developmental anchor points” reference chart, which helps ground clinicians’ assessment of CAPD symptom domains in a developmental understanding of the presentation of delirium. Method During the development of this CAPD screening tool, it became clear that clinicians need specific guidance and training to help them draw on their expertise in child development and pediatrics to improve the interpretative reliability of the tool and its accuracy in diagnosing delirium. The developmental anchor points chart was formulated and reviewed by a multidisciplinary panel of experts to evaluate content validity and include consideration of sick behaviors within a hospital setting. Results The CAPD developmental anchor points for the key ages of newborn, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks, 28 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years served as the basis for training bedside nurses in scoring the CAPD for the validation trial and as a multifaceted bedside reference chart to be implemented within a clinical setting. In the current paper, we discuss the lessons learned during implementation, with particular emphasis on the importance of collaboration with the bedside nurse, the challenges of establishing a developmental baseline, and further questions about delirium diagnosis in children. Significance of Results The CAPD with developmental anchor points provides a validated, structured, and developmentally informed approach to screening and assessment of delirium in children. With minimal training on the use of the tool, bedside nurses and other pediatric practitioners can reliably identify children at risk for delirium. PMID:25127028

  19. Effects of flexoelectricity and weak anchoring on a Freedericksz transition cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mema, E.; Kondic, L.; Cummings, L. J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a mathematical model that consists of a nematic liquid crystal layer sandwiched between two parallel bounding plates, across which an external field is applied. We investigate how the number and type of solutions for the director orientation within the layer change as the field strength, anchoring conditions, and material properties of the nematic liquid crystal layer vary. In particular, we focus on how the inclusion of flexoelectric effects alters the Freedericksz and saturation thresholds.

  20. Surgical repair of isolated triceps tendon rupture using a suture anchor technique: a case report

    PubMed Central

    MANCINI, FEDERICO; BERNARDI, GABRIELE; DE LUNA, VINCENZO; TUDISCO, COSIMO

    2016-01-01

    Rupture or avulsion of the distal triceps tendon is one of the least common tendon injuries. The most common clinical presentation of the injury is avulsion from the olecranon. The diagnosis of acute triceps tendon rupture may be missed and this can result in prolonged disability. We report the case of a 42-year-old man with isolated triceps rupture treated by an open surgical repair technique involving the use of bone suture anchors. PMID:28217662

  1. Formation and properties of surface-anchored polymer assemblies with tunable physico-chemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao

    We describe two new methodologies leading to the formation of novel surface-anchored polymer assemblies on solid substrates. While the main goal is to understand the fundamentals pertaining to the preparation and properties of the surface-bound polymer assemblies (including neutral and chargeable polymers), several examples also are mentioned throughout the Thesis that point out to practical applications of such structures. The first method is based on generating assemblies comprising anchored polymers with a gradual variation of grafting densities on solid substrates. These structures are prepared by first covering the substrate with a molecular gradient of the polymerization initiator, followed by polymerization from these substrate-bound initiator centers ("grafting from"). We apply this technique to prepare grafting density gradients of poly(acryl amide) (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on silica-covered substrates. We show that using the grafting density gradient geometry, the characteristics of surface-anchored polymers in both the low grafting density ("mushroom") regime as well as the high grafting density ("brush") regime can be accessed conveniently on a single sample. We use a battery of experimental methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Near-edge absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), contact angle, ellipsometry, to study the characteristics of the surface-bound polymer layers. We also probe the scaling laws of neutral polymer as a function of grafting density, and for weak polyelectrolyte, in addition to the grafting density, we study the affect of solution ionic strength and pH values. In the second novel method, which we coined as "mechanically assisted polymer assembly" (MAPA), we form surface anchored polymers by "grafting from" polymerization initiators deposited on elastic surfaces that have been previously extended uniaxially by a certain length increment, Deltax. Upon releasing the strain in the

  2. A novel elastic optical path network that utilizes bitrate-specific anchored frequency slot arrangement.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-shu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Hirano, Akira

    2014-02-10

    We propose a novel elastic optical path network where each specific bitrate signal uses its own dedicated fixed grid and one edge of its frequency grid is anchored at a specific frequency. Numerical evaluations using various bitrate signal patterns and network topologies show that the network proposal can almost match the performance of conventional flexible grid networks, while greatly mitigating the hardware requirements: it allows the use of the tunable filters for the fixed grid systems.

  3. Anchoring-Induced Texture & Shear Banding of Nematic Polymers in Shear Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Other simulations highlight unsteady flow -nematic structures over 3 decades of the Ericksen number, comparisons of shear banding and texture features...qualitative features of the space-time attractor, are again strongly dependent on wall anchoring conditions. Other simulations highlight unsteady flow -nematic...the correlations between texture and flow lengthscales. A remarkable feature predicted by the model simulations reported here is the contrast in shear

  4. Structure of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored domain from a trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicola G; Nietlispach, Daniel; Sharma, Reuben; Burke, David F; Eyres, Isobel; Mues, Marsilius; Mott, Helen R; Carrington, Mark

    2008-02-08

    The cell surface of African trypanosomes is covered by a densely packed monolayer of a single protein, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). The VSG protects the trypanosome cell surface from effector molecules of the host immune system and is the mediator of antigenic variation. The sequence divergence between VSGs that is necessary for antigenic variation can only occur within the constraints imposed by the structural features necessary to form the monolayer barrier. Here, the structures of the two domains that together comprise the C-terminal di-domain of VSG ILTat1.24 have been determined. The first domain has a structure similar to the single C-terminal domain of VSG MITat1.2 and provides proof of structural conservation in VSG C-terminal domains complementing the conservation of structure present in the N-terminal domain. The second domain, although based on the same fold, is a minimized version missing several structural features. The structure of the second domain contains the C-terminal residue that in the native VSG is attached to a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that retains the VSG on the external face of the plasma membrane. The solution structures of this domain and a VSG GPI glycan have been combined to produce the first structure-based model of a GPI-anchored protein. The model suggests that the core glycan of the GPI anchor lies in a groove on the surface of the domain and that there is a close association between the GPI glycan and protein. More widely, the GPI glycan may be an integral part of the structure of other GPI-anchored proteins.

  5. Flank Hernia Repair with Suture Anchor Mesh Fixation to the Iliac Crest.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kaushik; Miller, Richard S

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic or postsurgical flank hernias are complex and prone to recurrence, particularly at the border of the iliac crest. We reviewed our experience using suture anchors drilled into the iliac crest to fixate the mesh to bone. Our study of 10 repairs in eight patients was Institutional Review Board exempt. We obtained demographics, body mass index, diabetes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) history, smoking status, steroid use, number of prior repairs, defect size, mesh size, number of anchors, and recurrence and infection at follow-up. We performed Kaplan-Meier analysis using a composite of recurrence or infection. Three of eight (interquartile range, 37.5%) patients were male. Median age and body mass index were 47.5 years (31.0, 54.7) and 32.2 (29.0, 36.0), respectively. Three patients had prior repairs, one each with two, three, and five prior attempts at fixation. One of eight patients (12.5%) had a history of MRSA infection. One of eight patients (12.5%) had a history of intermittent steroid use for sarcoidosis. Defect size was 90 cm2 (62.2, 165) and mesh size was 155 cm2 (150, 232) with four anchors (4, 5.5). Procedural complications included 2/10 (20%) with recurrence and 1/10 (10%) with postoperative MRSA infection. Follow-up was 12 months (3.0, 25.0). Mean freedom from recurrence and mesh infection (Kaplan-Meier) was 43.5 months (95%confidence interval = 24.2, 62.8). In conclusion, our series is one of the largest in the literature involving the suture anchor technique. Despite a high-risk patient population due to trauma, obesity, and prior smoking and MRSA history, we achieved an acceptable recurrence rate. Further study may benefit from a randomized trial design.

  6. Transport efficiency of membrane-anchored kinesin-1 motors depends on motor density and diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Grover, Rahul; Fischer, Janine; Schwarz, Friedrich W; Walter, Wilhelm J; Schwille, Petra; Diez, Stefan

    2016-11-15

    In eukaryotic cells, membranous vesicles and organelles are transported by ensembles of motor proteins. These motors, such as kinesin-1, have been well characterized in vitro as single molecules or as ensembles rigidly attached to nonbiological substrates. However, the collective transport by membrane-anchored motors, that is, motors attached to a fluid lipid bilayer, is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the influence of motors' anchorage to a lipid bilayer on the collective transport characteristics. We reconstituted "membrane-anchored" gliding motility assays using truncated kinesin-1 motors with a streptavidin-binding peptide tag that can attach to streptavidin-loaded, supported lipid bilayers. We found that the diffusing kinesin-1 motors propelled the microtubules in the presence of ATP. Notably, we found the gliding velocity of the microtubules to be strongly dependent on the number of motors and their diffusivity in the lipid bilayer. The microtubule gliding velocity increased with increasing motor density and membrane viscosity, reaching up to the stepping velocity of single motors. This finding is in contrast to conventional gliding motility assays where the density of surface-immobilized kinesin-1 motors does not influence the microtubule velocity over a wide range. We reason that the transport efficiency of membrane-anchored motors is reduced because of their slippage in the lipid bilayer, an effect that we directly observed using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Our results illustrate the importance of motor-cargo coupling, which potentially provides cells with an additional means of regulating the efficiency of cargo transport.

  7. Geometric nonlinear analysis of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges.

    PubMed

    Hui-Li, Wang; Yan-Bin, Tan; Si-Feng, Qin; Zhe, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Geometric nonlinearity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges is studied in this paper. The repercussion of shrinkage and creep of concrete, rise-to-span ratio, and girder camber on the system is discussed. A self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m is analyzed with linear theory, second-order theory, and nonlinear theory, respectively. In the condition of various rise-to-span ratios and girder cambers, the moments and displacements of both the girder and the pylon under live load are acquired. Based on the results it is derived that the second-order theory can be adopted to analyze a self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m, and the error is less than 6%. The shrinkage and creep of concrete impose a conspicuous impact on the structure. And it outmatches suspension bridges for system stiffness. As the rise-to-span ratio increases, the axial forces of the main cable and the girder decline. The system stiffness rises with the girder camber being employed.

  8. Two Membrane-Anchored Aspartic Proteases Contribute to Pollen and Ovule Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hui; Zhang, Yinghui; Wang, Wanlei; Zhao, Keke; Liu, Chunmei; Bai, Lin; Li, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Aspartic proteases are a class of proteolytic enzymes with conserved aspartate residues, which are implicated in protein processing, maturation, and degradation. Compared with yeast and animals, plants possess a larger aspartic protease family. However, little is known about most of these enzymes. Here, we characterized two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored aspartic protease genes, A36 and A39, which are highly expressed in pollen and pollen tubes. a36 and a36 a39 mutants display significantly reduced pollen activity. Transmission electron microscopy and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assays further revealed that the unviable pollen in a36 a39 may undergo unanticipated apoptosis-like programmed cell death. The degeneration of female gametes also occurred in a36 a39. Aniline Blue staining, scanning electron microscopy, and semi in vitro guidance assays indicated that the micropylar guidance of pollen tubes is significantly compromised in a36 a39. A36 and A39 that were fused with green fluorescent protein are localized to the plasma membrane and display punctate cytosolic localization and colocalize with the GPI-anchored protein COBRA-LIKE10. Furthermore, in a36 a39, the abundance of highly methylesterified homogalacturonans and xyloglucans was increased significantly in the apical pollen tube wall. These results indicate that A36 and A39, two putative GPI-anchored aspartic proteases, play important roles in plant reproduction in Arabidopsis. PMID:27872247

  9. Shell-anchor-core structures for enhanced stability and catalytic oxygen reduction activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Caballero, Gustavo E.; Hirunsit, Pussana; Balbuena, Perla B.

    2010-10-01

    Density functional theory is used to evaluate activity and stability properties of shell-anchor-core structures. The structures consist of a Pt surface monolayer and a composite core having an anchor bilayer where C atoms in the interstitial sites lock 3d metals in their locations, thus avoiding their surface segregation and posterior dissolution. The modified subsurface geometry induces less strain on the top surface, thus exerting a favorable effect on the surface catalytic activity where the adsorption strength of the oxygenated species becomes more moderate: weaker than on pure Pt(111) but stronger than on a Pt monolayer having a 3d metal subsurface. Here we analyze the effect of changing the nature of the 3d metal in the subsurface anchor bilayer, and we also test the use of a Pd monolayer instead of Pt on the surface. It is found that a subsurface constituted by two layers with an approximate composition of M2C (M=Fe, Ni, and Co) provides a barrier for the migration of subsurface core metal atoms to the surface. Consequently, an enhanced resistance against dissolution in parallel to improved oxygen reduction activity is expected, as given by the values of adsorption energies of reaction intermediates, delayed onset of water oxidation, and/or low coverage of oxygenated species at surface oxidation potentials.

  10. Investigation of a MMP-2 Activity-Dependent Anchoring Probe for Nuclear Imaging of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Temma, Takashi; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yonezawa, Aki; Kondo, Naoya; Sano, Kohei; Sakamoto, Takeharu; Seiki, Motoharu; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Since matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an important marker of tumor malignancy, we developed an original drug design strategy, MMP-2 activity dependent anchoring probes (MDAP), for use in MMP-2 activity imaging, and evaluated the usefulness of this probe in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We designed and synthesized MDAP1000, MDAP3000, and MDAP5000, which consist of 4 independent moieties: RI unit (111In hydrophilic chelate), MMP-2 substrate unit (short peptide), anchoring unit (alkyl chain), and anchoring inhibition unit (polyethylene glycol (PEGn; where n represents the approximate molecular weight, n = 1000, 3000, and 5000). Probe cleavage was evaluated by chromatography after MMP-2 treatment. Cellular uptake of the probes was then measured. Radioactivity accumulation in tumor xenografts was evaluated after intravenous injection of the probes, and probe cleavage was evaluated in tumor homogenates. Results MDAP1000, MDAP3000, and MDAP5000 were cleaved by MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. MDAP3000 pretreated with MMP-2 showed higher accumulation in tumor cells, and was completely blocked by additional treatment with an MMP inhibitor. MDAP3000 exhibited rapid blood clearance and a high tumor accumulation after intravenous injection in a rodent model. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that MDAP3000 exhibited a considerably slow washout rate from tumors to blood. A certain fraction of cleaved MDAP3000 existed in tumor xenografts in vivo. Conclusions The results indicate the possible usefulness of our MDAP strategy for tumor imaging. PMID:25010662

  11. The Impact of Colloidal Surface-Anchoring on the Smectic A Phase.

    PubMed

    Püschel-Schlotthauer, Sergej; Meiwes Turrión, Victor; Hall, Carol K; Mazza, Marco G; Schoen, Martin

    2017-03-07

    Liquid-crystalline phases are known for their unique properties, i.e., the combination of fluidity and long-range orientational and/or positional order. The presence of a colloidal particle gives rise to perturbations of this order locally. These perturbations are the origin of intercolloidal forces driving the colloidal self-assembly in a directed manner. Hence, the understanding of these perturbations is the first step in understanding and controlling the self-assembly process. Here, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the perturbations of orientational and positional order in a smectic A phase caused by a spherical colloid. We model the host phase via an interaction potential that reproduces characteristic features of phase behavior, structure, dynamics, and elasticity [S. Püschel-Schlotthauer et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 145, 164903]. For strong homeotropic anchoring conditions, we find a Saturn ring defect and an onion structure in the smectic A phase; the latter has never been reported for colloids so far. For strong planar anchoring conditions, we find Boojum defects that become elongated at low temperature, similar to what is observed in experiments. However, for weak planar anchoring conditions, a double surface ring defect is exhibited in the smectic A phase.

  12. Thermally induced anchoring of fullerene in copolymers with Si-bridging atom: Spectroscopic evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchiori, Cleber F. N.; Garcia-Basabe, Yunier; de A. Ribeiro, Fabio; Koehler, Marlus; Roman, Lucimara S.; Rocco, Maria Luiza M.

    2017-01-01

    We use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), resonant Auger spectroscopy (RAS), Attenuation Total Reflection Infrared (ATR-IR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to study the blend between the copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-dibenzosilole)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PSiF-DBT) and the fullerene derivative PC71BM submitted to different annealing temperatures. Those measurements indicate that there is an incidental anchoring of a fullerene derivative to the Si-bridging atoms of a copolymer induced by thermal annealing of the film. Insights about the physical properties of one possible PSiF-DBT/PC71BM anchored structure are obtained using Density Functional Theory calculations. Since the performance of organic photovoltaic based on polymer-fullerene blends depends on the chemical structure of the blend components, the anchoring effect might affect the photovoltaic properties of those devices.

  13. Diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins is influenced by the activity of dynamic cortical actin.

    PubMed

    Saha, Suvrajit; Lee, Il-Hyung; Polley, Anirban; Groves, Jay T; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2015-11-05

    Molecular diffusion at the surface of living cells is believed to be predominantly driven by thermal kicks. However, there is growing evidence that certain cell surface molecules are driven by the fluctuating dynamics of cortical cytoskeleton. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we measure the diffusion coefficient of a variety of cell surface molecules over a temperature range of 24-37 °C. Exogenously incorporated fluorescent lipids with short acyl chains exhibit the expected increase of diffusion coefficient over this temperature range. In contrast, we find that GPI-anchored proteins exhibit temperature-independent diffusion over this range and revert to temperature-dependent diffusion on cell membrane blebs, in cells depleted of cholesterol, and upon acute perturbation of actin dynamics and myosin activity. A model transmembrane protein with a cytosolic actin-binding domain also exhibits the temperature-independent behavior, directly implicating the role of cortical actin. We show that diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins also becomes temperature dependent when the filamentous dynamic actin nucleator formin is inhibited. However, changes in cortical actin mesh size or perturbation of branched actin nucleator Arp2/3 do not affect this behavior. Thus cell surface diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins and transmembrane proteins that associate with actin is driven by active fluctuations of dynamic cortical actin filaments in addition to thermal fluctuations, consistent with expectations from an "active actin-membrane composite" cell surface.

  14. Gastrotomy closure with a new tissue anchoring device: A porcine survival study

    PubMed Central

    Guarner-Argente, Carlos; Córdova, Henry; Martínez-Pallí, Graciela; Navarro-Ripoll, Ricard; Rodríguez-d’Jesús, Antonio; de Miguel, Cristina Rodríguez; Beltrán, Mireia; Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility and efficacy of a new tissue anchoring device in a porcine survival model. METHODS: Gastrotomies were performed using a needle-knife and balloon dilator in 10 female Yorkshire pigs weighing 30-35 kg. Gastric closure was attempted using a new tissue anchoring device. The tightness of the closure was confirmed by means of air insufflation and the ability to maintain gastric distension with stability in peritoneal pressure measured with a Veress needle. All animals were monitored daily for signs of peritonitis and sepsis over 14 d. During necropsy, the peritoneal cavity and the gastric access site were examined. RESULTS: Transgastric access, closure and 14 d survival was achieved in all pigs. The mean closure time was 18.1 ± 19.2 min and a mean of 2.1 ± 1 devices were used. Supplementary clips were necessary in 2 cases. The closure time was progressively reduced (24.8 ± 13.9 min in the first 5 pigs vs 11.4 ± 5.9 min in the last 5, P = NS). At necropsy, the gastric access site was correctly closed in all cases with all brace-bars present. One device was misplaced in the mesocolon. Minimal adhesions were observed in 3 pigs and signs of mild peritonitis and adhesions in one. CONCLUSIONS: The use of this new tissue anchoring device in porcine stomachs is feasible, reproducible and effective and requires a short learning curve. PMID:21483634

  15. Diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins is influenced by the activity of dynamic cortical actin

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Suvrajit; Lee, Il-Hyung; Polley, Anirban; Groves, Jay T.; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diffusion at the surface of living cells is believed to be predominantly driven by thermal kicks. However, there is growing evidence that certain cell surface molecules are driven by the fluctuating dynamics of cortical cytoskeleton. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we measure the diffusion coefficient of a variety of cell surface molecules over a temperature range of 24–37°C. Exogenously incorporated fluorescent lipids with short acyl chains exhibit the expected increase of diffusion coefficient over this temperature range. In contrast, we find that GPI-anchored proteins exhibit temperature-independent diffusion over this range and revert to temperature-dependent diffusion on cell membrane blebs, in cells depleted of cholesterol, and upon acute perturbation of actin dynamics and myosin activity. A model transmembrane protein with a cytosolic actin-binding domain also exhibits the temperature-independent behavior, directly implicating the role of cortical actin. We show that diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins also becomes temperature dependent when the filamentous dynamic actin nucleator formin is inhibited. However, changes in cortical actin mesh size or perturbation of branched actin nucleator Arp2/3 do not affect this behavior. Thus cell surface diffusion of GPI-anchored proteins and transmembrane proteins that associate with actin is driven by active fluctuations of dynamic cortical actin filaments in addition to thermal fluctuations, consistent with expectations from an “active actin-membrane composite” cell surface. PMID:26378258

  16. Modeling and structure function analysis of the putative anchor site of yeast telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Lue, Neal F.; Li, Zhaohui

    2007-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase responsible for extending one strand of the telomere terminal repeats. Unique among reverse transcriptases, telomerase is thought to possess a DNA-binding domain (known as anchor site) that allows the enzyme to add telomere repeats processively. Previous crosslinking and mutagenesis studies have mapped the anchor site to an N-terminal region of TERT, and the structure of this region of Tetrahymena TERT was recently determined at atomic resolutions. Here we use a combination of homology modeling, electrostatic calculation and site-specific mutagenesis analysis to identify a positively charged, functionally important surface patch on yeast TERT. This patch is lined by both conserved and non-conserved residues, which when mutated, caused loss of telomerase processivity in vitro and telomere shortening in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that a point mutation in this domain of yeast TERT simultaneously enhanced the repeat addition processivity of telomerase and caused telomere elongation. Our data argue that telomerase anchor site has evolved species-specific residues to interact with species-specific telomere repeats. The data also reinforce the importance of telomerase processivity in regulating telomere length. PMID:17670795

  17. PAQR3 modulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP complex to the Golgi apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Daqian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yuxue; Jiang, Wei; Pan, Yi; Song, Bao-Liang; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by transcription factors SREBPs and their escort protein Scap. On sterol depletion, Scap/SREBP complex is transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where SREBP is activated. Under cholesterol sufficient condition, Insigs act as anchor proteins to retain Scap/SREBP in the ER. However, the anchor protein of Scap/SREBP in the Golgi is unknown. Here we report that a Golgi-localized membrane protein progestin and adipoQ receptors 3 (PAQR3) interacts with Scap and SREBP and tethers them to the Golgi. PAQR3 promotes Scap/SREBP complex formation, potentiates SREBP processing and enhances lipid synthesis. The mutually exclusive interaction between Scap and PAQR3 or Insig-1 is regulated by cholesterol level. PAQR3 knockdown in liver blunts SREBP pathway and decreases hepatic cholesterol content. Disrupting the interaction of PAQR3 with Scap/SREBP by a synthetic peptide inhibits SREBP processing and activation. Thus, PAQR3 regulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP to the Golgi and disruption of such function reduces cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:26311497

  18. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of liquid crystal particulate flow in a channel with finite anchoring boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Roberts, Tyler; de Pablo, Juan; dePablo Team

    2014-11-01

    Liquid crystals (LC) posses anisotropic viscoelastic properties, and, as such, LC flow can be incredibly complicated. Here we employ a hybrid lattice Boltzmann method (pioneered by Deniston, Yeomans and Cates) to systematically study the hydrodynamics of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) with and without solid particles. This method evolves the velocity field through lattice Boltzmann and the LC-order parameter via a finite-difference solver of the Beris-Edwards equation. The evolution equation of the boundary points with finite anchoring is obtained through Poisson bracket formulation. Our method has been validated by matching the Ericksen-Leslie theory. We demonstrate two applications in the flow alignment regime. We first investigate a hybrid channel flow in which the top and bottom walls have different anchoring directions. By measuring the apparent shear viscosity in terms of Couette flow, we achieve a viscosity inhomogeneous system which may be applicable to nano particle processing. In the other example, we introduce a homeotropic spherical particle to the channel, and focus on the deformations of the defect ring due to anchorings and flow. The results are then compared to the molecular dynamics simulations of a colloid particle in an LC modeled by a Gay-Berne potential.

  19. TFPIβ is the GPI-anchored TFPI isoform on human endothelial cells and placental microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Thomas J.; Tuley, Elodee

    2012-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) produces factor Xa-dependent feedback inhibition of factor VIIa/tissue factor-induced coagulation. Messages for 2 isoforms of TFPI have been identified. TFPIα mRNA encodes a protein with an acidic N-terminus, 3 Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domains and a basic C-terminus that has been purified from plasma and culture media. TFPIβ mRNA encodes a form in which the Kunitz-3 and C-terminal domains of TFPIα are replaced with an alternative C-terminus that directs the attachment of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, but whether TFPIβ protein is actually expressed is not clear. Moreover, previous studies have suggested that the predominant form of TFPI released from cells by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) treatment is TFPIα, implying it is bound at cell surfaces to a separate GPI-anchored coreceptor. Our studies show that the form of TFPI released by PIPLC treatment of cultured endothelial cells and placental microsomes is actually TFPIβ based on (1) migration on SDS-PAGE before and after deglycosylation, (2) the lack of a Kunitz-3 domain, and (3) it contains a GPI anchor. Immunoassays demonstrate that, although endothelial cells secrete TFPIα, greater than 95% of the TFPI released by PIPLC treatment from the surface of endothelial cells and from placental microsomes is TFPIβ. PMID:22144186

  20. Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. ); Rafalski, A. )

    1994-03-15

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR), or microsatellites, are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Here the authors demonstrate the utility of microsatellite-directed DNA fingerprinting by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the interrepeat region. No sequencing is required to design the oligonucleotide primers. They tested primers anchored at 3[prime] or 5[prime] termini of the (A)[sub n] repeats, extended into the flanking sequence by 2 to 4 nucleotide residues [3[prime]-anchored primers: (CA)[sub 8]RG, (CA)[sub 8]RY, and (CA)[sub 7]RTCY; and 5[prime]-anchored primers: BDB(CA)[sub 7]C, DBDA(CA)[sub 7], VHVG(TG)[sub 7] and HVH(TG)[sub 7]T]. Radioactively labeled amplification products were analyzed by electrophoresis, revealing information on multiple genomic loci in a single gel lane. Complex, species-specific patterns were obtained from a variety of eukaryotic taxa. Intraspecies polymorphisms were also observed and shown to segregate as Mendelian markers. Inter-SSR PCR provides a novel fingerprinting approach applicable for taxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons and as a mapping tool in a wide range of organisms. This application of (CA)[sub n] repeats may be extended to different microsatellites and other common dispersed elements. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Identification of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor-modifying β1-3 galactosyltransferase in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Luis; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Mehlert, Angela; Ferguson, Michael AJ

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and the cattle disease nagana.  Trypanosoma brucei is dependent on glycoproteins for its survival and infectivity throughout its life cycle. Here we report the functional characterization of TbGT3, a glycosyltransferase expressed in the bloodstream and procyclic form of the parasite. Bloodstream and procyclic form TbGT3 conditional null mutants were created and both exhibited normal growth under permissive and nonpermissive conditions. Under nonpermissive conditions, the normal glycosylation of the major glycoprotein of bloodstream form T. brucei, the variant surface glycoprotein and the absence of major alterations in lectin binding to other glycoproteins suggested that the major function of TbGT3 occurs in the procyclic form of the parasite. Consistent with this, the major surface glycoprotein of the procyclic form, procyclin, exhibited a marked reduction in molecular weight due to changes in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor side chains. Structural analysis of the mutant procyclin GPI anchors indicated that TbGT3 encodes a UDP-Gal: β-GlcNAc-GPI β1-3 Gal transferase. Despite the alterations in GPI anchor side chains, TbGT3 conditional null mutants remained infectious to tsetse flies under nonpermissive conditions. PMID:25467966

  2. Combination probes with intercalating anchors and proximal fluorophores for DNA and RNA detection

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jieqiong; Wilson, Adam; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom

    2016-01-01

    A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e.g. ROX, HEX, ATTO647N, FAM) whose fluorescence signal can be monitored on a range of analytical devices. Direct excitation of the reporter dye provides an alternative signalling mechanism. In both signalling modes, fluorescence in the unhybridised probe is switched off by collisional quenching between adjacent intercalator and reporter dyes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA and RNA targets are identified by differences in the duplex melting temperature, and the use of short hybridization probes, made possible by the stabilisation provided by the intercalator, enhances mismatch discrimination. Unlike other fluorogenic probe systems, placing the fluorophore and quencher on the same nucleobase facilitates the design of short probes containing multiple modifications. The ability to detect both DNA and RNA sequences suggests applications in cellular imaging and diagnostics. PMID:27369379

  3. An anchor-dependent molecular docking process for docking small flexible molecules into rigid protein receptors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Thy-Hou; Lin, Guan-Liang

    2008-08-01

    A molecular docking method designated as ADDock, anchor-dependent molecular docking process for docking small flexible molecules into rigid protein receptors, is presented in this article. ADDock makes the bond connection lists for atoms based on anchors chosen for building molecular structures for docking small flexible molecules or ligands into rigid active sites of protein receptors. ADDock employs an extended version of piecewise linear potential for scoring the docked structures. Since no translational motion for small molecules is implemented during the docking process, ADDock searches the best docking result by systematically changing the anchors chosen, which are usually the single-edge connected nodes or terminal hydrogen atoms of ligands. ADDock takes intact ligand structures generated during the docking process for computing the docked scores; therefore, no energy minimization is required in the evaluation phase of docking. The docking accuracy by ADDock for 92 receptor-ligand complexes docked is 91.3%. All these complexes have been docked by other groups using other docking methods. The receptor-ligand steric interaction energies computed by ADDock for some sets of active and inactive compounds selected and docked into the same receptor active sites are apparently separated. These results show that based on the steric interaction energies computed between the docked structures and receptor active sites, ADDock is able to separate active from inactive compounds for both being docked into the same receptor.

  4. PAQR3 modulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP complex to the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Daqian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yuxue; Jiang, Wei; Pan, Yi; Song, Bao-Liang; Chen, Yan

    2015-08-27

    Cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by transcription factors SREBPs and their escort protein Scap. On sterol depletion, Scap/SREBP complex is transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus where SREBP is activated. Under cholesterol sufficient condition, Insigs act as anchor proteins to retain Scap/SREBP in the ER. However, the anchor protein of Scap/SREBP in the Golgi is unknown. Here we report that a Golgi-localized membrane protein progestin and adipoQ receptors 3 (PAQR3) interacts with Scap and SREBP and tethers them to the Golgi. PAQR3 promotes Scap/SREBP complex formation, potentiates SREBP processing and enhances lipid synthesis. The mutually exclusive interaction between Scap and PAQR3 or Insig-1 is regulated by cholesterol level. PAQR3 knockdown in liver blunts SREBP pathway and decreases hepatic cholesterol content. Disrupting the interaction of PAQR3 with Scap/SREBP by a synthetic peptide inhibits SREBP processing and activation. Thus, PAQR3 regulates cholesterol homeostasis by anchoring Scap/SREBP to the Golgi and disruption of such function reduces cholesterol biosynthesis.

  5. Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Self-Anchored Cable-Stayed Suspension Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Hui-Li, Wang; Yan-Bin, Tan; Si-Feng, Qin; Zhe, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Geometric nonlinearity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges is studied in this paper. The repercussion of shrinkage and creep of concrete, rise-to-span ratio, and girder camber on the system is discussed. A self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m is analyzed with linear theory, second-order theory, and nonlinear theory, respectively. In the condition of various rise-to-span ratios and girder cambers, the moments and displacements of both the girder and the pylon under live load are acquired. Based on the results it is derived that the second-order theory can be adopted to analyze a self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m, and the error is less than 6%. The shrinkage and creep of concrete impose a conspicuous impact on the structure. And it outmatches suspension bridges for system stiffness. As the rise-to-span ratio increases, the axial forces of the main cable and the girder decline. The system stiffness rises with the girder camber being employed. PMID:24282388

  6. Tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Zishun; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2016-03-01

    Cell adhesion plays a crucial role in many biological processes of cells, e.g., immune responses, tissue morphogenesis, and stem cell differentiation. An essential problem in the molecular mechanism of cell adhesion is to characterize the binding affinity of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands under different physiological conditions. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented to study the binding affinity between a large number of anchored receptors and ligands under both tensile and compressive stresses, and corroborated by demonstrating excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that the binding affinity becomes lower as the magnitude of the applied stress increases, and drops to zero at a critical tensile or compressive stress. Interestingly, the critical compressive stress is found to be substantially smaller than the critical tensile stress for relatively long and flexible receptor-ligand complexes. This counterintuitive finding is explained by using the Euler instability theory of slender columns under compression. The tension-compression asymmetry in the binding affinity of anchored receptors and ligands depends subtly on the competition between the breaking and instability of their complexes. This study helps in understanding the role of mechanical forces in cell adhesion mediated by specific binding molecules.

  7. Novel cancer vaccines prepared by anchoring cytokines to tumor cells avoiding gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizard, Philippe; Gross, David-Alexandre; Chenal, Alexandre; Beaumelle, Bruno; Kosmatopoulos, Konstadinos; Gillet, Daniel

    2002-06-01

    Cytokines have a strong potential for triggering anticancer immunity if released in the tumor microenvironment. Successful vaccines have been engineered using tumor cells genetically modified to secrete the cytokines. Unfortunately, this approach remains difficult and hazardous to perform in the clinic. We describe a new way of combining cytokines with tumor cells to prepare anticancer vaccines. This consists in anchoring recombinant cytokines to the membrane of killed tumor cells. Attachment is mediated by a fragment of diphtheria toxin (T) genetically connected to the cytokine. It is triggered by an acid pH pulse. The method was applied to IL-2, a potent anti-tumor cytokine. IL-2 anchored to the surface of tumor cells by the T anchor retained its IL-2 activity and remained exposed several days. Interestingly, vaccination of mice with these modified tumor cells induced a protective anti-tumor immunity mediated by tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This procedure presents several advantages as compared to the conventional approaches based on the transfection of tumor cells with cytokine genes. It does not require the culture of tumor cells from the patients and eliminates the safety problems connected with viral vectors while allowing the control of the amount of cytokines delivered with the vaccine.

  8. Surgical repair of central slip avulsion injuries with Mitek bone anchor--retrospective analysis of a case series.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y; Purcell, Elizabeth M; Kelly, John L

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our technique of central slip repair using the Mitek bone anchor and to evaluate the treatment outcome. Eight digits in eight patients were reconstructed using the bone anchor: three little fingers, two middle fingers, two index fingers and one ring finger. There were two immediate and six delayed repairs (range from one day to eight months). Four patients had pre-operative intensive splinting and physiotherapy to restore passive extension of the proximal interphalangeal joint prior to central slip reconstruction. All patients have made good progress since surgery. No patient requires a second procedure and none of the bone anchors have dislodged or loosened. We conclude that the Mitek bone anchor is a reliable technique to achieve soft tissue to bone fixation in central slip avulsion injuries. We recommend that this technique be considered as a treatment option for patients requiring surgical repair.

  9. Do the dimensions of the distal phalanges allow suture anchor fixation of the flexor digitorum profundus? A cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Jain, D K; Kakarala, G; Compson, J; Singh, R

    2011-10-01

    This study was done to identify whether the dimensions of the distal phalanges allow suture anchor fixation of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon. Forty pairs of hands were dissected to measure the anteroposterior and lateral dimensions of distal phalanges of all digits. The mean anteroposterior depth of the distal phalanx at the insertion of the tendon was found to be 4.7 mm for the little finger, 5.4 mm for the ring finger, 5.9 mm for the middle finger, 5.4 mm for the index finger and 6.9 mm for the thumb respectively. The commonly available anchors and drill bits for fingers were found to be suboptimal for anchoring the flexor digitorum profundus tendon to the distal phalanx of the little finger. The drill bits used for these anchors were found to be too long for the little fingers and some ring and index fingers.

  10. Development of mooring-anchor program in public domain for coupling with floater program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, MooHyun

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the development of offshore anchor data sets which are intended to be used to develop a database that allows preliminary selection and sizing of anchors for the conceptual design of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs). The study is part of a project entitled “Development of Mooring-Anchor Program in Public Domain for Coupling with Floater Program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)”, under the direction of Dr. Moo-Hyun Kim at the Texas A&M University and with the sponsorship from the US Department of Energy (Contract No. DE-EE0005479, CFDA # 81.087 for DE-FOA-0000415, Topic Area 1.3: Subsurface Mooring and Anchoring Dynamics Models).

  11. Determination of the non-ionic detergent insolubility and phosphoprotein associations of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins expressed on T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Mallory, M A; Finberg, R W

    1998-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are poorly solublized in non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 and Nonidet P40, but are easily solublized by detergents with high critical micelle concentrations such as octylglucoside. This solubility profile has been suggested to be due to the localization of GPI-anchored proteins to lipid microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Additionally, GPI-anchored proteins expressed on haemopoietic cells have been shown to associate with src-family tyrosine kinases and heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite these observations, the non-ionic detergent insolubility of GPI-anchored proteins on haemopoietic cells has not been quantified nor has a relationship between the non-ionic detergent insolubility of these proteins and their association with signal-transduction molecules been identified. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins found on T-cell tumours and activated T cells, although significantly more insoluble then transmembrane proteins, are not uniform in their detergent insolubility. Whereas CD59 was between 4% and 13% soluble, CD48 was between 13% and 25% soluble, CD55 was between 20% and 30% soluble, and CD109 was between 34% and 75% soluble. The ability of these GPI-anchored proteins to associate with phosphoproteins was correlated with their detergent insolubility: the more detergent-insoluble that a GPI-anchored protein was, the greater the level of phosphoprotein associations. These experiments reveal a relationship between non-ionic detergent insolubility and association with signal-transduction molecules and suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between these two properties. In total, these experiments support the hypothesis that the association of GPI-anchored proteins with signalling molecules is due to their sorting to lipid microdomains. PMID:9716490

  12. ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO3-LDH particles as fluorescent probe for sensing of folic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Dan; Liu, Yanhuan; Li, Lei

    2016-09-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for detecting folic acid (FA) in aqueous media has been developed based on 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (ANTS) anchored to the surface of Zn-Al-CO3-layered double hydroxides (LDH) particles. The nanosensor showed high fluorescence intensity and good photostability due to a strong coordination interaction between surface Zn2+ ions of Zn-Al-CO3-LDH and N atoms of ANTS, which were verified by result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ANTS-anchored on the surface of Zn-Al-CO3-LDH restricted the intra-molecular rotation leading to ANTS-anchored J-type aggregation emission enhancement. ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO3-LDH particles exhibited highly sensitive and selective response to FA over other common metal ions and saccharides present in biological fluids. The proposed mechanism was that oxygen atoms of -SO3 groups in ANTS-anchored on the surface of Zn-Al-CO3-LDH were easily collided by FA molecules to form potential hydrogen bonds between ANTS-anchored and FA molecules, which could effectively quench the ANTS-anchored fluorescence. Under the simulated physiological conditions (pH of 7.4), the fluorescence quenching was fitted to Stern-Volmer equation with a linear response in the concentration range of 1 μM to 200 μM with a limit of detection of 0.1 μM. The results indicate that ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO3-LDH particles can afford a very sensitive system for the sensing FA in aqueous solution.

  13. Determination of the non-ionic detergent insolubility and phosphoprotein associations of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins expressed on T cells.

    PubMed

    Solomon, K R; Mallory, M A; Finberg, R W

    1998-09-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are poorly solublized in non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 and Nonidet P40, but are easily solublized by detergents with high critical micelle concentrations such as octylglucoside. This solubility profile has been suggested to be due to the localization of GPI-anchored proteins to lipid microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Additionally, GPI-anchored proteins expressed on haemopoietic cells have been shown to associate with src-family tyrosine kinases and heterotrimeric G proteins. Despite these observations, the non-ionic detergent insolubility of GPI-anchored proteins on haemopoietic cells has not been quantified nor has a relationship between the non-ionic detergent insolubility of these proteins and their association with signal-transduction molecules been identified. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins found on T-cell tumours and activated T cells, although significantly more insoluble then transmembrane proteins, are not uniform in their detergent insolubility. Whereas CD59 was between 4% and 13% soluble, CD48 was between 13% and 25% soluble, CD55 was between 20% and 30% soluble, and CD109 was between 34% and 75% soluble. The ability of these GPI-anchored proteins to associate with phosphoproteins was correlated with their detergent insolubility: the more detergent-insoluble that a GPI-anchored protein was, the greater the level of phosphoprotein associations. These experiments reveal a relationship between non-ionic detergent insolubility and association with signal-transduction molecules and suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between these two properties. In total, these experiments support the hypothesis that the association of GPI-anchored proteins with signalling molecules is due to their sorting to lipid microdomains.

  14. Surface display of heterologous proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis using a peptidoglycan hydrolase anchor

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xiaohu; Jiang, Mengtian; Yu, Ziniu; Cai, Hao; Li, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies have revealed that the lysin motif (LysM) domains of bacterial cell wall-degrading enzymes are able to bind to peptidoglycan moieties of the cell wall. This suggests an approach for a cell surface display system in Gram-positive bacteria using a LysM-containing protein as the anchoring motif. In this study, we developed a new surface display system in B. thuringiensis using a LysM-containing peptidoglycan hydrolase, endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Mbg), as the anchor protein. Results Homology searching in the B. thuringiensis YBT-1520 genome revealed a putative peptidoglycan hydrolase gene. The encoded protein, Mbg, exhibited substantial cell-wall binding capacity. The deduced amino acid sequence of Mbg was structurally distinguished as an N-terminal domain with two tandemly aligned LysMs and a C-terminal catalytic domain. A GFP-fusion protein was expressed and used to verify the surface localization by Western blot, flow cytometry, protease accessibility, SDS sensitivity, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy assays. Low-level constitutive expression of Mbg was elevated by introducing a sporulation-independent promoter of cry3Aa. Truncated Mbg domains with separate N-terminus (Mbgn), C-terminus (Mbgc), LysM1, or LysM2 were further compared for their cell-wall displaying efficiencies. The Mbgn moiety contributed to cell-wall anchoring, while LysM1 was the active domain. Two tandemly repeated Mbgns exhibited the highest display activity, while the activity of three repeated Mbgns was decreased. A heterologous bacterial multicopper oxidase (WlacD) was successfully displayed onto the surface of B. thuringiensis target cells using the optimum (Mbgn)2 anchor, without radically altering its catalytic activity. Conclusion Mbg can be a functional anchor protein to target different heterologous proteins onto the surface of B. thuringiensis cells. Since the LysM domain appears to be universal in Gram-positive bacteria, the strategy

  15. Anchor Plate Efficiency in Postoperative Orthodontic Treatment Following Orthognathic Surgery via Minimal Presurgical Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Tae-Min; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Song, Seung-Il

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The efficiency of an anchor plate placed during orthognathic surgery via minimal presurgical orthodontic treatment was evaluated by analyzing the mandibular relapse rate and dental changes. Methods: The subjects included nine patients with Class III malocclusion who had bilateral sagittal split osteotomy at the Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Dentistry in Ajou University Hospital, after minimal presurgical orthodontic treatment. During orthognathic surgery, anchor plates were placed at both maxillary buttresses. The anchor plates were used to move maxillary teeth backward and for maximum anchorage of Class III elastics to minimize mandibular relapse during the postoperative orthodontic treatment. The lateral cephalometric X-ray was taken preoperatively (T0), postoperatively (T1), and one year after the surgery (T2). Seven measurements (distance from Pogonion to line Nasion-Nasion perpendicular [Pog-N Per.], angle of line B point-Nasion and Nasion-Sella [SNB], angle of line maxilla 1 root-maxilla 1 crown and Nasion-Sella [U1 to SN], distance from maxilla 1 crown to line A point-Nasion [U1 to NA], overbite, overjet, and interincisal angle) were taken. Measurements at T0 to T1 and T1 to T2 were compared and differences tested by standard statistical methods. Results: The mean skeletal change was posterior movement by 13.87±4.95 mm based on pogonion from T0 to T1, and anterior movement by 1.54±2.18 mm from T1 to T2, showing relapse of about 10.2%. There were significant changes from T0 to T1 for both Pog-N Per. and SNB (P <0.05). However, there were no statistically significant changes from T1 to T2 for both Pog-N Per. and SNB. U1 to NA that represents the anterior-posterior changes of maxillary incisor did not differ from T0 to T1, yet there was a significant change from T1 to T2 (P <0.05). Conclusion: This study found that the anchor plate minimizes mandibular relapse and moves the maxillary teeth backward during the postoperative

  16. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of a self-stabilized synthetic flavin anchored on a TiO2 surface.

    PubMed

    Pandiri, Manjula; Hossain, Mohammad S; Foss, Frank W; Rajeshwar, Krishnan; Paz, Yaron

    2016-07-21

    Synthetic flavin molecules were anchored on Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (TiO2). The effect of their presence on the photocatalytic (PC) activity of TiO2 was studied. Under UV light, an increase in the degradation rate of ethanol was observed. This increase was accompanied by stabilization of the anchored flavin against self-degradation. The unprecedented stabilization effect was found also in the absence of a reducing agent such as ethanol. In contrast, under the less energetic visible light, fast degradation of the anchored flavin was observed. These rather surprising observations were attributed to the propensity for charge transport from excited flavin molecules to the semiconductor and to the role that such charge transfer may play in stabilizing the overall assembly. Anchored flavins excited by UV light to their S2, S3 electronic states were able to transfer the excited electrons to the TiO2 phase whereas anchored flavin molecules that were excited by visible light to the S1 state were less likely to transfer the photo-excited electrons and therefore were destabilized. These findings may be relevant not only to anchored flavins in general but to other functionalized photocatalysts, and may open up new vistas in the implementation of sensitizers in PC systems.

  17. Magnetic-field-induced stepwise director reorientation and untwisting of a planar cholesteric structure with finite anchoring energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhlevnykh, A. N.; Shavkunov, V. S.

    2016-10-01

    Within the continuum approach we study the equilibrium configurations of a cholesteric liquid crystal confined between two parallel plates, when a magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the plates. We analyze the role of soft anchoring boundary conditions on magnetic-field-induced cholesteric-nematic transitions in a finite thickness cholesteric cell, treated to induce soft planar alignment. We study the stepwise behavior of cholesteric pitch as a function of the anchoring energy, the thickness of a layer, and the field strength. We analyze some kinds of soft anchoring potentials, including the case of degeneration of the easy axes. We show that the variation of the thickness or intrinsic pitch induces the the stepwise behavior of a pitch of the planar cholesteric structure, and the stepwise variations of the average tensor of diamagnetic susceptibility. The values of these jumps are determined by the anchoring energy. We find the values of critical parameters for the transitions between planar and confocal cholesteric states, and homeotropic nematic state. We show that the variation of the anchoring energy leads to change of the phase transition character; the conditions for hysteresis behavior are obtained. We show that for rather soft anchoring the confocal state is metastable, and the increase of a magnetic field leads to the direct transition between the planar cholesteric and homeotropic nematic phases. We also give a detailed derivation of the threshold and saturation properties of planar cholesteric to homeotropic nematic transition.

  18. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins are preferentially targeted to the basolateral surface in Fischer rat thyroid epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) acts as an apical targeting signal in MDCK cells and other kidney and intestinal cell lines. In striking contrast with these model polarized cell lines, we show here that Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) epithelial cells do not display a preferential apical distribution of GPI-anchored proteins. Six out of nine detectable endogenous GPI-anchored proteins were localized on the basolateral surface, whereas two others were apical and one was not polarized. Transfection of several model GPI proteins, previously shown to be apically targeted in MDCK cells, also led to unexpected results. While the ectodomain of decay accelerating factor (DAF) was apically secreted, 50% of the native, GPI-anchored form, of this protein was basolateral. Addition of a GPI anchor to the ectodomain of Herpes simplex gD-1, secreted without polarity, led to basolateral localization of the fusion protein, gD1-DAF. Targeting experiments demonstrated that gD1-DAF was delivered vectorially from the Golgi apparatus to the basolateral surface. These results indicate that FRT cells have fundamental differences with MDCK cells with regard to the mechanisms for sorting GPI-anchored proteins: GPI is not an apical signal but, rather, it behaves as a basolateral signal. The "mutant" behavior of FRT cells may provide clues to the nature of the mechanisms that sort GPI-anchored proteins in epithelial cells. PMID:7684737

  19. A mutant cytochrome b5 with a lengthened membrane anchor escapes from the endoplasmic reticulum and reaches the plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Pedrazzini, E; Villa, A; Borgese, N

    1996-01-01

    Many resident membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) do not have known retrieval sequences. Among these are the so-called tail-anchored proteins, which are bound to membranes by a hydrophobic tail close to the C terminus and have most of their sequence as a cytosolically exposed N-terminal domain. Because ER tail-anchored proteins generally have short (< or = 17 residues) hydrophobic domains, we tested whether this feature is important for localization, using cytochrome b5 as a model. The hydrophobic domain of cytochrome b5 was lengthened by insertion of five amino acids (ILAAV), and the localization of the mutant was analyzed by immunofluorescence in transiently transfected mammalian cells. While the wild-type cytochrome was localized to the ER, the mutant was relocated to the surface. This relocation was not due to the specific sequence introduced, as demonstrated by the ER localization of a second mutant, in which the original length of the membrane anchor was restored, while maintaining the inserted ILAAV sequence. Experiments with brefeldin A and with cycloheximide demonstrated that the extended anchor mutant reached the plasma membrane by transport along the secretory pathway. We conclude that the short membrane anchor of cytochrome b5 is important for its ER residency, and we discuss the relevance of this finding for other ER tail-anchored proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8633042

  20. Magnetic-field-induced stepwise director reorientation and untwisting of a planar cholesteric structure with finite anchoring energy.

    PubMed

    Zakhlevnykh, A N; Shavkunov, V S

    2016-10-01

    Within the continuum approach we study the equilibrium configurations of a cholesteric liquid crystal confined between two parallel plates, when a magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the plates. We analyze the role of soft anchoring boundary conditions on magnetic-field-induced cholesteric-nematic transitions in a finite thickness cholesteric cell, treated to induce soft planar alignment. We study the stepwise behavior of cholesteric pitch as a function of the anchoring energy, the thickness of a layer, and the field strength. We analyze some kinds of soft anchoring potentials, including the case of degeneration of the easy axes. We show that the variation of the thickness or intrinsic pitch induces the the stepwise behavior of a pitch of the planar cholesteric structure, and the stepwise variations of the average tensor of diamagnetic susceptibility. The values of these jumps are determined by the anchoring energy. We find the values of critical parameters for the transitions between planar and confocal cholesteric states, and homeotropic nematic state. We show that the variation of the anchoring energy leads to change of the phase transition character; the conditions for hysteresis behavior are obtained. We show that for rather soft anchoring the confocal state is metastable, and the increase of a magnetic field leads to the direct transition between the planar cholesteric and homeotropic nematic phases. We also give a detailed derivation of the threshold and saturation properties of planar cholesteric to homeotropic nematic transition.

  1. Effect of surface viscosity, anchoring energy, and cell gap on the response time of nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, R.F. de; Yang, D.-Ke; Lenzi, E.K.; Evangelista, L.R.; Zola, R.S.

    2014-07-15

    An analytical expression for the relaxation time of a nematic liquid crystal is obtained for the first time by considering the influence of surface viscosity, anchoring energy strength and cell gap, validated numerically by using the so-called relaxation method. This general equation for the molecular response time (τ{sub 0}) was derived for a vertical aligned cell and by solving an eigenvalue equation coming from the usual balance of torque equation in the Derzhanskii and Petrov formulation, recovering the usual equations in the appropriate limit. The results show that τ∼d{sup b}, where b=2 is observed only for strongly anchored cells, while for moderate to weak anchored cells, the exponent lies between 1 and 2, depending on both, surface viscosity and anchoring strength. We found that the surface viscosity is important when calculating the response time, specially for thin cells, critical for liquid crystal devices. The surface viscosity’s effect on the optical response time with pretilt is also explored. Our results bring new insights about the role of surface viscosity and its effects in applied physics. - Highlights: • The relaxation of nematic liquid crystals is calculated by taking the surface viscosity into account. • An analytical expression for the relaxation time depending on surface viscosity, anchoring strength and cell gap is obtained. • The results are numerically verified. • Surface viscosity is crucial for thin and weak anchored cells. • The effect on optical time and pretilt angle is also studied.

  2. Promotion of PDGF-induced endothelial cell migration by phosphorylated VASP depends on PKA anchoring via AKAP.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Deling; Ouyang, Jingping; Wang, Nian; Zhang, Yahui; Bie, Jinghua; Zhang, Yemin

    2010-02-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), an important substrate of PKA, plays a critical role in remodeling of actin cytoskeleton and actin-based cell motility. However, how PKA accurately transfers extracellular signals to VASP and then how phosphorylation of VASP regulates endothelial cell migration have not been clearly defined. Protein kinase A anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are considered to regulate intracellular-specific signal targeting of PKA via AKAP-mediated PKA anchoring. Thus, our study investigated the relationship among AKAP anchoring of PKA, PKA activity, and VASP phosphorylation, which is to clarify the exact role of VASP and its upstream regulatory mechanism in PKA-dependent migration. Our results show that chemotactic factor PDGF activated PKA, increased phosphorylation of VASP at Ser157, and enhanced ECV304 endothelial cell migration. However, phosphorylation site-directed mutation of VASP at Ser157 attenuated the chemotactic effect of PDGF on endothelial cells, suggesting phosphorylation of VASP at Ser157 promotes PKA-mediated endothelial cell migration. Furthermore, disrupting PKA anchoring to AKAP or PKA activity significantly attenuated the PKA activity, VASP phosphorylation, and subsequent cell migration. Meanwhile, disrupting PKA anchoring to AKAP abolished PDGF-induced lamellipodia formation and special VASP accumulation at leading edge of lamellipodia. These results indicate that PKA activation and PKA-mediated substrate responses in VASP phosphorylation and localization depend on PKA anchoring via AKAP in PDGF-induced endothelial cell migration. In conclusion, AKAP anchoring of PKA is an essential upstream event in regulation of PKA-mediated VASP phosphorylation and subsequent endothelial cell migration, which contributes to explore new methods for controlling endothelial cell migration related diseases and angiogenesis.

  3. Binding constants of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: A general theory corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Hu, Jinglei; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-12-28

    Adhesion processes of biological membranes that enclose cells and cellular organelles are essential for immune responses, tissue formation, and signaling. These processes depend sensitively on the binding constant K2D of the membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins that mediate adhesion, which is difficult to measure in the "two-dimensional" (2D) membrane environment of the proteins. An important problem therefore is to relate K2D to the binding constant K3D of soluble variants of the receptors and ligands that lack the membrane anchors and are free to diffuse in three dimensions (3D). In this article, we present a general theory for the binding constants K2D and K3D of rather stiff proteins whose main degrees of freedom are translation and rotation, along membranes and around anchor points "in 2D," or unconstrained "in 3D." The theory generalizes previous results by describing how K2D depends both on the average separation and thermal nanoscale roughness of the apposing membranes, and on the length and anchoring flexibility of the receptors and ligands. Our theoretical results for the ratio K2D/K3D of the binding constants agree with detailed results from Monte Carlo simulations without any data fitting, which indicates that the theory captures the essential features of the "dimensionality reduction" due to membrane anchoring. In our Monte Carlo simulations, we consider a novel coarse-grained model of biomembrane adhesion in which the membranes are represented as discretized elastic surfaces, and the receptors and ligands as anchored molecules that diffuse continuously along the membranes and rotate at their anchor points.

  4. Hypomorphic Mutations in PGAP2, Encoding a GPI-Anchor-Remodeling Protein, Cause Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Lars; Tawamie, Hasan; Murakami, Yoshiko; Mang, Yuan; ur Rehman, Shoaib; Buchert, Rebecca; Schaffer, Stefanie; Muhammad, Safia; Bak, Mads; Nöthen, Markus M.; Bennett, Eric P.; Maeda, Yusuke; Aigner, Michael; Reis, André; Kinoshita, Taroh; Tommerup, Niels; Baig, Shahid Mahmood; Abou Jamra, Rami

    2013-01-01

    PGAP2 encodes a protein involved in remodeling the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor in the Golgi apparatus. After synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), GPI anchors are transferred to the proteins and are remodeled while transported through the Golgi to the cell membrane. Germline mutations in six genes (PIGA, PIGL, PIGM, PIGV, PIGN, and PIGO) in the ER-located part of the GPI-anchor-biosynthesis pathway have been reported, and all are associated with phenotypes extending from malformation and lethality to severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, minor dysmorphisms, and elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We performed autozygosity mapping and ultra-deep sequencing followed by stringent filtering and identified two homozygous PGAP2 alterations, p.Tyr99Cys and p.Arg177Pro, in seven offspring with nonspecific autosomal-recessive intellectual disability from two consanguineous families. Rescue experiments with the altered proteins in PGAP2-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines showed less expression of cell-surface GPI-anchored proteins DAF and CD59 than of the wild-type protein, substantiating the pathogenicity of the identified alterations. Furthermore, we observed a full rescue when we used strong promoters before the mutant cDNAs, suggesting a hypomorphic effect of the mutations. We report on alterations in the Golgi-located part of the GPI-anchor-biosynthesis pathway and extend the phenotypic spectrum of the GPI-anchor deficiencies to isolated intellectual disability with elevated ALP. GPI-anchor deficiencies can be interpreted within the concept of a disease family, and we propose that the severity of the phenotype is dependent on the location of the altered protein in the biosynthesis chain. PMID:23561846

  5. Laparoendoscopic single-site simple nephrectomy using a magnetic anchoring system in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Hyo; Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Seo Yeon; Han, Deok Hyun; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Choi, Han Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic anchoring devices may reduce the number of port sites needed in laparoscopic surgery. In this study, we prospectively assessed the feasibility of using a magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) in laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery performed by novices. Materials and Methods A total of 10 LESS simple nephrectomies were performed with or without MAGS in a nonsurvival porcine model by 6 operators with no previous LESS surgery experience. After installation of the homemade single port, an intra-abdominal magnet was fixed to the renal parenchyma with suturing and stabilized by an external magnet placed on the flank so that the position of the kidney could be easily changed by moving the external handheld magnet. The length of the procedure and any intraoperative complications were evaluated. Results Operative time (mean±standard deviation) was shorter in the group using the magnetic anchoring device (M-LESS-N) than in the group with conventional LESS nephrectomy (C-LESS-N) (63±20.8 minutes vs. 82±40.7 minutes, respectively). Although all nephrectomies were completed uneventfully in the M-LESS-N group, renal vein injury occurred during dissection of the renal hilum in two cases of C-LESS-N and was resolved by simultaneous transection of the renal artery and vein with an Endo-GIA stapler. Conclusions LESS-N using MAGS is a feasible technique for surgeons with no LESS surgery experience. Taking into account the 2 cases of renal vein injury in the C-LESS-N group, the application of MAGS may be beneficial for overcoming the learning curve of LESS surgery. PMID:27195320

  6. Adaptive Anchoring Model: How Static and Dynamic Presentations of Time Series Influence Judgments and Predictions.

    PubMed

    Kusev, Petko; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Juliusson, Asgeir; Chater, Nick

    2017-04-06

    When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series, they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called trend-damping (modeled by anchoring on, and insufficient adjustment from, the average of recent time series values). Events in a time series can be experienced sequentially (dynamic mode), or they can also be retrospectively viewed simultaneously (static mode), not experienced individually in real time. In one experiment, we studied the influence of presentation mode (dynamic and static) on two sorts of judgment: (a) predictions of the next event (forecast) and (b) estimation of the average value of all the events in the presented series (average estimation). Participants' responses in dynamic mode were anchored on more recent events than in static mode for all types of judgment but with different consequences; hence, dynamic presentation improved prediction accuracy, but not estimation. These results are not anticipated by existing theoretical accounts; we develop and present an agent-based model-the adaptive anchoring model (ADAM)-to account for the difference between processing sequences of dynamically and statically presented stimuli (visually presented data). ADAM captures how variation in presentation mode produces variation in responses (and the accuracy of these responses) in both forecasting and judgment tasks. ADAM's model predictions for the forecasting and judgment tasks fit better with the response data than a linear-regression time series model. Moreover, ADAM outperformed autoregressive-integrated-moving-average (ARIMA) and exponential-smoothing models, while neither of these models accounts for people's responses on the average estimation task.

  7. Display of GPI-anchored anti-EGFR nanobodies on extracellular vesicles promotes tumour cell targeting

    PubMed Central

    Kooijmans, Sander A. A.; Aleza, Clara Gómez; Roffler, Steve R.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Vader, Pieter; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are attractive candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transport biological cargo to recipient cells. However, the apparent lack of target cell specificity of exogenously administered EVs limits their therapeutic applicability. In this study, we propose a novel method to equip EVs with targeting properties, in order to improve their interaction with tumour cells. Methods EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF). EVs were isolated using ultrafiltration/size-exclusion liquid chromatography and characterized using western blotting, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and electron microscopy. EV–tumour cell interactions were analyzed under static conditions using flow cytometry and under flow conditions using a live-cell fluorescence microscopy-coupled perfusion system. Results EV analysis showed that GPI-linked nanobodies were successfully displayed on EV surfaces and were highly enriched in EVs compared with parent cells. Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression), but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. Moreover, nanobody-displaying EVs showed a significantly improved cell association to EGFR-expressing tumour cells under flow conditions. Conclusions We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules. PMID:26979463

  8. New structural systems for zero-maintenance pavements. Volume 2: Analysis of anchored pavements using ANSYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, S. K.; Militsopoulos, S. G.

    1980-08-01

    A set of procedures to evaluate the response of an anchored pavement subjected to vehicle static loads, moisture variation in the subgrade, and/or temperature variation through the surface of the pavement is presented. These procedures include two computer programs known as FEMESH and ANSYS. The FEMESH program generates rectangular meshes in either a two or three dimensional coordinate system for any prespecified number and spacing of nodes. The ANSYS program evaluates the stresses, strains, and the deflections at all elements in each material included in the analytical model.

  9. Vectorette PCR isolation of microsatellite repeat sequences using anchored dinucleotide repeat primers.

    PubMed Central

    Lench, N J; Norris, A; Bailey, A; Booth, A; Markham, A F

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a vectorette PCR approach to provide an improved method for isolation of microsatellite repeats. The modified procedure relies on PCR amplification using a vectorette-specific primer in combination with one of a panel of anchored dinucleotide repeat primers. The target DNA to be screened for microsatellite sequences can be from YAC, P1, cosmid, bacteriophage or plasmid clones. We have used this technique to isolate novel, polymorphic microsatellite repeats from clones containing the amelogenin gene (AMGX) located on human chromosome Xp22.3. PMID:8668553

  10. Single-Molecule Imaging of Signal Transduction via GPI-Anchored Receptors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenichi G N

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been drawing extensive attention as a signaling platform. To investigate molecular interactions in lipid rafts, we often need to observe molecules in the plasma membranes of living cells because chemical fixation and subsequent immunostaining with divalent or multivalent antibodies may change the location of the target molecules. In this chapter, we describe how to examine dynamics of raft-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored receptors and interactions of the receptors with downstream signaling molecules by single-particle tracking or single-molecule imaging techniques.

  11. MoO3 nanoparticle anchored graphene as bifunctional agent for water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahan, Homen; Roy, Raju; Namsa, Nima D.; Das, Shyamal K.

    2016-10-01

    We report here a facile one step hydrothermal method to anchor MoO3 nanoparticles in graphene. The bifunctionality of graphene-MoO3 nanoparticles is demonstrated via dye adsorption and antibacterial activities. The nanocomposite showed excellent adsorption of methylene blue, a cationic dye, from water compared to pristine MoO3 and graphene. However, it showed negligible adsorption of methyl orange, an anionic dye. Again, the graphene-MoO3 nanoparticles exhibited bacteriostatic property against both Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria.

  12. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the pharyngeal region using anchored hemoclip with surgical thread: A novel method

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Hitomi; Tabuchi, Maiko; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the pharyngeal region has not been well accepted, although ESD of the gastrointestinal tract is a standard procedure for treating early cancers. However, early detection and treatment of pharyngeal cancers is highly beneficial because surgical resection can be highly invasive and cause serious cosmetic deformities, swallowing disorders, dysgeusia, and speech defects. On the other hand, application of an anchored clip with surgical thread during ESD of the gastrointestinal tract has been reported to be beneficial. This pilot case series reveals the usefulness and clinical feasibility of applying a clip with thread in ESD of the pharyngeal region. PMID:27540568

  13. Analysis of anchor-size effects on pinned scroll waves and measurement of filament rigidity.

    PubMed

    Nakouzi, Elias; Jiménez, Zulma A; Biktashev, Vadim N; Steinbock, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    Inert, spherical heterogeneities can pin three-dimensional scroll waves in the excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Three pinning sites cause initially circular rotation backbones to approach equilateral triangles. The resulting stationary shapes show convex deviations that increase with decreasing anchor radii. This dependence is interpreted as a transition between filament termination at large surfaces and true, local pinning of a continuous curve. The shapes of the filament segments are described by a hyperbolic cosine function which is predicted by kinematic theory that considers filament tension and rigidity. The latter value is measured as (1.0±0.7)×10-6 cm4/s.

  14. Bone-anchored hearing aid and skin graft removal with subsequent cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Britt, Christopher J; Coughlin, Adam R; Gubbels, Samuel P

    2016-11-01

    We describe a novel technique of scalp flap rearrangement for cochlear implant (CI) candidates who have previously undergone ipsilateral bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) placement. One patient with single-sided deafness (SSD) underwent removal of a BAHA with subsequent scalp rearrangement for coverage of the implant site. After adequate healing of the scalp rotational flap, he underwent uncomplicated cochlear implantation without soft tissue complications. With increasing utilization of CIs in SSD, there will be more patients undergoing cochlear implantation who have previously had a BAHA. We present a novel method for accomplishing this goal while minimizing the risk of soft tissue complications. Laryngoscope, 126:2601-2604, 2016.

  15. Cobalt and nickel macrocycles anchored to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films: Sensitization, catalysis, and ligand association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achey, Darren Craig

    The global demand for renewable, clean electricity and fuel has compelled efforts to utilize the immense power incident upon the Earth from the Sun. Photovoltaic systems could power the planet's electrical demands with only moderate efficiencies. However, mitigation of fossil fuels used for transportation and night-time electricity requires the storage of photon energy, for example, in the form of chemical bonds. Mesoporous, nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films provide a manifold for anchoring molecular species that absorb and utilize photons to catalyze fuel-generating reactions. The overarching theme of this thesis is to improve understanding of the semiconductor/molecule interface utilizing earth abundant first-row transition metal coordination compounds. Chapter 2 presents the non-ideal redox behavior of cobalt porphyrins anchored to semiconductor surfaces. Additionally, CoI porphyrins were utilized as photocatalysts for the 2e- reduction of organobromides to yield a CoIII-R intermediate. The cobalt-carbon bond of CoIII-R was photodissociated with visible light to yield Co II and R·. The organic radical dimerized to form R-R. Light excitation of CoI compounds was found to result in electron transfer to TiO2, Chapter 3. Cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, glyoximes, and corrins were all observed to exhibit this behavior. Electron transfer was demonstrated to primarily occur via excitation into the large extinction coefficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer absorption bands of CoI complexes. Chapter 4 focuses on the unique coordination chemistry of cobalt porphyrins anchored to a TiO2 thin film. Notably, pyridine axially ligated a CoII porphyrin following excited-state electron transfer of the CoI porphyrin to the TiO2. The rate constant for recombination of an electron in the TiO2 with CoII was observed to decrease with increasing pyridine concentration, behavior attributed primarily to a negative shift of the CoII/I potential in the presence of pyridine. Finally

  16. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of methanol over uranyl-anchored nanoporous MCM-41 and MCM-48.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Vidya; Kamble, Valmik S; Gupta, Narendra M; Selvam, Parasuraman

    2006-06-01

    The vapor-phase photodegradation of methanol to carbon dioxide was carried out over uranyl-anchored nanoporous MCM-41 and MCM-48 hosts (designated as UO2(2+)/MCM-41 and UO2(2+)/MCM-48, respectively) under simulated light and ambient conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the photoactivity of the latter is considerably decreased as compared to the former due to the presence of a smaller fraction of photoactive uranyl (UO2(2+)) ions in UO2(2+)/MCM-48.

  17. 1000-fold enhancement in proton conductivity of a MOF using post-synthetically anchored proton transporters

    PubMed Central

    Shalini, Sorout; Dhavale, Vishal M.; Eldho, Kavalakal M.; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ajithkumar, Thallaseril G.; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Pyridinol, a coordinating zwitter-ionic species serves as stoichiometrically loadable and non-leachable proton carrier. The partial replacement of the pyridinol by stronger hydrogen bonding, coordinating guest, ethylene glycol (EG), offers 1000-fold enhancement in conductivity (10−6 to 10−3 Scm−1) with record low activation energy (0.11 eV). Atomic modeling coupled with 13C-SSNMR provides insights into the potential proton conduction pathway functionalized with post-synthetically anchored dynamic proton transporting EG moieties. PMID:27577681

  18. High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad

    2012-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near-Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission would require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO, in an environment characterized by very low gravity levels; such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy, and upon mission completion, easy to remove. The design philosophy used in this task relies on the simulation capability of a high-performance multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth, it is difficult to create low-gravity conditions, and testing in low-gravity environments, whether artificial or in space, can be costly and very difficult to achieve. Through simulation, the effect of gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine, a simulation pack age capable of utilizing massively parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) hardware, several validation experiments were performed. Modeling of the regolith interaction has been carried out, after which the anchor penetration tests were performed and analyzed. The regolith was modeled by a granular medium composed of very large numbers of convex three-dimensional rigid bodies, subject to microgravity levels and interacting with each other with contact, friction, and cohesional forces. The multibody dynamics simulation approach used for simulating anchors penetrating a soil uses a differential variational inequality (DVI) methodology to solve the contact problem posed as a linear complementarity method (LCP). Implemented within a GPU processing environment, collision detection is greatly accelerated compared to traditional CPU (central processing unit)- based collision detection. Hence, systems of millions of particles interacting with complex dynamic systems can be efficiently analyzed, and design recommendations can be made in a much shorter time. The figure

  19. Slipping Anchor? Testing the Vignettes Approach to Identification and Correction of Reporting Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    d’Uva, Teresa Bago; Lindeboom, Maarten; O’Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2011-01-01

    We propose tests of the two assumptions under which anchoring vignettes identify heterogeneity in reporting of categorical evaluations. Systematic variation in the perceived difference between any two vignette states is sufficient to reject vignette equivalence. Response consistency - the respondent uses the same response scale to evaluate the vignette and herself – is testable given sufficiently comprehensive objective indicators that independently identify response scales. Both assumptions are rejected for reporting of cognitive and physical functioning in a sample of older English individuals, although a weaker test resting on less stringent assumptions does not reject response consistency for cognition. PMID:22184479

  20. 1000-fold enhancement in proton conductivity of a MOF using post-synthetically anchored proton transporters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalini, Sorout; Dhavale, Vishal M.; Eldho, Kavalakal M.; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ajithkumar, Thallaseril G.; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan

    2016-08-01

    Pyridinol, a coordinating zwitter-ionic species serves as stoichiometrically loadable and non-leachable proton carrier. The partial replacement of the pyridinol by stronger hydrogen bonding, coordinating guest, ethylene glycol (EG), offers 1000-fold enhancement in conductivity (10‑6 to 10‑3 Scm‑1) with record low activation energy (0.11 eV). Atomic modeling coupled with 13C-SSNMR provides insights into the potential proton conduction pathway functionalized with post-synthetically anchored dynamic proton transporting EG moieties.

  1. Spatio-temporal segregation of Ras signals: one ship, three anchors, many harbors.

    PubMed

    Rocks, Oliver; Peyker, Anna; Bastiaens, Philippe I H

    2006-08-01

    Dynamic assembly of spatially separated signaling platforms enables a cell to tune cellular outputs in response to different input stimuli. Understanding how a vast diversity in signaling responses can be generated from a limited protein repertoire requires knowledge of how cells maintain the segregation of proteins and thereby orchestrate their local activities. Ras proteins are subject to this type of precise regulation of localization, and thus activity, in space and time. A model emerges where different lipid anchors dynamically shuttle Ras between specific membrane compartments, where differences in the accessibility of signaling environments and in the residence time of Ras therein account for isoform-specific signaling responses.

  2. Construction and performance of a permanent earth anchor (tieback) system for the Stanford Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Obergfell, M.N.

    1987-02-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider is the newest addition to the high-energy physics research complex at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. One of the many unique features of this project is the large, underground pit, where massive particle detectors will study the collision of subatomic particles. The large, open pit utilizes nearly 600 permanent earth anchors (tiebacks) for the support of the 56 ft (17 m) high walls, and is one of the largest applications of tiebacks for permanent support of a structure. This paper examines the use of tiebacks on this project with emphasis on their installation and performance.

  3. Reduced anchoring fibril formation and collagen VII immunoreactivity in feline dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Olivry, T; Dunston, S M; Marinkovich, M P

    1999-11-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa was diagnosed in a cat with juvenile-onset epithelial sloughing of the oral mucosa, footpads, and haired skin. Dermoepidermal separation occurred in the absence of inflammation or cytolysis of basal epidermal cells. Collagen IV-specific immunostaining corroborated the fact that clefting took place below the epidermal basement membrane. Ultrastructural examination revealed that the proband's anchoring fibrils exhibited a filamentous morphology and were decreased in number compared with those in a normal cat. Finally, the attenuated immunoreactivity for collagen VII in our patient led us to suspect that its encoding gene, COL7A1, could be mutated in this case of feline dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

  4. Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class and the anchored Toom interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkema, G. T.; Ferrari, P. L.; Lebowitz, J. L.; Spohn, H.

    2014-10-01

    We revisit the anchored Toom interface and use Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling theory to argue that the interface fluctuations are governed by the Airy1 process with the role of space and time interchanged. The predictions, which contain no free parameter, are numerically well confirmed for space-time statistics in the stationary state. In particular, the spatial fluctuations of the interface computed numerically agree well with those given by the GOE edge distribution of Tracy and Widom [Commun. Math. Phys. 177, 727 (1996), 10.1007/BF02099545].

  5. Ferrocene-based monolayers: Self-assembly via rigid bidentate anchor groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, Tobias; Krohn, Bianca; Trojtza, Marta; Bruhn, Clemens; Rother, Dag; Siemeling, Ulrich; Träger, Frank

    2006-02-01

    Self-assembled monolayers of the bidentate ferrocene containing ligands diisocyanoferrocene (1), bis(diphenylphosphanyl) ferrocene (2), and diisothiocyanatoferrocene (3) have been prepared and their adsorption kinetics on gold films were characterized with optical second-harmonic generation and ellipsometry. As opposed to ferrocenylfunctionalized ligands used in earlier studies, the redox-active moieties discussed here carry two anchor groups to "pin" them to the substrate in a well-defined orientation and distance to the surface. 1 and 3 show monolayer film formation that follows first order, while film assembly of 2 is best described by a second order Langmuir kinetics.

  6. EQCM Measurements: Redox-Induced Changes in Solvent and Ion Content in Anchored Redox Monolayers of Organosulfur Compounds and Their Electrocatalysis on Gold Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    EQCM Mwasurements: Redox-Induced Changes in Solvent and M0 Content in Anchored Redox Monolayers of Organosulfur CD Compounds and their Electrocatalysis ...REDOX-INDUCED CHANGES IN SOLVENT AND ION CONTENT IN ANCHORED REDOX MONOLAYERS OF ORGANOSULFUR COMPOUNDS AND THEIR ELECTROCATALYSIS ON GOLD...Measurements: Redox-Induced Changes in Solvent and Ion Content in Anchored Redox Monolayers of Organosulfur Compounds and their Electrocatalysis on

  7. Solid phase extractive preconcentration of uranium(VI) using quinoline-8-ol anchored chloromethylated polymeric resin beads.

    PubMed

    Praveen, R S; Metilda, P; Daniel, S; Rao, T Prasada

    2005-10-31

    A new chelating polymeric sorbent has been developed using Merrifield chloromethylated resin anchored with quinoline-8-ol (HQ). The modified polymeric resin was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The HQ anchored resin showed superior binding affinity for U(VI) over Th(IV) and La(III). The influence of various physicochemical parameters on the recovery of U(VI) were optimized by both static and dynamic methods. The phase exchange kinetic studies performed for U(VI) revealed that <5min was sufficient for reaching equilibrium metal ion sorption. The maximum sorption capacity of HQ anchored resin for U(VI) was found to be 120.30mgg(-1) of resin which is higher than other solid phase extraction sorbents reported so far excepting N,N-dibutyl, N'-benzoyl thiourea sorbed Amberlite XAD-16. The developed HQ anchored polymeric resin is highly selective as none of the extraneous species were found to have any deleterious effect. Solid phase extraction (SPE) studies performed using HQ anchored polymeric resin offered enrichment factor of 100 and the lowest concentration below which recoveries become non-quantitative is 5mugl(-1). The accuracy of the developed SPE method in conjunction with Arsenazo III procedure was tested by analyzing marine sediment (MESS-3) and soil (IAEA-Soil 7) reference materials. Furthermore, the above procedure has been successfully employed for the analysis of real soil and sediment samples.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of 1-octanol on anchored titanium oxide and on TiO{sub 2} powder catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Hiromi; Ichihashi, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    1996-01-01

    The liquid-phase photocatalytic oxidative degradation of 1-octanol in oxygenated acetonitrile on highly dispersed titanium oxide catalysts anchored onto transparent Vycor glass was compared with that obtained on standard TiO{sup 2} powder. The anchored photocatalysts were prepared through the facile reaction between surface OH groups of Vycor glass and TiCl{sub 4}. UV irradiation of the anchored catalyst at room temperature led to the photocatalytic degradation of 1-octanol and the production of 1-octanal as the major product. The large surface area of the photocatalyst was one of the most important factors in achieving a high efficiency in the liquid-phase photocatalytic reaction. The specific photocatalytic activity per unit weight of titanium oxide of the highly dispersed anchored catalyst was much higher than that for the TiO{sub 2} powder because of the high activity of the charge transfer complex (Ti{sup 3+}-O{sup -}){sup *}. Furthermore, the filtration of the anchored photocatalysts from the liquid reactants was much easier than that of the small particles of TiO{sub 2} powder. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Ionic complexation as a non-covalent approach for the design of folate anchored rifampicin Gantrez nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Date, Praveen V; Patel, Mitesh D; Majee, Sharmila B; Samad, Abdul; Devarajan, Padma V

    2013-05-01

    The present study discloses the design of folate anchored Rifampicin-Poly methylvinylether maleic anhydride copolymer (Gantrez AN-119, Gantrez) nanoparticles (RFMGzFa) by ionic complexation. Folic acid was anchored to the preformed drug loaded nanoparticles. Folic acid was anchored in different concentration by simply varying the amount of folic acid added during preparation. RFMGzFa nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method. Gantrez AN-119 rapidly hydrolyzes in aqueous medium releasing carboxylic acid groups, to create an acidic environment. This facilitates protonation and subsequent ionic complexation of folic acid with the carboxylic groups, to enable anchoring. FTIR spectra confirmed this interaction. Infrared imaging revealed distribution of folic acid across the nanoparticle surface. Nanoparticles were obtained in the size range 350-450 nm with RFM loading of 12-14% w/w. Zeta potential confirmed colloidal stability. TEM/SEM revealed spherical morphology. RFMGzFa nanoparticles exhibited sustained release of RFM and folic acid. Folic acid showed sustained release upto 12 h, which was ion exchange mediated. A 480% enhancement in RFM uptake with RFMGzFa nanoparticles compared to 300% with RFMGz nanoparticles in-vitro, in human macrophage cell line U-937, suggested the role of folic acid in folate receptor mediated uptake. Ionic complexation represents a simple non-covalent approach for anchoring folic acid on polymeric nanoparticles of Gantrez.

  10. A novel membrane anchor for FtsZ is linked to cell wall hydrolysis in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Meier, Elizabeth L; Razavi, Shiva; Inoue, Takanari; Goley, Erin D

    2016-07-01

    In most bacteria, the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ forms an annulus at midcell (the Z-ring) which recruits the division machinery and regulates cell wall remodeling. Although both activities require membrane attachment of FtsZ, few membrane anchors have been characterized. FtsA is considered to be the primary membrane tether for FtsZ in bacteria, however in Caulobacter crescentus, FtsA arrives at midcell after stable Z-ring assembly and early FtsZ-directed cell wall synthesis. We hypothesized that additional proteins tether FtsZ to the membrane and demonstrate that in C. crescentus, FzlC is one such membrane anchor. FzlC associates with membranes directly in vivo and in vitro and recruits FtsZ to membranes in vitro. As for most known membrane anchors, the C-terminal peptide of FtsZ is required for its recruitment to membranes by FzlC in vitro and midcell recruitment of FzlC in cells. In vivo, overproduction of FzlC causes cytokinesis defects whereas deletion of fzlC causes synthetic defects with dipM, ftsE and amiC mutants, implicating FzlC in cell wall hydrolysis. Our characterization of FzlC as a novel membrane anchor for FtsZ expands our understanding of FtsZ regulators and establishes a role for membrane-anchored FtsZ in the regulation of cell wall hydrolysis.

  11. In vitro assessment of a combined radiofrequency ablation and cryo-anchoring catheter for treatment of mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Boronyak, Steven M; Merryman, W David

    2014-03-21

    Percutaneous approaches to mitral valve repair are an attractive alternative to surgical repair or replacement. Radiofrequency ablation has the potential to approximate surgical leaflet resection by using resistive heating to reduce leaflet size, and cryogenic temperatures on a percutaneous catheter can potentially be used to reversibly adhere to moving mitral valve leaflets for reliable application of radiofrequency energy. We tested a combined cryo-anchoring and radiofrequency ablation catheter using excised porcine mitral valves placed in a left heart flow loop capable of reproducing physiologic pressure and flow waveforms. Transmitral flow and pressure were monitored during the cryo-anchoring procedure and compared to baseline flow conditions, and the extent of radiofrequency energy delivery to the mitral valve was assessed post-treatment. Long term durability of radiofrequency ablation treatment was assessed using statically treated leaflets placed in a stretch bioreactor for four weeks. Transmitral flow and pressure waveforms were largely unaltered during cryo-anchoring. Parameter fitting to mechanical data from leaflets treated with radiofrequency ablation and cryo-anchoring revealed significant mechanical differences from untreated leaflets, demonstrating successful ablation of mitral valves in a hemodynamic environment. Picrosirius red staining showed clear differences in morphology and collagen birefringence between treated and untreated leaflets. The durability study indicated that statically treated leaflets did not significantly change size or mechanics over four weeks. A cryo-anchoring and radiofrequency ablation catheter can adhere to and ablate mitral valve leaflets in a physiologic hemodynamic environment, providing a possible percutaneous alternative to surgical leaflet resection of mitral valve tissue.

  12. Bioplex technology: novel synthetic gene delivery pharmaceutical based on peptides anchored to nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Oscar E; Svahn, Mathias G; Törnquist, Elisabeth; Lundin, Karin E; Smith, C I E

    2005-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery is an important approach in order to establish safe in vivo gene therapy in the clinic. Although viral vectors currently exhibit superior gene transfer efficacy, the safety aspect of viral gene delivery is a concern. In order to improve non-viral in vivo gene delivery we have designed a pharmaceutical platform called Bioplex (biological complex). The concept of Bioplex is to link functional entities via hybridising anchors, such as Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA), directly to naked DNA. In order to promote delivery functional entities consisting of biologically active peptides or carbohydrates, are linked to the PNA anchor. The PNA acts as genetic glue and hybridises with DNA in a sequence specific manner. By using functional entities, which elicit receptor-mediated endocytosis, improved endosomal escape and enhance nuclear entry we wish to improve the transfer of genetic material into the cell. An important aspect is that the functional entities should also have tissue-targeting properties in vivo. Examples of functional entities investigated to date are the Simian virus 40 nuclear localisation signal to improve nuclear uptake and different carbohydrate ligands in order to achieve receptor specific uptake. The delivery system is also endowed with regulatory capability, since the release of functional entities can be controlled. The aim is to create a safe, pharmaceutically defined and stable delivery system for nucleic acids with enhanced transfection properties that can be used in the clinic.

  13. Rh Nanoparticle Anchoring on Metal Phosphates: Fundamental Aspects and Practical Impacts on Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Machida, Masato

    2016-10-01

    Metal phosphates stabilize Rh nanoparticles on their surface via Rh-O-P bonds, in contrast to the Rh-O-M bonds formed on metal oxides (MOx ). The local structure, electronic structure, and redox properties of Rh nanoparticles anchored on metal phosphates, and their practical impacts on catalysis, are reviewed based on recent publications from the author's research group. Because of the covalency of the Rh-O-P bond, Rh oxide is readily reduced to metallic Rh having a higher catalytic activity, whereas Rh oxide on metal oxide supports is more difficult to reduce with an increase of the anchoring strength. Furthermore, Rh metal shows a higher tolerance to reoxidation when supported on metal phosphates because the Rh-O-P bond is preserved under reducing atmospheres. The electron deficiency of Rh metal is another feature that affects its catalytic properties, and the extent of the electron deficiency can be tuned by replacing the metal in the metal phosphate with one of higher basicity. Further impacts on practical performance (thermal stability, poisoning stability, and lean NOx purification) in automobile catalyst applications are also described.

  14. Major surface antigen, P30, of Toxoplasma gondii is anchored by a glycolipid

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, S.D.; Boothroyd, J.C.

    1989-04-05

    P30, the major surface antigen of the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, can be specifically labeled with (/sup 3/H)palmitic acid and with myo-(2-/sup 3/H)inositol. The fatty acid label can be released by treatment of P30 with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Such treatment exposes an immunological cross-reacting determinant first described on Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein. PI-PLC cleavage of intact parasites metabolically labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine results in the release of intact P30 polypeptide in a form which migrates faster in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results argue that P30 is anchored by a glycolipid. Results from thin layer chromatography analysis of purified (/sup 3/H) palmitate-labeled P30 treated with PI-PLC, together with susceptibility to mild alkali hydrolysis and to cleavage with phospholipase A2, suggest that the glycolipid anchor of T. gondii P30 includes a 1,2-diacylglycerol moiety.

  15. GPI-anchored proteins do not reside in ordered domains in the live cell plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevcsik, Eva; Brameshuber, Mario; Fölser, Martin; Weghuber, Julian; Honigmann, Alf; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2015-04-01

    The organization of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane has been the subject of a long-lasting debate. Membrane rafts of higher lipid chain order were proposed to mediate protein interactions, but have thus far not been directly observed. Here we use protein micropatterning combined with single-molecule tracking to put current models to the test: we rearranged lipid-anchored raft proteins (glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-anchored-mGFP) directly in the live cell plasma membrane and measured the effect on the local membrane environment. Intriguingly, this treatment does neither nucleate the formation of an ordered membrane phase nor result in any enrichment of nanoscopic-ordered domains within the micropatterned regions. In contrast, we find that immobilized mGFP-GPIs behave as inert obstacles to the diffusion of other membrane constituents without influencing their membrane environment over distances beyond their physical size. Our results indicate that phase partitioning is not a fundamental element of protein organization in the plasma membrane.

  16. Anchoring of Heterochromatin to the Nuclear Lamina Reinforces Dosage Compensation-Mediated Gene Repression

    PubMed Central

    Brouhard, Elizabeth A.; Jiang, Jianhao; Sifuentes, Margarita H.

    2016-01-01

    Higher order chromosome structure and nuclear architecture can have profound effects on gene regulation. We analyzed how compartmentalizing the genome by tethering heterochromatic regions to the nuclear lamina affects dosage compensation in the nematode C. elegans. In this organism, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to repress transcription two-fold, thus balancing gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. X chromosome structure is disrupted by mutations in DCC subunits. Using X chromosome paint fluorescence microscopy, we found that X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are also disrupted when the mechanisms that anchor heterochromatin to the nuclear lamina are defective. Strikingly, the heterochromatic left end of the X chromosome is less affected than the gene-rich middle region, which lacks heterochromatic anchors. These changes in X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are accompanied by small, but significant levels of derepression of X-linked genes as measured by RNA-seq, without any observable defects in DCC localization and DCC-mediated changes in histone modifications. We propose a model in which heterochromatic tethers on the left arm of the X cooperate with the DCC to compact and peripherally relocate the X chromosomes, contributing to gene repression. PMID:27690361

  17. A cell-surface-anchored ratiometric fluorescent probe for extracellular pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Ke, Guoliang; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Wei; Zou, Yuan; Guan, Zhichao; Jia, Shasha; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Xuemeng; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2014-09-10

    Accurate sensing of the extracellular pH is a very important yet challenging task in biological and clinical applications. This paper describes the development of an amphiphilic lipid-DNA molecule as a simple yet useful cell-surface-anchored ratiometric fluorescent probe for extracellular pH sensing. The lipid-DNA probe, which consists of a hydrophobic diacyllipid tail and a hydrophilic DNA strand, is modified with two fluorescent dyes; one is pH-sensitive as pH indicator and the other is pH-insensitive as an internal reference. The lipid-DNA probe showed sensitive and reversible response to pH change in the range of 6.0-8.0, which is suitable for most extracellular studies. In addition, based on simple hydrophobic interactions with the cell membrane, the lipid-DNA probe can be easily anchored on the cell surface with negligible cytotoxicity, excellent stability, and unique ratiometric readout, thus ensuring its accurate sensing of extracellular pH. Finally, this lipid-DNA-based ratiometric pH indicator was successfully used for extracellular pH sensing of cells in 3D culture environment, demonstrating the potential applications of the sensor in biological and medical studies.

  18. Three-dimensional assessment of maxillary changes associated with bone anchored maxillary protraction

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tung; Cevidanes, Lucia; Cornelis, Marie A.; Heymann, Gavin; de Paula, Leonardo K.; De Clerck, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bone-anchored maxillary protraction has been shown to be an effective treatment modality for the correction of Class III malocclusions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 3-dimensional changes in the maxilla, the surrounding hard and soft tissues, and the circummaxillary sutures after bone-anchored maxillary protraction treatment. Methods Twenty-five consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 9 and 13 years (mean, 11.10 ± 1.1 years) were treated with Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (2 in the infrazygomatic crests of the maxilla and 2 in the anterior mandible). Cone-beam computed tomographs were taken before initial loading and 1 year out. Three-dimensional models were generated from the tomographs, registered on the anterior cranial base, superimposed, and analyzed by using color maps. Results The maxilla showed a mean forward displacement of 3.7 mm, and the zygomas and the maxillary incisors came forward 3.7 and 4.3 mm, respectively. Conclusions This treatment approach produced significant orthopedic changes in the maxilla and the zygomas in growing Class III patients. PMID:22133943

  19. The flame anchoring mechanism and associated flow structure in bluff-body stabilized lean premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Dan; Shanbhogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We present numerical analysis of a lean premixed flame anchoring on a heat conducting bluff-body. Different mixtures of CH4/H2/air are analyzed in order to systematically vary the burning velocity, adiabatic flame temperature and extinction strain rate. The study was motivated by our experimental measurements in a step combustor which showed that both the recirculation zone length and stability map under acoustically coupled conditions for different fuels and thermodynamic conditions collapse using the extinction strain rate. The model fully resolves unsteady two-dimensional flow with detailed chemistry and species transport, and without artificial flame anchoring boundary conditions. The model includes a low Mach number operator-split projection algorithm, coupled with a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and an immersed boundary method for the solid body. Calculations reveal that the recirculation zone length correlates with the flame extinction strain rate, consistent with the experimental evidence. It is found that in the vicinity of the bluff body the flame is highly stretched and its leading edge location is controlled by the reactants combustion characteristics under high strain. Moreover, the flame surface location relative to the shear layer influences the vorticity thus impacting the velocity field and the recirculation zone. The study sheds light on the experimentally observed collapse of the combustor dynamics using the reactants extinction strain rate.

  20. Cholesteric-nematic transition in an asymmetric strong-weak anchoring cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, G.; Scarfone, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    We discuss the cholesteric-nematic transition induced by an external field in a cell in the shape of a slab of finite thickness whose anchoring energy is infinitely strong on one surface and negligible on the other. The case where the surface orientations of the cholesteric director are parallel in the ground state is considered. In a sample of thickness ℓ, multiple of the natural periodicity of the system Λ, the number of complete twists in the cholesteric liquid crystal is reduced by increasing the strength of the external distorting field. The sequence of the field values for expelling complete twists accumulate as the strength of the field approaches a critical value. Beyond this critical value the system assumes an unwinding configuration going toward a uniform structure, corresponding to nematic phase. Generalization of the results to the weak-weak anchoring cell case is also discussed. In our analysis the anisotropic part of the surface energy is assumed or very large or very small with respect to the total energy per unit surface due to the bulk distortion induced by the magnetic field.