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Sample records for 4-vinylpyridine anchored rhcod2-pic2pf6

  1. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)/Nanographite nanocomposites as organic vapor sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, Payal; Singhal, Prachi; Diwan, R. K.; Rattan, Sunita

    2016-04-01

    In the present work nanocomposites of Poly(4-vinylpyridine) / Nanographite platlets were prepared by grafting of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) to nanographite platlets (NGPs) by in-situ free radical polymerization. The NGPs were formed from graphite flakes through intercalation by modified Hummer's method. The covalent attachment of P4VP helps to disperse NGPs into individual platelets. The structure and micromorphology of prepared nanocomposites were confirmed by FTIR and SEM techniques. The electrical properties of the P4VP/NGPs nanocomposites were investigated and found to retain the resistance of 1.52 x 102 Ω at 1wt% NGPs loading. In addition, the grafted polymer, P4VP improves the stability of NGPs and provides many active sites for chemiresistive sensing. The prepared nanocomposites exhibited excellent response towards sensing nitroaromatic vapors. The work reported may open a promising area of exploration among gas sensors.

  2. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-coated glassy carbon flow detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Golden, T.; Tuzhi, P.

    1987-03-01

    The performance of a thin-layer flow detector with a glassy carbon electrode coated with a film of protonated poly(4-vinylpyridine) is described. Substantial improvement in the selectivity of amperometric detection for liquid chromatography and flow injection systems is observed as a result of excluding cationic species from the surface. The detector response was evaluated with respect to flow rate, solute concentration, coating scheme, film-to-film reproducibility, and other variables. Despite the increase in diffusional resistance, low detection limits of ca. 0.04 and 0.10 ng of ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively, are maintained. Protection from organic surfactants can be coupled to the charge exclusion effect by using a bilayer coating, with a cellulose acetate film atop the poly(4-vinylpyridine) layer. Applicability to urine sample is demonstrated.

  3. Amination of aryl halides with aqueous ammonia catalyzed by green recyclable poly(4-vinylpyridine)-supported copper iodide nanoparticles catalyst.

    PubMed

    Albadi, Jalal; Shiran, Jafar Abbasi; Mansournezhad, Azam

    2014-01-01

    In this research efficient procedure for the amination of aryl halides with aqueous ammonia in the presence of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-supported copper iodide nanoparticles catalyst is reported. A wide range of aryl halides including aryl iodides and aryl bromides are converted into the corresponding aniline derivatives. The experimental procedure with poly(4-vinylpyridine)-supported copper iodide nanoparticles catalyst is quite straightforward and it is recycled up to 3 consecutive runs by simple filtration. PMID:25551733

  4. Radiation induced emulsion graft polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine onto PE/PP nonwoven fabric for As(V) adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş Kavaklı, Pınar; Kavaklı, Cengiz; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao; Güven, Olgun

    2016-10-01

    A novel nonwoven fabric adsorbent having 4-vinylpyridine functional groups was prepared by using radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization method and grafting 4-vinylpyridine monomer onto a polyethylene-coated polypropylene nonwoven fabric (NWF) in aqueous emulsion solution. The grafting conditions of the 4-vinylpyridine monomer onto the NWF were optimised and 150% Dg VP-g-NWF was prepared using 30 kGy pre-irradiation dose, 5% VP monomer concentration and 0.5% (w/w) Tween 20 in aqueous emulsion. Grafted 4-vinylpyridine chains on the NWF were then quaternized for the preparation of QVP-g-NWF adsorbent. All fabric structures were characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, x-ray photoelectron spectrometer and scanning electron microscope. QVP-g-NWF adsorbent was used in batch adsorption experiments for As(V) ions by studying the pH, contact time, and initial As(V) ion concentration parameters. Results showed that QVP-g-NWF adsorbent has significant As(V) adsorption and experimental As(V) adsorption capacity was 98.04 mg As(V)/g polymer from 500 mg/L initial As(V) concentration at pH 7.00.

  5. Morphological evolution of lamellar forming polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) copolymers under solvent annealing.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Tandra; Chaudhari, Atul; Cummins, Cian; Shaw, Matthew T; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A

    2016-06-28

    In this work, we are reporting a very simple and efficient method to form lamellar structures of symmetric polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) copolymer thin films with vertically (to the surface plane) orientated lamellae using a solvent annealing approach. The methodology does not require any brush chemistry to engineer a neutral surface and it is the block neutral nature of the film-solvent vapour interface that defines the orientation of the lamellae. The microphase separated structure of two different molecular weight lamellar forming PS-block-P4VP copolymers formed under solvent vapour annealing was monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) so as to understand the morphological changes of the films upon different solvent exposure. In particular, the morphology changes from micellar structures to well-defined microphase separated arrangements. The choice of solvent/s (single and dual solvent exposure) and the solvent annealing conditions (temperature, time etc.) has important effects on structural transitions of the films and it was found that a block neutral solvent was required to realize vertically aligned P4VP lamellae. The results of the structural variation of the phase separated nanostructured films through the exposure to ethanol are also described.

  6. The radiolysis of poly(4-vinylpyridine) quaternary salt ion exchange resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Kazuyuki; LaVerne, Jay A.; Tandon, Lav; Enriquez, Alejandro E.; Matonic, John H.

    2008-02-01

    The radiation chemical yields of gaseous products, especially molecular hydrogen (H 2), have been determined in the radiolysis of different poly(4-vinylpyridine) quaternary salt ion exchange resins with up to about 30 wt% of absorbed water. Irradiations were performed with 5 MeV 4He ions to simulate α-particle radiolysis and with γ-rays for comparison. The resins were quaternary salts of chloride and nitrate that are commonly used as matrixes in anion exchange and in plutonium recovery processes. An increase in H 2 yields with increasing water loading was observed for both types of ionizing radiation in all of the resins. The yield of H 2 for the nitrate-form was lower than that for the chloride and the yield of H 2 was lower when the pyridinium nitrogen atom is coordinated to a methyl group rather than to atomic hydrogen. Spectroscopic studies included UV/vis, IR, and Raman and suggested that all the resins exhibit a high radiolytic stability.

  7. Morphological evolution of lamellar forming polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) copolymers under solvent annealing.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Tandra; Chaudhari, Atul; Cummins, Cian; Shaw, Matthew T; Holmes, Justin D; Morris, Michael A

    2016-06-28

    In this work, we are reporting a very simple and efficient method to form lamellar structures of symmetric polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) copolymer thin films with vertically (to the surface plane) orientated lamellae using a solvent annealing approach. The methodology does not require any brush chemistry to engineer a neutral surface and it is the block neutral nature of the film-solvent vapour interface that defines the orientation of the lamellae. The microphase separated structure of two different molecular weight lamellar forming PS-block-P4VP copolymers formed under solvent vapour annealing was monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) so as to understand the morphological changes of the films upon different solvent exposure. In particular, the morphology changes from micellar structures to well-defined microphase separated arrangements. The choice of solvent/s (single and dual solvent exposure) and the solvent annealing conditions (temperature, time etc.) has important effects on structural transitions of the films and it was found that a block neutral solvent was required to realize vertically aligned P4VP lamellae. The results of the structural variation of the phase separated nanostructured films through the exposure to ethanol are also described. PMID:27240904

  8. Enzyme-free Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide from Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Immobilized on Poly(4-vinylpyridine) Self-Assembled Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Gaynor, James D.; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Inerbaev, Talgat; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Shutthanandan, V.; Seal, Sudipta; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-05-02

    A single layer of oxygen-deficient cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are immobilized on microscopic glass slide using poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). A specific colorimetric property of CNPs when reacted with hydrogen peroxide allows for the direct, single-step peroxide detection which can be used in medical diagnosis and explosives detection. Multiple PVP-CNP immobilized layers improve sensitivity of detection and the sensor can be regenerated for reuse.

  9. Poly(4-vinylpyridine): a polymeric ligand for mixed-mode protein chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanying; Sun, Yan

    2014-12-19

    Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) was proposed for use as a polymeric ligand of mixed-mode chromatography (MMC) of proteins. P4VP has linear hydrophobic chains with ionizable pyridyl groups in its backbone. The polymer was coupled onto Sepharose FF gel at a pyridyl group density of 190 μmol/mL (FF-P4VP-190) by the substitution reaction of pyridyl amines with brominated Sepharose gel. Thereby the immobilized ligand possesses the intrinsic hydrophobic nature as well as the newly obtained electrostatic interaction properties endowed from the substituted positively charged pyridyl amines. The pore size distribution was measured by inverse size exclusion chromatography, and the results revealed that P4VP formed a three-dimensional layer on the matrix surface with a maximum layer depth of 4.2 nm. The adsorption isotherms of γ-globulin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to FF-P4VP-190 were determined under varying pH values and salt concentrations to provide insights into the adsorption properties of the medium. It was found that the adsorption capacity of γ-globulin and BSA both presented an increase with pH increasing from 8.0 to 9.0. Moreover, FF-P4VP-190 exhibited stronger adsorption for BSA than γ-globulin. The higher affinity for BSA might be attributed to its more net negative charges. Protein adsorption capacities to FF-P4VP-190 decreased with increasing NaCl concentration, but still manifested moderate levels at high salt concentration such as 75 mg/mL for γ-globulin and 14 mg/mL for BSA at 0.5 mol/L NaCl and pH 9.0. The capacity decreases with increasing ionic strength, indicating the dominant role of electrostatic interactions, while the moderate capacity values at 0.5 mol/L NaCl confirmed the presence of salt-tolerant feature of FF-P4VP-190, making it function as an MMC material. Column chromatography was conducted to investigate protein elution behavior. Efficient protein recovery was achieved at mild elution conditions such as pH 4.0 for γ-globulin and pH 4

  10. Preparation of monodisperse poly(divinylbenzene-co-4-vinylpyridine) microspheres by distillation-precipitation polymerization and precipitation polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yong; Zhang, J. Mei; Dai, Zhao; Sun, Xiu X.; Xu, Shi C.; Wang, Long; Zheng, Guo

    2010-07-01

    Polymer microspheres with functional groups are attractive for a wide number of applications, including supporting phases for separation science, biomedical devices, casting additives and controlled release reservoirs. In this paper, Poly(divinylbenzene-co-4-vinylpyridine)(Ploy(DVB-co-4-Vpy)) microspheres with functional pyridyl was prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization and precipitation polymerization separately when 2,2'-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator in net acetonitrile. The feature of microspheres was characterized by TEM while the loading capacity of nitrogen on microspheres' surface and the hydrophilicity were measured by back titration and contact angle measurement. Under the same crosslinking degree, the microspheres prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization had better feature, smoother surface, more functional groups and better hydrophilicity but lower yields than the ones prepared by precipitation polymerization.

  11. Antagonistic activity of poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide) to the inhibition of viral interferon induction by asbestos fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Hahon, N; Booth, J A; Eckert, H L

    1977-01-01

    The depressive activity of both serpentine (Canadian and Rhodesian chrysotiles) and amphibole (amosite, crocidolite, and anthophyllite) asbestos fibres on interferon induction by influenza virus was significantly diminished or abolished completely when either asbestos fibres or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide). Maximal antagonistic activity of the polymer was time and concentration dependent. Pretreating asbestos fibres with the polymer was more rapid and effective in encouraging viral interferon synthesis than pretreating cell monolayers. Virus multiplication in the presence of asbestos fibre-treated cell monolayers attained a twofold higher level than that noted in normal cell monolayers or those containing polymer-pretreated asbestos fibres. These findings were related to the suppression of interferon production. PMID:871442

  12. Counteraction of poly(4-vinylpyridine-n-oxide) on the depression of viral interferon induction by coal dust.

    PubMed Central

    Hahon, N

    1976-01-01

    The depressive activity of coal dust on interferon induction by influenza was markedly subverted when either coal dust or LLC-MK2 cell monolayers were pretreated with poly (4-vinylpyridine-N-oside). The polymer alone neither induced interferon synthesis, inhibited viral induction of interferon, influenced viral multiplication, nor affected cellular-induced resistance by interferon. Absorption of the polymer to coal dust not only occurred at a more rapid rate than to cell monolayers, but also less polymer was required to pretreat coal dust than cell monolayers to achieve comparable amelioration of interferon production. The polymer effectively negated the adverse activity of coal dust particles, irrespective of the latter's size (is less than 2.0 to 74.0 mum). Virus multiplication in the presence of coal dust=treated cell monolayers attained a level that was twofol higher than that noted with either polymer-pretreated coal dust or polymer-pretreated cell monolayers. Interferon production was almost completely inhibited in the presence of coal dust; pretreating coal dust or cells with the polymer abrogated this inhibitory activity of coal dust. It is tentatively suggested that coal dust particles per se directly interact with cell membranes to subvert interferon induction and that the formation of an absorbed polymerlayer on these complexes prevents their interaction. PMID:178603

  13. Characterization of poly(4-vinylpyridine 1-oxide) by free-solution capillary electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Herrero-Martínez, José M; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2008-08-01

    The migration characteristics of poly(4-vinylpyridine 1-oxide) (PVP-NO) in phosphate buffers of acidic pH (20 mM H3PO4 or NaH2PO4) have been studied using both free-solution capillary electrophoresis (FSCE) and MEKC. To inhibit adsorption, 250 mM o-phosphoethanolamine (2-aminoethyl dihydrogen phosphate) was used. In FSCE, PVP-NO showed a narrow peak and a broader band, both having anionic behavior. These peak and band were attributed to the free and aggregated or micellized PVP-NO forms, respectively. According to surface tension measurements, the CMC of SDS in the BGE was 1.8 and 0.48 mM in the absence and in the presence of 1000 microg/mL PVP-NO, respectively, and the association of the polymer with SDS was completed at 9.7 mM SDS. Using MEKC, a narrow peak and a broader band also appeared at SDS concentrations of ca. 1 mM, and their intensity increased with the SDS concentration. These peak and band were attributed to the formation of mixed micelles constituted by both free PVP-NO/SDS and aggregated PVP-NO/SDS, respectively. The determination of PVP-NO by FSCE in commercial additives for laundry was demonstrated.

  14. Hierarchical Nanostructures of Bent-Core Molecules Blended With Poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) Block Copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Tenneti,K.; Chen, X.; Li, C.; Wan, X.; Fan, X.; Zhou, Q.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    We report the phase structures observed in blends of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer (BCP) and a bent-core molecule 1-[4'-(3' ',4' ',5' '-tridecyloxybenzoyloxy)phenyleneoxycarbonyl]-3-[(4'-hydroxyphenyl)oxycarbonyl]benzene (BP). Hydrogen bonding between the terminal -OH group of BP and pyridine of P4VP led to the formation of P4VP(BP)n complex, which exhibited liquid crystalline (LC) order. This LC ordering, combined with microphase separation of the BCP, led to the formation of hierarchical nanostructures. The phase structures of the blend samples were investigated as a function of the concentration of BP using small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. By increasing the BP content, BCP phase morphology transformed from lamellae to cylinders. In the two cases investigated, the P4VP/BP complex formed a bilayer smectic A LC structure within the BCP domains, and these layered structures were oriented perpendicular to the BCP interface. A detailed structural and morphological study will be reported.

  15. Ion source-dependent performance of 4-vinylpyridine, iodoacetamide, and N-maleoyl derivatives for the detection of cysteine-containing peptides in complex proteomics.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Wiebke; Berg, Regina; Walch, Philipp; Hanke, Sabrina; Baalmann, Mathis; Kerner, Alexander; Trumpp, Andreas; Roesli, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Cysteine is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids due to its ability to form disulfide bonds. While this property is of vital importance for protein structures and biological processes, it causes difficulties for the mass spectrometric identification of cysteine-containing peptides. A common approach to overcome these problems in bottom-up proteomics is the reduction and covalent modification of sulfhydryl groups prior to enzymatic digestion. In this study, established alkylating agents and N-maleoyl amino acids with variable hydrophobicity were characterized with respect to a variety of relevant parameters and subsequently evaluated in a large-scale analysis using different ion sources. Depending on the compound, the ion source had a profound impact on the relative and absolute identification of cysteine-containing peptides. The best results were obtained by derivatization of the cysteine residues with 4-vinylpyridine and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). Modification with 4-vinylpyridine increased the number of cysteine-containing peptides identified with any other compound using LC-MALDI/MS at least by a factor of 2. This experimental observation is mirrored by differences in the gas-phase basicities, which were computed for methyl thiolate derivatives of the compounds using density functional theory. With electrospray ionization (ESI), complementary use of reagents from three different compound classes, e.g., iodoacetamide, 4-vinylpyridine, and N-maleoyl beta-alanine, was beneficial compared to the application of a single reagent.

  16. Nanolayered manganese oxide/poly(4-vinylpyridine) as a biomimetic and very efficient water oxidizing catalyst: toward an artificial enzyme in artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Haghighi, Behzad; Ghobadi, Mohadeseh Zarei; Sedigh, Davood Jafarian

    2013-10-01

    Nanolayered Mn oxide/poly(4-vinylpyridine) as a model for Mn cluster in photosystem II was synthesized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The compound is a very efficient water oxidizing catalyst, and sizable oxygen evolution was detected at 50 mV overpotential at near neutral pH. The number is as low as the overpotential is used by nature in photosystem II of cyanobacteria, algae and green plants for similar reactions.

  17. The Interaction of CORM-2 with Block Copolymers Containing Poly(4-vinylpyridine): Macromolecular Scaffolds for Carbon Monoxide Delivery in Biological Systems.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diep; Adnan, Nik Nik M; Oliver, Susan; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-05-01

    CORM-2, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium(II) dimer (Ru2 Cl4 (CO)6 ), is a common carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM) studied both in vitro and in vivo, but this compound possesses poor water solubility and a short half-life, which hinders its clinical development. Herein, for the first time the conjugation of CORM-2 is reported with a copolymer containing poly(4-vinylpyridine) to yield water-soluble CO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles. CORM-2 is rapidly conjugated to copolymers through pyridine groups as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. In comparison with free CORM-2, the copolymers functionalized with CORM-2 display better water solubility and the CO release from the polymer-based CORM is slow and sustained. This study paves the way for the potential use of a copolymer encapsulating CORM-2 as a therapeutic agent. PMID:26945898

  18. Retention of heavy metal ions on comb-type hydrogels based on acrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine, synthesized by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gómez, Roberto; Ortega, Alejandra; Lazo, Luz M.; Burillo, Guillermina

    2014-09-01

    Two novel comb-type hydrogels based on pH-sensitive monomers (acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) were synthesized by gamma radiation. The systems were as follows: a) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network followed by grafting of 4VP ((net-PAAc)-g-4VP) and b) comb-type hydrogels of an AAc network grafted onto polypropylene (PP) followed by grafting of 4VP (net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP). The equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were evaluated for copper and zinc ions in aqueous solutions. The Zn(II) retention obtained was 480 mg g-1 and 1086 mg g-1 for (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP, respectively. At concentrations as low as ppm, retention efficiencies of approximately 90% were achieved for Cu(II) on (net-PAAc)-g-4VP and for Zn(II) on net-(PP-g-AAc)-g-4VP. Desorption of the hydrogels was also studied, and the results indicated that they can be used repeatedly in aqueous solutions. For both systems, the adsorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) obeyed the Freundlich model, indicating heterogeneous sorption, and the retention process occurred by chemisorption. The sorption process follows a pseudo-second-order model.

  19. Novel pH-responsive polymeric micelles prepared through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymer with poly-4-vinylpyridine block synthesized by mechanochemical solid-state polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shin-ichi; Asano, Yuna; Koizumi, Natsumi; Tatematsu, Kenjiro; Sawama, Yuka; Sasai, Yasushi; Yamauchi, Yukinori; Kuzuya, Masayuki; Kurosawa, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated polymeric micelles containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or fluorescein using the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly-4-vinylpyridine-b-6-O-methacryloyl galactopyranose. Although the polymeric micelles were stable at pH 7.4, they readily decomposed at pH 5, resulting in near complete release of 5-FU. Uptake of polymeric micelles containing fluorescein by HepG2 and HCT116 cells was also investigated. With both cell types, strong fluorescence was observed after a 12-h incubation, but the fluorescence weakened after 24 h of incubation. The fluorescein incorporated into the polymeric micelles was released into acidic organelles (endosome and/or lysosome), from which it diffused throughout the cell. The cytotoxicity of polymeric micelles containing 5-FU was evaluated against HepG2 cells using a CCK-8 assay. The results suggest that polymeric micelles containing 5-FU are more cytotoxic to HepG2 cells than free 5-FU. PMID:26133065

  20. Crosslinked poly (4-vinylpyridine-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) used for preconcentration of Cd(II) and its determination by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Farias, Natália Cristina Botteon; Lima, Giovana de Fátima; de Oliveira, Fernanda Midori; Bonfílio, Rudy; Dragunski, Douglas Cardoso; Clausen, Débora Nobile; Segatelli, Mariana Gava

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to synthesize crosslinked poly(4-vinylpyridine-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and evaluate its feasibility for highly sensitive and selective determination of Cd in water samples by using flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The crosslinked polymer, prepared by bulk polymerization, was characterized by FTIR spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. The flow injection solid-phase method was based on preconcentration of 20.0 mL of sample through 100 mg of the polymer packed into a minicolumn at pH 8.25 using a flow rate of 6.0 mL/min, followed by elution with 1.0 M HNO3. The sample solution parameters influencing the preconcentration behavior of Cd ions, such as pH, buffer concentration, and flow rate, were simultaneously studied and optimized using a Doehlert matrix. Values of 0.10 microg/L, 2.0-210 microg/L, 32.3, 18/h, 9.7/min, and 0.62 mL were obtained for LOD, linear range, preconcentration factor, sample throughput, concentration efficiency, and consumption index, respectively. The effect of the presence of the inorganic cations Pb(II), U(IV), Co(II), Hg(II), Cu(II), As(II), Mg(II), Sb(III), Ni(II), Th(IV), Ba(II), and Ca(II) on the method was studied, and the preconcentration of Cd was observed to have no interference. The accuracy of the method was assessed by analysis of natural water samples using addition and recovery tests and inductively coupled plasma/MS as a reference technique, as well as by analysis of a standard reference material of trace elements in water. PMID:24830174

  1. Preparation of styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine magnetic polymer beads by microwave irradiation for analysis of trace 24-epibrassinolide in plant samples using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Wei; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2010-10-15

    In the study, a kind of novel styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine (St-co-4-VP) porous magnetic polymer beads was prepared by microwave irradiation using suspension polymerization. Microwave heating preparation greatly reduced the polymerization time to 1h. Physical characteristic tests suggested that these beads were cross-linking and possessed spherical shape, good magnetic response and porous morphologies with a narrow diameter distribution of 70-180 μm. Therefore, these beads displayed the long-term stability after undergoing 100-time extractions. Then, an analytical method for the determination of trace 24-epiBR in plant samples was developed by magnetic polymer bead extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. St-co-4-VP magnetic polymer beads demonstrated the higher extraction selectivity for 24-epiBR than other reference compounds. Linear range was 10.00-100.0 μg/L with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.7%, and the detection limit was 6.5 μg/kg. This analytical method was successfully applied to analyze the trace 24-epiBR in cole and breaking-wall rape pollen samples with recoveries of 77.2-90.0% and 72.3-83.4%, respectively, and RSDs were less than 4.1%. The amount of 24-epiBR in real breaking-wall rape pollen samples was found to be 26.2 μg/kg finally. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient analytical method for the determination of trace brassinosteroids in complicated plant samples by the use of St-co-4-VP magnetic polymer bead extraction coupled with chromatographic method.

  2. pH effect of coagulation bath on the characteristics of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted and poly(4-vinylpyridine)-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Ying, Lei; Zhai, Guangqun; Winata, A Y; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G

    2003-09-15

    The poly(acrylic acid)-graft-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PAAc-g-PVDF) and poly(4-vinylpyridine)-graft-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (P4VP-g-PVDF) copolymers were obtained by thermally induced molecular graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) and 4-vinylpyridine (4VP), respectively, with the ozone-pretreated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solution. Microfiltration (MF) membranes were prepared from the respective copolymers by phase inversion in aqueous media. The effects of pH of the coagulation bath on the physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the membranes were investigated. The surface compositions of the membranes were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface graft concentration of the AAc polymer for the PAAc-g-PVDF MF membrane increased with decreasing pH value of the coagulation bath. Completely opposite pH-dependent behavior was observed for the surface graft concentration of the 4VP polymer in the P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes. A substantial increase in mean pore size was observed for the PAAc-g-PVDF MF membranes cast in basic coagulation baths of increasing pH. In the case of the P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes, a substantial increase in mean pore size was observed for membranes cast in low pH (acidic) baths. The permeation rate of aqueous solutions through the PAAc-g-PVDF and P4VP-g-PVDF MF membranes exhibited a reversible dependence on the pH of the solution, with the membranes cast near the neutral pH exhibiting the highest sensitivity to changes in permeate pH. PMID:12962674

  3. Preparation of magnetic indole-3-acetic acid imprinted polymer beads with 4-vinylpyridine and β-cyclodextrin as binary monomer via microwave heating initiated polymerization and their application to trace analysis of auxins in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Yuanwen; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Chen, Yueqin

    2010-11-19

    Auxin is a crucial phytohormone for precise control of growth and development of plants. Due to its low concentration in plant tissues which are rich in interfering substances, the accurate determination of auxins remains a challenge. In this paper, a new strategy for isolation and enrichment of auxins from plant tissues was obtained by the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads, which were prepared by microwave heating initiated suspension polymerization using indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) as template. In order to obtain higher selective recognition cavities, an enhanced imprinting method based on binary functional monomers, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), was adopted for IAA imprinting. The morphological and magnetic characteristics of the mag-MIP beads were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. A majority of resultant beads were within the size range of 80-150μm. Porous surface morphology and good magnetic property were observed. Furthermore, the mag-MIP beads fabricated with 4-VP and β-CD as binary functional monomers exhibited improved recognition ability to IAA, as compared with the mag-MIP beads prepared with the individual monomer separately. Competitive rebinding experiment results revealed that the mag-MIP beads exhibited a higher specific recognition for the template than the non-imprinted polymer (mag-NIP) beads. An extraction method by mag-MIP beads coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for determination of IAA and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in plant tissues. Linear ranges for IAA and IBA were in the range of 7.00-100.0μgL(-1) and 10.0-100.0μgL(-1), and the detection limits were 3.9 and 7.4μgL(-1), respectively. The analytical performance was also estimated by seedlings or immature embryos samples from three different plant tissues, pea, rice and wheat. Recoveries were in the range of 70

  4. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  5. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  6. Anchoring the Deficit of the Anchor Deficit: Dyslexia or Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2010-01-01

    In the anchoring deficit hypothesis of dyslexia ("Trends Cogn. Sci.", 2007; 11: 458-465), it is proposed that perceptual problems arise from the lack of forming a perceptual anchor for repeatedly presented stimuli. A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia is presented. Four groups, representing all…

  7. Bellow seal and anchor

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    An annular seal is made of a collapsible bellows. The bellows can function as an anchor or a seal and is easily set into position using relative component movement. The bellows folds can be slanted and their outer sealing edges can have different profiles to meet expected conditions. The bellows is expanded for insertion to reduce its outer dimension and sets by compaction as a result of relative movement. The bellows can be straight or tapered and is settable with a minimal axial force.

  8. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Benjamin M.; Guo, Zhongwu

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cell-surface proteins and glycoproteins are anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), a family of glycolipids that are post-translationally attached to proteins at their C-termini. GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological and pathological events, such as cell recognition and adhesion, signal transduction, host defense, and acting as receptors for viruses and toxins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPI anchors and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems and exploring their potential therapeutic applications. In the first part of this comprehensive article on the chemical synthesis of GPIs, classic syntheses of naturally occurring GPI anchors from protozoan parasites, yeast, and mammals are covered. The second part of the article focuses on recent diversity-oriented strategies for the synthesis of GPI anchors containing unsaturated lipids, “click chemistry” tags, and highly branched and modified structures. PMID:22794184

  9. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  10. Bone cement improves suture anchor fixation.

    PubMed

    Giori, Nicholas J; Sohn, David H; Mirza, Faisal M; Lindsey, Derek P; Lee, Arthur T

    2006-10-01

    Suture anchor fixation failure can occur if the anchor pulls out of bone. We hypothesized that suture anchor fixation can be augmented with polymethylmethacrylate cement, and that polymethylmethacrylate can be used to improve fixation in a stripped anchor hole. Six matched cadaveric proximal humeri were used. On one side, suture anchors were placed and loaded to failure using a ramped cyclic loading protocol. The stripped anchor holes then were injected with approximately 1 cc polymethylmethacrylate, and anchors were replaced and tested again. In the contralateral humerus, polymethylmethacrylate was injected into anchor holes before anchor placement and testing. In unstripped anchors, polymethylmethacrylate increased the number of cycles to failure by 34% and failure load by 71% compared with anchors not augmented with polymethylmethacrylate. Polymethylmethacrylate haugmentation of stripped anchors increased the cycles to failure by 31% and failure load by 111% compared with unstripped uncemented anchors. No difference was found in cycles to failure or failure load between cemented stripped anchors and cemented unstripped anchors. Polymethylmethacrylate can be used to augment fixation, reducing the risk of anchor pull-out failure, regardless whether the suture anchor hole is stripped or unstripped. PMID:16702922

  11. Anchoring: A "Cure" for Epy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalgott, Mary R.

    1986-01-01

    Anchoring, a neurolinguistic programing technique, was successful in helping a sixth grader with learning disabilities reduce his anxiety reaction to math tasks. Other uses for the approach are noted and guidelines offered. (CL)

  12. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  13. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  14. Permanent ground anchors: Nicholson design criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, P. J.; Uranowski, D. D.; Wycliffe-Jones, P. T.

    1982-09-01

    The methods used by Nicholson Construction Company in the design of permanent ground anchors specifically as related to retaining walls are discussed. Basic soil parameters, design concepts, drilling and grouting methods for ground anchors are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on anchors founded in soil rather than rock formations. Also, soil properties necessary for the proper design of anchored retaining walls are detailed. The second chapter of the report is devoted to a general discussion of retaining wall and anchor design. In addition, a design example of an anchored retaining wall is presented in a step by step manner.

  15. How anchoring proteins shape pain.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael J M; McNaughton, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Cellular responsiveness to external stimuli can be altered by extracellular mediators which activate membrane receptors, in turn signalling to the intracellular space via calcium, cyclic nucleotides, membrane lipids or enzyme activity. These signalling events trigger a cascade leading to an effector which can be a channel, an enzyme or a transcription factor. The effectiveness of these intracellular events is enhanced when they are maintained in close proximity by anchoring proteins, which assemble complexes of signalling molecules such as kinases together with their targets, and in this way enhance both the speed and the precision of intracellular signalling. The A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family are adaptor proteins originally named for their ability to associate Protein Kinase A and its targets, but several other enzymes bound by AKAPs have now been found and a wide variety of target structures has been described. This review provides an overview of anchoring proteins involved in pain signalling. The key anchoring proteins and their ion channel targets in primary sensory neurons responding to painful stimuli (nociceptors) are discussed.

  16. Anchors Aweigh: A Demonstration of Cross-Modality Anchoring and Magnitude Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M.; LeBoeuf, Robyn A.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that judgments tend to assimilate to irrelevant "anchors." We extend anchoring effects to show that anchors can even operate across modalities by, apparently, priming a general sense of magnitude that is not moored to any unit or scale. An initial study showed that participants drawing long "anchor" lines made higher numerical…

  17. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a) Every... equipped with a stern anchor. (b) Every integrated tug and barge or articulated tug and barge unit...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.19002 Section 57.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19002 Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely....

  19. 30 CFR 56.19002 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring. 56.19002 Section 56.19002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Anchoring. Hoists shall be anchored securely....

  20. Late disengagement of a knotless anchor.

    PubMed

    Antonogiannakis, Emmanuel; Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Karliaftis, Konstantinos; Karabalis, Christos

    2002-10-01

    The knotless anchor is a new type of suture anchor that eliminates the need to perform arthroscopic knots, thus facilitating the performance of arthroscopic shoulder surgery. We report our experience in the use of this type of anchor in arthroscopic Bankart repair and discuss a complication related to using this type of fixation device.

  1. The ROSETTA Lander anchoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Markus; Stöcker, Jakob; Rohe, Christian; Kömle, Norbert I.; Kargl, Günter; Hillenmaier, Olaf; Lell, Peter

    2003-09-01

    A major goal of the ESA cornerstone mission ROSETTA is to land a package of scientific instruments known as the ROSETTA Lander on the nucleus of a comet. Due to the low gravity a highly reliable fixation of the ROSETTA Lander to the target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (3rd) is essential. For that purpose a redundant Anchoring System, consisting of two pyrotechnically actuated Anchoring Harpoons and a redundant Control Electronics has been developed, built and qualified at the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Garching. The pyrotechnical gas generator has been developed jointly by Pyroglobe GmbH and MPE, the procurement of the control electronics has been sub-contracted to Magson GmbH, Berlin. A study to obtain a suitable lubrication method for the commutator of a brushed DC motor has been conducted at the European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL; S. D. Lewis et al., 2003).

  2. Anchoring bias in online voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zimo; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-12-01

    Voting online with explicit ratings could largely reflect people's preferences and objects' qualities, but ratings are always irrational, because they may be affected by many unpredictable factors like mood, weather and other people's votes. By analyzing two real systems, this paper reveals a systematic bias embedding in the individual decision-making processes, namely people tend to give a low rating after a low rating, as well as a high rating following a high rating. This so-called anchoring bias is validated via extensive comparisons with null models, and numerically speaking, the extent of bias decays with voting interval in a logarithmic form. Our findings could be applied in the design of recommender systems and considered as important complementary materials to previous knowledge about anchoring effects on financial trades, performance judgments, auctions, and so on.

  3. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  4. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  5. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  6. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ≥2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale.

  7. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ≥2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale. PMID:23944468

  8. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  9. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  10. 33 CFR 164.19 - Requirements for vessels at anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... anchor. 164.19 Section 164.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... vessels at anchor. The master or person in charge of each vessel that is anchored shall ensure that: (a) A proper anchor watch is maintained; (b) Procedures are followed to detect a dragging anchor; and...

  11. Observed Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and an Anchor with Less Spread of Difficulty: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Two different types of anchors are investigated in this study: a mini-version anchor and an anchor that has a less spread of difficulty than the tests to be equated. The latter is referred to as a midi anchor. The impact of these two different types of anchors on observed score equating are evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error…

  12. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  14. DSSC anchoring groups: a surface dependent decision.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, C; Bowler, D R

    2014-05-14

    Electrodes in dye sensitised solar cells are typically nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with a majority (1 0 1) surface exposed. Generally the sensitising dye employs a carboxylic anchoring moiety through which it adheres to the TiO₂ surface. Recent interest in exploiting the properties of differing TiO₂ electrode morphologies, such as rutile nanorods exposing the (1 1 0) surface and anatase electrodes with high percentages of the (0 0 1) surface exposed, begs the question of whether this anchoring strategy is best, irrespective of the majority surface exposed. Here we address this question by presenting density functional theory calculations contrasting the binding properties of two promising anchoring groups, phosphonic acid and boronic acid, to that of carboxylic acid. Anchor-electrode interactions are studied for the prototypical anatase (1 0 1) surface, along with the anatase (0 0 1) and rutile (1 1 0) surfaces. Finally the effect of using these alternative anchoring groups to bind a typical coumarin dye (NKX-2311) to these TiO₂ substrates is examined. Significant differences in the binding properties are found depending on both the anchor and surface, illustrating that the choice of anchor is necessarily dependent upon the surface exposed in the electrode. In particular the boronic acid is found to show the potential to be an excellent anchor choice for electrodes exposing the anatase (0 0 1) surface.

  15. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring. 57.7032 Section 57.7032 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be...

  16. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  17. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  18. Synthesis of 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene copolymer adsorbents for microwave-assisted desorption of benzene.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing Bo; Yang, Go-Su; Lee, Youn-Sik

    2012-02-29

    Reports on the development of polymer adsorbents for microwave-assisted desorption of nonpolar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are rare. In this study, we synthesized macroporous polymeric adsorbents with hydrophilic methyl pyridinium units for microwave-assisted desorption of nonpolar VOCs. The benzene adsorption and desorption properties of the adsorbents were investigated under both dry and humid conditions. Under humid conditions, as the content of the hydrophilic methyl pyridinium units in the adsorbents increased from 0 to 20%, the adsorption capacity of benzene decreased from about 21 to 7 mg/g, while the desorption efficiency of benzene increased significantly from 48 to 87%. The maximum concentration of desorbate also increased significantly as the content of the hydrophilic units was increased under humid conditions. We attributed the enhanced desorption efficiency mainly to more adsorbed moisture, which indirectly allowed heating of the polymer adsorbents to higher temperatures upon irradiation with 600 W microwaves. PMID:22236950

  19. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  20. Anchoring Revisited: The Role of the Comparative Question

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Ina; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    When people estimate a numeric value after judging whether it is larger or smaller than a high or low anchor value (comparative question), estimates are biased in the direction of the anchor. One explanation for this anchoring effect is that people selectively access knowledge consistent with the anchor value as part of a positive test strategy. Two studies (total N = 184) supported the alternative explanation that people access knowledge consistent with their own answer to the comparative question. Specifically, anchoring effects emerged when the answer to the comparative question was unexpected (lower than the low anchor or higher than the high anchor). For expected answers (lower than the high anchor or higher than the low anchor), however, anchoring effects were attenuated or reversed. The anchor value itself was almost never reported as an absolute estimate. PMID:24454953

  1. Anchor Coil Technique for Arteriovenous Fistula Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Ezura, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Yoshihisa; Yagi, Takashi; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Fukumoto, Yuichiro; Horikoshi, Toru; Kinouch, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) successfully treated by coil embolization with an anchor coil inserted in the varix to facilitate dense packing at the shunting site. AVF of the left anterior choroidal artery (AChoA) draining into the ipsilateral basal vein of Rosenthal was incidentally found in a newborn female. A single detachable coil was inserted as an anchor into the varix adjacent to the shunt, and the microcatheter was pulled back to the shunting point. Three more detachable coils were delivered at the shunting point without migration under the support of the anchor coil, and the AVF was successfully obliterated with preservation of AChoA blood flow. The anchor coil technique can reduce the risk of coil migration and the number of coils required. PMID:24976089

  2. Behavior of soil anchors under dynamic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Picornell, M.; Olague, B.

    1997-07-01

    Helical anchors placed in a cohesionless soil in a laboratory setting were tested under static and dynamic loads. The dynamic tests were performed after subjecting the anchors to a seating load. The dynamic load had an intensity that changed in sinusoidal fashion and was superimposed to the static seating loads. Although, the anchors have a static pull-out capacity, when the dynamic loads are applied the anchor experiences additional deformations for each load cycle. The deformations per cycle are initially high but then decrease to a nearly constant rate. Eventually, the constant rate increases suddenly accelerating until failure. This failure can take place even at small fractions of the static pull-out capacity. The rate of deformation per load cycle is found to increase for larger seating loads and for larger dynamic pulsating loads. The results of this study shows that the designer can only adjust loads to decrease the deformation rate to suit the design life of the structure.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A preformed... the platinum group intended to be incorporated into a dental appliance, such as a denture, to...

  4. Bone anchored hearing aids in children.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Jayesh; McDermott, Ann-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Bone-anchored hearing devices have evolved over recent years. This article provides an overview of the device history, indications, evolution of surgical technique, evidence for benefit and focuses on the challenges that are faced in the pediatric population.

  5. Improving performance by anchoring movement and "nerves".

    PubMed

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E; Dotson, Charles O; Jagodinsky, Adam E; Clark, Lily C; Smallwood, Lorraine L; Wilburn, Christopher; Weimar, Wendi H; Miller, Matthew W

    2016-10-01

    Golf's governing bodies' recent decision to ban all putting styles "anchoring one end of the club against the body" bridges an important practical problem with psychological theory. We report the first experiment testing whether anchoring provides technical and/or psychological advantage in competitive performance. Many "greats" of professional golf from Arnold Palmer and Jack Nicklaus to Tiger Woods have argued against anchoring, believing that it takes "nerves" out of competitive performance and therefore artificially levels the playing field. To shed more light on the issue, we tested participants' performance with anchored and unanchored putters under low and high pressure when controlling for the putter length. We found no statistically significant evidence for a technical advantage due to anchoring but a clear psychological advantage: participants who anchored their putters significantly outperformed unanchored counterparts under high, but not low, pressure. Results provide tentative evidence for the ban's justification from a competitive standpoint. However, before any definite conclusions can be made, more research is needed when using high-level golfers.

  6. Improving performance by anchoring movement and "nerves".

    PubMed

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E; Dotson, Charles O; Jagodinsky, Adam E; Clark, Lily C; Smallwood, Lorraine L; Wilburn, Christopher; Weimar, Wendi H; Miller, Matthew W

    2016-10-01

    Golf's governing bodies' recent decision to ban all putting styles "anchoring one end of the club against the body" bridges an important practical problem with psychological theory. We report the first experiment testing whether anchoring provides technical and/or psychological advantage in competitive performance. Many "greats" of professional golf from Arnold Palmer and Jack Nicklaus to Tiger Woods have argued against anchoring, believing that it takes "nerves" out of competitive performance and therefore artificially levels the playing field. To shed more light on the issue, we tested participants' performance with anchored and unanchored putters under low and high pressure when controlling for the putter length. We found no statistically significant evidence for a technical advantage due to anchoring but a clear psychological advantage: participants who anchored their putters significantly outperformed unanchored counterparts under high, but not low, pressure. Results provide tentative evidence for the ban's justification from a competitive standpoint. However, before any definite conclusions can be made, more research is needed when using high-level golfers. PMID:27459587

  7. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  8. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  9. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  10. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  11. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  12. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  13. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants’ WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  14. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Li, Diandian; Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  15. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Li, Diandian; Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  16. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Robbany, Z. Handayani, G.

    2015-09-30

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  17. Polymer's anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yue

    The current dissertation mainly discusses about the polymers anchoring behavior in liquid crystal cells in two aspects: surface interaction and bulk interaction. The goal of the research is to understand the fundamental physics of anchoring strength and apply the knowledge to liquid crystal display devices. Researchers proposed two main contributors to the surface anchoring strength: the micro grooves generated by external force and the polymer chain's alignment. Both of them has experimental proofs. In the current study, explorations were made to understand the mechanisms of surface anchoring strength and easy axis of surface liquid crystal provided by rubbed polymer alignment layer. The work includes not only the variation of the alignment layer itself such as thickness(Chapter 3) and polymer side chain (Chapter 5), but also the variation of external conditions such as temperature (Chapter 4) and rubbing condition (Chapter 6). To determine the polar and azimuthal anchoring strengths, Rapini-Papoular's expression was applied. However, it was discovered that higher order terms may be required in order to fit the experimental result or theoretically predict unique anchoring behaviors (Chapter 2, Chapter 6). SEM and AFM technologies were introduced to gather the actual structures of polymer alignment layer and extrapolate the alignment of liquid crystal in a micro scale. The result shows that the anchoring strength can be adjusted by the layer thickness, side chain structure, while the easy axis direction can be adjusted by a second rubbing direction. In addition, different anchoring conditions combined with liquid crystal's elastic energy can generate quite different forms of liquid crystals (Chapter 7). In the study of bulk alignment, the main contrition from the current dissertation is applying the understanding of anchoring behavior to optimizing actual switchable devices. Conventional PDLC performance can be tuned with the knowledge of the polymer and the liquid

  18. GPI-anchor and GPI-anchored protein expression in PMM2-CDG patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mutations in PMM2 impair phosphomannomutase-2 activity and cause the most frequent congenital disorder of glycosylation, PMM2-CDG. Mannose-1-phosphate, that is deficient in this disorder, is also implicated in the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchors. Objective To evaluate whether GPI-anchor and GPI-anchored proteins are defective in PMM2-CDG patients. Methods The expression of GPI-anchor and seven GPI-anchored proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry in different cell types from twelve PMM2-CDG patients. Additionally, neutrophil CD16 and plasma hepatic proteins were studied by Western blot. Transferrin glycoforms were evaluated by HPLC. Results Patients and controls had similar surface expression of GPI-anchor and most GPI-anchored proteins. Nevertheless, patients displayed a significantly diminished binding of two anti-CD16 antibodies (3G8 and KD1) to neutrophils and also of anti-CD14 (61D3) to monocytes. Interestingly, CD16 immunostaining and asialotransferrin levels significantly correlated with patients’ age. Analysis by flow cytometry of CD14 with MΦP9, and CD16 expression in neutrophils by Western blot using H-80 ruled out deficiencies of these antigens. Conclusions PMM2 mutations do not impair GPI-anchor or GPI-anchored protein expression. However, the glycosylation anomalies caused by PMM2 mutations might affect the immunoreactivity of monoclonal antibodies and lead to incorrect conclusions about the expression of different proteins, including GPI-anchored proteins. Neutrophils and monocytes are sensitive to PMM2 mutations, leading to abnormal glycosylation in immune receptors, which might potentially affect their affinity to their ligands, and contribute to infection. This study also confirms less severe hypoglycosylation defects in older PMM2-CDG patients. PMID:24139637

  19. Anchoring in rhythmic in-phase and antiphase visuomotor tracking.

    PubMed

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Bank, Paulina J M; Peper, C E; Beek, Peter J

    2013-04-01

    Rhythmic limb movements are often anchored at particular points in the movement cycle. Anchoring may reveal essential task-specific information for motor control. We examined the effect of tracking mode (in-phase, antiphase) and gaze direction (left, right) on anchoring in visuomotor tracking with and without concurrent visual feedback of the hand movement. For in-phase tracking, anchoring was observed at the foveated reversal point whereas for antiphase tracking anchoring was observed at both reversals, suggesting the presence of two reference points instead of one. Anchoring at the foveated reversal reflected gaze anchoring (i.e., coalignment of hand and gaze) while anchoring at the nonfoveated reversal reflected visuomotor synchronization (i.e., the hand was steered to the nonfoveated reversal coincident with a target reversal at the point of gaze). We propose that the number and location of anchor points play a crucial role in the underlying control by providing reference values for error correction processes.

  20. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  1. Fibre-Reinforced Adhesive for Structure Anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnat, J.; Bajer, M.

    2015-11-01

    The topic of this paper is the glue-concrete interface of bonded anchors loaded by tension force. The paper is closely focused on bond strength experiments using high strength concrete up to class C50/60 or higher together with pure epoxy resin and fibre-reinforced resin. The goal of this research is to find the limits of the effective use of such glue types in high performance concrete, and also to verify the most commonly used design methods for bonded anchors. The presented research includes experimental analysis of the glue-concrete interface and the influence of its parameters on anchor behaviour. The presented analysis shows some problems of the 'separated failure modes' approach and also presents experimentally verified bond strength values obtained for the currently most widespread glue types. Results of fibre reinforced epoxy resin are also presented in this paper.

  2. Multiple magnetic microrobot control using electrostatic anchoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawashe, Chytra; Floyd, Steven; Sitti, Metin

    2009-04-01

    Addressing power and control to individual untethered microrobots is a challenge for small-scale robotics. We present a 250×130×100 μm3 magnetic robot wirelessly driven by pulsed external magnetic fields. An induced stick-slip motion results in translation speeds over 8 mm/s. Control of multiple robots is achieved by an array of addressable electrostatic anchoring pads on the surface, which selectively fixes microrobots, preventing translation. We demonstrate control of two microrobots in both uncoupled individual motion and coupled symmetric motion. An estimated anchoring force of 23.0 μN is necessary to effectively fix each microrobot.

  3. Bond strength of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) grouted anchors

    SciTech Connect

    Bellavance, E.; Xu, H.; Benmokrane, B.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory and field pull-out tests on cement grouted glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) anchors. As an alternative for grouted steel anchors, GFRP bars have many advantages over steel tendons, and can avoid corrosion and some difficulties in transportation, handling, and installation. Three types of 36 GFRP anchors and 20 steel anchors installed in three types of host media: steel pipe, concrete block, and rock mass were tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. The bond strength, load carrying capacity, load-displacement behavior, and critical bond length of cement grouted GFRP anchors were examined in comparison with conventional steel anchors.

  4. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Khang, Tsung Fei; Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams's K mult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  5. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  6. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  7. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  8. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  9. The "Anchor" Method: Principle and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selgin, Paul

    This report discusses the "anchor" language learning method that is based upon derivation rather than construction, using Italian as an example of a language to be learned. This method borrows from the natural process of language learning as it asks the student to remember whole expressions that serve as vehicles for learning both words and rules,…

  10. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  11. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  12. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  13. A Description of the Anchor Test Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    The Anchor Test Study is described as to objectives, the need for the study, tests selected for the study, States' participation, renumeration of School Test Coordinator, teacher participation, schedule of activities, reports of test results, pupil personnel data needed, and the tests administered during the restandardization phase and equating…

  14. A mitotic beacon reveals its nucleosome anchor.

    PubMed

    Hondele, Maria; Ladurner, Andreas

    2010-09-24

    Mitosis, nuclear envelope formation, and nucleocytoplasmic transport require chromosomes to identify themselves by enriching Ran-GTP around the chromatin fiber. In a recent Nature report, Makde et al. (2010) describe the structure of the Ran activator RCC1 anchored onto nucleosomes.

  15. Anchoring and adjustment during social inferences.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Diana I; Mitchell, Jason P

    2013-02-01

    Simulation theories of social cognition suggest that people use their own mental states to understand those of others-particularly similar others. However, perceivers cannot rely solely on self-knowledge to understand another person; they must also correct for differences between the self and others. Here we investigated serial adjustment as a mechanism for correction from self-knowledge anchors during social inferences. In 3 studies, participants judged the attitudes of a similar or dissimilar person and reported their own attitudes. For each item, we calculated the discrepancy between responses for the self and other. The adjustment process unfolds serially, so to the extent that individuals indeed anchor on self-knowledge and then adjust away, trials with a large amount of self-other discrepancy should be associated with longer response times, whereas small self-other discrepancy should correspond to shorter response times. Analyses consistently revealed this positive linear relationship between reaction time and self-other discrepancy, evidence of anchoring-and-adjustment, but only during judgments of similar targets. These results suggest that perceivers mentalize about similar others using the cognitive process of anchoring-and-adjustment. PMID:22506753

  16. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  17. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  18. 9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSSCOVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSS-COVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR LEFT OF ANCHOR BOLTS) - Nisqually Suspension Bridge, Spanning Nisqually River on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  19. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  20. Synthetic Studies of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) Anchors and GPI-Anchored Peptides, Glycopeptides, and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhongwu

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchorage of proteins and glycoproteins onto the cell surface is ubiquitous in eukaryotes, and GPI-anchored proteins and glycoproteins play an important role in many biological processes. To study GPI anchorage and explore the functions of GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins and glycoproteins, it is essential to have access to these molecules in homogeneous and structurally defined forms. This review is focused on the progress that our laboratory has made towards the chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of structurally defined GPI anchors and GPI-anchored peptides, glycopeptides, and proteins. Briefly, highly convergent strategies were developed for GPI synthesis and were employed to successfully synthesize a number of GPIs, including those carrying unsaturated lipids and other useful functionalities such as the azido and alkynyl groups. The latter enabled further site-specific modification of GPIs by click chemistry. GPI-linked peptides, glycopeptides, and proteins were prepared by regioselective chemical coupling of properly protected GPIs and peptides/glycopeptides or through site-specific ligation of synthetic GPIs and peptides/glycopeptides/proteins under the influence of sortase A. The investigation of interactions between GPI anchors and pore-forming bacterial toxins by means of synthetic GPI anchors and GPI analogs is also discussed. PMID:24955081

  1. Career Paths, Images and Anchors: A Study with Brazilian Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilimnik, Zelia Miranda; de Oliveira, Luiz Claudio Vieira; Sant'anna, Anderson De Souza; Barros, Delba Teixeira Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses career anchors changes associated to images and professionals trajectories. Its main question: Do anchors careers change through time? We conducted twelve interviews involving professionals from the Administration Area, applying Schein's Career Anchors Inventory (1993). We did the same two years later. In both of them, the…

  2. 33 CFR 401.14 - Anchor marking buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchor marking buoys. 401.14... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.14 Anchor marking buoys. A highly visible anchor marking buoy of a type approved by the Manager and the...

  3. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  4. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  5. Resisting anchoring effects: The roles of metric and mapping knowledge.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew R; Windschitl, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    The biasing influence of anchors on numerical estimates is well established, but the relationship between knowledge level and the susceptibility to anchoring effects is less clear. In two studies, we addressed the potential mitigating effects of having knowledge in a domain on vulnerability to anchoring effects in that domain. Of critical interest was a distinction between two forms of knowledge-metric and mapping knowledge. In Study 1, participants who had studied question-relevant information-that is, high-knowledge participants-were less influenced by anchors than were participants who had studied irrelevant information. The results from knowledge measures suggested that the reduction in anchoring was tied to increases in metric rather than mapping knowledge. In Study 2, participants studied information specifically designed to influence different types of knowledge. As we predicted, increases in metric knowledge-and not mapping knowledge-led to reduced anchoring effects. Implications for debiasing anchoring effects are discussed.

  6. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  7. Test Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and a Midi Anchor: A Case Study Using SAT[R] Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Curley, Edward; Feigenbaum, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    This study explores an anchor that is different from the traditional miniature anchor in test score equating. In contrast to a traditional "mini" anchor that has the same spread of item difficulties as the tests to be equated, the studied anchor, referred to as a "midi" anchor (Sinharay & Holland), has a smaller spread of item difficulties than…

  8. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  9. Histologic and morphologic evaluation of explanted bone anchors from bone-anchored hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Robert; Goldberg, Eva; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Scheich, Matthias; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Schwager, Konrad; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa

    2009-05-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a standard option in rehabilitation of patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, and also CROS fitting. However, the skin-penetrating bone anchor repeatedly gives reason for discussion about the risk of infection of surrounding tissues as a major cause of malfunction. In the present study, explanted bone anchors with surrounding bone and soft tissue were examined and compared with the morphology of lost implants. The anchors originated from five patients. Two needed explantation due to deafness with the need of cochlea implantation. A third patient underwent explantation due to meningeal irritation by the bone anchor. Another patient lost the implant due to mechanical stress shortly after implantation. The last implant was lost in a child without apparent reason. All implants were clinically free of infection and had been stable for a median implantation period of 12 months. During the explantation procedure, the fixtures were recovered together with the attached soft tissue and bone. The specimens were examined by light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sectioning for light microscopy was performed with a diamond-coated saw microtome. Histopathologic examination of the surrounding skin and subcutaneous soft tissue showed slight inflammation in one case only. The bone was regularly vital, presenting no signs of inflammation. The threads of the fixtures were filled with bone, with particularly strong attachment to the flank of traction. The SEM investigation exposed the ultrastructural interaction of bone with the implant surface. Filiform- and podocyte-like processes of osteocytes attach to the implant; lost implants did not reflect these features. Implant integration involves both osseointegration as well as soft tissue integration. Titanium oxide as the active implant surface promotes this integration even in unstable implants. The morphologic analysis exposed structural areas of the implant with weak bone

  10. Histologic and morphologic evaluation of explanted bone anchors from bone-anchored hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Robert; Goldberg, Eva; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Scheich, Matthias; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Schwager, Konrad; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa

    2009-05-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a standard option in rehabilitation of patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, and also CROS fitting. However, the skin-penetrating bone anchor repeatedly gives reason for discussion about the risk of infection of surrounding tissues as a major cause of malfunction. In the present study, explanted bone anchors with surrounding bone and soft tissue were examined and compared with the morphology of lost implants. The anchors originated from five patients. Two needed explantation due to deafness with the need of cochlea implantation. A third patient underwent explantation due to meningeal irritation by the bone anchor. Another patient lost the implant due to mechanical stress shortly after implantation. The last implant was lost in a child without apparent reason. All implants were clinically free of infection and had been stable for a median implantation period of 12 months. During the explantation procedure, the fixtures were recovered together with the attached soft tissue and bone. The specimens were examined by light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sectioning for light microscopy was performed with a diamond-coated saw microtome. Histopathologic examination of the surrounding skin and subcutaneous soft tissue showed slight inflammation in one case only. The bone was regularly vital, presenting no signs of inflammation. The threads of the fixtures were filled with bone, with particularly strong attachment to the flank of traction. The SEM investigation exposed the ultrastructural interaction of bone with the implant surface. Filiform- and podocyte-like processes of osteocytes attach to the implant; lost implants did not reflect these features. Implant integration involves both osseointegration as well as soft tissue integration. Titanium oxide as the active implant surface promotes this integration even in unstable implants. The morphologic analysis exposed structural areas of the implant with weak bone

  11. The yeast p24 complex regulates GPI-anchored protein transport and quality control by monitoring anchor remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Castillon, Guillaume A.; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Manzano-Lopez, Javier; Epstein, Sharon; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Funato, Kouichi; Watanabe, Reika; Riezman, Howard; Muñiz, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are secretory proteins that are attached to the cell surface of eukaryotic cells by a glycolipid moiety. Once GPI anchoring has occurred in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the structure of the lipid part on the GPI anchor undergoes a remodeling process prior to ER exit. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that the yeast p24 complex, through binding specifically to GPI-anchored proteins in an anchor-dependent manner, plays a dual role in their selective trafficking. First, the p24 complex promotes efficient ER exit of remodeled GPI-anchored proteins after concentration by connecting them with the COPII coat and thus facilitates their incorporation into vesicles. Second, it retrieves escaped, unremodeled GPI-anchored proteins from the Golgi to the ER in COPI vesicles. Therefore the p24 complex, by sensing the status of the GPI anchor, regulates GPI-anchored protein intracellular transport and coordinates this with correct anchor remodeling. PMID:21680708

  12. Amino acid conditions near the GPI anchor attachment site of prion protein for the conversion and the GPI anchoring.

    PubMed

    Hizume, Masaki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2010-01-22

    Prion protein (PrP) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, and the C-terminal GPI anchor signal sequence (GPI-SS) of PrP is cleaved before GPI anchoring. However, mutations near the GPI anchor attachment site (the omega site) in the GPI-SS have been recognized in human genetic prion diseases. Moreover, the omega site of PrP has not been identified except hamster, though it is known that amino acid restrictions are very severe at the omega and omega+2 sites in other GPI-anchored proteins. To investigate the effect of mutations near the omega site of PrP on the conversion and the GPI anchoring, and to discover the omega site of murine PrP, we systematically created mutant murine PrP with all possible single amino acid substitutions at every amino acid residue from codon 228 to 240. We transfected them into scrapie-infected mouse neuroblastoma cells and examined the conversion efficiencies and the GPI anchoring of each mutant PrP. Mutations near the omega site altered the conversion efficiencies and the GPI anchoring efficiencies. Especially, amino acid restrictions for the conversion and the GPI anchoring were severe at codons 230 and 232 in murine PrP, though they were less severe than in other GPI-anchored proteins. Only the mutant PrPs presented on a cell surface via a GPI anchor were conversion competent. The present study shows that mutations in the GPI-SS can affect the GPI anchoring and the conversion efficiency of PrP. We clarified for the first time the omega site of murine PrP and the amino acid conditions near the omega site for the conversion as well as GPI anchoring.

  13. Anchoring of FRET Sensors—A Requirement for Spatiotemporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena V.; Figueroa, Ricardo A.; Gatsinzi, Tom; Hallberg, Einar; Iverfeldt, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    FRET biosensors have become a routine tool for investigating mechanisms and components of cell signaling. Strategies for improving them for particular applications are continuously sought. One important aspect to consider when designing FRET probes is the dynamic distribution and propagation of signals within living cells. We have addressed this issue by directly comparing an anchored (taFS) to a non-anchored (naFS) cleavable FRET sensor. We chose a microtubule-associated protein tau as an anchor, as microtubules are abundant throughout the cytosol of cells. We show that tau-anchored FRET sensors are concentrated at the cytoskeleton and enriched in the neurite-like processes of cells, providing high intensity of the total signal. In addition, anchoring limits the diffusion of the sensor, enabling spatiotemporally resolved monitoring of subcellular variations in enzyme activity. Thus, anchoring is an important aspect to consider when designing FRET sensors for deeper understanding of cell signaling. PMID:27196902

  14. BAHA: Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Hagr, Abdulrahman

    2007-01-01

    Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) has proven performance and advantages for patients with aural atresia or chronic ear drainage who cannot wear air-conduction hearing aids. The BAHA has both cosmetic and acoustic advantages over most conventional hearing aids and hence is becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, BAHA improves the quality of life and has also significantly reduces ear discharge. This extensive review of the literature pertaining to BAHA discus the history, the indications, the advantages, the prediction of the outcome and the complications of this device as well as comparing it to the conventional hearing aids. PMID:21475438

  15. [An update on bone anchored hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Fries, S; Maire, R; Grosjean, P; George, M; Simon, C; Zaugg, Y

    2014-10-01

    Hearing loss represents a hidden handicapwith various repercussions on development and social life. In the majority of cases, classical hearing aids address most hearing losses. However, the enhancement required for severe deafness frequently involves sound distortions which are very uncomfortable for patients. With the advent of bone anchored hearing aids, conductive hearing losses as well as mixed hearing losses are now better rehabilitated. Recently their indications have been expanded to profound to severe sensorineural hearing loss. The emergence of new materials as well as subcutaneous implants has lead to lessen skin complications and has diminished the aesthetic discomfort of this type of hearing devices.

  16. [The bone-anchored hearing aid].

    PubMed

    Foghsgaard, Søren

    2014-08-11

    The bone-anchored hearing aid (Baha) was introduced in 1977 by Tjellström and colleagues and has now been used clinically for over 30 years. Generally, the outcomes are good, and several studies have shown improved audiological- and quality of life outcomes. The principle of the Baha is, that sound vibrations are led directly to the inner ear via the mastoid bone, bypassing the middle ear. This is achieved via an osseointegrated implant and a skin-penetrating abutment. Studies report high success rates and a majority of complications as typically minor in nature.

  17. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J.; Matsuda, Nicole A.; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16–41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5–6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface. PMID:27011815

  18. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface.

  19. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1997-12-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  20. Decoding Cytoskeleton-Anchored and Non-Anchored Receptors from Single-Cell Adhesion Force Data.

    PubMed

    Sariisik, Ediz; Popov, Cvetan; Müller, Jochen P; Docheva, Denitsa; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Benoit, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Complementary to parameters established for cell-adhesion force curve analysis, we evaluated the slope before a force step together with the distance from the surface at which the step occurs and visualized the result in a two-dimensional density plot. This new tool allows detachment steps of long membrane tethers to be distinguished from shorter jumplike force steps, which are typical for cytoskeleton-anchored bonds. A prostate cancer cell line (PC3) immobilized on an atomic-force-microscopy sensor interacted with three different substrates: collagen-I (Col-I), bovine serum albumin, and a monolayer of bone marrow-derived stem cells (SCP1). To address PC3 cells' predominant Col-I binding molecules, an antibody-blocking β1-integrin was used. Untreated PC3 cells on Col-I or SCP1 cells, which express Col-I, predominantly showed jumps in their force curves, while PC3 cells on bovine-serum-albumin- and antibody-treated PC3 cells showed long membrane tethers. The probability density plots thus revealed that β1-integrin-specific interactions are predominately anchored to the cytoskeleton, while the nonspecific interactions are mainly membrane-anchored. Experiments with latrunculin-A-treated PC3 cells corroborated these observations. The plots thus reveal details of the anchoring of bonds to the cell and provide a better understanding of receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:26445433

  1. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, J.E.; King, G.W.

    1998-12-08

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole. 8 figs.

  2. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1998-01-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  3. New Retrievable Coil Anchors: Preliminary In Vivo Experiences in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Konya, A. Wright, K.C.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To design and test retrievable coil anchors to improve the safety and efficacy of coil embolization. Methods. Fifty-two 0.038-inch homemade retrievable stainless steel coils were equipped with one of four different pre-shaped nitinol anchors and tested in 38 pigs. All coils with the anchor were completely retrieved and redeployed 3-18 times (median 7 times) prior to release. Types 1 and 2 anchored coils were acutely deployed in the external iliac arteries (n = 10 each), and chronically tested (1 week) in the common carotid arteries (n = 6 each). Larger type 1 (n = 4), type 3 (n = 6), and type 4 (n = 4) anchored coils were acutely deployed in the abdominal aorta. The largest type 1 anchors (n = 6) were acutely tested in the inferior vena cava. Results. All anchored coils were successfully retrieved and repositioned several times. All but two coils formed a compact plug and there was no coil migration except with two mechanically defective type 3 anchors. Conclusion. The use of retrievable anchors allowed the coils to be retrieved and repositioned, prevented coil migration, and enabled compact coil configuration.

  4. Water-soluble complexes of star-shaped poly(acrylic acid) with quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine).

    PubMed

    Pergushov, Dmitry V; Babin, Ivan A; Plamper, Felix A; Zezin, Alexander B; Müller, Axel H E

    2008-06-01

    The interaction of star-shaped poly(acrylic acid) having various numbers of arms (5, 8, and 21) and a strong cationic polyelectrolyte, viz., poly( N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide), was examined at pH 7 by means of turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering. Mixing aqueous solutions of the oppositely charged polymeric components was found to result in phase separation only if their base-molar ratio Z = [N+]/[COO (-) + COOH] exceeds a certain critical value ZM ( ZM < 1); this threshold value is determined by the number of arms of the star-shaped polyelectrolyte and the ionic strength of the surrounding solution. At Z < ZM, the homogeneous aqueous mixtures of the oppositely charged polymeric components contain two types of complex species clearly differing in their sizes, with the fractions of these species appearing to depend distinctly on the number of arms of the star-shaped poly(acrylic acid), the base-molar ratio of the oppositely charged polymeric components in their mixtures, and the ionic strength of the surrounding solution. The small complex species (major fraction) are assumed to represent the particles of the water-soluble interpolyelectrolyte complex whereas the large complex species (minor fraction) are considered to be complex aggregates.

  5. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  6. 49 CFR 178.337-13 - Supporting and anchoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supporting and anchoring. 178.337-13 Section 178.337-13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... anchoring. (a) A cargo tank that is not permanently attached to or integral with a vehicle chassis must...

  7. Retention of internal anchor tags by juvenile striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Wallin, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We marked hatchery-reared striped bass Morone saxatilis (145-265 mm total length) with internal anchor tags and monitored retention for 28 months after stocking in the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina. Anchor tags (with an 18-mm, T-shaped anchor and 42-mm streamer) were surgically implanted ventrally, and coded wire tags (1 mm long and 0.25 mm in diameter) were placed into the cheek muscle to help identify subsequent recaptures. The estimated probability of retention (SD) of anchor tags was 0.94 (0.05) at 4 months, 0.64 (0.13) at 16 months, and 0.33 (0.19) at 28 months. Of 10 fish recaptured with only coded wire tags, 5 showed an externally visible wound or scar near the point of anchor tag insertion. The incidence of wounds or scars, which we interpreted as evidence of tag shedding, increased to 50% in recaptures taken at 28 months (three of six fish). Our estimates for retention of anchor tags were generally lower than those in other studies of striped bass, possibly because of differences in the style of anchor or sizes of fish used. Because of its low rate of retention, the type of anchor tag we used may not be suitable for long-term assessments of stock enhancement programs that use striped bass of the sizes we evaluated.

  8. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  9. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  10. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  11. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  12. Memory for Dialogue: Recalling an Anchor through Talk and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Pam

    This paper reports on a project involving student recall of the dialogue in a movie and retention of the "anchor," which in this case refers to a videotape recording of "To Kill a Mockingbird." The project looked at how students retained knowledge over a few days and what kind of activities resulted from expertise with an anchor. The goal of…

  13. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  14. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi

    2014-01-29

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  15. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  16. Reaching the top: career anchors and professional development in nursing.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Ruth; Shmulevitz, Carmela; Raviv, Dennie

    2009-01-01

    This study, based on Shein's conceptual theory of career anchors, examined the relationship between career anchors, professional development and emerging career patterns for graduates of 12 consecutive two year second career programs in nursing (N=231) compared to graduates of concurrent four year academic programs (N=273). A 2-group comparison design was used and data collection tools included a demographic profile, a professional profile and a career anchor questionnaire. Statistically significant differences were found in regard to career anchors (p< 0.001) and career development (p< 0.001). Primary career anchors for the second career nurses were specialization and lifestyle where academic graduates chose management, autonomy and service. Academics displayed a statistically significant preference for administrative specialization (34%) compared to the second career tract (6.5%). Researchers propose that each group develops differently and contributes to the workplace and the importance of both certification and academic incentives to ensure recruitment.

  17. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  18. The Use of Two Anchors in Nonequivalent Groups with Anchor Test (NEAT) Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-10-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Deng, Weiling; Zhang, Yu-Li

    2010-01-01

    In the equating literature, a recurring concern is that equating functions that utilize a single anchor to account for examinee groups' nonequivalence are biased when the groups are extremely different and/or when the anchor only weakly measures what the tests measure. Several proposals have been made to address this equating bias by incorporating…

  19. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: More than just an anchor?

    PubMed

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors that attach some proteins to cell membranes. Far from being biologically inert, GPIs influence the targeting, intracellular trafficking and function of the attached protein. Our recent paper demonstrated the role of sialic acid on the GPI of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). The "prion diseases" arise following the conversion of PrP(C) to a disease-associated isoform called PrP(Sc) or "prion". Our paper showed that desialylated PrP(C) inhibited PrP(Sc) formation. Aggregated PrP(Sc) creates a signaling platform in the cell membrane incorporating and activating cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), an enzyme that regulates PrP(C) trafficking and hence PrP(Sc) formation. The presence of desialylated PrP(C) caused the dissociation of cPLA2 from PrP-containing platforms, reduced the activation of cPLA2 and inhibited PrP(Sc) production. We concluded that sialic acid contained within the GPI attached to PrP(C) modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrP(Sc) formation. PMID:27195066

  20. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: More than just an anchor?

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is increasing interest in the role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors that attach some proteins to cell membranes. Far from being biologically inert, GPIs influence the targeting, intracellular trafficking and function of the attached protein. Our recent paper demonstrated the role of sialic acid on the GPI of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). The “prion diseases” arise following the conversion of PrPC to a disease-associated isoform called PrPSc or “prion”. Our paper showed that desialylated PrPC inhibited PrPSc formation. Aggregated PrPSc creates a signaling platform in the cell membrane incorporating and activating cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), an enzyme that regulates PrPC trafficking and hence PrPSc formation. The presence of desialylated PrPC caused the dissociation of cPLA2 from PrP-containing platforms, reduced the activation of cPLA2 and inhibited PrPSc production. We concluded that sialic acid contained within the GPI attached to PrPC modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrPSc formation. PMID:27195066

  1. Material Testing for Robotic Omnidirectional Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkoe, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    To successfully explore near-Earth Asteroids the question of mobility emerges as the key issue for any robotic mission. When small bodies have extremely low escape velocities, traditional methods, such as wheels, would send the robot hurtling off of the asteroid's surface. To solve this problem, JPL has developed an omni-directional anchoring mechanism for use in microgravity that utilizes microspine technology. These microspines are placed in circular arrays with 16 independent carriages biasing the surface of the rock. The asperities in the surface allow the gripper to hold nearly 150N in all directions. While the gripper has been proven successful on consolidated rocks, it had yet to be tested on a variety of other surfaces that are suspected to separate the large boulders on an asteroid. Since asteroid surfaces vary widely, from friable rocks to lose ponds of regolith, the gripper was tested in a large variety of materials such as, bonded pumice, sand, gravel, and loose rocks. The forces are applied tangent, at 45 degrees, and normal to the surface of the material. The immediate results from this experiment will give insight into the gripper's effectiveness across the wide spectrum of materials found on asteroids.

  2. Protein prenyltransferases: anchor size, pseudogenes and parasites.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Washietl, Stefan; Eisenhaber, Frank

    2003-07-01

    Lipid modification of eukaryotic proteins by protein prenyltransferases is required for critical signaling pathways, cell cycle progression, cytoskeleton remodeling, induction of apoptosis and vesicular trafficking. This review analyzes the influence of distinct states of sequential posttranslational processing that can be obtained after single or double prenylation, reversible palmitoylation, proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminus and possible reversible carboxymethylation. This series of modifications, as well as the exact length of the prenyl anchor, are determinants in protein-membrane and specific protein-protein interactions of protein prenyltransferase substrates. Furthermore, the occurrence and distribution of pseudogenes of protein prenyltransferase subunits are discussed. Besides being developed as anti-cancer agents, prenyltransferase inhibitors are effective against an increasing number of parasitic diseases. Extensive screens for protein prenyltransferases in genomic data of fungal and protozoan pathogens unveil a series of new pharmacologic targets for prenyltransferase inhibition, including the parasites Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, Aspergillus nidulans, Pneumocystis carinii, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichinella spiralis and Cryptosporidium parvum.

  3. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework. Using optimal matching, we measure the distance between ideal and experienced relationship sequences to (1) assess the associations between ideological congruence and perceived relationship well-being, (2) compare this ideal-based approach to other experience-based alternatives, and (3) identify individual- and couple-level correlates of congruence between ideals and experiences in the romantic realm. We show that congruence between ideals and experiences conveys relationship well-being along four dimensions: expressions of love and support, robust communication habits, perceived biological safety, and perceived relationship stability. We further show that congruence is patterned by socioeconomic status and supported by shared ideals within romantic dyads. We argue that conceiving of ideals as anchors for how sexual experiences are manifest advances current understandings of romantic relationships, and we suggest that this approach has applications for other domains of life. PMID:27110031

  4. Knotless anchors with sutures external to the anchor body may be at risk for suture cutting through osteopenic bone

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Y.; Woodmass, J. M.; Nelson, A. A.; Boorman, R. S.; Thornton, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the mechanical performance, under low-load cyclic loading, of two different knotless suture anchor designs: sutures completely internal to the anchor body (SpeedScrew) and sutures external to the anchor body and adjacent to bone (MultiFIX P). Methods Using standard suture loops pulled in-line with the rotator cuff (approximately 60°), anchors were tested in cadaveric bone and foam blocks representing normal to osteopenic bone. Mechanical testing included preloading to 10 N and cyclic loading for 500 cycles from 10 N to 60 N at 60 mm/min. The parameters evaluated were initial displacement, cyclic displacement and number of cycles and load at 3 mm displacement relative to preload. Video recording throughout testing documented the predominant source of suture displacement and the distance of ‘suture cutting through bone’. Results In cadaveric bone and foam blocks, MultiFIX P anchors had significantly greater initial displacement, and lower number of cycles and lower load at 3 mm displacement than SpeedScrew anchors. Video analysis revealed ‘suture cutting through bone’ as the predominant source of suture displacement in cadaveric bone (qualitative) and greater ‘suture cutting through bone’ comparing MultiFIX P with SpeedScrew anchors in foam blocks (quantitative). The greater suture displacement in MultiFIX P anchors was predominantly from suture cutting through bone, which was enhanced in an osteopenic bone model. Conclusions Anchors with sutures external to the anchor body are at risk for suture cutting through bone since the suture eyelet is at the distal tip of the implant and the suture directly abrades against the bone edge during cyclic loading. Suture cutting through bone may be a significant source of fixation failure, particularly in osteopenic bone. Cite this article: Y. Ono, J. M. Woodmass, A. A. Nelson, R. S. Boorman, G. M. Thornton, I. K. Y. Lo. Knotless anchors with sutures external to the anchor body may be

  5. 21. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER M. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  6. 22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER C. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  7. Using Anchors to Estimate Clinical State without Labeled Data

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Yoni; Choi, Youngduck; Horng, Steven; Sontag, David

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel framework for learning to estimate and predict clinical state variables without labeled data. The resulting models can used for electronic phenotyping, triggering clinical decision support, and cohort selection. The framework relies on key observations which we characterize and term “anchor variables”. By specifying anchor variables, an expert encodes a certain amount of domain knowledge about the problem while the rest of learning proceeds in an unsupervised manner. The ability to build anchors upon standardized ontologies and the framework’s ability to learn from unlabeled data promote generalizability across institutions. We additionally develop a user interface to enable experts to choose anchor variables in an informed manner. The framework is applied to electronic medical record-based phenotyping to enable real-time decision support in the emergency department. We validate the learned models using a prospectively gathered set of gold-standard responses from emergency physicians for nine clinically relevant variables. PMID:25954366

  8. 6. ANCHOR FIXTURES AT STATION "0", EAST END, LAUNCHING PAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ANCHOR FIXTURES AT STATION "0", EAST END, LAUNCHING PAD. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 7. DETAIL, ANCHOR FIXTURES. Looking to north. Edwards Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL, ANCHOR FIXTURES. Looking to north. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 2. VIEW EAST TOWARD DARIEN ANCHOR BRIDGE #465 OF CIRCUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST TOWARD DARIEN ANCHOR BRIDGE #465 OF CIRCUIT BREAKER INSTALLATION ON CROSS BEAM OF BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Bridge-Type Circuit Breakers, Long Island shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Cos Cob, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 27. CIRCUIT BREAKERS AT SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. CIRCUIT BREAKERS AT SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  12. 3. VIEW EAST TOWARD STAMFORD ANCHOR BRIDGE #374 OF CIRCUIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST TOWARD STAMFORD ANCHOR BRIDGE #374 OF CIRCUIT BREAKER INSTALLATION ON CROSS BEAM OF BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Bridge-Type Circuit Breakers, Long Island shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Cos Cob, Fairfield County, CT

  13. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  14. Fluctuation-induced interactions in nematics with disordered anchoring energy.

    PubMed

    Haddadan, Fahimeh Karimi Pour; Naji, Ali; Shirzadiani, Nafiseh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2014-12-17

    We examine fluctuation-induced (pseudo-Casimir) interactions in nematic liquid-crystalline films confined between two surfaces, where one of the surfaces imposes a strong homeotropic anchoring (ensuring a uniform mean director profile), while the other one is assumed to be a chemically disordered substrate exhibiting an annealed distribution of anchoring energies. We employ a saddle-point approximation to evaluate the free energy of interaction mediated between the two surfaces and investigate how the interaction force is influenced by the presence of disordered surface anchoring energy. It is shown that the disorder results in a renormalization of the effective surface anchoring parameter in a way that it leads to quantitative and qualitative changes (including a change of sign at intermediate inter-surface separations) in the pseudo-Casimir interaction force when compared with the interaction force in the absence of disorder.

  15. 48 CFR 1812.7000 - Anchor tenancy contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be developed or used, NASA may enter into a multi-year anchor tenancy contract only if Administrator... venture is not dependent upon a continued Government market or other nonreimbursable Government...

  16. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall. PMID:26486032

  17. Genome mapping by random anchoring: A discrete theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. Q.; Marr, T. G.

    1993-11-01

    As a part of the international human genome project, large-scale genomic maps of human and other model organisms are being generated. More recently, mapping using various anchoring (as opposed to the traditional "fingerprinting") strategies have been proposed based largely on mathematical models. In all of the theoretical work dealing with anchoring, an anchor has been idealized as a point on a continuous, infinite-length genome. In general, it is not desirable to make these assumptions, since in practice they may be violated under a variety of actual biological situations. Here we analyze a discrete model that can be used to predict the expected progress made when mapping by random anchoring. By virtue of keeping all three length scales (genome length, clone length, and probe length) finite, our results for the random anchoring strategy are derived in full generality, which contain previous results as special cases and hence can have broad application for planning mapping experiments or assessing the accuracy of the continuum models. Finally, we pose a challenging nonrandom anchoring model corresponding to a more efficient mapping scheme.

  18. Filamentous structures in skeletal muscle: anchors for the subsarcolemmal space.

    PubMed

    Khairani, Astrid Feinisa; Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Soenggono, Arifin; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    In skeletal muscle fibers, intermediate filaments and actin filaments provide structural support to the myofibrils and the sarcolemma. For many years, it was poorly understood from ultrastructural observations that how these filamentous structures were kept anchored. The present study was conducted to determine the architecture of filamentous anchoring structures in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. The diaphragms (Dp) of adult wild type and mdx mice (mdx is a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy) were subjected to tension applied perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fibers, with or without treatment with 1% Triton X-100 or 0.03% saponin. These experiments were conducted to confirm the presence and integrity of the filamentous anchoring structures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that these structures provide firm transverse connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. Most of the filamentous structures appeared to be inserted into subsarcolemmal densities, forming anchoring connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. In some cases, actin filaments were found to run longitudinally in the subsarcolemmal space to connect to the sarcolemma or in some cases to connect to the intermyofibrils as elongated thin filaments. These filamentous anchoring structures were less common in the mdx Dp. Our data suggest that the transverse and longitudinal filamentous structures form an anchoring system in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils.

  19. Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-07-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.

  20. Epoxy-coated rock anchors for upper Occoquan Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Bruen, M.P.; Pansic, N.; Schwartz, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    High-capacity, epoxy-coated anchors were installed at Upper Occoquan Dam to increase the stability of the 70-foot-high concrete gravity dam and powerhouse under revised Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) conditions. The post-tensioned anchorage system consisted of 56 multi-strand rock anchors with design loads of 700 to 1855 kips, averaging 1500 kips per tendon. A double corrosion protection system was specified to provide protection throughout the entire anchor length. During anchor stressing and testing, significant creep movement under constant loads equivalent to 133% of the design load was experienced and exceeded the requisite Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) criteria. In addition to the creep phenomena, seating losses during transfer of the load to the end anchorage are at least 2 to 3 times greater than that which has been experienced with bare-wire strand tendons. On the basis of anchor test results, modifications were made to the anchor testing protocol, acceptance criteria, and the approach used for assessment of the long-term performance of the anchorage system.

  1. Free versus anchored numerical estimation: A unified approach.

    PubMed

    Opfer, John E; Thompson, Clarissa A; Kim, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Children's number-line estimation has produced a lively debate about representational change, supported by apparently incompatible data regarding descriptive adequacy of logarithmic (Opfer, Siegler, & Young, 2011) and cyclic power models (Slusser, Santiago, & Barth, 2013). To test whether methodological differences might explain discrepant findings, we created a fully crossed 2×2 design and assigned 96 children to one of four cells. In the design, we crossed anchoring (free, anchored) and sampling (over-, even-), which were candidate factors to explain discrepant findings. In three conditions (free/over-sampling, free/even-sampling, and anchored/over-sampling), the majority of children provided estimates better fit by the logarithmic than cyclic power function. In the last condition (anchored/even-sampling), the reverse was found. Results suggest that logarithmically-compressed numerical estimates do not depend on sampling, that the fit of cyclic power functions to children's estimates is likely an effect of anchors, and that a mixed log/linear model provides a useful model for both free and anchored numerical estimation. PMID:26774104

  2. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  3. The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Alexander A.; Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    A memory-based scaling model--ANCHOR--is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global…

  4. Perceptual Anchoring in Preschool Children: Not Adultlike, but There

    PubMed Central

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. Methodology/Principal Findings Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference), a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference), no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. Conclusions/Significance The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a true deficit rather

  5. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome.

    PubMed

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I; Schirmer, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both.

  6. Experience-based, body-anchored qualitative research interviewing.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2010-06-01

    Two theoretical constructs that lay the foundation for experience-based, body-anchored interviewing are presented: the first-person perspective and the concept of meaning. These theoretical concepts are concretized, first, by means of a methodological framework for experience-based, body-anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research in areas such as traditional and holistic medicine, Western alternative and complementary medicine, nursing, psychotherapy, coaching, physiotherapy, movement arts, and physical education.

  7. 17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG THE MAIN LINE TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. ANCHOR BRIDGES LOCATED AT TWO MILE INTERVALS WITHSTAND CATENARY TENSION AND PROVIDE A PLATFORM FOR MOUNTING OIL FILLED CIRCUIT BREAKERS, LIGHTNING ARRESTORS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. THE ROOF OF THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER CAN BE SEEN DIRECTLY BEHIND THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. A reusable suture anchor for arthroscopy psychomotor skills training.

    PubMed

    Tillett, Edward D; Rogers, Rainie; Nyland, John

    2003-03-01

    For residents to adequately develop the early arthroscopy psychomotor skills required to better learn how to manage the improvisational situations they will encounter during actual patient cases, they need to experience sufficient practice repetitions within a contextually relevant environment. Unfortunately, the cost of suture anchors can be a practice repetition-limiting factor in learning arthroscopic knot-tying techniques. We describe a technique for creating inexpensive reusable suture anchors and provide an example of their application to repair the anterior glenoid labrum during an arthroscopy psychomotor skills laboratory training session.

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring Processess for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Mazahar, Hammad; Negrut, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent work done in modeling and simulation of anchoring processes in granular media, with applications to anchoring on a Near Earth Object (NEO), where the forces due to interactions with the regolith are much stronger than the local surface gravity field. This effort is part of a larger systems engineering capability developed at JPL to answer key questions, validate requirements, conduct key system and mission trades,and evaluate performance and risk related to NEO operations for any proposed human or robotic missions to a NEO.

  10. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  11. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  12. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Judit; Melican, Gerald; Proctor, Thomas; Wiley, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Presented at the Annual Meeting of National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in 2010. The focus of the research is to investigate the effect of applying the Sinharay & Holland (2007) midi-test idea for building anchor tests to an on-going testing program with a series of versions of the test and comparing these results to the more…

  13. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  16. Dependability of Anchoring Labels of Likert-Type Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei

    This study uses generalizability theory to examine the dependability of anchoring labels of Likert-type scales. Variance components associated with labeling were estimated in two samples using a two-facet random effect generalizability-study design. In one sample, 173 graduate students in education were administered 7 items measuring attitudes…

  17. Anchor the Boat: A Classwide Intervention to Reduce Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann, Sharon; Talerico, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Universal interventions are designed to systematically teach and reinforce consistent behavioral expectations. The purpose of this study was to provide an example of a group contingency classwide intervention called "Anchor the Boat" that operationally defined behavioral expectations, taught those expectations using teacher-directed instruction…

  18. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  19. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  20. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  1. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. Equating without an Anchor for Nonequivalent Groups of Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2015-01-01

    An equating procedure for a testing program with evolving distribution of examinee profiles is developed. No anchor is available because the original scoring scheme was based on expert judgment of the item difficulties. Pairs of examinees from two administrations are formed by matching on coarsened propensity scores derived from a set of…

  4. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  5. A Theoretical Analysis of Sea-anchor Soaring.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto

    1998-06-01

    This study presents a concise mathematical model that accounts for sea-anchor soaring, a special flight technique used by sea birds, in particular storm petrels. Conventional wing theory is used to reveal the mechanics of sea-anchor soaring. The feasibility and existence of an equilibrium are summarized by formulae giving the wind velocity criteria. The stability of the equilibrium is also revealed: among two possible equilibria, the equilibrium at the very low velocity to water is shown to be stable. Numerical examples show the following: sea-anchor soaring is almost always stable; Wilson's storm petrel can soar at 0.256 ms-1 in wind with 4.79 ms-1 under the best conditions. Larger sea-birds like albatrosses need gusty winds to soar, but such strong winds make the sea choppy and hence prevent soaring. Foot-web size regulates the size of a bird utilizing sea-anchor soaring at low velocities to water.Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited PMID:9735255

  6. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  7. Culturally-Anchored Values and University Education Experience Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsis, Ann; Foley, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether business students' gender, age and culturally-anchored values affect their perceptions of their university course experience. Design/methodology/approach: Culturally diverse business students (n 1/4 548) studying at an Australian university were surveyed using previously established scales.…

  8. Implementing Anchored Instruction: Guiding Principles for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Kim; And Others

    A curriculum based on "anchored instruction" was developed to enhance students' literacy development and acquisition of knowledge. The curriculum was designed to create a rich, shared environment that generates interest and enables students to identify and define problems while they explore the content from many perspectives. Based on what is…

  9. Promises and Pitfalls of Anchoring Vignettes in Health Survey Research.

    PubMed

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna; Verdes-Tennant, Emese; McEniry, Mary; Ispány, Márton

    2015-10-01

    Data harmonization is a topic of growing importance to demographers, who increasingly conduct domestic or international comparative research. Many self-reported survey items cannot be directly compared across demographic groups or countries because these groups differ in how they use subjective response categories. Anchoring vignettes, already appearing in numerous surveys worldwide, promise to overcome this problem. However, many anchoring vignettes have not been formally evaluated for adherence to the key measurement assumptions of vignette equivalence and response consistency. This article tests these assumptions in some of the most widely fielded anchoring vignettes in the world: the health vignettes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) and World Health Survey (WHS) (representing 10 countries; n = 52,388), as well as similar vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,528). Findings are encouraging regarding adherence to response consistency, but reveal substantial violations of vignette equivalence both cross-nationally and across socioeconomic groups. That is, members of different sociocultural groups appear to interpret vignettes as depicting fundamentally different levels of health. The evaluated anchoring vignettes do not fulfill their promise of providing interpersonally comparable measures of health. Recommendations for improving future implementations of vignettes are discussed. PMID:26335547

  10. 15. DETAIL OF ANCHOR BOLT WHICH FORMERLY SECURED A TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF ANCHOR BOLT WHICH FORMERLY SECURED A TIMBER SILL BEAM TO THE GRANITE SILL ALONG THE EASTERLY EDGE OF THE SPILLWAY APRON (NOTE 3" SWISS ARMY KNIFE TO RIGHT OF BOLT FOR SCALE); VIEW TO WEST. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  11. Isolating Suture Slippage During Cadaveric Testing of Knotless Anchors.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Stephen A; Vopat, Bryan G; Paller, David; Avery, Anthony L; Koruprolu, Sarath; Fadale, Paul D

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated a testing method designed to isolate and analyze the effectiveness of different suture-retention mechanisms in knotless suture anchors used for rotator cuff repairs. Six knotless PushLock implants (Arthrex) with a suture-retention mechanism dependent on a press-fit of suture between the anchor's outer diameter and surrounding bone were compared with 6 ReelX STT devices (Stryker) reliant on an intrinsic suture-locking mechanism. Suture slippage beyond minimal clinical failure thresholds, as well as ultimate failure load, were determined with a novel testing fixture that isolated suture slippage. Suture slippage was isolated from anchor-bone disengagement. Each PushLock exhibited suture slippage of more than 3 mm, and each ReelX exhibited slippage of less than 3 mm. The PushLock implants also exhibited significantly (P < .05) more interval and maximum slippage; 5 of these 6 implants failed via complete suture slippage before dynamic testing could be completed. All ReelX devices survived dynamic testing and ultimately failed via suture breakage. This novel axial load biomechanical testing technique isolated suture slippage in 2 uniquely designed knotless anchors. The press-fit PushLock implant was prone to slippage failure, whereas the ReelX device with its internal suture-locking mechanism exhibited minimal slippage. PMID:26161766

  12. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  13. 1. VIEW EAST TOWARD COS COB ANCHOR BRIDGE #310 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST TOWARD COS COB ANCHOR BRIDGE #310 OF CIRCUIT BREAKER INSTALLATION ON CROSS BEAM OF BRIDGE. ABANDONED COS COB POWER STATION IS TO THE SOUTH OF THIS BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Bridge-Type Circuit Breakers, Long Island shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Cos Cob, Fairfield County, CT

  14. Anchoring Students' Metaperspective Discussions of History in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses an empirical study on the use of history (as a goal) in mathematics education. A historical module was designed and implemented in a Danish upper secondary class to study how students' discussions of metaperspective issues of the historical development of mathematics may be anchored in the taught and learned subject matter of…

  15. Promises and Pitfalls of Anchoring Vignettes in Health Survey Research.

    PubMed

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna; Verdes-Tennant, Emese; McEniry, Mary; Ispány, Márton

    2015-10-01

    Data harmonization is a topic of growing importance to demographers, who increasingly conduct domestic or international comparative research. Many self-reported survey items cannot be directly compared across demographic groups or countries because these groups differ in how they use subjective response categories. Anchoring vignettes, already appearing in numerous surveys worldwide, promise to overcome this problem. However, many anchoring vignettes have not been formally evaluated for adherence to the key measurement assumptions of vignette equivalence and response consistency. This article tests these assumptions in some of the most widely fielded anchoring vignettes in the world: the health vignettes in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) and World Health Survey (WHS) (representing 10 countries; n = 52,388), as well as similar vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,528). Findings are encouraging regarding adherence to response consistency, but reveal substantial violations of vignette equivalence both cross-nationally and across socioeconomic groups. That is, members of different sociocultural groups appear to interpret vignettes as depicting fundamentally different levels of health. The evaluated anchoring vignettes do not fulfill their promise of providing interpersonally comparable measures of health. Recommendations for improving future implementations of vignettes are discussed.

  16. When Does Scale Anchoring Work? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Providing information to test takers and test score users about the abilities of test takers at different score levels has been a persistent problem in educational and psychological measurement. Scale anchoring, a technique which describes what students at different points on a score scale know and can do, is a tool to provide such information.…

  17. Modified Anchor Shaped Post Core Design for Primary Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, R.; Baroudi, Kusai; Reddy, K. Bala Kasi; Praveen, B. H.; Kumar, V. Sumanth; Amit, S.

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention. PMID:25379294

  18. Detecting Anchoring-and-Adjusting in Survey Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Proper survey design is essential to obtain reliable, replicable data from research subjects. One threat to inferences drawn from surveys is anchoring-and-adjusting. Tversky and Kahnemann (1974) observed that participants' responses to questions depended systematically on irrelevant information they received prior to answering. It is important for…

  19. Development of Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales for Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grussing, Paul G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen behaviorally-anchored rating scales were developed for a comprehensive measure of performance in pharmacy practice, including pharmacist selection, performance appraisal, and promotion activities. The scales (which are included) were also used to evaluate extern performance, and to serve as a criterion measure in studies of concurrent…

  20. 16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & PLATES FOR PIERS 4, 5, AND 6, DWG. NO. 97, 1-1/2" = 1', MADE BY A.F., JUNE 13, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. 24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON STATION IN GULF OF MEXICO WITH MOTOR BOAT TIED AT STERN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  2. Corrected High-Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda L.; Finch, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To improve lingual ultrasound imaging with the Corrected High Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment (CHAUSA; Miller, 2008) method. Method: A production study of the IsiXhosa alveolar click is presented. Articulatory-to-acoustic alignment is demonstrated using a Tri-Modal 3-ms pulse generator. Images from 2 simultaneous…

  3. Finding the Optimal Guidance for Enhancing Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Bathke, Arne; Hasselbring, Ted S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different methods of guidance with anchored instruction on students' mathematical problem-solving performance. The purpose of this research was to iteratively design a learning environment to find the optimal level of guidance. Two iterations of the software were compared. The first iteration used…

  4. Repair of quadriceps tendon ruptures using suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Richards, David P; Barber, F Alan

    2002-01-01

    The repair of ruptured quadriceps tendon is commonly performed by weaving sutures through the ruptured tendon and then attaching the tendon to the bone by passing these sutures through tunnels in the superior patella. This technical note is the first report we are aware of in the English language literature of a technique that uses suture anchors to attach the tendon to bone.

  5. Planar anchoring and surface melting in the smectic-A phase

    SciTech Connect

    Lacaze, Emmanuelle; Goldmann, Michel; Michel, Jean-Philippe; Alba, Michel

    2007-10-15

    We study ultrathin films of 8CB in planar anchoring on a MoS{sub 2} inorganic substrate. We evidence an anchoring breakage for 60-nm-thick films, in favor of the homeotropic anchoring at the air interface. This allows one to determine the 8CB-MoS{sub 2} smectic anchoring energy. We then demonstrate for films thinner than 60 nm that, under the homeotropic bulk, an intermediate film remains in planar anchoring, associated with a melting of the smectic layers close to the substrate. Such a melting could be general for planar or tilted anchorings and we show that, for strong anchorings, the anchoring energy can be driven by the deformations of this intermediate nematic film.

  6. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome

    PubMed Central

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both. PMID:27200088

  7. Nestin Modulates Glucocorticoid Receptor Function by Cytoplasmic Anchoring

    PubMed Central

    Szalay, Beata; Hagel, Christian; Hohenberg, Heinrich; Deppert, Wolfgang; Bohn, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Nestin is the characteristic intermediate filament (IF) protein of rapidly proliferating progenitor cells and regenerating tissue. Nestin copolymerizes with class III IF-proteins, mostly vimentin, into heteromeric filaments. Its expression is downregulated with differentiation. Here we show that a strong nestin expression in mouse embryo tissue coincides with a strong accumulation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a key regulator of growth and differentiation in embryonic development. Microscopic studies on cultured cells show an association of GR with IFs composed of vimentin and nestin. Cells lacking nestin, but expressing vimentin, or cells expressing vimentin, but lacking nestin accumulate GR in the nucleus. Completing these networks with an exogenous nestin, respectively an exogenous vimentin restores cytoplasmic anchoring of GR to the IF system. Thus, heteromeric filaments provide the basis for anchoring of GR. The reaction pattern with phospho-GR specific antibodies and the presence of the chaperone HSC70 suggest that specifically the unliganded receptor is anchored to the IF system. Ligand addition releases GR from IFs and shifts the receptor into the nucleus. Suppression of nestin by specific shRNA abolishes anchoring of GR, induces its accumulation in the nucleus and provokes an irreversible G1/S cell cycle arrest. Suppression of GR prior to that of nestin prevents entry into the arrest. The data give evidence that nestin/vimentin specific anchoring modulates growth suppression by GR. We hypothesize that expression of nestin is a major determinant in suppression of anti-proliferative activity of GR in undifferentiated tissue and facilitates activation of this growth control in a precise tissue and differentiation dependent manner. PMID:19562035

  8. Promising anchoring groups for single-molecule conductance measurements.

    PubMed

    Kaliginedi, Veerabhadrarao; Rudnev, Alexander V; Moreno-García, Pavel; Baghernejad, Masoud; Huang, Cancan; Hong, Wenjing; Wandlowski, Thomas

    2014-11-21

    The understanding of the charge transport through single molecule junctions is a prerequisite for the design and building of electronic circuits based on single molecule junctions. However, reliable and robust formation of such junctions is a challenging task to achieve. In this topical review, we present a systematic investigation of the anchoring group effect on single molecule junction conductance by employing two complementary techniques, namely scanning tunneling microscopy break junction (STM-BJ) and mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) techniques, based on the studies published in the literature and important results from our own work. We compared conductance studies for conventional anchoring groups described earlier with the molecular junctions formed through π-interactions with the electrode surface (Au, Pt, Ag) and we also summarized recent developments in the formation of highly conducting covalent Au-C σ-bonds using oligophenyleneethynylene (OPE) and an alkane molecular backbone. Specifically, we focus on the electron transport properties of diaryloligoyne, oligophenyleneethynylene (OPE) and/or alkane molecular junctions composed of several traditional anchoring groups, (dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene (BT), 5-benzothienyl analogue (BTh), thiol (SH), pyridyl (PY), amine (NH2), cyano (CN), methyl sulphide (SMe), nitro (NO2)) and other anchoring groups at the solid/liquid interface. The qualitative and quantitative comparison of the results obtained with different anchoring groups reveals structural and mechanistic details of the different types of single molecular junctions. The results reported in this prospective may serve as a guideline for the design and synthesis of molecular systems to be used in molecule-based electronic devices.

  9. 46 CFR 108.705 - Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. 108.705 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.705 Anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers. (a) Each unit must be fitted with anchors, chains, wire rope, and hawsers in agreement with the...

  10. 33 CFR 401.83 - Reporting position at anchor, wharf, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting position at anchor, wharf, etc. 401.83 Section 401.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT... § 401.83 Reporting position at anchor, wharf, etc. A vessel anchoring in a designated anchorage area,...

  11. 33 CFR 401.49 - Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dropping anchor or tying to canal... Dropping anchor or tying to canal bank. Except in an emergency, no vessel shall drop anchor in any canal or tie-up to any canal bank unless authorized to do so by the traffic controller....

  12. 78 FR 45104 - Model Manufactured Home Installation Standards: Ground Anchor Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Manufactured Home Installation Standards final rule, which was published on October 19, 2007 (72 FR 59338.... Background Ground anchors consist of a specific assembly designed to transfer home anchoring loads to the... mechanisms as a function of soil type, anchor depth, and load configuration. In cohesive soils,...

  13. Anchor-linked intermediates in peptide amide synthesis are caused by dimeric anchors on the solid supports.

    PubMed

    Flechsler, I; Beck-Sickinger, A G; Stephan, H; Sheppard, R; Jung, G

    1995-01-01

    Cleavage and kinetic studies have been carried out using commercially obtained H-Tyr(tBu)-5-(4'-aminomethyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenoxy)valeric acid-TentaGelS (H-Tyr(tBu)-4-ADPV-TentaGelS) and H-Tyr (tBu)-4-ADPV-Ala-aminomethyl-resin (H-Tyr(tBu)-4-ADPV-AM-resin) prepared from commercially available resin and loaded with commercially available Fmoc-4-ADPV-OH amide anchor. Cleavage with pure trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) gave the intermediate H-Tyr-4-ADPV-NH2, which was then degraded to H-Tyr-NH2, and cleavage with TFA/dichloromethane (1:9) yielded H-Tyr-4-ADPV-NH2 which could be isolated in preparative amounts. Cleavage reactions with 15N-labelled H-Ala-4-ADPV-(15N)-Gly-AM-resin yielded the intermediate H-Ala-4-ADPV-NH2, which contained no 15N as demonstrated by 1H-NMR. The analysis of the commercial Fmoc-4-ADPV-OH amide anchor showed the presence of Fmoc-4-ADPV-4-ADPV-OH as an impurity in high amounts. This dimeric anchor molecule is the cause of formation of the anchor-linked peptide intermediate obtained during the cleavage from the resin. The particularly high acid-lability of the amide bond between the two ADPV moieties was utilized to synthesize sidechain and C-terminally 4-ADPV protected pentagastrin on a double-anchor resin, and to cleave it using 5% trifluoroacetic acid in dichloromethane. This method may offer a new way for the synthesis of protected peptide amides with improved solubility to be used in fragment condensation.

  14. Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylapudi, Gopi

    The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock

  15. Effect of anchoring energy and elastic anisotropy on spherical inclusions in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    James, Richard; Fukuda, Jun-ichi

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores how pairs of spherical particles with homeotropic (normal) surface anchoring cluster when immersed in nematic liquid crystal. By means of the Landau-de Gennes continuum theory we calculate how the equilibrium separation of a particle pair depends on the anchoring energy at the particle surface and the elastic anisotropy of the liquid crystal. We find that, for modest to strong anchoring strengths, the particle separation depends linearly on the elastic anisotropy and the inverse of the anchoring strength. Thus, the anchoring strength can be estimated by measuring the particle-pair separation.

  16. Labeling Cell Surface GPIs and GPI-Anchored Proteins through Metabolic Engineering with Artificial Inositol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Gao, Jian; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-08-10

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins to the cell surface is important for various biological processes, but GPI-anchored proteins are difficult to study. An effective strategy was developed for the metabolic engineering of cell-surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins by using inositol derivatives carrying an azido group. The azide-labeled GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins were then tagged with biotin on live cells through a click reaction, which allows further elaboration with streptavidin-conjugated dyes or other molecules. The strategy can be used to label GPI-anchored proteins with various tags for biological studies.

  17. Accessorizing and anchoring the LINC complex for multifunctionality

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wakam; Worman, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, composed of outer and inner nuclear membrane Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology (KASH) and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) proteins, respectively, connects the nucleus to cytoskeletal filaments and performs diverse functions including nuclear positioning, mechanotransduction, and meiotic chromosome movements. Recent studies have shed light on the source of this diversity by identifying factors associated with the complex that endow specific functions as well as those that differentially anchor the complex within the nucleus. Additional diversity may be provided by accessory factors that reorganize the complex into higher-ordered arrays. As core components of the LINC complex are associated with several diseases, understanding the role of accessory and anchoring proteins could provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25559183

  18. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nam B.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability.

  19. Modification of the Bankart reconstruction using a suture anchor.

    PubMed

    Traina, S M; Holtgrewe, J L; King, S

    1998-01-01

    A prospective study was done to determine the effectiveness of a suture anchor in doing a Modified Bankart Reconstruction on the traumatic unidirectional Bankart lesion shoulder. From 1989 to 1991, 26 patients encompassing 27 shoulders with recurrent instability had modified Bankart reconstructions. A minimum 18-month follow-up was obtained by examination of 24 patients with telephone interviews done on two patients. The average follow-up was 23.6 months. A 93.1% good-to-excellent result was obtained using the Bankart rating scale. There were no failures or complications. The surgeon involved in the study thought the suture anchor facilitated the attachment of the avulsed capsulolabral complex in doing the Bankart procedure.

  20. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates.

    PubMed

    Le, Nam B; Woods, Lilia M

    2016-09-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability. PMID:27392014

  1. Anchoring transition in confined discotic columnar liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Thomas; Thiebaut, Olivier; Charlet, Émilie; Bock, Harald; Kelber, Julien; Grelet, Éric

    2011-01-01

    We report the achievement of ultrathin films (down to 25 nm thick) of thermotropic columnar liquid crystals in homeotropic alignment (columns normal to the interface) confined between a glass slide and a thin metallic electrode (about 150 nm thick). The face-on orientation of the discotic compound is obtained by anchoring transition of a columnar liquid crystalline phase from a degenerate planar orientation to the homeotropic alignment without any phase transition to the isotropic liquid phase. The kinetic dependence on temperature of such anchoring transition is investigated revealing various diffusive growth regimes of the homeotropic domains. Finally, confining effects are also considered by varying the thickness of the columnar liquid crystal film to reach the typical value required in organic solar cells thus demonstrating the reliability of such alignment process in a photovoltaic context.

  2. Membrane-anchored serine proteases in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bugge, Thomas; Wu, Qingyu

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteases of the trypsin-like family have long been recognized to be critical effectors of biological processes as diverse as digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and immunity. In recent years, a subgroup of these enzymes has been identified that are anchored directly to plasma membranes, either by a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain (Type I), an amino-terminal transmembrane domain with a cytoplasmic extension (Type II or TTSP), or through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. Recent biochemical, cellular, and in vivo analyses have now established that membrane-anchored serine proteases are key pericellular contributors to processes vital for development and the maintenance of homeostasis. This chapter will review our current knowledge of the biological and physiological functions of these proteases, their molecular substrates, and their contributions to disease. PMID:21238933

  3. Load transfer mechanisms in rock sockets and anchors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pease, K.A.; Kulhawy, F.H.

    1984-11-01

    This study presents a comprehensive analysis of rock socket and anchor behavior, which includes the failure mode, capacity, and deformations. The methods of analysis were obtained from a combination of original concepts and summaries of preexisting methods. The original concepts are based on both theoretical considerations and observations of actual socket behavior. The data used for both analytical and verification purposes were obtained from published sources. The results show that rock sockets and anchors can fail by any one of four modes, including: tensile failure of the tendons, pullout of the tendons from the grout, grout-rock interface slip, and rock mass uplift. Only the latter two are geotechnical problems investigated in detail.

  4. Recycling Suture Limbs from Knotless Suture Anchors for Arthroscopic Shoulder Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy S.; DiPompeo, Christine M.; Ismaeli, Zahra C.; Porter, Polly A.; Nicholson, Shannon L.; Johnson, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent shoulder instability often leads to labral abnormality that requires surgical intervention that may require fixation with suture anchors. The proposed surgical technique allows the surgeon to achieve 2 points of fixation around the labrum and/or capsule with a single suture secured to the glenoid with a knotless anchor. Instead of cutting and discarding the residual suture limbs after anchor insertion, this technique uses the residual suture limbs of the knotless anchor for a second suture pass. This technique (1) creates a more cost- and time-efficient surgical procedure than using multiple single-loaded anchors or double-loaded anchors, (2) decreases the known risk of glenoid fracture from the stress riser at the implant tips of multi-anchor repairs by reducing the number of anchors required for stabilization, (3) decreases the surgical time compared with the use of double-loaded anchors through simpler suture management and less knot tying, (4) allows for the secure reapproximation of the labrum to the glenoid while offering a convenient option for capsulorrhaphy without the need to insert another anchor, and (5) yields more points of soft-tissue fixation with fewer anchors drilled into the glenoid. PMID:25126504

  5. Genome Assembly Anchored QTL Map of Bovine Chromosome 14

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Tito A.; Gaskins, Charles T.; Newberry, Ruth C.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Michal, Jennifer J.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2008-01-01

    Bovine chromosome 14 (BTA14) has been widely explored for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes related to economically important traits in both dairy and beef cattle. We reviewed more than 40 investigations and anchored 126 QTL to the current genome assembly (Btau 4_0). Using this anchored QTL map, we observed that, in dairy cattle, the region spanning 0 – 10 Mb on BTA14 has the highest density QTL map with a total of 56 QTL, mainly for milk production traits. It is very likely that both somatic cell score (SCS) and clinical mastitis share some common QTL in two regions: 61.48 Mb - 73.84 Mb and 7.86 Mb – 39.55 Mb, respectively. As well, both ovulation rate and twinning rate might share a common QTL region from 34.16 Mb to 65.38 Mb. However, there are no common QTL locations in three pregnancy related phenotypes: non-return rate, pregnancy rate and daughter pregnancy rate. In beef cattle, the majority of QTL are located in a broad region of 15 Mb – 45 Mb on the chromosome. Functional genes, such as CRH, CYP11B1, DGAT1, FABP4 and TG, as potential candidates for some of these QTL, were also reviewed. Therefore, our review provides a standardized QTL map anchored within the current genome assembly, which would enhance the process of selecting positional and physiological candidate genes for many important traits in cattle. PMID:19043607

  6. Creating Order from Chaos: Cellular Regulation by Kinase Anchoring

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Dessauer, Carmen W.; Tasken, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    Second messenger responses rely on where and when the enzymes that propagate these signals become active. Spatial and temporal organization of certain signaling enzymes is controlled in part by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). This family of regulatory proteins was originally classified on the basis of their ability to compartmentalize the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (also known as protein kinase A, or PKA). However, it is now recognized that AKAPs position G protein–coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, G proteins, and their effector proteins in relation to protein kinases and signal termination enzymes such as phosphodiesterases and protein phosphatases. This arrangement offers a simple and efficient means to limit the scope, duration, and directional flow of information to sites deep within the cell. This review focuses on the pros and cons of reagents that define the biological role of kinase anchoring inside cells and discusses recent advances in our understanding of anchored second messenger signaling in the cardiovascular and immune systems. PMID:23043438

  7. The Effects of Different Types of Anchor Tests on Observed Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-09-41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of a different type of anchor, a "midi anchor", that has a smaller spread of item difficulties than the tests to be equated, and then contrasts its use with the use of a "mini anchor". The impact of different anchors on observed score equating were evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error (bias), random…

  8. 33 CFR 150.905 - Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? 150.905 Section 150.905 Navigation and Navigable...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.905 Why are safety zones, no anchoring areas, and areas to be avoided established? (a) Safety zones, no anchoring areas (NAAs) and...

  9. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising. PMID:21308579

  10. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising.

  11. Aromatic Anchor at an Invariant Hormone-Receptor Interface

    PubMed Central

    Pandyarajan, Vijay; Smith, Brian J.; Phillips, Nelson B.; Whittaker, Linda; Cox, Gabriella P.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda; Menting, John G.; Wan, Zhu-li; Whittaker, Jonathan; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Lawrence, Michael C.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallographic studies of insulin bound to fragments of the insulin receptor have recently defined the topography of the primary hormone-receptor interface. Here, we have investigated the role of PheB24, an invariant aromatic anchor at this interface and site of a human mutation causing diabetes mellitus. An extensive set of B24 substitutions has been constructed and tested for effects on receptor binding. Although aromaticity has long been considered a key requirement at this position, MetB24 was found to confer essentially native affinity and bioactivity. Molecular modeling suggests that this linear side chain can serve as an alternative hydrophobic anchor at the hormone-receptor interface. These findings motivated further substitution of PheB24 by cyclohexanylalanine (Cha), which contains a nonplanar aliphatic ring. Contrary to expectations, [ChaB24]insulin likewise exhibited high activity. Furthermore, its resistance to fibrillation and the rapid rate of hexamer disassembly, properties of potential therapeutic advantage, were enhanced. The crystal structure of the ChaB24 analog, determined as an R6 zinc-stabilized hexamer at a resolution of 1.5 Å, closely resembles that of wild-type insulin. The nonplanar aliphatic ring exhibits two chair conformations with partial occupancies, each recapitulating the role of PheB24 at the dimer interface. Together, these studies have defined structural requirements of an anchor residue within the B24-binding pocket of the insulin receptor; similar molecular principles are likely to pertain to insulin-related growth factors. Our results highlight in particular the utility of nonaromatic side chains as probes of the B24 pocket and suggest that the nonstandard Cha side chain may have therapeutic utility. PMID:25305014

  12. Clinical Outcomes After Suture Anchor Repair of Recalcitrant Medial Epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Grawe, Brian M; Fabricant, Peter D; Chin, Christopher S; Allen, Answorth A; DePalma, Brian J; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical and patient-reported outcomes and return to sport after surgical treatment of medial epicondylitis with suture anchor fixation. Consecutive patients were evaluated after undergoing debridement and suture anchor repair of the flexor-pronator mass for the treatment of medial epicondylitis. Demographic variables, a short version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) score, Oxford Elbow Score (OES), and 10-point pain and satisfaction scales were collected. Ability and time to return to sport after surgery were evaluated, and the relationship between predictor variables and both elbow function and return to sport was investigated. Median age at the time of surgery was 55 years (range, 29-65 years), with median follow-up of 40 months (range, 12-67 months). Median QuickDASH score and OES at final follow-up were 2.3 (range, 0-38.6) and 45 (range, 22-48), respectively. Most patients returned to premorbid sporting activities at a median of 4.5 months (range, 2.5-12 months), whereas 4 patients (14%) reported significant limitations at final follow-up. Older age at the time of surgery was predictive of better QuickDASH score and OES (P=.05 and P=.02, respectively). Patients who underwent surgery after a shorter duration of symptoms had better outcomes, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (QuickDASH, P=.09; OES, P=.10). Surgical treatment of recalcitrant medial epicondylitis with suture anchor fixation offers good pain relief and patient satisfaction, with little residual disability. Older age at the time of surgery predicts a better outcome.

  13. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as <1 %, significantly more patients (73 %) correctly identified the numeric risk as <1 % post-counseling (p < 0.0001). However, the majority of patients' qualitative risk perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p < 0.0001). Participants who elected amniocentesis had a significantly lower perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  14. Control of anchoring of nematic fluids at polymer surfaces created by in situ photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Collard, David M; Park, Jung O; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2005-05-12

    In situ photopolymerization of alkyl acrylate monomers in the presence of a nematic fluid provides a cellular matrix of liquid crystalline droplets in which the chemical structure of the encapsulating polymer exerts control over the alignment (anchoring) of the liquid crystalline molecules. Control is obtained by variation of the alkyl side chains and through copolymerization of two dissimilar monofunctional acrylates. For example, among a series of poly(methylheptyl acrylate)s, the 1-methylheptyl analogue prefers planar anchoring of a nematic (TL205) over the temperature range studied. However, the polymers of other methylheptyl side chains display a homeotropic-to-planar anchoring thermal transition temperature similar to that of the n-heptyl analogue. Copolymerization of two monofunctional acrylates with opposing tendencies of aligning liquid crystal leads to tunability of anchoring behavior over a wide temperature range. The broad anchoring transitions we observed provide a way of achieving highly tilted anchoring. PMID:16852050

  15. Simulation of weak anchoring effects on nematic liquid crystal hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Sean; Somers, David A. T.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    The free energy of a nematic liquid crystal droplet depends on an interplay between elastic and surface interactions. When the two contributions are of similar magnitude, there exists a transition of the nematic structure of the droplet. Because the two contributions scale differently with length scales, this transition is visible as a function of the size of the droplet. We carry out numerical simulations to explore the use of this transition in measuring surface anchoring energies. This technique could help elucidate alignment forces on liquid crystals, such as those caused by rubbed surfaces, electric fields, or even the Casimir torque. Electrical and Computer Engineering.

  16. Anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal at a polymer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri-Hamaneh, Mehdi; Taylor, Philip L.

    2003-03-01

    A commonly used technique to orient liquid crystal molecules in contact with a polymer is to rub the polymer surface with a soft cloth. This has the effect of both digging grooves and aligning polymeric chains in the surface. The relative importance of these two effects has long been debated. To study this question we have performed atomistic molecular dynamic simulations of molecules of 5CB in contact with polyvinyl alcohol. In this way it is possible to investigate the effects of interchain spacing, tacticity, chain orientation, and surface topography on the preferred orientation. The resulting preferred direction of planar anchoring appears to depend on all of these factors.

  17. Photolithography of Dithiocarbamate-Anchored Monolayers and Polymers on Gold.

    PubMed

    Leonov, Alexei P; Wei, Alexander

    2011-03-28

    Dithiocarbamate (DTC)-anchored monolayers and polymers were investigated as positive resists for UV photolithography on planar and roughened Au surfaces. DTCs were formed in situ by the condensation of CS(2) with monovalent or polyvalent amines such as linear polyethyleneimine (PEI) under mildly basic aqueous conditions, just prior to surface passivation. The robust adsorption of the polyvalent PEI-DTC to Au surfaces supported high levels of resistance to photoablation, providing opportunities to generate thin films with gradient functionality. Treatment of photopatterned substrates with alkanethiols produced binary coatings, enabling a direct visual comparison of DTC- and thiol-passivated surfaces against chemically induced corrosion using confocal microscopy.

  18. 18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG THE MAIN TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER IS SHOWN IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND. AT THIS STATION THE DISPATCHER CONTROLLED POWER OUTPUT TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. THE STRUCTURE SERVES THE SAME PURPOSE IN 1993 AND CAN BE OPERATED LOCALLY OR REMOTELY FROM METRO-NORTH'S HEADQUARTERS IN MANHATTAN. THE STEEL STRUCTURE AND STACK IN THE BACKGROUND ARE PART OF THE BOILER 902-903 INSTALLATION. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-01

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level.There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The

  20. Molecular rectifiers: a new design based on asymmetric anchoring moieties.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Colin; Ratner, Mark A

    2015-03-11

    The quest for a molecular rectifier is among the major challenges of molecular electronics. We introduce three simple rules to design an efficient rectifying molecule and demonstrate its functioning at the theoretical level, relying on the NEGF-DFT technique. The design rules notably require both the introduction of asymmetric anchoring moieties and a decoupling bridge. They lead to a new rectification mechanism based on the compression and control of the HOMO/LUMO gap by the electrode Fermi levels, arising from a pinning effect. Significant rectification ratios up to 2 orders of magnitude are theoretically predicted as the mechanism opposes resonant to nonresonant tunneling. PMID:25706442

  1. 46 CFR 32.15-15 - Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... will evaluate the suitability of the equipment. (e) Barges Equipped with Anchors to Comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1). Each barge equipped with an anchor, to comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1), must be fitted... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers-TB/ALL 32.15-15 Section...

  2. Effects of anchoring and adjustment in the evaluation of product pricing.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan; Sayag, Neta; Ezer, Aliya

    2010-08-01

    Anchoring and adjustment comprise a heuristic that creates expectations. Two types of anchors were applied on participants' evaluation of products: the price reference of the product (maximum, minimum, or no price reference) and the context in which the products were evaluated (the prestige of the shopping center). Results showed that both factors anchored evaluations of products' value. Context effects were explained by the different expectations of visitors in prestigious (looking for quality) and less prestigious (seeking a bargain) centers.

  3. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (288±62 N) compared with type I anchors (179±39 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. PMID:23937749

  4. Percutaneous retrieval of a radiolucent anchoring sleeve embolized in pulmonary artery during pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Michifumi; Yamane, Teiichi; Sadaoka, Shunichi; Tokutake, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Kenichi; Hioki, Mika; Narui, Ryohsuke; Tanigawa, Shinichi; Inada, Keiichi; Matsuo, Seiichiro; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2016-08-01

    An 85-year-old female presented to our institution with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome. During pacemaker implantation, an anchoring sleeve in the right ventricular lead was embolized in the left pulmonary artery. Although the anchoring sleeve was radiolucent, digital subtraction angiography revealed an angiographic filling defect in the lower branch of the left pulmonary artery, and a snare catheter enabled the anchoring sleeve to be grasped and extracted.

  5. Self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Feerick, Emer M; Wilson, Joanne; Jarman-Smith, Marcus; Ó'Brádaigh, Conchur M; McGarry, J Patrick

    2014-10-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been conducted. Six CFR-PEEK suture anchor designs were investigated using PEEK-OPTIMA® Reinforced, a medical grade of CFR-PEEK. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the maximum axial force and torque required for self-taping insertion of each anchor design. Additional experimental tests were conducted for some anchor designs using pilot holes. Computational simulations were conducted to determine the maximum stress in each anchor design at various stages of insertion. Simulations also were performed to investigate the effect of wall thickness in the anchor head. The maximum axial force required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 150 N for any anchor design. The maximum torque required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 0.8 Nm. Computational simulations reveal significant stress concentrations in the region of the anchor tip, demonstrating that a re-design of the tip geometry should be performed to avoid fracture during self-tapping, as observed in the experimental component of this study. This study demonstrates the ability of PEEK-OPTIMA Reinforced suture anchors to self-tap polyurethane foam bone analogue. This provides motivation to further investigate the self-tapping ability of CFR-PEEK suture anchors in animal/cadaveric bone. An optimised design for CFR-PEEK suture anchors offers the advantages of radiolucency, and mechanical properties similar to bone with the ability to self-tap. This may have positive implications for reducing surgery times and the associated costs with the procedure.

  6. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins can be distinguished from transmembrane polypeptide-anchored proteins by differential solubilization and temperature-induced phase separation in Triton X-114.

    PubMed

    Hooper, N M; Bashir, A

    1991-12-15

    Treatment of kidney microvillar membranes with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 at 0 degrees C, followed by low-speed centrifugation, generated a detergent-insoluble pellet and a detergent-soluble supernatant. The supernatant was further fractionated by phase separation at 30 degrees C into a detergent-rich phase and a detergent-depleted or aqueous phase. Those ectoenzymes with a covalently attached glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (G-PI) membrane anchor were recovered predominantly (greater than 73%) in the detergent-insoluble pellet. In contrast, those ectoenzymes anchored by a single membrane-spanning polypeptide were recovered predominantly (greater than 62%) in the detergent-rich phase. Removal of the hydrophobic membrane-anchoring domain from either class of ectoenzyme resulted in the proteins being recovered predominantly (greater than 70%) in the aqueous phase. This technique was also applied to other membrane types, including pig and human erythrocyte ghosts, where, in both cases, the G-PI-anchored acetylcholinesterase partitioned predominantly (greater than 69%) into the detergent-insoluble pellet. When the microvillar membranes were subjected only to differential solubilization with Triton X-114 at 0 degrees C, the G-PI-anchored ectoenzymes were recovered predominantly (greater than 63%) in the detergent-insoluble pellet, whereas the transmembrane-polypeptide-anchored ectoenzymes were recovered predominantly (greater than 95%) in the detergent-solubilized supernatant. Thus differential solubilization and temperature-induced phase separation in Triton X-114 distinguished between G-PI-anchored membrane proteins, transmembrane-polypeptide-anchored proteins and soluble, hydrophilic proteins. This technique may be more useful and reliable than susceptibility to release by phospholipases as a means of identifying a G-PI anchor on an unpurified membrane protein.

  7. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins can be distinguished from transmembrane polypeptide-anchored proteins by differential solubilization and temperature-induced phase separation in Triton X-114.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, N M; Bashir, A

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of kidney microvillar membranes with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-114 at 0 degrees C, followed by low-speed centrifugation, generated a detergent-insoluble pellet and a detergent-soluble supernatant. The supernatant was further fractionated by phase separation at 30 degrees C into a detergent-rich phase and a detergent-depleted or aqueous phase. Those ectoenzymes with a covalently attached glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (G-PI) membrane anchor were recovered predominantly (greater than 73%) in the detergent-insoluble pellet. In contrast, those ectoenzymes anchored by a single membrane-spanning polypeptide were recovered predominantly (greater than 62%) in the detergent-rich phase. Removal of the hydrophobic membrane-anchoring domain from either class of ectoenzyme resulted in the proteins being recovered predominantly (greater than 70%) in the aqueous phase. This technique was also applied to other membrane types, including pig and human erythrocyte ghosts, where, in both cases, the G-PI-anchored acetylcholinesterase partitioned predominantly (greater than 69%) into the detergent-insoluble pellet. When the microvillar membranes were subjected only to differential solubilization with Triton X-114 at 0 degrees C, the G-PI-anchored ectoenzymes were recovered predominantly (greater than 63%) in the detergent-insoluble pellet, whereas the transmembrane-polypeptide-anchored ectoenzymes were recovered predominantly (greater than 95%) in the detergent-solubilized supernatant. Thus differential solubilization and temperature-induced phase separation in Triton X-114 distinguished between G-PI-anchored membrane proteins, transmembrane-polypeptide-anchored proteins and soluble, hydrophilic proteins. This technique may be more useful and reliable than susceptibility to release by phospholipases as a means of identifying a G-PI anchor on an unpurified membrane protein. PMID:1837216

  8. The psychophysical assessment of odor valence: does an anchor stimulus influence the hedonic evaluation of odors?

    PubMed

    Clepce, Marion; Neumann, Konrad; Martus, Peter; Nitsch, Marie; Wielopolski, Jan; Koch, Alexander; Kornhuber, Johannes; Reich, Karin; Thuerauf, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli are experienced primarily in terms of their hedonic tone and the assessment of olfactory hedonic estimates is a prevalent task in scientific and industrial contexts. However, measuring conditions are poorly standardized. Our study aims to fill this gap, focusing on the influence of anchor stimuli on olfactory hedonic evaluations, frequency of anchor presentation, and temporal stability of results. In n = 31 subjects, hedonic estimates for the 16 odors of the Sniffin' Sticks identification task were assessed on a visual analog rating scale under 4 measuring conditions (nonanchor, pleasant anchor, neutral anchor, unpleasant anchor). To test for stability over time, n = 10 subjects were reassessed 2, 4, and 6 months after original testing. To analyze for possible effects of single versus repeated anchor presentation, n = 15 subjects were retested 2 months after the original session in a multiple anchor presentation format. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the 4 anchor conditions, thus highlighting the necessity of specifying assessment methods in scientific research. No significant differences between timepoints were observed, indicating a high temporal stability of olfactory hedonic evaluations, especially from timepoint T2 onward. No overall significant effects of single versus multiple anchor presentation were detected. Findings might help to further standardize testing procedures.

  9. Glucosamine-Anchored Graphene Oxide Nanosheets: Fabrication, Ultraviolet Irradiation, and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Lévaray, Nicolas; Lee, Min-Ho; Giasson, Suzanne; Zhu, X X

    2015-07-15

    A biofunctionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet with improved physicochemical properties is useful for electrocatalysis and sensor development. Herein, a new class of functionalized GO with a chemically anchored biomolecule glucosamine is developed. Structural and chemical analyses confirm the glucosamine anchoring. Ultraviolet irradiation transforms the surface chemistry of GO. Glucosamine-anchored GO nanosheets exhibit improved cyclic voltammetric and amperometric sensing activity toward the model redox probe, ruthenium(II) and N-acetylneuraminic acid, respectively. The biomolecular anchoring and ultraviolet irradiation helped to tune and enhance the properties of GO, which may find multiple applications in optimizing sensor platforms. PMID:26120929

  10. Suture anchor repair of quadriceps tendon rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Won B; Kamath, Atul F; Israelite, Craig L

    2011-08-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a devastating complication, usually requiring surgical repair. Although suture anchor fixation is well described for repair of the ruptured native knee quadriceps tendon, no study has discussed the use of suture anchors in quadriceps repair after TKA. We present an illustrative case of successful suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps mechanism after TKA. The procedure has been performed in a total of 3 patients. A surgical technique and brief review of the literature follows. Suture anchor fixation of the quadriceps tendon is a viable option in the setting of rupture after TKA.

  11. Suture anchor versus suture through tunnel fixation for quadriceps tendon rupture: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Lighthart, William A; Cohen, David A; Levine, Richard G; Parks, Brent G; Boucher, Henry R

    2008-05-01

    This biomechanical study compared suture anchors versus transosseous sutures for repair of quadriceps tendon ruptures using a force of 150 N at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. No significant difference in displacement was found between the 2 techniques with initial loading or with load or no load after 1000 cycles. Displacement after 1000 cycles for suture anchors and bone tunnels was 4.65 and 4.50 mm, respectively. These findings suggest a possible role for suture anchors in repairing quadriceps tendon ruptures. Suture anchors are relatively expensive but require less dissection over the patella and do not involve suture placement about the patella tendon.

  12. Anchoring in 4- to 6-year-old children relates to predictors of reading.

    PubMed

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that anchoring, a short-term dynamic and implicit process that allows individuals to benefit from contextual information embedded in stimulus sequences, might be causally related to reading acquisition. Here we report findings from two experiments in which two previously untested predictions derived from this anchoring hypothesis were tested: (a) that anchoring facilitates rapid naming and phonological short-term memory in children prior to the onset of formal reading instruction and (b) that anchoring makes a unique contribution to performance in two early predictors of reading (letter knowledge and phonological awareness). In line with those predictions, naming times were faster and memory spans were longer under conditions that encouraged the use of anchoring processes than under conditions that afforded little anchoring. Furthermore, performance in the anchoring-affording condition predicted significant amounts of variance in phonological awareness and letter knowledge even after controlling for the contribution of the conditions that did not afford anchoring. Therefore, we suggest that anchoring might contribute to the development of reading-related processes during the preschool years independent of the development of specific reading-related skills such as phonological processing.

  13. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N.; Carson, Martin L.; Rines, Howard W.; Obert, Donald E.; Lutz, Joseph D.; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B.; Wight, Charlene P.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D.; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J. Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Howarth, Catherine J.; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L.; McMullen, Michael S.; Murphy, J. Paul; Ohm, Herbert W.; Rossnagel, Brian G.; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J.; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J.; Redman Hulse, Rachel R.; Anderson, Joseph M.; Islamovic, Emir

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  14. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Rebekah E; Tinker, Nicholas A; Lazo, Gerard R; Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N; Carson, Martin L; Rines, Howard W; Obert, Donald E; Lutz, Joseph D; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B; Wight, Charlene P; Gardner, Kyle M; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W; Harrison, Stephen A; Howarth, Catherine J; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L; McMullen, Michael S; Murphy, J Paul; Ohm, Herbert W; Rossnagel, Brian G; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J; Redman Hulse, Rachel R; Anderson, Joseph M; Islamovic, Emir; Jackson, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  15. Insertion of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored enzyme into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ronzon, F; Morandat, S; Roux, B; Bortolato, M

    2004-02-01

    Incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (AP), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, into liposomes containing detergent, followed by detergent removal with hydrophobic resin was performed. Incorporation media were collected during different steps of detergent removal and were analyzed by flotation in sucrose gradient. The presence of protein was checked by measuring enzymatic activity, while the presence of (3)H-radio-labelled liposomes was followed by determination of the radioactivity. The incorporation yield of the protein into liposomes increased with incubation time in presence of hydrophobic resin. Protein was also incorporated at different protein/lipid ratios. At the highest protein lipid ratio, our data showed that 260 molecules of GPI-linked AP (AP-GPI) could be associated with one liposome, corresponding to 65% vesicle coverage. Finally, observations by electron cryomicroscopy indicated (i) that the protein seemed exclusively associated with the lipid bilayer via the GPI-anchor, as shown by the distance-about 2.5 nm-between the protein core and the liposome membrane; (ii) that the AP-GPI distribution was heterogeneous on the liposome surface, forming clusters of protein.

  16. Decisions Under Distress Stress Profiles Influence Anchoring and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Karim S.; Koslov, Katrina; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2009-01-01

    People frequently make decisions under stress. Understanding how stress affects decision making is complicated by the fact that not all stress responses are created equal. Challenge states, for example, occur when individuals appraise a stressful situation as demanding, but believe they have the personal resources to cope, and are characterized by efficient cardiovascular reactivity and approach motivation. Threat states, in contrast, occur when situational demands are perceived to outweigh resources and are characterized by less efficient cardiovascular reactivity and withdrawal motivation. We randomly assigned participants to social-feedback conditions (i.e., positive or negative feedback) designed to engender challenge or threat, or a no-stress condition. Participants then completed an anchoring-and-adjustment questionnaire. Those assigned to the challenge condition adjusted more from self-generated anchors than those assigned to the threat condition. Cardiovascular responses mediated the relationship between condition and adjustment. This study demonstrates the importance of considering profiles of cardiovascular reactivity when examining the influence of stress on decision making. PMID:19843261

  17. Anchored clathrate waters bind antifreeze proteins to ice

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, Christopher P.; Campbell, Robert L.; Davies, Peter L.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca2+-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP∶ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the “anchored clathrate” mechanism of AFP action. PMID:21482800

  18. Anchored Clathrate Waters Bind Antifreeze Proteins to Ice

    SciTech Connect

    C Garnham; R Campbell; P Davies

    2011-12-31

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca{sup 2+}-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP{vert_ellipsis}ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the 'anchored clathrate' mechanism of AFP action.

  19. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-21

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level. PMID:27333828

  20. Anchored PKA as a gatekeeper for gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Taskén, Kjetil

    2015-01-01

    Anchored protein kinase A (PKA) bound to A Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) mediates effects of localized increases in cAMP in defined subcellular microdomains and retains the specificity in cAMP-PKA signaling to distinct extracellular stimuli. Gap junctions are pores between adjacent cells constituted by connexin proteins that provide means of communication and transfer of small molecules. While the PKA signaling is known to promote human trophoblast cell fusion, the gap junction communication through connexin 43 (Cx43) is a prerequisite for this process. We recently demonstrated that trophoblast fusion is regulated by ezrin, a known AKAP, which binds to Cx43 and delivers PKA in the vicinity gap junctions. We found that disruption of the ezrin-Cx43 interaction abolished PKA-dependent phosphorylation of Cx43 as well as gap junction communication and subsequently cell fusion. We propose that the PKA-ezrin-Cx43 macromolecular complex regulating gap junction communication constitutes a general mechanism to control opening of Cx43 gap junctions by phosphorylation in response to cAMP signaling in various cell types. PMID:26478781

  1. Multi-day anchor ice cycles and bedload transport in a gravel-bed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Philippe; Leconte, Robert; Jay Lacey, R. W.; Bergeron, Normand

    2014-11-01

    River dynamics in cold regions and the physical processes involving ice formation and release remain relatively understudied topics. Current research suggests that anchor ice forms in diurnal cycles and has the potential to move sediments when released from the bed. Given the importance of river ice dynamics, studies are needed to describe the physical processes of anchor ice and its impact on sediment transport. The study presented in this paper investigated in situ anchor ice formation on the Stoke River in Quebec, Canada. In the fall of 2012, we observed multi-day anchor ice formation cycles and release, which usually ended with a small runoff event. During a cycle, there was little or no release of anchor ice, thus allowing its gradual growth as the air temperature remained cold. Surface and anchor ice layers also often merged, leading to the formation of thick ice masses. Sediment transport was monitored using bed particles individually tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT-tags). Movement of the experimental particles, measured after each multi-day cycle event, ranged from 0.5 to 4 m. Possible transport mechanisms include: (1) anchor ice rafting, (2) ice jam breakup creating a jave with high erosive capacity, (3) flow corridors through anchor ice masses with high erosive capacity, (4) mechanical pushing of particles by drifting ice blocks during ice breakup, and (5) entrainment by flow or drifting ice blocks of anchored ice with strong ice-pebble bonds. Given the coincidental occurrence of anchor ice release and runoff events, it is uncertain which specific mechanism caused the particles to move. This study is a step forward in understanding the behavior of anchor ice processes and ice-related sediment transport.

  2. Adaptation of gaze anchoring through practice in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Rand, Miya K; Stelmach, George E

    2011-03-29

    During visually guided manual movements, gaze is usually fixated to a target until a pointing movement is completed to that target, showing gaze anchoring. We previously examined gaze anchoring during a two-segment eye-hand task under a low accuracy constraint. Eye movements were made to predetermined first and second targets, while hand movements were varied across two conditions: (1) stop at the first target and discontinue (HS1) and (2) stop at both the first and the second targets (HS1S2). Young adults previously broke gaze anchoring at the first target only when the second pointing was excluded (HS1). However, older adults did not break gaze anchoring for either condition. The present study further investigated whether young and older adults break gaze anchoring through short-term practice under the same conditions. An HS1 practice proceeded to an HS1S2 practice. The results showed that the timing of terminating gaze anchoring relative to pointing completion oscillated considerably during the HS1 practice until it was stabilized. Conversely, that timing was stable during the HS1S2 practice. Nevertheless, the young adults benefited from the HS1 practice and broke gaze anchoring even when the second pointing was included in HS1S2. This indicates that gaze anchoring to pointing completion is not a prerequisite for the production of subsequent pointing. By contrast, older adults did not improve the timing of gaze anchoring termination for either practice condition, thereby failing to break gaze anchoring. Thus, aging compromises a predictive control of terminating gaze anchoring relative to pointing completion, which is difficult to overcome through short-term practice.

  3. How up- or downslope anchoring affects root reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Root reinforcement is important for slope stability. In addition to the important contribution of roots to shear strength along the slip surface, root networks are also recognized to impart stabilization through lateral (parallel to slope) redistribution of forces under tension. The most common method to measure lateral root reinforcement is a pullout test where one root or a bundle of root is pulled out of the soil matrix. This condition represents the case where roots within the mass of a landslide slip out from the upper stable part of the slope. There is also, however, the situation where roots anchored in the upper stable part of the slope slip out from the sliding mass. In the latter it is difficult to quantify root reinforcement and no study has discussed this mechanism. We carried out a new series of laboratory and field experiments using Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) roots to quantify how up- or downslope anchoring affects root reinforcement. In addition, we carried out new field pullout tests on coarse roots (larger that 2 mm in diameter, up to 47 mm). Then, considering the state-of-the-art of root reinforcement modeling (the Root Bundle Model), we integrated results from our measurements into the model to verify the magnitude of this effect on overall root reinforcement at the stand scale. Results indicate that the ratio between pullout force and force transferred to the root during soil slip ranges between 0.5 and 1. This indicates that measured pullout force always overestimate the contribution of lateral slipping out roots in situations where the soil slide from anchored roots. This is general the case for root with diameter up to 3-4 mm. Root-size distribution is also a key factor influencing root reinforcement at the forest-stand scale. As most coarse roots break along tension cracks while fine roots slip out, the effect discussed in this study on root reinforcement modeling is negligible when coarse-root diameter classes are represented. Our

  4. Bat3 promotes the membrane integration of tail-anchored proteins.

    PubMed

    Leznicki, Pawel; Clancy, Anne; Schwappach, Blanche; High, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    The membrane integration of tail-anchored proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is post-translational, with different tail-anchored proteins exploiting distinct cytosolic factors. For example, mammalian TRC40 has a well-defined role during delivery of tail-anchored proteins to the ER. Although its Saccharomyces cerevisiae equivalent, Get3, is known to function in concert with at least four other components, Get1, Get2, Get4 and Get5 (Mdy2), the role of additional mammalian proteins during tail-anchored protein biogenesis is unclear. To this end, we analysed the cytosolic binding partners of Sec61beta, a well-defined substrate of TRC40, and identified Bat3 as a previously unknown interacting partner. Depletion of Bat3 inhibits the membrane integration of Sec61beta, but not of a second, TRC40-independent, tail-anchored protein, cytochrome b5. Thus, Bat3 influences the in vitro membrane integration of tail-anchored proteins using the TRC40 pathway. When expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking a functional GET pathway for tail-anchored protein biogenesis, Bat3 associates with the resulting cytosolic pool of non-targeted chains and diverts it to the nucleus. This Bat3-mediated mislocalisation is not dependent upon Sgt2, a recently identified component of the yeast GET pathway, and we propose that Bat3 either modulates the TRC40 pathway in higher eukaryotes or provides an alternative fate for newly synthesised tail-anchored proteins.

  5. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  6. Purification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins by modified triton X-114 partitioning and preparative gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Y G; Thompson, G A

    1995-01-01

    Triton X-114 phase partitioning has frequently been used to obtain preparations enriched in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and other hydrophobic proteins from crude cellular homogenates. We have developed a new modification of this phase-partitioning technique which allows two distinct GPI-anchored proteins of Tetrahymena mimbres to be separated from other hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic proteins and recovered in approximately 90% yield. The unique feature of the new method is a 24-h incubation of the first Triton X-114 extract at -20 degrees C. This improves the partitioning of GPI-anchored proteins into the detergent phase while promoting the aggregation of other hydrophobic proteins. Individual GPI-anchored proteins in the detergent phase are then purified to near homogeneity by one-step preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By substituting Triton X-114/water mixtures for the conventional SDS buffer used to collect proteins eluting from the preparative gel, the purified GPI-anchored protein can be rapidly concentrated from relatively large volumes of eluate by phase partitioning at 32 degrees C. The method is also effective in separating mammalian GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase from other proteins. It is likely to be of general utility in characterizing the GPI anchor structures associated with nonabundant and abundant GPI-anchored proteins coexisting within the same cell type.

  7. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians' motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian's trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031

  8. Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an invited adaptation of the IEEE Education Society Distinguished Lecture Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning. Interactive video anchors have a cognitive theory base, and they help to enlarge the context of learning with information-rich real-world situations. Carefully selected movie clips and…

  9. The use of suture anchors to repair the ruptured quadriceps tendon.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Brandon D; Whitener, George B; Rubright, James H; Creighton, R Alexander; Logel, Kevin J; Wood, Mark L

    2007-07-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture is an incapacitating injury that usually requires surgical repair. Traditional repair methods involve transpatellar suture tunnels, but recent reports have introduced the idea of using suture anchors to repair the ruptured tendon. We present 5 cases of our technique of using suture anchors to repair the ruptured quadriceps tendon.

  10. Career Anchors: A New Concept in Career Development for the Professional Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, Thomas J.

    Created by Dr. Edgar Schein of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the career anchor model suggests that certain motivational/talent/value drives, formed through work experience, function to guide and constrain entire careers; and that such anchors are the source of stability that permits growth and change in other areas. The concept…

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  12. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and Systems § 130.240 Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) Each OSV of 100 or more...

  13. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and Systems § 130.240 Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. (a) Each OSV of 100 or more...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  15. The Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception: A Comment on Bressan (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Piers D. L.; Sagreiya, Hersh; Curtis, Dwight L.; Zheng, Chengjie; Livingstone, Margaret S.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on an article by Bressan. Recently, a double-anchoring theory (DAT) of lightness perception was proposed (P. Bressan, 2006), which offers explanations for all the data explained by the original anchoring theory (A. Gilchrist et al., 1999), as well as a number of additional lightness phenomena. Consequently, DAT can account for an…

  16. Origins of the Stuttering Stereotype: Stereotype Formation through Anchoring-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Sean P.; Hall, Shera; MacIntyre, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    The stereotype of people who stutter is predominantly negative, holding that stutterers are excessively nervous, anxious, and reserved. The anchoring-adjustment hypothesis suggests that the stereotype of stuttering arises from a process of first anchoring the stereotype in personal feelings during times of normal speech disfluency, and then…

  17. Photonic control of surface anchoring on solid colloids dispersed in liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Prathap Chandran, S; Mondiot, F; Mondain-Monval, O; Loudet, J C

    2011-12-20

    The anchoring of liquid-crystal (LC) mesogens to the surfaces of colloids is an important factor in determining intercolloidal interactions and the symmetry of the ensuing colloidal assembly in nematic colloids. The dynamic control of surface anchoring could therefore provide a handle to tune the colloidal organization and resulting properties in these systems. In this article, we report our results on the study of thermotropic nematic LC (E7) dispersions of silica and glass microcolloids bearing photosensitive surface azobenzene groups. By the photoinduced modulation of the colloidal-LC interfacial properties, due to the trans-cis isomerization of azobenzene units, we tune the anchoring on silica colloids from homeotropic (trans-azobenzene) to homogeneous planar (cis-azobenzene) reversibly. In tune with the change in surface anchoring, the interparticle interactions were also dictated by dipolar and quadrupolar symmetries for homeotropic and homogeneous planar anchoring, respectively. In our experiments, we find that, in addition to the isomerization state of the surface-bound azobenzene units, the nature of the colloid plays a crucial role in determining the anchoring state obtained on applying photostimuli. We also study the LC anchoring on colloids as a function of the azobenzene surface density and find that beyond a threshold value the anchoring properties remain invariant.

  18. Anchoring Effects on Prospective and Retrospective Metacomprehension Judgments as a Function of Peer Performance Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Qin; Linderholm, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate anchoring effects on metacomprehension judgments as a function of fictitious information participants received about past peer performance. In Experiment 1 participants were randomly assigned to one of the three anchor groups that, in some cases, provided past peer performance averages in terms of a…

  19. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  20. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein repertoire of babesia bovis and its significance for erythrocyte invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycosylphosphatidyl-anchored proteins are particularly abundant on the surface of pathogenic protozoans and might play an important role for parasite survival. In the present work the relevance of GPI-anchored proteins for erythrocyte invasion of Babesia bovis, one of the tick-transmitted causative...

  1. Rapid Naming Deficits in Dyslexia: A Stumbling Block for the Perceptual Anchor Theory of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Filippo, Gloria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    According to a recent theory of dyslexia, the "perceptual anchor theory," children with dyslexia show deficits in classic auditory and phonological tasks not because they have auditory or phonological impairments but because they are unable to form a "perceptual anchor" in tasks that rely on a small set of repeated stimuli. The theory makes the…

  2. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians’ motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian’s trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031

  3. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  4. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  5. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jimin Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  6. Anchoring energy and orientational elasticity of a ferroelectric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kaznacheev, A. V.; Pozhidaev, E. P.

    2012-06-15

    The dielectric susceptibility of a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal layer has been experimentally and theoretically studied as a function of the layer thickness. The investigation has been performed on the inner branch of the polarization hysteresis loop, in the region of a linear dependence of the polarization on the electric field. The experimental results are explained using the notion of effective layer thickness, which involves the characteristic distance {xi} over which the orienting effect of interfaces is operative. Comparison of the experimental data and theoretical results made it possible to estimate this distance as {xi} = 41 {mu}m and evaluate the anchoring energy (W = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}-1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} J/m{sup 2}) and the intralayer elastic constant (K Double-Prime Almost-Equal-To 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} N).

  7. A knowledge-anchored integrative image search and retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Selnur; Catalyurek, Umit V; Payne, Philip R O; Saltz, Joel; Kamal, Jyoti; Gurcan, Metin N

    2009-04-01

    Clinical data that may be used in a secondary capacity to support research activities are regularly stored in three significantly different formats: (1) structured, codified data elements; (2) semi-structured or unstructured narrative text; and (3) multi-modal images. In this manuscript, we will describe the design of a computational system that is intended to support the ontology-anchored query and integration of such data types from multiple source systems. Additional features of the described system include (1) the use of Grid services-based electronic data interchange models to enable the use of our system in multi-site settings and (2) the use of a software framework intended to address both potential security and patient confidentiality concerns that arise when transmitting or otherwise manipulating potentially privileged personal health information. We will frame our discussion within the specific experimental context of the concept-oriented query and integration of correlated structured data, narrative text, and images for cancer research.

  8. Anatomic Hip Capsular Reconstruction With Separate Suture Anchors.

    PubMed

    Cuéllar, Ricardo; Cuéllar, Asier; Sánchez, Alberto; Cuéllar, Adrián

    2016-06-01

    The number of reports on the use of capsule suturing techniques during hip arthroscopy has increased in the last few years because of the important function played by the iliofemoral ligament (IFL). This study describes an arthroscopic technique whereby the hip capsule is opened by a limited vertical dissection of both the capsule itself and the IFL from their footprint on the acetabular rim, and the capsulolabral junction and the IFL's deep fibers are released. After the intra-articular procedure, the capsule is closed through 2 to 4 side-to-side sutures in the vertical arm of the capsulotomy and 1 to 2 suture anchors with sutures are passed through either side of the capsular confluence. This technique prevents a full transverse section of the IFL and allows complete capsular closure through reconstruction of the capsular footprint. PMID:27656393

  9. Structural basis for membrane anchoring of HIV-1 envelope spike.

    PubMed

    Dev, Jyoti; Park, Donghyun; Fu, Qingshan; Chen, Jia; Ha, Heather Jiwon; Ghantous, Fadi; Herrmann, Tobias; Chang, Weiting; Liu, Zhijun; Frey, Gary; Seaman, Michael S; Chen, Bing; Chou, James J

    2016-07-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a type I membrane protein that mediates viral entry. We used nuclear magnetic resonance to determine an atomic structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in bicelles that mimic a lipid bilayer. The TM forms a well-ordered trimer that protects a conserved membrane-embedded arginine. An amino-terminal coiled-coil and a carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic core stabilize the trimer. Individual mutations of conserved residues did not disrupt the TM trimer and minimally affected membrane fusion and infectivity. Major changes in the hydrophilic core, however, altered the antibody sensitivity of Env. These results show how a TM domain anchors, stabilizes, and modulates a viral envelope spike and suggest that its influence on Env conformation is an important consideration for HIV-1 immunogen design. PMID:27338706

  10. Procedural debiasing of primacy/anchoring effects in clinical-like judgments.

    PubMed

    Mumma, G H; Wilson, S B

    1995-11-01

    Primacy (or anchoring) effects in clinical judgment occur when information presented at an early stage unduly influences a judgment compared to the effect of the same information presented at a later stage. Using recent theoretical models of these effects, three debiasing methods were developed and tested for their efficacy. Contrary to some recent failures to find anchoring effects, both single-cue and sequence anchoring manipulations produced medium-size effects on personality trait ratings and generalized to predictions of behavior. A consider-the-opposite procedure that involved cue sorting by diagnosticity debiased single-cue anchoring, but comparable results were obtained by subjects who simply took notes while reviewing each cue prior to judgment. Bias inoculation was marginally successful at reducing single-cue anchoring. Methodological issues as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.

  11. Comparison of reasorbeable mini anchor versus non reasorbeable: histological evaluation in an experimental rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Pontini, Alex; Munivrana, Ivan; Valente, Maria Luisa; Bassetto, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purpose. Experimental animal study to evaluate the osseo integration, inflammatory response, dislocation and the reabsorption timing of the reasorbeable Mitek® mini anchor, in comparison with the non reasorbeable titanium based. Methods. Twenty rabbits were used: divided into two groups of ten. Each animal underwent sectioning and reinsertion of the Achilles tendon bilaterally, using a reasorbeable mini anchor on one side and a controlateral non reasorbeable mini anchor. The first group was sacrificed after 40 days and the other after 120 days. The bone tendon complex was subjected to histological study. Results. No histological and statistical significative difference were observed in each group, with a lower inflammation response in the reasorbeable implant. Electronic microscopy evaluation demonstrates good stability of the implant in each group. At day 120 the reasorbeable anchors were not yet disappeared. Conclusion. Reasorbeable Mitek mini anchors are to be considered to guarantee a similar response and similar bone stability than non reasorbeable ones. PMID:24367781

  12. Data for identification of GPI-anchored peptides and ω-sites in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masuishi, Yusuke; Kimura, Yayoi; Arakawa, Noriaki; Hirano, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    We present data obtained using a focused proteomics approach to identify the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored peptides in 19 human cancer cell lines. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), which localize to the outer leaflet of the membrane microdomains commonly referred to as lipid rafts play important roles in diverse biological processes. Due to the complex structure of the GPI-anchor moiety, it has been difficult to identify GPI-anchored peptide sequences on the proteomic scale by database searches using tools such as MASCOT. Here we provide data from 73 ω-sites derived from 49 GPI-APs in 19 human cancer cell lines. This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and ω-sites using TiO2-based affinity purification followed by hydrogen fluoride treatment” (Masuishi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27141528

  13. Theoretical predictions and experimental observations of genomic mapping by anchoring random clones

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, A.V. )

    1993-02-01

    Genome mapping by anchoring random clones has recently been the subject of intensive theoretical study. In this paper, differences between published predictions of properties of anchored groups of clones ( contigs') are analyzed and simplifications of the mathematical formulae describing these properties are presented. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results from the physical mapping of the genome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Information about the number of genome sections with no anchored clone on them ( oceans') and the number of undetected overlaps between the contigs at a given stage of the experiment is required for the decision to change from the random strategy to that of a directed closure of gaps. We demonstrate that the expected number of oceans can be approximated by the number of groups of clones anchored by a single probe ( singletons'), as can the expected number of undetected overlaps between contigs by the number of contigs containing more than one anchor. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Headstart for speech segmentation: a neural signature for the anchor word effect.

    PubMed

    Cunillera, Toni; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    Learning a new language is an incremental process that builds upon previously acquired information. To shed light on the mechanisms of this incremental process, we studied the on-line neurophysiological correlates of the so-called anchor word effect where newly learned words facilitate segmentation of novel words from continuous speech. Higher segmentation performance was observed for speech streams embedded with newly learned anchor words. The anchor words elicited an enhanced Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) component considered to be an index of expectation for incoming relevant information. Moreover, we confirmed a previously reported N400 amplitude increase for the to-be-segmented novel words, indicating a bottom-up learning process whereby new memory representations for the novel words emerge. We propose that the anchor word effect indexed by SPN reflects an expectation for an incoming novel word at the offset of the anchor word, thus facilitating the segmentation process. PMID:26792366

  15. Data for identification of GPI-anchored peptides and ω-sites in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Masuishi, Yusuke; Kimura, Yayoi; Arakawa, Noriaki; Hirano, Hisashi

    2016-06-01

    We present data obtained using a focused proteomics approach to identify the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored peptides in 19 human cancer cell lines. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), which localize to the outer leaflet of the membrane microdomains commonly referred to as lipid rafts play important roles in diverse biological processes. Due to the complex structure of the GPI-anchor moiety, it has been difficult to identify GPI-anchored peptide sequences on the proteomic scale by database searches using tools such as MASCOT. Here we provide data from 73 ω-sites derived from 49 GPI-APs in 19 human cancer cell lines. This article contains data related to the research article entitled "Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and ω-sites using TiO2-based affinity purification followed by hydrogen fluoride treatment" (Masuishi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27141528

  16. The detrimental consequences for seagrass of ineffective marine park management related to boat anchoring.

    PubMed

    La Manna, G; Donno, Y; Sarà, G; Ceccherelli, G

    2015-01-15

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows are recognized as priority habitat for conservation by the EU Habitats Directive. The La Maddalena Archipelago National Park (Mediterranean Sea) P. oceanica meadow, the dominant coastal habitat of the area, is mostly threatened by boat anchoring. 12 years after the establishment of mooring fields and anchoring restrictions, a study was conducted to measure their effectiveness on the conservation of seagrass and the mitigation of anchoring damage. We found that: (i) the condition of P. oceanica was disturbed, both in the mooring fields and in control locations; (ii) mooring fields and anchoring restrictions did not show to be an efficient system for the protection of seagrass, in fact anchor scars increased after the tourist season; (iii) the mooring systems had an impact on the surrounding area of the meadow, probably due to their misuse. On the basis of these results, management recommendations for marine parks are proposed.

  17. A Novel Motion Field Anchoring Paradigm for Highly Scalable Wavelet-Based Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Rufenacht, Dominic; Mathew, Reji; Taubman, David

    2016-01-01

    Existing video coders anchor motion fields at frames that are to be predicted. In this paper, we demonstrate how changing the anchoring of motion fields to reference frames has some important advantages over conventional anchoring. We work with piecewise-smooth motion fields, and use breakpoints to signal discontinuities at moving object boundaries. We show how discontinuity information can be used to resolve double mappings arising when motion is warped from reference to target frames. We present an analytical model that allows to determine weights for texture, motion, and breakpoints to guide the rate-allocation for scalable encoding. Compared with the conventional way of anchoring motion fields, the proposed scheme requires fewer bits for the coding of motion; furthermore, the reconstructed video frames contain fewer ghosting artefacts. The experimental results show the superior performance compared with the traditional anchoring, and demonstrate the high scalability attributes of the proposed method.

  18. Molecular interactions of the neuronal GPI-anchored lipocalin Lazarillo.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Diego; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Akerström, Bo; Herrera, Macarena; Bastiani, Michael J; Ganfornina, Maria D

    2008-01-01

    Lazarillo, a glycoprotein involved in axon growth and guidance in the grasshopper embryo, is the only member of the lipocalin family that is attached to the cell surface by a GPI anchor. Recently, the study of Lazarillo homologous genes in Drosophila and mouse has revealed new functions in the regulation of lifespan, stress resistance and neurodegeneration. Here we report an analysis of biochemical properties of Lazarillo to gain insight into the molecular basis of its physiological function. Recombinant forms of the grasshopper protein were expressed in two different systems to test: (1) potential binding of several hydrophobic ligands; (2) protein-protein homophilic interactions; and (3) whether interaction with the function-blocking mAb 10E6 interferes with ligand binding. We tested 10 candidate ligands (retinoic acid, heme, bilirubin, biliverdin, ecdysterone, juvenile hormone, farnesol, arachidonic acid, linoleic acid and palmitic acid), and monitored binding using electrophoretic mobility shift, absorbance spectrum, and fluorimetry assays. Our work indicates binding to heme and retinoic acid, resulting in increased electrophoretic mobility, as well as to fatty acids, resulting in multimerization. Retinoic acid and fatty acids binding were confirmed by fluorescence titration, and heme binding was confirmed with absorbance spectrum assays. We demonstrate that Lazarillo oligomerizes in solution and can form clusters in the plasma membrane when expressed and GPI-anchored to the cell surface, however it is unable to mediate cell-cell adhesion. Finally, by ligand-mAb competition experiments we show that ligand-binding alone cannot be the key factor for Lazarillo to perform its function during axonal growth in the grasshopper embryo.

  19. Anchored hybrid enrichment for massively high-throughput phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Lemmon, Alan R; Emme, Sandra A; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty

    2012-10-01

    The field of phylogenetics is on the cusp of a major revolution, enabled by new methods of data collection that leverage both genomic resources and recent advances in DNA sequencing. Previous phylogenetic work has required labor-intensive marker development coupled with single-locus polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing on clade-by-clade and locus-by-locus basis. Here, we present a new, cost-efficient, and rapid approach to obtaining data from hundreds of loci for potentially hundreds of individuals for deep and shallow phylogenetic studies. Specifically, we designed probes for target enrichment of >500 loci in highly conserved anchor regions of vertebrate genomes (flanked by less conserved regions) from five model species and tested enrichment efficiency in nonmodel species up to 508 million years divergent from the nearest model. We found that hybrid enrichment using conserved probes (anchored enrichment) can recover a large number of unlinked loci that are useful at a diversity of phylogenetic timescales. This new approach has the potential not only to expedite resolution of deep-scale portions of the Tree of Life but also to greatly accelerate resolution of the large number of shallow clades that remain unresolved. The combination of low cost (~1% of the cost of traditional Sanger sequencing and ~3.5% of the cost of high-throughput amplicon sequencing for projects on the scale of 500 loci × 100 individuals) and rapid data collection (~2 weeks of laboratory time) are expected to make this approach tractable even for researchers working on systems with limited or nonexistent genomic resources. PMID:22605266

  20. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  1. A Novel Acetivibrio cellulolyticus Anchoring Scaffoldin That Bears Divergent Cohesins

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Barak, Yoav; Kenig, Rina; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    Sequencing of a cellulosome-integrating gene cluster in Acetivibrio cellulolyticus was completed. The cluster contains four tandem scaffoldin genes (scaA, scaB, scaC, and scaD) bounded upstream and downstream, respectively, by a presumed cellobiose phosphorylase and a nucleotide methylase. The sequences and properties of scaA, scaB, and scaC were reported previously, and those of scaD are reported here. The scaD gene encodes an 852-residue polypeptide that includes a signal peptide, three cohesins, and a C-terminal S-layer homology (SLH) module. The calculated molecular weight of the mature ScaD is 88,960; a 67-residue linker segment separates cohesins 1 and 2, and two ∼30-residue linkers separate cohesin 2 from 3 and cohesin 3 from the SLH module. The presence of an SLH module in ScaD indicates its role as an anchoring protein. The first two ScaD cohesins can be classified as type II, similar to the four cohesins of ScaB. Surprisingly, the third ScaD cohesin belongs to the type I cohesins, like the seven ScaA cohesins. ScaD is the first scaffoldin to be described that contains divergent types of cohesins as integral parts of the polypeptide chain. The recognition properties among selected recombinant cohesins and dockerins from the different scaffoldins of the gene cluster were investigated by affinity blotting. The results indicated that the divergent types of ScaD cohesins also differ in their preference of dockerins. ScaD thus plays a dual role, both as a primary scaffoldin, capable of direct incorporation of a single dockerin-borne enzyme, and as a secondary scaffoldin that anchors the major primary scaffoldin, ScaA and its complement of enzymes to the cell surface. PMID:15317783

  2. Variations in occupant response with seat belt slack and anchor location during moderate frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Chimich, Dennis D; Heinrichs, Bradley E; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Brault, John R

    2005-03-01

    Both seat belt slack and anchor location are known to affect occupant excursion during high-speed frontal collisions, but their effects have not been studied at moderate collision severities. The goal of this study was to quantify how seat belt slack and anchor location affect occupant kinematics and kinetics in moderate severity frontal collisions. A Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy was seated on a programmable sled and exposed to frontal collisions with a speed change of 17.5 km/h. The seat belt was adjusted either snugly or with 10 cm slack (distributed 60/40 between the shoulder and lap portions) and the anchor location was varied by adjusting the seat position either fully forward or rearward (seat travel = 13 cm). Accelerations and displacements of the head, T1 and pelvis were measured in the sagittal plane. Upper neck loads and knee displacements were also measured. Five trials were performed for each of the four combinations of belt adjustment (snug, slack) and anchor location (seat forward, seat rearward). For each trial, kinematic and kinetic response peaks were determined and then compared across conditions using ANOVAs. Peak displacements, accelerations and loads varied significantly with both seat belt slack and anchor location. Seat belt slack affected more parameters and had a larger effect than anchor location on most peak response parameters. Head displacements increased a similar amount between the snug/slack belt conditions and the rearward/forward anchor locations. Overall, horizontal head displacements increased from 23.8 cm in the snug-belt, rearward-anchor configuration to 33.9 cm in the slack-belt, forward-anchor configuration. These results demonstrated that analyses of occupant displacements, accelerations and loads during moderate frontal impacts should consider potential sources of seat belt slack and account for differences in seat belt anchor locations.

  3. The portion size effect on food intake. An anchoring and adjustment process?

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K; Klein, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    People consistently over-eat when served a large compared with a small (appropriate) portion of food. However, the mechanism underlying this so-called portion size effect is not well understood. We argue that the process of anchoring and adjustment naturally describes this effect, such that the size of a presented portion works as an anchor that strongly influences consumption. The classical anchoring and adjustment paradigm was applied to six hypothetical eating situations. Participants were asked to imagine being served either a small or a large portion of food (i.e., low and high anchor) and to indicate whether they would consume more or less than this amount. Then, they indicated how much they would eat. These estimates were compared with a no-anchor condition where participants did not imagine a specific portion size but only indicated how much they would eat. In addition, half of participants in the anchoring conditions received a discounting instruction stating that the portion size they had been asked to imagine was randomly selected and thus not informative for their consumption estimate. As expected, participants who imagined to be served larger portions estimated to consume significantly more food than participants in the no-anchor condition, and participants who imagined to be served smaller portions estimated to consume significantly less food than participants in the no-anchor condition. The discounting manipulation did not reduce this effect of the anchors. We suggest that the process of anchoring and adjustment may provide a useful framework to understand the portion size effect and we discuss implications of this perspective.

  4. Determining the Anchor Composition for a Mixed-Format Test: Evaluation of Subpopulation Invariance of Linking Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the appropriateness of the anchor composition in a mixed-format test, which includes both multiple-choice (MC) and constructed-response (CR) items, using subpopulation invariance indices. Linking functions were derived in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design using two types of anchor sets: (a) MC only and (b)…

  5. The Place of White in a World of Grays: A Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt…

  6. Career Anchors and the Effects of Downsizing: Implications for Generations and Cultures at Work. A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Verena; Bonner, Dede

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience, and the impact of career planning on downsizing were examined with data from 423 management students (49% had been downsized). Lifestyle was the most valued anchor across age groups, stability/security the least; compared with Schein's earlier anchors research,…

  7. A Note on the Choice of an Anchor Test in Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-12-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandip, Sinharay; Haberman, Shelby; Holland, Paul; Lewis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Anchor tests play a key role in test score equating. We attempt to find, through theoretical derivations, an anchor test with optimal item characteristics. The correlation between the scores on a total test and on an anchor test is maximized with respect to the item parameters for data satisfying several item response theory models. Results…

  8. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R.

    2015-12-01

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  9. Stability Calculation Method of Slope Reinforced by Prestressed Anchor in Process of Excavation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong; Wei, Jia; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the effect of supporting structure and anchor on the slope stability of the excavation process into consideration; the stability calculation model is presented for the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam, and the dynamic search model of the critical slip surface also is put forward. The calculation model of the optimal stability solution of each anchor tension of the whole process is also given out, through which the real-time analysis and checking of slope stability in the process of excavation can be realized. The calculation examples indicate that the slope stability is changed with the dynamic change of the design parameters of anchor and grillage beam. So it is relatively more accurate and reasonable by using dynamic search model to determine the critical slip surface of the slope reinforced by prestressed anchor and grillage beam. Through the relationships of each anchor layout and the slope height of various stages of excavation, and the optimal stability solution of prestressed bolt tension design value in various excavation stages can be obtained. The arrangement of its prestressed anchor force reflects that the layout of the lower part of bolt and the calculation of slope reinforcement is in line with the actual. These indicate that the method is reasonable and practical. PMID:24683319

  10. Modified method for external attachment of transmitters to birds using two subcutaneous anchors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, T.L.; Flint, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Of the transmitter attachment techniques for birds, the subcutaneous anchor provides a secure attachment that yields relatively few secondary effects. However, the use of subcutaneous anchors has been limited by transmitter size and retention time. Using a modified method of attachment that utilized two subcutaneous anchors, we deployed 69 GPS transmitters, plus 13 VHF transmitters that were similar in size and weight to GPS models, on Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). Prior to our study, only harnesses were used for attaching GPS transmitters on birds, mainly because GPS transmitters are too large for other external attachment techniques and implantation in the body cavity attenuates the GPS signal. Thus, to increase the size capacity of anchor attachment and to avoid the well-documented negative effects of harnesses on behavior and survival, we added a second anchor at the transmitter's posterior end. The double-anchor attachment technique was quickly and easily accomplished in the field, requiring bird handling times of <10 min. Incidental recoveries of tagged Brant indicate a high degree of transmitter retention. Five recaptured birds (4-6 weeks after deployment) and eight killed by hunters (3-6 mo after deployment) retained their GPS transmitters. For studies involving the use of relatively large transmitters, the double-anchor method appears to provide a viable alternative for external attachment. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  11. Single molecular resistive switch obtained via sliding multiple anchoring points and varying effective wire length.

    PubMed

    Kiguchi, Manabu; Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Fujii, Shintaro; Sugiyasu, Kazunori; Nakajima, Shigeto; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Nakamura, Hisao

    2014-05-21

    A single molecular resistive (conductance) switch via control of anchoring positions was examined by using a molecule consisting of more than two same anchors. For this purpose, we adopted the covered quaterthiophene (QT)-based molecular wire junction. The QT-based wire consisted of two thiophene ring anchors on each side; thus, shift of anchors was potentially possible without a change in the binding modes and distortion of the intramolecular structure. We observed three distinct conductance states by using scanning tunneling microscope-based break junction technique. A detailed analysis of the experimental data and first-principles calculations revealed that the mechanism of the resistive switch could be explained by standard length dependence (exponential decay) of conductance. Here, the length is the distance between the anchoring points, i.e., length of the bridged π-conjugated backbone. Most importantly, this effective tunneling length was variable via only controlling the anchoring positions in the same molecule. Furthermore, we experimentally showed the possibility of a dynamic switch of anchoring positions by mechanical control. The results suggested a distinct strategy to design functional devices via contact engineering.

  12. Characterization of the C-terminal ER membrane anchor of PTP1B

    SciTech Connect

    Anderie, Ines Schulz, Irene; Schmid, Andreas

    2007-09-10

    The tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is an important regulator of cell function. In living cells PTP1B activity is restricted to the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by post-translational C-terminal attachment of PTP1B to the ER membrane network. In our study we investigated the membrane anchor of PTP1B by use of EGFP fusion proteins. We demonstrate that the membrane anchor of PTP1B cannot be narrowed down to a unique amino acid sequence with a defined start and stop point but rather is moveable within several amino acids. Removal of up to seven amino acids from the C-terminus, as well as exchange of single amino acids in the putative transmembrane sequence did not influence subcellular localization of PTP1B. With the method of bimolecular fluorescence complementation we could demonstrate dimerization of PTP1B in vivo. Homodimerization was, in contrast to other tail-anchored proteins, not dependent on the membrane anchor. Our data demonstrate that the C-terminal membrane anchor of PTP1B is formed by a combination of a single stretch transmembrane domain (TMD) followed by a tail. TMD and tail length are variable and there are no sequence-specific features. Our data for PTP1B are consistent with a concept that explains the ER membrane anchor of tail-anchored proteins as a physicochemical structure.

  13. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2015-12-28

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  14. Solid-state NMR spectra of lipid-anchored proteins under magic angle spinning.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kaoru; Harada, Erisa; Sugase, Kenji; Shimamoto, Keiko

    2014-03-01

    Solid-state NMR is a promising tool for elucidating membrane-related biological phenomena. We achieved the measurement of high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra for a lipid-anchored protein embedded in lipid bilayers under magic angle spinning (MAS). To date, solid-state NMR measurements of lipid-anchored proteins have not been accomplished due to the difficulty in supplying sufficient amount of stable isotope labeled samples in the overexpression of lipid-anchored proteins requiring complex posttranslational modification. We designed a pseudo lipid-anchored protein in which the protein component was expressed in E. coli and attached to a chemically synthesized lipid-anchor mimic. Using two types of membranes, liposomes and bicelles, we demonstrated different types of insertion procedures for lipid-anchored protein into membranes. In the liposome sample, we were able to observe the cross-polarization and the (13)C-(13)C chemical shift correlation spectra under MAS, indicating that the liposome sample can be used to analyze molecular interactions using dipolar-based NMR experiments. In contrast, the bicelle sample showed sufficient quality of spectra through scalar-based experiments. The relaxation times and protein-membrane interaction were capable of being analyzed in the bicelle sample. These results demonstrated the applicability of two types of sample system to elucidate the roles of lipid-anchors in regulating diverse biological phenomena.

  15. Wireless and acoustic hearing with bone-anchored hearing devices

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Arjan J.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A.M.; Hol, Myrthe K.S.; Snik, Ad F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The efficacy of wireless connectivity in bone-anchored hearing was studied by comparing the wireless and acoustic performance of the Ponto Plus sound processor from Oticon Medical relative to the acoustic performance of its predecessor, the Ponto Pro. Study sample: Nineteen subjects with more than two years' experience with a bone-anchored hearing device were included. Thirteen subjects were fitted unilaterally and six bilaterally. Design: Subjects served as their own control. First, subjects were tested with the Ponto Pro processor. After a four-week acclimatization period performance the Ponto Plus processor was measured. In the laboratory wireless and acoustic input levels were made equal. In daily life equal settings of wireless and acoustic input were used when watching TV, however when using the telephone the acoustic input was reduced by 9 dB relative to the wireless input. Results: Speech scores for microphone with Ponto Pro and for both input modes of the Ponto Plus processor were essentially equal when equal input levels of wireless and microphone inputs were used. Only the TV-condition showed a statistically significant (p <5%) lower speech reception threshold for wireless relative to microphone input. In real life, evaluation of speech quality, speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, and annoyance by ambient noise, when using landline phone, mobile telephone, and watching TV showed a clear preference (p <1%) for the Ponto Plus system with streamer over the microphone input. Due to the small number of respondents with landline phone (N = 7) the result for noise annoyance was only significant at the 5% level. Conclusion: Equal input levels for acoustic and wireless inputs results in equal speech scores, showing a (near) equivalence for acoustic and wireless sound transmission with Ponto Pro and Ponto Plus. The default 9-dB difference between microphone and wireless input when using the telephone results in a substantial

  16. Estradiol dependent anchoring of the goat uterine estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF) at the endoplasmic reticulum by a 55 kDa anchor protein (ap55).

    PubMed

    Govind, Anitha P; Sreeja, S; Thampan, Raghava Varman

    2003-05-01

    The primary intracellular site of localization of the estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF) is shown here to be the endoplasmic reticulum where the protein remains anchored through an estrogen dependent mechanism. The retention of E-RAF by the endoplasmic reticulum is facilitated by two proteins: (1) a 55 kDa anchor protein (ap55) which is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. ap55 is a high affinity estrogen binding protein. A conformational change induced by estrogen binding is thought to favor the anchoring process. (2) The anchoring of E-RAF by ap55 is mediated by yet another protein. This is the 66 kDa transport protein (tp66) which recognizes ap55 on the one hand and E-RAF on the other. The presence of estradiol that saturates the hormone binding sites on ap55 appears to favor the anchoring of tp66-E-RAF complex to ap55. This interaction appears to be weakened by levels of estradiol below 7 nM concentration leading to the dissociation of the tp66-E-RAF complex from ap55. The tp66-E-RAF complex moves towards the nucleus. PMID:12682911

  17. Tethered bilayer lipid membranes on mixed self-assembled monolayers of a novel anchoring thiol: impact of the anchoring thiol density on bilayer formation.

    PubMed

    Basit, Hajra; Van der Heyden, Angéline; Gondran, Chantal; Nysten, Bernard; Dumy, Pascal; Labbé, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) are designed on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of a novel synthetic anchoring thiol, 2,3-di-o-palmitoylglycerol-1-tetraethylene glycol mercaptopropanoic acid ester (TEG-DP), and a new short dilution thiol molecule, tetraethylene glycol mercaptopropanoic acid ester (TEG). tBLM formation was accomplished by self-directed fusion of small unilamellar vesicles of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The influence of the dilution of the anchoring thiol molecule in the SAM on the vesicle fusion process and on the properties of the resulting tBLMs is studied. It is observed by quartz crystal microbalance that vesicle fusion is a one-step process for a pure TEG-DP SAM as well as for mixed SAMs containing a high concentration of the anchoring thiol. However, upon dilution of the anchoring thiol to moderate concentrations, this process is decelerated and possibly follows a pathway different from that observed on a pure TEG-DP SAM. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to qualitatively correlate the composition of the SAM to the electrical properties of the tBLM. In this paper we also delineate the necessity of a critical concentration of this anchoring TEG-DP thiol as a requisite for inducing the fusion of vesicles to form a tBLM.

  18. Determination of surface nematic liquid crystal anchoring strength using nano-scale surface grooves.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonseuk; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2013-05-20

    Based on several nano-scale groove models, we propose a new technique to simultaneously determine the azimuthal and polar surface anchoring strengths of nematic liquid crystal (LC). The optical analysis of LCs on a grooved surface made by nanoimprinting lithography was performed on special alignment material, using a typical rubbing process. In our approach, using a polarizing microscope, we can determine the LC alignment exactly as it is in a parallel state, rather than a twisted state. This simple proposed method gives an accurate value of the surface LC anchoring of various surfaces, as well as simultaneously measuring the azimuthal and polar anchoring energy.

  19. USNRC anchor bolt study data survey and dynamic testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lindquist, M R

    1982-12-01

    A survey was performed to determine the adequacy of existing concrete expansion anchor test data. Based upon the survey findings, additional dynamic testing to assess the benefits of preload was undertaken. Exploratory testing was performed on typical wedge and shell anchors. It was found that, providing the installation torque is properly applied, residual preload does not significantly affect anchor load-displacement characteristics until the preload drops to less than 50% of the full installation preload. It was concluded that this must be considered in design situations where support stiffness is an important factor.

  20. Monte Carlo(MC) simulation study on ammonia anchored TON zeolite for carbon dioxide capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Hansol; Lee, Wonbo

    2015-03-01

    If zeolites are modified by ammonia, the electronic effect in ammonia resulted in different surface basicity of the zeolite materials. So, ammonia anchored materials show better adsorption rate of CO2 than pure materials at low pressure. MC simulations for CO2 adsorption were performed at 298K. The results show that, at pressure 1000 kpa CO2 loading is 1.404 mol/kg at ammonia anchored TON, and 0.529 mol/kg at pure TON. However, at high pressure, the ammonia effect becomes marginal. Ammonia anchored TON structures may be used to adsorb CO2 more effective than normal TON structure..

  1. Design of a suture anchor based on the superelasticity of the Ni-Ti alloy.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, J A; Pérez-García, J M; Juan, E; Ríos, R

    2002-01-01

    We have designed and manufacture a prototype of a new anchoring system for soft bone tissue fixation, based on the superelasticity of the Ni-Ti alloy. The anchoring capability has been observed in femoral hips by radiographs. The performance of this new anchor have been measured by tensile experiments and contrasted with finite element model. The results point out that keeping the fixation capacity, the new configuration presents advantages concerning to a minor damaged volume bone, a reduction of the manufacture cost and a simpler insertion. PMID:12446943

  2. Autonomous Landing and Smart Anchoring for In-Situ Exploration of Small Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghavimi, Ali R.; Serricchio, Frederick; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Dolgin, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Future NASA missions include in-situ scientific explorations of small interplanetary objects like comets and asteroids. Sample acquisition systems are envisioned to operate directly from the landers that are anchored to the surface. Landing and anchoring proves to be challenging in the absence of an attitude control system and in the presence of nearly zero-gravity environments with uncertain surface terrain and unknown mechanical properties. This paper presents recent advancements in developing a novel landing and anchoring control system for the exploration of small bodies.

  3. Collagenous microstructure of the glenoid labrum and biceps anchor

    PubMed Central

    Hill, A M; Hoerning, E J; Brook, K; Smith, C D; Moss, J; Ryder, T; Wallace, A L; Bull, A M J

    2008-01-01

    The glenoid labrum is a significant passive stabilizer of the shoulder joint. However, its microstructural form remains largely unappreciated, particularly in the context of its variety of functions. The focus of labral microscopy has often been histology and, as such, there is very little appreciation of collagen composition and arrangement of the labrum, and hence the micromechanics of the structure. On transmission electron microscopy, significant differences in diameter, area and perimeter were noted in the two gross histological groups of collagen fibril visualized; this suggests a heterogeneous collagenous composition with potentially distinct mechanical function. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated three distinct zones of interest: a superficial mesh, a dense circumferential braided core potentially able to accommodate hoop stresses, and a loosely packed peri-core zone. Confocal microscopy revealed an articular surface fine fibrillar mesh potentially able to reduce surface friction, bundles of circumferential encapsulated fibres in the bulk of the tissue, and bone anchoring fibres at the osseous interface. Varying microstructure throughout the depth of the labrum suggests a role in accommodating different types of loading. An understanding of the labral microstructure can lead to development of hypotheses based upon an appreciation of this component of material property. This may aid an educated approach to surgical timing and repair. PMID:18429974

  4. Dynamics of anchor last deployment of submersible buoy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhongqiang; Xu, Jianpeng; Huang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaoguang; Chang, Zongyu

    2016-02-01

    Submersible buoy systems are widely used for oceanographic research, ocean engineering and coastal defense. Severe sea environment has obvious effects on the dynamics of submersible buoy systems. Huge tension can occur and may cause the snap of cables, especially during the deployment period. This paper studies the deployment dynamics of submersible buoy systems with numerical and experimental methods. By applying the lumped mass approach, a three-dimensional multi-body model of submersible buoy system is developed considering the hydrodynamic force, tension force and impact force between components of submersible buoy system and seabed. Numerical integration method is used to solve the differential equations. The simulation output includes tension force, trajectory, profile and dropping location and impact force of submersible buoys. In addition, the deployment experiment of a simplified submersible buoy model was carried out. The profile and different nodes' velocities of the submersible buoy are obtained. By comparing the results of the two methods, it is found that the numerical model well simulates the actual process and conditions of the experiment. The simulation results agree well with the results of the experiment such as gravity anchor's location and velocities of different nodes of the submersible buoy. The study results will help to understand the conditions of submersible buoy's deployment, operation and recovery, and can be used to guide the design and optimization of the system.

  5. Peptide Anchor for Folate-Targeted Liposomal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Mangialavori, Irene C; Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Sárria, Marisa P; Nogueira, Patrícia; Freitas, Jaime; Härmark, Johan; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Guebitz, Georg; Hebert, Hans; Moreira, Alexandra; Carmo, Alexandre M; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-09-14

    Specific folate receptors are abundantly overexpressed in chronically activated macrophages and in most cancer cells. Directed folate receptor targeting using liposomes is usually achieved using folate linked to a phospholipid or cholesterol anchor. This link is formed using a large spacer like polyethylene glycol. Here, we report an innovative strategy for targeted liposome delivery that uses a hydrophobic fragment of surfactant protein D linked to folate. Our proposed spacer is a small 4 amino acid residue linker. The peptide conjugate inserts deeply into the lipid bilayer without affecting liposomal integrity, with high stability and specificity. To compare the drug delivery potential of both liposomal targeting systems, we encapsulated the nuclear dye Hoechst 34580. The eventual increase in blue fluorescence would only be detectable upon liposome disruption, leading to specific binding of this dye to DNA. Our delivery system was proven to be more efficient (2-fold) in Caco-2 cells than classic systems where the folate moiety is linked to liposomes by polyethylene glycol.

  6. Econophysical anchoring of unimodal power-law distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-09-01

    The sciences are abundant with size distributions whose densities have a unimodal shape and power-law tails both at zero and at infinity. The quintessential examples of such unimodal and power-law (UPL) distributions are the sizes of income and wealth in human societies. While the tails of UPL distributions are precisely quantified by their corresponding power-law exponents, their bulks are only qualitatively characterized as unimodal. Consequently, different statistical models of UPL distributions exist, the most popular considering lognormal bulks. In this paper we present a general econophysical framework for UPL distributions termed ‘the anchoring method’. This method: (i) universally approximates UPL distributions via three ‘anchors’ set at zero, at infinity, and at an intermediate point between zero and infinity (e.g. the mode); (ii) is highly versatile and broadly applicable; (iii) encompasses the existing statistical models of UPL distributions as special cases; (iv) facilitates the introduction of new statistical models of UPL distributions and (v) yields a socioeconophysical analysis of UPL distributions.

  7. A knowledge-anchored integrative image search and retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Selnur; Catalyurek, Umit V; Payne, Philip R O; Saltz, Joel; Kamal, Jyoti; Gurcan, Metin N

    2009-04-01

    Clinical data that may be used in a secondary capacity to support research activities are regularly stored in three significantly different formats: (1) structured, codified data elements; (2) semi-structured or unstructured narrative text; and (3) multi-modal images. In this manuscript, we will describe the design of a computational system that is intended to support the ontology-anchored query and integration of such data types from multiple source systems. Additional features of the described system include (1) the use of Grid services-based electronic data interchange models to enable the use of our system in multi-site settings and (2) the use of a software framework intended to address both potential security and patient confidentiality concerns that arise when transmitting or otherwise manipulating potentially privileged personal health information. We will frame our discussion within the specific experimental context of the concept-oriented query and integration of correlated structured data, narrative text, and images for cancer research. PMID:18040742

  8. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires.

    PubMed

    Reeler, Nini E A; Lerstrup, Knud A; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V; Laursen, Bo W; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  9. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  10. Targeting of AIDS related encephalopathy using phenylalanine anchored lipidic nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Anil; Jain, Ankit; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Ashish; Jain, Sanjay K

    2015-07-01

    Transport of the anti-HIV agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a prerequisite to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related encephalopathy. In the present study, we explored facilitated transport of efavirenz (EFV, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) across BBB using phenylalanine anchored solid lipid nanoparticles (PA-SLN). PA (amino acid micro-nutrient) was used as a ligand which facilitated carrier mediated transport (CMT) via l-amino acid transporter i.e. LAT1 to traverse BBB. PA was coupled to SLN via amide linkage using carbodiimide chemistry and coupling was confirmed by comparative infrared spectroscopic analysis. SLNs (SLN and PA-SLN) were nanometric in size (around 150nm) and possessed good entrapment efficiency (around 70%). In vitro drug release revealed controlled release pattern for more than 24h. In vivo studies showed 2-3-folds and 7-8-folds accumulation of PA-SLN in brain as compared to SLN and EFV, respectively. Further, transcytosis studies confirmed capability of PA-SLN to cross BBB i.e. 10-fold higher transcytosis potential as compared to EFV. Fluorescence microscopic imaging reassured enhanced brain localization of PA-SLN. Thus, PA-SLN improved the EFV bioavailability and maintained therapeutic levels in the brain for an extended period of time that can result in significant eradication of the viral load therein. Such nutrient mediated drug targeting could bring forth advances in biocompatible and biodegradable drug delivery systems. PMID:25988279

  11. 48 CFR 225.7007 - Restrictions on anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on anchor and mooring chain. 225.7007 Section 225.7007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... mooring chain....

  12. A safety technique for Mitek anchor suture rupture: a useful trick.

    PubMed

    Othman, Diaa; Le Cocq, Heather; Majumder, Sanjib

    2011-09-01

    We propose that the simple method of passing an extra suture through the Mitek anchor eyelet before bony insertion provides a safety net against failure of the preloaded suture and gives extra strength to the core repair.

  13. The interaction of colloidal particles with weak homeotropic anchoring energy in homogeneous nematic liquid crystal cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2014-04-21

    We have investigated interactions of colloidal particles with weak homeotropic anchoring energy in homogeneous nematic liquid crystal cells. Particle-wall and inter-particle interactions were observed experimentally and analyzed using typical dipole-dipole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions, including substrate effects as the image charges. Both experimental results matched well with the calculated results for the effective particle radius reflecting the weak anchoring. The effective radius is reduced by the amount of extrapolation length than the actual particle radius. The effective radii of polyethylene micro-particles were reduced to a coefficient ζ (0.78 ≥ ζ ≥ 0.52) times the actual radius with anchoring coefficients in the range of 3.8 × 10(-6) to 1.4 × 10(-6) J m(-2). The anchoring energy of the particles is, therefore, a key component for explaining liquid crystal colloidal systems.

  14. Tri-layer wrinkling as a mechanism for anchoring center initiation in the developing cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Emma; Javili, Ali; Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Linder, Christian

    2016-07-01

    During cerebellar development, anchoring centers form at the base of each fissure and remain fixed in place while the rest of the cerebellum grows outward. Cerebellar foliation has been extensively studied; yet, the mechanisms that control anchoring center initiation and position remain insufficiently understood. Here we show that a tri-layer model can predict surface wrinkling as a potential mechanism to explain anchoring center initiation and position. Motivated by the cerebellar microstructure, we model the developing cerebellum as a tri-layer system with an external molecular layer and an internal granular layer of similar stiffness and a significantly softer intermediate Purkinje cell layer. Including a weak intermediate layer proves key to predicting surface morphogenesis, even at low stiffness contrasts between the top and bottom layers. The proposed tri-layer model provides insight into the hierarchical formation of anchoring centers and establishes an essential missing link between gene expression and evolution of shape.

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in the United States or its outlying areas, including cutting, heat treating, quality control... items containing welded shipboard anchor and mooring chain, four inches or less in diameter. (End...

  16. 480mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perspective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  17. 480mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward midspan and south anchor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    480-mm telephoto perpective, looking south toward mid-span and south anchor arm. - Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, Ohio River Bridge, Spanning Ohio River, West of Beaver River, Beaver, Beaver County, PA

  18. Dynamic Effects of Anchor Positional Tolerance on Tension Moored Floating Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher; Pakrashi, Vikram; Murphy, Jimmy

    2016-09-01

    For water depths greater than 60m floating wind turbines will become the most economical option for generating offshore wind energy. Tension mooring stabilised units are one type of platform being considered by the offshore wind energy industry. The complex mooring arrangement used by this type of platform means that the dynamics are greatly effected by offsets in the positioning of the anchors. This paper examines the issue of tendon anchor position tolerances. The dynamic effects of three positional tolerances are analysed in survival state using the time domain FASTLink. The severe impact of worst case anchor positional offsets on platform and turbine survivability is shown. The worst anchor misposition combinations are highlighted and should be strongly avoided. Novel methods to mitigate this issue are presented.

  19. Archaeometallurgical investigation of the iron anchor from the Tantura F shipwreck

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, A.; Ashkenazi, D.; Barkai, O.; Kahanov, Y.

    2013-04-15

    The Tantura F shipwreck was a coaster or a fishing vessel about 15.7 m long, discovered in the Dor/Tantura lagoon, Israel in 1995. It was dated to between the mid-7th and the end of the 8th centuries CE. Among the finds excavated were two T-shaped type iron anchors. Of the two anchors, one (anchor A) was thoroughly studied by archaeometallurgical methods in order to identify forge-welding lines, to determine the welding quality and to understand the manufacturing technology. The examinations included X-ray radiography, XRF analysis, optical microscopy, SEM/EDS observation and analysis, OES analysis and microhardness tests. The investigation included characterization of the composition, microstructure, thermal treatments, forge-welding junctions and slag analysis. The results revealed a heterogeneous microstructure, rich in glassy, fayalite and wüstite slag. Iron based phases included ferrite, pearlite, cementite and Widmanstätten plates, all typical to wrought iron. The forge-welds of Anchor A were located. Each arm was made of one piece, weighing about 2.5–3 kg and the shank was made of a few 1.5–2 kg pieces. The second anchor (anchor B) was only briefly examined visually and with a few radiographs, which support the results from anchor A. The research results revealed significant information about T-shaped anchors and their manufacturing process, including hot-working processes without any additional heat treatments, and folding techniques. The microstructure was similar to other ancient simple tools such as saws, sickles, axes and mortise chisels, and though the technology to make complicated structures and objects, such as swords, existed at that time, the anchors did not require this sophistication; thus simpler techniques were used, presumably because they were more cost-effective. - Highlights: ► Tantura F was a coaster dated to mid-7th–end-8th centuries. ► Two iron anchors were discovered at the Tantura F shipwreck-site. ► Anchor A was

  20. The sulfamate functional group as a new anchor for solid-phase organic synthesis

    PubMed

    Ciobanu; Maltais; Poirier

    2000-02-24

    [reaction: see text] Sulfamate derivatives were loaded on trityl chloride resin, and two variants of cleavage were developed for this sulfamate anchor: an acid treatment to easily restore the free sulfamate and a nucleophilic treatment to generate the corresponding phenol. In addition to loading/cleavage assays and stability experiments, a model sequence of reactions was performed with the new sulfamate anchor to show its applicability in further combinatorial solid-phase synthesis of libraries of biologically relevant sulfamate derivatives.

  1. A comparison of soft-tissue anchors in tendo achilles reattachment.

    PubMed

    Janis, L; Lam, A T; Espiritu, T; Ploot, E; Husain, Z S

    2001-01-01

    This prospective study evaluated four soft-tissue fixation modalities, used in seven different combinations, to reattach the tendo Achilles in 34 cadaveric specimens. Ultimate loads, elastic moduli, and modes of failure were evaluated by loading the specimen in a cantilevered fashion on an Instron. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to compare the failure load data for statistical significance. Although the use of two Mitek SuperAnchors showed better load resistance than one anchor (p < .01), there was no significant improvement between using two or three anchors (one anchor 116 +/- 24 N, two anchors 234 +/- 21 N, three anchors 277 +/- 80 N). Two Bionx Bankart Tacks demonstrated no significant difference over using a single tack (one tack 178 +/- 57 N, two tacks 214 +/- 86 N). No statistical difference was observed between the screw and washer systems (screw with polyacetal resin washer 307 +/- 80 N, screw with metal washer 290 +/- 81 N). Both screw and washer systems did show greater stability when compared with a single Mitek SuperAnchor (p < .01) or a single Bionx Bankart Tack (p < .05). Similar analyses using the Mann-Whitney U tests were performed on the elastic modulus data. Analysis of the displacement data among all groups showed no statistical difference. Observations of the mode of failure exhibited 86% of Mitek SuperAnchor failed secondary to suture, and 70% of the Bionx Bankart Tack and 90% of the screw and washer systems failed because of the tendon shearing around the fixation. The comparisons of cost-effectiveness among the fixations showed the Synthes screw and polyacetal resin spiked washer to have the lowest cost to load ratio ($0.15/N).

  2. Anchoring Transitions of Liquid Crystals for Optical Amplification of Phospholipid Oxidation Inhibition by Ascorbic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minmin; Jang, Chang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the antioxidant property of ascorbic acid (AH) is effective for reducing oxidative stress of phospholipids. Herein, a liquid crystals (LCs)-based method was developed for the optical amplification of resistance to phospholipid oxidation by AH. Phospholipid peroxidation initiated by free radicals was monitored from a homeotropic-to-planar anchoring transition of LCs via polarized optical microscopy. Alternatively, consistent homeotropic anchoring of LCs was observed when the oxidation caused by free radicals was blocked by AH.

  3. Surface alignment and anchoring transitions in nematic lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Nazarenko, V G; Boiko, O P; Park, H-S; Brodyn, O M; Omelchenko, M M; Tortora, L; Nastishin, Yu A; Lavrentovich, O D

    2010-07-01

    The surface alignment of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals can not only be planar (tangential) but also homeotropic, with self-assembled aggregates perpendicular to the substrate, as demonstrated by mapping optical retardation and by three-dimensional imaging of the director field. With time, the homeotropic nematic undergoes a transition into a tangential state. The anchoring transition is discontinuous and can be described by a double-well anchoring potential with two minima corresponding to tangential and homeotropic orientation. PMID:20867479

  4. Photocurrent enhancement in diketopyrrolopyrrole solar cells by manipulating dipolar anchoring terminals on alkyl-chain spacers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ailing; Lu, Zhenhuan; Bai, Shuming; Huang, Jianhua; Chen, Yuxia; Shi, Qiang; Zhan, Chuanlang; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-03-01

    We chose DPP-BDT-DPP {DPP=diketopyrrolopyrrole, BDT=4,8-di-[2-(2-ethylhexyl)-thienyl]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene} as a model backbone and varied the anchoring groups [C5 H11 , COOCH3 , and SiCH3 (OSiCH3 )2 ] terminated on the N-substituted alkyl-chain spacer of the DPP units to study the effect of anchoring terminals on the morphology of blend film and on the device performances of bulk heterojunction solar cells. By replacing the nonpolar C5 H11 anchoring terminal with the polar COOCH3 anchoring terminal leads to an enhancement in the short-circuit current density (Jsc ) (4.62 vs. 9.32 mA cm(-2) ), whereas the value of Jsc sharply decreases to 0.45 mA cm(-2) if the C5 H11 anchoring terminal is replaced by a SiCH3 (OSiCH3 )2 group. The changes in Jsc are associated with changes in the π-π stacking distance (3.39→3.34 Å vs. 3.39→3.45 Å) and the phase size (50→20 nm vs. 50→>250 nm) through alteration of the anchoring group from C5 H11 to COOCH3 versus from C5 H11 to SiCH3 (OSiCH3 )2 . Interestingly, the anchoring terminals bring about drastic changes in molecular orientations, which result in different out-of-plane hole transport. This is the first time this effect has been systemically demonstrated to improve photocurrent generation by manipulating the dipolar anchoring groups terminated on the alkyl-chain spacer.

  5. Vacuolar SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains Serve as Nonspecific Membrane Anchors with Unequal Roles in Lipid Mixing*

    PubMed Central

    Pieren, Michel; Desfougères, Yann; Michaillat, Lydie; Schmidt, Andrea; Mayer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is induced by SNARE complexes that are anchored in both fusion partners. SNAREs zipper up from the N to C terminus bringing the two membranes into close apposition. Their transmembrane domains (TMDs) might be mere anchoring devices, deforming bilayers by mechanical force. Structural studies suggested that TMDs might also perturb lipid structure by undergoing conformational transitions or by zipping up into the bilayer. Here, we tested this latter hypothesis, which predicts that the activity of SNAREs should depend on the primary sequence of their TMDs. We replaced the TMDs of all vacuolar SNAREs (Nyv1, Vam3, and Vti1) by a lipid anchor, by a TMD from a protein unrelated to the membrane fusion machinery, or by artificial leucine-valine sequences. Individual exchange of the native SNARE TMDs against an unrelated transmembrane anchor or an artificial leucine-valine sequence yielded normal fusion activities. Fusion activity was also preserved upon pairwise exchange of the TMDs against unrelated peptides, which eliminates the possibility for specific TMD-TMD interactions. Thus, a specific primary sequence or zippering beyond the SNARE domains is not a prerequisite for fusion. Lipid-anchored Vti1 was fully active, and lipid-anchored Nyv1 permitted the reaction to proceed up to hemifusion, and lipid-anchored Vam3 interfered already before hemifusion. The unequal contribution of proteinaceous TMDs on Vam3 and Nyv1 suggests that Q- and R-SNAREs might make different contributions to the hemifusion intermediate and the opening of the fusion pore. Furthermore, our data support the view that SNARE TMDs serve as nonspecific membrane anchors in vacuole fusion. PMID:25817997

  6. Dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, M.; Yong-gang Zhang; Lotze, D.

    1995-04-01

    In early 1993, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission began a research program at The University of Texas at Austin, dealing with the dynamic behavior of anchors in cracked and uncracked concrete. In this paper, the progress of that research program is reviewed. The test program is summarized, the work performed to date is reviewed, with emphasis on the dynamic and static behavior of single tensile anchors in uncracked concrete. General conclusions from that work are discussed, and future plans are presented.

  7. Understanding the Anchoring Effect of Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianfan; Wang, Yapeng; Seh, Zhi Wei; Fu, Zhongheng; Zhang, Ruifeng; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-10

    Although the rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery system has attracted significant attention due to its high theoretical specific energy, its implementation has been impeded by multiple challenges, especially the dissolution of intermediate lithium polysulfide (Li2Sn) species into the electrolyte. Introducing anchoring materials, which can induce strong binding interaction with Li2Sn species, has been demonstrated as an effective way to overcome this problem and achieve long-term cycling stability and high-rate performance. The interaction between Li2Sn species and anchoring materials should be studied at the atomic level in order to understand the mechanism behind the anchoring effect and to identify ideal anchoring materials to further improve the performance of Li-S batteries. Using first-principles approach with van der Waals interaction included, we systematically investigate the adsorption of Li2Sn species on various two-dimensional layered materials (oxides, sulfides, and chlorides) and study the detailed interaction and electronic structure, including binding strength, configuration distortion, and charge transfer. We gain insight into how van der Waals interaction and chemical binding contribute to the adsorption of Li2Sn species for anchoring materials with strong, medium, and weak interactions. We understand why the anchoring materials can avoid the detachment of Li2S as in carbon substrate, and we discover that too strong binding strength can cause decomposition of Li2Sn species. PMID:25961805

  8. Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam.

    PubMed

    Yaroshchuk, Oleg V; Kiselev, Alexei D; Kravchuk, Ruslan M

    2008-03-01

    We have studied a sequence of anchoring transitions observed in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) sandwiched between hydrophobic polyimide substrates treated with a plasma beam. There is a pronounced continuous transition from a homeotropic to a slightly tilted (nearly planar) alignment with the easy axis parallel to the incidence plane of the plasma beam (the zenithal transition) which takes place as the exposure dose increases. In NLCs with positive dielectric anisotropy, a further increase in the exposure dose results in in-plane reorientation of the easy axis by 90 degrees (the azimuthal transition). This transition occurs through the twofold degenerate alignment characteristic of second-order anchoring transitions. In contrast to the critical behavior of anchoring, the contact angle of the NLC and water on the treated substrates declines monotonically with increasing exposure dose. It follows that the surface concentration of hydrophobic chains decreases continuously. The anchoring transitions under consideration are qualitatively interpreted by using a simple phenomenological model of competing easy axes which is studied by analyzing anchoring diagrams of generalized polar and nonpolar anchoring models.

  9. Design and application of a field sensing system for ground anchors in slopes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Woon; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1) load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), (2) wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3) master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4) a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons. PMID:23507820

  10. New measurements to compare soft tissue anchoring systems in pelvic floor surgery.

    PubMed

    Staat, Manfred; Trenz, Eva; Lohmann, Philipp; Frotscher, Ralf; Klinge, Uwe; Tabaza, Ruth; Kirschner-Hermanns, Ruth

    2012-05-01

    Suburethral slings as well as different meshes are widely used treating stress urinary incontinence and prolaps in women. With the development of MiniSlings and special meshes using less alloplastic material anchorage systems become more important to keep devices in place and to put some tension especially on the MiniSlings. To date, there are many different systems of MiniSlings of different companies on the market which differ in the structure of the used meshes and anchors. A new objective measurement method to compare different properties of MiniSling systems (mesh and anchor) is presented in this article. Ballistic gelatine acts as soft tissue surrogate. Significant differences in parameters like pull-out strength of anchors or shrinkage of meshes under loading conditions have been determined. The form and size of the anchors as well as the structural stability of the meshes are decisive for a proper integration. The tested anchorings sytems showed markedly different mechanical function at their respective load bearing capacity. As the stable fixation of the device in tissue is a prerequisite for a permanet reinforcement, the proposed test system permits further optimisation of anchor and mesh devices to improve the success of the surgical treatment. PMID:22287385

  11. A novel, resorbable suture anchor: pullout strength from the human cadaver greater tuberosity.

    PubMed

    Stanford, R E; Harrison, J; Goldberg, J; Sonnabend, D H; Alvis, M; Walsh, W R

    2001-01-01

    The pullout strength of a collagen bone anchor that creates interference fixation as the result of radial swelling on hydration was compared with a Mitek rotator cuff anchor after insertion into the greater tuberosity of human cadaver humeri. Bones were fully hydrated at 37 degrees C. Stiffness, peak load, and the mode of failure were recorded. Real and apparent bone densities were measured. Peak load for the collagen anchor at 15 minutes (121.0N +/- 81.3N) was greater than at 2 minutes (60.5N +/- 38.5N) after insertion (P <.05). At between 5 and 60 minutes after insertion, peak loads for the Mitek and the collagen anchors did not differ. After 30 minutes from insertion, the mode of failure of the collagen anchor changed from pullout with minor body damage to pullout with major body damage. Peak load at pullout correlated with bone density for the Mitek (P <.05, r = 0.516) but for the collagen bone anchor appeared unaffected by bone density. PMID:11408913

  12. Behavior of the plasma in the anchor cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Md. Khairul; Nakashima, Yousuke; Higashizono, Yuta; Cho, Teruji

    2006-08-01

    Anchor cells of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror are composed of minimum-B magnetic field configuration. Behavior of the plasma in the anchor cell is studied using puffing gas flow rate (PGFR) modulation and by covering some parts of the flux tube of each anchor cell by conducting plates (APs). Ambient neutral pressure is decreased by PGFR modulation during axial/potential confinement in both cases without and with APs and it is found that both line density (nl{sub EA}) and diamagnetism (dm{sub EA}) of the anchor cell plasma increase. Lower neutral pressure in the minimum-B region is investigated during the floated APs and significant improvement of the GAMMA 10 plasma parameters is observed. Possible explanations of the experimental results are given from the viewpoint of ambient neutral pressure oriented anchor plasma behavior. Probable reasons of enhanced ambient neutral pressure in the anchor cell and adverse effects of these neutrals on GAMMA 10 plasma parameters are also pointed out.

  13. Effects of surface anchoring on the electric Frederiks transition in ferronematic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhbin, Mojtaba; Kadivar, Erfan

    2016-11-01

    The effects of anchoring phenomenon on the electric Frederiks transition threshold field in a nematic liquid crystal doped with ferroelectric nanoparticles are discussed. The polarizability of these nanoparticles in combination with confinement effects cause the drastic effects on the ferronematic systems. This study is based on Frank free energy and Rapini-Papoular surface energy for ferronematic liquid crystal having finite anchoring condition. In the case of different anchoring boundary conditions, the Euler-Lagrange equation of the total free energy is numerically solved by using the finite difference method together with the relaxation method and Maxwell construction to select the physical solutions and therefore investigate the effects of different anchoring strengths on the Frederiks transition threshold field. Maxwell construction method is employed to select three periodic solutions for nematic liquid crystal director at the interfaces of a slab. In the interval from zero to half- π, there is only one solution for the director orientation. In this way, NLC director rotates toward the normal to the surface as the applied electric field increases at the walls. Our numerical results illustrate that above Frederiks transition and in the intermediate anchoring strength, nematic molecules illustrate the different orientation at slab boundaries. We also study the effects of different anchoring strengths, nanoparticle volume fractions and polarizations on the Frederiks transition threshold field. We report that decreasing in the nanoparticle polarization results in the saturation Frederiks threshold. However, this situation does not happen for the nanoparticles volume fraction.

  14. Mechanical characterization of bone anchors used with a bone-attached, parallel robot for skull surgery.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Prielozny, Lenka; Lexow, G Jakob; Rau, Thomas S; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Bone-attached robots and microstereotactic frames, intended for deep brain stimulation and minimally invasive cochlear implantation, typically attach to a patient's skull via bone anchors. A rigid and reliable link between such devices and the skull is mandatory in order to fulfill the high accuracy demands of minimally invasive procedures while maintaining patient safety. In this paper, a method is presented to experimentally characterize the mechanical properties of the anchor-bone linkage. A custom-built universal testing machine is used to measure the pullout strength as well as the spring constants of bone anchors seated in four different bone substitutes as well as in human cranial bone. Furthermore, the angles at which forces act on the bone anchors are varied to simulate realistic conditions. Based on the experimental results, a substitute material that has mechanical properties similar to those of cranial bone is identified. The results further reveal that the pullout strength of the investigated anchor design is sufficient with respect to the proposed application. However, both the measured load capacity as well as the spring constants vary depending on the load angles. Based on these findings, an alternative bone anchor design is presented and experimentally validated. Furthermore, the results serve as a basis for stiffness simulation and optimization of bone-attached microstereotactic frames. PMID:25771430

  15. Liquid-crystal anchoring transitions on aligning substrates processed by a plasma beam.

    PubMed

    Yaroshchuk, Oleg V; Kiselev, Alexei D; Kravchuk, Ruslan M

    2008-03-01

    We have studied a sequence of anchoring transitions observed in nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) sandwiched between hydrophobic polyimide substrates treated with a plasma beam. There is a pronounced continuous transition from a homeotropic to a slightly tilted (nearly planar) alignment with the easy axis parallel to the incidence plane of the plasma beam (the zenithal transition) which takes place as the exposure dose increases. In NLCs with positive dielectric anisotropy, a further increase in the exposure dose results in in-plane reorientation of the easy axis by 90 degrees (the azimuthal transition). This transition occurs through the twofold degenerate alignment characteristic of second-order anchoring transitions. In contrast to the critical behavior of anchoring, the contact angle of the NLC and water on the treated substrates declines monotonically with increasing exposure dose. It follows that the surface concentration of hydrophobic chains decreases continuously. The anchoring transitions under consideration are qualitatively interpreted by using a simple phenomenological model of competing easy axes which is studied by analyzing anchoring diagrams of generalized polar and nonpolar anchoring models. PMID:18517405

  16. Understanding the Anchoring Effect of Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianfan; Wang, Yapeng; Seh, Zhi Wei; Fu, Zhongheng; Zhang, Ruifeng; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-10

    Although the rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery system has attracted significant attention due to its high theoretical specific energy, its implementation has been impeded by multiple challenges, especially the dissolution of intermediate lithium polysulfide (Li2Sn) species into the electrolyte. Introducing anchoring materials, which can induce strong binding interaction with Li2Sn species, has been demonstrated as an effective way to overcome this problem and achieve long-term cycling stability and high-rate performance. The interaction between Li2Sn species and anchoring materials should be studied at the atomic level in order to understand the mechanism behind the anchoring effect and to identify ideal anchoring materials to further improve the performance of Li-S batteries. Using first-principles approach with van der Waals interaction included, we systematically investigate the adsorption of Li2Sn species on various two-dimensional layered materials (oxides, sulfides, and chlorides) and study the detailed interaction and electronic structure, including binding strength, configuration distortion, and charge transfer. We gain insight into how van der Waals interaction and chemical binding contribute to the adsorption of Li2Sn species for anchoring materials with strong, medium, and weak interactions. We understand why the anchoring materials can avoid the detachment of Li2S as in carbon substrate, and we discover that too strong binding strength can cause decomposition of Li2Sn species.

  17. Experimental research on anchoring force in intestine for the motion of capsule robot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenwen; Ke, Quan; He, Shu; Luo, Weijie; Ji, Xing Chun; Yan, Guozheng

    2013-07-01

    Multiple research groups are currently attempting to develop less-invasive robotic capsule endoscopes (RCEs) with better outcomes for enteroscopic procedures. Understanding the biomechanical response of the bowel to RCE is crucial for optimizing the design of these devices. For this reason, this study aims to develop an analytical model to predict the anchoring force of the model when travelling through the intestine. Previous work has developed, characterized and tested the frictional characteristics of the intestine with microgroove structures that had different surface contours. This work tested basic anchoring force characteristics with custom-built testers and clamping mechanism dummies to analyse the robot clamping movement (which is vital to improving movement efficiency). Balloon-shaped and leg-based clamping mechanisms were developed, which were found to have variable anchoring forces from 0.01 N to 1.2 N. After analysing the experimental results it was found that: (a) robot weight does not play a major role in anchoring force; (b) an increase in anchoring force corresponded to an increase in diameter of the clamping mechanism; and (c) textured contact surfaces effectively increased friction. These results could be explained by the biomechanical response of the intestine, friction and mucoadhesion characteristics of the small intestine material. With these factors considered, a model was developed for determining anchoring force in the small intestine.

  18. Incorporating single molecules into electrical circuits. The role of the chemical anchoring group.

    PubMed

    Leary, Edmund; La Rosa, Andrea; González, M Teresa; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Martín, Nazario

    2015-02-21

    Constructing electronic circuits containing singly wired molecules is at the frontier of electrical device miniaturisation. When a molecule is wired between a pair of electrodes, the two points of contact are determined by the chemical anchoring groups, located at the ends of the molecule. At this point, when a bias is applied, electrons are channelled from a metallic environment through an extremely narrow constriction, essentially a single atom, into the molecule. The fact that this is such an abrupt change in the electron pathway makes the nature of the chemical anchoring groups critically important regarding the propagation of electrons from the electrode across the molecule. A delicate interplay of phenomena can occur when a molecule binds to the electrodes, which can produce profound differences in conductance properties depending on the anchoring group. This makes answering the question "what is the best anchoring group for single molecule studies" far from straight forward. In this review, we firstly take a look at techniques developed to 'wire-up' single molecules, as understanding their limitations is key when assessing a molecular wire's performance. We then analyse the various chemical anchoring groups, and discuss their merits and disadvantages. Finally we discuss some theoretical concepts of molecular junctions to understand how transport is affected by the nature of the chemical anchor group.

  19. The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for Ly-6A/E- mediated T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Ly-6E, a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored murine alloantigen that can activate T cells upon antibody cross-linking, has been converted into an integral membrane protein by gene fusion. This fusion product, designated Ly-6EDb, was characterized in transiently transfected COS cells and demonstrated to be an integral cell surface membrane protein. Furthermore, the fusion antigen can be expressed on the surface of the BW5147 class "E" mutant cell line, which only expresses integral membrane proteins but not GPI-anchored proteins. The capability of this fusion antigen to activate T cells was examined by gene transfer studies in D10G4.1, a type 2 T cell helper clones. When transfected into D10 cells, the GPI-anchored Ly-6E antigen, as well as the endogenous GPI-anchored Ly-6A antigen, can initiate T cell activation upon antibody cross-linking. In contrast, the transmembrane anchored Ly-6EDb antigen was unable to mediate T cell activation. Our results demonstrate that the GPI-anchor is critical to Ly-6A/E-mediated T cell activation. PMID:1825084

  20. An accessory protein required for anchoring and assembly of amyloid fibres in B. subtilis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Cells within Bacillus subtilis biofilms are held in place by an extracellular matrix that contains cell-anchored amyloid fibres, composed of the amyloidogenic protein TasA. As biofilms age they disassemble because the cells release the amyloid fibres. This release appears to be the consequence of incorporation of D-tyrosine, D-leucine, D-tryptophan and D-methionine into the cell wall. Here, we characterize the in vivo roles of an accessory protein TapA (TasA anchoring/assembly protein; previously YqxM) that serves both to anchor the fibres to the cell wall and to assemble TasA into fibres. TapA is found in discrete foci in the cell envelope and these foci disappear when cells are treated with a mixture of D-amino acids. Purified cell wall sacculi retain a functional form of this anchoring protein such that purified fibres can be anchored to the sacculi in vitro. In addition, we show that TapA is essential for the proper assembly of the fibres. Its absence results in a dramatic reduction in TasA levels and what little TasA is left produces only thin fibres that are not anchored to the cell. PMID:21477127

  1. Mechanical characterization of bone anchors used with a bone-attached, parallel robot for skull surgery.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Prielozny, Lenka; Lexow, G Jakob; Rau, Thomas S; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Bone-attached robots and microstereotactic frames, intended for deep brain stimulation and minimally invasive cochlear implantation, typically attach to a patient's skull via bone anchors. A rigid and reliable link between such devices and the skull is mandatory in order to fulfill the high accuracy demands of minimally invasive procedures while maintaining patient safety. In this paper, a method is presented to experimentally characterize the mechanical properties of the anchor-bone linkage. A custom-built universal testing machine is used to measure the pullout strength as well as the spring constants of bone anchors seated in four different bone substitutes as well as in human cranial bone. Furthermore, the angles at which forces act on the bone anchors are varied to simulate realistic conditions. Based on the experimental results, a substitute material that has mechanical properties similar to those of cranial bone is identified. The results further reveal that the pullout strength of the investigated anchor design is sufficient with respect to the proposed application. However, both the measured load capacity as well as the spring constants vary depending on the load angles. Based on these findings, an alternative bone anchor design is presented and experimentally validated. Furthermore, the results serve as a basis for stiffness simulation and optimization of bone-attached microstereotactic frames.

  2. Design and Application of a Field Sensing System for Ground Anchors in Slopes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Woon; Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    In a ground anchor system, cables or tendons connected to a bearing plate are used for stabilization of slopes. Then, the stability of a slope is dependent on maintaining the tension levels in the cables. So far, no research on a strain-based field sensing system for ground anchors has been reported. Therefore, in this study, a practical monitoring system for long-term sensing of tension levels in tendons for anchor-reinforced slopes is proposed. The system for anchor-reinforced slopes is composed of: (1) load cells based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs), (2) wireless sensor nodes which receive and process the signals from load cells and then transmit the result to a master node through local area communication, (3) master nodes which transmit the data sent from sensor nodes to the server through mobile communication, and (4) a server located at the base station. The system was applied to field sensing of ground anchors in the 62 m-long and 26 m-high slope at the side of the highway. Based on the long-term monitoring, the safety of the anchor-reinforced slope can be secured by the timely applications of re-tensioning processes in tendons. PMID:23507820

  3. 33 CFR 150.925 - How long may a safety zone, no anchoring area, or area to be avoided remain in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... anchoring area, or area to be avoided remain in place? 150.925 Section 150.925 Navigation and Navigable...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.925 How long may a safety zone, no anchoring area, or area to be avoided remain in place? A safety zone, no anchoring area, or area to...

  4. ANCHOR: a web server and database for analysis of protein-protein interaction binding pockets for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Lidio M C; Dömling, Alexander S; Camacho, Carlos J

    2010-07-01

    ANCHOR is a web-based tool whose aim is to facilitate the analysis of protein-protein interfaces with regard to its suitability for small molecule drug design. To this end, ANCHOR exploits the so-called anchor residues, i.e. amino acid side-chains deeply buried at protein-protein interfaces, to indicate possible druggable pockets to be targeted by small molecules. For a given protein-protein complex submitted by the user, ANCHOR calculates the change in solvent accessible surface area (DeltaSASA) upon binding for each side-chain, along with an estimate of its contribution to the binding free energy. A Jmol-based tool allows the user to interactively visualize selected anchor residues in their pockets as well as the stereochemical properties of the surrounding region such as hydrogen bonding. ANCHOR includes a Protein Data Bank (PDB) wide database of pre-computed anchor residues from more than 30,000 PDB entries with at least two protein chains. The user can query according to amino acids, buried area (SASA), energy or keywords related to indication areas, e.g. oncogene or diabetes. This database provides a resource to rapidly assess protein-protein interactions for the suitability of small molecules or fragments with bioisostere anchor analogues as possible compounds for pharmaceutical intervention. ANCHOR web server and database are freely available at http://structure.pitt.edu/anchor.

  5. Genetic marker anchoring by six-dimensional pools for development of a soybean physical map

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolei; Zhong, Guohua; Findley, Seth D; Cregan, Perry; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T

    2008-01-01

    Background Integrated genetic and physical maps are extremely valuable for genomic studies and as important references for assembling whole genome shotgun sequences. Screening of a BAC library using molecular markers is an indispensable procedure for integration of both physical and genetic maps of a genome. Molecular markers provide anchor points for integration of genetic and physical maps and also validate BAC contigs assembled based solely on BAC fingerprints. We employed a six-dimensional BAC pooling strategy and an in silico approach to anchor molecular markers onto the soybean physical map. Results A total of 1,470 markers (580 SSRs and 890 STSs) were anchored by PCR on a subset of a Williams 82 BstY I BAC library pooled into 208 pools in six dimensions. This resulted in 7,463 clones (~1× genome equivalent) associated with 1470 markers, of which the majority of clones (6,157, 82.5%) were anchored by one marker and 1106 (17.5%) individual clones contained two or more markers. This contributed to 1184 contigs having anchor points through this 6-D pool screening effort. In parallel, the 21,700 soybean Unigene set from NCBI was used to perform in silico mapping on 80,700 Williams 82 BAC end sequences (BES). This in silico analysis yielded 9,835 positive results anchored by 4152 unigenes that contributed to 1305 contigs and 1624 singletons. Among the 1305 contigs, 305 have not been previously anchored by PCR. Therefore, 1489 (78.8%) of 1893 contigs are anchored with molecular markers. These results are being integrated with BAC fingerprints to assemble the BAC contigs. Ultimately, these efforts will lead to an integrated physical and genetic map resource. Conclusion We demonstrated that the six-dimensional soybean BAC pools can be efficiently used to anchor markers to soybean BACs despite the complexity of the soybean genome. In addition to anchoring markers, the 6-D pooling method was also effective for targeting BAC clones for investigating gene families and

  6. Local anesthetic anchoring to cardiac sodium channels. Implications into tissue-selective drug targeting.

    PubMed

    Li, R A; Tsushima, R G; Himmeldirk, K; Dime, D S; Backx, P H

    1999-07-01

    Local anesthetics inhibit Na+ channels in a variety of tissues, leading to potentially serious side effects when used clinically. We have created a series of novel local anesthetics by connecting benzocaine (BZ) to the sulfhydryl-reactive group methanethiosulfonate (MTS) via variable-length polyethylether linkers (L) (MTS-LX-BZ [X represents 0, 3, 6, or 9]). The application of MTS-LX-BZ agents modified native rat cardiac as well as heterologously expressed human heart (hH1) and rat skeletal muscle (rSkM1) Na+ channels in a manner resembling that of free BZ. Like BZ, the effects of MTS-LX-BZ on rSkM1 channels were completely reversible. In contrast, MTS-LX-BZ modification of heart and mutant rSkM1 channels, containing a pore cysteine at the equivalent location as cardiac Na+ channels (ie, Y401C), persisted after drug washout unless treated with DTT, which suggests anchoring to the pore via a disulfide bond. Anchored MTS-LX-BZ competitively reduced the affinity of cardiac Na+ channels for lidocaine but had minimal effects on mutant channels with disrupted local anesthetic modification properties. These results establish that anchored MTS-LX-BZ compounds interact with the local anesthetic binding site (LABS). Variation in the linker length altered the potency of channel modification by the anchored drugs, thus providing information on the spatial relationship between the anchoring site and the LABS. Our observations demonstrate that local anesthetics can be anchored to the extracellular pore cysteine in cardiac Na+ channels and dynamically interact with the intracellular LABS. These results suggest that nonselective agents, such as local anesthetics, might be made more selective by linking these agents to target-specific anchors.

  7. Isolation, purification, characterization and antigenic evaluation of GPI-anchored membrane proteins from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Agustina; García-Lugo, Pablo; Crisante, Gladys; Añez-Rojas, Néstor; Añez, Néstor

    2008-02-01

    GPI-anchored proteins from the plasma membrane of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes were isolated, characterized and their migration pattern compared with those from other Leishmania species. In all cases the SDS-PAGE migration patterns were obtained under reducing and non-reducing conditions, using DL-dithiothreitol (DTT) as a reducer agent. Our results reveal that under reducing conditions the SDS-PAGE migration pattern is modified as a consequence of the disruption of disulphur-bonds and protein transformation. This is demonstrated when in non-reducing conditions the L. (V.) braziliensis-GPI-anchored proteins pattern showed a group of bands over the 100kDa, and two more bands of 52kDa and 50kDa in four different isolates, whereas under reducing conditions the major GPI-anchored protein fractions were detected as bands of 63kDa, 50kDa and an increase of peptides between 34kDa and 22kDa. Similar modifications were detected in the SDS-PAGE migration patterns of GPI-anchored protein fractions from L. (Leishmania) donovani, L. (L.) mexicana and L. (L.) amazonensis run under the same reducing conditions. Antigenic evaluation carried out by Western blot revealed the presence of two very specific L. (V.) braziliensis-GPI-anchored protein bands of 50kDa and 28kDa. These bands were specifically recognized by anti-L. (V.) braziliensis-GPI-anchored protein serum from experimentally immunized animals. These two peptides were not detected when GPI-anchored protein fractions from L. (L.) donovani, L. (L.) mexicana and L. (L.) amazonensis, were challenged with the same anti-serum. The present results lead us to suggest the use of these two peptides as biochemical markers to identify and differentiate leishmaniasis caused by L. (V.) braziliensis. The lack of immunogenicity observed here with the peptide gp63, a very common protein detected in Leishmania species, is considered.

  8. Mantle plume capture, anchoring and outflow during ridge interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. A.; Richards, M. A.; Geist, D.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical and geophysical studies have shown that >40% of the world's mantle plumes are currently interacting with the global ridge system and such interactions may continue for up to 180 Myr[1]. At sites of plume-ridge interaction up to 1400 km of the spreading centre is influenced by dispersed plume material but there are few constraints on how and where the ridge-ward transfer of deep-sourced material occurs, and also how it is sustained over long time intervals. Galápagos is an archetypal example of an off-axis plume and sheds important light on these mechanisms. The Galápagos plume stem is located ~200 km south of the spreading axis and its head influences 1000 km of the ridge. Nevertheless, the site of enriched basalts, greatest crustal thickness and elevated topography on the ridge, together with active volcanism in the archipelago, correlate with a narrow zone (~150 km) of low-velocity, high-temperature mantle that connects the plume stem and ridge at depths of ~100 km[2]. The enriched ridge basalts contain a greater amount of partially-dehydrated, recycled oceanic crust than basalts elsewhere on the spreading axis, or indeed basalts erupted in the region between the plume stem and ridge. The presence of these relatively volatile-rich ridge basalts requires flow of plume material below the peridotite solidus (i.e.>80 km). We propose a 2-stage model for the development and sustainment of a confined zone of deep ridge-ward plume flow. This involves initial on-axis capture and establishment of a sub-ridge channel of plume flow. Subsequent anchoring of the plume stem to a contact point on the ridge during axis migration results in confined ridge-ward flow of plume material via a deep network of melt channels embedded in the normal spreading and advection of the plume head[2]. Importantly, sub-ridge flow is maintained. The physical parameters and styles of mantle flow we have defined for Galápagos are less-well known at other sites of plume

  9. Anchoring Atmospheric Density Models Using Observed Shuttle Plume Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimpfl, W. L.; Bernstien, L. S.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric number densities at a given low-earth orbit (LEO) altitude can vary by more than an order of magnitude, depending on such parameters as diurnal variations and solar activity. The MSIS atmospheric model, which includes these dependent variables as input, is reported as being accurate to ±15%. Improvement to such models requires accurate direct atmospheric measurement. Here, a means of anchoring atmospheric models is offered through measuring the size and shape of atomic line or molecular band radiance resulting from the atmospheric interaction from rocket engine plumes or gas releases in LEO. Many discrete line or band emissions, ranging from the infrared to the ultraviolet may be suitable. For this purpose we are focusing on NH(A→X), centered at 316 nm. This emission is seen in the plumes of the Shuttle Orbiter PRCS engines, is expected in the plume of any amine fueled engine, and can be observed from remote sensors in space or on the ground. The atmospheric interaction of gas releases or plumes from spacecraft in LEO are understood by comparison of observed radiance with that predicted by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) models. The recent Extended Variable Hard Sphere (EVHS) improvements in treating hyperthermal collisions has produced exceptional agreement between measured and modeled steady-state Space Shuttle OMS and PRCS 190-250 nm Cameron band plume radiance from CO(a→X), which is understood to result from a combination of two- and three-step mechanisms. Radiance from NH(A→X) in far field plumes is understood to result from a simpler single-step process of the reaction of a minor plume species with atomic oxygen, making it more suitable for use in determining atmospheric density. It is recommended that direct retrofire burns of amine fueled engines be imaged in a narrow band from remote sensors to reveal atmospheric number density. In principal the simple measurement of the distance between the engine exit and the peak in the steady

  10. The place of white in a world of grays: a double-anchoring theory of lightness perception.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-07-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt grouping principles, and (b) is independently anchored, within each framework, to both the highest luminance and the surround luminance. The region's final lightness is a weighted average of the values computed, relative to both anchors, in all frameworks. The new model accounts not only for all lightness illusions that are qualitatively explained by the anchoring theory but also for a number of additional effects, and it does so quantitatively, with the support of mathematical simulations.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF DUAL ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALL METHOD TO INCREASE FRONT WATER DEPTH AND SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF EXISTING QUAY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Masakatsu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Takahiro; Morikawa, Yoshiyuki; Hoshino, Masami; Miki, Kenichi

    Recently the dual anchored sheet pile wall method has been developed to increase a front water depth and seismic resistance of existing quay walls by providing an additional anchor in the lower level of them to reduce a flexural moment of the sheet piles and a tension of the anchors. The existing technical information is not enough to evaluate the seismic behavior and the retrofit of the quay walls with anchors at two different levels. Therefore the experiments with a scale model set on the vibration table of the centrifugal apparatus as well as two dimensional effective stress analyses have been mobilized to investigate the seismic retrofit of the dual anchored sheet pile wall. The experiments and analyses demonstrate the increase the earthquake resistance of quay walls, because they showed the additional anchor can reduce the stress of the sheet walls to one half.

  12. Binding constants of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands depend strongly on the nanoscale roughness of membranes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinglei; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R

    2013-09-17

    Cell adhesion and the adhesion of vesicles to the membranes of cells or organelles are pivotal for immune responses, tissue formation, and cell signaling. The adhesion processes depend sensitively on the binding constant of the membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins that mediate adhesion, but this constant is difficult to measure in experiments. We have investigated the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins with molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the binding constant of the anchored proteins strongly decreases with the membrane roughness caused by thermally excited membrane shape fluctuations on nanoscales. We present a theory that explains the roughness dependence of the binding constant for the anchored proteins from membrane confinement and that relates this constant to the binding constant of soluble proteins without membrane anchors. Because the binding constant of soluble proteins is readily accessible in experiments, our results provide a useful route to compute the binding constant of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins.

  13. Differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement of psychologists with different dominant career anchors.

    PubMed

    Bester, C L; Mouton, T

    2006-08-01

    In order to contribute to higher levels of job satisfaction, job involvement and productivity, a match or fit should be established between the dominant career anchor associated with a specific occupation and that of the employee. A career anchor is an individual's set of self-perceived talents, abilities, motives, needs and values that form the nucleus of one's occupational self-concept. Psychologists have always been part of the service orientated careers and therefore one would expect that it is likely that their dominant career anchor would be service orientation. If this is the case, psychologists with service as their dominant career anchor are supposed to have greater job satisfaction and job involvement compared to those with different career anchors. However, according to literature, this assumption is not necessarily correct. The primary goals of the current study were to determine whether in fact service is the dominant career anchor of psychologists in the Free State and whether there are significant differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement between psychologists with and without service as their dominant career anchor. A third goal was to determine whether psychologists with different dominant career anchors differ significantly from one another regarding job satisfaction and job involvement. Questionnaires measuring career orientations, job satisfaction and job involvement were sent to 165 of the 171 registered psychologists in the Free State region. Only 75 psychologists (45,5%) responded which exceeded the traditional return rate of 20 to 30%. Due to the small sample of respondents, a nonparametric statistical test, namely the Mann Whitney U test was conducted to determine possible differences. An analysis of the data showed that 21 respondents had entrepreneurship as their dominant career orientation while 12 fell in the technical/functional, 12 in the challenging, 9 in the service and 8 in the autonomy categories of dominant

  14. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jimin; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-01-01

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. PMID:24725935

  15. Cleavage kinetics and anchor linked intermediates in solid phase peptide amide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dürr, H; Beck-Sickinger, A G; Schnorrenberg, G; Rapp, W; Jung, G

    1991-08-01

    Kinetics and cleavage conditions of peptide amide synthesis were studied using the anchor molecules 5-(4'-aminomethyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenoxy)valeric acid (4-ADPV-OH) and 5-(2'-aminomethyl-3'-5'-dimethoxyphenoxy) valeric acid (2-ADPV-OH). Unexpectedly the anchor amide alanyl-4-ADPV-NH2 was isolated and characterized as an intermediate during the cleavage with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) of alanyl-4-ADPV-alanyl-aminomethyl-polystyrene to yield the alanine amide. As a matter of fact the NH--CH alpha bond of the alanyl spacer has to be cleaved to form this intermediate. Using TFA-dichloromethane (1:9) alanyl-4-ADPV-NH2 was obtained as a cleavage product in 50% yield within 60 min, whereas the isomeric alanyl-2-ADPV-NH2 was formed more slowly under these mild conditions. At high TFA concentration no difference between the 2- and 4-ADPV anchor was observed in the rate of formation of the free alanine amide. The presence of tryptophan amide in the cleavage mixture resulted in an anchor alkylated tryptophan amide, which remains stable in acidic solution but disappears rapidly in the presence of the resin. A low TFA/high TFA cleavage procedure is recommended for peptide amid synthesis applying the ADPV anchor.

  16. The structural basis of tail-anchored membrane protein recognition by Get3

    SciTech Connect

    Mateja, Agnieszka; Szlachcic, Anna; Downing, Maureen E.; Dobosz, Malgorzata; Mariappan, Malaiyalam; Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Keenan, Robert J.

    2009-10-05

    Targeting of newly synthesized membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum is an essential cellular process. Most membrane proteins are recognized and targeted co-translationally by the signal recognition particle. However, nearly 5% of membrane proteins are 'tail-anchored' by a single carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain that cannot access the co-translational pathway. Instead, tail-anchored proteins are targeted post-translationally by a conserved ATPase termed Get3. The mechanistic basis for tail-anchored protein recognition or targeting by Get3 is not known. Here we present crystal structures of yeast Get3 in 'open' (nucleotide-free) and 'closed' (ADP {center_dot} AlF{sub 4}{sup -}-bound) dimer states. In the closed state, the dimer interface of Get3 contains an enormous hydrophobic groove implicated by mutational analyses in tail-anchored protein binding. In the open state, Get3 undergoes a striking rearrangement that disrupts the groove and shields its hydrophobic surfaces. These data provide a molecular mechanism for nucleotide-regulated binding and release of tail-anchored proteins during their membrane targeting by Get3.

  17. Enhanced Charge Separation Efficiency in Pyridine-Anchored Phthalocyanine-Sensitized Solar Cells by Linker Elongation.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Takuro; Agrawal, Saurabh; Ezoe, Masayuki; Mori, Shogo; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2015-11-01

    A series of zinc phthalocyanine sensitizers (PcS22-24) having a pyridine anchoring group are designed and synthesized to investigate the structural dependence on performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. The pyridine-anchor zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer PcS23 shows 79 % incident-photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) and 6.1 % energy conversion efficiency, which are comparable with similar phthalocyanine dyes having a carboxylic acid anchoring group. Based on DFT calculations, the high IPCE is attributed with the mixture of an excited-state molecular orbital of the sensitizer and the orbitals of TiO2 . Between pyridine and carboxylic acid anchor dyes, opposite trends are observed in the linker-length dependence of the IPCE. The red-absorbing PcS23 is applied for co-sensitization with a carboxyl-anchor organic dye D131 that has a complementary spectral response. The site-selective adsorption of PcS23 and D131 on the TiO2 surface results in a panchromatic photocurrent response for the whole visible-light region of sun light.

  18. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jimin; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-04-01

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1-E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain.

  19. TWO-LAYER MODEL FOR PULL-OUT BEHAVIOR OF POST-INSTALLED ANCHOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Tsubaki, Tatsuya

    A new two-layer anchor-infill assembly structure for the post-installed anchor is introduced with the analytical model to simulate its pull-out deformational response. The post-installed anchor is such that used in strengthening techniques for reinforced concrete structures. The properties of the infill material used for post-installed anchor are characterized by nonlinear interfaces. Because of the mechanical properties of the infill layer the existing pull-out model of deformed bars is not applicable in this case. Interfacial de-bonding is examined using energy criterion and strength criterion. The effect of the interface properties such as stiffness and strength on the pull-out behavior of a post-installed anchor is investigated. Using sensitivity analysis, the effect of these parameters on load-displacement curve, shear stress distribution, de-bonded length and damage to the surrounding concrete is clarified. Then, the optimum combination of these parameters is presented. It is confirmed that the elastic modulus of infill should be large to reduce the pull-out displacement and the increase of the shear strength of infill makes the pull-out load larger.

  20. Anchor and visible implant elastomer tag retention by hatchery rainbow trout stocked into an Ozark stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, M.G.; Winkelman, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to evaluate the stocking of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in an Oklahoma Ozark stream, we tagged 2,542 hatchery-reared rainbow trout (123-366 mm total length) with individually numbered Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant fluorescent elastomer (VIE) tags. We experimentally stocked double-marked rainbow trout into a small northeastern Oklahoma stream from November 2001 to March 2002 and resampled them monthly from December 2001 to October 2002 by electrofishing. Anchor tag retention was 91% through 6 months, and VIE tag retention was 96% through 6 months despite extensive handling of fish within 24 h of tagging. Based on the ease of application, high visibility, and high retention observed in this study, we recommend the use of VIE tags as a batch mark in similarly sized, similarly pigmented fish. The retention of VIE tags was slightly higher than that of anchor tags, and cost per fish was less for VIE than for anchor tags. However, VIE tags would have limited utility if numerous individual tags are necessary; therefore, we recommend anchor tags as individual marks in similarly sized salmonids. Retention for both tag types was relatively high and could be corrected for when estimating population parameters from tagging data.

  1. A-kinase Anchoring Protein 79/150 Recruits Protein Kinase C to Phosphorylate Roundabout Receptors.

    PubMed

    Samelson, Bret K; Gore, Bryan B; Whiting, Jennifer L; Nygren, Patrick J; Purkey, Alicia M; Colledge, Marcie; Langeberg, Lorene K; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Zweifel, Larry S; Scott, John D

    2015-05-29

    Anchoring proteins direct protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases toward selected substrates to control the efficacy, context, and duration of neuronal phosphorylation events. The A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP79/150 interacts with protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin) to modulate second messenger signaling events. In a mass spectrometry-based screen for additional AKAP79/150 binding partners, we have identified the Roundabout axonal guidance receptor Robo2 and its ligands Slit2 and Slit3. Biochemical and cellular approaches confirm that a linear sequence located in the cytoplasmic tail of Robo2 (residues 991-1070) interfaces directly with sites on the anchoring protein. Parallel studies show that AKAP79/150 interacts with the Robo3 receptor in a similar manner. Immunofluorescent staining detects overlapping expression patterns for murine AKAP150, Robo2, and Robo3 in a variety of brain regions, including hippocampal region CA1 and the islands of Calleja. In vitro kinase assays, peptide spot array mapping, and proximity ligation assay staining approaches establish that human AKAP79-anchored PKC selectively phosphorylates the Robo3.1 receptor subtype on serine 1330. These findings imply that anchored PKC locally modulates the phosphorylation status of Robo3.1 in brain regions governing learning and memory and reward.

  2. Bistable surface anchoring and hysteresis of pitch jumps in a planar cholesteric liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    McKay, G

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between bistable surface anchoring and the pitch jump process is examined for a planar cholesteric liquid crystal. Introducing a high-order, azimuthal surface anchoring potential into a simple model to describe a cholesteric, we derive an expression for the director twist as the natural pitch of the liquid crystal is allowed to vary. Writing the energy in terms of the surface twist, we are able to determine the twists which minimize the total energy of the system. We demonstrate how a pitch jump is related to an energy exchange from one branch of metastable states to another. We then discuss how the co-existence of energy minima and their associated solution branches may help explain the thermal hysteresis observed experimentally in cholesterics in the neighbourhood of a pitch jump. The presence of a higher-order surface energy term can expand the range of anchoring strengths in which pitch jumps are possible. We also investigate the influence of bidirectional surface anchoring on the behaviour of the total energy. Intermediate quarter-turn pitch jumps can occur, depending on the relative strength of the high-order anchoring term, and these can have a significant effect on the system hysteresis.

  3. The I-antigens of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis are GPI-anchored proteins.

    PubMed

    Clark, T G; Gao, Y; Gaertig, J; Wang, X; Cheng, G

    2001-01-01

    The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis has abundant surface membrane proteins (i-antigens) that when clustered, trigger rapid, premature exit from the host. Similar antigens are present in free-living ciliates and are GPI-anchored in both Paramecium and Tetrahymena. Although transmembrane signalling through GPI-anchored proteins has been well-documented in metazoan cells, comparable phenomena have yet to be described in protists. Since premature exit of Ichthyophthirius is likely to involve a transmembrane signalling event, we sought to determine whether i-antigens are GPI-anchored in these cells as well. Based on their solubility properties in Triton X-114, the i-antigens of Ichthyophthirius are amphiphilic in nature and partition with the detergent phase. Nevertheless, following treatment of detergent lysates with phospholipase C, the same proteins become hydrophilic. Concomitantly, they are recognized by antibodies against a cross-reacting determinant exposed on virtually all GPI-anchored proteins following cleavage with phospholipase C. Finally, when expressed in recombinant form in Tetrahymena thermophila, full-length i-antigens are restricted to the membrane, while those lacking hydrophobic C-termini are secreted from the cell. Taken together, these observations argue strongly that the i-antigens of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis are, in fact, GPI-anchored proteins.

  4. COMPLICATIONS RESULTING FROM THE USE OF METAL ANCHORS IN SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Glaydson Gomes; França, Flavio Oliveira; Alves Freitas, José Marcio; Aguiar, Paulo Nascimento; de Carvalho Leite, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    To identify the complications concerning the use of metal anchors in shoulder arthroscopic procedures. Methods: 28 shoulders of 28 patients (23 male and 5 female) have been re-operated in the period between December 1997 and August 2007, at Hospital Ortopédico, Belo Horizonte Hospital and Military Police Hospital in Belo Horizonte, MG, as a result of complications such as loose anchors and prominent anchors. The primary surgeries intended to treat 20 anterior traumatic instabilities (71.5%), one posterior instability (3.5%), one slap injury (3.5%), six procedures for treating injuries on the rotator cuff (21.5%). We used the X-ray classification suggested by Samilson and Prieto and Outerbridge arthroscopic classification for assessing patients' degree of arthrosis. All patients were evaluated by the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) index criteria. Results: In all patients, arthroscopic reviews were made. In two cases, after anchors removal, clinical signs of instability were seen, leading to the decision of providing open stabilization by Latarjet-Patte technique. Conclusion: the complications with metallic-suture anchors result from inappropriate surgical techniques applied in arthroscopy. PMID:26998465

  5. Surface damping effect of anchored constrained viscoelastic layers on the flexural response of simply supported structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, K. R.; Chen, G. D.

    2012-02-01

    Viscoelastic (VE) materials are commonly used to control vibration-induced fatigue in airframes and to suppress general vibration in various structures. This study investigates the effects of anchored constrained VE layers on the flexural response of simply supported Euler beams or plate strips under base excitations. Emphasis is placed on the development of two surface damping treatments: one VE layer anchored at one end, and two VE layers anchored at their different ends. Each anchorage is realized with a thin stiff layer in tension, such as a fiber reinforced polymer sheet, bonded to the surface of a VE layer and anchored to one end of the beam for maximum shear deformation in the constrained VE layer. Non-uniform shear deformation in VE layers is taken into account in the new solution formulation. Sensitivity analyses are performed to understand and quantify the effects of various parameters on flexural responses of the structures. The minimum thickness of VE layers is mainly bounded by the relative stiffness between the VE layers and the constraining face layer. The performances of various configurations are compared and the two-end anchored configuration is found most effective in vibration suppression.

  6. High-affinity binding of short peptides to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by anchor combinations.

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, J; Belunis, C; Bolin, D; Papadopoulos, J; Walsky, R; Higelin, J; Danho, W; Sinigaglia, F; Nagy, Z A

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified four anchor positions in HLA-DRB1*0101-binding peptides, and three anchors involved in peptide binding to DRB1*0401 and DRB1*1101 molecules, by screening of an M13 peptide display library (approximately 20 million independent nonapeptides) for DR-binding activity. In this study, high stringency screening of the M13 library for DRB1*0401 binding has resulted in identification of three further anchor positions. Taken together, a peptide-binding motif has been obtained, in which six of seven positions show enrichment of certain residues. We have demonstrated an additive effect of anchors in two different ways: (i) the addition of more anchors is shown to compensate for progressive truncation of designer peptides; (ii) the incorporation of an increasing number of anchors into 6- or 7-residue-long designer peptides is shown to result in a gradual increase of binding affinity to the level of 13-residue-long high-affinity epitopes. The anchor at relative position 1 seems to be obligatory, in that its substitution abrogates binding completely, whereas the elimination of other anchors results only in partial loss of binding affinity. The spacing between anchors is critical, since their effect is lost by shifting them one position toward the N or C terminus. The information born out of this study has been successfully used to identify DR-binding sequences from natural proteins. PMID:8183931

  7. Effect of an applied electric field on a weakly anchored non-planar Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mema, Ensela; Cummings, Linda J.; Kondic, Lou

    We consider a mathematical model that consists of a NLC layer sandwiched between two parallel bounding plates, across which an external field is applied. We investigate its effect on the director orientation by considering the dielectric and flexoelectric contributions and varying parameters that represent the anchoring conditions and the electric field strength. In particular, we investigate possible director configurations that occur in weakly anchored and non-planar systems. We observe that non-planar anchoring angles destroy any hysteresis seen in a planar system by eliminating the fully vertical director configuration and the ''saturation threshold'' seen in weakly anchored planar Freedericksz cells. Supported by NSF Grant No. DMS-1211713.

  8. Key role of heparan sulfate chains in assembly of anchoring complex at the dermal-epidermal junction.

    PubMed

    Iriyama, Shunsuke; Tsunenaga, Makoto; Amano, Satoshi; Adachi, Eijiro

    2011-11-01

    Epidermal basement membrane forms anchoring complex composed of hemidesmosomes, anchoring filaments, lamina densa and anchoring fibrils to link epidermis to dermis. However, the anchoring complex is rarely formed in skin equivalent models, probably because of degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and heparan sulfate chains by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and heparanase, respectively. To explore the roles of ECM proteins and heparan sulfate in anchoring complex assembly, we used specific inhibitors of MMPs and heparanase, and the formation of anchoring complex was analysed in terms of polarized deposition of collagen VII, BP180 and β4 integrin at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) by means of immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The deposition of collagen VII was polarized to the basal side by the addition of MMP inhibitor, and the staining intensity was increased by combined treatment with MMP inhibitor and heparanase inhibitor, which enhanced anchoring fibril formation as observed by TEM. BP180 was polarized to the basal side by heparanase inhibitor, which protects HS chains, but not by MMP inhibitor. MMP inhibitor improved the polarization of β4 integrin. Hemidesmosomes were formed in the presence of each inhibitor, as observed by TEM, and formation was greatly enhanced by the combined treatment. These findings suggest that heparan sulfate chains, in addition to ECM proteins at the DEJ, play an important role in the assembly of anchoring complex, especially hemidesmosomes and anchoring fibrils.

  9. Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-based Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2010-02-01

    This paper is an invited adaptation of the IEEE Education Society Distinguished Lecture Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning. Interactive video anchors have a cognitive theory base, and they help to enlarge the context of learning with information-rich real-world situations. Carefully selected movie clips and custom-developed regular videos and virtual simulations have been successfully used as anchors in problem-based science learning. Examples discussed include a range of situations such as Indiana Jones tackling a trap, a teenager misrepresenting lead for gold, an agriculture inspection at the US border, counterintuitive events, analyzing a river ecosystem for pollution, and finding the cause of illness in a nineteenth century river city. Suggestions for teachers are provided.

  10. Inositolphosphoglycan mediators structurally related to glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors: synthesis, structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lomas, M; Khiar, N; García, S; Koessler, J L; Nieto, P M; Rademacher, T W

    2000-10-01

    The preparation of the pseudopentasaccharide 1a, an inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG) that contains the conserved linear structure of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors (GPI anchors), was carried out by using a highly convergent 2+3-block synthesis approach which involves imidate and sulfoxide glycosylation reactions. The preferred solution conformation of this structure was determined by using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations prior to carrying out quantitative structure--activity relationship studies in connection with the insulin signalling process. The ability of 1a to stimulate lipogenesis in rat adipocytes as well as to inhibit cAMP dependent protein kinase and to activate pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase was investigated. Compound 1a did not show any significant activity, which may be taken as a strong indication that the GPI anchors are not the precursors of the IPG mediators. PMID:11072827

  11. The anchoring function: parental authority and the parent-child bond.

    PubMed

    Omer, Haim; Steinmetz, Sarit G; Carthy, Tal; von Schlippe, Arist

    2013-06-01

    Descriptions of parental authority and of the formation of a secure parent-child bond have remained unconnected in conceptualizations about parenting and child development. The parental anchoring function is here presented as an integrative metaphor for the two fields. Parents who fulfill an anchoring function offer a secure relational frame for the child, while also manifesting a stabilizing and legitimate kind of authority. The anchoring function enriches the two fields by: (1) adding a dimension of authority to the acknowledged functions of the safe haven and the secure base that are seen as core to a secure parent-child bond, and (2) adding considerations about the parent-child bond to Baumrind's classical description of authoritative parenting.

  12. A Novel Tone Mapping Based on Double-Anchoring Theory for Displaying HDR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinhua; Xu, De; Li, Bing

    In this paper, we present a Double-Anchoring Based Tone Mapping (DABTM) algorithm for displaying high dynamic range (HDR) images. First, two anchoring values are obtained using the double-anchoring theory. Second, we use the two values to formulate the compressing operator, which can achieve the aim of tone mapping directly. A new method based on accelerated K-means for the decomposition of HDR images into groups (frameworks) is proposed. Most importantly, a group of piecewise-overlap linear functions is put forward to define the belongingness of pixels to their locating frameworks. Experiments show that our algorithm is capable of achieving dynamic range compression, while preserving fine details and avoiding common artifacts such as gradient reversals, halos, or loss of local contrast.

  13. Anchor node localization for wireless sensor networks using video and compass information fusion.

    PubMed

    Pescaru, Dan; Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Distributed sensing, computing and communication capabilities of wireless sensor networks require, in most situations, an efficient node localization procedure. In the case of random deployments in harsh or hostile environments, a general localization process within global coordinates is based on a set of anchor nodes able to determine their own position using GPS receivers. In this paper we propose another anchor node localization technique that can be used when GPS devices cannot accomplish their mission or are considered to be too expensive. This novel technique is based on the fusion of video and compass data acquired by the anchor nodes and is especially suitable for video- or multimedia-based wireless sensor networks. For these types of wireless networks the presence of video cameras is intrinsic, while the presence of digital compasses is also required for identifying the cameras' orientations. PMID:24594614

  14. Anchor Node Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Video and Compass Information Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Pescaru, Dan; Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Distributed sensing, computing and communication capabilities of wireless sensor networks require, in most situations, an efficient node localization procedure. In the case of random deployments in harsh or hostile environments, a general localization process within global coordinates is based on a set of anchor nodes able to determine their own position using GPS receivers. In this paper we propose another anchor node localization technique that can be used when GPS devices cannot accomplish their mission or are considered to be too expensive. This novel technique is based on the fusion of video and compass data acquired by the anchor nodes and is especially suitable for video- or multimedia-based wireless sensor networks. For these types of wireless networks the presence of video cameras is intrinsic, while the presence of digital compasses is also required for identifying the cameras' orientations. PMID:24594614

  15. The anchoring function: parental authority and the parent-child bond.

    PubMed

    Omer, Haim; Steinmetz, Sarit G; Carthy, Tal; von Schlippe, Arist

    2013-06-01

    Descriptions of parental authority and of the formation of a secure parent-child bond have remained unconnected in conceptualizations about parenting and child development. The parental anchoring function is here presented as an integrative metaphor for the two fields. Parents who fulfill an anchoring function offer a secure relational frame for the child, while also manifesting a stabilizing and legitimate kind of authority. The anchoring function enriches the two fields by: (1) adding a dimension of authority to the acknowledged functions of the safe haven and the secure base that are seen as core to a secure parent-child bond, and (2) adding considerations about the parent-child bond to Baumrind's classical description of authoritative parenting. PMID:23763680

  16. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and Syntaphilin collaborate to modulate axonal mitochondrial anchoring.

    PubMed

    Park, Cana; Lee, Seol-Ae; Hong, Ji-Ho; Suh, Yeongjun; Park, Sung Jin; Suh, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Youngsik; Choi, Jinhyuk; Huh, Ji-Won; Kim, You-Me; Park, Sang Ki

    2016-07-02

    In neuronal axons, the ratio of motile-to-stationary mitochondria is tightly regulated by neuronal activation, thereby meeting the need for local calcium buffering and maintaining the ATP supply. However, the molecular players and detailed regulatory mechanisms behind neuronal mitochondrial movement are not completely understood. Here, we found that neuronal activation-induced mitochondrial anchoring is regulated by Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), which is accomplished by functional association with Syntaphilin (SNPH). DISC1 deficiency resulted in reduced axonal mitochondrial movement, which was partially reversed by concomitant SNPH depletion. In addition, a SNPH deletion mutant lacking the sequence for interaction with DISC1 exhibited an enhanced mitochondrial anchoring effect than wild-type SNPH. Moreover, upon neuronal activation, mitochondrial movement was preserved by DISC1 overexpression, not showing immobilized response of mitochondria. Taken together, we propose that DISC1 in association with SNPH is a component of a modulatory complex that determines mitochondrial anchoring in response to neuronal activation.

  17. Inositolphosphoglycan mediators structurally related to glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors: synthesis, structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Lomas, M; Khiar, N; García, S; Koessler, J L; Nieto, P M; Rademacher, T W

    2000-10-01

    The preparation of the pseudopentasaccharide 1a, an inositol-phosphoglycan (IPG) that contains the conserved linear structure of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchors (GPI anchors), was carried out by using a highly convergent 2+3-block synthesis approach which involves imidate and sulfoxide glycosylation reactions. The preferred solution conformation of this structure was determined by using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations prior to carrying out quantitative structure--activity relationship studies in connection with the insulin signalling process. The ability of 1a to stimulate lipogenesis in rat adipocytes as well as to inhibit cAMP dependent protein kinase and to activate pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase was investigated. Compound 1a did not show any significant activity, which may be taken as a strong indication that the GPI anchors are not the precursors of the IPG mediators.

  18. A neural model of surface perception: lightness, anchoring, and filling-in.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, Stephen; Hong, Simon

    2006-01-01

    A neural model is proposed of how the visual system processes natural images under variable illumination conditions to generate surface lightness percepts. Previous models clarify how the brain can compute relative contrast. The anchored Filling-In Lightness Model (aFILM) clarifies how the brain 'anchors' lightness percepts to determine an absolute lightness scale that uses the full dynamic range of neurons. The model quantitatively simulates lightness anchoring properties (Articulation, Insulation, Configuration, Area Effect) and other lightness data (discounting the illuminant, the double brilliant illusion, lightness constancy and contrast, Mondrian contrast constancy, Craik-O'Brien-Cornsweet illusion). The model clarifies how retinal processing stages achieve light adaptation and spatial contrast adaptation, and how cortical processing stages fill-in surface lightness using long-range horizontal connections that are gated by boundary signals. The new filling-in mechanism runs 1000 times faster than diffusion mechanisms of previous filling-in models.

  19. Theoretical investigation into the effects of polar anchoring in antiferroelectric liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, N. J.; Elston, S. J.

    2000-11-01

    We present a theoretical investigation into the effects of polar anchoring, which induces ferroelectric ordering close to the cell surfaces, in a liquid crystal cell containing an antiferroelectric liquid crystalline material. Our model includes effects due to finite polar and nonpolar anchoring, quadrupolar ordering and polarization self interaction. By minimizing the free energy of the system, we find parameter domains in which multiple zero-voltage solutions are stable. We find that these solutions may undergo thresholdless or hysteretic switching depending on the parameter values. In two instances, the presence of quadrupolar ordering or weak anchoring means that the cell must first be primed into the thresholdless state through a discontinuous transition from an initial antiferroelectric state.

  20. A new technique of "midline anchoring" in spinal cord stimulation dramatically reduces lead migration.

    PubMed

    Mironer, Y Eugene; Brown, Christopher; Satterthwaite, John R; Cohen, Mary; Tonder, Lisa M; Grumman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a popular method of treatment of chronic pain. Unfortunately, migration of the lead continues to be a serious complication of this therapy. In an attempt to reduce lateral migration of the SCS lead, we performed a retrospective assessment of a new technique of percutaneous lead placement. This new method of "midline anchoring" of the lead using the plica mediana dorsalis was tested against conventional technique in a retrospective study involving 122 trials and 91 implants of SCS over a period of five years. The use of "midline anchoring" resulted in a decrease in lead migration from 23% to 6% after trial insertion and from 24% to 7% after implantation. We conclude that "midline anchoring" of the SCS lead is an effective method of preventing lead migration.

  1. Identification of Anchor Genes during Kidney Development Defines Ontological Relationships, Molecular Subcompartments and Regulatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Chiu, Han Sheng; Taylor, Darrin; Tang, Dave T. P.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Little, Melissa H.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the mammalian kidney is well conserved from mouse to man. Despite considerable temporal and spatial data on gene expression in mammalian kidney development, primarily in rodent species, there is a paucity of genes whose expression is absolutely specific to a given anatomical compartment and/or developmental stage, defined here as ‘anchor’ genes. We previously generated an atlas of gene expression in the developing mouse kidney using microarray analysis of anatomical compartments collected via laser capture microdissection. Here, this data is further analysed to identify anchor genes via stringent bioinformatic filtering followed by high resolution section in situ hybridisation performed on 200 transcripts selected as specific to one of 11 anatomical compartments within the midgestation mouse kidney. A total of 37 anchor genes were identified across 6 compartments with the early proximal tubule being the compartment richest in anchor genes. Analysis of minimal and evolutionarily conserved promoter regions of this set of 25 anchor genes identified enrichment of transcription factor binding sites for Hnf4a and Hnf1b, RbpJ (Notch signalling), PPARγ:RxRA and COUP-TF family transcription factors. This was reinforced by GO analyses which also identified these anchor genes as targets in processes including epithelial proliferation and proximal tubular function. As well as defining anchor genes, this large scale validation of gene expression identified a further 92 compartment-enriched genes able to subcompartmentalise key processes during murine renal organogenesis spatially or ontologically. This included a cohort of 13 ureteric epithelial genes revealing previously unappreciated compartmentalisation of the collecting duct system and a series of early tubule genes suggesting that segmentation into proximal tubule, loop of Henle and distal tubule does not occur until the onset of glomerular vascularisation. Overall, this study serves to illuminate

  2. Factors Related to Furniture Anchoring: A Method for Reducing Harm During Earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Haraoka, Tomoko; Hayasaka, Shinya; Murata, Chiyoe; Yamaoka, Taiji; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2012-12-27

    Objective:  Fatalities and injuries during an earthquake can be reduced by taking preemptive measures beforehand, and furniture anchoring is an important safety measure for all residents. This study sought to clarify the factors associated with furniture anchoring within the home. Methods:  A self-administered mail survey was completed from July to August 2010 by 3500 men and women between the ages of 20 and 69 years who were chosen at random from an official government resident registry of 2 cities in Japan. Results:  Of the 1729 valid responses, 37.1% reported furniture anchoring. An association with furniture anchoring was observed for having viewed earthquake intensity maps or damage predictions (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.54-2.39), expressing concern about a future earthquake (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.36-3.15), feelings of urgency (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.47-2.45), accuracy of the government disaster preparedness information (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.17-2.42), knowledge of the meaning of emergency earthquake warnings (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12-2.48), and participation in voluntary disaster preparedness activities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.75). Conclusions:  Furniture anchoring was found to be associated with risk awareness, risk perception, disaster preparedness information provided by government to residents, knowledge of earthquakes, participation in voluntary disaster preparedness activities, nonwooden structures, and marital status. An increase in furniture anchoring is important and can be achieved through education and training in daily life.

  3. Bottlebrush Polymer Synthesis by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization: The Significance of the Anchor Group.

    PubMed

    Radzinski, Scott C; Foster, Jeffrey C; Chapleski, Robert C; Troya, Diego; Matson, John B

    2016-06-01

    Control over bottlebrush polymer synthesis by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of macromonomers (MMs) is highly dependent on the competition between the kinetics of the polymerization and the lifetime of the catalyst. We evaluated the effect of anchor group chemistry-the configuration of atoms linking the polymer to a polymerizable norbornene-on the kinetics of ROMP of polystyrene and poly(lactic acid) MMs initiated by (H2IMes)(pyr)2(Cl)2Ru═CHPh (Grubbs third generation catalyst). We observed a variance in the rate of propagation of >4-fold between similar MMs with different anchor groups. This phenomenon was conserved across all MMs tested, regardless of solvent, molecular weight (MW), or repeat unit identity. The observed >4-fold difference in propagation rate had a dramatic effect on the maximum obtainable backbone degree of polymerization, with slower propagating MMs reducing the maximum bottlebrush MW by an order of magnitude (from ∼10(6) to ∼10(5) Da). A chelation mechanism was initially proposed to explain the observed anchor group effect, but experimental and computational studies indicated that the rate differences likely resulted from a combination of varying steric demands and electronic structure among the different anchor groups. The addition of trifluoroacetic acid to the ROMP reaction substantially increased the propagation rate for all anchor groups tested, likely due to scavenging of the pyridine ligands. Based on these data, rational selection of the anchor group is critical to achieve high MM conversion and to prepare pure, high MW bottlebrush polymers by ROMP grafting-through. PMID:27219866

  4. Interactions of frazil and anchor ice with sedimentary particles in a flume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kempema, E.W.; Reimnitz, E.; Clayton, J.R.; Payne, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Frazil and anchor ice forming in turbulent, supercooled water have been studied extensively because of problems posed to man-made hydraulic structures. In spite of many incidental observations of interactions of these ice forms with sediment, their geologic effects remain unknown. The present flume study was designed to learn about the effects of salinity, current speed, and sediment type on sediment dynamics in supercooled water. In fresh-water, frazil ice formed flocs as large as 8 cm in diameter that tended to roll along a sandy bottom and collect material from the bed. The heavy flocs often came to rest in the shelter of ripples, forming anchor ice that subsequently was buried by migrating ripples. Burial compressed porous anchor ice into ice-bonded, sediment-rich masses. This process disrupts normal ripple cross-bedding and may produce unique sedimentary structures. Salt-water flocs were smaller, incorporated less bed load, and formed less anchor ice than their fresh-water counterparts. In four experiments, frazil carried a high sediment load only for a short period in supercooled salt water, but released it with slight warming. This suggests that salt-water frazil is either sticky or traps particles only while surrounded by supercooled water (0.05 to 0.1 ??C supercooling), a short-lived phase in simple, small tanks. Salt water anchor ice formed readily on blocks of ice-bonded sediment, which may be common in nature. The theoretical maximum sediment load in neutrally-buoyant ice/sediment mixture is 122 g/l, never reported in nature so far. The maximum sediment load measured in this laboratory study was 88 g/l. Such high theoretical and measured sediment concentrations suggest that frazil and anchor ice are important sediment transport agents in rivers and oceans. ?? 1993.

  5. Influence of ground parameters on the dynamic responses of anchored bedding rock slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhi-xin; Gao, Le; Peng, Ningbo; Gao, Gang

    2013-10-01

    To research the influence of ground parameters on the dynamic responses of anchored bedding rock slope, a dynamic numerical simulation model of bedding rock slope with bolts was established using FLAC3D. The alteration of dynamic response with displacements and accelerations at monitoring points along the slope surface was set as analysis basis. The effects on dynamic responses of slope with different ground parameters, such as waves, frequencies and amplitudes were analyzed. It demonstrated great help for the dynamic stability analysis and slope design when it is supported with anchor under earthquake.

  6. Photosensitizer anchored gold nanorods for targeted combinational photothermal and photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Tham, Huijun Phoebe; Chen, Hongzhong; Tan, Yu Hui; Qu, Qiuyu; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Lingzhi; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-07-01

    Silylated zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was anchored onto silica-coated gold nanorods (AuNR) with retained local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Independent LSPR and singlet oxygen production of anchored ZnPc enhance the photothermal and photodynamic efficacy of the obtained AuNR-Si-ZnPc under NIR light excitation. AuNR-Si-ZnPc was further grafted with hyaluronic acid (HA). Since HA has selective targeting capability to CD44 antigens, the final hybrid could target cancer cells directly for synergistic photothermal and photodynamic therapy. PMID:27346609

  7. MCD4 Encodes a Conserved Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Protein Essential for Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Synthesis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Gaynor, Erin C.; Mondésert, Guillaume; Grimme, Stephen J.; Reed, Steve I.; Orlean, Peter; Emr, Scott D.

    1999-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are cell surface-localized proteins that serve many important cellular functions. The pathway mediating synthesis and attachment of the GPI anchor to these proteins in eukaryotic cells is complex, highly conserved, and plays a critical role in the proper targeting, transport, and function of all GPI-anchored protein family members. In this article, we demonstrate that MCD4, an essential gene that was initially identified in a genetic screen to isolate Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective for bud emergence, encodes a previously unidentified component of the GPI anchor synthesis pathway. Mcd4p is a multimembrane-spanning protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and contains a large NH2-terminal ER lumenal domain. We have also cloned the human MCD4 gene and found that Mcd4p is both highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and has two yeast homologues. Mcd4p’s lumenal domain contains three conserved motifs found in mammalian phosphodiesterases and nucleotide pyrophosphases; notably, the temperature-conditional MCD4 allele used for our studies (mcd4–174) harbors a single amino acid change in motif 2. The mcd4–174 mutant (1) is defective in ER-to-Golgi transport of GPI-anchored proteins (i.e., Gas1p) while other proteins (i.e., CPY) are unaffected; (2) secretes and releases (potentially up-regulated cell wall) proteins into the medium, suggesting a defect in cell wall integrity; and (3) exhibits marked morphological defects, most notably the accumulation of distorted, ER- and vesicle-like membranes. mcd4–174 cells synthesize all classes of inositolphosphoceramides, indicating that the GPI protein transport block is not due to deficient ceramide synthesis. However, mcd4–174 cells have a severe defect in incorporation of [3H]inositol into proteins and accumulate several previously uncharacterized [3H]inositol-labeled lipids whose properties are consistent with their being GPI precursors

  8. The double-anchoring theory of lightness perception: a comment on Bressan (2006).

    PubMed

    Howe, Piers D L; Sagreiya, Hersh; Curtis, Dwight L; Zheng, Chengjie; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2007-10-01

    Recently, a double-anchoring theory (DAT) of lightness perception was proposed (P. Bressan, 2006), which offers explanations for all the data explained by the original anchoring theory (A. Gilchrist et al., 1999), as well as a number of additional lightness phenomena. Consequently, DAT can account for an unprecedented range of empirical results, potentially explaining everything from the basic simultaneous contrast display to subtle variations of the Gelb effect. In this comment, the authors raised 4 concerns that demonstrate serious theoretical and empirical difficulties for DAT. PMID:17907879

  9. A magnetic minirobot with anchoring and drilling ability in tubular environments actuated by external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.; Jeon, S. M.; Nam, J. K.; Jang, G. H.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a magnetic minirobot with anchoring and drilling ability (MMAD) controlled by an external magnetic field. The proposed MMAD can navigate through a tubular environment, such as human blood vessels, actuated by a magnetic gradient and uniform rotating magnetic field. It can also generate an anchoring motion, which stably holds the position of the MMAD under pulsatile flow, in order to drill and unclog obstructed blood vessels. The operating conditions of the MMAD were examined by investigating the magnetic torques, and the holding force of the MMAD was measured by a force sensing resistor. Finally, we performed various experiments in a tubular environment to verify the validity of the proposed MMAD.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B by anchored TiO2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Chieh; Yu, Chung-Yi; Kei, Chi-Chung; Perng, Tsong-Pyng

    2011-01-01

    Rutile TiO2 nanowires anchored on silica were fabricated by annealing TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed on silicon or quartz substrate by means of a polystyrene nanosphere monolayer template at 1000 degrees C for 1 h without any catalyst. The diameter and length of the nanowires were 30-80 nm and 1-3 microm, respectively. The growth direction of the nanowires is [112]. The photocatalytic activities of TiO2 nanoparticles and anchored nanowires were evaluated. TiO2 nanowires had higher photocatalytic activity for rhodamine B than TiO2 nanoparticles.

  11. Anchor ice, seabed freezing, and sediment dynamics in shallow arctic seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Kempema, E.W.; Barnes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Diving investigations confirm previous circumstantial evidence of seafloor freezing and anchor ice accretion during freeze-up storms in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. These related bottom types were found to be continuous from shore to 2 m depth and spotty to 4.5 m depth. The concretelike nature of frozen bottom, where present, should prohibit sediment transport by any conceivable wave or current regime during the freezing storm. But elsewhere, anchor ice lifts coarse material off the bottom and incorporates it into the ice canopy, thereby leading to significant ice rafting of shallow shelf sediment and likely sediment loss to the deep sea. -from Authors

  12. Fixation of a human rib by an intramedullary telescoping splint anchored by bone cement.

    PubMed

    Liovic, Petar; Šutalo, Ilija D; Marasco, Silvana F

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept for rib fixation is presented that involves the use of a bioresorbable polymer intramedullary telescoping splint. Bone cement is used to anchor each end of the splint inside the medullary canal on each side of the fracture site. In this manner, rib fixation is achieved without fixation device protrusion from the rib, making the splint completely intramedullary. Finite element analysis is used to demonstrate that such a splint/cement composite can preserve rib fixation subjected to cough-intensity force loadings. Computational fluid dynamics and porcine rib experiments were used to study the anchor formation process required to complete the fixation. PMID:26733094

  13. Is osteitis pubis associated with the use of bone anchors in urinary continence operations?

    PubMed

    Chung, T; Slippe-Quartey, J; Beacon, J; Kane, L

    2000-11-01

    We studied 130 patients who underwent either a vaginal needle suspension procedure or a pubofascial sling procedure with Mitek titanium bone anchors to determine the association of osteitis pubis with bone anchoring in these procedures. Fifteen patients complained of postoperative suprapubic pain; five cases were due to wound infections and another five were associated with tying the suspension sutures too tightly. We suggest the use of the term 'periostitis pubis' to describe the remaining five patients who suffered suprapubic pain. We found no radiological evidence of osteitis pubis in any patients.

  14. A kinase-anchoring proteins and adenylyl cyclase in cardiovascular physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Efendiev, Riad; Dessauer, Carmen W

    2011-10-01

    3'-5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), generated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), serves as a second messenger in signaling pathways regulating many aspects of cardiac physiology, including contraction rate and action potential duration, and in the pathophysiology of hypertrophy and heart failure. A kinase-anchoring proteins localize the effect of cAMP in space and time by organizing receptors, AC, protein kinase A, and other components of the cAMP cascade into multiprotein complexes. In this review, we discuss how the interaction of A kinase-anchoring proteins with distinct AC isoforms affects cardiovascular physiology.

  15. Investigating Measurement Invariance in Computer-Based Personality Testing: The Impact of Using Anchor Items on Effect Size Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egberink, Iris J. L.; Meijer, Rob R.; Tendeiro, Jorge N.

    2015-01-01

    A popular method to assess measurement invariance of a particular item is based on likelihood ratio tests with all other items as anchor items. The results of this method are often only reported in terms of statistical significance, and researchers proposed different methods to empirically select anchor items. It is unclear, however, how many…

  16. Loss of cell-surface laminin anchoring promotes tumor growth and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Armin; Griffith, Obi L; Soroceanu, Liliana; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Luciani-Torres, Maria Gloria; Daemen, Anneleen; Gray, Joe W; Muschler, John L

    2012-05-15

    Perturbations in the composition and assembly of extracellular matrices (ECM) contribute to progression of numerous diseases, including cancers. Anchoring of laminins at the cell surface enables assembly and signaling of many ECMs, but the possible contributions of altered laminin anchoring to cancer progression remain undetermined. In this study, we investigated the prominence and origins of defective laminin anchoring in cancer cells and its association with cancer subtypes and clinical outcomes. We found loss of laminin anchoring to be widespread in cancer cells. Perturbation of laminin anchoring originated from several distinct defects, which all led to dysfunctional glycosylation of the ECM receptor dystroglycan. In aggressive breast and brain cancers, defective laminin anchoring was often due to suppressed expression of the glycosyltransferase LARGE. Reduced expression of LARGE characterized a broad array of human tumors in which it was associated with aggressive cancer subtypes and poor clinical outcomes. Notably, this defect robustly predicted poor survival in patients with brain cancers. Restoring LARGE expression repaired anchoring of exogenous and endogenous laminin and modulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. Together, our findings suggest that defects in laminin anchoring occur commonly in cancer cells, are characteristic of aggressive cancer subtypes, and are important drivers of disease progression.

  17. The Role of Anchored Instruction in the Design of a Hypermedia Science Museum Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Benjamin; And Others

    A hypermedia simulation, Sickle Cell Counselor, has been developed to anchor instruction for museum visitors using the task of advising couples about the decision to have children when there is a substantial genetic risk of sickle cell disease. A visitor can perform simulated laboratory tests and ask questions via interactive video. The anchored…

  18. Technical Note: Drifting vs. anchored flux chambers for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from running waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorke, A.; Bodmer, P.; Noss, C.; Alshboul, Z.; Koschorreck, M.; Somlai, C.; Bastviken, D.; Flury, S.; McGinnis, D. F.; Maeck, A.; Müller, D.; Premke, K.

    2015-09-01

    Stream networks were recently discovered as major but poorly constrained natural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources. A fundamental problem is that several measurement approaches have been used without cross comparisons. Flux chambers represent a potentially powerful methodological approach if robust and reliable ways to use chambers on running water can be defined. Here we compare the use of anchored and freely drifting chambers on various streams having different flow velocities. The study clearly shows that (1) drifting chambers have a very small impact on the water turbulence under the chamber and thus generate more reliable fluxes, (2) anchored chambers enhance turbulence under the chambers and thus elevate fluxes, (3) the bias of the anchored chambers greatly depends on chamber design and sampling conditions, and (4) there is a promising method to reduce the bias from anchored chambers by using a flexible plastic foil seal to the water surface rather than having rigid chamber walls penetrating into the water. Altogether, these results provide novel guidance on how to apply flux chambers in running water, which will have important consequences for measurements to constrain the global GHG balances.

  19. A C-terminal Membrane Anchor Affects the Interactions of Prion Proteins with Lipid Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Nam K.; Shabbir, Waheed; Bove-Fenderson, Erin; Araman, Can; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Harris, David A.; Becker, Christian F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane attachment via a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for conversion of PrPC into pathogenic PrPSc. Therefore the effects of the anchor on PrP structure and function need to be deciphered. Three PrP variants, including full-length PrP (residues 23–231, FL_PrP), N-terminally truncated PrP (residues 90–231, T_PrP), and PrP missing its central hydrophobic region (Δ105–125, ΔCR_PrP), were equipped with a C-terminal membrane anchor via a semisynthesis strategy. Analyses of the interactions of lipidated PrPs with phospholipid membranes demonstrated that C-terminal membrane attachment induces a different binding mode of PrP to membranes, distinct from that of non-lipidated PrPs, and influences the biochemical and conformational properties of PrPs. Additionally, fluorescence-based assays indicated pore formation by lipidated ΔCR_PrP, a variant that is known to be highly neurotoxic in transgenic mice. This finding was supported by using patch clamp electrophysiological measurements of cultured cells. These results provide new evidence for the role of the membrane anchor in PrP-lipid interactions, highlighting the importance of the N-terminal and the central hydrophobic domain in these interactions. PMID:25217642

  20. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>500) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitochondrial...

  1. Does the tail wag the dog? How the structure of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor affects prion formation.

    PubMed

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor attached to the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). Since GPI anchors can alter protein targeting, trafficking and cell signaling, our recent study examined how the structure of the GPI anchor affected prion formation. PrP(C) containing a GPI anchor from which the sialic acid had been removed (desialylated PrP(C)) was not converted to PrP(Sc) in prion-infected neuronal cell lines and in scrapie-infected primary cortical neurons. In uninfected neurons desialylated PrP(C) was associated with greater concentrations of gangliosides and cholesterol than PrP(C). In addition, the targeting of desialylated PrP(C) to lipid rafts showed greater resistance to cholesterol depletion than PrP(C). The presence of desialylated PrP(C) caused the dissociation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) from PrP-containing lipid rafts, reduced the activation of cPLA2 and inhibited PrP(Sc) production. We conclude that the sialic acid moiety of the GPI attached to PrP(C) modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrP(Sc) formation. PMID:26901126

  2. Compartment A125, view of forward side of anchor windlass and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-125, view of forward side of anchor windlass and ditty box stowage shelves. Ditty boxes were small portable lockers used for storage of crew's personal items. (029) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Protein-anchoring strategy for delivering acetylcholinesterase to the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mikako; Suzuki, Yumi; Okada, Takashi; Fukudome, Takayasu; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Masuda, Akio; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Krejci, Eric; Ohno, Kinji

    2012-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is anchored to the synaptic basal lamina via a triple helical collagen Q (ColQ). Congenital defects of ColQ cause endplate AChE deficiency and myasthenic syndrome. A single intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8)-COLQ to Colq(-/-) mice recovered motor functions, synaptic transmission, as well as the morphology of the NMJ. ColQ-tailed AChE was specifically anchored to NMJ and its amount was restored to 89% of the wild type. We next characterized the molecular basis of this efficient recovery. We first confirmed that ColQ-tailed AChE can be specifically targeted to NMJ by an in vitro overlay assay in Colq(-/-) mice muscle sections. We then injected AAV1-COLQ-IRES-EGFP into the left tibialis anterior and detected AChE in noninjected limbs. Furthermore, the in vivo injection of recombinant ColQ-tailed AChE protein complex into the gluteus maximus muscle of Colq(-/-) mice led to accumulation of AChE in noninjected forelimbs. We demonstrated for the first time in vivo that the ColQ protein contains a tissue-targeting signal that is sufficient for anchoring itself to the NMJ. We propose that the protein-anchoring strategy is potentially applicable to a broad spectrum of diseases affecting extracellular matrix molecules.

  4. Application and analysis of anchored geosynthetic systems for stabilization of abandoned mine land slopes

    SciTech Connect

    Vitton, S.J.; Whitman, F.; Liang, R.Y.; Harris, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    An anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) was used in the remediation of a landslide associated with an abandoned coal mine located near Hindman, Kentucky. In concept, AGS is a system that provides in-situ stabilization of soil slopes by combining a surface-deployed geosynthetic with an anchoring system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system of driven reinforcing rods similar to soil nailing. Installation of the system involves tensioning a geosynthetic over a slope`s surface by driving anchors through the geosynthetic at a given spacing and distance. By tensioning the geosynthetic over the slope`s surface, a compressive load is applied to the slope. Benefits of AGS are described to include the following: (1) increase soil strength due to soil compression including increased compressive loading on potential failure surfaces, (2) soil reinforcement through soil nailing, (3), halt of soil creep, (4) erosion control, and (5) long term soil consolidation. Following installation of the AGS and one year of monitoring, it was found that the anchored geosynthetic system only provided some of the reported benefits and in general did not function as an active stabilization system. This was due in part to the inability of the system to provide and maintain loading on the geosynthetic. The geosynthetic, however, did tension when slope movement occurred and prevented the slope from failing. Thus, the system functioned more as a passive restraint system and appeared to function well over the monitoring period.

  5. Understanding and valuing environmental issues: the effects of availability and anchoring on judgment.

    PubMed

    van der Pligt, J; van Schie, E C; Hoevenagel, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of availability and anchoring-and-adjustment on people's beliefs and values concerning environmental issues. The first three studies focus on lay people's perceptions of the causes of large scale environmental risks, the second series of three studies deals with how people value environmental goods and how much they are prepared to pay to mitigate environmental risks. In studies 1-3 we investigate the effects of availability and anchoring-and-adjustment on estimating the contribution of various factors to large scale environmental risks. Highly complex risks such as acid rain and global warming tend to be associated with multiple causes, and our results show that estimating the role of these causes is clearly affected by availability and anchoring-and-adjustment. Both have sizeable effects and persist over time. Moreover, corrective procedures only seem to have a limited effect. Availability and anchoring-and-adjustment not only play a role in judging the possible causes of risks; they also play a role in research attempting to assess the public's willingness to pay (WTP) to protect our environment. The outcomes of WTP surveys are often used as a tool to help policy decision making. In the second part of this article we present three studies on this issue. Results provide further evidence of the impact of the two heuristics on the outcomes of WTP research. Implications for research and practice are briefly discussed. PMID:9857823

  6. Hearing rehabilitation in Treacher Collins Syndrome with bone anchored hearing aid

    PubMed Central

    Polanski, José Fernando; Plawiak, Anna Clara; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe a case of hearing rehabilitation with bone anchored hearing aid in a patient with Treacher Collins syndrome. Case description: 3 years old patient, male, with Treacher Collins syndrome and severe complications due to the syndrome, mostly related to the upper airway and hearing. He had bilateral atresia of external auditory canals, and malformation of the pinna. The initial hearing rehabilitation was with bone vibration arch, but there was poor acceptance due the discomfort caused by skull compression. It was prescribed a model of bone-anchored hearing aid, in soft band format. The results were evaluated through behavioral hearing tests and questionnaires Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) and Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS). Comments: The patient had a higher acceptance of the bone-anchored hearing aid compared to the traditional bone vibration arch. Audiological tests and the speech and auditory skills assessments also showed better communication and hearing outcomes. The bone-anchored hearing aid is a good option in hearing rehabilitation in this syndrome. PMID:26298651

  7. 75 FR 2152 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Anchor Handling Tug Supply Vessel HOLIDAY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... HOLIDAY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard announces that a Certificate of Alternative Compliance was issued for the anchor handling tug supply vessel HOLIDAY as required by 33 U.S.C... Federal holidays. You may also find this docket on the Internet by going to...

  8. An ABC Literacy Journey: Anchoring in Texts, Bridging Language, and Creating Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Amy J.; Lang, Lisa F.; Smith, Sharon V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe how alphabet books teach so much more than just the ABCs. They provide excellent resources, allowing teachers to link and integrate the reciprocal processes of reading and writing. Encapsulated within the writing workshop framework, the authors use multigenre and multicultural alphabet books as anchor texts for a literacy…

  9. The Effect of Listener Experience and Anchors on Judgments of Dysphonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadie, Tanya L.; Kapsner-Smith, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of auditory anchors on judgments of overall severity (OS) and vocal effort (VE) in dysphonic speech when judgments are made by experienced and inexperienced listeners, and when self-rated by individuals with dysphonia (speaker-listeners). Method: Twenty individuals with dysphonia and 4 normal controls provided…

  10. Effects of Thinking Style and Spatial Ability on Anchoring Behavior in Geographic Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Dai-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    The authors propose an instructional use for Google Earth (a GIS application) as an anchoring tool for knowledge integration. Google Earth can be used to support student explorations of world geography based on Wikipedia articles on earth science and history topics. We asked 66 Taiwanese high-school freshmen to make place marks with explanatory…

  11. The Study of Collective Actions in a University Anchored Community Wireless Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchibhotla, Hari N.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of wireless devices and the ease in setting up wireless devices has created opportunities for various entities, and in particular to universities, by partnering with their local communities in the form of a university anchored community wireless network. This provides opportunities for students to be part of the community-based…

  12. Investigation of the Appropriateness of the Anchor Test Study Equating Results for Selected Subgroups. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, John C.; Vale, Carol A.

    The Anchor Test Study (ATS) yielded equating tables for vocabulary, reading comprehension, and total reading scores for eight commonly used reading tests at the 4th, 5th, and 6th grade levels. Because of the original ATS sampling design which resulted in a nationally representative sample of school children at those grades, the equating tables…

  13. Prediction of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins in Arabidopsis. A Genomic Analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Borner, Georg H.H.; Sherrier, D. Janine; Stevens, Timothy J.; Arkin, Isaiah T.; Dupree, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins provides a potential mechanism for targeting to the plant plasma membrane and cell wall. However, relatively few such proteins have been identified. Here, we develop a procedure for database analysis to identify GPI-anchored proteins (GAP) based on their possession of common features. In a comprehensive search of the annotated Arabidopsis genome, we identified 167 novel putative GAP in addition to the 43 previously described candidates. Many of these 210 proteins show similarity to characterized cell surface proteins. The predicted GAP include homologs of β-1,3-glucanases (16), metallo- and aspartyl proteases (13), glycerophosphodiesterases (6), phytocyanins (25), multi-copper oxidases (2), extensins (6), plasma membrane receptors (19), and lipid-transfer-proteins (18). Classical arabinogalactan (AG) proteins (13), AG peptides (9), fasciclin-like proteins (20), COBRA and 10 homologs, and novel potential signaling peptides that we name GAPEPs (8) were also identified. A further 34 proteins of unknown function were predicted to be GPI anchored. A surprising finding was that over 40% of the proteins identified here have probable AG glycosylation modules, suggesting that AG glycosylation of cell surface proteins is widespread. This analysis shows that GPI anchoring is likely to be a major modification in plants that is used to target a specific subset of proteins to the cell surface for extracellular matrix remodeling and signaling. PMID:12068095

  14. Technical note: drifting versus anchored flux chambers for measuring greenhouse gas emissions from running waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorke, A.; Bodmer, P.; Noss, C.; Alshboul, Z.; Koschorreck, M.; Somlai-Haase, C.; Bastviken, D.; Flury, S.; McGinnis, D. F.; Maeck, A.; Müller, D.; Premke, K.

    2015-12-01

    Stream networks have recently been discovered to be major but poorly constrained natural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources. A fundamental problem is that several measurement approaches have been used without cross-comparisons. Flux chambers represent a potentially powerful methodological approach if robust and reliable ways to use chambers on running water can be defined. Here we compare the use of anchored and freely drifting chambers on various streams with different flow velocities. The study clearly shows that (1) anchored chambers enhance turbulence under the chambers and thus elevate fluxes, (2) drifting chambers have a very small impact on the water turbulence under the chamber and thus generate more reliable fluxes, (3) the bias of the anchored chambers greatly depends on chamber design and sampling conditions, and (4) there is a promising method to reduce the bias from anchored chambers by using a flexible plastic foil collar to seal the chambers to the water surface, rather than having rigid chamber walls penetrating into the water. Altogether, these results provide novel guidance on how to apply flux chambers in running water, which will have important consequences for measurements to constrain the global GHG balances.

  15. Reliability and the Nonequivalent Groups with Anchor Test Design. Research Report. ETS RR-07-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Kim, Sooyeon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of unequal reliability on test equating methods in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. Classical true score-based models were compared in terms of their assumptions about how reliability impacts test scores. These models were related to treatment of population ability differences by different…

  16. Support studies for installing the phosphodiester residues of the Thy-1 glycoprotein membrane anchor.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A S; Fraser-Reid, B

    1994-11-01

    Support studies for late-stage installation of the three different types of phosphodiesters found in the rat brain Thy-1 glycoprotein membrane anchor are described. The strategy is geared towards optimizing convergency and the development of chemoselective procedures including deprotection, phosphorylation, esterification and cysteinylation has been investigated. Some of these procedures are being designed for oligosaccharides containing several unprotected hydroxy groups.

  17. Human carbonic anhydrase II as a host for piano-stool complexes bearing a sulfonamide anchor.

    PubMed

    Monnard, Fabien W; Heinisch, Tillmann; Nogueira, Elisa S; Schirmer, Tilman; Ward, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    d(6)-piano-stool complexes bearing an arylsulfonamide anchor display sub-micromolar affinity towards human Carbonic Anhydrase II (hCA II). The 1.3 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of [(η(6)-C(6)Me(6))Ru(bispy 3)Cl](+)⊂ hCA II highlights the nature of the host-guest interactions. PMID:21706094

  18. A Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales Approach to Institutional Self-Assessment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports a study which used the effectiveness criteria contained in the Competing Values Model of Organizational Effectiveness to produce a set of organizational effectiveness self-rating scales for Hong Kong higher educational institutions. Scales were developed using the behaviorally anchored rating scales procedure. Highlights the qualitative…

  19. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization: isocyanate moiety as a suitable monodentate anchoring group.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Claudio; Sala, Maria C; Caneva, Enrico; Cauteruccio, Silvia; Licandro, Emanuela

    2014-01-17

    A new strategy for anchoring organic molecules onto superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using isocyanate containing linkers has been realized. This functional group easily and efficiently reacts with the hydroxyl residues of the nanoparticle surface, leading to the formation of a stable carbamate bond, as confirmed by means of spectroscopic and analytical data.

  20. Anchor-based classification and type-C inhibitors for tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Chih-Ta; Chiu, Yi-Yuan; Hsu, John T.-A.; Hung, Hui-Chen; Sun, Chung-Ming; Barve, Indrajeet; Chen, Wen-Liang; Huang, Wen-Chien; Huang, Chin-Ting; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Yang, Jinn-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases regulate various biological processes and are drug targets for cancers. At present, the design of selective and anti-resistant inhibitors of kinases is an emergent task. Here, we inferred specific site-moiety maps containing two specific anchors to uncover a new binding pocket in the C-terminal hinge region by docking 4,680 kinase inhibitors into 51 protein kinases, and this finding provides an opportunity for the development of kinase inhibitors with high selectivity and anti-drug resistance. We present an anchor-based classification for tyrosine kinases and discover two type-C inhibitors, namely rosmarinic acid (RA) and EGCG, which occupy two and one specific anchors, respectively, by screening 118,759 natural compounds. Our profiling reveals that RA and EGCG selectively inhibit 3% (EGFR and SYK) and 14% of 64 kinases, respectively. According to the guide of our anchor model, we synthesized three RA derivatives with better potency. These type-C inhibitors are able to maintain activities for drug-resistant EGFR and decrease the invasion ability of breast cancer cells. Our results show that the type-C inhibitors occupying a new pocket are promising for cancer treatments due to their kinase selectivity and anti-drug resistance. PMID:26077136

  1. Making the Work of Anchor Institutions Stick: Building Coalitions and Collective Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Nancy; Englot, Peter; Higgins, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    As more colleges and universities commit to a public mission, it is critical that our work as anchor institutions have a sustainable and positive impact, and that we collaborate fully with the diverse voices and expertise beyond our campuses--the most valuable assets of our multicultural cities. Taking Syracuse, New York, as a microcosm, the…

  2. Utilizing a Self-Anchoring Technique for Assessing Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Terry J.

    This study of 360 multiply handicapped clients of the North Carolina State Commission for the Blind was taken from a three year project (1969-1972), and is an exploratory attempt to assess the self-concepts and adjustments in and to a self-anchoring technique. From the theoretical and methodological perspectives, the study showed the possibility…

  3. Substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive anti-inflammatory coatings for implant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Duo; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Tianchan; Ding, Chunmei; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-06-01

    Implant materials need to be highly biocompatible to avoid inflammation in clinical practice. Although biodegradable polymeric implants can eliminate the need for a second surgical intervention to remove the implant materials, they may produce acidic degradation products in vivo and cause non-bacterial inflammation. Here we show the strategy of “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coatings” for biodegradable implants. Using poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite as an implant material model, we constructed a layer-by-layer coating using pH-sensitive star polymers and dendrimers loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, which was immobilised through a hydroxyapatite-anchored layer. The multifunctional coating can effectively suppress the local inflammation caused by the degradation of implant materials for at least 8 weeks in vivo. Moreover, the substrate-anchored coating is able to modulate the degradation of the substrate in a more homogeneous manner. The “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coating” strategy therefore exhibits potential for the design of various self-anti-inflammatory biodegradable implant materials.

  4. Solving the measurement invariance anchor item problem in item response theory.

    PubMed

    Meade, Adam W; Wright, Natalie A

    2012-09-01

    The efficacy of tests of differential item functioning (measurement invariance) has been well established. It is clear that when properly implemented, these tests can successfully identify differentially functioning (DF) items when they exist. However, an assumption of these analyses is that the metric for different groups is linked using anchor items that are invariant. In practice, however, it is impossible to be certain which items are DF and which are invariant. This problem of anchor items, or referent indicators, has long plagued invariance research, and a multitude of suggested approaches have been put forth. Unfortunately, the relative efficacy of these approaches has not been tested. This study compares 11 variations on 5 qualitatively different approaches from recent literature for selecting optimal anchor items. A large-scale simulation study indicates that for nearly all conditions, an easily implemented 2-stage procedure recently put forth by Lopez Rivas, Stark, and Chernyshenko (2009) provided optimal power while maintaining nominal Type I error. With this approach, appropriate anchor items can be easily and quickly located, resulting in more efficacious invariance tests. Recommendations for invariance testing are illustrated using a pedagogical example of employee responses to an organizational culture measure. PMID:22468848

  5. Understanding and valuing environmental issues: the effects of availability and anchoring on judgment.

    PubMed

    van der Pligt, J; van Schie, E C; Hoevenagel, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of availability and anchoring-and-adjustment on people's beliefs and values concerning environmental issues. The first three studies focus on lay people's perceptions of the causes of large scale environmental risks, the second series of three studies deals with how people value environmental goods and how much they are prepared to pay to mitigate environmental risks. In studies 1-3 we investigate the effects of availability and anchoring-and-adjustment on estimating the contribution of various factors to large scale environmental risks. Highly complex risks such as acid rain and global warming tend to be associated with multiple causes, and our results show that estimating the role of these causes is clearly affected by availability and anchoring-and-adjustment. Both have sizeable effects and persist over time. Moreover, corrective procedures only seem to have a limited effect. Availability and anchoring-and-adjustment not only play a role in judging the possible causes of risks; they also play a role in research attempting to assess the public's willingness to pay (WTP) to protect our environment. The outcomes of WTP surveys are often used as a tool to help policy decision making. In the second part of this article we present three studies on this issue. Results provide further evidence of the impact of the two heuristics on the outcomes of WTP research. Implications for research and practice are briefly discussed.

  6. Investigating a First-Year Seminar as an Anchor Course in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniel B.; Alexander, Julie S.

    2007-01-01

    First-year seminars have increasingly been used as anchor courses in learning communities. This study investigated the impact participation in Freshman Seminar had on the grade earned in a linked learning community course in fall 2004. Grades in the linked course for 1,294 first-year students who were enrolled in 37 different learning communities…

  7. Exploring the Affordances of Second Life Machinima as an Anchor for Classroom-Based Apprenticeship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon, Nona; Kofoed, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is part of an ongoing investigation into the design of a technology-enhanced learning environment that draws from approaches embodied in the situated learning theory. In this learning context, Second Life machinima (animated artefact filmed in a 3D virtual environment) is used as an anchor to mediate authentic…

  8. Efficient copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aromatic and heteroaromatic iodides: the beneficial anchoring effect of borates.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Zsombor; Kovács, Szabolcs; Wéber, Csaba; Gáti, Tamás; Mészáros, Attila; Kotschy, András; Novák, Zoltán

    2014-08-15

    Efficient copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aromatic iodides was achieved with TMSCF3 in the presence of trimethylborate. The Lewis acid was used to anchor the in situ generated trifluoromethyl anion and suppress its rapid decomposition. Broad applicability of the new trifluoromethylating reaction was demonstrated in the functionalization of different aromatic and heteroaromatic iodides. PMID:25068681

  9. Boronic acid as an efficient anchor group for surface modification of solid polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Nishiyabu, Ryuhei; Shimizu, Ai

    2016-07-28

    We report the use of boronic acid as an anchor group for surface modification of solid polyvinyl alcohol (PVA); the surfaces of PVA microparticles, films, and nanofibers were chemically modified with boronic acid-appended fluorescent dyes through boronate esterification using a simple soaking technique in a short time under ambient conditions. PMID:27311634

  10. Reducing probabilistic weather forecasts to the worst-case scenario: anchoring effects.

    PubMed

    Joslyn, Susan; Savelli, Sonia; Nadav-Greenberg, Limor

    2011-12-01

    Many weather forecast providers believe that forecast uncertainty in the form of the worst-case scenario would be useful for general public end users. We tested this suggestion in 4 studies using realistic weather-related decision tasks involving high winds and low temperatures. College undergraduates, given the statistical equivalent of the worst-case scenario (1 boundary of the 80% predictive interval), demonstrated biased understanding of future weather conditions compared with those given both bounds or no uncertainty information. We argue that this was due to an anchoring effect on numeric estimates, which were closer to the worst-case scenario than was warranted and increased linearly as the anchor became more extreme. In many situations tested here, anchoring in numeric estimates also extended to subsequent binary decisions, leading participants with the worst-case scenario to take action more often than did other participants. These results suggest that worst-case scenario forecasts can mislead the user. They appear to convince people that wind speeds will be higher and temperatures will be lower than what are indicated by the forecast. In addition, participants systematically "corrected" the forecast they were given. This effect was most prominent in the condition in which no uncertainty was provided, suggesting that people feel compelled to take uncertainty into account, even when it is not acknowledged by the forecast. Both the anchoring and correction biases were least evident when both bounds were provided, suggesting that balanced uncertainty leads to the best understanding of future weather conditions.

  11. Statistical Procedures to Evaluate Quality of Scale Anchoring. Research Report. ETS RR-11-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Sinharay, Sandip; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Providing information to test takers and test score users about the abilities of test takers at different score levels has been a persistent problem in educational and psychological measurement (Carroll, 1993). Scale anchoring (Beaton & Allen, 1992), a technique that describes what students at different points on a score scale know and can do, is…

  12. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Assess Group Differences in General Self-Rated Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna; Freese, Jeremy; Hauser, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses a potentially serious problem with the widely used self-rated health (SRH) survey item: that different groups have systematically different ways of using the item's response categories. Analyses based on unadjusted SRH may thus yield misleading results. The authors evaluate anchoring vignettes as a possible solution to this…

  13. Auditory Frequency Discrimination in Adults with Dyslexia: A Test of the Anchoring Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijnen, Frank; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Vlutters, Leoni D.; Winkel, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A recent hypothesis ascribes dyslexia to a perceptual anchoring deficit. Supporting results have so far been obtained only in children with dyslexia and additional learning difficulties, but the hypothesis has been argued to apply to all individuals with dyslexia. Method: The authors measured auditory frequency discrimination thresholds…

  14. Anchoring on the "Here" and "Now" in Time and Distance Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBoeuf, Robyn A.; Shafir, Eldar

    2009-01-01

    Time and distance estimates were elicited with either unit-based (e.g., "How many days until...") or end-based (e.g., "On what date...") questions. For intervals of uncertain extent, unit-based estimates were consistently lower than were the corresponding end-based estimates. The observed patterns are consistent with an anchoring and adjustment…

  15. Slipping Anchor? Testing the Vignettes Approach to Identification and Correction of Reporting Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Uva, Teresa Bago; Lindeboom, Maarten; O'Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2011-01-01

    We propose tests of the two assumptions under which anchoring vignettes identify heterogeneity in reporting of categorical evaluations. Systematic variation in the perceived difference between any two vignette states is sufficient to reject "vignette equivalence." "Response consistency"--the respondent uses the same response scale to evaluate the…

  16. Anchoring Effects in World University Rankings: Exploring Biases in Reputation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Bastedo, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite ongoing debates about their uses and validity, university rankings are a popular means to compare institutions within a country and around the world. Anchoring theory suggests that these rankings may influence assessments of institutional reputation, and this effect may be particularly strong when a new rankings system is introduced. We…

  17. Anchoring in 4- to 6-Year-Old Children Relates to Predictors of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that anchoring, a short-term dynamic and implicit process that allows individuals to benefit from contextual information embedded in stimulus sequences, might be causally related to reading acquisition. Here we report findings from two experiments in which two previously untested predictions derived from this anchoring…

  18. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Calibrate Teachers' Self-Assessment of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun; Engberg, John; Kaufman, Julia; Hamilton, Laura; Hill, Heather; Umland, Kristin; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    High-quality measures of instructional practice are essential for research and evaluation of innovative instructional policies and programs, as well as for providing feedback to teachers and administrators. In this study, the authors examined whether using anchoring vignettes in web-based surveys improved the validity of teachers' self-assessments…

  19. Substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive anti-inflammatory coatings for implant materials

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Duo; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Tianchan; Ding, Chunmei; Wu, Wei; Li, Jianshu

    2015-01-01

    Implant materials need to be highly biocompatible to avoid inflammation in clinical practice. Although biodegradable polymeric implants can eliminate the need for a second surgical intervention to remove the implant materials, they may produce acidic degradation products in vivo and cause non-bacterial inflammation. Here we show the strategy of “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coatings” for biodegradable implants. Using poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite as an implant material model, we constructed a layer-by-layer coating using pH-sensitive star polymers and dendrimers loaded with an anti-inflammatory drug, which was immobilised through a hydroxyapatite-anchored layer. The multifunctional coating can effectively suppress the local inflammation caused by the degradation of implant materials for at least 8 weeks in vivo. Moreover, the substrate-anchored coating is able to modulate the degradation of the substrate in a more homogeneous manner. The “substrate-anchored and degradation-sensitive coating” strategy therefore exhibits potential for the design of various self-anti-inflammatory biodegradable implant materials. PMID:26077243

  20. Angiotensin-converting enzyme is a GPI-anchored protein releasing factor crucial for fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Gen; Tojo, Hiromasa; Nakatani, Yuka; Komazawa, Nobuyasu; Murata, Chie; Yamagata, Kazuo; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh; Okabe, Masaru; Taguchi, Ryo; Takeda, Junji

    2005-02-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key regulator of blood pressure. It is known to cleave small peptides, such as angiotensin I and bradykinin and changes their biological activities, leading to upregulation of blood pressure. Here we describe a new activity for ACE: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein releasing activity (GPIase activity). Unlike its peptidase activity, GPIase activity is weakly inhibited by the tightly binding ACE inhibitor and not inactivated by substitutions of core amino acid residues for the peptidase activity, suggesting that the active site elements for GPIase differ from those for peptidase activity. ACE shed various GPI-anchored proteins from the cell surface, and the process was accelerated by the lipid raft disruptor filipin. The released products carried portions of the GPI anchor, indicating cleavage within the GPI moiety. Further analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry predicted the cleavage site at the mannose-mannose linkage. GPI-anchored proteins such as TESP5 and PH-20 were released from the sperm membrane of wild-type mice but not in Ace knockout sperm in vivo. Moreover, peptidase-inactivated E414D mutant ACE and also PI-PLC rescued the egg-binding deficiency of Ace knockout sperms, implying that ACE plays a crucial role in fertilization through this activity. PMID:15665832

  1. Use of the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale in Evaluating Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Robert J.

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS), a new quantitative method of employee performance evaluation, is advocated for teacher evaluation. Development of a BARS consists generally of five steps: a representative sample of potential raters generates the scales; the group identifies the broad qualities to be evaluated; the group formulates…

  2. Assessing anchor damage on coral reefs: a case study in selection of environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Harriott, Vicki J

    2004-01-01

    Because environmental conservation can remove scarce natural resources from competing uses, it is important to gain support for conservation programs by demonstrating that management actions have been effective in achieving their goals. One way to do this is to show that selected significant environmental variables (indicators) vary between managed and unmanaged areas or change over time following implementation of a management regime. However, identifying indicators that reflect environmental conditions relevant to management practices has proven difficult. This paper focuses on developing a framework for choosing indicators in a coral reef habitat. The framework consisted of three phases: (1) information gathering to identify candidate variables; (2) field-testing candidate variables at sites that differ in intensity of human activity, thus identifying potential indicators; and (3) evaluating potential indicators against a set of feasibility criteria to identify the most useful indicators. To identify indicators suitable to measure the success of a management strategy to reduce anchor damage to a coral reef, 24 candidate variables were identified and evaluated at sites with different intensities of anchoring. In this study, measures that reflected injuries to coral colonies were generally more efficient than traditional measures of coral cover in describing the effects of anchoring. The number of overturned colonies was identified as the single most useful indicator of coral reef condition associated with anchoring intensities. The indicator selection framework developed here has the advantages of being transparent, cost efficient, and readily transferable to other types of human activities and management strategies. PMID:14625652

  3. 33 CFR 83.30 - Anchored vessels and vessels aground (Rule 30).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... they can best be seen: (1) Two all-round red lights in a vertical line; and (2) Three balls in a... SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Lights and Shapes § 83.30 Anchored vessels and vessels aground (Rule... fore part, an all-round white light or one ball; and (2) At or near the stern and at a lower level...

  4. 33 CFR 83.30 - Anchored vessels and vessels aground (Rule 30).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... they can best be seen: (1) Two all-round red lights in a vertical line; and (2) Three balls in a... SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Lights and Shapes § 83.30 Anchored vessels and vessels aground (Rule... fore part, an all-round white light or one ball; and (2) At or near the stern and at a lower level...

  5. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  6. A C-terminal membrane anchor affects the interactions of prion proteins with lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Chu, Nam K; Shabbir, Waheed; Bove-Fenderson, Erin; Araman, Can; Lemmens-Gruber, Rosa; Harris, David A; Becker, Christian F W

    2014-10-24

    Membrane attachment via a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor is critical for conversion of PrP(C) into pathogenic PrP(Sc). Therefore the effects of the anchor on PrP structure and function need to be deciphered. Three PrP variants, including full-length PrP (residues 23-231, FL_PrP), N-terminally truncated PrP (residues 90-231, T_PrP), and PrP missing its central hydrophobic region (Δ105-125, ΔCR_PrP), were equipped with a C-terminal membrane anchor via a semisynthesis strategy. Analyses of the interactions of lipidated PrPs with phospholipid membranes demonstrated that C-terminal membrane attachment induces a different binding mode of PrP to membranes, distinct from that of non-lipidated PrPs, and influences the biochemical and conformational properties of PrPs. Additionally, fluorescence-based assays indicated pore formation by lipidated ΔCR_PrP, a variant that is known to be highly neurotoxic in transgenic mice. This finding was supported by using patch clamp electrophysiological measurements of cultured cells. These results provide new evidence for the role of the membrane anchor in PrP-lipid interactions, highlighting the importance of the N-terminal and the central hydrophobic domain in these interactions.

  7. Assessing anchor damage on coral reefs: a case study in selection of environmental indicators.

    PubMed

    Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Harriott, Vicki J

    2004-01-01

    Because environmental conservation can remove scarce natural resources from competing uses, it is important to gain support for conservation programs by demonstrating that management actions have been effective in achieving their goals. One way to do this is to show that selected significant environmental variables (indicators) vary between managed and unmanaged areas or change over time following implementation of a management regime. However, identifying indicators that reflect environmental conditions relevant to management practices has proven difficult. This paper focuses on developing a framework for choosing indicators in a coral reef habitat. The framework consisted of three phases: (1) information gathering to identify candidate variables; (2) field-testing candidate variables at sites that differ in intensity of human activity, thus identifying potential indicators; and (3) evaluating potential indicators against a set of feasibility criteria to identify the most useful indicators. To identify indicators suitable to measure the success of a management strategy to reduce anchor damage to a coral reef, 24 candidate variables were identified and evaluated at sites with different intensities of anchoring. In this study, measures that reflected injuries to coral colonies were generally more efficient than traditional measures of coral cover in describing the effects of anchoring. The number of overturned colonies was identified as the single most useful indicator of coral reef condition associated with anchoring intensities. The indicator selection framework developed here has the advantages of being transparent, cost efficient, and readily transferable to other types of human activities and management strategies.

  8. Device for mooring a floating installation to an anchored offshore installation

    SciTech Connect

    Delamare, G.R.

    1982-11-23

    The device is made up of a connecting arm provided with rollers which bears on a cylindrical portion of the outer wall of the anchored offshore installation. Belts encircling this installation and the rollers are stretched to press these rollers against the cylindrical surface and permit rotation of the arm relative to the offshore installation.

  9. Influence of the order parameter on the anchoring energy of liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadivanyan, A. K.; Chausov, D. N.; Noa, O. V.; Belyaev, V. V.; Chigrinov, V. G.; Pashinina, Yu. M.

    2012-12-01

    No theory of the polar and azimuthal anchoring energies of liquid crystals (LCs) has been developed on a molecular level, despite the scientific and practical topicality of the problem. The interaction energies of mesogenic molecules with graphite and polyethylene surfaces calculated previously by the method of atom-atom potentials are in good agreement with the experimental data, but, at the same time, the calculated polar and azimuthal anchoring energies are larger than their experimental values by one and two orders of magnitude, respectively. To explain these values, the anchoring energy has been assumed to depend not only on the interaction with the surface but also on the interaction between the LC molecules arranged in the model in the form of quasi-layers. The mesogenic molecules have been modeled by rods with virtual C' atoms (carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them) "threaded" on them. The molecule orientation has been specified by the polar and azimuthal angles θ i , φ i and θ j , φ j relative to the directors of the ith and jth layers. The derived polar and azimuthal anchoring energies as well as their dependences on the order parameter have turned out to be close to the experimental data.

  10. Using Anchored Instruction to Teach Preservice Teachers to Integrate Technology in the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariuki, Mumbi; Duran, Mesut

    2004-01-01

    This case study addresses the use of the "anchored instruction approach" to restructure educational computing courses to enhance future teachers' learning of technology applications in the classroom. A cohort group of 22 preservice teachers from a typical teacher education institution in Southeastern Ohio was involved in the study. The preservice…

  11. Arrows as Anchors: An Analysis of the Material Features of Electric Field Vector Arrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gire, Elizabeth; Price, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Representations in physics possess both physical and conceptual aspects that are fundamentally intertwined and can interact to support or hinder sense making and computation. We use distributed cognition and the theory of conceptual blending with material anchors to interpret the roles of conceptual and material features of representations in…

  12. Test Equating under the NEAT Design: A Necessary Condition for Anchor Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko

    2010-01-01

    Mroch, Suh, Kane, & Ripkey (2009); Suh, Mroch, Kane, & Ripkey (2009); and Kane, Mroch, Suh, & Ripkey (2009) provided elucidating discussions on critical properties of linear equating methods under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. In this popular equating design, two test forms are administered to different groups of…

  13. Investigating Repeater Effects on Chained Equipercentile Equating with Common Anchor Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of repeat takers of a licensure test on the equating functions in the context of a nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. Examinees who had taken a new, to-be-equated form of the test were divided into three subgroups according to their previous testing experience: (a) repeaters who previously took…

  14. Delivery of a secreted soluble protein to the vacuole via a membrane anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Barrieu, F.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1999-08-01

    To further understand how membrane proteins are sorted in the secretory system, the authors devised a strategy that involves the expression of a membrane-anchored yeast invertase in transgenic plants. The construct consisted of a signal peptide followed by the coding region of yeast invertase and the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of calnexin. The substitution of a lysine near the C terminus of calnexin with a glutamic acid residue ensured progression through the secretory system rather than retention in or return to the endoplasmic reticulum. In the transformed plants, invertase activity and a 70-kD cross-reacting protein were found in the vacuoles. This yeast invertase had plant-specific complex glycans, indicating that transport to the vacuole was mediated by the Golgi apparatus. The microsomal fraction contained a membrane-anchored 90-kD cross-reacting polypeptide, but was devoid of invertase activity. Their results indicate that this membrane-anchored protein proceeds in the secretory system beyond the point where soluble proteins are sorted for secretion, and is detached from its membrane anchor either just before or just after delivery to the vacuole.

  15. Distinct Pathways Mediate the Sorting of Tail-anchored Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the biogenesis of tail-anchored (TA) proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane in plant cells. To address this issue, we screened all of the (>600) known and predicted TA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana for those annotated, based on Gene Ontology, to possess mitoc...

  16. The Effect of Molecular Anchoring and Curvature on Confined Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondris-Crawford, Renate Johanna

    Nematic liquid crystals confined to curved geometries exhibit unique elastic and anchoring properties. One result of this study was the first simultaneous measurement of the azimuthal (W_phi) and polar (W_theta) anchoring strength and the saddle-splay surface elastic constant K_{24}. The technique confined 4^'-pentyl-4 -cyanobiphenyl (5CB) to submicrometer polyimide treated cylindrical cavities of polycarbonate (Nuclepore) membranes with concentric tangential anchoring conditions for deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance studies. A structural transition upon increasing cavity radius from a planar-bipolar (PB, R < 0.4 μm) to an escaped-twisted (ET, R > 0.5 mu m) structure resulted in the measurement of W _theta and W_phi (comparable in these systems), and of K _{24}/K. The effect of the bend elastic constant K _{33} on the escaped nematic director -field of 4^'-octyl-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) in the submicrometer cavities of Nuclepore membranes is significant near the nematic-smectic A transition. The project encompassed monitoring the anchoring angle, measuring the defect density, and estimating the values for W _theta and K_{24 }/K. The lack of pretransitional smectic layering was attributed to the roughness of the cavity wall. The effect of surface treatments on the nematic structures in the submicrometer cavities of alumina (Anopore) membranes was systematically studied by treating the cavity walls with aliphatic acids (C_{n} H_{2n+1}-COOH) of varying carbon number, n. A configuration transition upon decreasing n from a planar-polar (PP, n>7) to a parallel-axial (PA, n<7) structure indicated a discontinuous anchoring transition from homeotropic to planar anchoring at n = 7. Stable nematic director-fields of chiral nematics in Anopore membranes revealed a structural transition from a PA to a twisted PB (TPB) structure as the percentage of chiral additive increased. The TPB structure is the same as the PB structure in-plane, but the symmetry axis twists along the

  17. Differences in the glycolipid membrane anchors of bovine and human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W L; Kim, B H; Rosenberry, T L

    1987-11-01

    Acetylcholinesterases (AcChoEases; EC 3.1.1.7) from bovine (Ebo) and human (Ehu) erythrocytes were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The hydrophobic portion of the glycolipid membrane anchor of each enzyme was radiolabeled with the photoactivated reagent 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine. Several cleavage procedures demonstrated that this radiolabel was highly selective for the fatty acid portion of the anchor in both enzymes. The labeled enzymes were digested with phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)-specific phospholipase C (EC 3.1.4.10), and label release was assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. About 85% of the radiolabel was cleaved from Ebo AcChoEase, whereas only 5% was released from Ehu AcChoEase. This finding agrees with a report that Ebo AcChoEase was quantitatively released from intact erythrocytes by PtdIns-specific phospholipase C but Ehu AcChoEase was not [Low, M. G. & Finean, J. B. (1977) FEBS Lett. 82, 143-146]. The two AcChoEases contained comparable amounts of the anchor components ethanolamine, glucosamine, and myo-inositol, but qualitative and quantitative differences were found in the fatty acids. Thin-layer chromatography of radiolabeled fragments generated from Ebo and Ehu AcChoEases by nitrous acid deamination revealed a major difference in the membrane anchors of the two enzymes. The fragment released from Ebo AcChoEase by this procedure comigrated with PtdIns, whereas the corresponding fragment from Ehu AcChoEase had a mobility much greater than that of PtdIns even though it contained myo-inositol and fatty acids. These studies show that 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine is useful for analysis of lipid-containing compounds and indicate that, whereas Ebo AcChoEase contains PtdIns in its glycolipid anchor, Ehu AcChoEase has a different anchor structure, which is resistant to PtdIns-specific phospholipase C. This observation suggests the existence of a class of glycolipid-anchored

  18. Differences in the glycolipid membrane anchors of bovine and human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterases.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, W L; Kim, B H; Rosenberry, T L

    1987-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterases (AcChoEases; EC 3.1.1.7) from bovine (Ebo) and human (Ehu) erythrocytes were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The hydrophobic portion of the glycolipid membrane anchor of each enzyme was radiolabeled with the photoactivated reagent 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine. Several cleavage procedures demonstrated that this radiolabel was highly selective for the fatty acid portion of the anchor in both enzymes. The labeled enzymes were digested with phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)-specific phospholipase C (EC 3.1.4.10), and label release was assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. About 85% of the radiolabel was cleaved from Ebo AcChoEase, whereas only 5% was released from Ehu AcChoEase. This finding agrees with a report that Ebo AcChoEase was quantitatively released from intact erythrocytes by PtdIns-specific phospholipase C but Ehu AcChoEase was not [Low, M. G. & Finean, J. B. (1977) FEBS Lett. 82, 143-146]. The two AcChoEases contained comparable amounts of the anchor components ethanolamine, glucosamine, and myo-inositol, but qualitative and quantitative differences were found in the fatty acids. Thin-layer chromatography of radiolabeled fragments generated from Ebo and Ehu AcChoEases by nitrous acid deamination revealed a major difference in the membrane anchors of the two enzymes. The fragment released from Ebo AcChoEase by this procedure comigrated with PtdIns, whereas the corresponding fragment from Ehu AcChoEase had a mobility much greater than that of PtdIns even though it contained myo-inositol and fatty acids. These studies show that 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine is useful for analysis of lipid-containing compounds and indicate that, whereas Ebo AcChoEase contains PtdIns in its glycolipid anchor, Ehu AcChoEase has a different anchor structure, which is resistant to PtdIns-specific phospholipase C. This observation suggests the existence of a class of glycolipid-anchored

  19. VIP21/caveolin, glycosphingolipid clusters and the sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zurzolo, C; van't Hof, W; van Meer, G; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1994-01-01

    We studied the role of the association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and glycosphingolipid (GSL) clusters in apical targeting using gD1-DAF, a GPI-anchored protein that is differentially sorted by three epithelial cell lines. Differently from MDCK cells, where both gD1-DAF and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) are sorted to the apical membrane, in MDCK Concanavalin A-resistant cells (MDCK-ConAr) gD1-DAF was mis-sorted to both surfaces, but GlcCer was still targeted to the apical surface. In both MDCK and MDCK-ConAr cells, gD1-DAF became associated with TX-100-insoluble GSL clusters during transport to the cell surface. In dramatic contrast with MDCK cells, the Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cell line targeted both gD1-DAF and GlcCer basolaterally. The targeting differences for GSLs in FRT and MDCK cells cannot be accounted for by a differential ability to form clusters because, in spite of major differences in the GSL composition, both cell lines assembled GSLs into TX-100-insoluble complexes with identical isopycnic densities. Surprisingly, in FRT cells, gD1-DAF did not form clusters with GSLs and, therefore, remained completely soluble. This clustering defect in FRT cells correlated with the lack of expression of VIP21/caveolin, a protein localized to both the plasma membrane caveolae and the trans Golgi network. This suggests that VIP21/caveolin may have an important role in recruiting GPI-anchored proteins into GSL complexes necessary for their apical sorting. However, since MDCK-ConAr cells expressed caveolin and clustered GPI-anchored proteins normally, yet mis-sorted them, our results also indicate that clustering and caveolin are not sufficient for apical targeting, and that additional factors are required for the accurate apical sorting of GPI-anchored proteins. Images PMID:8306971

  20. Lactobacillus acidophilus CP23 with weak immunomodulatory activity lacks anchoring structure for surface layer protein.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Sae; Kato, Shinji; Ashida, Nobuhisa; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2015-05-01

    To determine the reason for the low levels of Surface layer protein A (SlpA) on CP23 cells, which might play a crucial role in the immunomodulatory effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus, the DNA sequence of the slpA gene of CP23 and L-92 strains, including the upstream region, were analyzed. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the predicted amino acid sequence of the C-terminus needed for cell anchoring, and only an additional Ala-Val-Ala sequence inserted in the N-terminal region of the mature CP23 protein. Therefore, anchoring of SlpA on the cell wall of CP23 and L-92 was evaluated by a reconstitution assay, which showed that SlpA released by LiCl treatment from both CP23 and L-92 was successfully anchored on LiCl-treated L-92 cells, but not on LiCl-treated CP23 cells. Moreover, quantitative analysis of SlpA protein in the culture medium of CP23 and L-92 by ELISA revealed higher levels of SlpA secretion in CP23 cells than in L-92 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that the lower levels of SlpA on the surface of CP23 cells might be caused by less cell wall capacity for SlpA anchoring, leading to an accumulation of SlpA in the culture medium of CP23 cells. The present study supports the importance of cell surface structure of L. acidophilus L-92 for SlpA anchoring on the cell surface needed for immunomodulatory effect.

  1. Protein Kinase A Activity and Anchoring Are Required for Ovarian Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Andrew J.; Campbell, Shirley L.; Howe, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the deadliest of the gynecological malignancies, due in part to its clinically occult metastasis. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms governing EOC dissemination and invasion may provide new targets for antimetastatic therapies or new methods for detection of metastatic disease. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is often dysregulated in EOC. Furthermore, PKA activity and subcellular localization by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are important regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. Thus, we sought to study the role of PKA and AKAP function in both EOC cell migration and invasion. Using the plasma membrane-directed PKA biosensor, pmAKAR3, and an improved migration/invasion assay, we show that PKA is activated at the leading edge of migrating SKOV-3 EOC cells, and that inhibition of PKA activity blocks SKOV-3 cell migration. Furthermore, we show that while the PKA activity within the leading edge of these cells is mediated by anchoring of type-II regulatory PKA subunits (RII), inhibition of anchoring of either RI or RII PKA subunits blocks cell migration. Importantly, we also show – for the first time – that PKA activity is up-regulated at the leading edge of SKOV-3 cells during invasion of a three-dimensional extracellular matrix and, as seen for migration, inhibition of either PKA activity or AKAP-mediated PKA anchoring blocks matrix invasion. These data are the first to demonstrate that the invasion of extracellular matrix by cancer cells elicits activation of PKA within the invasive leading edge and that both PKA activity and anchoring are required for matrix invasion. These observations suggest a role for PKA and AKAP activity in EOC metastasis. PMID:22028904

  2. Root hairs aid soil penetration by anchoring the root surface to pore walls

    PubMed Central

    Bengough, A. Glyn; Loades, Kenneth; McKenzie, Blair M.

    2016-01-01

    The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip during soil penetration was examined. Experiments using a hairless maize mutant (Zea mays: rth3–3) and its wild-type counterpart measured the anchorage force between the primary root of maize and the soil to determine whether root hairs enabled seedling roots in artificial biopores to penetrate sandy loam soil (dry bulk density 1.0–1.5g cm−3). Time-lapse imaging was used to analyse root and seedling displacements in soil adjacent to a transparent Perspex interface. Peak anchorage forces were up to five times greater (2.5N cf. 0.5N) for wild-type roots than for hairless mutants in 1.2g cm−3 soil. Root hair anchorage enabled better soil penetration for 1.0 or 1.2g cm−3 soil, but there was no significant advantage of root hairs in the densest soil (1.5g cm−3). The anchorage force was insufficient to allow root penetration of the denser soil, probably because of less root hair penetration into pore walls and, consequently, poorer adhesion between the root hairs and the pore walls. Hairless seedlings took 33h to anchor themselves compared with 16h for wild-type roots in 1.2g cm−3 soil. Caryopses were often pushed several millimetres out of the soil before the roots became anchored and hairless roots often never became anchored securely.The physical role of root hairs in anchoring the root tip may be important in loose seed beds above more compact soil layers and may also assist root tips to emerge from biopores and penetrate the bulk soil. PMID:26798027

  3. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Rudd, C E; Finberg, R W

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the generation of intracellular signals is not clear. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins are associated with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins) in both human and murine lymphocytes. When the GPI-anchored proteins CD59, CD48, and Thy-1 were immunoprecipitated from various cell lines or freshly isolated lymphocytes, all were found to be associated with a 41-kDa phosphoprotein that we have identified, by using specific antisera, as a mixture of tyrosine phosphorylated G protein alpha subunits: a small amount of Gialpha1, and substantial amounts of Gialpha2 and Gialpha3. GTP binding assays performed with immunoprecipitations of CD59 indicated that there was GTP-binding activity associated with this molecule. Thus, we have shown by both immunochemical and functional criteria that GPI-anchored proteins are physically associated with G proteins. These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8650218

  4. 76 FR 79764 - Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea Adjacent to Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... Maritime Administration Use of Foreign-Flag Anchor Handling Vessels in the Beaufort Sea or Chukchi Sea...-flag anchor handling vessels in certain cases (and for a limited period of time) if no U.S.-flag... anchor handling vessels with a minimum ice class A3 has been received by the Maritime Administration....

  5. Adenylyl Cyclase Anchoring by a Kinase Anchor Protein AKAP5 (AKAP79/150) Is Important for Postsynaptic β-Adrenergic Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingxu; Patriarchi, Tommaso; Stein, Ivar S.; Qian, Hai; Matt, Lucas; Nguyen, Minh; Xiang, Yang K.; Hell, Johannes W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the A kinase anchor protein AKAP5 (AKAP79/150) interacts not only with PKA but also with various adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms. However, the physiological relevance of AC-AKAP5 binding is largely unexplored. We now show that postsynaptic targeting of AC by AKAP5 is important for phosphorylation of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA1 on Ser-845 by PKA and for synaptic plasticity. Phosphorylation of GluA1 on Ser-845 is strongly reduced (by 70%) under basal conditions in AKAP5 KO mice but not at all in D36 mice, in which the PKA binding site of AKAP5 (i.e. the C-terminal 36 residues) has been deleted without affecting AC association with GluA1. The increase in Ser-845 phosphorylation upon β-adrenergic stimulation is much more severely impaired in AKAP5 KO than in D36 mice. In parallel, long term potentiation induced by a 5-Hz/180-s tetanus, which mimics the endogenous θ-rhythm and depends on β-adrenergic stimulation, is only modestly affected in acute forebrain slices from D36 mice but completely abrogated in AKAP5 KO mice. Accordingly, anchoring of not only PKA but also AC by AKAP5 is important for regulation of postsynaptic functions and specifically AMPA receptor activity. PMID:23649627

  6. Adenylyl cyclase anchoring by a kinase anchor protein AKAP5 (AKAP79/150) is important for postsynaptic β-adrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingxu; Patriarchi, Tommaso; Stein, Ivar S; Qian, Hai; Matt, Lucas; Nguyen, Minh; Xiang, Yang K; Hell, Johannes W

    2013-06-14

    Recent evidence indicates that the A kinase anchor protein AKAP5 (AKAP79/150) interacts not only with PKA but also with various adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms. However, the physiological relevance of AC-AKAP5 binding is largely unexplored. We now show that postsynaptic targeting of AC by AKAP5 is important for phosphorylation of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA1 on Ser-845 by PKA and for synaptic plasticity. Phosphorylation of GluA1 on Ser-845 is strongly reduced (by 70%) under basal conditions in AKAP5 KO mice but not at all in D36 mice, in which the PKA binding site of AKAP5 (i.e. the C-terminal 36 residues) has been deleted without affecting AC association with GluA1. The increase in Ser-845 phosphorylation upon β-adrenergic stimulation is much more severely impaired in AKAP5 KO than in D36 mice. In parallel, long term potentiation induced by a 5-Hz/180-s tetanus, which mimics the endogenous θ-rhythm and depends on β-adrenergic stimulation, is only modestly affected in acute forebrain slices from D36 mice but completely abrogated in AKAP5 KO mice. Accordingly, anchoring of not only PKA but also AC by AKAP5 is important for regulation of postsynaptic functions and specifically AMPA receptor activity.

  7. Communication: Electrical rectification of C59N: The role of anchoring and doping sites.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Cui, X Y; Ringer, S P; Stampfl, C

    2016-01-14

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism and density-functional theory, we investigate the onset of electrical rectification in a single C59N molecule in conjunction with gold electrodes. Our calculations reveal that rectification is dependent upon the anchoring of the Au atom on C59N; when the Au electrode is singly bonded to a C atom (labeled here as A), the system does not exhibit rectification, whereas when the electrode is connected to the C-C bridge site between two hexagonal rings (labeled here as B), transmission asymmetry is observed, where the rectification ratio reaches up to 2.62 at ±1 V depending on the N doping site relative to the anchoring site. Our analysis of the transmission mechanism shows that N doping of the B configuration causes rectification because more transmission channels are available for transmission in the B configuration than in the A configuration.

  8. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes anchored with maghemite nanocrystals for high-performance lithium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping Xie, Kongwei; Xu, Xiali; Li, Jianping; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Yiming Lu, Tianhong

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals uniformly anchored on MWCNT via facile layer-by-layer technique. • The hybrid exhibits enhanced structural stability and charge transport capability. • Superior lithium storage performance by virtue of unique structural characteristics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have anchored maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocrystals compactly and uniformly on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) via a polyelectrolyte-assisted layer-by-layer assembly approach based on electrostatic attraction. When evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the as-synthesized MWCNT-γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanohybrid displays high reversible capacities, remarkable cycling stability, and magnificent high rate capability, facilitating its application as an advanced anode for high-energy, long-life, and high-power LIBs.

  9. Large aperture focus stacking with max-gradient flow by anchored rolling filtering.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuanwu; Wang, Guijin; Li, Wentao; Liao, Qingmin

    2016-07-10

    Focus stacking is a computational technique to extend the depth of field through combining multiple images taken at various focus distances. However, in the large aperture case, there are always defects caused by the large blur scale, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been well studied. In our work, we propose a max-gradient flow-based method to reduce artifacts and obtain a high-quality all-in-focus image by anchored rolling filtering. First, we define a max-gradient flow to describe the gradient propagation in the stack. The points are divided into trivial and source points with this flow. The source points are extracted as true edge points and are utilized as anchors to refine the depth map and the composited all-in-focus image iteratively. The experiments show that our method can effectively suppress the incorrect depth estimations and give a high-quality all-in-focus image. PMID:27409303

  10. Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Harris, Danny W.; Morse, Brian J.; Reed, Cheryl L.; Eng, Doug A.; Kirby, Karen W.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate s (SMD) International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes Mission continues its concept development and is scheduled to complete the first formal milestone gate of a Mission Concept Review (MCR) in Autumn 2009. The mission will establish two-four nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar geophysical stations envisioned to be emplaced by the many nations collaborating on this joint endeavor. This mission will operate over six years or more and make significant progress in satisfying many of the National Research Council s lunar science objectives, while strategically contributing to the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration Policy's objective for a robust robotic lunar program. This paper will provide a status report on the ILN Anchor Nodes mission and overview of the concept to date, which is being implemented jointly by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

  11. D-AKAP1a is a signal-anchored protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Jun, Yong-Woo; Park, Heeju; Lee, You-Kyung; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Lee, Jin-A; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2016-04-01

    Dual A-kinase anchoring protein 1a (D-AKAP1a, AKAP1) regulates cAMP signaling in mitochondria. However, it is not clear how D-AKAP1a is associated with mitochondria. In this study, we show that D-AKAP1a is a transmembrane protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). We revealed that the N-terminus of D-AKAP1a is exposed to the intermembrane space of mitochondria and that its C-terminus is located on the cytoplasmic side of the MOM. Moderate hydrophobicity and the positively charged flanking residues of the transmembrane domain of D-AKAP1a were important for targeting. Taken together, D-AKAP1a can be classified as a signal-anchored protein in the MOM. Our topological study provides valuable information about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mitochondrial targeting of AKAP1.

  12. Photo-stimulated phase and anchoring transitions of chiral azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sudarshan; Kang, Shin-Woong

    2013-12-16

    We report concurring phase and anchoring transitions of chiral azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystals. The transitions are induced by photo-stimulation and stable against light and thermal treatments. Photochromic trans- to cis-isomerization of azo-dye induces an augmented dipole moment and strong dipole-dipole interaction of the cis-isomers, resulting in the formation of nano-sized dye-aggregates. Consequent phase separation of the aggregates of a chiral azo-dye induces phase transition from a chiral to nonchiral nematic phase. In addition, the deposition of dye-aggregates at the surfaces brings about anchoring transition of LC molecules. The stability and irreversibility of the transition, together with no need of pretreatments for LC alignment, provide fascinating opportunity for liquid crystal device applications.

  13. Photoconductivity of PbSe quantum-dot solids: dependence on ligand anchor group and length.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yunan; Aerts, Michiel; Sandeep, C S Suchand; Talgorn, Elise; Savenije, Tom J; Kinge, Sachin; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Houtepen, Arjan J

    2012-11-27

    The assembly of quantum dots is an essential step toward many of their potential applications. To form conductive solids from colloidal quantum dots, ligand exchange is required. Here we study the influence of ligand replacement on the photoconductivity of PbSe quantum-dot solids, using the time-resolved microwave conductivity technique. Bifunctional replacing ligands with amine, thiol, or carboxylic acid anchor groups of various lengths are used to assemble quantum solids via a layer-by-layer dip-coating method. We find that when the ligand lengths are the same, the charge carrier mobility is higher in quantum-dot solids with amine ligands, while in quantum-dot solids with thiol ligands the charge carrier lifetime is longer. If the anchor group is the same, the charge carrier mobility is ligand length dependent. The results show that the diffusion length of charge carriers can reach several hundred nanometers.

  14. 'Click' preparation of CuPt nanorod-anchored graphene oxide as a catalyst in water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyunseung; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kwon, Taegyun; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2012-10-22

    In this paper, a simple and powerful method of producing nanoparticle-anchored graphene oxide (GO) composites using a 'click' reaction is demonstrated. This method affords a facile means of anchoring of nanoparticles with various shapes and sizes on the GO. CuPt nanorods with controlled size, aspect ratio (from 1 to 11), and uniformity are synthesized. Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are made to monitor the formation and characterize the properties of the CuPt nanorod-grafted GO composites. Their catalytic properties in the water phase are investigated using an o-phenylenediamine oxidation reaction. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that nonpolar CuPt nanorods immobilized on GO can function as a catalyst in an aqueous solution and that GO can be used as a catalytic nanorod support. PMID:22821640

  15. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored renal dipeptidase is released by a phospholipase C in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Wook; Choi, Kyong; Lee, Hwanghee Blaise; Park, Sung Kwang; Turner, Anthony J; Hooper, Nigel M; Park, Haeng Soon

    2002-01-01

    The release mechanism of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored renal dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.19) in vivo has been investigated. Triton X-114 phase separation indicated that the dipeptidase is exclusively present as a hydrophilic form in urine from porcine, rat, rabbit and human. Western blot analysis of human and porcine purified dipeptidase and the urine concentrates with anti-(cross-reacting determinant) serum demonstrated the presence of inositol 1,2-cyclic monophosphate indicating that the renal dipeptidase had been released from the membrane by the action of a phospholipase C. This is the first direct evidence for cleavage of a human GPI-anchored protein by a responsible phospholipase C in vivo.

  16. NASA's International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes and Robotic Lunar Lander Project Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Brian J.; Reed, Cheryl L. B.; Kirby, Karen W.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Harris, Danny W.; Chavers, D. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    In early 2008, NASA established the Lunar Quest Program, a new lunar science research program within NASA s Science Mission Directorate. The program included the establishment of the anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar science stations envisioned to be emplaced by multiple nations. This paper describes the current status of the ILN Anchor Nodes mission development and the lander risk-reduction design and test activities implemented jointly by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The lunar lander concepts developed by this team are applicable to multiple science missions, and this paper will describe a mission combining the functionality of an ILN node with an investigation of lunar polar volatiles.

  17. Arthroscopic Repair of Ankle Instability With All-Soft Knotless Anchors

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Hélder; Vuurberg, Gwen; Gomes, Nuno; Oliveira, Joaquim Miguel; Ripoll, Pedro L.; Reis, Rui Luís; Espregueira-Mendes, João; Niek van Dijk, C.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, arthroscopic and arthroscopically assisted techniques have been increasingly used to reconstruct the lateral ligaments of the ankle. Besides permitting the treatment of several comorbidities, arthroscopic techniques are envisioned to lower the amount of surgical aggression and to improve the assessment of anatomic structures. We describe our surgical technique for arthroscopic, two-portal ankle ligament repair using an all-soft knotless anchor, which is made exclusively of suture material. This technique avoids the need for classic knot-tying methods. Thus it diminishes the chance of knot migration caused by pendulum movements. Moreover, it avoids some complications that have been related to the use of metallic anchors and some currently available biomaterials. It also prevents prominent knots, which have been described as a possible cause of secondary complaints. PMID:27073785

  18. Communication: Electrical rectification of C59N: The role of anchoring and doping sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Sherif Abdulkader; Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P.; Stampfl, C.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism and density-functional theory, we investigate the onset of electrical rectification in a single C59N molecule in conjunction with gold electrodes. Our calculations reveal that rectification is dependent upon the anchoring of the Au atom on C59N; when the Au electrode is singly bonded to a C atom (labeled here as A), the system does not exhibit rectification, whereas when the electrode is connected to the C-C bridge site between two hexagonal rings (labeled here as B), transmission asymmetry is observed, where the rectification ratio reaches up to 2.62 at ±1 V depending on the N doping site relative to the anchoring site. Our analysis of the transmission mechanism shows that N doping of the B configuration causes rectification because more transmission channels are available for transmission in the B configuration than in the A configuration.

  19. Investigation of anchoring transition of liquid crystals on crown ether monolayers by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Yang, Xiaomin; Zhu, Yangming; Lu, Zuhong; Wei, Yu

    1994-10-01

    The homeotropic and homogeneous alignment of a liquid crystal material, 4'-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), were achieved by Langmuir monolayers of a double-armed crown ether liquid crystal, N,N-bis(4-(4-heptoxybenzoyloxy)benzo-yl)-1,10-diaza-4,7,13,16- tetracyclooxaotad ecane (CELC) . We found that when the monolayer was deposited before the phase transition during monolayer compression, it induced liquid crystal alignment homogeneously; when the monolayer was transferred after the transition, homeotropic liquid crystal alignment was produced. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the morphology and microstructure of the alignment agent. The results show a conformational change of the alignment agent before and after the transition. The anchoring transition is interpreted as the result of orientational change of the CELC monolayer. We present strong evidence that the orientational change of dipoles in the alignment agent can induce an anchoring transition.

  20. Durability Enhancement of Intermetallics Electrocatalysts via N-anchor Effect for Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; An, Li; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Nanlin; Xia, Dingguo; Huang, Weifeng; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient durability and catalytic activity of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst are key issues that have to be solved for the practical application of low temperature fuel cell. This paper introduces a new catalyst design strategy using N-anchor to promote the corrosion resistance of electrocatalyst. The as-synthesized N-Pt3Fe1/C shows a high electrocatalytic activity and a superior durability towards ORR. The kinetic current density of N-Pt3Fe1/C as normalized by ECSA is still as high as 0.145 mA cm−2 and only 7% loss after 20000 potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.2 V (vs. NHE) in O2-bubbling perchloric acid solution, whereas Pt3Fe1/C shows 49% loss under the same tests. The N-anchor approach offers novel opportunities for the development of ORR catalyst with excellent electrochemical properties. PMID:24240982