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Sample records for 4-week intervention period

  1. Parental Perspectives of a 4-Week Family-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Erin S.; Irwin, Jennifer D.; Burke, Shauna M.; Shapiro, Sheree

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The childhood obesity epidemic is now recognized as one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Community-based behaviour modification treatment programs involving both children and their families are warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of parents whose children participated in the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.): a 4-week lifestyle program delivered as a day-camp for obese children at risk for type II diabetes and their families. Parents were required to attend four half-day education sessions during the intervention period. Methods: Seven focus groups were conducted immediately following the 4-week interventions offered in August 2008 and 2009. The perspectives of 38 parents representing 32 children aged 8-14 with obesity (i.e., body mass index > the 95th percentile) were shared. Results: Overall, parents were pleased with the impact of the program and proud of their children's accomplishments (e.g., increased physical activity levels, enhanced self-esteem, weight loss). Several facilitators to success (e.g., social support; a positive environment) and barriers to its maintenance (e.g., time management; unsupportive family members) were identified, and recommendations were made for future programs. Although parents found the half-day sessions valuable, post-programmatic bi-monthly booster session adherence declined over the one-year follow-up period. Conclusion: Delivered as a 4-week day-camp, C.H.A.M.P. represents a unique approach to the treatment of childhood obesity. Future family-based interventions should consider avenues for intensifying the parental program component whilst employing strategies to promote parental adherence in service of enhancing long-term sustainability of health behaviour changes. PMID:23445699

  2. Managing Noncommunicable Diseases in an African Community: Effects, Compliance, and Barriers to Participation in a 4-Week Exercise Intervention.

    PubMed

    Onagbiye, Sunday O; Moss, Sarah J; Cameron, Melainie

    2016-04-01

    To determine the compliance, barriers, and effects of participation in a 4-week exercise intervention aimed at reducing risk factors for noncommunicable diseases among community-dwelling adults from a low-resourced area of South Africa. An exercise program and associated pre-posttest were performed by 76 participants (men, n = 26 and women, n = 50) aged 35 to 65 years. Baseline and end tests included height, weight, hip and waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, quality of life, and cardiorespiratory fitness measurements. The intervention consisted of 3 days/week combined aerobic and resistance exercise at an intensity of 70% heart rate reserved as determined at baseline. Compliance and barriers to participation were determined post-intervention by means of attendance registers and interviews. ANCOVA with adjustment for pretest was performed for all repeated variables. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for exercise benefits were 0.81 and for barriers 0.84. Of the 26 men (40.8 ± 5.45 years) and 50 women (43.6 ± 7.8 years) recruited, 54 completed the intervention (71% compliance). The 4-week aerobic exercise intervention significantly reduced body mass, rate of perceived exertion, and mental components summary in men, and body mass, body mass index, VO2max, rate of perceived exertion, glucose, physical components summary, and mental components summary in women. Participants reported that the exercise milieu as a major barrier to exercise compliance while the interviews reported lack of time. A 1-month exercise intervention elucidated positive changes in risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in a low-resource community. A drop-out rate of 29% in this study is consistent with other exercise intervention trials. Exploration of the reported barriers may be useful for planning to increase compliance with future programs. PMID:27154904

  3. Efficacy of periodic centrifugation of primates during 4-week head-down tilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, V. I.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kotovskaya, A. R.; Krotov, V. P.; Vil-Viliams, I. F.; Lobachik, V. I.

    2001-08-01

    Creation of artificial force of gravity (AFG) to counteract the negative consequences of microgravity in manned space missions of extended duration is one of the high-priority problems of space biology and medicine. However, there are a number of especial effects of AFG (namely, structural changes in muscles and bones, and some other system) which need implantation of electrodes and sensors and are possible only with animals. That is why it is of particular interest to make studies with monkeys whose reactions to changed gravity bear much resemblance with human (1). The purpose of the investigation was development of a protocol of periodic gravity loads as a countermeasure against the hypokinetic syndrome in Macaca mulatta. Two series of experiments were performed. In the series, animals were split into two groups of 6 species each who were motor restrained with the head end tilted downward at 5° (HDT) for 28 days. Monkeys of group-2 were periodically subjected to centrifugation (HDT+G). During the first series of experiments rotation was conducted in the +Gz direction at g-loads from 1.2 to 1.6 units for 30-40 minutes 4-5 times a week. In the second series, g-load was equal to 1.2 units and the animals were rotated 30 min. 2-3 time a week. The criterion of g-training protocol efficacy was a test +Gz run at 3 units for 30 s. during which functioning of the cardiovascular systems and its controls was evaluated. The test run was performed prior to and after HDT. Following HDT the animals of group HDT+G were more resistant to the test than their counterparts who had not been trained on the centrifuge. Data of the investigation imply that following HDT and HDT+G alike reduced the amount of total bodily fluids (by approximately 5%), the intracellular component (approximately 4%), and plasma volume (by 6-7%). Yet, there are radical differences between the groups in the levels of reduction in extracellular fluids (by 11% and 6.5%, respectively, P<0,05) and the

  4. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Moya, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players. Methods Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kg)were divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL). Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects’ individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM). In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press), power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM) and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw) were assessed pre- and post-training intervention. Results Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms) with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM) in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals) and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals). Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7%) and jumping (5.3%) throw (p > 0.05). Conclusions The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training. PMID:27310598

  5. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) RESULTS: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  6. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  7. A qualitative, exploratory study of predominantly female parental perceptions of consumer health technology use by their overweight and/or obese female adolescent participating in a fee-based 4-week weight-management intervention.

    PubMed

    Knoblock-Hahn, Amy L; LeRouge, Cynthia M

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health technologies (CHTs) are a growing part of the continuum of care for self-management of overweight and obesity. Parents positively or negatively influence adolescent weight-management efforts and are especially important throughout continuum of care settings. User-centered design (UCD) applications have been developed to assist primary users, such as adolescents, with their weight management, but less is known about the influence of parents as secondary users across many socio-ecological environments. The purpose of this study was to use the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to inform the design of a UCD application in a qualitative study that sought to determine parental views on how technology can support previously learned behaviors that require ongoing management and support beyond formal lifestyle interventions. Parents of overweight and obese adolescents (n=14) were interviewed about perceived usefulness and planned user-intent of CHT that was designed for adolescents. UTAUT provided theoretical parental constructs (intention, performance and effort expectancy, and social influence) interactions within several socio-ecological contexts, including the home food environment and restaurant dining experiences. Although generalizations of this qualitative study are limited by a small sample size with predominantly mothers (n=13) of overweight and obese daughters (n=12), the exploratory inquiry using a parent as a secondary consumer user can complement the adoption of applications designed by adolescents. PMID:24507626

  8. Feasibility of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 consisting of a 4-week administration and a two-week rest period in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    OKUMURA, SHUNSUKE; SASAKI, TAKAAKI; SATOH, KAZUHIRO; KITADA, MASAHIRO; NAGASE, ATSUSHI; YATSUYANAGI, EIJI; OHSAKI, YOSHINOBU

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has yet to be clarified, and the appropriate schedule for the adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 remains unknown. A phase II study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1. Patients enrolled in this study were 20–75 years old, had pathological stage IB-IIIA NSCLC, and had received complete resection of NSCLC. S-1 (80 mg/m2) was administered orally to the patients for four weeks followed by a two-week rest period (conventional schedule), for a maximum of eight cycles. The primary endpoint was relative dose intensity (RDI), while the secondary endpoints were safety and 1 year of disease-free survival (1y-DFS). Between May 2007 and October 2009, 28 patients were enrolled. The RDI was 63.1% (95% CI, 48.6–77.7). No grade 3 or worse hematological toxicity was observed. Grade 3 non-hematological toxicities were observed in four patients. No grade 4 or worse hematological toxicity was detected. The probability of 1y-DFS was 85.7% (95% CI, 72.8–98.6). In the subgroup analysis, the median RDI of patients over 65 years old was lower compared to the other patients (44.8 vs. 100%; P=0.013; Mann-Whitney U test). Creatinine clearance (CCr) was lower in the older group, with more grade 2 or 3 non-hematological toxicities in the elderly patients. These results suggest that the conventional schedule of adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 is not likely to be feasible in older patients with completely resected NSCLC. PMID:24649134

  9. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....4 Section 12.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.4 Weekly... based on a written request to the Director of the Federal Register. (2) Congressional committees....

  10. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. 12.4 Section 12.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.4 Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents....

  11. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....4 Section 12.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.4 Weekly... based on a written request to the Director of the Federal Register. (2) Congressional committees....

  12. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. 12.4 Section 12.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.4 Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents....

  13. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 12.4 Section 12.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PUBLICATIONS OFFICIAL DISTRIBUTION WITHIN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 12.4 Weekly... based on a written request to the Director of the Federal Register. (2) Congressional committees....

  14. A 4-week toxicity study of methionine in male rats.

    PubMed

    Chin, Keigi; Toue, Sakino; Kawamata, Yasuko; Watanabe, Akiko; Miwa, Tadashi; Smriga, Miro; Sakai, Ryosei

    2015-01-01

    To examine 4-week toxicity of l-methionine (methionine), 5-week-old Fisher strain male rats were fed on diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 2.7 (w/w) of added methionine. Although no deaths were recorded, the highest dose of methionine (2.7% [w/w] of diet) reduced food intake and significantly suppressed growth rate. Growth suppression was characterized by an increase in hemolysis, splenic, and hepatic accumulation of hemosiderin, hemolytic anemia, and promotion of hematopoiesis. Other changes observed in the highest methionine intake group were a decrease in white blood cell count, thymus atrophy, and histological abnormalities in the adrenal gland and testis. Small, but significant, growth suppression, accompanied by some minor changes in plasma biochemical parameters, was also seen in rats fed on a test diet containing 0.9% (w/w) of additional methionine. Thus, no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) and lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of diet-added methionine were determined at 0.3% and 0.9% (w/w), corresponding to 236 and 705 mg/kg/d body weight, respectively. Since the basal diet contained protein-bound methionine at 0.5% (w/w), NOAEL and LOAEL of total dietary methionine were estimated at 0.8% and 1.4% (w/w) of diet. PMID:25939350

  15. An Exercise Prescription Intervention Program with Periodic Ergometric Grading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, C. A.; Beard, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    A long term exercise prescription type of physical conditioning program has been available to executive personnel of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center for the past two years. Periodic ergometric testing with a heart rate controlled, automatically programmed, bicycle ergometer is used to follow the individual's progress and appropriately alter his exercise prescription from time to time. Such a program appears feasible, and acceptance is excellent, dropout rates small and periodic testing participation good. Subjects training diligently can maintain satisfactory levels of conditioning.

  16. Adaptation to a long term (4 weeks) arginine- and precursor (glutamate, proline and aspartate)-free diet☆

    PubMed Central

    Tharakan, John F.; Yu, Yong M.; Zurakowski, David; Roth, Rachel M.; Young, Vernon R.; Castillo, Leticia

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background & aims It is not known whether arginine homeostasis is negatively affected by a “long term” dietary restriction of arginine and its major precursors in healthy adults. To assess the effects of a 4-week arginine- and precursor-free dietary intake on the regulatory mechanisms of arginine homeostasis in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy adults received a complete amino acid diet for 1 week (control diet) and following a break period, six subjects received a 4-week arginine, proline, glutamate and aspartate-free diet (APF diet). The other four subjects continued for 4 weeks with the complete diet. On days 4 and 7 of the first week and days 25 and 28 of the 4-week period, the subjects received 24-h infusions of arginine, citrulline, leucine and urea tracers. Results During the 4-week APF, plasma arginine fluxes for the fed state, were significantly reduced. There were no significant differences for citrulline, leucine or urea fluxes. Arginine de novo synthesis was not affected by the APF intake. However, arginine oxidation was significantly decreased. Conclusions In healthy adults, homeostasis of arginine under a long term arginine- and precursor-free intake is achieved by decreasing catabolic rates, while de novo arginine synthesis is maintained. PMID:18590940

  17. Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270

  18. A 4-week instructed minimalist running transition and gait-retraining changes plantar pressure and force.

    PubMed

    Warne, J P; Kilduff, S M; Gregan, B C; Nevill, A M; Moran, K A; Warrington, G D

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare changes in plantar pressure and force using conventional running shoes (CRS) and minimalist footwear (MFW) pre and post a 4-week MFW familiarization period. Ten female runners (age: 21 ± 2 years; stature: 165.8 ± 4.5 cm; mass: 55.9 ± 3.2 kg) completed two 11 km/h treadmill runs, 24 hours apart, in both CRS and MFW (pretest). Plantar data were measured using sensory insoles for foot strike patterns, stride frequency, mean maximum force ( M ⁢ F ¯ ), mean maximum pressure ( M ⁢ P ¯ ) and eight mean maximum regional pressures. Subjects then completed a 4-week familiarization period consisting of running in MFW and simple gait-retraining, before repeating the tests (posttest). During the pretests, 30% of subjects adopted a forefoot strike in MFW, following familiarization this increased to 80%; no change occurred in CRS. A significant decrease in M ⁢ F ¯ in both MFW and CRS (P = 0.024) was observed from pre-post, and a significant decrease in heel pressures in MFW. M ⁢ P ¯ was higher in MFW throughout testing (P < 0.001).A 4-week familiarization to MFW resulted in a significant reduction in M ⁢ F ¯ in both the CRS and MFW conditions, as well as a reduction in heel pressures. Higher M ⁢ P ¯ was observed throughout testing in the MFW condition. PMID:24004458

  19. Glutamate Levels in the Associative Striatum Before and After 4 Weeks of Antipsychotic Treatment in First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Azcárraga, Mariana; Stephano, Sylvana; Favila, Rafael; Díaz-Galvis, Leonardo; Alvarado-Alanis, Patricia; Ramírez-Bermúdez, Jesús; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Increased glutamate levels in the right associative striatum have been described in patients during a first episode of psychosis. Whether this increase would persist after effective antipsychotic treatment is unknown. OBJECTIVES To compare the glutamate levels in antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode psychosis in the right associative striatum and right cerebellar cortex using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and 4 weeks after antipsychotic treatment and to compare these results with normative data from sex-matched healthy control subjects. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Before-after trial in an inpatient psychiatric research unit among 24 antipsychotic-naive patients with first-episode psychosis and 18 healthy controls matched for age, sex, handedness, and cigarette smoking. INTERVENTIONS Participants underwent 2 proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies: patients were imaged at baseline and after 4 weeks of antipsychotic treatment, while controls were imaged at baseline and at 4 weeks after the baseline measurement. Patients were treated with oral risperidone (open label) for 4 weeks with dosages that were titrated on the basis of clinical judgment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Glutamate levels were estimated using LCModel (version 6.2-1T) and were corrected for the cerebrospinal fluid proportion within the voxel. RESULTS Patients with first-episode psychosis had higher levels of glutamate in the associative striatum and the cerebellum during the antipsychotic-naive condition compared with controls. After clinically effective antipsychotic treatment, glutamate levels significantly decreased in the associative striatum, with no significant change in the cerebellum. No differences in glutamate levels were observed between groups at 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Increased glutamate levels observed at baseline in patients with first-episode psychosis normalized after 4 weeks of clinically effective antipsychotic treatment

  20. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS TARGETING PATERNAL MENTAL HEALTH IN THE PERINATAL PERIOD.

    PubMed

    Rominov, Holly; Pilkington, Pamela D; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A

    2016-05-01

    Interventions targeting parents' mental health in the perinatal period are critical due to potential consequences of perinatal mental illness for the parent, the infant, and their family. To date, most programs have targeted mothers. This systematic review explores the current status and evidence for intervention programs aiming to prevent or treat paternal mental illness in the perinatal period. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed studies that described an intervention targeting fathers' mental health in the perinatal period. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, and stress as well as more general measures of psychological functioning. Eleven studies were identified. Three of five psychosocial interventions and three massage-technique interventions reported significant effects. None of the couple-based interventions reported significant effects. A number of methodological limitations were identified, including inadequate reporting of study designs, and issues with the timing of interventions. The variability in outcomes measures across the studies made it difficult to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the interventions. Father-focused interventions aimed at preventing perinatal mood problems will be improved if future studies utilize more rigorous research strategies. PMID:27079685

  1. Safety and efficacy of polycalcium for improving biomarkers of bone metabolism: a 4-week open-label clinical study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Dae; Cho, Hyung Rae; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Joo-Wan

    2013-03-01

    Polycalcium is a mixture of Polycan and calcium lactate-gluconate 1:9 (w/w) with demonstrated antiosteoporosis activity in vitro and in vivo studies. These studies were a 4-week open-label, single-center trial to evaluate the efficacy of oral Polycalcium on bone metabolism and safety. In total, 30 healthy women (range 40-60 years) were administered 400 mg of Polycalcium for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPYR) levels, and serum osteocalcin (OSC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), urinary cross-linked C-telopeptide of type-1 collagen (CTx), urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type-1 collagen (NTx), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) levels, which were evaluated for comparison before and after administration of Polycalcium. After 4 weeks of Polycalcium administration, 27 subjects completed the test plan. Three subjects withdrew their consent to participate. The values of blood OSC, BALP, serum Ca, and serum P from baseline to 4 weeks of treatment were changed by -28.44%, 14.37%, 6.11%, and 1.42%, respectively. Biomarkers of bone resorption: urinary DPYR, serum CTx, serum NTx, urinary Ca, and urinary P, at baseline after 4 weeks of treatment were changed by -13.40%, 6.67%, -5.13%, -22.43%, and -3.04%, respectively. Additionally, when considering the subjects' adverse effects and the results of the blood and urine tests over the 4-week trial period, the dose of 400  mg Polycalcium showed efficacy for improving bone metabolism and was well tolerated and safe. Polycalcium was apparently safe and efficacious. PMID:23477624

  2. Safety and Efficacy of Polycalcium for Improving Biomarkers of Bone Metabolism: A 4-Week Open-Label Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Mi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Dae; Cho, Hyung Rae

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Polycalcium is a mixture of Polycan and calcium lactate–gluconate 1:9 (w/w) with demonstrated antiosteoporosis activity in vitro and in vivo studies. These studies were a 4-week open-label, single-center trial to evaluate the efficacy of oral Polycalcium on bone metabolism and safety. In total, 30 healthy women (range 40–60 years) were administered 400 mg of Polycalcium for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPYR) levels, and serum osteocalcin (OSC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), urinary cross-linked C-telopeptide of type-1 collagen (CTx), urinary cross-linked N-telopeptide of type-1 collagen (NTx), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) levels, which were evaluated for comparison before and after administration of Polycalcium. After 4 weeks of Polycalcium administration, 27 subjects completed the test plan. Three subjects withdrew their consent to participate. The values of blood OSC, BALP, serum Ca, and serum P from baseline to 4 weeks of treatment were changed by −28.44%, 14.37%, 6.11%, and 1.42%, respectively. Biomarkers of bone resorption: urinary DPYR, serum CTx, serum NTx, urinary Ca, and urinary P, at baseline after 4 weeks of treatment were changed by −13.40%, 6.67%, −5.13%, −22.43%, and −3.04%, respectively. Additionally, when considering the subjects' adverse effects and the results of the blood and urine tests over the 4-week trial period, the dose of 400 mg Polycalcium showed efficacy for improving bone metabolism and was well tolerated and safe. Polycalcium was apparently safe and efficacious. PMID:23477624

  3. Characterizing Periodic Messaging Interventions Across Health Behaviors and Media: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Laura W; Cohen, Joanna E

    2014-01-01

    Background Periodic prompts serve as tools for health behavior interventions to encourage and maintain behavior changes. Past literature reviews have examined periodic messages targeting specific behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, etc) or media (telephone, email, face-to-face, newsletter, etc) and have found them to be effective in impacting health behavior in the short term. Objective Our goal was to review the literature related to periodic messaging and prompts in order to explore typical characteristics, assess the role of prompt timing, identify common theoretical models used, and identify characteristics associated with the effectiveness of periodic prompts. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science were conducted in October 2012 and May 2013. Database search terms included variant terms for periods, prompts, interventions, media, and health behaviors. Results Forty-two of the 55 included research articles found that prompts resulted in significant positive behavioral outcomes for participants. Prompts were delivered via text messages, email, mailed communications, and in a few instances via phone. Generally, the provision of feedback and specific strategies to accomplish behavior change appears to be important for the success of periodic prompts. Rationale for prompt timing was rarely provided, although some studies did organize message content around days of the week or times perceived to be high risk for particular behaviors. Smoking cessation interventions tended to be organized around quit date. Among studies using theoretical models to inform their interventions, the transtheoretical model was most common. Conclusions Periodic messaging interventions yield positive results for short-term health behavior changes. Interventions including feedback and prompts that included strategies were more likely to report significantly positive outcomes. Work remains to better understand elements that make periodic prompts

  4. The immediate post-operative period following lung transplantation: mapping of nursing interventions

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Rayssa Thompson; Linch, Graciele Fernanda da Costa; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to investigate the principle nursing interventions/actions, prescribed in the immediate post-operative period for patients who receive lung transplantation, recorded in the medical records, and to map these using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) taxonomy. METHOD: retrospective documental research using 183 medical records of patients who received lung transplantation (2007/2012). The data of the patients' profile were grouped in accordance with the variables investigated, and submitted to descriptive analysis. The nursing interventions prescribed were analyzed using the method of cross-mapping with the related interventions in the NIC. Medical records which did not contain nursing prescriptions were excluded. RESULTS: the majority of the patients were male, with medical diagnoses of pulmonary fibrosis, and underwent lung transplantation from a deceased donor. A total of 26 most frequently-cited interventions/actions were found. The majority (91.6%) were in the complex and basic physiological domains of the NIC. It was not possible to map two actions prescribed by the nurses. CONCLUSIONS: it was identified that the main prescriptions contained general care for the postoperative period of major surgery, rather than prescriptions individualized to the patient in the postoperative period following lung transplantation. Care measures related to pain were underestimated in the prescriptions. The mapping with the taxonomy can contribute to the elaboration of the care plan and to the use of computerized systems in this complex mode of therapy. PMID:25493673

  5. Effect of Curriculum Change on Exam Performance in a 4-Week Psychiatry Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermier, Julie; Way, David; Kasick, David; Kuperschmidt, Rada

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated whether curriculum change could produce improved performance, despite a reduction in clerkship length from 8 to 4 weeks. Methods: The exam performance of medical students completing a 4-week clerkship in psychiatry was compared to national data from the National Board of Medical Examiners' Psychiatry Subject…

  6. Initial Outcomes From a 4-Week Follow-Up Study of the Text4baby Program in the Military Women’s Population: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallace Bihm, Jasmine; Szekely, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter; Murray, Elizabeth; Abroms, Lorien; Snider, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention has advanced rapidly in recent years. Text4baby is a theory-based mobile health (mHealth) program in which text messages are delivered to pregnant women and new mothers to improve their health care beliefs and behaviors and improve health status and clinical outcomes. Recent evaluations of Text4baby have found that it improves targeted health attitudes and beliefs, but effects on behavior have not yet been determined. Objective In this study, investigators aimed to evaluate Text4baby in the military women’s population. Methods Investigators conducted a randomized controlled trial at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington, from December 2011 through September 2013. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at Madigan. Investigators conducted a baseline assessment using a 24-item, self-administered online survey of attitudes and behaviors related to Text4baby message content. Participants were randomized to Text4baby plus usual care (intervention) or usual care alone (control). Investigators analyzed treatment effects of Text4baby on short-term targeted outcomes 4 weeks post enrollment. Results For this study, 943 patients were randomized and completed a baseline assessment. The average patient age was 28 years and nearly 70% self-identified as Caucasian. 48.7% of enrollees (459/943) completed the first follow-up assessment. Higher rates of single and working/in-school patients dropped out of the intervention arm of the study, and we adjusted for this finding in subsequent models. However, while investigators were unable to re-survey these participants, only 1.9% of Text4baby enrollees (18/943) dropped the service during the study period. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic generalized estimating equation models were developed to assess intervention effects on measured outcomes. In the model adjusting for age, marital status, having had a

  7. An Online Documentary Film to Motivate Quit Attempts Among Smokers in the General Population (4Weeks2Freedom): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Michie, Susan; Walmsley, Matthew; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Online motivational films to promote quit attempts could encourage large numbers of smokers to stop at low unit cost. We evaluated an online film documenting the experiences of smokers who recorded the first month of their successful attempts to quit (4Weeks2Freedom). The film was designed to boost motivation and self-efficacy and provide role-models to promote ex-smoker identities. Methods: This was a randomized trial with individual assignment to a no-intervention control (n = 1016), an informational film (n = 1004), or 4Weeks2Freedom (n = 999). The development of 4Weeks2Freedom was informed by PRIME theory and focus-group testing with smokers. The 90-minute film was available online to view in one sitting or as chapters over 4 weeks to coincide with the progress of an attempt. The primary outcome was a quit attempt in the 4 weeks between assignment and study endpoint by intent-to-treat. Results: Participants smoked a mean of 13 cigarettes per day and 31% reported not wanting to stop. At follow-up, 55% reported viewing the informational control film and 56% viewing 4Weeks2Freedom. There was no detectable effect compared with the no-intervention control (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.81 to 1.21, 24.3% vs. 24.5%) or informational control film (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.21, 24.3% vs. 24.6%). Calculation of Bayes factors ruled out insensitive data and indicated the intervention was no more effective than either the no-intervention control (Bayes factor = 0.20) or informational control film (Bayes factor = 0.27). The pattern of results was unchanged in sensitivity analyses that examined the effect among only those who viewed the films. Conclusion: The online documentary film (4Weeks2Freedom) designed to boost motivation and self-efficacy and to promote ex-smoker identity does not appear to prompt quit attempts among smokers. Implications: This trial found that an online documentary film (4Weeks2Freedom) designed to boost motivation and self-efficacy and to

  8. A 4-Week Home-Based Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Program During Radiation Therapy: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M.; Peppone, Luke; Darling, Tom V.; Palesh, Oxana; Heckler, Charles E.; Morrow, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    During radiation therapy, cancer patients may report cancer-related fatigue (CRF), which impairs aerobic capacity, strength, muscle mass, and, ultimately, quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this pilot clinical trial was to examine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a home-based aerobic and progressive resistance exercise intervention for aerobic capacity, strength, muscle mass, CRF, and QOL. Daily steps walked (DSW), daily minutes of resistance exercise (MRE), and number of resistance exercise days (RED) were assessed to evaluate intervention adherence. Breast and prostate cancer patients (n = 38) beginning radiation therapy were randomized to undergo 4 weeks of exercise or no exercise. Participants in the exercise group demonstrated good adherence to the exercise intervention, with significantly more DSW, MRE, and RED at post intervention and 3 month follow-up than controls. Participants in the exercise intervention exhibited significantly higher QOL and significantly lower CRF post intervention and at 3-month follow-up than controls. Results of this pilot study provide positive preliminary evidence that exercise during radiation may be beneficial for cancer patients. PMID:19831159

  9. Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Dunning, Russell; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-12-01

    Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity. This study examined the effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on maximum throwing velocity. Thirty-four youth baseball players (11-15 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (each 75 minutes) weekly for 4 weeks, which comprised a sport specific warm-up, resistance training with elastic tubing, a throwing program, and stretching. Throwing velocity was assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week conditioning program for both control and training groups. The level of significance used was p < 0.05. After the 4-week conditioning program, throwing velocity increased significantly (from 25.1 ± 2.8 to 26.1 ± 2.8 m·s) in the training group but did not significantly increase in the control group (from 24.2 ± 3.6 to 24.0 ± 3.9 m·s). These results demonstrate that the short-term 4-week baseball conditioning program was effective in increasing throwing velocity in youth baseball players. Increased throwing velocity may be helpful for pitchers (less time for hitters to swing) and position players (decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base). PMID:21068687

  10. Changes in the American Interventional Radiology Literature: Comparison over a 10-Year Time Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Charles E. Gupta, Rajan; Blackwell, John

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. To determine the changes that occurred regarding interventional radiologic research in the major American radiology journals between 1992-1993 and 2002-2003. Methods. Articles published in three major American radiology journals (Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, and Radiology) during two distinct 24-month time periods (1992-1993 and 2002-2003) were evaluated. All articles judged to be pertinent to the interventional radiologic community were included. Investigations included in journal subheadings other than 'interventional' or 'vascular radiology' were included if the emphasis of the article was on a vascular imaging modality or peripheral intervention. Exclusions included: case reports, technical reports, letters to the editor, breast interventions, and primary neurointerventions. Data were collected regarding the affiliations of the primary author (nationality, hospital type, department); primary category of interest of the investigation; funding information; and study design variables. Two-by-two chi-squared statistical analyses were performed comparing the variables from the early and late data sets. Results. A total of 405 articles met the inclusion criteria for the early data set (1992-1993); 488 articles met the inclusion criteria for the late data set (2002-2003). Variables that demonstrated a statistically significant decrease from the early data set to the late data set included: articles in which the primary author was from a department of radiology (91.1% vs. 86.3%; p < 0.025); articles written by a primary author who was American (69.4% vs. 44.6%; p < 0.001); and articles with a primary category of investigation that had a nonvascular intervention focus (22.7% vs. 11.9%; p < 0.001). Variables that demonstrated a statistically significant increase from the early data set to the late data set included primary authors from Western Europe (18.0% vs. 30.1%; p < 0.001) and Asia (6.6% vs. 18.4%; p

  11. Behavioral Sleep Medicine Interventions for Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Yurcheshen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) are sleep disorders that are commonly seen in clinical practice. The standard treatment recommendations for these disorders are pharmacologic; most recently both conditions are most typically managed with pramipexole or ropinerole, which are FDA approved for the treatment of RLS. A mix of behavioral suggestions is included in treatment algorithms for providers as well as in patient education materials. While these suggestions have considerable merit, they are typically not delivered as an intervention, but instead provided as a series of helpful tips. There is emerging evidence for providing such suggestions as a more active and comprehensive intervention as part of a cognitive-behavioral package as well as for exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia to be delivered as active treatments for RLS and/or PLMD. PMID:20161553

  12. A 4-Week, Repeated, Intravenous Dose, Toxicity Test of Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwangho; Yu, Junsang; Sun, Seungho; Kwon, Kirok; Lim, Chungsan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP) is a pharmacopuncture made by distilling extract from mountain cultivated ginseng or mountain wild ginseng. This pharmacopuncture is injected intravenously, which is a quick, lossless way of strongly tonifying Qi function. The present study was undertaken to evaluate a 4-week, repeated, intravenous injection, toxicity test of MGP in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Twenty male and female 6-week-old SD rats were used as subjects. We divided the SD rats into 4 groups: the high-dosage (10 mL/kg), medium-dosage (5 mL/kg), low-dosage (2.5 mL/kg) and control (normal saline) groups. MGP or normal saline was injected intravenously into the caudal vein of the rats once daily for 4 weeks. Clinical signs, body weights, and food consumption were monitored during the observation period, and hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight, necropsy, and histological examinations were conducted once the observations had been completed. Results: No mortality was observed in any of the groups during the observation period. No changes due to MGP were observed in the experimental groups regarding clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weight and necropsy. No histological changes due to MGP were observed in any of the male or female rats in the high-dosage group. Conclusion: During this 4-week, repeated, intravenous injection, toxicity test of MGP in SD rats, no toxic changes due to MGP were observed in any of the male or female rats in the high-dosage group. Thus, we suggest that the high and the low doses in a 13-week, repeated test should be 10 mL/kg and 2.5 mL/kg, respectively. PMID:25780717

  13. Auricular point acupressure for chronic pain: a feasibility study of a 4-week treatment protocol.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chien, Lung-Chang; Huang, Li Chun; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 1-group, 4-week observational study aimed to (1) assess the feasibility of recruiting, retention, and completion of a 4-week auricular point acupressure (APA) treatment protocol for chronic pain in adult patients and (2) assess the effects of APA in pain reduction (pain severity and pain interference) among these patients. The participants received a 4-week APA treatment protocol in weekly cycles. Each weekly cycle included 5 days with APA seeds taped onto the ear and 2 days without. Each participant was called every day to monitor adherence to the treatment protocol (the actual times the participant pressed the seeds each day and the duration of applied pressure), to answer analgesic use, and to answer the pain intensity questionnaire. Thirty participants were initially enrolled in this study, but 5 did not continue. The retention rate was 83% (n = 25). Approximately 60% of the participants (n = 15) adhered to the 4-week APA and completed all data assessments. At baseline assessment, only 40% of all participants (n = 12 of 30) were confident that APA would reduce and eliminate pain; nonetheless, all participants reported fewer episodes of pain occurrences and pain intensity with the APA treatment. For the participants who completed the 4-week APA protocol (n = 15), 96% (n = 14) decreased analgesic medication intake and 88% (n = 13) felt "much better" after the APA treatment. Participants reported an average reduction of 63% in the worst pain intensity at day 7. By the end of the 4-week APA protocol, an even greater reduction in pain intensity was reported (66%, n = 10, at day 28). The participants who did not complete the treatment protocol reported an average pain reduction of 29%, which fluctuated to 22% before they dropped out. Auricular point acupressure is feasible for patients with chronic pain. The preliminary findings of this feasibility study show a reduction in pain intensity and improvement in physical function, which demonstrate the potential for

  14. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Nabel, Elisa M.; Morishita, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development – the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity-actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins – endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24273519

  15. A Play and Language Intervention for Two-Year-Old Children: Implications for Improving Play Skills and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Julie; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Ryalls, Brigette; Friehe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention for 2-year-old children to enhance play and language skills. The intervention was implemented over a 4-week period and included components of reading, modeling, and positive reinforcement of language and play. Specifically, children were read a story and played with a matching toy set.…

  16. PERSISTENT EFFECTS OF REPEATED INHALATION OF TOLUENE: 4 WEEKS VS. 13 WEEKS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding and predicting the extent of neurotoxic damage from repeated exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a problem for many EPA programs. Eighty adult, male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks in a systema...

  17. Eco-Challenge: A 4-Week Approach to Eco-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, J. Thayer

    1991-01-01

    Describes Challenge Wilderness Camp (Bradford, Vermont), a 4-week residential program designed to teach boys, ages 9-16, environmental ethics through first-hand experiences. The camp incorporates land and waste management policies and procedures; programs in outdoor skills instruction; and wilderness trips including backpacking, off-trail hiking,…

  18. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  19. Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P < 0.001) in the biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P < 0.01) of the resting HRV measures in the biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth. PMID:25239433

  20. Ovarian Features after 2 Weeks, 3 Weeks and 4 Weeks Transdermal Testosterone Gel Treatment and Their Associated Effect on IVF Outcomes in Poor Responders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of of transdermal testosterone gel (TTG) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and IVF outcomes and ovarian morphology according to pretreatment duration in poor responders. A total of 120 women were recruited for this pilot study. They were randomized into control, 2 weeks, 3 weeks or 4 weeks TTG treatment groups. For three TTG treatment groups, 12.5 mg TTG was applied daily for 2 weeks, 3 weeks or 4 weeks in preceding period of study stimulation cycle. After 3 weeks of TTG pretreatment, significant increase of antral follicle count (AFC) and significant decreases of mean follicular diameter (MFD) and resistance index (RI) value of ovarian stromal artery were observed (p=0.026, p<0.001, p<0.01, respectively). The total dose of rhFSH administered for COS significantly decreased after 3 and 4 weeks TTG treatment both compared with control group (p<0.001, p<0.001). The numbers of oocytes retrieved and mature oocytes were significanty higher in 3 and 4 weeks TTG treatment groups than control group (p<0.001, p<0.001 in the number of oocytes retrieved; p<0.001, p<0.001 in the number of mature oocytes). The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were increased only in 4 weeks TTG treatment group compared with control group (p=0.030 and p=0.042, respectively). These data demonstrated that TTG pretreatment for 3 to 4 weeks increases AFC and ovarian stromal blood flow, thereby potentially improving the ovarian response to COS and IVF outcome in poor responders undergoing IVF/ICSI. PMID:25949183

  1. Ovarian Features after 2 Weeks, 3 Weeks and 4 Weeks Transdermal Testosterone Gel Treatment and Their Associated Effect on IVF Outcomes in Poor Responders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of of transdermal testosterone gel (TTG) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and IVF outcomes and ovarian morphology according to pretreatment duration in poor responders. A total of 120 women were recruited for this pilot study. They were randomized into control, 2 weeks, 3 weeks or 4 weeks TTG treatment groups. For three TTG treatment groups, 12.5 mg TTG was applied daily for 2 weeks, 3 weeks or 4 weeks in preceding period of study stimulation cycle. After 3 weeks of TTG pretreatment, significant increase of antral follicle count (AFC) and significant decreases of mean follicular diameter (MFD) and resistance index (RI) value of ovarian stromal artery were observed (p=0.026, p<0.001, p<0.01, respectively). The total dose of rhFSH administered for COS significantly decreased after 3 and 4 weeks TTG treatment both compared with control group (p<0.001, p<0.001). The numbers of oocytes retrieved and mature oocytes were significanty higher in 3 and 4 weeks TTG treatment groups than control group (p<0.001, p<0.001 in the number of oocytes retrieved; p<0.001, p<0.001 in the number of mature oocytes). The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were increased only in 4 weeks TTG treatment group compared with control group (p=0.030 and p=0.042, respectively). These data demonstrated that TTG pretreatment for 3 to 4 weeks increases AFC and ovarian stromal blood flow, thereby potentially improving the ovarian response to COS and IVF outcome in poor responders undergoing IVF/ICSI. PMID:25949183

  2. Accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods in a school meal intervention study: comparison between control and intervention period.

    PubMed

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Andersen, Rikke; Ygil, Karin Hess; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Stark, Ken D; Tetens, Inge; Thorsen, Anne-Vibeke

    2015-08-28

    Bias in self-reported dietary intake is important when evaluating the effect of dietary interventions, particularly for intervention foods. However, few have investigated this in children, and none have investigated the reporting accuracy of fish intake in children using biomarkers. In a Danish school meal study, 8- to 11-year-old children (n 834) were served the New Nordic Diet (NND) for lunch. The present study examined the accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods (berries, cabbage, root vegetables, legumes, herbs, potatoes, wild plants, mushrooms, nuts and fish) characterising the NND. Children, assisted by parents, self-reported their diet in a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children during the intervention and control (packed lunch) periods. The reported fish intake by children was compared with their ranking according to fasting whole-blood EPA and DHA concentration and weight percentage using the Spearman correlations and cross-classification. Direct observation of school lunch intake (n 193) was used to score the accuracy of food-reporting as matches, intrusions, omissions and faults. The reporting of all lunch foods had higher percentage of matches compared with the reporting of signature foods in both periods, and the accuracy was higher during the control period compared with the intervention period. Both Spearman's rank correlations and linear mixed models demonstrated positive associations between EPA+DHA and reported fish intake. The direct observations showed that both reported and real intake of signature foods did increase during the intervention period. In conclusion, the self-reported data represented a true increase in the intake of signature foods and can be used to examine dietary intervention effects. PMID:26189886

  3. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in the Perinatal Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lever Taylor, Billie; Cavanagh, Kate; Strauss, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal mental health difficulties are associated with adverse consequences for parents and infants. However, the potential risks associated with the use of psychotropic medication for pregnant and breastfeeding women and the preferences expressed by women for non-pharmacological interventions mean it is important to ensure that effective psychological interventions are available. It has been argued that mindfulness-based interventions may offer a novel approach to treating perinatal mental health difficulties, but relatively little is known about their effectiveness with perinatal populations. This paper therefore presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for reducing depression, anxiety and stress and improving mindfulness skills in the perinatal period. A systematic review identified seventeen studies of mindfulness-based interventions in the perinatal period, including both controlled trials (n = 9) and pre-post uncontrolled studies (n = 8). Eight of these studies also included qualitative data. Hedge’s g was used to assess uncontrolled and controlled effect sizes in separate meta-analyses, and a narrative synthesis of qualitative data was produced. Pre- to post-analyses showed significant reductions in depression, anxiety and stress and significant increases in mindfulness skills post intervention, each with small to medium effect sizes. Completion of the mindfulness-based interventions was reasonable with around three quarters of participants meeting study-defined criteria for engagement or completion where this was recorded. Qualitative data suggested that participants viewed mindfulness interventions positively. However, between-group analyses failed to find any significant post-intervention benefits for depression, anxiety or stress of mindfulness-based interventions in comparison to control conditions: effect sizes were negligible and it was conspicuous that intervention group participants

  4. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Interventions in the Perinatal Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lever Taylor, Billie; Cavanagh, Kate; Strauss, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal mental health difficulties are associated with adverse consequences for parents and infants. However, the potential risks associated with the use of psychotropic medication for pregnant and breastfeeding women and the preferences expressed by women for non-pharmacological interventions mean it is important to ensure that effective psychological interventions are available. It has been argued that mindfulness-based interventions may offer a novel approach to treating perinatal mental health difficulties, but relatively little is known about their effectiveness with perinatal populations. This paper therefore presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for reducing depression, anxiety and stress and improving mindfulness skills in the perinatal period. A systematic review identified seventeen studies of mindfulness-based interventions in the perinatal period, including both controlled trials (n = 9) and pre-post uncontrolled studies (n = 8). Eight of these studies also included qualitative data. Hedge's g was used to assess uncontrolled and controlled effect sizes in separate meta-analyses, and a narrative synthesis of qualitative data was produced. Pre- to post-analyses showed significant reductions in depression, anxiety and stress and significant increases in mindfulness skills post intervention, each with small to medium effect sizes. Completion of the mindfulness-based interventions was reasonable with around three quarters of participants meeting study-defined criteria for engagement or completion where this was recorded. Qualitative data suggested that participants viewed mindfulness interventions positively. However, between-group analyses failed to find any significant post-intervention benefits for depression, anxiety or stress of mindfulness-based interventions in comparison to control conditions: effect sizes were negligible and it was conspicuous that intervention group participants did

  5. A papulopustular, vesicular, crusted rash in a 4-week-old neonate.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sathyaseelan; Rutman, Maia S; Wenger, Jodi K

    2013-11-01

    Scabies is commonly seen worldwide, in its usual classic form when afflicting older children and adults. However, neonatal scabies is described as its own entity in the literature. We present a case of a 4-week-old infant with a generalized papulopustular, vesicular, and crusted rash who was diagnosed with scabies. We contrast the differing clinical features of neonatal and classic scabies, describe possible mimickers of this diagnostic dilemma, and review current treatment options available for scabies in this very young age group. PMID:24196092

  6. Nicotine Intake From Electronic Cigarettes on Initial Use and After 4 Weeks of Regular Use

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Peter; Phillips, Anna; Myers Smith, Katie; West, Oliver; McRobbie, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (EC) have the potential to generate a substantial public health benefit if there is a switch from smoking to EC use on a population scale. The nicotine delivery from EC is likely to play a major role in their attractiveness to smokers. We assessed nicotine delivery from a first-generation EC and the effect of experience with its use on nicotine intake. Methods: Six smokers provided pharmacokinetic (PK) data after their first use of EC and again following 4 weeks of use. Results: The peak nicotine levels were achieved within 5min of starting the EC use, which suggests that EC may provide nicotine via pulmonary absorption. There were large individual differences in nicotine intake. Compared with the PK profile when using EC for the first time, 4 weeks of practice generated a 24% increase in the peak plasma concentrations (from 4.6 to 5.7ng/ml; nonsignificant) and a 79% increase in overall nicotine intake (AUC0→inf increased from 115 to 206 ng*min/ml; p < .05). Conclusions: First-generation EC provide faster nicotine absorption than nicotine replacement products, but to compete successfully with conventional cigarettes, EC may need to provide higher doses of nicotine. Nicotine intake from EC can increase with practice, but further studies are needed to confirm this effect. PMID:25122503

  7. The Effectiveness of Interventions to Establish Smoke-Free Homes in Pregnancy and in the Neonatal Period: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Susan; Blank, Lindsay; Everson-Hock, Emma S.; Burrows, Julia; Messina, Josie; GuillaUme, Louise; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This review considers the effectiveness of interventions to encourage the establishment of smoke-free homes during pregnancy and the neonatal period. A comprehensive search of the literature was undertaken to find relevant studies via electronic databases, citations and reference lists of included studies. The searches identified 17 papers that…

  8. Evaluation of a Resilience Intervention to Enhance Coping Strategies and Protective Factors and Decrease Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhardt, Mary; Dolbier, Christyn

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this pilot study, the authors examined the effectiveness of a 4-week resilience intervention to enhance resilience, coping strategies, and protective factors, as well as decrease symptomatology during a period of increased academic stress. Participants and Methods: College students were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 30) and…

  9. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  10. Comparison of efficacy of three different desensitizing agents for in-office relief of dentin hypersensitivity: A 4 weeks clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Amit; Shashirekha, Govind

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of three different pastes containing 5% NovaMin, 8% arginine, and 15% hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HA) respectively in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods: A 4 weeks study was conducted on 45 adult patients with cervical abrasions leading to hypersensitivity of two or more teeth anterior to molars. Patients were divided into three toothpaste groups. Group I: 5% NovaMin, Group II: 8% arginine, Group III: 15% n-HA. Sensitivity was assessed at baseline, immediately after application and after 1-week and 4 weeks. Tactile stimuli response using a visual analog scale and standard cold air blast using Schiff cold air sensitivity scale were used to compare the efficacies of toothpastes after a single application. Statistical Analysis: Two-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey test were used and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Visual analog scale analysis: Group III and Group II showed statistically significant reduction in DH at all-time intervals when compared with Group I. In SCA analysis there is no statistically significant difference between Group II and Group III immediately after application. Conclusion: Toothpaste containing 15% n-HA was found to be most effective in reduction of DH after a single application up to a period of 4 weeks followed by 8% arginine and 5% NovaMin toothpastes. PMID:26430303

  11. Arousal, Attention, and Neurobehavioral Assessment in the Neonatal Period: Implications for Intervention and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Freedland, Robert L.; Lennon, Elizabeth M.; Flory, Michael J.; Miroshnichenko, Inna; Phan, Ha T. T.; Barone, Anthony; Harin, Anantham

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal assessments should provide valid estimates of behavior and neurological status, reflect recovery from acute effects, predict subsequent outcome, and point to specific intervention strategies for any problems noted. The authors report relations among measures designed to evaluate early behavioral capabilities and dysfunctions in areas…

  12. Pathogenicity evaluation of different Newcastle disease virus chimeras in 4-week-old chickens.

    PubMed

    Susta, Leonardo; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; Estevez, Carlos; Yu, Qingzhong; Zhang, Jian; Brown, Corrie C

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the disease-inducing ability of four chimeric Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) by clinicopathological assessment. The infectious clones were previously generated by insertion of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and/or fusion (F) genes from virulent strains (Turkey North Dakota and California 02) into a mesogenic strain (Anhinga) backbone. Groups of 4-week-old chickens were inoculated via eye drop instillation, clinical signs were monitored daily, and necropsies with collection of tissues were performed at 2, 5, 10, and 14 days post infection. Tissue sections were evaluated for histopathology and immunohistochemistry for NDV nucleoprotein. All viruses replicated successfully in the natural host, although viral recovery, seroconversion, and extent of immunohistochemical staining were greatest from birds infected with those viruses containing both F and HN genes from the same virulent virus. There was minimal to no increase in clinicopathologic disease due to infection with the chimeras compared to the recombinant backbone. However, all birds developed histological evidence of encephalitis. The results suggest that the inherent virulence of Turkey North Dakota and California 2002 strains is due to more than the simple presence of their F and HN genes. PMID:20614237

  13. A 2-year-old with 4 weeks of daily fever.

    PubMed

    Darby, John B; Liddell, Lucette; DeGuzman, Marietta; McClain, Kenneth L; Rubenstein, Jared; Chase, Lindsay; Marquez, Lucila

    2015-05-01

    A 2-year-old female presents for evaluation of 4 weeks of daily fevers. When the fevers began, she had mild upper respiratory tract symptoms, which quickly resolved. The fevers persisted, however, with a maximum of 40°C. The child's review of symptoms was significant for a 1-kg weight loss over the past month. Ten months before presentation, she had moved from Saudi Arabia with her family. One week before the onset of symptoms, she had visited a petting zoo. During episodes of fever, the patient was ill-appearing and had an elevated heart rate and respiratory rate. On examination, she was found to be thin, febrile, tachycardic, and with scattered lymphadenopathy. Results of laboratory tests were remarkable for an elevated white blood cell count of 16,100 cells per uL with a neutrophilic predominance. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were elevated at 99 mm/h and 27 mg/dL, respectively. A chest radiograph indicated a small amount of fluid in the interlobar fissures. Our expert panel examines her case, offers a definition of fever of unknown origin, and makes diagnostic considerations. PMID:25917994

  14. A 4-week Repeated Dose Toxicity Study of Glycine in Rats by Gavage Administration

    PubMed Central

    Shibui, Yusuke; Miwa, Tadashi; Yamashita, Mayumi; Chin, Keigi; Kodama, Terutaka

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the toxicity profile of glycine, an authorized food additive, a solution of glycine in water for injection was administered orally (via gavage) to male SD rats (Crl:CD(SD)) once daily for 4 weeks at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a volume of 10 mL/kg. Control animals received vehicle only. No animals died, and no glycine-related changes were observed in body weight, food consumption, water consumption, hematology, organ weight, gross pathological examination or histopathological examination. In urinalysis, daily urinary volume and urinary Cl excretion were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group, and urine pH and urinary protein showed lower trends in the glycine-treated groups. However, these changes were considered to be of little toxicological significance, because there were no histopathological changes in the kidneys or urinary bladder and no changes in other urinary parameters. As regards blood chemistry, phospholipids were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group. However, the increase was small and was not considered to be toxicologically significant. In conclusion, none of the animals in any of the glycine-treated groups showed changes that were considered toxicologically significant. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of glycine was estimated to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day under the conditions of this study. PMID:24526813

  15. A 4-week Repeated Dose Toxicity Study of Glycine in Rats by Gavage Administration.

    PubMed

    Shibui, Yusuke; Miwa, Tadashi; Yamashita, Mayumi; Chin, Keigi; Kodama, Terutaka

    2013-12-01

    In order to examine the toxicity profile of glycine, an authorized food additive, a solution of glycine in water for injection was administered orally (via gavage) to male SD rats (Crl:CD(SD)) once daily for 4 weeks at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a volume of 10 mL/kg. Control animals received vehicle only. No animals died, and no glycine-related changes were observed in body weight, food consumption, water consumption, hematology, organ weight, gross pathological examination or histopathological examination. In urinalysis, daily urinary volume and urinary Cl excretion were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group, and urine pH and urinary protein showed lower trends in the glycine-treated groups. However, these changes were considered to be of little toxicological significance, because there were no histopathological changes in the kidneys or urinary bladder and no changes in other urinary parameters. As regards blood chemistry, phospholipids were significantly higher in the 2000 mg/kg/day dose group. However, the increase was small and was not considered to be toxicologically significant. In conclusion, none of the animals in any of the glycine-treated groups showed changes that were considered toxicologically significant. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of glycine was estimated to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day under the conditions of this study. PMID:24526813

  16. The association between maternal-reported responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and 6 months and offspring depression at 18: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Catherine J; Kessler, David; Fernyhough, Charles; Lewis, Glyn; Pearson, Rebecca M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between maternal response to infant crying and the psychological health of the child in later life. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort, consisting of 15,247 pregnancies, 10,278 with exposure variables and 3201 complete cases were identified as having exposure, covariate and outcome data. Using a postal questionnaire, mothers were asked regarding their infant at 4 weeks and 6 months, 'If they cry what do you do?': (a) pick them up immediately; (b) if they cry, leave them for a while, and if they do not stop, pick them up; or (c) never pick them up until you are ready. Outcome was an International Statistical Classification-10th revision criteria (ICD-10) diagnosis of depression at 18 years for the infant. Offspring of mothers who at 4 weeks reported that they never picked their infants up until they were ready were more likely to have depression at 18 years (OR = 2.06, CI 0.95-4.47, adjusted for sociodemographic confounding variables). There was no evidence for an association at 6 months. Including adjustment variables reduced the strength of our association; an observed objective measure of maternal response rather than a self-report may have more accurately determined the mother's actual responses. There is some evidence for an association between maternal reporting of responses to infant crying at 4 weeks and risk of developing depression at 18 years. If this association is found to be causal, interventions encouraging mothers to represent and respond to their infants' emotional states may help prevent offspring depression. PMID:26837614

  17. The effects of 4 weeks of jump training on landing knee valgus and crossover hop performance in female basketball players.

    PubMed

    Herrington, Lee

    2010-12-01

    Female basketball players would appear particularly prone to knee injuries. These injuries have been associated with the nature of the sport, but more specifically with the particular movement strategies adopted. A valgus or abducted position of the knee on landing has been reported to be associated with a number of different knee injuries. Jump-training programs have been reported to improve both landing knee valgus and functional performance. The majority of the jump-training programs have been of 6 weeks' duration, 3 sessions per week often lasting up to 1 hour. For most sports coaches, team conditioners, and athletes, this duration and program length is not acceptable. The aim of this study was to assess if an abridged jump-training program could have similar effects to those previously reported. Fifteen female basketball players had their knee valgus angles assessed during 2 landing tasks, drop jump landing, and when undertaking a jump shot and along with crossover hop distance before and after a progressive jump-training program. The jump-training program lasted 4 weeks, 3 times per week, each session lasting 15 minutes. After training, crossover hop distance showed an average percentage improvement on distance jumped of 73.6% (p = 0.001); the drop jump knee valgus angle in the left leg on average was reduced by 9.8° (p = 0.002), right leg reduced by 12.3° (p = 0.0001); during the jump shot, the knee valgus angle in the left leg showed a mean reduction of 4.5° (p = 0.035), and the right leg was reduced by 4.3° (p = 0.01). The study undertaken achieved comparable results to those previously reported with an abridged program over considerably shortened session duration and training period. PMID:20664369

  18. Supportive telephone outreach as an interventional strategy for elderly patients in a period of crisis.

    PubMed

    Berkman, P; Heinik, J; Rosenthal, M; Burke, M

    1999-01-01

    During the Gulf War in 1991 a telephone-based support system was established for elderly patients living at home in Israel. The study population involved 93 elderly patients (mean age 74), who had recently been discharged from hospital and were chosen for supervision by the Home-Care Unit of the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Two different teams were involved with the telephone support calls: secretarial staff (nonprofessional team) and social workers (professional team). The research examined the characteristics of the study population and also included a comparison between the two groups of patients receiving the psycho-social support. The latter indicated that better results of outcome indices were achieved by the professional team. Further, this study demonstrated the feasibility of telephone-support outreach as an interventional strategy for psycho-social support for elderly patients at a time of crisis. PMID:10425672

  19. Adaptation to a long term (4 weeks) arginine- and precursor (glutamate, proline and aspartate)-free diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is not known whether arginine homeostasis is negatively affected by a "long-term" dietary restriction of arginine and its major precursors in healthy adults. To assess the effects of a 4-week arginine- and precursor-free dietary intake on the regulatory mechanisms of arginine homeostasis in healt...

  20. Effects of a 4-week static stretch training program on passive stiffness of human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ikezoe, Tome; Takeno, Yohei; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-07-01

    Static stretch is commonly used to prevent contracture and to improve joint mobility. However, it is unclear whether the components of the muscle-tendon unit are affected by a static stretch training program. This study investigated the effect of a four-week static stretch training program on the viscoelastic properties of the muscle-tendon unit and muscle. The subjects comprised 18 male participants (mean age 21.4 ± 1.7 years). The range of motion (ROM), passive torque, myotendinous junction (MTJ) displacement and, muscle fascicle length of the gastrocnemius muscle were assessed using both ultrasonography and a dynamometer while the ankle was passively dorsiflexed. After the initial test, the participants were assigned either to a group that stretched for 4 weeks (N = 9) or to a control group (N = 9). The tests were repeated after the static stretch training program. The ROM and MTJ displacement significantly increased, and the passive torque at 30° significantly decreased, in the stretching group after the study period. However, there was no significant increase in muscle fascicle length. These results suggest that a 4-week static stretch training program changes the flexibility of the overall MTU without causing concomitant changes in muscle fascicle length. PMID:22124523

  1. Variations in urine excretion of steroid hormones after an acute session and after a 4-week programme of strength training.

    PubMed

    Timón Andrada, Rafael; Maynar Mariño, M; Muñoz Marín, D; Olcina Camacho, G J; Caballero, M J; Maynar Mariño, J I

    2007-01-01

    Performing strength exercise, whether acutely or in a training programme, leads to alterations at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes. One way to evaluate these changes is by analysis of the excretion of steroid hormones in the urine. The present study determined the variations in the urine profile of glucuroconjugated steroids after a single session of strength exercise and after a 4-week programme of strength training. The subjects were a group (n = 20) of non-sportsman male university students who worked out 3 days a week [Monday (M), Wednesday (W) and Friday (F)], performing the exercises at 70-75% of one repetition maximum strength (1-RM). Four urine samples were collected per subject: (A) before and (B) after a standard session prior to initiating the training programme, and (C) before and (D) after the same standard session at the end of the study, and they were assayed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the different hormones were determined relatively to the urine creatinine level (ng steroid/mg creatinine) to correct for diuresis. After the exercise sessions, both before and after the training programme, there was a fall in the urine excretion of androgens and estrogens, but no statistically significant changes in the excretion of tetrahydrocortisol (THF) and tetrahydrocortisone (THE). The anabolic/catabolic hormones ratio also decreased after the acute session, although only androstenodione + dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)/THE + THF ratio had a significant decrease (P < 0.05). After the training programme, there was a significant (P < 0.01) improvement in the strength of the muscle groups studied, and an increased urinary excretion of all the androgens with respect to the initial state of repose, with the difference being significant in the case of epitestosterone (Epit) (P < 0.05). The androsterone (A) + etiocholanolone (E)/THE + THF ratio increased significantly (P < 0

  2. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    PubMed

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks. PMID:11913306

  3. Tipepidine in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 4-week, open-label, preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Tachibana, Masumi; Kurata, Tsutomu; Okawada, Keiko; Ishikawa, Maki; Kimura, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Hideki; Ishikawa, Masatomo; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Shiina, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Shiraishi, Tetsuya; Iyo, Masaomi

    2014-01-01

    Background Tipepidine (3-[di-2-thienylmethylene]-1-methylpiperidine) has been used solely as a nonnarcotic antitussive in Japan since 1959. The safety of tipepidine in children and adults has already been established. It is reported that tipepidine inhibits G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK)-channel currents. The inhibition of GIRK channels by tipepidine is expected to modulate the level of monoamines in the brain. We put forward the hypothesis that tipepidine can improve attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms by modulating monoaminergic neurotransmission through the inhibition of GIRK channels. The purpose of this open-label trial was to confirm whether treatment with tipepidine can improve symptoms in pediatric patients with ADHD. Subjects and methods This was a 4-week, open-label, proof-of-efficacy pilot study for pediatric subjects with ADHD. Ten pediatric ADHD subjects (70% male; mean age, 9.9 years; combined [inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive] subtype, n=7; inattentive subtype, n=3; hyperimpulsive subtype, n=0) received tipepidine hibenzate taken orally at 30 mg/day for 4 weeks. All subjects were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS), Japanese version, and the Das–Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN-CAS), Japanese version. Results A comparison of baseline scores and 4-week end-point scores showed that all the ADHD-RS scores (total scores, hyperimpulsive subscores, and inattentive subscores) improved significantly (P<0.001). Furthermore, a comparison of baseline DN-CAS total scores and 4-week end-point scores showed a mild trend of improvement (P=0.093). Tipepidine was well tolerated, with no patients discontinuing medication because of side effects. Conclusion Our pilot study suggests that tipepidine therapy may prove to be an effective alternative treatment for pediatric patients with ADHD. Nonetheless, more detailed randomized, double-blind trials are needed to confirm tipepidine’s efficacy

  4. 6-weekly bevacizumab versus 4-weekly ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a 2-year outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chiam, Patrick J; Ho, Vivian W; Hickley, Nicholas M; Kotamarthi, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare visual acuity and central macular thickness (CMT) changes in neovascular age related macular degeneration patients treated with either 6 weekly bevacizumab regimen or 4 weekly ranibizumab on an as required basis. METHODS Patients made an informed choice between bevacizumab 1.25 mg or ranibizumab 0.5 mg. The selected treatment was administered in the first 3 visits. Bevacizumab patients were followed-up 6 weekly and ranibizumab 4 weekly. Retreatment criteria was based on the reduction of >5 letters in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the presence of retinal fluid on optical coherence tomography (OCT) or new retinal haemorrhage. RESULTS Visual acuity at 2y bevacizumab patients gained 7.0 letters and ranibizumab 9.2 (P=0.31, 95% CI -6.4 to 2.0). At 2y 86% of bevacizumab and 94% ranibizumab patients had not lost 15 letters or more (P=0.13). Mean CMT decreased at 2y bevacizumab by 146 µm, ranibizumab 160 µm (P=0.72). Mean number of injections was at 2y bevacizumzb 11.9, ranibizumab 10.3 (P=0.023). CONCLUSION Bevacizumab 6 weekly on an as required basis was not demonstrably non-inferior to ranibizumab 4 weekly pro re nata (prn) in terms of BCVA and change in CMT. In the bevacizumab group, one more injection was required in the second year compared to the ranibizumab group. PMID:27162727

  5. Racial and ethnic disparities in perinatal mortality: applying the perinatal periods of risk model to identify areas for intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Besculides, Melanie; Laraque, Fabienne

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the feto-infant mortality rate for New York City, assess racial/ethnic variations and identify areas for intervention using the Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) approach. METHODS: The PPOR model examines fetal and infant deaths by age at death (fetal, neonatal, postneonatal) and birthweight (500-1499, > or =1500 g). It groups age at death and birthweight into four categories to identify problems hypothesized to lead to the death: factors related to Maternal Health and Prematurity, Maternal Care, Newborn Care and Infant Health. The model was applied to fetal and infant deaths occurring in New York City using Vital Records data from 1996-2000. Analysis was completed for the entire city and by race/ethnicity (white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, Hispanic, Asians/Pacific Islander). RESULTS: The overall feto-infant mortality rate was 11.5/1,000 live births plus fetal deaths. This rate varied by race/ethnicity; black non-Hispanics had a higher rate than other racial/ethnic groups. Conditions related to maternal health and prematurity were the largest contributing factors to feto-infant mortality (5.9/1000) in New York City. Among blacks and Hispanics, problems related to maternal health and prematurity contributed a larger share than among whites and Asians/Pacific Islanders. CONCLUSION: The use of the PPOR approach shows that the racial/ethnic disparities in feto-infant mortality that exist in New York City are largely related to maternal health and prematurity. Interventions to reduce the feto-infant mortality rate should include preconception care and improvements in women's health. PMID:16173328

  6. Effects of a 4-Week Multimodal Rehabilitation Program on Quality of Life, Cardiopulmonary Function, and Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Do, Junghwa; Cho, Youngki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the effects of a rehabilitation program on quality of life (QoL), cardiopulmonary function, and fatigue in breast cancer patients. The program included aerobic exercises as well as stretching and strengthening exercises. Methods Breast cancer patients (n=62) who had completed chemotherapy were randomly assigned to an early exercise group (EEG; n=32) or a delayed exercise group (DEG; n=30). The EEG underwent 4 weeks of a multimodal rehabilitation program for 80 min/day, 5 times/wk for 4 weeks. The DEG completed the same program during the next 4 weeks. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), EORTC Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-BR23), predicted maximal volume of oxygen consumption (VO2max), and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were used for assessment at baseline, and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Results After 8 weeks, statistically significant differences were apparent in global health, physical, role, and emotional functions, and cancer-related symptoms such as fatigue and pain, nausea, and dyspnea on the EORTC QLQ-C30; cancer-related symptoms involving the arm and breast on the EORTC QLQ-BR23; the predicted VO2max; muscular strength; and FSS (p<0.050), according to time, between the two groups. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that a supervised multimodal rehabilitation program may improve the physical symptoms, QoL, and fatigue in patients with breast cancer. PMID:25834616

  7. Neuromuscular Adaptations After 2 and 4 Weeks of 80% Versus 30% 1 Repetition Maximum Resistance Training to Failure.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Buckner, Samuel L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Hill, Ethan C; Smith, Cory M; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Cramer, Joel T

    2016-08-01

    Jenkins, NDM, Housh, TJ, Buckner, SL, Bergstrom, HC, Cochrane, KC, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Schmidt, RJ, Johnson, GO, and Cramer, JT. Neuromuscular adaptations after 2 and 4 weeks of 80% versus 30% 1 repetition maximum resistance training to failure. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2174-2185, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypertrophic, strength, and neuromuscular adaptations to 2 and 4 weeks of resistance training at 80 vs. 30% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in untrained men. Fifteen untrained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.7 ± 2.4 years; weight = 84.7 ± 23.5 kg) were randomly assigned to either a high-load (n = 7) or low-load (n = 8) resistance training group and completed forearm flexion resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Forearm flexor muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity, maximal voluntary isometric (MVIC) and 1RM strength, and the electromyographic, mechanomyographic (MMG), and percent voluntary activation (%VA) responses at 10-100% of MVIC were determined at baseline, 2, and 4 weeks of training. The MT increased from baseline (2.9 ± 0.1 cm) to week 2 (3.0 ± 0.1 cm) and to week 4 (3.1 ± 0.1 cm) for the 80 and 30% 1RM groups. MVIC increased from week 2 (121.5 ± 19.1 Nm) to week 4 (138.6 ± 22.1 Nm) and 1RM increased from baseline (16.7 ± 1.6 kg) to weeks 2 and 4 (19.2 ± 1.9 and 20.5 ± 1.8 kg) in the 80% 1RM group only. The MMG amplitude at 80 and 90% MVIC decreased from baseline to week 4, and %VA increased at 20 and 30% MVIC for both groups. Resistance training to failure at 80 vs. 30% 1RM elicited similar muscle hypertrophy, but only 80% 1RM increased muscle strength. However, these disparate strength adaptations were difficult to explain with neuromuscular adaptations because they were subtle and similar for the 80 and 30% 1RM groups. PMID:26848545

  8. Effect of 4 weeks of basic military training on peripheral blood leucocytes and urinary excretion of catecholamines and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Makras, Polyzois; Koukoulis, George N; Bourikas, George; Papatheodorou, George; Bedevis, Konstantinos; Menounos, Panagiotis; Pappas, Dimitrios; Kartalis, George

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the effects of a 4 week basic military physical training programme for male recruits of the Hellenic Air Force on the number and distribution of circulating immune cells and adrenergic and adrenocortical hormonal responses. One group of recruits (exercised, n = 48) participated in moderate intermittent physical exercise, whereas a second group (non-exercised controls, n = 9) performed only light work in the barracks. Both groups participated in the same non-physical, classroom-type training and testing. Military training by the exercised group resulted in significant increases in CD4+ T-lymphocytes, renal cortisol excretion and the urinary noradrenaline/adrenaline ratio, together with reductions in neutrophils and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. In the exercised group, the urinary noradrenaline/adrenaline ratio correlated positively with the training-induced changes in CD4+ T-lymphocytes and negatively with changes in the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. No significant relationship was found between training-induced increases in cortisol excretion and any of the peripheral blood cell alterations. Our results indicate that 4 weeks of military training consisting of intermittent moderate exercise resulted in a significant increase in CD4+ T-lymphocytes and reduction in neutrophils. These changes were probably driven by alterations in hormonal status, including the significant impact of sympathetic nervous system activation. PMID:16195034

  9. Antidepressant Efficacy of Adjunctive Aerobic Activity and Associated Biomarkers in Major Depression: A 4-Week, Randomized, Single-Blind, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, Cristiana Carvalho; Valiengo, Leandro L.; Carvalho, André F.; Santos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Missio, Giovani; de Sousa, Rafael T.; Di Natale, Georgia; Gattaz, Wagner F.; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent, heterogeneous and systemic medical condition. Treatment options are limited, and recent studies have suggested that physical exercise can play an important role in the therapeutics of MDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant efficacy of adjunctive aerobic activity in association with pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) in symptomatic MDD as well as its association with physiological biomarkers. Methods In this randomized, single-blind, add-on, controlled clinical trial, 57 patients (18–55 years of age) were followed-up for 28 days. All patients were drug-free, had been diagnosed with symptomatic MDD and received flexible dose of sertraline during the trial. Patients were randomized to either a 4-week program (4x/week) of add-on aerobic exercise (exercise group, N = 29) or no activity (control group, N = 28). Depression severity was assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) as the primary outcome. At baseline and endpoint, all patients underwent a comprehensive metabolic/cardiopulmonary exercise testing—including determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), VO2 at the second ventilatory threshold (VO2-VT2), and oxygen pulse (O2 pulse). Results Depression scores significantly decreased in both groups after intervention. Importantly, patients in the aerobic exercise group required lower sertraline dose compared to the control group (sertraline monotherapy). The VO2max and O2 pulse parameters increased over time only in the exercise group and remained unchanged in the control group. Conclusions The present findings suggest that a 4-week training of aerobic exercise significantly improves functional capacity in patients with MDD and may be associated with antidepressant efficacy. This approach may also decrease the need for higher doses of antidepressants to achieve response. Further studies in unmedicated and treatment-resistant MDD

  10. Influence of 4 weeks of bovine colostrum supplementation on neutrophil and mucosal immune responses to prolonged cycling.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Thatcher, R; March, D S; Davison, G

    2015-12-01

    Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction. The aims of this study were to identify the effects of 4 weeks of COL supplementation on neutrophil responses and mucosal immunity following prolonged exercise. In a randomized double-blind, parallel group design, participants [age 28 ± 8 years; body mass 79 ± 7 kg; height 182 ± 6 cm; maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) 55 ± 9 mL/kg/min] were assigned to 20 g per day of COL (n = 10) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA; n = 10) for 4 weeks. Venous blood and unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before and after 2.5 h of cycling at 15% Δ (∼55-60% V̇O2max). A significantly greater formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanine-stimulated oxidative burst was observed in the COL group compared with PLA group (P < 0.05) and a trend toward a time × group interaction (P = 0.06). However, there was no effect of COL on leukocyte trafficking, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated oxidative burst, bacterial-stimulated neutrophil degranulation, salivary secretory IgA, lactoferrin or lysozyme (P > 0.05). These findings provide further evidence of the beneficial effects of COL on receptor-mediated stimulation of neutrophil oxidative burst in a model of exercise-induced immune dysfunction. PMID:25727914

  11. The Perinatal Period: Early Intervention for Mental Health. Clinical Approaches to Early Intervention in Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalenko, Nick; Barnett, Bryanne; Fowler, Cathrine; Matthey, Stephen

    The perinatal period offers a unique opportunity for enhancing the mental health of women and their families. Women come into frequent contact with health professionals during this time and the enhancement of their emotional well being can promote their own, their infant's, and their partner's health. The aim of this book is to assist health…

  12. Time-dependency of mice lung recovery after a 4-week exposure to traffic or biomass air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Oliveira, Vinícius Rosa; Barcellos, Bárbara Chaves; Moreira, Dayse Kelly Molina; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araújo

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependency of lung recovery after 3 intranasal instillations per week during four weeks of distilled water (C groups) or particles (15μg) from traffic (U groups) or biomass burning (B groups) was observed in BALB/c mice. Lung mechanics [static elastance (Est), viscoelastic component of elastance (ΔE), lung resistive (ΔP1) and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous (ΔP2) pressures] and histology were analyzed 1 (C1, U1, B1), 2 (C2, U2, B2), 7 (C7, U7, B7) or 14 days (C14, U14, B14) after the last instillation. Est, ΔE, ΔP1 and ΔP2 were higher in U1 and B1 than in C1, returning to control values at day 2, except for ΔP1 that normalized after 7 days. Alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction index and alveolar lesion were larger in U1 and B1 than in C1, however collapse returned to baseline at 7 days, while the others normalized in 2 days. A 4-week exposure to U and B induced lung impairment that resolved 7 days after the last exposure. PMID:27179431

  13. Enterococcus faecium Mediastinitis Complicated by Disseminated Candida parapsilosis Infection after Congenital Heart Surgery in a 4-Week-Old Baby.

    PubMed

    Renk, Hanna; Neunhoeffer, Felix; Hölzl, Florian; Hofbeck, Michael; Kumpf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiac surgery offers multiple treatment options for children with congenital heart defects. However, infectious complications still remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Mediastinitis is a detrimental complication in children undergoing cardiac surgery. The risk of mediastinitis after delayed sternal closure is up to 10%. Case Presentation. We report a case of Enterococcus faecium mediastinitis in a 4-week-old female baby on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after Norwood procedure. Although repeated antibiotic irrigation, debridement, and aggressive antibiotic treatment were started early, the pulmonary situation deteriorated. Candida parapsilosis was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage after pulmonary hemorrhage. Disseminated C. parapsilosis infection with pulmonary involvement was treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Subsequently, inflammatory markers increased again and eventually C. parapsilosis was isolated from the central venous catheter. Conclusion. Children undergoing delayed sternal closure have a higher risk of mediastinitis. Therefore, antibiotic prophylaxis, for example, for soft tissue infection seems justified. However, long-term antibiotic treatment is a risk factor for fungal superinfection. Antifungal treatment of disseminated C. parapsilosis infection may fail in PICU patients with nonbiological material in place due to capacity of this species to form biofilms on medical devices. Immediate removal of central venous catheters and other nonbiological material is life-saving in these patients. PMID:26605096

  14. Enterococcus faecium Mediastinitis Complicated by Disseminated Candida parapsilosis Infection after Congenital Heart Surgery in a 4-Week-Old Baby

    PubMed Central

    Renk, Hanna; Neunhoeffer, Felix; Hölzl, Florian; Hofbeck, Michael; Kumpf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiac surgery offers multiple treatment options for children with congenital heart defects. However, infectious complications still remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Mediastinitis is a detrimental complication in children undergoing cardiac surgery. The risk of mediastinitis after delayed sternal closure is up to 10%. Case Presentation. We report a case of Enterococcus faecium mediastinitis in a 4-week-old female baby on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after Norwood procedure. Although repeated antibiotic irrigation, debridement, and aggressive antibiotic treatment were started early, the pulmonary situation deteriorated. Candida parapsilosis was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage after pulmonary hemorrhage. Disseminated C. parapsilosis infection with pulmonary involvement was treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Subsequently, inflammatory markers increased again and eventually C. parapsilosis was isolated from the central venous catheter. Conclusion. Children undergoing delayed sternal closure have a higher risk of mediastinitis. Therefore, antibiotic prophylaxis, for example, for soft tissue infection seems justified. However, long-term antibiotic treatment is a risk factor for fungal superinfection. Antifungal treatment of disseminated C. parapsilosis infection may fail in PICU patients with nonbiological material in place due to capacity of this species to form biofilms on medical devices. Immediate removal of central venous catheters and other nonbiological material is life-saving in these patients. PMID:26605096

  15. Comparative analysis of the effects of two chest physical therapy interventions in patients with bronchiolitis during hospitalization period

    PubMed Central

    Remondini, Renata; dos Santos, Adriana Zamprônio; de Castro, Giselle; do Prado, Cristiane; da Silva, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the effects of two chest physiotherapy interventions in patients hospitalized due to acute bronchiolitis. Methods Prospective randomized study with a sample of 83 calls for 29 patients aged between 3 months and 1 year hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis. Patients were distributed randomly into two groups: Group 1, submitted to postural drainage, tapping and tracheal aspiration; and Group 2, submitted to postural drainage, expiratory acceleration flow and tracheal aspiration. Assessments were made before and 10 and 60 minutes after the end of therapy. Patients also underwent drug treatment. The endpoint was to compare two physical therapy interventions as to clinical improvement in infants with acute bronchiolitis by means of oxygen saturation and the Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score. The parents/guardians was requested to answer a questionnaire about the treatment applied before the last evaluation in order to measure their satisfaction related to the interventions made. Results The groups were similar regarding the use of antibiotics and bronchodilators. A greater number of patients used corticosteroids in Group 2. A relevant improvement was observed on Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score with physical therapy, with reduction of the score 10 minutes after interventions, and the same score 60 minutes later, with no differences between techniques applied. There was no significant variation of pulse oximetry after chest physiotherapy. Most items assessed by the questionnaire had satisfactory answers. Conclusion No differences were observed between groups regarding the items assessed (time required to discharge from study, pulse oximetry in room air and disease severity according to the Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score). Parents answered positively about the effects of therapy in the majority of items in the questionnaire, both for the expiratory acceleration flow technique and for tapping

  16. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Raltegravir Pediatric Formulations in HIV-infected Children 4 weeks to 18 years of age†

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Matthew L.; Du, Lihong; Bennetto-Hood, Chantelle; Wenning, Larissa; Teppler, Hedy; Homony, Brenda; Graham, Bobbie; Fry, Carrie; Nachman, Sharon; Wiznia, Andrew; Worrell, Carol; Smith, Betsy; Acosta, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    P1066 is an open-label study of raltegravir in HIV+ youth, ages 4 weeks-18 years. Here we summarize P1066 pharmacokinetic (PK) data and a population PK model for the pediatric chewable tablet and oral granules. Raltegravir PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. A two-compartment model was developed using data from P1066 and an adult study of the pediatric formulations. Inter-individual variability was described by an exponential error model, and residual variability was captured by an additive/proportional error model. Twelve-hour concentrations (C12hr) were calculated from the model-derived elimination rate constant and 8-hour observed concentration. Simulated steady-state concentrations were analyzed by non-compartmental analysis. Target area-under-the-curve (AUC0-12hr) and C12hr were achieved in each cohort. For the pediatric formulations, geometric mean AUC0-12hr values were 18.0–22.6 μM*hr across cohorts, and C12hr values were 71–130 nM, with lower coefficients of variation vs the film-coated tablet. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described raltegravir plasma PK in pediatric and adult patients. Weight was a covariate on clearance and central volume, and incorporated using allometric scaling. Raltegravir chewable tablets and oral granules exhibited PK parameters consistent with those from prior adult studies and older children in P1066, as well as lower variability than the film-coated tablet. PMID:25753401

  17. Pulmonary functional and morphological changes induced by a 4-week exposure to 0. 7 ppm ozone followed by a 9-week recovery period

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, K.B.; White, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to pulmonary-function testing procedures, then exposed to 0.7 ppm ozone for 28 d, 20 h/d. Another group of animals was similarly treated, but at each test point one-third were sacrificed for microscopic evaluation. When percent changes from preexposure values were compared to controls at each time point, the ozone exposure produced obstructive changes in the lung, including significant decreases in forced expiratory flows, lung volumes, and DL/sub CO/; and a significant increase in functional residual capacity. The total lung capacity was not significantly changed by the ozone. Microscopic examination revealed characteristic lesions in the region of terminal bronchioles and central acinar alveoli marked by peribronchiolar edema, bronchiolization of alveolar duct epithelium, and type II cell proliferation in involved alveoli with increased numbers of macrophages and a few leucocytes. Clearly discernable was a focal interalveolar-alveolar duct reaction made up of fibroblasts, a few inflammatory cells, and conspicuous mast cells, all embedded in a loose metachromatic matrix. After 4 wk of recovery, all measurements of lung volume and DL/sub CO/ had returned to the values of the control group; however, even after 9 wk some of the measurements of lung flow remained significantly although less depressed. Histologically, after 4 wk recovery, there remained only a slight unevenly distributed inflammatory reaction. In these foci there was often a residual, narrower, more condensed band of eosinophilic material, presumably colagen, that sometimes contained interspersed mast cells. After 9 wk, this collagen accumulation within the thickened wall of the alveolar duct could occasionally still be noted.

  18. [Non pharmacological treatment for Alzheimer's disease: comparison between musical and non-musical interventions].

    PubMed

    Narme, Pauline; Tonini, Audrey; Khatir, Fatiha; Schiaratura, Loris; Clément, Sylvain; Samson, Séverine

    2012-06-01

    On account of the limited effectiveness of pharmacological treatments in Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a growing interest on nonpharmacological treatments, including musical intervention. Despite the large number of studies showing the multiple benefits of music on behavioral, emotional and cognitive disorders of patients with AD, only a few of them used a rigorous method. Finally, the specificity of musical as compared to non-musical and pleasant interventions has rarely been addressed. To investigate this issue, two randomized controlled trials were conducted contrasting the effects of musical to painting (Study 1) or cooking (Study 2) interventions on emotional state of 33 patients with AD. The patients' emotional state was assessed by analyzing professional caregivers' judgments of the patient's mood, then facial expressions and valence of the discourse from short-filmed interviews. In the first study (n=22), each intervention lasted 3 weeks (two sessions per week) and the patients' emotional state was assessed before, during and after intervention periods. After the interventions, the results showed that facial expression, discourse content and mood assessment improved (more positive than negative expressions) as compared to pre-intervention assessment. However, musical intervention was more effective and had longer effects as compared with painting. In the second study (n=11), we further examined long lasting effects of music as compared to cooking by adding evaluation of the patients' emotional state 2 and 4 weeks after the last intervention. Again, music was more effective to improve the emotional state. Music had positive effects that remained significant up to 4 weeks after the intervention, while cooking only produced short-term effect on mood. In both studies, benefits were significant in more than 80% of patients. Taken together, these findings show that music intervention has specific effects on patients' emotional well being, offering promising

  19. Staff Radiation Doses to the Lower Extremities in Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Shortt, C. P.; Al-Hashimi, H.; Malone, L.; Lee, M. J.

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the radiation doses to the lower extremities in interventional radiology suites and evaluate the benefit of installation of protective lead shielding. After an alarmingly increased dose to the lower extremity in a preliminary study, nine interventional radiologists wore thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) just above the ankle, over a 4-week period. Two different interventional suites were used with Siemens undercouch fluoroscopy systems. A range of procedures was carried out including angiography, embolization, venous access, drainages, and biopsies. A second identical 4-week study was then performed after the installation of a 0.25-mm lead curtain on the working side of each interventional table. Equivalent doses for all nine radiologists were calculated. One radiologist exceeded the monthly dose limit for a Category B worker (12.5 mSv) for both lower extremities before lead shield placement but not afterward. The averages of both lower extremities showed a statistically significant dose reduction of 64% (p < 0.004) after shield placement. The left lower extremity received a higher dose than the right, 6.49 vs. 4.57 mSv, an increase by a factor of 1.42. Interventional radiology is here to stay but the benefits of interventional radiology should never distract us from the important issue of radiation protection. All possible measures should be taken to optimize working conditions for staff. This study showed a significant lower limb extremity dose reduction with the use of a protective lead curtain. This curtain should be used routinely on all C-arm interventional radiologic equipment.

  20. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and total wellness changes among sedentary adults: a 4-week randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The construct of total wellness includes a holistic approach to the body, mind and spirit components of life. While the health benefits of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity are well documented, little is known about the influence on total wellness of an internet-based physical activity monitor designed to help people to achieve higher physical activity levels. Purpose The purpose of this four-week, personal activity monitor-based intervention program was to reduce sedentary behavior and increase physical activity levels in daily living for sedentary adults and to determine if these changes would also be associated with improvement in total wellness. Methods Twenty-two men and 11 women (27 years ± 4.0) were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 18) or control group (n = 15). The intervention group interacted with an online personal activity monitor (Gruve Solution™) designed to reduce sedentary time and increase physical activity during activities of daily living. The control group did not interact with the monitor, as they were asked to follow their normal daily physical activities and sedentary behavior routines. The Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (WEL) inventory was used to assess total wellness. Sedentary time, light, walking, moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities were assessed for both intervention and control groups at baseline and at week-4 by the 7-day Sedentary and Light Intensity Physical Activity Log (7-day SLIPA Log) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results Significant increases in pre-post total wellness scores (from 64% ± 5.7 to 75% ± 8.5) (t (17) = -6.5, p < 0.001) were observed in the intervention group by the end of week four. Intervention participants decreased their sedentary time (21%, 2.3 hours/day) and increased their light (36.7%, 2.5 hours/day), walking (65%, 1057 MET-min/week), moderate (67%, 455 MET-min/week) and

  1. The use of group dynamics strategies to enhance cohesion in a lifestyle intervention program for obese children

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Luc J; Burke, Shauna M; Shapiro, Sheree; Carron, Albert V; Irwin, Jennifer D; Petrella, Robert; Prapavessis, Harry; Shoemaker, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Background Most research pertaining to childhood obesity has assessed the effectiveness of preventative interventions, while relatively little has been done to advance knowledge in the treatment of obesity. Thus, a 4-week family- and group-based intervention utilizing group dynamics strategies designed to increase cohesion was implemented to influence the lifestyles and physical activity levels of obese children. Methods/Design This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of the intervention for obese children and their families. Objectives of the intervention included the modification of health behaviors and cohesion levels through the use of group dynamics strategies. To date, a total of 15 children (7 boys and 8 girls, mean age = 10.5) and their families have completed the intervention (during the month of August 2008). Physiological and psychological outcomes were assessed throughout the 4-week intervention and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up periods. Discussion It is believed that the information provided will help researchers and health professionals develop similar obesity treatment interventions through the use of evidence-based group dynamics strategies. There is also a need for continued research in this area, and it is our hope that the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.) will provide a strong base from which others may build. PMID:19646259

  2. Bone mineral density in children treated with daily or periodical inhaled budesonide: the Helsinki Early Intervention Childhood Asthma study.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Markku; Pelkonen, Anna S; Nikander, Kurt; Sorva, Ritva; Selroos, Olof; Juntunen-Backman, Kaisu; Haahtela, Tari

    2010-08-01

    In a double-blind, randomized study, 136 children, 5-10-y-old, with newly detected persistent asthma received budesonide (BUD) 400 microg twice daily for 1 mo and thereafter 200 microg twice daily for 5 mo. Thereafter, 50 children were treated with BUD 100 microg twice daily, whereas 44 children used BUD as needed for 1 y; an additional 42 children received disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Asthma exacerbations were treated with BUD for 2 wk in a dose of 400 microg twice daily in all groups. In this secondary analysis, bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebrae was measured before and after the 18-mo treatment. Compared with DSCG, regular BUD treatment resulted in a significantly smaller increase in BMD (0.023 versus 0.034 g/cm; p = 0.023) and height (7.75 versus 8.80 cm; p = 0.001). Periodic treatment did not affect BMD. No intergroup differences were observed when BMD data were adjusted for changes in height. Daily BUD treatment in prepubertal children may slow down the increment in BMD and standing height. This was not observed in children receiving BUD periodically after the initial regular BUD treatment. The correlation between height and BMD suggests that following children's height might afford an estimation of inhaled corticosteroid effects on bone. PMID:20485203

  3. Effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness and self-assessment of the quality of health of women of the perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health. Material and methods Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions. Results A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001). Conclusions A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health. PMID:26327897

  4. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Oki, Tomoyuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Goto, Kazuhisa; Boelsma, Esther; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu; Suda, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18-70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2), elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure. PMID:27508114

  5. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    OKI, Tomoyuki; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; WATANABE, Osamu; GOTO, Kazuhisa; BOELSMA, Esther; ISHIKAWA, Fumiyasu; SUDA, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18–70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m2, elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure. PMID:27508114

  6. Tailored lighting intervention improves measures of sleep, depression, and agitation in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia living in long-term care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Plitnick, Barbara A; Lok, Anna; Jones, Geoffrey E; Higgins, Patricia; Hornick, Thomas R; Rea, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Background Light therapy has shown great promise as a nonpharmacological method to improve symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD), with preliminary studies demonstrating that appropriately timed light exposure can improve nighttime sleep efficiency, reduce nocturnal wandering, and alleviate evening agitation. Since the human circadian system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light, lower, more targeted lighting interventions for therapeutic purposes, can be used. Methods The present study investigated the effectiveness of a tailored lighting intervention for individuals with ADRD living in nursing homes. Low-level “bluish-white” lighting designed to deliver high circadian stimulation during the daytime was installed in 14 nursing home resident rooms for a period of 4 weeks. Light–dark and rest–activity patterns were collected using a Daysimeter. Sleep time and sleep efficiency measures were obtained using the rest–activity data. Measures of sleep quality, depression, and agitation were collected using standardized questionnaires, at baseline, at the end of the 4-week lighting intervention, and 4 weeks after the lighting intervention was removed. Results The lighting intervention significantly (P<0.05) decreased global sleep scores from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and increased total sleep time and sleep efficiency. The lighting intervention also increased phasor magnitude, a measure of the 24-hour resonance between light–dark and rest–activity patterns, suggesting an increase in circadian entrainment. The lighting intervention significantly (P<0.05) reduced depression scores from the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and agitation scores from the Cohen–Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Conclusion A lighting intervention, tailored to increase daytime circadian stimulation, can be used to increase sleep quality and improve behavior in patients with ADRD. The present field study, while

  7. Evaluation of interventions to improve solar protection in primary schools.

    PubMed

    Girgis, A; Sanson-Fisher, R W; Tripodi, D A; Golding, T

    1993-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods in the etiology of subsequent melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancers. The aims of the study were (a) to develop a valid measure of solar protection in 9 to 11-year-old school students, (b) to evaluate the differential effectiveness of two interventions aimed at changing solar protection in this age group, and (c) to identify the predictors of use of a high level of solar protection. A Solar Protection Behavior Diary was developed and validated during a pilot, after which 11 schools were randomly allocated to one of three groups: intensive intervention (247 students), standard intervention (180 students), or control (185 students), with students in years 5 and 6 participating in the study. Students completed the validated diary (for 5 days) and a knowledge and attitudes questionnaire at pretest and at two posttest periods (4 weeks and 8 months after pretest). Results indicated that students in the intensive intervention group were significantly more likely to have used a high level of protection at both posttest periods compared to the control and standard intervention groups. There was no difference in the protection level of the control and standard intervention groups at either posttest, indicating that this minimal intervention was not effective in changing the solar protection behavior of the students. Students with a high level of solar protection at pretest were also significantly more likely to have a high level of protection at both posttest periods, and those with a greater number of opportunities to protect were less likely to protect at the second posttest. PMID:8491638

  8. Functional Improvement After 4-Week Rehabilitation Therapy and Effects of Attention Deficit in Brain Tumor Patients: Comparison With Subacute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Kim, Ha Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To confirm functional improvement in brain tumor patients after 4-week conventional rehabilitation therapy, to compare the cognitive impairment of brain tumor patients with subacute stroke patients using computerized neuropsychological testing, and to determine the effects on functional outcomes of daily activity. Methods From April 2008 to December 2012, 55 patients (29 brain tumor patients and 26 subacute stroke patients) were enrolled. All patients were assessed with a computerized neuropsychological test at baseline. Motricity Index, Korean version of Mini Mental Status Examination, and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index scores were assessed at the beginning and end of 4-week rehabilitation. Conventional rehabilitation therapy was applied to both groups for 4 weeks. Results Functional outcomes of all patients in both groups significantly improved after 4-week rehabilitation therapy. In brain tumor patients, the initial Motricity Index, cognitive dysfunction, and visual continuous performance test correction numbers were strong predictors of initial daily activity function (R2=0.778, p<0.01). The final Motricity Index and word-black test were strong predictors of final daily activity function (R2=0.630, p<0.01). In patients with subacute stroke, the initial Motricity index was an independent predictor of initial daily activity function (R2=0.245, p=0.007). The initial daily activity function and color of color word test were strong predictors of final daily activity function (R2=0.745, p<0.01). Conclusion Conventional rehabilitation therapy induced functional improvement in brain tumor patients. Objective evaluation of cognitive function and comprehensive rehabilitation including focused cognitive training should be performed in brain tumor patients for improving their daily activity function. PMID:26361592

  9. Effects of 4 Weeks of Explosive-type Strength Training for the Plantar Flexors on the Rate of Torque Development and Postural Stability in Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Ueyasu, Y; Yamashita, Y; Akagi, R

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 4-week explosive-type strength training program for the plantar flexors on the rate of torque development and postural stability. The participants were 56 elderly men and women divided into training (17 men and 15 women) and control (14 men and 10 women) groups. The participants in the training group underwent explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors 2 days per week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions of explosive plantar flexion lasting less than 1 s. The following parameters were determined: muscle volume of the plantar flexors estimated by the muscle thickness and lower leg length, maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion, and one-leg standing ability. The training increased the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development, but corresponding increases in muscle volume and one-leg standing ability were not found. These results suggest that, for elderly individuals, the 4-week explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors is effective for increasing the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion but is not effective for improving postural stability. PMID:26990722

  10. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness and tolerability of lornoxicam 8 mg BID and diclofenac 50 mg TID in adult indian patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: A 4-week, double-blind, randomized, comparative, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Goregaonkar, Arvind; Mathiazhagan, K.J.; Shah, Ravindra R.; Kapoor, Paramjeet Singh; Taneja, Praveen; Sharma, Akhilesh; Bolmall, Chandrashekhar; Baliga, Vidyagauri P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reports of cardiovascular adverse events (AEs) associated with the use of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) have prompted the quest for a better-tolerated NSAID. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of lornoxicam 8 mg BID and diclofenac 50 mg TID in adult Indian patients with OA of the hip or knee. Methods: This 4-week, double-blind, randomized, comparative, multicenter study was undertaken to compare oral lornoxicam and diclofenac in patients with OA. Patients who met the selection criteria were enrolled consecutively from the outpatient clinics of each of the participating hospitals in India. Participants completed the Western Ontario and McMasters Individual Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC-OA), WOMAC Composite Index (WOMAC-CI) (for pain, stiffness, and physical function), and a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) (0–10 where 0 = no pain and 10 = worst possible pain or severe or excruciating pain) at each study visit (weeks 0 [baseline], 2, and 4 [or at early termination]). Patients' and physicians' global assessments of arthritis control were measured at each study visit when laboratory and clinical AEs were also monitored. The primary end points were the WOMAC-OA, the WOMAC-CI, and VAS scores for pain among the patients who completed the study. Results: Of the 273 patients (159 men, 114 women; mean [SD] age, 44.73 [10.72] years; range, 28–68 years) enrolled in the study, 13 (7 in the lornoxicam group and 6 in the diclofenac group) were lost to follow-up and their effectiveness and tolerability results were not included in the study analysis. Over the 4-week study period, both drugs provided significant (P < 0.05) sustained relief of OA symptoms compared with baseline. Compared with baseline, the mean pain score (WOMAC-CI) decreased 90.6% (13.88 [4.47] vs 1.30 [1.49]; P < 0.05) in the lornoxicam group and 88.9% (14.15 [4.56] vs 1.57 [1.49]; P < 0.05) in the diclofenac group

  11. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation. PMID:25954515

  12. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing.

    PubMed

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation. PMID:25954515

  13. Relational development in children with cleft lip and palate: influence of the waiting period prior to the first surgical intervention and parental psychological perceptions of the abnormality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    as to serve as a reference for improving the quality of information during the waiting period, and the quality of support provided for parents and children by the healthcare team before the first surgical intervention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00993993. PMID:22682069

  14. Changes in the Capillarity of the Rat Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle 4 Weeks after Nerve Injury Studied by 2D Measurement Methods.

    PubMed

    Čebašek, Vita; Ribarič, Samo

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown by 3D study that 2 weeks after nerve injury there was no change in the length of capillaries per muscle fibre length in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL). The primary goal of the present 2D study was to determine the capillarity of rat EDL 4 weeks after various modes of nerve injury. Additionally, we wished to calculate the same capillary/fibre parameters that were used in our 3D stereological study. EDL muscles derived from denervated (4 weeks after nerve injury), re-innervated (4 weeks after two successive nerve crushes) and age-matched controls from the beginning (CON-1) and the end (CON-2) of the experiment were analysed in two ways. Global indices of capillarity, such as capillary density (CD) and capillary/fibre (C/F) ratio, were determined by automatic analysis, local indices as the number (CAF) and the length of capillaries around individual muscle fibres (Lcap) in relation to muscle fibre size were estimated manually by tracing the muscle fibre outlines and the transversally and longitudinally cut segments of capillaries seen in 5-µm-thin muscle cross sections. Four weeks after both types of nerve injury, CD increased in comparison to the CON-2 group (p < 0.001) due to atrophied muscle fibres in denervated muscles and probably proliferation of capillaries in re-innervated ones. Higher C/F, CAF (both p < 0.001) and Lcap (p < 0.01) in re-innervated than denervated EDL confirmed this assumption. Calculated capillary/fibre parameters were comparable to our previous 3D study, which strengthens the practical value to the adapted 2D method used in this study. PMID:27023720

  15. A 4-week Repeated dose Oral Toxicity Study of Mecasin in Sprague-Dawley Rats to Determine the Appropriate Doses for a 13-week, Repeated Toxicity Test

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eunhye; Lee, Jongchul; Lee, Seongjin; Park, Manyong; Song, Inja; Son, Ilhong; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Dongwoung; Lee, Jongdeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated the 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity of gami-jakyak gamcho buja decoction (Mecasin) to develop safe treatments. Methods: In order to investigate the 4-week oral toxicity of Mecasin, we administered Mecasin orally to rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of Mecasin of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of body weight were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution of 10 mL/kg was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rate, weight, clinical signs, and gross findings for four weeks. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weights or food consumption between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Serum biochemistry revealed that some groups showed significant decrease in inorganic phosphorus (IP) (P < 0.05). During necropsy on the rats, one abnormal macroscopic feature, a slight loss of fur, was observed in the mid dosage (1,000 mg/ kg) male group. No abnormalities were observed in any other rats. In histopathological findings, the tubular basophilia and cast of the kidney and extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen were found. However, those changes were minimal and had occurred naturally or sporadically. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion: During this 4-week, repeated, oral toxicity test of Mecasin in SD rats, no toxicity changes due to Mecasin were observed in any of the male or the female rats in the high dosage group. Thus, we suggest that the doses in a 13-week, repeated test should be 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. PMID:26998389

  16. [DISORDERS OF LUNG FUNCTION IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD IN PATIENTS OPERATED ON THE ASCENDING AORTA WITH THE EXPANSION OF INTERVENTION ON THE AORTIC ARCH].

    PubMed

    Bokeria, L A; Nikitin, E S; Mironenko, V A; Rychin, S V; Vyganovskaya, N B; Makrushin, I M; Gordeev, S L

    2015-01-01

    Precapillary artery--arterial (bronchial artery--pulmonay artery) anastomoses, come into play in cases where the locking artery open and alveoli washed arterialized blood. Normally, these anastomoses are closed. Intrapulmonary shunts carry blood supply acinar hinder extraordinary circumstances (chronic pulmonary embolism, surgery, occurring in cardiopulmonary bypass, when the flaw of blood through the Iungs is suspended for the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass). Patients operated on the ascending aorta with the expansion of intervention on the nortic arch during the correction of pathology carry blood supply only the central nervous system. All other organs and systems at this time were protected by mild hypothermia. However, during circulatory arrest, required for correction of pathology acinar damage as a result of hypoxia, probably because there is no blood flow in the pulmonary artery and there is no blood flow in the bronchial arteries. Last, in the ordinary course of artificial circulation, capable due to arterio-arterial pulmonary anastomoses prevent hypoxic damage to acinar, not lead to persistent hypoxemia in the immediate postoperative period in these patients, as a result of violations of lung diffusion capacity. PMID:27019884

  17. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879. PMID:26345602

  18. Effects of 4-Week Intensive Active-Resistive Training with an EMG-Based Exoskeleton Robot on Muscle Strength in Older People: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Son, Jongsang; Ryu, Jeseong; Ahn, Soonjae; Kim, Eun Joo; Lee, Jung Ah; Kim, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the idea that an active-resistive training with an EMG-based exoskeleton robot could be beneficial to muscle strength and antagonist muscle cocontraction control after 4-week intensive elbow flexion/extension training. Three older people over 65 years participated the training for an hour per session and completed total 20 sessions during four weeks. Outcome measures were chosen as the maximum joint torque and cocontraction ratio between the biceps/triceps brachii muscles at pre-/post-training. The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was performed to evaluate paired difference for the outcome measures. As a result, there was no significant difference in the maximum flexion or extension torque at pre- and post-training. However, the cocontraction ratio of the triceps brachii muscle as the antagonist was significantly decreased by 9.8% after the 4-week intensive training. The active-resistive training with the exoskeleton robot in the older people yielded a promising result, showing significant changes in the antagonist muscle cocontraction. PMID:27006942

  19. Exploratory, Phase II Controlled Trial of Shiunko Ointment Local Application Twice a Day for 4 Weeks in Ethiopian Patients with Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Ahmed, Oumer; Hussein, Jemal; Hirayama, Kenji; Kongjam, Panida; Aseffa, Abraham; Karbwang, Juntra

    2016-01-01

    The clinical efficacy and safety of Shiunko ointment (phase II clinical trial) was investigated in 40 Ethiopian patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients were randomized to receive treatment with Shiunko ointment or placebo (n = 20, each), applied on the lesion twice a day for 4 weeks. Clinicoparasitological assessments were performed before treatment, weekly for 4 weeks, and then 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the end of treatment. A marked reduction in lesion size was observed on week 16 of treatment in the Shiunko compared with placebo group (69% and 22% reduction, resp.). The overall rate of lesion reduction during the four weeks of treatment was significantly faster in the Shiunko group. Shiunko provided significant effect on wound closure in patients with ulcerated lesion. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of Shiunko were comparable to placebo with regard to its clinicoparasitological response (cure rate and parasitological clearance). Results of this preliminary study may suggest that Shiunko could be useful as adjuvant or as complementary treatment, not as alternatives to current treatment. Its attractive action includes fast lesion healing with a significantly smaller lesion at week 16 of treatment compared with placebo. In addition, its action was promoted in ulcerative lesions. PMID:27195014

  20. Effects of 4-Week Intensive Active-Resistive Training with an EMG-Based Exoskeleton Robot on Muscle Strength in Older People: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jongsang; Ryu, Jeseong; Ahn, Soonjae; Kim, Eun Joo; Lee, Jung Ah; Kim, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the idea that an active-resistive training with an EMG-based exoskeleton robot could be beneficial to muscle strength and antagonist muscle cocontraction control after 4-week intensive elbow flexion/extension training. Three older people over 65 years participated the training for an hour per session and completed total 20 sessions during four weeks. Outcome measures were chosen as the maximum joint torque and cocontraction ratio between the biceps/triceps brachii muscles at pre-/post-training. The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was performed to evaluate paired difference for the outcome measures. As a result, there was no significant difference in the maximum flexion or extension torque at pre- and post-training. However, the cocontraction ratio of the triceps brachii muscle as the antagonist was significantly decreased by 9.8% after the 4-week intensive training. The active-resistive training with the exoskeleton robot in the older people yielded a promising result, showing significant changes in the antagonist muscle cocontraction. PMID:27006942

  1. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879. PMID:26345602

  2. Parental Satisfaction with a Home-Based Intervention for Developmentally Delayed Children in Switzerland: A Survey over a 10-year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favez, Nicolas; Metral, Eric; Govaerts, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a study of parental satisfaction with services provided to their child by an Early Intervention Service in Geneva, Switzerland. The Service offers psycho-educational home-based interventions for developmentally delayed children. Parents whose child used the service between 1991 and 2001 filled out a questionnaire with Likert…

  3. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  4. Relief of Night-time Symptoms Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Following 4 Weeks of Treatment With Pantoprazole Magnesium: The Mexican Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Orr, William; Vargas-Romero, José Antonio; Remes-Troche, José María; Morales-Arámbula, Miguel; Soto-Pérez, Julio César; Mateos-Pérez, Gualberto; Sobrino-Cossío, Sergio; Teramoto-Matsubara, Oscar; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Orozco-Gamiz, Antonio; Saez-Ríos, Adolfo; Arellano-Plancarte, Araceli; Chiu-Ugalde, Jazmin; Tholen, Anne; Horbach, Silke; Lundberg, Lars; Fass, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of pantoprazole magnesium (pantoprazole-Mg) 40 mg in the relief of esophageal and extra-esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), particularly night-time symptoms. Methods Patients (aged 18-50 years) with 3-month history of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation plus at least one other symptom in the last week were enrolled in a nationwide, prospective and observational study in Mexico. Patients received pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily during 4 weeks. Symptoms were assessed through a physician-administered structured interview and the patient-completed ReQuest in Practice™ questionnaire. Night-time GERD was defined as arousal from sleep during the night due to GERD-associated symptoms. Results Out of 4,343 patients included at basal visit, 3,665 were considered for the effectiveness per protocol analysis. At baseline, patients had a median of 8 GERD related symptoms. Patients with night-time GERD symptoms (42.7%) were more likely to have extra-esophageal symptoms (P < 0.001) than other GERD patients. Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks improved a broad range of GERD-associated symptoms from baseline (80% reduction on physicians assessments; 68-77% reduction on ReQuest in Practice™ dimensions), including both day- and night-time GERD symptoms; improvements were the greatest for extra-esophageal symptoms in patients with night-time symptoms. Pantoprazole-Mg was well tolerated. Conclusions Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg significantly improved a broad range of esophageal and extra-esophageal GERD related symptoms including sleep disturbances, as well as well-being, in patients with daytime or night-time GERD, making it a good option for patients with GERD, especially when extra-esophageal and night-time symptoms are present. PMID:24466446

  5. Nutrition intervention for migraine: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited evidence suggests that dietary interventions may offer a promising approach for migraine. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a low-fat plant-based diet intervention on migraine severity and frequency. Methods Forty-two adult migraine sufferers were recruited from the general community in Washington, DC, and divided randomly into two groups. This 36-week crossover study included two treatments: dietary instruction and placebo supplement. Each treatment period was 16 weeks, with a 4-week washout between. During the diet period, a low-fat vegan diet was prescribed for 4 weeks, after which an elimination diet was used. Participants were assessed at the beginning, midpoint, and end of each period. Significance was determined using student’s t-tests. Results Worst headache pain in last 2 weeks, as measured by visual analog scale, was initially 6.4/10 cm (SD 2.1 cm), and declined 2.1 cm during the diet period and 0.7 cm during the supplement period (p=0.03). Average headache intensity (0–10 scale) was initially 4.2 (SD 1.4) per week, and this declined by 1.0 during the diet period and by 0.5 during the supplement period (p=0.20). Average headache frequency was initially 2.3 (SD 1.8) per week, and this declined by 0.3 during the diet period and by 0.4 during the supplement period (p=0.61). The Patient’s Global Impression of Change showed greater improvement in pain during the diet period (p<0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that a nutritional approach may be a useful part of migraine treatment, but that methodologic issues necessitate further research. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01699009 and NCT01547494. PMID:25339342

  6. Parent Management Training and Asperger Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate a Parent Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofronoff, Kate; Leslie, Anthony; Brown, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    This controlled trial of a parent management intervention aimed to increase parental competence in management of problem behaviours associated with Asperger syndrome. The intervention compared two formats, a 1 day workshop and six individual sessions. Measures were taken on three occasions: pre-intervention, at 4 weeks, and at 3 month follow-up.…

  7. Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention for College-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornes, Lynne; Ransdell, Lynda B.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a web-based physical activity intervention to two control conditions in terms of increasing walking behavior in college-aged women. Women (N=112) from a public university in the southwest were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The 4-week intervention featured an experimental, repeated…

  8. Evaluating an Online Resourcefulness Training Intervention Pilot Test Using Six Critical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Musil, Carol M; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Burant, Christopher J; Toly, Valerie B; Warner, Camille B

    2015-12-01

    Few resources are available to help grandmother caregivers to grandchildren manage their complex family situations that may have immediate and long-term consequences for themselves and their families. Resourcefulness training is an intervention designed to help grandmothers improve their ability to deal with these problems. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the necessity, feasibility, acceptability, fidelity, safety, and effectiveness (i.e., effect sizes) of an online, computer-based resourcefulness training intervention that was adapted from a face-to-face intervention. Twelve grandmothers raising or living with grandchildren participated in the pilot intervention that included (a) watching an instructional video on resourcefulness, (b) completing two online questionnaires over a 6-week time period, and (c) writing in an online journal every day for 4 weeks. Data are evaluated within the context of the six parameters important to intervention development. Qualitative and quantitative results provide initial support for all six parameters. Recommendations to improve aspects of the intervention are discussed. PMID:26738997

  9. A study on verifying the effectiveness of 4-week composite weight-loss dietary supplement ingestion on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yoonseok; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Sung, Suhyun; Jung, Matthew; Kim, Jongkyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a composite weight-loss dietary supplement on body composition and blood lipid changes in middle-aged women. Methods Thirty seven middle-aged women living in the Kyunggi area participated in this study and they were randomly divided into 2 groups (Dietary supplement ingestion group; DG, n = 20 and Placebo group; PG, n = 17). Blood draw and dual energy x-ray (DEXA) measurements were conducted to examine changes in body composition and blood lipids. Results There were no significant changes in weight and BMI in both groups. There was an interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and lean body mass in DG and there was a significant decrease in percent body fat in DG. Blood lipid changes in the study results showed that there was no significant difference in TC, TG, and LDL in both groups; however, there was a significant interaction between the composite weight-loss dietary supplement intake and HDL-C as well as an increase in the HDL-C of DG. Conclusion In conclusion, it seems that 4-week ingestion of the composite weight-loss dietary supplement decreased body fat, increased lean body mass, and increased HDL-C. Therefore, the composite weight-loss dietary supplement is expected to prevent obesity and induce health improvements in middle-aged women. PMID:26527460

  10. Spatial-Temporal Co-Circulation of Dengue Virus 1, 2, 3, and 4 Associated with Coinfection Cases in a Hyperendemic Area of Brazil: A 4-Week Survey.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Elisa H P; Figueiredo, Leandra B; Vilela, Ana P P; Rosa, Júlio C C; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Zibaoui, Hassan M; Araújo, Valdelaine E M; Miranda, Daniela P J; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Abrahão, Jonatas S; Kroon, Erna G

    2016-05-01

    Dengue is currently regarded as a major public health problem worldwide. In a hyperendemic region during an outbreak, we detected the co-circulation of all Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes including two different genotypes of DENV-3 and DENV-4, and concurrent infections with up to three serotypes were identified in symptomatic patients. A total of 49 acute phase plasma samples from patients clinically suspected of dengue were collected during the 4 weeks of May 2013. DENV-1-4 was detected by reverse transcriptase semi-nested polymerase chain reaction in 33 samples (67.3%), of which 26 DNA fragments were sequenced. Twenty samples (76.9%) were identified with a single DENV serotype and six (23.1%) with more than one serotype. DENV-3 was the predominant serotype of the outbreak. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, DENV-1 isolates belong to genotype V, DENV-2 to American-Asian genotype, DENV-3 to genotypes I and III, and DENV-4 to genotypes I and II. PMID:26976882

  11. Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Thrombosis: Impact of Early Response to 4 Weeks of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen-Chun; Hung, Chien-Fu; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of early response (ER) to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) on outcomes of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complicated with major portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). Methods Thirty-nine patients receiving HAIC with low-dose cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), and leucovorin were enrolled. One course of HAIC consisted of 5 days of treatment and 2 days rest per week for 4 consecutive weeks. ER was categorized as complete response, partial response, or minor response and was determined by World Health Organization criteria with dynamic computed tomography findings performed within 1 week after the first course of HAIC. Results Thirteen (33%) patients achieved an ER. Twelve (92.3%) of these 13 ER patients achieved a higher overall response than all but one (3.8%) of the 26 non-early responders (NERs) (p<0.001). ER was the exclusive independent favorable factor for survival (p=0.003). Downstaging of tumors was noted in 76.9% of ERs, and these patients could proceed to locoregional therapies. ER patients subsequently had a higher 1-year survival (76.9% vs. 3.8%, p<0.001) and 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) (84.6% vs. 15.4%, p<0.001) than those for NERs. Only 8% of patients experienced grade 3 or higher toxicity during the first 4-week course of HAIC. Conclusions HAIC can yield a satisfactory ER for advanced HCC with PVTT. Moreover, achievement of ER after HAIC in advanced HCC with PVTT is strongly associated with better overall survival and PFS. PMID:26734578

  12. Multicenter Study of Decitabine Administered Daily for 5 Days Every 4 Weeks to Adults With Myelodysplastic Syndromes: The Alternative Dosing for Outpatient Treatment (ADOPT) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steensma, David P.; Baer, Maria R.; Slack, James L.; Buckstein, Rena; Godley, Lucy A.; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Albitar, Maher; Larsen, Julie S.; Arora, Sujata; Cullen, Michael T.; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Decitabine, a DNA-targeted hypomethylating agent, is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) on a schedule of 15 mg/m2 administered via intravenous (IV) infusion every 8 hours for 3 days. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of an alternative dosing regimen administered on an outpatient basis in academic and community-based practices. Patients and Methods Patients were treated with decitabine 20 mg/m2 by IV infusion daily for 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks. Eligible patients were ≥ 18 years of age and had MDS (de novo or secondary) of any French-American-British (FAB) subtype and an International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score ≥ 0.5. The primary end point was the overall response rate (ORR) by International Working Group (IWG 2006) criteria; secondary end points included cytogenetic responses, hematologic improvement (HI), response duration, survival, and safety. Results Ninety-nine patients were enrolled; the ORR was 32% (17 complete responses [CR] plus 15 marrow CRs [mCRs]), and the overall improvement rate was 51%, which included 18% HI. Similar response rates were observed in all FAB subtypes and IPSS risk categories. Among patients who improved, 82% demonstrated responses by the end of cycle 2. Among 33 patients assessable for a cytogenetic response, 17 (52%) experienced cytogenetic CR (n = 11) or partial response (n = 6). Conclusion Decitabine given on a 5-day schedule provided meaningful clinical benefit for patients with MDS, with more than half demonstrating improvement. This suggests that decitabine can be administered in an outpatient setting with comparable efficacy and safety to the United States Food and Drug Administration–approved inpatient regimen. PMID:19528372

  13. Pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of traffic-related particulate matter: 4-week exposure of rats to roadside and diesel engine exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Totlandsdal, Annike I; Kilinç, Evren; Boere, A John F; Fokkens, Paul H B; Leseman, Daan L A C; Sioutas, Constantinos; Schwarze, Per E; Spronk, Henri M; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Miller, Mark R; Cassee, Flemming R

    2010-12-01

    Traffic-related particulate matter (PM) may play an important role in the development of adverse health effects, as documented extensively in acute toxicity studies. However, rather little is known about the impacts of prolonged exposure to PM. We hypothesized that long-term exposure to PM from traffic adversely affects the pulmonary and cardiovascular system through exacerbation of an inflammatory response. To examine this hypothesis, Fisher F344 rats, with a mild pulmonary inflammation at the onset of exposure, were exposed for 4 weeks, 5 days/week for 6 h a day to: (a) diluted diesel engine exhaust (PM(DEE)), or: (b) near roadside PM (PM(2.5)). Ultrafine particulates, which are largely present in diesel soot, may enter the systemic circulation and directly or indirectly trigger cardiovascular effects. Hence, we assessed the effects of traffic-related PM on pulmonary inflammation and activity of procoagulants, vascular function in arteries, and cytokine levels in the heart 24 h after termination of the exposures. No major adverse health effects of prolonged exposure to traffic-related PM were detected. However, some systemic effects due to PM(DEE) exposure occurred including decreased numbers of white blood cells and reduced von Willebrand factor protein in the circulation. In addition, lung tissue factor activity is reduced in conjunction with reduced lung tissue thrombin generation. To what extent these alterations contribute to thrombotic effects and vascular diseases remains to be established. In conclusion, prolonged exposure to traffic-related PM in healthy animals may not be detrimental due to various biological adaptive response mechanisms. PMID:21126152

  14. Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towne, Forrest S.

    Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills

  15. Effect of 4-week feeding of deoxynivalenol- or T-2-toxin-contaminated diet on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system in the hepatopancreas of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of T-2 toxin (4.11 mg T-2 toxin and 0.45 mg HT-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) and deoxynivalenol (5.96 and 0.33 mg 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (DON) kg(-1) feed) in 1-year-old common carp juveniles in a 4-week feeding trial. The exposure of mycotoxins resulted in increased mortality in both groups consuming mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Parameters of lipid peroxidation were not affected during the trial, and antioxidant defence also did not show response to oxidative stress; however, glutatione peroxidase activity slightly, but significantly, decreased in the T-2 toxin group. Glutathione S-transferase activity showed moderate decrease as effect of T-2 toxin, which suggests its effect on xenobiotic transformation. Reduced glutathione concentration showed moderate changes as effect of DON exposure, but T-2 toxin has no effect. Expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes showed different response to mycotoxin exposure. T-2 toxin caused dual response in the expression of gpx4a (early and late downregulation and mid-term upregulation), but continuous upregulation was found as effect of deoxynivalenol. Expression of the other gene, gpx4b, was upregulated by both trichothecenes during the whole period. The results suggested that trichothecenes have some effect on free radical formation and antioxidant defence, but the changes depend on the duration of exposure and the dose applied, and in case of glutathione peroxidase, there was no correlation between expression of genes and enzyme activity. PMID:26920403

  16. Differences in the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in feather samples from 4-week-old and 24-week-old infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Aiello, Roberta; Beato, Maria Serena; Mancin, Marzia; Rigoni, Michela; Tejeda, Aurora Romero; Maniero, Silvia; Capua, Ilaria; Terregino, Calogero

    2013-08-30

    Previous studies have reported the detection of H5N1 HPAI virus in feathers from ducks naturally and experimentally infected and suggested that feather calami (FC) could be used as diagnostic samples for the early detection of H5N1 HPAI infections. Ducks are readily infected with H5N1 HPAI viruses although the development of clinical signs and deaths were reported as age-related with younger birds being more susceptible. The correlation between age and virus localisation in FC of infected ducks has not been studied to date. In the present study juvenile (4-week-old) and adult (24-week-old) Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) were infected experimentally with a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI virus (A/duck/Nigeria/1071-23/2007). Tracheal (Tr) and cloacal (Cl) swabs and FC were collected at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post infection and tested by RRT-PCR and a double antibody sandwich-ELISA (DAS-ELISA) developed in house. Virus was detected in swabs and FC of challenged ducks with a higher rate of detection in juvenile ducks. In this age group virus was detected over a longer period of time in FC compared to swabs. Our study showed that FC samples collected from young ducks are a valid diagnostic specimen for H5N1 HPAI virus detection. The DAS-ELISA on FC proved to be a suitable alternative diagnostic test when molecular and/or virus isolation techniques are not available therefore it could be useful in the diagnosis of H5N1 HPAI infections in under-resourced countries. PMID:23608476

  17. Effects of 4 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training and β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyric Free Acid Supplementation on the Onset of Neuromuscular Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Miramonti, Amelia A; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Robinson, Edward H; Wang, Ran; La Monica, Michael B; Hoffman, Jay R

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMB) supplementation on physical working capacity at the onset of neuromuscular fatigue threshold (PWC(FT)). Thirty-seven participants (22 men, 15 women; 22.8 ± 3.4 years) completed an incremental cycle ergometer test (graded exercise test [GXT]); electromyographic amplitude from the right vastus lateralis was recorded. Assessments occurred preceding (PRE) and after 4 weeks of supplementation (POST). Participants were randomly assigned to control (C, n = 9), placebo (P, n = 14), or supplementation (S, n = 14) groups. Both P and S completed 12 HIIT sessions, whereas C maintained normal diet and activity patterns. The PWC(FT) (W) was determined using the maximal perpendicular distance (D(MAX)) method. Electromyographic amplitude (μVrms) over time was used to generate a cubic regression. Onset of fatigue (TF) was the x-value of the point on the regression that was at D(MAX) from a line between the first and last data points. The PWC(FT) was estimated using TF and GXT power-output increments. The 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (group × time) resulted in a significant interaction for PWC(FT) (F = 6.69, p = 0.004). Post hoc analysis with 1-way ANOVA resulted in no difference in PWC(FT) among groups at PRE (F = 0.87, p = 0.43); however, a difference in PWC(FT) was shown for POST (F = 5.46, p = 0.009). Post hoc analysis among POST values revealed significant differences between S and both P (p = 0.034) and C (p = 0.003). No differences (p = 0.226) were noted between P and C. Paired samples t-tests detected significant changes after HIIT for S (p < 0.001) and P (p = 0.016), but no change in C (p = 0.473). High-intensity interval training increased PWC(FT), but HMB with HIIT was more effective than HIIT alone. Furthermore, it seems that adding HMB supplementation with HIIT in untrained men and women may further improve endurance performance

  18. Collaborative study on fifteen compounds in the rat-liver Comet assay integrated into 2- and 4-week repeat-dose studies.

    PubMed

    Rothfuss, Andreas; O'Donovan, Mike; De Boeck, Marlies; Brault, Dominique; Czich, Andreas; Custer, Laura; Hamada, Shuichi; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Hayashi, Makoto; Howe, Jonathan; Kraynak, Andrew R; van der Leede, Bas-jan; Nakajima, Madoka; Priestley, Catherine; Thybaud, Veronique; Saigo, Kazuhiko; Sawant, Satin; Shi, Jing; Storer, Richard; Struwe, Melanie; Vock, Esther; Galloway, Sheila

    2010-09-30

    A collaborative trial was conducted to evaluate the possibility of integrating the rat-liver Comet assay into repeat-dose toxicity studies. Fourteen laboratories from Europe, Japan and the USA tested fifteen chemicals. Two chemicals had been previously shown to induce micronuclei in an acute protocol, but were found negative in a 4-week Micronucleus (MN) Assay (benzo[a]pyrene and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine; Hamada et al., 2001); four genotoxic rat-liver carcinogens that were negative in the MN assay in bone marrow or blood (2,6-dinitrotoluene, dimethylnitrosamine, 1,2-dibromomethane, and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline); three compounds used in the ongoing JaCVAM (Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods) validation study of the acute liver Comet assay (2,4-diaminotoluene, 2,6-diaminotoluene and acrylamide); three pharmaceutical-like compounds (chlordiazepoxide, pyrimethamine and gemifloxacin), and three non-genotoxic rodent liver carcinogens (methapyrilene, clofibrate and phenobarbital). Male rats received oral administrations of the test compounds, daily for two or four weeks. The top dose was meant to be the highest dose producing clinical signs or histopathological effects without causing mortality, i.e. the 28-day maximum tolerated dose. The liver Comet assay was performed according to published recommendations and following the protocol for the ongoing JaCVAM validation trial. Laboratories provided liver Comet assay data obtained at the end of the long-term (2- or 4-week) studies together with an evaluation of liver histology. Most of the test compounds were also investigated in the liver Comet assay after short-term (1-3 daily) administration to compare the sensitivity of the two study designs. MN analyses were conducted in bone marrow or peripheral blood for most of the compounds to determine whether the liver Comet assay could complement the MN assay for the detection of genotoxins after long-term treatment. Most of the liver genotoxins

  19. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness: a fully controlled dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, L; Dower, J I; Mensink, M; Siebelink, E; Bakker, S J L; Geleijnse, J M

    2015-10-01

    We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study to examine the effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in untreated (pre)hypertensive individuals. During the study, subjects were on a fully controlled diet that was relatively low in sodium and potassium. After a 1-week run-in period, subjects received capsules with supplemental sodium (3 g d(-1), equals 7.6 g d(-1) of salt), supplemental potassium (3 g d(-1)) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. Fasting office BP, 24-h ambulatory BP and measures of arterial stiffness were assessed at baseline and every 4 weeks. Of 37 randomized subjects, 36 completed the study. They had a mean pre-treatment BP of 145/81 mm Hg and 69% had systolic BP ⩾140 mm Hg. Sodium excretion was increased by 98 mmol per 24 h and potassium excretion by 63 mmol per 24 h during active interventions, compared with placebo. During sodium supplementation, office BP was significantly increased by 7.5/3.3 mm Hg, 24-h BP by 7.5/2.7 mm Hg and central BP by 8.5/3.6 mm Hg. During potassium supplementation, 24-h BP was significantly reduced by 3.9/1.6 mm Hg and central pulse pressure by 2.9 mm Hg. Pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were not significantly affected by sodium or potassium supplementation. In conclusion, increasing the intake of sodium caused a substantial increase in BP in subjects with untreated elevated BP. Increased potassium intake, on top of a relatively low-sodium diet, had a beneficial effect on BP. Arterial stiffness did not materially change during 4-week interventions with sodium or potassium. PMID:25673113

  20. Mindful pregnancy and childbirth: effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on women's psychological distress and well-being in the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Cassandra; Hanieh, Emma; Roberts, Rachel; Powrie, Rosalind

    2012-04-01

    This pilot study explored the effects of an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy group on pregnant women. Participants reported a decline in measures of depression, stress and anxiety; with these improvements continuing into the postnatal period. Increases in mindfulness and self-compassion scores were also observed over time. Themes identified from interviews describing the experience of participants were: 'stop and think', 'prior experience or expectations', 'embracing the present', 'acceptance' and 'shared experience'. Childbirth preparation classes might benefit from incorporating training in mindfulness. PMID:22382281

  1. Skin thickness in children treated with daily or periodical inhaled budesonide for mild persistent asthma. The Helsinki early intervention childhood asthma study.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Markku; Raitio, Hanna; Pelkonen, Anna S; Nikander, Kurt; Sorva, Ritva; Selroos, Olof; Juntunen-Backman, Kaisu; Haahtela, Tari

    2010-02-01

    In adults, asthma treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids has resulted in dermal thinning. The aim of this study was to investigate the skin thickness in children with asthma during budesonide treatment. In a double-blind study, 113 children, 5-10 y old, with persistent asthma received budesonide 400 microg twice daily for 1 mo and thereafter 200 microg twice daily for 5 mo. Thereafter, 56 children received 100 microg twice daily for 1 y, whereas 57 other children used budesonide periodically for exacerbations. An additional 54 children were treated with disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) for 18 mo. Skin thickness was measured on each forearm before and after treatment for 6, 12, and 18 mo using a 20-MHz high-resolution ultrasonic device. The initial 6-mo budesonide treatment resulted in a greater reduction in mean skin thickness in the forearms compared with DSCG (right: -35.9 versus -5.9 microm; p = 0.004; left: -30.6 versus -7.3 microm; p = 0.03). At month 18, the inter-group differences were no longer significant. Budesonide inhalations in daily doses of 400-800 microg in prepubertal children with newly detected asthma may cause minor dermal thinning. The changes were reversible during low dose or periodic treatment with budesonide. PMID:19858777

  2. A comparison of two interventions for HHHFNC in preterm infants weighing 1,000 to 1,500 g in the recovery period of newborn RDS

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghnia, Alireza; Badiei, Zohre; Talakesh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nasal cannula, beside administering low-flow therapy, showed the capability for the administration of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) through high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). Meeting specific physical criteria of 100% relative humidity (RH) and temperature of 37°C are the basic interventional requirements to administer oxygen for the newborns through a nasal cannula. Recently, two systems, MR850 and PMH7000, received the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to administer heated, humidified HFNC (HHHFNC). These systems are evaluated in this study based on their humidifying and heating capabilities. Materials and Methods: This study was done as an RCT on newborns weighing 1,000 to 1,500 g recovering from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) while nCPAP was administered at CDP = 4 cmH2O, Fio2 <30%. Patients were randomized to two groups of 35 receiving HHHFNC after treatment with nCPAP, with one group using MR850 humidifier and the other PMH7000. The patients were compared according to the duration of HHHFNC administration, repeated need for nCPAP respiratory support, the need for invasive ventilation, apnea, chronic lung disease (CLD), nasal trauma, RH, and temperature of the gases. Results: The average time of support with HHHNFC did not show any significant difference in the two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in the need for nCPAP, invasive ventilation, apnea, nasal trauma, and CLD. The difference in the levels of average temperature and humidity was significant (P value <0.001). Conclusion: Although the records of temperature and RH in the PMH7000 system was lower than the records from the MR850 system, no clinical priority was observed for respiratory support with HHHNFC in the two systems. PMID:25250286

  3. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  4. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI −19.5, −9.7), sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518), calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0) and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  5. Piloting a Text Message-Based Social Support Intervention for Patients with Chronic Pain: Establishing Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillory, Jamie; Chang, Pamara; Henderson, Charles R.; Shengelia, Rouzi; Lama, Sonam; Warmington, Marcus; Jowza, Maryam; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine preliminarily the effectiveness of a SMS text message-based social support intervention for reducing daily pain and pain interference levels, improving affect and perceptions of social support in patients with chronic non-cancer pain, and exploring the feasibility of a novel mobile application to track perceptions of pain and pain-interference. Materials and Methods Participants (17 men, 51 women) from two pain clinics in New York City downloaded a pain tracking App to their smartphone and employed it to record twice-daily pain, pain interference, and affect scores over the 4-week study period. Participants were randomly assigned to receive standard care (control) or standard care along with receipt of twice-daily supportive SMS text messages delivered during the 2nd and 3rd week of the study (intervention). Demographic and clinical data were obtained at baseline, and social support measures were administered at baseline and at 4-weeks. Statistical analysis was carried out using general linear mixed models taking into account variances associated with time of assessments and with patients. Results The social support intervention reduced perceptions of pain and pain interference and improved positive affect for chronic non-cancer pain patients assigned to the intervention condition in comparison to controls. Participants completed approximately 80% of the daily measurements requested. Discussion These findings establish the feasibility of collecting daily pain data using a mobile tracking App and provide significant implications and insight into a nuanced approach to reducing the daily experience of pain via mobile technology, especially because of its accessibility. PMID:25565587

  6. [Two-point discrimination for phantom pain: effect of a 4-week therapy in an upper arm amputee with phantom pain].

    PubMed

    Koller, T; Luomajoki, H

    2013-06-01

    There is evidence that phantom pain is associated with a disrupted organization of the sensory cortex and that this organization can be normalized by training with two-point discrimination (TPD). In this case study a reduction in all three phantom modalities (i.e. phantom pain, phantom feeling and painful phantom sensation) and a reduction in pain level from m= 4.13/10 visual analogue scale (VAS) to m= 0.67/10 (VAS) could be observed in a patient with an upper limb amputation during a test period of 28 days with TPD. The quality of life and performance increased significantly. This can be a promising indication for a better social and work reintegration. PMID:23685501

  7. Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jin Woo; Chung, Sun Yong; Kim, Sang Young; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a meridian-based psychological therapy. The present clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of EFT as a new treatment option for Hwabyung (HB) patients experiencing anger and compares the efficacy to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR), the conventional meditation technique. Methods. The EFT and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) methods were performed on 27 HB patients, and their capacities to alleviate anxiety, anger, and emotional status were compared. After a 4-week program, a survey was conducted; patients then completed a self-training program for 4 weeks, followed by a second survey. Results. During the initial 4 weeks, the EFT group experienced a significant decrease in the HB symptom scale, anger state, and paranoia ideation (p < 0.05). Over the entire 9-week interval, there were significant decreases in the HB symptom scale, anxiety state, anger state, anger trait, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and so on in EFT group (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The EFT group showed improved psychological symptoms and physical symptoms greater than those observed in the PMR group. EFT more effectively alleviated HB symptoms compared to PMR. EFT group showed better maintenance during self-training, suggesting good model of self-control treatment in HB patients. PMID:26539218

  8. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  9. A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Social Skills Interventions for Youth with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Mikami, Amori Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two social skills interventions, Sociodramatic Affective Relational Intervention (SDARI) and Skillstreaming, to compare their treatment mechanisms, social performance- and knowledge-training. A total of 13 youth with autism spectrum disorders were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of 1-day/week SDARI or…

  10. Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Richard B.

    The Clackamas Adolescent Sexual Offender Intervention program is designed to interrupt and change behavior of clients who are juvenile sexual offenders at risk to re-offend. Intervention is scheduled for each offender over a 52-week period with groups meeting each week for 2 hours, and an all day session each 6-week period on Saturday. The…

  11. Use of Free-standing Filters in an Asthma Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Du, Liuliu; Parker, Edith; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Ramirez, Erminia; Rowe, Zachary; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes the use of HEPA air filters provided to 89 households participating in an intervention study investigating the respiratory health of children with asthma. Freestanding filters were placed in the child's bedroom and monitored continuously for nearly a year in each household. Filter use was significantly affected by study phase, season and monitoring week. During the “intensive” weeks when a community education worker and a field technician visited the household, the use rate averaged 70±33%. During season-long “non-intensive” periods between seasonal visits, use dropped to 34±30%. Filter use rapidly decreased during the 3 to 4 weeks following each intensive, was slightly higher in spring, summer, and in the evening and at night when the child was likely to be home, although households did not follow consistent diurnal patterns. While participants expressed an understanding of the benefits of filter use and reported good experiences with them, use rates were low, particularly during unobserved non-intensive periods. The provision of freestanding air filters to individuals or households must be considered an active intervention that requires monitoring and evaluation, otherwise unknown and unexpected patterns of filter use may alter and possibly bias results due to exposure misclassification. PMID:24436726

  12. [Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter focuses on the theme of early intervention which infants and young children with special needs in nine brief articles: "Early Intervention: A Matter of Context" (Samuel J. Meisels); "Early Intervention Research: Asking and Answering Meaningful Questions" (Jack P. Shonkoff); "From Case Management to Service Coordination: Families,…

  13. Interventional radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This reference gives a step-by-step presentation of the elements of interventional radiology. CONTENTS: Introduction; Radiation protection; Embolotherapy; Interventional techniques in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding; Transluminal angioplasty; Thrombolytic therapy; Foreign body removal; Inferior vena cava filter placement; Percutaneous uroradiologic techniques; Interventional techniques in the biliary tract; Nonvascular gastrointestinal tract dilations; Percutaneous biopsy techniques; Drainage of abscess fluid collections in the abdomen.

  14. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abery, Brian, Ed.; McConnell, Scott, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on early intervention with handicapped children, with an emphasis on: Project EDGE (Expanding Developmental Growth through Education), an early intervention research project initiated in 1968; strategies for developing family-friendly early intervention services; and progress reports from various states and programs.…

  15. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Rojith Karanode; Chandran, Suresh Rama; Thirumalnesan, Geetha; Doraisamy, Nedumaran

    2011-07-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly. PMID:21966655

  16. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour, Maryam; Mansouri, Akram; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively) and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001) and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001) were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth. PMID:27095995

  17. Brief cognitive training interventions in young adulthood promote long-term resilience to drug-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Josiah R; Piscopo, Denise M; Wilbrecht, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Environmental stress and deprivation increase vulnerability to substance use disorders in humans and promote drug-seeking behavior in animal models. In contrast, experiences of mastery and stability may shape neural circuitry in ways that build resilience to future challenges. Cognitive training offers a potential intervention for reducing vulnerability in the face of environmental stress or deprivation. Here, we test the hypothesis that brief cognitive training can promote long-term resilience to one measure of drug-seeking behavior, cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), in mice. In young adulthood, mice underwent cognitive training, received rewards while exploring a training arena (i.e. yoked control), or remained in their home cages. Beginning 4 weeks after cessation of training, we conditioned mice in a CPP paradigm and then tested them weekly for CPP maintenance or daily for CPP extinction. We found that a brief 9-day cognitive training protocol reduced maintenance of cocaine CPP when compared to standard housed and yoked conditions. This beneficial effect persisted long after cessation of the training, as mice remained in their home cages for 4 weeks between training and cocaine exposure. When mice were tested for CPP on a daily extinction schedule, we found that all trained and yoked groups that left their home cages to receive rewards in a training arena showed significant extinction of CPP, while mice kept in standard housing for the same period did not extinguish CPP. These data suggest that in early adulthood, deprivation may confer vulnerability to drug-seeking behavior and that brief interventions may promote long-term resilience. PMID:26066577

  18. Family interventions for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tarrier, N; Barrowclough, C

    1990-10-01

    Studies that have attempted to reduce schizophrenic relapse by the use of family interventions are described. Results from studies that implemented behavioral family interventions with patients who were identified as high risk because of the expressed emotion status of their relatives have demonstrated that relapse rates can be significantly reduced over a 2-year postdischarge follow-up period. A number of ongoing studies, especially those that are investigating the interaction of family interventions and different medication regimes, are also discussed. Areas for further investigation are identified, for example: the use of multiple outcome measures, the use of single-case studies and the development of ideographic assessment measures, the interaction of biological and environmental influences, the alleviation of the burden of care, the involvement of the consumer in services, the development of behavioral formulations and analysis of family engagement and compliance, staff training in intervention methods, and the translation of research results into clinical practice. PMID:2252467

  19. Interventional ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, H.H.; Kristensen, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses: Introduction to interventional ultrasound/handling of aspirated material/general principles of fine needle aspiration cytology/procedure and principles in ultrasonically guided puncture/puncture of focal liver lesions/intraoperative puncture of the liver guided by ultrasound/Interventional ultrasound in cancer therapy/Interventional echocardiography/Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Are there any risks./Puncture of renal mass lesions/Intrauterine needle diagnosis/Percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

  20. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  1. Feasibility and User Perception of a Fully Automated Push-Based Multiple-Session Alcohol Intervention for University Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, many electronic health behavior interventions have been developed in order to reach individuals with unhealthy behaviors, such as risky drinking. This is especially relevant for university students, many of whom are risky drinkers. Objective This study explored the acceptability and feasibility in a nontreatment-seeking group of university students (including both risk and nonrisk drinkers), of a fully automated, push-based, multiple-session, alcohol intervention, comparing two modes of delivery by randomizing participants to receive the intervention either by SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS) or by email. Methods A total of 5499 students at Luleå University in northern Sweden were invited to participate in a single-session alcohol assessment and feedback intervention; 28.04% (1542/5499) students completed this part of the study. In total, 29.44% (454/1542) of those participating in the single-session intervention accepted to participate further in the extended multiple-session intervention lasting for 4 weeks. The students were randomized to receive the intervention messages via SMS or email. A follow-up questionnaire was sent immediately after the intervention and 52.9% (240/454) responded. Results No difference was seen regarding satisfaction with the length and frequency of the intervention, regardless of the mode of delivery. Approximately 15% in both the SMS (19/136) and email groups (15/104) would have preferred the other mode of delivery. On the other hand, more students in the SMS group (46/229, 20.1%) stopped participating in the intervention during the 4-week period compared with the email group (10/193, 5.2%). Most students in both groups expressed satisfaction with the content of the messages and would recommend the intervention to a fellow student in need of reducing drinking. A striking difference was seen regarding when a message was read; 88.2% (120/136) of the SMS group read the messages within 1 hour in

  2. Effects of sodium and potassium supplementation on endothelial function: a fully controlled dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Lieke; Dower, James I; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Kusters, Yvo H A M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Hollman, Peter C H; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2015-11-14

    High Na and low K intakes have adverse effects on blood pressure, which increases the risk for CVD. The role of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in this pathophysiological process is not yet clear. In a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study in untreated (pre)hypertensives, we examined the effects of Na and K supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation. During the study period, subjects were provided with a diet that contained 2·4 g/d of Na and 2·3 g/d of K for a 10 460 kJ (2500 kcal) intake. After 1-week run-in, subjects received capsules with supplemental Na (3·0 g/d), supplemental K (2·8 g/d) or placebo, for 4 weeks each, in random order. After each intervention, circulating biomarkers of endothelial function and inflammation were measured. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and skin microvascular vasomotion were assessed in sub-groups of twenty-two to twenty-four subjects. Of thirty-seven randomised subjects, thirty-six completed the study. Following Na supplementation, serum endothelin-1 was increased by 0·24 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·45), but no change was seen in other endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers. FMD and microvascular vasomotion were unaffected by Na supplementation. K supplementation reduced IL-8 levels by 0·28 pg/ml (95 % CI 0·03, 0·53), without affecting other circulating biomarkers. FMD was 1·16 % (95% CI 0·37, 1·96) higher after K supplementation than after placebo. Microvascular vasomotion was unaffected. In conclusion, a 4-week increase in Na intake increased endothelin-1, but had no effect on other endothelial or inflammatory markers. Increased K intake had a beneficial effect on FMD and possibly IL-8, without affecting other circulating endothelial or inflammatory biomarkers. PMID:26343780

  3. Clinical effect of ticagrelor administered in acute coronary syndrome patients following percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    LU, YANJIAO; LI, YANSHEN; YAO, RUI; LI, YAPENG; LI, LING; ZHAO, LUOSHA; ZHANG, YANZHOU

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical effect and safety of ticagrelor administration in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In total, 203 patients were enrolled, who were confirmed with ACS between March 2013 and May 2013, and had successfully undergone PCI. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, including the clopidogrel (group A, n=108) and ticagrelor groups (group B, n=95). Patients in group A were treated with a 600 mg loading dose of clopidogrel followed by 75 mg/day clopidogrel plus 100 mg/day aspirin. Patients in group B received a 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor followed by 90 mg ticagrelor twice daily plus 100 mg/day aspirin. Light transmission aggregometry was performed to measure the platelet aggregation rate prior to and following 4 weeks of anti-platelet drug treatment. In addition, the rate of cardiovascular events and the adverse drug reactions were recorded within a 1-year treatment period. Compared with the clopidogrel group, the rate of recurrent angina in the ticagrelor group was significantly lower (P=0.05). However, the rate of dyspnea in the ticagrelor group was significantly higher when compared with that in the clopidogrel group (P=0.03). After 4 weeks of treatment, the reduction in the platelet aggregation rate was significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). Therefore, ticagrelor, which is a novel antiplatelet aggregation drug, may reduce the rate of the adverse cardiovascular events in ACS patients following PCI, but a higher incidence of side-effects, such as dyspnea, may be observed. PMID:27284299

  4. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large proportion of people attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment have a co-occurring mental illness. Empirical evidence suggests that it is important to treat both the substance abuse problem and co-occurring mental illness concurrently and in an integrated fashion. However, the majority of residential alcohol and other substance abuse services do not address mental illness in a systematic way. It is likely that computer delivered interventions could improve the ability of substance abuse services to address co-occurring mental illness. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effectiveness of adding a computer delivered depression and substance abuse intervention for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Methods/Design Participants will be recruited from residential rehabilitation programs operated by the Australian Salvation Army. All participants who satisfy the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol or other substance dependence disorder will be asked to participate in the study. After completion of a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to either a computer delivered substance abuse and depression intervention (treatment condition) or to a computer-delivered typing tutorial (active control condition). All participants will continue to complete The Salvation Army residential program, a predominantly 12-step based treatment facility. Randomisation will be stratified by gender (Male, Female), length of time the participant has been in the program at the commencement of the study (4 weeks or less, 4 weeks or more), and use of anti-depressant medication (currently prescribed medication, not prescribed medication). Participants in both conditions will complete computer sessions twice per week, over a five-week period. Research staff blind to treatment allocation will complete the assessments at baseline, and then 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post

  5. Pediatric Interventional Radiology: Vascular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery. PMID:26964551

  6. Effect of Probiotic Dietary Intervention on Calcium and Haematological Parameters in Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Jashbhai B.; Mudgal, Sreeja V.; Pandya, Himanshu V.; Singh, Uday Shankar; Trivedi, Sunil S.; Phatak, Ajay G.; Patel, Rupal M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Sufficient calcium intake has been reported to support bone growth and prevent bone loss during the ageing process. Aim To determine the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 probiotic dietary intervention on serum calcium & haematological parameters in geriatric population. Materials and Methods Healthy volunteers with age ranging from 64-74 years were recruited from the nearby residential areas in and around Anand, Gujarat. Study duration was from 2012 to 2015. Of the 112 subjects initially enrolled in the trial, 36 withdrew before the intervention because of not matching with criterias. Of the 76 participants, 5 subjects (4%) under test group and 12 subjects (11%) under placebo left the study. We had 59 subjects who successfully completed a double blind cross over trial. Probiotic fermented milk products (in form of “Lassi”) was prepared by supplementing toned milk with honey and fermenting with probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 and Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5460. The final product had at least 108 CFU/ml of viable Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463 at the time of feeding. During feeding period, 200 ml of fermented product containing the test strain to one group and a similar product but without the test strain as placebo were fed regularly at the time of breakfast in morning for 4 weeks. Subjects of each group were given a washout period of 4 weeks before they were crossed over and included to the other group. The study was approved by institutional ethics committee. Results The socio-demographic and clinical profiles were similar at baseline. The mean (SD) calcium level improved significantly in test {9.36 (0.45) vs 8.45 (0.61), p<0.001}. No significant effect was observed with respect to haemoglobin & haematological parameters. Conclusion The well-documented probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus MTCC 5463

  7. Enhancing Emotion Recognition in Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions: An Intervention Using Animated Vehicles with Real Emotional Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan, Ofer; Ashwin, Emma; Granader, Yael; McClintock, Suzy; Day, Kate; Leggett, Victoria; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated "The Transporters", an animated series designed to enhance emotion comprehension in children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). n = 20 children with ASC (aged 4-7) watched "The Transporters" everyday for 4 weeks. Participants were tested before and after intervention on emotional vocabulary and emotion recognition at three…

  8. Effects of Improvement on Selective Attention: Developing Appropriate Somatosensory Video Game Interventions for Institutional-Dwelling Elderly with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shang-Ti; Chiang, I-Tsun; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chang, Maiga

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop appropriate somatosensory video game interventions on enhancing selective attention of institutional-dwelling elderly with disabilities. Fifty-eight participants aged 65[approximately]92 were recruited and divided into four groups, 4-week and 8-week experimental and two control groups, for evaluating the…

  9. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  10. Increasing intervention implementation in general education following consultation: a comparison of two follow-up strategies.

    PubMed

    Noell, G H; Witt, J C; LaFleur, L H; Mortenson, B P; Ranier, D D; LeVelle, J

    2000-01-01

    This study examined two strategies for increasing the accuracy with which general education teachers implemented a peer tutoring intervention for reading comprehension. The intervention was implemented for 5 elementary school students who had been referred for consultation services. Initial implementation of the intervention by the teachers was variable, and the data exhibited a downward trend. When consultants held brief daily meetings with the teachers to discuss the intervention, implementation improved for 2 of 5 participants. Four of the teachers implemented the intervention at levels substantially above baseline during the performance feedback condition, whereas implementation for 1 teacher increased following discussion of an upcoming follow-up meeting with the principal. Student reading comprehension scores improved markedly during the peer tutoring intervention. Three students maintained these gains 4 weeks after the intervention ended. The implications of these findings for the maintenance of accurate treatment implementation in applied settings are discussed. PMID:11051568

  11. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Kanellakis, Spyridon; Moschonis, George; Tenta, Roxane; Schaafsma, Anne; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Lyritis, George; Manios, Yannis

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3), and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K(2)) on parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention. Postmenopausal women were divided into three intervention groups and a control group (CG). All three intervention groups attended biweekly sessions and received fortified dairy products providing daily 800 mg of calcium and 10 μg of vitamin D(3) (CaD). Furthermore, in two of the three intervention groups the dairy products were also enriched with vitamin K, providing daily 100 μg of either phylloquinone (CaDK1) or menaquinone-7 (CaDK2). The increase observed for serum 25(OH)D levels in all intervention groups and the increase observed for serum IGF-I levels in the CaDK2 group differed significantly compared to the changes observed in CG (P = 0.010 and P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, both the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups had a significantly lower mean serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to osteocalcin ratio and urine deoxypyridinoline levels at follow-up compared to the CaD and CG groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Significant increases in total-body BMD were observed in all intervention groups compared to CG (P < 0.05), while significant increases in lumbar spine BMD were observed only for CaDK1 and CaDK2 compared to CG (P < 0.05) after controlling for changes in serum 25(OH)D levels and dietary calcium intake. In conclusion, the present study revealed more favorable changes in bone metabolism and bone mass indices for the two vitamin K-supplemented groups, mainly reflected in the suppression of serum levels of bone remodeling indices and in the more positive changes in lumbar spine BMD for these two study groups. PMID:22392526

  12. A Telehealth Intervention Using Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Boards and iPads to Improve Walking in Older Adults With Lower Limb Amputation (Wii.n.Walk): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Bita; Finlayson, Heather C; Eng, Janice J; Payne, Michael WC; Jarus, Tal; Goldsmith, Charles H; Mitchell, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of older adults living with lower limb amputation (LLA) who require rehabilitation for improving their walking capacity and mobility is growing. Existing rehabilitation practices frequently fail to meet this demand. Nintendo Wii Fit may be a valuable tool to enable rehabilitation interventions. Based on pilot studies, we have developed “Wii.n.Walk”, an in-home telehealth Wii Fit intervention targeted to improve walking capacity in older adults with LLA. Objective The objective of this study is to determine whether the Wii.n.Walk intervention enhances walking capacity compared to an attention control group. Methods This project is a multi-site (Vancouver BC, London ON), parallel, evaluator-blind randomized controlled trial. Participants include community-dwelling older adults over the age of 50 years with unilateral transtibial or transfemoral amputation. Participants will be stratified by site and block randomized in triplets to either the Wii.n.Walk intervention or an attention control group employing the Wii Big Brain cognitive software. This trial will include both supervised and unsupervised phases. During the supervised phase, both groups will receive 40-minute sessions of supervised group training three times per week for a duration of 4 weeks. Participants will complete the first week of the intervention in groups of three at their local rehabilitation center with a trainer. The remaining 3 weeks will take place at participants’ homes using remote supervision by the trainer using Apple iPad technology. At the end of 4 weeks, the supervised period will end and the unsupervised period will begin. Participants will retain the Wii console and be encouraged to continue using the program for an additional 4 weeks’ duration. The primary outcome measure will be the “Two-Minute Walk Test” to measure walking capacity. Outcome measures will be evaluated for all participants at baseline, after the end of both the supervised and

  13. Irrational prescribing of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in general practice: testing the feasibility of an educational intervention among physicians in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Irrational prescribing of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in general practice is common in Southern Europe. Recent findings from a research project funded by the European Commission (FP7), the “OTC SOCIOMED”, conducted in seven European countries, indicate that physicians in countries in the Mediterranean Europe region prescribe medicines to a higher degree in comparison to physicians in other participating European countries. In light of these findings, a feasibility study has been designed to explore the acceptance of a pilot educational intervention targeting physicians in general practice in various settings in the Mediterranean Europe region. Methods This feasibility study utilized an educational intervention was designed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). It took place in geographically-defined primary care areas in Cyprus, France, Greece, Malta, and Turkey. General Practitioners (GPs) were recruited in each country and randomly assigned into two study groups in each of the participating countries. The intervention included a one-day intensive training programme, a poster presentation, and regular visits of trained professionals to the workplaces of participants. Reminder messages and email messages were, also, sent to participants over a 4-week period. A pre- and post-test evaluation study design with quantitative and qualitative data was employed. The primary outcome of this feasibility pilot intervention was to reduce GPs’ intention to provide medicines following the educational intervention, and its secondary outcomes included a reduction of prescribed medicines following the intervention, as well as an assessment of its practicality and acceptance by the participating GPs. Results Median intention scores in the intervention groups were reduced, following the educational intervention, in comparison to the control group. Descriptive analysis of related questions indicated a high overall acceptance and perceived practicality of

  14. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  15. Spinal interventions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Filippiadis, D K; Guzmán Álvarez, L; Martínez Martínez, A; Castellano, M M

    2016-04-01

    We review the state of the art in imaging-guided percutaneous interventional procedures used to diagnose and/or treat the diverse causes of back pain. These procedures can be used for diagnosis, treatment, or both. They are focused on the vertebral bodies, the facet joints, the intervertebral discs, and the nerve structures. PMID:26778583

  16. Youth Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suren, Asuncion, Ed.; Shermis, Michael, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of the diverse programs of research, scholarship, and creative activities conducted at Indiana University, the articles in this issue of "Research & Creative Activity" describe numerous interventions that can make a positive difference in the lives of at-risk youth. The articles are as follows: "Giving Back What You Get" (Susan Moke)…

  17. Frailty Intervention Trial (FIT)

    PubMed Central

    Fairhall, Nicola; Aggar, Christina; Kurrle, Susan E; Sherrington, Catherine; Lord, Stephen; Lockwood, Keri; Monaghan, Noeline; Cameron, Ian D

    2008-01-01

    Background Frailty is a term commonly used to describe the condition of an older person who has chronic health problems, has lost functional abilities and is likely to deteriorate further. However, despite its common use, only a small number of studies have attempted to define the syndrome of frailty and measure its prevalence. The criteria Fried and colleagues used to define the frailty syndrome will be used in this study (i.e. weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity). Previous studies have shown that clinical outcomes for frail older people can be improved using multi-factorial interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, and single interventions such as exercise programs or nutritional supplementation, but no interventions have been developed to specifically reverse the syndrome of frailty. We have developed a multidisciplinary intervention that specifically targets frailty as defined by Fried et al. We aim to establish the effects of this intervention on frailty, mobility, hospitalisation and institutionalisation in frail older people. Methods and Design A single centre randomised controlled trial comparing a multidisciplinary intervention with usual care. The intervention will target identified characteristics of frailty, functional limitations, nutritional status, falls risk, psychological issues and management of chronic health conditions. Two hundred and thirty people aged 70 and over who meet the Fried definition of frailty will be recruited from clients of the aged care service of a metropolitan hospital. Participants will be followed for a 12-month period. Discussion This research is an important step in the examination of specifically targeted frailty interventions. This project will assess whether an intervention specifically targeting frailty can be implemented, and whether it is effective when compared to usual care. If successful, the study will establish a new approach to the treatment

  18. Feasibility of oral administration of S-1 as adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer: 4-week S-1 administration followed by 2-week rest vs. 2-week administration followed by 1-week rest

    PubMed Central

    YAMATSUJI, TOMOKI; FUJIWARA, YASUHIRO; MATSUMOTO, HIDEO; HATO, SHINJI; NAMIKAWA, TSUTOMU; HANAZAKI, KAZUHIRO; TAKAOKA, MUNENORI; HAYASHI, JIRO; SHIGEMITSU, KAORI; YOSHIDA, KAZUHIRO; URAKAMI, ATSUSHI; UNO, FUTOSHI; NISHIZAKI, MASAHIKO; KAGAWA, SHUNSUKE; NINOMIYA, MOTOKI; FUJIWARA, TOSHIYOSHI; HIRAI, TOSHIHIRO; NAKAMURA, MASAFUMI; HAISA, MINORU; NAOMOTO, YOSHIO

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, the Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer (ACTS-GC) demonstrated that S-1 is an effective adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer. Following that study, S-1 has been used as the standard adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer in Japan. However, the 1-year completion rate was only 65.8% in the ACTS-GC study and feasibility remains a critical issue. We conducted a study to evaluate the feasibility of 2 weekly administration regimens of S-1 as adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer. The criteria for eligibility included histologically proven stage II (excluding T1), IIIA or IIIB gastric cancer with D2 lymph-node dissection. The patients were randomly assigned to either arm A (S-1 administration for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks of rest) or arm B (S-1 administration for 2 weeks followed by 1 week of rest). In each arm, treatment was continued for 12 months unless recurrence or severe adverse events were observed. The primary endpoint was feasibility (protocol treatment completion rate). The secondary endpoints were safety, relapse-free survival and overall survival. A total of 47 patients were assigned to arms A or B between May, 2008 and February, 2010. During the first interim analysis, the protocol treatment completion rates in arms A and B were 83 and 100%, respectively at 6 months and 49 and 89%, respectively, at 12 months (P=0.0046). Therefore, S-1 administration for 2 weeks followed by 1 week rest was more feasible as adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer. Grade 3 adverse events in arm A included fatigue (8.0%), anorexia (8.0%), nausea (4.0%), vomiting (4.0%) and hand-foot syndrome (4.0%), whereas none were observed in arm B. There were no reported grade 4 adverse events in either arm. In conclusion, the 2-week S-1 administration followed by 1-week rest regimen appears to be a more feasible oral administration regimen for S-1 as adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer. PMID:26137261

  19. Assessment of Labrasol/Labrafil/Transcutol (4/4/2, v/v/v) as a non-clinical vehicle for poorly water-soluble compounds after 4-week oral toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Delongeas, J-L; de Conchard, G Vermeil; Beamonte, A; Bertheux, H; Spire, C; Maisonneuve, C; Becourt-Lhote, N; Goldfain-Blanc, F; Claude, N

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety research is frequently faced with the challenge of the selection of appropriate vehicles for use in in vivo non-clinical safety assessment studies. Reported here are the results of blend Labrasol, Labrafil and Transcutol, [L/L/T, (4/4/2, v/v/v)], excipients used as bioavailability enhancer and solubilizer for poorly water-soluble compounds and tested daily for 4 weeks by oral route in Wistar rats (10/sex/group) at dose volumes of 5, 10 or 20 mL/kg/day and compared to controls given 20 mL/kg/day of 1% (w/v) hydroxyethylcellulose in purified water. L/L/T was broadly well tolerated at 5 mL/kg/day and lethal at 20 mL/kg/day in 1 of 20 rats treated at this level. Changes in appearance and behaviour were observed from 10 mL/kg/day with volume-related incidence, severity and duration. Reduced feed intake observed from 5 (females) or 10 mL/kg/day (males) resulted in low bodyweights for high volume males only (-11% of controls). There was a volume-related induction of hepatic CYP 1A1/2, 2B1/2 and/or 2E1 subfamilies from 5 mL/kg/day, with high liver weight, centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy and high ALT, triglyceride and cholesterol serum values at 20 mL/kg/day. Renal tubular dilation in medulla, cortical cell degeneration/necrosis with granular material in adjacent glomerular spaces, crystal deposits in the inner medulla, papilla and/or renal pelvis, and tubular mineralization, associated with proteinuria and calcium oxalate crystalluria, were observed at 20 mL/kg/day as well as vacuolation in the adrenal cortex, with a sex-dependant localization. According to these results, 5 mL/kg/day was considered as an acceptable volume for further use of L/L/T (4/4/2, v/v/v) blend as a vehicle for poorly water soluble drugs in Wistar rat toxicity studies. PMID:20347907

  20. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  1. [Interventional ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Blázquez Sánchez, N; Fernández Canedo, I; Valdés Vilches, L; de Troya Martín, M

    2015-11-01

    High-frequency ultrasound has become increasingly used in dermatology. This technique is accessible, non-invasive, and rapid and provides information in real time. Consequently, it has become of great diagnostic value in dermatology. However, high-frequency ultrasound also has a promising future as a complementary technique in interventional diagnostic procedures, even though its application in this field has been little studied by dermatologists. PMID:26895944

  2. Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Surgery among Females: A Media Literacy Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Khazir, Zahra; Dehdari, Tahereh; Majdabad, Mahmood Mahmoodi; Tehrani, Said Pournaghash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examined the favorable attitude of a sample of female university students regarding elective cosmetic surgery, body dysmorphic disorder, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction following a media literacy training intervention. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental type. The study sample included 140 female university students who were allocated to either the intervention (n=70) or the control group (n=70). Attitude toward cosmetic surgery, body dysmorphic disorder, self-esteem and, body satisfaction was measured in both groups before the intervention and 4 weeks later. Four media literacy training sessions were conducted over 4 weeks for the intervention group. The data was analyzed through analysis of covariance, student’s paired-samples t test, and Pearson correlation. Results: Our findings showed that favorable attitude, body dysmorphic disorder and body dissatisfaction scores were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the intervention group than the control group. Furthermore, self-esteem score increased significantly in the intervention group. Conclusions: Our results underscores the importance of media literacy intervention in decreasing female’s favorable attitude towards elective cosmetic surgery, body dysmorphic disorder and body dissatisfaction as well as increasing self-esteem. PMID:26383204

  3. Nutri-metabolomics: subtle serum metabolic differences in healthy subjects by NMR-based metabolomics after a short-term nutritional intervention with two tomato sauces.

    PubMed

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Cañellas, Nicolau; Abete, Itziar; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Ángeles; Correig, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Postgenomics research and development is witnessing novel intersections of omics data intensive technology and applications in health and personalized nutrition. Chief among these is the nascent field of nutri-metabolomics that harnesses metabolomics platforms to discern person-to-person variations in nutritional responses. To this end, differences in the origin and ripening stage of fruits might have a strong impact on their phytochemical composition, and consequently, on their potential nutri-metabolomics effects on health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week cross-over nutritional intervention on the metabolic status of 24 young healthy subjects. The intervention was carried out with two tomato sauces differing in their natural lycopene content, which was achieved by using tomatoes harvested at different times. Blood samples were drawn from each subject before and after each intervention period. Aqueous and lipid extracts from serum samples were analyzed by 1H-NMR metabolic profiling combined with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA). These methods allowed the interpretation of the variation induced by the main factors of the study design (sauce treatment and time). The levels of creatine, creatinine, leucine, choline, methionine, and acetate in aqueous extracts were increased after the intervention with the high-lycopene content sauce, while those of ascorbic acid, lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine, alanine were increased after the normal-lycopene content sauce. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomics of aqueous and lipid extracts allowed the detection of different metabolic changes after the nutritional intervention. This outcome might partly be due to the different ripening state of the fruits used in production of the tomato sauces. The findings presented herein collectively attest to the emergence of the field of nutri-metabolomics as a novel

  4. Gray matter volume is associated with rate of subsequent skill learning after a long term training intervention.

    PubMed

    Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Scholz, Jan; Jenkinson, Mark; Thomas, Adam G; Filippini, Nicola; Smit, Gabrielle; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    The ability to predict learning performance from brain imaging data has implications for selecting individuals for training or rehabilitation interventions. Here, we used structural MRI to test whether baseline variations in gray matter (GM) volume correlated with subsequent performance after a long-term training of a complex whole-body task. 44 naïve participants were scanned before undertaking daily juggling practice for 6weeks, following either a high intensity or a low intensity training regime. To assess performance across the training period participants' practice sessions were filmed. Greater GM volume in medial occipito-parietal areas at baseline correlated with steeper learning slopes. We also tested whether practice time or performance outcomes modulated the degree of structural brain change detected between the baseline scan and additional scans performed immediately after training and following a further 4weeks without training. Participants with better performance had higher increases in GM volume during the period following training (i.e., between scans 2 and 3) in dorsal parietal cortex and M1. When contrasting brain changes between the practice intensity groups, we did not find any straightforward effects of practice time though practice modulated the relationship between performance and GM volume change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that practice time and performance modulate the degree of structural brain change evoked by long-term training regimes. PMID:24680712

  5. Effects of gravity on the circadian period in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Dean M.; Demaria, Victor H.; Fuller, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increased gravity force on the circadian period of body temperature and activity of rats was investigated using rats implanted with a small radio telemetry device and, after a 2-week recovery and a 3-week control period at 1G, rotated at for 4 weeks at a constant 2G field in a 18-ft-diam centrifuge. Measurements of the mean freerunning period of the temperature and activity rhythms after 10 days showed that the exposure to 2G led to a functional separation of the pacemakers that regulate the activity and the temperature in the animals. Each pacemaker reacted differently: the activity period increased and the temperature period decreased. By the third or the fourth week, the activity and the temperature periods have returned to 1G control levels.

  6. Evaluation of a School-Based Intervention for Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Lynette; Gradisar, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The present study investigated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention in increasing sleep knowledge and improving adolescent sleep problems. Design: A randomized, controlled trial using 2 groups (program class, classes-as-usual: [CAU]) assessed over 3 time points (pre-program, post-program, 6-week follow-up). Participants/Setting: Eighty-one students (mean age = 15.6 ± 0.6 y; 33% male) from 2 schools in South Australia. Schools provided one class to participate in the sleep intervention program (N = 41) and a second class to act as a control class (N = 40). Intervention: Four 50-minute classes across a 4-week period. Classes consisted of educating adolescents on promoting and maintaining a healthy lifestyle based on a cognitive-behavior therapy framework. Measurements and Results: Data were collected pre-program, post-program, and at 6-week follow-up using an online questionnaire. Qualitative student and teacher data were collected at post-program. Baseline data indicated sleep problems were prevalent (53.1% insufficient sleep on school nights [ < 8 h] and 77.8% discrepant school/weekend rise times [ > 2 h]). These 2 criteria identified 36 adolescents with a delayed sleep timing (DST; Program, N = 21; CAU, N = 15). The program increased sleep knowledge (P = 0.001); however, analyses revealed no significant effects on target sleep variables as compared with the CAU class for the entire group (all P > 0.05). For DST adolescents, there was a significant interaction for reducing the discrepancy between school and weekend out of bed times (P = 0.002). There was no impact on other sleep parameters or depressed mood. Conclusions: School-based sleep interventions for adolescents are a novel method for addressing a prevalent problem. Future programs should develop ways to motivate adolescents to change sleep practices. Citation: Moseley L; Gradisar M. Evaluation of a school-based intervention for adolescent sleep problems. SLEEP 2009;32(3):334

  7. An Augmented SMS Intervention to Improve Access to Antenatal CD4 Testing and ART Initiation in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Bennett, Kara; Hughes, Michael D.; Veres, Adrian; John, Oaitse; Pradhananga, Rosina; Boyer, Matthew; Brown, Carolyn; Sakyi, Bright; van Widenfelt, Erik; Keapoletswe, Koona; Mine, Madisa; Moyo, Sikhulile; Asmelash, Aida; Siedner, Mark; Mmalane, Mompati; Shapiro, Roger L.; Lockman, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than one-third of HIV-infected pregnant women eligible for combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally initiate treatment prior to delivery, with lack of access to timely CD4 results being a principal barrier. We evaluated the effectiveness of an SMS-based intervention to improve access to timely antenatal ART. Methods We conducted a stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial of a low-cost programmatic intervention in 20 antenatal clinics in Gaborone, Botswana. From July 2011-April 2012, 2 clinics were randomly selected every 4 weeks to receive an ongoing clinic-based educational intervention to improve CD4 collection and to receive CD4 results via an automated SMS platform with active patient tracing. CD4 testing before 26 weeks gestation and ART initiation before 30 weeks gestation were assessed. Results Three-hundred-sixty-six ART-naïve women were included, 189 registering for antenatal care under Intervention and 177 under Usual Care periods. Of CD4-eligible women, 100 (59.2%) women under Intervention and 79 (50.6%) women under Usual Care completed CD4 phlebotomy before 26 weeks gestation, adjusted odds ratio (aOR, adjusted for time that a clinic initiated Intervention) 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI]0.47–1.63, P = 0.67). The SMS-based platform reduced time to clinic receipt of CD4 test result from median of 16 to 6 days (P<0.001), was appreciated by clinic staff, and was associated with reduced operational cost. However, rates of ART initiation remained low, with 56 (36.4%) women registering under Intervention versus 37 (24.2%) women under Usual Care initiating ART prior to 30 weeks gestation, aOR 1.06 (95%CI 0.53–2.13, P = 0.87). Conclusions The augmented SMS-based intervention delivered CD4 results more rapidly and efficiently, and this type of SMS-based results delivery platform may be useful for a variety of tests and settings. However, the intervention did not appear to improve access to timely antenatal CD4 testing or ART

  8. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  9. The Effect of an Education-Based Intervention on Self-Reported Awareness and Practice of Iranian Nurses in Observing Patients’ Rights

    PubMed Central

    Abedian, Kobra; Nesami, Masumeh Bagheri; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: For patients’ rights to be observed, first patients and health care providers should be aware of these rights. Nurses’ lack of awareness of these rights leads to their inability to recognize patients’ legal and ethical issues, and reduces the quality of provided services. This study was conducted to determine the effect of an education-based intervention on self-reported awareness and practice of nurses in observing patients’ rights. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, awareness and practice of 90 nurses on Patient’s Bill of Rights were examined in case and control groups, before, 2 and 4 weeks after an educational intervention program on. Participants were selected from teaching hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Data was gathered using the valid and reliable 21-item questionnaire in a 3-point Likert scale during a 5-month period from October 2013 to March 2014. For data analysis, descriptive statistical methods, paired t-test, and repeated measure analysis of variance at significant level P<0.05 were used. Results: Participants’ mean age and work experience were found 37.1±5.71 years and 11.76±5.99 years respectively. Mean scores of nurses’ awareness and practice before intervention were 15.12±2.19 and 9.13±2.36, accordingly. Repeated measure analysis of variance test showed a significant difference in awareness and practice of nurses before and after intervention (P<0.001). Conclusion: Enhancing nurses’ awareness on Patient’s Bill of Rights through revision of educational curriculum in nursing schools, together with considering appropriate relevant content in continuous education programs in health systems can lead to improved quality of nursing care services. PMID:25948445

  10. A Guided Workbook Intervention (WorkPlan) to Support Work-Related Goals Among Cancer Survivors: Protocol of a Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Pernille Luxhøj; Schumacher, Lauren; Sadhra, Steven S; Sutton, Andrew J; Zarkar, Anjali; Rolf, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Background Returning to and staying at work following illness is associated with better physical and psychological functioning. Not working has been shown to be associated with reduced self-esteem, lowered self-efficacy, and decreased belief in one's ability to return to the workplace. Although there is a growing body of research looking at what predicts return to work following cancer treatment, there are fewer studies examining interventions targeting return to work. Objective The primary objective is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a theoretically led workbook intervention designed to support cancer patients in returning to work to inform a fully powered randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods This is a multicenter feasibility RCT where the main analysis uses a qualitative approach. Sixty participants (aged 18-65 years) who have received a diagnosis of cancer and who intend to return to work will be randomized to either the WorkPlan intervention group or a usual care group (ratio 1:1). Participants in the intervention group will receive a guided workbook intervention (which contains activities aimed at eliciting thoughts and beliefs, identifying targets and actions, and concrete steps to achieve goals) and will receive telephone support over a 4-week period. The primary outcome measure is time taken to return to work (in days), and secondary outcome measures include mood, quality of life, illness perceptions, and job satisfaction. Data will be collected through postal questionnaires administered immediately postintervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. In addition, interviews will be undertaken immediately postintervention (to explore acceptability of the intervention and materials) and at 12-month follow-up (to explore perceptions of participation in the trial and experiences of returning to work). Results Enrollment for the study will be completed in May 2016. Data analysis will commence in April 2017, and the first results are expected

  11. [Liver intervention].

    PubMed

    Oi, H

    2000-12-01

    Interventional radiology is now widely performed for the treatment of liver tumors, because surgery is sometimes limited by poor liver function. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE) is an effective therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Lipiodol TACE shows a strong antitumor effect because of the overflow of excess iodized oil into the portal veins, and segmental TACE is recommended to avoid deteriorating liver function. Selective CT arteriography is performed in order to decide on the treatment area, and TACE under CT guidance leads to effective results in terms of dense accumulation of the chemotherapeutic drug in the individual tumors that are affected by the ischemic state and anticancer drugs. Percutaneous microwave or radiofrequency coagulation therapy is adequate for a few of the hypovascular tumors. Excessive coagulation through the needle tract is indispensable in these therapies, and precisely designed puncture is necessary to minimize damage to the liver parenchyma. Selective chemotherapy to the tumor-bearing organ is the first step in a number of liver tumors. Continuous intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is performed for multiple liver metastases. The reservoir implantation technique is percutaneously achieved via the left subclavian artery under ultrasound guidance, without the exposure of an artery in the incision method, which can induce thrombus formation. PMID:11197832

  12. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... of common interventional techniques is below. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures Angiography An X-ray exam of the ... into the vertebra. Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair Ridge Drive • Suite ...

  13. Complementary and Other Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment of ADHD Complementary and Other Interventions Coaching Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback) Fish Oil Supplements and ADHD Carrying Your ... and Other Interventions Complementary and Other Interventions Coaching Neurofeedback (EEG Biofeedback) Fish Oil Supplements and ADHD Complementary and ...

  14. Oral contraceptives in the immediate postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Hume, A L; Hijab, J C

    1991-04-01

    Although there is a critical need for effective contraception in the immediate postpartum period for women who are not breastfeeding, this need must be balanced against the inherent risks. The most effective form of contraceptive protection--oral contraceptives (OCs)--can present an increased risk of thromboembolism in the period after delivery. The thrombotic changes associated with pregnancy, and the statistics and vascular damage following a delivery, can combine to create greater potential for thromboembolism after delivery than during pregnancy. Reported here is the case of a 21-year-old woman who, 4 weeks postpartum, developed pain and swelling in the right lower calf and mottled discoloration extending from the proximal thigh to the toes. A diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis was made and heparin was administered. In the hospital, the patient experienced pleuritic chest pain and diaphoresis. A ventilation-perfusion scan indicated a pulmonary embolism. 1 week after delivery, the patient had initiated use of Triphasil. Although this woman had other risk factors (obesity, light cigarette smoking, and a sedentary life-style), OC use in the immediate postpartum period may have been the final factor precipitating the thromboembolic event. It is recommended that OC use should be delayed until at least 2 weeks postpartum in women without other risk factors for thromboembolism and until 4-6 weeks postpartum in those with such factors. PMID:2010744

  15. Hepatobiliary Intervention in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M.; Pariente, Danièle; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2013-08-02

    Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.

  16. Evaluation of the Occupational Doses of Interventional Radiologists

    PubMed Central

    Velders, Xandra L.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Piek, Jan J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a linear relation between the doses measured above and those measured under the lead apron of the radiologists performing interventional procedures. To monitor radiation exposure the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of a single dosimeter under the protective apron. To determine the exposure more accurately an additional dosimeter is recommended above the protective apron. The exposure of eight radiologists was monitored with two personal dosimeters during 3 consecutive years. To measure the doses uniformly the two dosimeters were worn in a special holder attached to the lead apron. The two personal dosimeters were replaced every 4 weeks on the same day. The doses above and under the protective aprons of seven radiologists did not differ significantly. A significant lower dose above and under the protective apron was measured for one of the radiologists. During a 4-week period the average dose measured above the lead apron was 3.44 mSv (median, 3.05 mSv), while that under the 0.25-mm lead apron was 0.12 mSv (median, 0.1 mSv). The coefficients of the regression line result in the equation Y = 0.036X − 0.004, with Y as the dose under the lead apron and X as the dose above the lead apron. The statistical analysis of the data established a linear relation between the doses above and those under the lead apron (R2 = 0.59). Before the special holder was introduced it was not possible to derive a relation between the doses above and those under the lead apron, as the doses were measured at varying places above and under the lead apron. There is no evidence that the effective dose can be estimated more accurately when an additional dosimeter is used. The present study revealed a threshold before doses under the lead apron were measured. Due to the threshold it can be concluded that the doses under the lead apron will not be underestimated easily when doses

  17. An institutional review of antimicrobial stewardship interventions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Henry; Phe, Kady; Laine, Gregory A; Russo, Hannah R; Putney, Kimberly S; Tam, Vincent H

    2016-09-01

    In order to combat increasing rates of bacterial resistance, many institutions have implemented antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) to improve antibiotic use. To ascertain the potential impact of our stewardship programme at Baylor St Luke's Medical Center (Houston, TX), antimicrobial-related interventions were analysed over a 4-year period. ASP recommendations related to antimicrobial therapy from 2009 to 2012 were retrieved from the hospital electronic database and were retrospectively reviewed. The number of interventions for each time period was adjusted to the hospital census data. The interventions were randomly assessed and categorised for clinical significance based on established institutional guidelines. In total, 14654 non-duplicate antimicrobial therapy interventions were retrieved, of which 11874 (81.0%) were audited for accuracy. Approximately 13 interventions were made per 1000 patient-days, but there were no significant patterns observed regarding the number of interventions performed from month to month (range 8-21). The most frequent types of interventions were related to inappropriate dosing (39.0%), antimicrobial selection (20.5%) and drug allergy (13.0%). Serious adverse drug events (ADEs) were potentially avoided in 20.7% of all interventions. Cumulative potential cost avoidance was more than US$6.5 million. In our institution, proper drug and dose selection were the major components of the ASP. Without focusing solely on reduction of drug acquisition costs, implementation of an ASP could still be cost effective by improving the quality of patient care and avoiding ADEs with serious consequences. PMID:27530844

  18. An Environmental Intervention to Reduce Dietary Fat in School Lunches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined lunch entree choices by students in 16 elementary schools. During baseline period, low-fat entrees were available on 23% of days and selected by 39% of students. During intervention period, these figures were 71% of days and 29% of students. Across intervention, fat content of average meal dropped from 36% to 30% of calories from fat. (BC)

  19. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of a stigma reduction intervention for HIV-infected women in the Deep South.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Julie; Relf, Michael V; Williams, Megan Scull; Arscott, Joyell; Moore, Elizabeth D; Caiola, Courtney; Silva, Susan G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare outcomes (self-esteem, coping self-efficacy, and internalized stigma) across time in HIV-infected women living in the Deep South who received a stigma reduction intervention (n=51) with those of a control group (n=49) who received the usual care at baseline, and at 30 and 90 days. We recruited 99 women from clinics and an AIDS service organization; they were randomized by recruitment site. A video developed from the results of a qualitative metasynthesis study of women with HIV infection was loaded onto iPod Touch devices. Participants were asked to watch the video weekly for 4 weeks, and to record the number of times they viewed it over a 12-week period. We examined the trajectory model results for efficacy outcomes for the intent-to-treat and the supplemental completers groups. There was a treatment-by-time effect for improved self-esteem (intent-to-treat: p=0.0308; completers: p=0.0284) and decreases in internalized stigma (intent-to-treat: p=0.0036; completers: p=0.0060), and a treatment-by-time-by-time effect for improved coping self-efficacy (intent-to-treat: p=0.0414; completers: p=0.0321). A medium effect of the intervention in terms of improving self-esteem was observed when compared with the control condition in those who completed the study. The magnitude of the intervention effect, however, was large with regard to reducing overall stigma, improving social relationships, and decreasing stereotypes in both groups. PMID:25084499

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy of a Stigma Reduction Intervention for HIV-Infected Women in the Deep South

    PubMed Central

    Relf, Michael V.; Williams, Megan Scull; Arscott, Joyell; Moore, Elizabeth D.; Caiola, Courtney; Silva, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare outcomes (self-esteem, coping self-efficacy, and internalized stigma) across time in HIV-infected women living in the Deep South who received a stigma reduction intervention (n=51) with those of a control group (n=49) who received the usual care at baseline, and at 30 and 90 days. We recruited 99 women from clinics and an AIDS service organization; they were randomized by recruitment site. A video developed from the results of a qualitative metasynthesis study of women with HIV infection was loaded onto iPod Touch devices. Participants were asked to watch the video weekly for 4 weeks, and to record the number of times they viewed it over a 12-week period. We examined the trajectory model results for efficacy outcomes for the intent-to-treat and the supplemental completers groups. There was a treatment-by-time effect for improved self-esteem (intent-to-treat: p=0.0308; completers: p=0.0284) and decreases in internalized stigma (intent-to-treat: p=0.0036; completers: p=0.0060), and a treatment-by-time-by-time effect for improved coping self-efficacy (intent-to-treat: p=0.0414; completers: p=0.0321). A medium effect of the intervention in terms of improving self-esteem was observed when compared with the control condition in those who completed the study. The magnitude of the intervention effect, however, was large with regard to reducing overall stigma, improving social relationships, and decreasing stereotypes in both groups. PMID:25084499

  1. Web-Based Family Intervention for Overweight Children: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pulgaron, Elizabeth R.; Rarback, Sheah; Hernandez, Jennifer; Carrillo, Adriana; Christiansen, Steven; Severson, Herbert H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has shown the efficacy of family-based behavioral interventions for overweight children, but a major difficulty is access to effective treatment programs. The objective of this study was to develop and test the initial feasibility and efficacy of a web-based family program for overweight 8- to 12-year-old children. Methods A website was created using concepts from effective family-based behavioral programs and input from focus groups with overweight children, parents, and pediatricians. The website provided information about obesity and healthy lifestyles, assessment of dietary and physical activity habits, interactive dietary and physical activity games, and instruction in goal-setting and monitoring of goals. Children selected a dietary and physical activity goal and a daily step goal with pedometers. Feasibility and pilot testing over 4 weeks was conducted with 24 overweight children referred by a physician. Outcomes were z-BMI, healthy eating and physical activity, and intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy for weight control. Results Mean number of logins over the study period was 11.4 for the study sample. Eighteen families (75%) returned for the follow-up assessment. Pre–post analyses for these participants showed improvements in intrinsic motivation, (p=0.05), self-efficacy (p=0.025), physical activity (p=0.005), and healthy lifestyle behaviors (p=0.001). Comparisons between high and low users of the program indicated that high users reduced their BMI while low users increased their BMI over time (p=0.02); high users also improved their dietary intake relative to low users (p=0.04). Consumer satisfaction ratings were high. Conclusion These pilot findings suggest this is a feasible approach for treatment of overweight children and that children who used the web program frequently improved their BMI and dietary intake. PMID:23308372

  2. Preliminary evaluation of a primary care intervention for cry-fuss behaviours in the first 3-4 months of life ('The Possums Approach'): effects on cry-fuss behaviours and maternal mood.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Miller, Yvette; Bucetti, Anne; Hill, Peter S; Creedy, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Problem crying in the first few months of life is both common and complex, arising out of multiple interacting and co-evolving factors. Parents whose babies cry and fuss a lot receive conflicting advice as they seek help from multiple health providers and emergency departments, and may be admitted into tertiary residential services. Conflicting advice is costly, and arises out of discipline-specific interpretations of evidence. An integrated, interdisciplinary primary care intervention ('The Possums Approach') for cry-fuss problems in the first months of life was developed from available peer-reviewed evidence. This study reports on preliminary evaluation of delivery of the intervention. A total of 20 mothers who had crying babies under 16 weeks of age (average age 6.15 weeks) completed questionnaires, including the Crying Patterns Questionnaire and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, before and 3-4 weeks after their first consultation with trained primary care practitioners. Preliminary evaluation is promising. The Crying Patterns Questionnaire showed a significant decrease in crying and fussing duration, by 1h in the evening (P=0.001) and 30 min at night (P=0.009). The median total amount of crying and fussing in a 24-h period was reduced from 6.12 to 3h. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale showed a significant improvement in depressive symptoms, with the median score decreasing from 11 to 6 (P=0.005). These findings are corroborated by an analysis of results for the subset of 16 participants whose babies were under 12 weeks of age (average age 4.71 weeks). These preliminary results demonstrate significantly decreased infant crying in the evening and during the night and improved maternal mood, validating an innovative interdisciplinary clinical intervention for cry-fuss problems in the first few months of life. This intervention, delivered by trained health professionals, has the potential to mitigate the costly problem of health professionals giving

  3. Management of vitiligo patients with surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Shokeen, Divya

    2016-05-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder of unknown etiology. Medical treatments are usually reasonably effective for nonstable vitiligo patches; however, for vitiligo patches that have been stable for a substantial period of time, surgical intervention should be considered. In this article, surgical interventions for vitiligo are reviewed, including split-thickness skin grafting, suction blister grafting, miniature punch grafting, and cultured melanocyte transplantation. PMID:27274556

  4. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  5. Telemedicine Intervention Improves ICU Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sadaka, Farid; Palagiri, Ashok; Trottier, Steven; Deibert, Wendy; Gudmestad, Donna; Sommer, Steven E.; Veremakis, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Telemedicine for the intensive care unit (Tele-ICU) was founded as a means of delivering the clinical expertise of intensivists located remotely to hospitals with inadequate access to intensive care specialists. This was a retrospective pre- and postintervention study of adult patients admitted to a community hospital ICU. The patients in the preintervention period (n = 630) and during the Tele-ICU period (n = 2193) were controlled for baseline characteristics, acute physiologic scores (APS), and acute physiologic and health evaluation (APACHE IV) scores. Mean APS scores were 37.1 (SD, 22.8) and 37.7 (SD, 19.4) (P = 0.56), and mean APACHE IV scores were 49.7 (SD, 24.8) and 50.4 (SD, 21.0) (P = 0.53), respectively. ICU mortality was 7.9% during the preintervention period compared with 3.8% during the Tele-ICU period (odds ratio (OR) = 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.32–0.66, P < 0.0001). ICU LOS in days was 2.7 (SD, 4.1) compared with 2.2 (SD, 3.4), respectively (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI, 1.00–1.40, P = 0.01). Implementation of Tele-ICU intervention was associated with reduced ICU mortality and ICU LOS. This suggests that there are benefits of a closed Tele-ICU intervention beyond what is provided by daytime bedside physicians. PMID:23365729

  6. Cook Like a Chef 1- and 4-Week Camp Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Johnson, Glenda; Corr, Anne; Sharp, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Children participating in cooking classes gain confidence in their abilities to prepare food. If children are to make informed, healthy, food ingredient and cooking method choices, they need to be equipped with these necessary skills, as well as with nutrition competence. Extension programs that incorporate nutrition and hands-on cooking can…

  7. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... how interventional radiology research improves patients’ lives at Society of Interventional Radiology’s 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting; read ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ...

  8. Biophysical Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Biophysical interventions as part of an ecological approach to intervention with handicapped children include psychotropic medications (neuroleptics, antidepressants, stimulants, minor tranquilizers and sedatives, lithium); nutritional agents (sugar, vitamins, food allergies); and physical therapies (patterning, optometric training). (DB)

  9. Measures of Cardiovascular Health and Physical Function after an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in a Patient Fifteen Days Post-Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Angela A; Mattlage, Anna E; Ashenden, Abigail L; Rippee, Michael A; Billinger, Sandra A

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: Case Study Background: Changes in cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness post-stroke severely impact an individual's quality of life. The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate whether a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise program would improve cardiovascular fitness, and physical performance measures in a participant following discharge from acute stroke rehabilitation. The participant is a 58 year-old female who experienced an ischemic stroke 15 days prior to beginning the exercise intervention. Case Description: The participant was provided a supervised 8-week exercise intervention on a Total Body Recumbent Stepper (TBRS). The exercise intervention consisted of three sessions per week; the first 4 weeks the participant exercised at a moderate intensity of 50-59% heart rate reserve (HRR) calculated from the baseline exercise test; the last 4 weeks the intensity was increased to 60-69% HRR. Exercise duration began at 20 minutes with the goal of reaching 30 minutes of continuous exercise at a specified workload. Outcomes: Following 8-weeks of intervention, the participant showed improvement in cardiovascular measures including: resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR), VO2 peak, and the maximum distance walked (6-MWT). Conclusion: The use of a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise intervention may be effective for participants in the sub-acute phase of stroke recovery in order to improve cardiovascular health and physical function. PMID:24772455

  10. Single-blind, randomized controlled trial of effectiveness of Naikan therapy as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia over a one-year follow-up period

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Hong; LI, Chenhu; ZHAO, Liyu; ZHAN, Guilai

    2015-01-01

    Background Current treatments for schizophrenia are often only partially effective. Aims Assess the possible benefit of using adjunctive Naikan therapy, a cognitive approach based on self-reflection that originated in Japan for the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods After resolution of acute psychotic symptoms, 235 psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia who had a middle school education or higher were randomly assigned to a control group (n=112) that received routine medication and inpatient rehabilitative treatment or an intervention group (n=123) that also received adjunctive Naikan therapy for 2 hours daily, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The patients were then discharged and followed up for 12 months. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP), and Insight and Attitude Questionnaire (ITAQ) were used to assess patients at enrollment, after the 1-month intervention, and after the 12-month follow-up. Evaluators were blind to the group assignment of patients. Results Only 13 (10.6%) of the intervention group participants relapsed over the 12-month follow-up, but 23 (20.5%) control group participants relapsed (X2=4.50, p=0.034). Using a modified intention-to-treat analysis and a repeated measure analysis of variance, the PANSS, PSP, and ITAQ total scores all showed significantly greater improvement over the 12-month follow-up in the Naikan group than in the control group. The drop in mean chlorpromazine-equivalent dosage from enrollment to the end of follow-up was significantly different in the intervention group but not in the control group, though the change in dosage over time between groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions This study provides robust support for the effectiveness of Naikan therapy as an adjunctive treatment during the recovery period of schizophrenia. Compared to treatment as usually, adjunctive Naikan therapy can sustain the improvement in psychotic symptoms achieved during acute

  11. Caution: Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Beverley Holden; Kauffman, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors encourage caution in the implementation of Response to Intervention and dispel the false hopes that Response to Intervention will solve many of education's challenges. Outlined in this article are the reasons why Response to Intervention cannot be the solution to the identification of students for special education, why it can't…

  12. Brief Interventions for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C

    2016-01-01

    Public health concerns regarding adolescent alcohol and other drug involvement emphasize the need for continuing research to develop and evaluate preventive interventions for use in a variety of settings. This focus includes research on brief interventions. This short commentary piece provides an overview of the brief intervention literature and highlights future directions PMID:27182561

  13. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2011-04-15

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  14. Intensive Intervention in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2015-01-01

    Students who demonstrate persistent mathematics difficulties and whose performance is severely below grade level require "intensive intervention". Intensive intervention is an individualized approach to instruction that is more demanding and concentrated than Tier 2 intervention efforts. We present the elements of intensive intervention…

  15. The Gang Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…

  16. Stressors during Pregnancy and the Postnatal Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Some infants experience unusual stress from pregnancy through the postnatal period and are especially called upon to exercise coping responses. Discusses unusual stressors, how the infant naturally copes with them, and how caregivers can provide assistance. Reviews studies on stress-relieving intervention techniques. (NH)

  17. Nonlinear periodization maximizes strength gains in split resistance training routines.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Artur G; Aoki, Marcelo S; Evangelista, Alexandre L; Alveno, Daniel A; Monteiro, Gizele A; Piçarro, Ivan da Cruz; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare strength gains after 12 weeks of nonperiodized (NP), linear periodized (LP), and nonlinear periodized (NLP) resistance training models using split training routines. Twenty-seven strength-trained men were recruited and randomly assigned to one of 3 balanced groups: NP, LP, and NLP. Strength gains in the leg press and in the bench press exercises were assessed. There were no differences between the training groups in the exercise pre-tests (p > 0.05) (i.e., bench press and leg press). The NLP group was the only group to significantly increase maximum strength in the bench press throughout the 12-week training period. In this group, upper-body strength increased significantly from pre-training to 4 weeks (p < 0.0001), from 4 to 8 weeks (p = 0.004), and from 8 weeks to the post-training (p < 0.02). The NLP group also exhibited an increase in leg press 1 repetition maximum at each time point (pre-training to 4 weeks, 4-8 week, and 8 weeks to post-training, p < 0.0001). The LP group demonstrated strength increases only after the eight training week (p = 0.02). There were no further strength increases from the 8-week to the post-training test. The NP group showed no strength increments after the 12-week training period. No differences were observed in the anthropometric profiles among the training models. In summary, our data suggest that NLP was more effective in increasing both upper- and lower-body strength for trained subjects using split routines. PMID:19528843

  18. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  19. Interventions for chronic blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Kristina; Matsumura, Sueko; Hatef, Elham; Akpek, Esen K

    2012-01-01

    additional studies not identified by the electronic searches. There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 February 2012. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (CCTs) in which participants were adults aged 16 years or older and clinically diagnosed with chronic blepharitis. We also included trials where participants with chronic blepharitis were a subset of the participants included in the study and data were reported separately for these participants. Interventions within the scope of this review included medical treatment and lid hygiene measures. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed search results, reviewed full-text copies for eligibility, examined risk of bias, and extracted data. Data were meta-analyzed for studies comparing similar interventions and reporting comparable outcomes with the same timing. Otherwise, results for included studies were summarized in the text. Main results There were 34 studies (2169 participants with blepharitis) included in this review: 20 studies (14 RCTs and 6 CCTs) included 1661 participants with anterior or mixed blepharitis and 14 studies (12 RCTs and 2 CCTs) included 508 participants with posterior blepharitis (MGD). Due to the heterogeneity of study characteristics among the included studies, with respect to follow-up periods and types of interventions, comparisons, and condition of participants, our ability to perform meta-analyses was limited. Topical antibiotics were shown to provide some symptomatic relief and were effective in eradicating bacteria from the eyelid margin for anterior blepharitis. Lid hygiene may provide symptomatic relief for anterior and posterior blepharitis. The effectiveness of other treatments for blepharitis, such as topical steroids and oral antibiotics, were inconclusive. Authors’ conclusions Despite identifying 34 trials

  20. An oral cancer awareness intervention in community pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; Lowe, D; Catleugh, M; Edwards, D

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the impact on 95 community pharmacies of an educational package on awareness of oral cancer, which consisted of a training evening, pharmacy protocol, and information for patients. Results of a questionnaire and the experience of a mystery shopper before the intervention and 6 months later were used to evaluate its effectiveness. Before the intervention 29% of pharmacies advised "my 60-year-old friend who has had an ulcer in his mouth for 4 weeks" to see a doctor or a dentist. Afterwards this rose to 45% with advice being confined to seeing a doctor. There was also a substantial reduction in advice being given to buy a product. The questionnaire showed that although responses between the baseline and follow up were similar regarding health behaviours and signs and symptoms in relation to oral cancer, more (74-89%) thought that drinking alcohol, and less (46-36%) thought that passive smoking increased the risk of oral cancer. There was also an increase in the number who thought that burning sensations (42-57%), white patches (52-76%), red patches (57-76%), speckled patches (46-68%), and a persistent ulcer (82-91%) might be signs or symptoms of oral cancer. The intervention was well received, and changes in knowledge and practice were evident, but the study showed that there is potential for much greater awareness of oral cancer amongst pharmacists and their staff. PMID:19959266

  1. Using music interventions in perioperative care.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori; Swezey, Shane; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety and pain are common responses to surgery, and both can negatively affect patient outcomes. Music interventions have been suggested as a nonpharmacological intervention to alleviate pain and anxiety during surgical treatment. Although the data are somewhat mixed, the research suggests that music-based interventions are effective in reducing anxiety, pain perception, and sedative intake. The majority of studies have focused on interventions during the postoperative period and address pain reduction, with preoperative use of music targeting anxiety reduction the second most commonly cited objective. Most of the studies found in the literature involve passive music listening via headphones. The data suggest that researcher-selected music is most effective in reducing anxiety, primarily because it incorporates evidence-based parameters such as consistent tempo and dynamics, stable rhythms, and smooth melodic lines. Finally, the literature suggests that music therapists can serve as experts to help medical personnel identify effective implementation strategies. PMID:22948329

  2. Interventional Radiology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Teng Gaojun Xu Ke; Ni Caifang; Li Linsun

    2008-03-15

    With more than 3000 members, the Chinese Society of Interventional Radiology (CSIR) is one of the world's largest societies for interventional radiology (IR). Nevertheless, compared to other societies such as CIRSE and SIR, the CSIR is a relatively young society. In this article, the status of IR in China is described, which includes IR history, structure and patient management, personnel, fellowship, training, modalities, procedures, research, turf battle, and insightful visions for IR from Chinese interventional radiologists.

  3. Pediatric Interventional Radiology: Non-Vascular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR), which includes variety of procedures done under image guidance has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions, plays a significant role in the delivery of safe and effective care by reducing surgical risks, decreasing the length of hospital stay and reducing costs. The application of interventional techniques in children has been delayed over years as compared to adults due to lack of special hardwares/equipments, lack of adequately trained physicians and also the lack of awareness among the pediatric practitioners. This situation is gradually changing now owing to the advancements in technology. In this review, authors will discuss various non-vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. PMID:26762330

  4. Intervention Strategies with the Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    A literature review describing psychological and sociological factors of homelessness. Methods of estimating the frequency of homelessness are described, along with recent point-in-time and period-of-time estimates. Models of service delivery are reviewed. A biopsychosocial model of intervention is proposed that describes stages of intervention…

  5. 39 CFR 954.10 - Intervention or other participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intervention or other participation. 954.10 Section 954.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.10 Intervention or other participation. To intervene or...

  6. 39 CFR 954.10 - Intervention or other participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Intervention or other participation. 954.10 Section 954.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.10 Intervention...

  7. 39 CFR 954.10 - Intervention or other participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intervention or other participation. 954.10 Section 954.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.10 Intervention...

  8. 39 CFR 954.10 - Intervention or other participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Intervention or other participation. 954.10 Section 954.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.10 Intervention...

  9. 39 CFR 954.10 - Intervention or other participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intervention or other participation. 954.10 Section 954.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.10 Intervention...

  10. When to Recommend Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Bain, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the critical issues that influence whether a child with language impairments can benefit from intervention. It recommends three procedures (profiling, dynamic assessment, and tracking/monitoring) as tools for helping speech-language pathologists make informed decisions about intervention. (Author/JDD)

  11. Practical interventional radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Von Sonnenberg, E.; Mueller, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book describes techniques employed in interventional radiology with emphasis on imaging leading to intervention. Includes the entire array of procedures available to the radiologist, discussing the indications, materials, technique, results, and complications for each. Covers the chest, abdomen, bone, pediatric considerations, and nursing care.

  12. Anger Management Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Palardy, Nicole R.; McElroy, Heather K.; Phillips, Nancy; Holmes, Khiela J.

    2004-01-01

    Two anger management interventions for aggressive children, Anger Coping and Coping Power, are described in this review article, including conceptual underpinnings, session format and content, and outcome research findings. Important issues and considerations in the implementation of such interventions are also presented. Overall, Anger Coping and…

  13. Feasibility of Delivering a Dance Intervention for SubAcute Stroke in a Rehabilitation Hospital Setting

    PubMed Central

    Demers, Marika; McKinley, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Dance can be a promising treatment intervention used in rehabilitation for individuals with disabilities to address physical, cognitive and psychological impairments. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a modified dance intervention as an adjunct therapy designed for people with subacute stroke, in a rehabilitation setting. Using a descriptive qualitative study design, a biweekly 45-min dance intervention was offered to individuals with a subacute stroke followed in a rehabilitation hospital, over 4 weeks. The dance intervention followed the structure of an usual dance class, but the exercises were modified and progressed to meet each individual’s needs. The dance intervention, delivered in a group format, was feasible in a rehabilitation setting. A 45-min dance class of moderate intensity was of appropriate duration and intensity for individuals with subacute stroke to avoid excessive fatigue and to deliver the appropriate level of challenge. The overall satisfaction of the participants towards the dance class, the availability of space and equipment, and the low level of risks contributed to the feasibility of a dance intervention designed for individuals in the subacute stage of post-stroke recovery. PMID:25785497

  14. Examining the effects of linking student performance and progression in a tier 2 kindergarten reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Deborah C; Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-Man; Coyne, Michael D; Simmons, Leslie E; Oslund, Eric; Fogarty, Melissa; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Little, Mary E; Rawlinson, D'Ann

    2015-01-01

    Despite the emerging evidence base on response to intervention, there is limited research regarding how to effectively use progress-monitoring data to adjust instruction for students in Tier 2 intervention. In this study, we analyzed extant data from a series of randomized experimental studies of a kindergarten supplemental reading intervention to determine whether linking performance on formative assessments to curriculum progression improved kindergarten reading outcomes over standard implementation. We were interested in whether specific progression adjustments would enhance the effects of supplemental reading intervention. Growth-mixture modeling using data from kindergarteners (n = 136) whose intervention progression (e.g. repeat lessons, skip lessons) was adjusted every 4 weeks based on mastery data identified four latent classes characterized by unique profiles of curriculum progression adjustments. Multilevel analyses comparing the performance of students in the four classes with that of propensity matched groups whose intervention was not adjusted (n = 101) indicated positive effects of curriculum progression for (a) students whose formative assessment performance exceeded 90% and received early and sustained lesson acceleration and (b) students who initially performed below 70% on assessments and who repeated early lessons and progressed to conventional implementation. Effects of curriculum adjustments for the two smallest groups were less clear. PMID:23907163

  15. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  16. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  17. Challenges in Replicating Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Stephanie G; Newcomer, Susan F; Bachrach, Christine; Borawski, Elaine; Jemmott, John L; Morrison, Diane; Stanton, Bonita; Tortolero, Susan; Zimmerman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes and reflects on an effort to document, through a set of six interventions, the process of adapting effective youth risk behavior interventions for new settings. It provides insights into how this might best be accomplished. It discusses six studies funded by NIH starting in 1999. The studies were funded in response to a Request for Applications [RFA] to replicate HIV prevention interventions for youth. Researchers were to select an HIV risk reduction intervention program shown to be effective in one adolescent population and to replicate it in a new community or different adolescent population. This was to be done while systematically documenting those processes and aspects of the intervention hypothesized to be critical to the development of community-based, culturally sensitive programs. The replication was to assess the variations necessary to gain cooperation, implement a locally feasible and meaningful intervention, and evaluate the outcomes in the new setting. Methods This paper lays out the rationale for this initiative and describes the goals and the approaches to adaptation of the funded researchers. Results The paper discusses issues relevant to all interventions, those unique to replication and to these replications in particular. It then reflects on the processes and the consequences of the adaptations. It does not address the further challenges in taking a successful intervention “to scale.” Conclusions Replications of effective interventions face all of the challenges of implementation design plus additional challenges of balancing fidelity to the original intervention and sensitivity to the needs of new populations. PMID:17531757

  18. Functional Imagery Training to reduce snacking: Testing a novel motivational intervention based on Elaborated Intrusion theory.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Jackie; Khalil, Marina; Dickson, Jennifer; May, Jon; Kavanagh, David J

    2016-05-01

    Functional Imagery Training (FIT) is a new theory-based, manualized intervention that trains positive goal imagery. Multisensory episodic imagery of proximal personal goals is elicited and practised, to sustain motivation and compete with less functional cravings. This study tested the impact of a single session of FIT plus a booster phone call on snacking. In a stepped-wedge design, 45 participants who wanted to lose weight or reduce snacking were randomly assigned to receive a session of FIT immediately or after a 2-week delay. High-sugar and high-fat snacks were recorded using timeline follow back for the previous 3 days, at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks. At 2 weeks, snacking was lower in the immediate group than in the delayed group, and the reduction after FIT was replicated in the delayed group between 2 and 4 weeks. Frequencies of motivational thoughts about snack reduction rose following FIT for both groups, and this change correlated with reductions in snacking and weight loss. By showing that FIT can support change in eating behaviours, these findings show its potential as a motivational intervention for weight management. PMID:26877217

  19. The interventional effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions and interpersonal interactions

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoli; Shi, Wendian; Han, Xiangxiang; Wang, Nana; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions, intragroup interactions, and complex understanding of others. A total of 50 freshmen not receiving any training in meditation intervention were randomly divided into the meditation group (25 subjects) and the control group (25 subjects). The meditation group was implemented with group meditation intervention for 4 weeks, three times a week, about 30 minutes each time. The results revealed that the effect sizes in interpersonal interaction and complex understanding of others in the meditation group were both above 0.8, indicating strong effects. It was concluded that loving-kindness meditation can effectively improve positive emotions, interpersonal interactions, and complex understanding of others in college students. PMID:26060402

  20. Evaluation of a Web-Based Intervention to Promote Hand Hygiene: Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sascha; Schlotz, Wolff; Little, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background Hand-washing is regarded as a potentially important behavior for preventing transmission of respiratory infection, particularly during a pandemic. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate whether a Web-based intervention can encourage more frequent hand-washing in the home, and to examine potential mediators and moderators of outcomes, as a necessary first step before testing effects of the intervention on infection rates in the PRIMIT trial (PRimary care trial of a website based Infection control intervention to Modify Influenza-like illness and respiratory infection Transmission). Methods In a parallel-group pragmatic exploratory trial design, 517 nonblinded adults recruited through primary care were automatically randomly assigned to a fully automated intervention comprising 4 sessions of tailored motivational messages and self-regulation support (n = 324) or to a no-intervention control group (n = 179; ratio 2:1). Hand-washing frequency and theory of planned behavior cognitions relating to hand-washing were assessed by online questionnaires at baseline (in only half of the control participants, to permit evaluation of effects of baseline assessment on effect sizes), at 4 weeks (postintervention; all participants), and at 12 weeks. Results Hand-washing rates in the intervention group were higher at 4 weeks than in the control group (mean 4.40, n = 285 and mean 4.04, n = 157, respectively; P < .001, Cohen d = 0.42) and remained higher at 12 weeks (mean 4.45, n = 282 and mean 4.12, n = 154, respectively; P < .001, Cohen d = 0.34). Hand-washing intentions and positive attitudes toward hand-washing increased more from baseline to 4 weeks in the intervention group than in the control group. Mediation analyses revealed positive indirect effects of the intervention on change in hand-washing via intentions (coefficient = .15, 95% confidence interval [CI], .08–.26) and attitudes (coefficient = 0.16, 95% CI, .09–.26). Moderator analyses

  1. Why Early Intervention Works

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A systems perspective is put forward designed to place the many diverse conceptual and practice approaches and accomplishments in the early intervention field within a common framework. Complex reciprocal patterns of influence are described emphasizing risk and protective factors operating at 3 levels: child social and cognitive competence, family patterns of interaction, and family resources. It is argued that this framework can provide an understanding with respect to why early intervention works when it does as well as establish a new assessment and intervention approach firmly grounded in developmental science. PMID:21532932

  2. Intervention research: GAO experiences.

    PubMed

    Grasso, P G

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes tools of program evaluation that may prove useful in conducting research on occupational health and safety interventions. It presents examples of three studies conducted by the U.S. General Accounting Office that illustrate a variety of techniques for collecting and analyzing data on program interventions, including analysis of extant data, synthesis of results of existing studies, and combining data from administrative files with survey results. At the same time, it stresses the importance and difficulty of constructing an adequate "theory" of how the intervention is expected to affect outcomes, both for guiding data collection and for allowing adequate interpretation of results. PMID:8728140

  3. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications. PMID:23306213

  4. Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease There are a ... liver that can be treated with nonsurgical, interventional radiology techniques. Portal Hypertension Seen most frequently in patients ...

  5. Different Exercise Training Interventions and Drop-Landing Biomechanics in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pfile, Kate R.; Hart, Joseph M.; Herman, Daniel C.; Hertel, Jay; Kerrigan, D. Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in female athletes and are related to poor neuromuscular control. Comprehensive neuromuscular training has been shown to improve biomechanics; however, we do not know which component of neuromuscular training is most responsible for the changes. Objective: To assess the efficacy of either a 4-week core stability program or plyometric program in altering lower extremity and trunk biomechanics during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). Design: Cohort study. Setting: High school athletic fields and motion analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-three high school female athletes (age = 14.8 ± 0.8 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 57.7 ± 8.5 kg). Intervention(s): Independent variables were group (core stability, plyometric, control) and time (pretest, posttest). Participants performed 5 DVJs at pretest and posttest. Intervention participants engaged in a 4-week core stability or plyometric program. Main Outcome Measure(s): Dependent variables were 3-dimensional hip, knee, and trunk kinetics and kinematics during the landing phase of a DVJ. We calculated the group means and associated 95% confidence intervals for the first 25% of landing. Cohen d effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all differences. Results: We found within-group differences for lower extremity biomechanics for both intervention groups (P ≤ .05). The plyometric group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the knee-flexion and knee-abduction moments. The core stability group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the hip-flexion and hip internal-rotation moments. The control group decreased the knee external-rotation moment. All kinetic changes had a strong effect size (Cohen d > 0.80). Conclusions: Both programs resulted in biomechanical changes, suggesting that both types of exercises are warranted for ACL injury prevention and should be

  6. Intervention Taxonomy (ITAX): Describing Essential Features of Interventions (HMC)

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; McKay, James R.; Ory, Marcia G; Belle, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify key features of interventions that need to be considered in the design, execution, and reporting of interventions. Methods Based on prior work on decomposing psychosocial and clinical interventions, current guidelines for describing interventions, and a review of a broad range of intervention studies, we developed a comprehensive intervention taxonomy. Results Specific recommendations, rationales, and definitions of intervention delivery and content characteristics including mode, materials, location, schedule, scripting, and sensitivity to participant characteristics, interventionist characteristics, adaptability, implementation, content strategies, and mechanisms of action are provided. Conclusions Applying this taxonomy will advance intervention science by (a) improving intervention designs, (b) enhancing replication and follow-up of intervention studies, (c) facilitating systematic exploration of the efficacy and effectiveness of intervention components through cross-study analysis, and (d) informing decisions about the feasibility of implementation in broader community settings. PMID:20604704

  7. Overview of Early Intervention

    MedlinePlus

    ... process. Back to top The evaluation and assessment process Service coordinator | Once connected with either Child Find ... service coordinator who will explain the early intervention process and help you through the next steps in ...

  8. Pediatric Biliary Interventions.

    PubMed

    Atchie, Benjamin; Kalva, Sanjeeva; Josephs, Shellie

    2015-12-01

    An interventional radiologist is frequently called to evaluate and treat biliary diseases in children; a tailored approach specific to this population is required. Imaging with an emphasis on minimizing ionizing radiation is used not only in the initial workup but also to guide interventions. The most common form of intervention generally consists of transhepatic biliary drainage to treat either biliary obstruction or bile leakage, a scenario frequently encountered after pediatric liver transplantation. Other pathologies referred for evaluation and management include biliary atresia and, rarely, symptomatic choledochal cysts. Biliary complications caused by an underlying malignancy are not a frequently encountered problem in the pediatric population. The initial evaluation, role of preprocedural imaging, and interventional management with an emphasis on technique are discussed regarding these common biliary pathologies in children. PMID:26615168

  9. Surgical Intervention to Rescue Hirschsprung Disease in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Stamp, Lincon A; Obermayr, Florian; Pontell, Louise; Young, Heather M; Xie, Dan; Croaker, David H; Song, Zan-Min; Furness, John B

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Rats with a spontaneous null mutation in endothelin receptor type B or Ednrb (sl/sl; spotting lethal) lack enteric neurons in the distal bowel and usually die within the first week after birth. This early postnatal lethality limits their use for examining the potential of cell therapy to treat Hirschsprung disease, and for studies of the influence of EDNRB on the mature CNS and vascular systems. Methods We have developed a surgical intervention to prolong the life of the spotting lethal sl/sl rat, in which we perform a colostomy on postnatal (P) day 4–6 rats to avoid the fatal obstruction caused by the lack of colonic enteric neurons. Results The stomas remained patent and functional and the rats matured normally following surgery. Weight gains were comparable between control and Hirschsprung phenotype (sl/sl) rats, which were followed until 4 weeks after surgery (5 weeks old). We confirmed the absence of enteric neurons in the distal colon of rats whose lives were saved by the surgical intervention. Conclusions This study provides a novel approach for studying EDNRB signalling in multiple organ systems in mature rats, including an animal model to study the efficacy of cell therapy to treat Hirschsprung disease. PMID:26424040

  10. 26 CFR 301.7609-5 - Suspension of periods of limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suspension of periods of limitations. 301.7609... requirements of section 7609(f). (b) Intervention in an action to enforce the summons—(1) In general. If a... 7609(b). (2) Period during which a proceeding is pending—(i) Intervention in an enforcement...

  11. Social Competence Intervention in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDS) - A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Noor A.; Oweini, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine the effectiveness of a combined intervention in remediating the social skills in a first-grader with a disorder from the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The researcher also aimed to identify the changes observed during the intervention period. The combined intervention consisted of reading…

  12. A Longitudinal Evaluation of "QuickSmart": An Effective Australian Intervention to Improve Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Lorraine; Pegg, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports data from the evaluation of the numeracy component of a long-running educational intervention, covering the period from 2001 to 2008. "QuickSmart" is both an intervention and research project operating in Australian schools. It is a structured intervention program designed for middle-school students (ages 10 to 13 years) with…

  13. Feasibility trial of a film-based educational intervention for increasing boys’ and girls’ intentions to avoid teenage pregnancy: Study protocol☆

    PubMed Central

    Lohan, Maria; Aventin, Áine; Maguire, Lisa; Clarke, Mike; Linden, Mark; McDaid, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organisation, amongst others, recognises that adolescent men have a vital yet neglected role in reducing teenage pregnancies and that there is a pressing need for educational interventions designed especially for them. This study seeks to fill this gap by determining the feasibility of conducting an effectiveness trial of the If I Were Jack intervention in post-primary schools. This 4-week intervention aims to increase teenagers’ intentions to avoid unintended pregnancy and addresses gender inequalities in sex education by explicitly focusing on young men. A cluster randomised feasibility trial with embedded process evaluation will determine: recruitment, participation and retention rates; quality of implementation; acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and trial procedures; and costs. PMID:25284956

  14. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  15. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  16. Effect of music as nursing intervention for people diagnosed with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Onieva-Zafra, María Dolores; Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Primary fibromyalgia, a poorly understood chronic pain syndrome, is a disorder of uncertain etiology. The ultimate goal of fibromyalgia treatment is to develop a multimodal therapy. In recent years, the use of music as an intervention for the pain management and other symptoms has increased. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music on pain and depression for people diagnosed with fibromyalgia using Rogers' theory of the unitary human being as the theoretical framework. An experimental 4-week longitudinal trial design was undertaken. Sixty patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to either a music intervention group or a control group. Music interventions consisted of listening to music once a day for 4 consecutive weeks using two types of CDs. Pain was measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire Long Form and depression with the Beck inventory; a 100-mm visual analog scale was used to measure pain and depression. The treatment group reported a significant reduction in pain and depression at week 4 compared with the control group. Members of the control group reported no differences in pain. The findings of this pilot study suggest the importance of music therapy as a nursing intervention and justify further investigation into music as a self-management intervention to reduce pain and depression. PMID:23108015

  17. Efficacy of expectancy challenge interventions to reduce college student drinking: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Terry, Danielle L; Carey, Kate B; Garey, Lorra; Carey, Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Interventions challenging alcohol expectancies may lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of alcohol expectancy challenge (EC) interventions for college alcohol abuse prevention. Included were 14 studies (19 EC interventions) that measured alcohol expectancies and consumption, provided sufficient information to calculate effect sizes, and were available as of June 2010 (N=1,415; M age=20 years; 40% women; 88% White). Independent raters coded participant characteristics, design and methodological features, and intervention content, and calculated weighted mean effect sizes at first follow-up, using both fixed and random effects models. Compared with controls, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.23 to 0.28). Within-group improvements in alcohol expectancies and consumption emerged for the EC group only; relative to their own baseline, EC participants reported lower positive alcohol expectancies, reduced their alcohol use, and reduced their frequency of heavy drinking (d+s ranged from 0.13 to 0.36). Supplemental analyses found improvements in specific alcohol expectancies (social, sexual, tension, and arousal) both between groups and within group. The short-term effects of EC interventions on college student drinking are not maintained at follow-ups greater than 4 weeks. PMID:22428862

  18. Wavelet periodicity detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, John J.; Pfander, Goetz E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of time series with respect to certain known periodicities. In particular, we shall present a fast method aimed at detecting periodic behavior inherent in noise data. The method is composed of three steps: (1) Non-noisy data are analyzed through spectral and wavelet methods to extract specific periodic patterns of interest. (2) Using these patterns, we construct an optimal piecewise constant wavelet designed to detect the underlying periodicities. (3) We introduce a fast discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform, as well as waveletgram averaging techniques, to detect occurrence and period of these periodicities. The algorithm is formulated to provide real time implementation. Our procedure is generally applicable to detect locally periodic components in signals s which can be modeled as s(t) equals A(t)F(h(t)) + N(t) for t in I, where F is a periodic signal, A is a non-negative slowly varying function, and h is strictly increasing with h' slowly varying, N denotes background activity. For example, the method can be applied in the context of epileptic seizure detection. In this case, we try to detect seizure periodics in EEG and ECoG data. In the case of ECoG data, N is essentially 1/f noise. In the case of EEG data and for t in I,N includes noise due to cranial geometry and densities. In both cases N also includes standard low frequency rhythms. Periodicity detection has other applications including ocean wave prediction, cockpit motion sickness prediction, and minefield detection.

  19. Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, Nancy A; Clair, Carole; Munafò, Marcus R; Stead, Lindsay F

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking contributes to reasons for hospitalisation, and the period of hospitalisation may be a good time to provide help with quitting. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of interventions for smoking cessation that are initiated for hospitalised patients. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group register which includes papers identified from CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO in December 2011 for studies of interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients, using terms including (hospital and patient*) or hospitali* or inpatient* or admission* or admitted. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized trials of behavioural, pharmacological or multicomponent interventions to help patients stop smoking, conducted with hospitalised patients who were current smokers or recent quitters (defined as having quit more than one month before hospital admission). The intervention had to start in the hospital but could continue after hospital discharge. We excluded studies of patients admitted to facilities that primarily treat psychiatric disorders or substance abuse, studies that did not report abstinence rates and studies with follow-up of less than six months. Both acute care hospitals and rehabilitation hospitals were included in this update, with separate analyses done for each type of hospital. Data collection and analysis Two authors extracted data independently for each paper, with disagreements resolved by consensus. Main results Fifty trials met the inclusion criteria. Intensive counselling interventions that began during the hospital stay and continued with supportive contacts for at least one month after discharge increased smoking cessation rates after discharge (risk ratio (RR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27 to 1.48; 25 trials). A specific benefit for post-discharge contact compared with usual care was found in a subset of trials in which all participants received a counselling intervention in

  20. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO. PMID:26028929

  1. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  2. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  3. Immune interventions in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Liu, Qiang; Anrather, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory and immune responses in the brain can shape the clinical presentation and outcome of stroke. Approaches for effective management of acute stroke are sparse and many measures for brain protection fail, but our ability to modulate the immune system and modify the disease progression of multiple sclerosis is increasing. As a result, immune interventions are currently being explored as therapeutic interventions in acute stroke. In this Review, we compare the immunological features of acute stroke with those of multiple sclerosis, identify unique immunological features of stroke, and consider the evidence for immune interventions. In acute stroke, microglia activation and cell death products trigger an inflammatory cascade that damages vessels and the parenchyma within minutes to hours of the ischaemia or haemorrhage. Immune interventions that restrict brain inflammation, vascular permeability and tissue oedema must be administered rapidly to reduce acute immune-mediated destruction and to avoid subsequent immunosuppression. Preliminary results suggest that the use of drugs that modify disease in multiple sclerosis might accomplish these goals in ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Further elucidation of the immune mechanisms involved in stroke is likely to lead to successful immune interventions. PMID:26303850

  4. Identification of Interventions to Control Network Crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Sahasrabudhe, Sagar; Motter, Adilson

    2012-02-01

    Large-scale crises in financial, social, infrastructure, genetic and ecological networks often result from the spread of disturbances that in isolation would only cause limited damage. Here we present a method to identify and schedule interventions that can mitigate cascading failures in general complex networks. When applied to competition networks, our method shows that the system can often be rescued from global failures through actions that satisfy restrictive constraints typical of real-world conditions. However, under such constraints, interventions that can rescue the system from a propagating cascade exist over specific periods of time that do not always include the early postperturbation period, suggesting that scheduling is critical in the control of network cascades.

  5. Safety of Conscious Sedation In Interventional Radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Arepally, Aravind; Oechsle, Denise; Kirkwood, Sharon; Savader, Scott J.

    2001-05-15

    Purpose: To identify rates of adverse events associated with the use of conscious sedation in interventional radiology.Methods: In a 5-month period, prospective data were collected on patients undergoing conscious sedation for interventional radiology procedures (n = 594). Adverse events were categorized as respiratory, sedative, or major adverse events. Respiratory adverse events were those that required oral airway placement, ambu bag, or jaw thrust. Sedation adverse events were unresponsiveness, oxygen saturation less than 90%, use of flumazenil/naloxone, or agitation. Major adverse events were hypotension, intubation, CPR, or cardiac arrest. The frequency of adverse events for the five most common radiology procedures were determined.Results: The five most common procedures (total n = 541) were biliary tube placement/exchange (n = 182), tunneled catheter placement (n 135), diagnostic arteriography (n = 125), vascular interventions (n = 52), and other catheter insertions (n = 46). Rates for respiratory, sedation, and major adverse events were 4.7%, 4.2%, and 2.0%, respectively. The most frequent major adverse event was hypotension (2.0%). Biliary procedures had the highest rate of total adverse events (p < .05) and respiratory adverse events (p < .05).Conclusion: The frequency of adverse events is low with the use of conscious sedation during interventional procedures. The highest rates occurred during biliary interventions.

  6. Low serum enterolactone concentration is associated with low colonic Lactobacillus-Enterococcus counts in men but is not affected by a synbiotic mixture in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over intervention study.

    PubMed

    Holma, Reetta; Kekkonen, Riina A; Hatakka, Katja; Poussa, Tuija; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Adlercreutz, Herman; Korpela, Riitta

    2014-01-28

    The aims of the present study were to assess the possible differences in faecal microbiota between men with a low serum enterolactone concentration and those with a high concentration, and to investigate the impact of a synbiotic mixture on serum enterolactone concentration in men with a low concentration. We compared faecal microbiota between ten men with the lowest serum enterolactone concentration and ten men with the highest concentration at recruitment (n 84). Furthermore, we carried out a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention study (6-week intervention periods and 4-week washout period) to investigate the impact of a synbiotic mixture (two Lactobacillus strains, one Bifidobacterium strain, one Propionibacterium strain and galacto-oligosaccharides (32 g/l)) on serum enterolactone concentration in fifty-two men who had a concentration < 20 nmol/l. Serum sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured at the end of the first intervention period. Men with a low serum enterolactone concentration when compared with those with a high concentration had less faecal bacteria, especially those belonging to the Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group (median 8·2 (interquartile range 7·8-8·4) log10 colony-forming units/g v. median 8·8 (interquartile range 8·5-8·9) log10 colony-forming units/g, P= 0·009). The synbiotic mixture that was used did not have a significant effect on serum enterolactone (synbiotic v. placebo ratio 0·96 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·22), P= 0·724) or serum sensitive CRP (synbiotic v. placebo ratio 0·99 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·33), P= 0·954) concentration. Men with a low serum enterolactone concentration harbour less colonic bacteria, especially those belonging to the Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group. A synbiotic mixture does not increase serum enterolactone concentration. PMID:23919920

  7. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be due to this condition include: Kidney stones (a side effect of acetazolamide) Irregular heartbeat during ... 2016:chap 99. Read More Breathing difficulty Carbohydrates Kidney stones Potassium test Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Weakness Update Date ...

  8. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  9. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  10. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by abnormal conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Unless one of these potentially serious conditions is present, the treatment for painful periods is pain relief. If a ...

  11. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  12. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  13. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  14. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  15. Web-Based and Mobile Delivery of an Episodic Future Thinking Intervention for Overweight and Obese Families: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Kilanowski, Colleen K; Collins, R Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Background The bias toward immediate gratification is associated with maladaptive eating behaviors and has been cross-sectionally and prospectively related to obesity. Engaging in episodic future thinking, which involves mental self-projection to pre-experience future events, reduces this bias and energy intake in overweight/obese adults and children. To examine how episodic future thinking can be incorporated into clinical interventions, a Web-based system was created to provide training for adults and children in their everyday lives. Objective Our study examined the technical feasibility, usability, and acceptability of a Web-based system that is accessible by mobile devices and adapts episodic future thinking for delivery in family-based obesity interventions. Methods We recruited 20 parent-child dyads (N=40) from the surrounding community and randomized to episodic future thinking versus a nutritional information thinking control to test the feasibility of a 4-week Web-based intervention. Parents were 44.1 (SD 7.8) years of age with BMI of 34.2 (SD 6.8) kg/m2. Children were 11.0 (SD 1.3) years of age with BMI percentile of 96.0 (SD 1.8). Families met weekly with a case manager for 4 weeks and used the system daily. Adherence was collected through the Web-based system, and perceived acceptance of the Web-based system was assessed postintervention. Measurements of body composition and dietary intake were collected at baseline and after the 4 weeks of intervention. Results All 20 families completed the intervention and attended all sessions. Results showed parents and children had high adherence to the Web-based system and perceived it to be easy to use, useful, and helpful. No differences between conditions were found in adherence for parents (P=.65) or children (P=.27). In addition, results suggest that basic nutrition information along with episodic future thinking delivered through our Web-based system may reduce energy intake and weight. Conclusions We

  16. Alcohol brief interventions.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    A large proportion of Americans report binge or heavy drinking. The human and economic costs of alcohol misuse are extensive, with hundreds of thousands of lives lost or disrupted and billions of dollars spent due to impaired productivity, crime, and adverse health consequences. In an effort to reduce costs such as these, scientists and clinicians have developed brief interventions, characterized by their low intensity and short (5-60 minutes) duration, as well as by their intent to provide early intervention before drinkers develop alcohol abuse or dependence. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to analyze research studies related to brief intervention and critically analyze and critique their findings. In addition, both prospective randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses will be used to discuss the implications for clinical practice and make recommendations for future research. PMID:16350770

  17. Refusal to medical interventions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, G; Herreros, B; Pacho, E

    2014-10-01

    Refusal to medical interventions is the not acceptance, voluntary and free, of an indicated medical intervention. What the physician should do in case of refusal? It is understandable that the rejection of a validated medical intervention is difficult to accept by the responsible physician when raises the conflict protection of life versus freedom of choice. Therefore it is important to follow some steps to incorporate the most relevant aspects of the conflict. These steps include: 1) Give complete information to patients, informing on possible alternatives, 2) determine whether the patient can decide (age, competency and level of capacity), 3) to ascertain whether the decision is free, 4) analyze the decision with the patient, 5) to persuade, 6) if the patient kept in the rejection decision, consider conscientious objection, 7) take the decision based on the named criteria, 8) finally, if the rejection is accepted, offer available alternatives. PMID:24880186

  18. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  19. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  20. [A workplace intervention aimed at increasing awareness in nursing personnel performing manual handling activities].

    PubMed

    Scorpiniti, A; Lorusso, A; L'Abbate, N

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe a workplace intervention aimed at reducing the risk of low back pain in nursing personnel. The intervention we carried out included a specific ergonomic training and an exercise program according to the Feldenkrais Method. After the intervention, we evaluated its effect on the execution of manual handling activities in nurses. We found an increased rate of correct manual handling in the post-intervention period. PMID:18410001

  1. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  2. Family intervention for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

    2014-01-01

    Background People with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of emotions. Forms of psychosocial intervention, designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families, are now widely used. Objectives To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared with standard care. Search strategy We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (September 2008). Selection criteria We selected randomised or quasi-randomised studies focusing primarily on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention with standard care. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data and calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR), the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for binary data, and, where appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). Main results This 2009-10 update adds 21 additional studies, with a total of 53 randomised controlled trials included. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (n = 2981, 32 RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.5 to 0.6, NNT 7 CI 6 to 8), although some small but negative studies might not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may also reduce hospital admission (n = 481, 8 RCTs, RR 0.78 CI 0.6 to 1.0, NNT 8 CI 6 to 13) and encourage compliance with medication (n = 695, 10 RCTs, RR 0.60 CI 0.5 to 0.7, NNT 6 CI 5 to 9) but it does not obviously affect the tendency of individuals/families to leave care (n = 733, 10 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.0). Family intervention also seems to improve general social impairment and the levels of

  3. [Interventional neuroradiology: current options].

    PubMed

    Szikora, István; Marosfői, Miklós; Berentei, Zsolt; Gubucz, István

    2015-04-26

    Modern interventional neuroradiology has a leading role in the treatment of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and it provides more and more important treatment options for degenerative diseases of the vertebral column and the management of correlated pain. During the last decades interventional neuroradiology has played a primary role in the treatment of intracranial berry aneurysms due to the continuous technical improvements. Ongoing studies proved superiority of mechanical stent-thrombectomy in acute proximal occlusion of cerebral arteries. Less invasive neurointerventional methods, such as vertebroplasty, are widely used in osteoporotic and neoplastic pathologic fractures of the vertebral bodies. These treatments should be performed in a specialized center by well trained physicians. PMID:26047151

  4. Substance Use in the Perinatal Period.

    PubMed

    Forray, Ariadna; Foster, Dawn

    2015-11-01

    Perinatal substance use remains a major public health problem and is associated with a number of deleterious maternal and fetal effects. Polysubstance use in pregnancy is common and can potentiate adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Tobacco is the most commonly used substance in pregnancy, followed by alcohol and illicit substances. The treatments for perinatal substance use are limited and consist mostly of behavioral and psychosocial interventions. Of these, contingency management has shown the most efficacy. More recently, novel interventions such as progesterone for postpartum cocaine use have shown promise. The purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids in the perinatal period, their effects on maternal and fetal health, and current treatments. PMID:26386836

  5. Medical interventions for traumatic hyphema

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Almutez; Savage, Howard I; Scherer, Roberta W; Goldberg, Morton F; Lindsley, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    data for the primary and secondary outcomes. We entered and analyzed data using Review Manager 5. We performed meta-analyses using a fixed-effect model and reported dichotomous outcomes as odds ratios and continuous outcomes as mean differences. Main results We included 20 randomized and seven quasi-randomized studies with 2643 participants in this review. Interventions included antifibrinolytic agents (oral and systemic aminocaproic acid, tranexamic acid, and aminomethylbenzoic acid), corticosteroids (systemic and topical), cycloplegics, miotics, aspirin, conjugated estrogens, traditional Chinese medicine, monocular versus bilateral patching, elevation of the head, and bed rest. No intervention had a significant effect on visual acuity whether measured at two weeks or less after the trauma or at longer time periods. The number of days for the primary hyphema to resolve appeared to be longer with the use of aminocaproic acid compared with no use, but was not altered by any other intervention. Systemic aminocaproic acid reduced the rate of recurrent hemorrhage (odds ratio (OR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.57), but a sensitivity analysis omitting studies not using an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis reduced the strength of the evidence (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.09). We obtained similar results for topical aminocaproic acid (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.10). We found tranexamic acid had a significant effect in reducing the rate of secondary hemorrhage (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.49), as did aminomethylbenzoic acid as reported in one study (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.32). The evidence to support an associated reduction in the risk of complications from secondary hemorrhage (i.e. corneal blood staining, peripheral anterior synechiae, elevated intraocular pressure, and development of optic atrophy) by antifibrinolytics was limited by the small number of these events. Use of aminocaproic acid was associated with increased nausea, vomiting, and other adverse

  6. Medical interventions for traumatic hyphema

    PubMed Central

    Gharaibeh, Almutez; Savage, Howard I; Scherer, Roberta W; Goldberg, Morton F; Lindsley, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    of enrollment. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted the data for the primary and secondary outcomes. We entered and analyzed data using Review Manager (RevMan) 5. We performed meta-analyses using a fixed-effect model and reported dichotomous outcomes as odds ratios and continuous outcomes as mean differences. Main results Nineteen randomized and seven quasi-randomized studies with 2,560 participants were included in this review. Interventions included antifibrinolytic agents (oral and systemic aminocaproic acid, tranexamic acid, and aminomethylbenzoic acid), corticosteroids (systemic and topical), cycloplegics, miotics, aspirin, conjugated estrogens, monocular versus bilateral patching, elevation of the head, and bed rest. No intervention had a significant effect on visual acuity whether measured at two weeks or less after the trauma or at longer time periods. The number of days for the primary hyphema to resolve appeared to be longer with the use of aminocaproic acid compared to no use, but was not altered by any other intervention. Systemic aminocaproic acid reduced the rate of recurrent hemorrhage (odds ratio (OR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.5), but a sensitivity analysis omitting studies not using an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis reduced the strength of the evidence (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.09). We obtained similar results for topical aminocaproic acid (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.10). We found tranexamic acid had a significant effect in reducing the rate of secondary hemorrhage (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.49), as did aminomethylbenzoic acid as reported in a single study (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.32). The evidence to support an associated reduction in the risk of complications from secondary hemorrhage (i.e., corneal blood staining, peripheral anterior synechiae, elevated intraocular pressure, and development of optic atrophy) by antifibrinolytics was limited by the small number of these events. Use of aminocaproic

  7. Tobacco Interventions. Fastback 421.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fibkins, William L.

    Tobacco is routinely used during the school day by many middle school, junior, and senior high school students. Since the cost of tobacco addiction in terms of illness and the drain on school resources are enormous, an in-school cessation program is needed. No other institution in the community is better situated to provide intervention programs…

  8. Early Intervention in Budapest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallai, Maria; Katona, Ferenc; Balogh, Erzsebet; Schultheisz, Judit; Deveny, Anna; Borbely, Sjoukje

    2000-01-01

    This article presents five models of early intervention used in Budapest. Diagnostic and treatment methods used by the Pediatric Institute and the Conductive Education System are described, along with the Deveny Special Manual Technique and Gymnastic Method, the Gezenguz method and techniques used in the Early Developmental Center. (CR)

  9. Response to Intervention Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Stephanie L.

    2013-01-01

    The intersection of No Child Left Behind (2002) and the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) made it necessary for educators to examine achievement trends within their schools and implement a Response to Intervention (RTI) program. This study examines the achievement trends in one school district since its…

  10. Intervention for Unsettled Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Beulah; And Others

    Outcomes of a follow-up, preventive care program based on a self-regulation model of neonate and parent behavior were studied in a controlled experiment. Subjects included a preterm control group, preterm intervention group, and full-term control group, with each group consisting of 27 infants. The assessment, which used the Brazelton Neonatal…

  11. Anesthesia for fetoscopic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Anwari, Jamil S.; Tareen, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    This is the first case report on anesthesia for fetoscopy performed in Saudi Arabia. Epidural anesthesia was given to the mother in her late second trimester for the fetoscopic intervention. The anesthesia related issues such as physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy, tocolytic medications and their interactions with anesthesia, anesthetizing/sedating the primary patient are discussed. PMID:25191206

  12. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  13. Criteria for Evaluating Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, T. R.

    2007-01-01

    By common consent there is a "gold standard" in reference to which the efficacy of medical interventions needs to be evaluated. It is suggested in this paper that in educational research achievement of this gold standard is rarely possible. It does not follow, however, that research that falls short of this standard is therefore valueless; there…

  14. MONTEFIORE - ASTHMA INTERVENTION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Montefiore Medical Center is conducting an asthma intervention study using, in part, their Lead Safe House on the Montefiore campus, a low-allergen controlled setting. There are three groups of participants, all severe asthmatics. The first group is being moved temporarily into...

  15. Interventions to Improve Communication

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Rhea

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS It is clear that children with autism benefit from intensive, early intervention that focuses on increasing the frequency, form, and function of communicative acts. Intervention methods that draw from a range of philosophies and make use of varying degrees of adult direction have been shown to be effective in increasing language and communicative behaviors, although direct comparisons among methods, controlled studies with random assignment to treatments, and long-term outcome studies are, as yet, lacking. Available evidence shows that highly structured behavioral methods have important positive consequences for these children, particularly in eliciting first words. However, the limitation of these methods in maintenance and generalization of skills suggests that many children with autism will need to have these methods supplemented with less adult-directed activities to increase communicative initiation and to carry over learned skills to new settings and communication partners. A review of programs aimed at language development in high functioning children with ASD points out the importance of thinking beyond words and sentences to the social functions of communication and language use when developing interventions. Although a range of adult-mediated programs are reviewed here, providing opportunities for mediated peer interactions with trained peers in natural settings appears to be especially important in maximizing the effects of this intervention. PMID:18775373

  16. Resilience in Practice Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Resilience is normally sought in the child, family and the community. It is a complex term that needs to be understood in context. This paper seeks to locate and trace resilience in the practitioner. It also examines how practitioners foster resilient interventions. A number of practice examples, taken from the author's own practice experience,…

  17. New Tools Reclaiming Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a story of James, an elementary student who was recently mainstreamed into a regular education classroom for science and now struggles to succeed in his new environment. It also describes how the New Tools reclaiming intervention puts him on the right track to making new friends. James is a ten-year-old African American…

  18. Juvenile Firesetter Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, Jessica

    This handbook is designed to teach communities how to develop an effective juvenile firesetter intervention program. The six chapters of this handbook can be viewed as the six building blocks essential to construct a successful program. The cornerstone of the blueprint is understanding the personality profiles of juvenile firesetters and their…

  19. Intervention as Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how workplace interventions may benefit from a simultaneous focus on individuals' learning and knowledge and on the situatedness of workplaces in the wider world of changing professional knowledge regimes. This is illustrated by the demand for evidence-based practice in health care.…

  20. A Home Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafayette County School District, Oxford, MS.

    A home intervention program for 18 learning disabled and educable mentally retarded elementary school children and their families included biweekly home visits during which parents were shown specific learning activities or games. Analysis of pre and post tests on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  1. The Weekend Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.

    The Weekend Intervention Program (WIP) at the Wright State University School of Medicine is described in this report. Designed to address severe health and social problems while supporting the university's academic mission, the program began with the goal of addressing the health and social problems of alcohol abusers. WIP is a 72-hour intensive…

  2. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  3. Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination in the medium and long term: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, N.; Clement, S.; Marcus, E.; Stona, A.-C.; Bezborodovs, N.; Evans-Lacko, S.; Palacios, J.; Docherty, M.; Barley, E.; Rose, D.; Koschorke, M.; Shidhaye, R.; Henderson, C.; Thornicroft, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most research on interventions to counter stigma and discrimination has focused on short-term outcomes and has been conducted in high-income settings. Aims To synthesise what is known globally about effective interventions to reduce mental illness-based stigma and discrimination, in relation first to effectiveness in the medium and long term (minimum 4 weeks), and second to interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Method We searched six databases from 1980 to 2013 and conducted a multi-language Google search for quantitative studies addressing the research questions. Effect sizes were calculated from eligible studies where possible, and narrative syntheses conducted. Subgroup analysis compared interventions with and without social contact. Results Eighty studies (n = 422 653) were included in the review. For studies with medium or long-term follow-up (72, of which 21 had calculable effect sizes) median standardised mean differences were 0.54 for knowledge and −0.26 for stigmatising attitudes. Those containing social contact (direct or indirect) were not more effective than those without. The 11 LMIC studies were all from middle-income countries. Effect sizes were rarely calculable for behavioural outcomes or in LMIC studies. Conclusions There is modest evidence for the effectiveness of anti-stigma interventions beyond 4 weeks follow-up in terms of increasing knowledge and reducing stigmatising attitudes. Evidence does not support the view that social contact is the more effective type of intervention for improving attitudes in the medium to long term. Methodologically strong research is needed on which to base decisions on investment in stigma-reducing interventions. PMID:26527664

  4. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  5. Ayurveda during Abbasid's period.

    PubMed

    Husain, S A; Subhaktha, P K

    2000-01-01

    This is a historical paper which deals with a brief account of Abbasid's period. In this article the existence of Ayurveda in Arab countries, arrival of Ayurvedic physicians to Baghdad, their eminence, authenticity and literary additions in medical field has been studied and presented. PMID:12578013

  6. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  7. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  8. Periods and Feynman integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    We consider multiloop integrals in dimensional regularization and the corresponding Laurent series. We study the integral in the Euclidean region and where all ratios of invariants and masses have rational values. We prove that in this case all coefficients of the Laurent series are periods.

  9. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  10. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  11. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  12. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement. PMID:18992793

  13. Biobehavioral Intervention for Cancer Stress: Conceptualization, Components, and Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Emery, Charles F.; Thiel, Debora L.

    2009-01-01

    Trials testing the efficacy of psychological interventions for cancer patients had their beginnings in the 1970s. Since then, hundreds of trials have found interventions to be generally efficacious. In this article, we describe an intervention grounded in a conceptual model that includes psychological, behavioral, and biological components. It is…

  14. Ethics and Early Intervention: Toward More Relationship-Focused Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Able-Boone, Harriet

    1996-01-01

    The ethical issues surrounding early intervention services to young children with disabilities are discussed. The conflict between parental autonomy and paternalistic interventions is evaluated. Value-based intervention decisions, such as parent choice of alternative therapies, refusal of services, and family-centered versus child-centered care,…

  15. Early intervention after perinatal stroke: Opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Anna P

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal stroke is the commonest cause of hemiplegic cerebral palsy. No standardised early intervention exists despite evidence for a critical time window for activity-dependent plasticity to mould corticospinal tract development in the first few years of life. Intervention during this unique period of plasticity could mitigate the consequences of perinatal stroke to an extent not possible with later intervention, by preserving the normal pattern of development of descending motor pathways. This article outlines the broad range of approaches currently under investigation. Improved early detection and outcome prediction remain important goals, despite significant progress in this area. PMID:24528276

  16. Slovenian experience from diagnostic angiography to interventional radiology

    PubMed Central

    Pavcnik, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of writing this article is to document the important events and people in the first 50 years of diagnostic angiography and interventional radiology in Slovenia. During this period not only did the name of the institutions and departments change, but also its governance. Conclusions This depicted the important roles different people played at various times in the cardiovascular divisions inside and outside of the diagnostic and interventional radiology. Historical data show that Slovenian radiology has relatively immediately introduced the new methods of interventional radiology in clinical practice. PMID:25435857

  17. Preconception care: nutritional risks and interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. Conclusion All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition

  18. Psychological Interventions in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce and emphasize the importance of psychological interventions for those with dermatological conditions. In keeping with the current literature, the author envisages a two-tier approach in the provision of such psychological interventions. Firstly, most patients with dermatology conditions may not require psychological change. Instead, they could be approached with effective doctor–patient communication skills, within a context of empathy and positive regard. At the second tier, however, based on the clinical interview, some patients may require varying degrees of psychological change in order to better manage their illness. In such a context, a dermatologist with training in psychotherapy would be required. In the absence of such a person, the patient may be referred to a psychologist or another mental health professional trained in psychotherapy. PMID:23372215

  19. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  20. [Endoscopic interventions in pulmonology].

    PubMed

    Gompelmann, D; Herth, F J F

    2016-08-01

    Bronchoscopy plays a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Hemoptysis, or central airway obstruction, is a common indication for interventional bronchoscopy. In addition, the treatment of early lung cancer is the domain of bronchoscopy in inoperable patients. In recent years, endoscopic techniques have also been established as new therapeutic options in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and uncontrolled bronchial asthma. PMID:27351790

  1. Percutaneous ureteral interventions.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Robert; Saad, Wael E A; Brown, Daniel B

    2009-09-01

    Urinary strictures are commonly managed by interventional radiologists and can result from both benign and malignant etiologies. Many patients end up with lifelong catheters. Although stricture dilation is commonly unsuccessful, some patients can eventually become catheter free. This review describes current outcomes with a variety of dilation and stenting techniques. Management of complex ureteral and urinary complications is also reviewed, including ureteral/arterial fistulas and ureteral embolization for permanent diversion. PMID:19945661

  2. Interventions in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D S; Sheriff, S Omer

    2006-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology has helped many childless couples. It has also raised questions about how appropriate the technology might be in different situations. How we understand parenthood is crucial in taking a stand on such scientific intervention. It is suggested that physicians should decide on offering artificial insemination, surrogacy and in-vitro fertilisation only after considering if the child will have good parents and if there will be legal complications from the use of the technology. PMID:17223683

  3. Criteria for evaluating interventions.

    PubMed

    Miles, T R

    2007-11-01

    By common consent there is a 'gold standard' in reference to which the efficacy of medical interventions needs to be evaluated. It is suggested in this paper that in educational research achievement of this gold standard is rarely possible. It does not follow, however, that research that falls short of this standard is therefore valueless; there may be many different kinds of good (and less good) reasons for accepting particular conclusions. PMID:17948881

  4. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  5. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  6. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  7. Academic Accountability and State Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, John W.

    This speech discusses the national emerging trend toward state intervention in local educational processes as part of the academic accountability movement. It provides examples of reforms and improvements whereby state intervention furnished local school improvement. The address focuses on state intervention in Jersey City, New Jersey; predicts…

  8. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  9. Effective interventions for reading disability.

    PubMed

    Williams, M C; Lecluyse, K; Rock-Faucheux, A

    1992-06-01

    A simple, readily accessible, and inexpensive intervention which produces immediate improvements in the reading comprehension abilities of reading-disabled children has been found. The intervention consists of colored overlays, or overlays which reduce the contrast of printed materials. This intervention produces reading comprehension gains in approximately 80 percent of the reading-disabled children tested. PMID:1378860

  10. Expenditures for Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Levin, Jesse; Perez, Maria; Lam, Irene; Chambers, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    What does it cost to provide early intervention services? Data collected as part of the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study were used to determine expenditures for infants, toddlers, and their families receiving services through Part C programs. The study found that the national average total expenditure for early intervention services…

  11. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  12. An intervention to increase alcohol treatment engagement: a pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, Tracy; McGovern, Mark P.; Herr, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Previous research has documented the difficulty individuals with alcohol use disorders have initiating alcohol treatment. This study assessed the feasibility of a brief, cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase treatment initiation among individuals with alcohol use disorders. Methods This randomized controlled trial included one hundred and ninety six participants who screened positive for a possible alcohol use disorder on the AUDIT. Randomly assigned intervention participants were administered a brief cognitive-behaviorally-based intervention by phone designed to modify beliefs that may interfere with treatment-seeking behavior. Beliefs about treatment and treatment-seeking behavior were assessed post-intervention. Results Participants receiving the intervention had significantly improved their attitudes toward addiction treatment (p < 0.002) and increased their reported intention to seek treatment (p < 0.000) post-intervention. Further, intervention participants were almost three times more likely to attend treatment within a three-month period (OR = 2.60, p < 0.025) than participants in the control group. Conclusions A brief, cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered by phone and focused on modifying treatment interfering beliefs holds promise for increasing alcohol treatment-seeking among individuals in need. PMID:22138200

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Van Parys, An-Sofie; Verhamme, Annelien; Temmerman, Marleen; Verstraelen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) around the time of pregnancy is a widespread global health problem with many negative consequences. Nevertheless, a lot remains unclear about which interventions are effective and might be adopted in the perinatal care context. Objective The objective is to provide a clear overview of the existing evidence on effectiveness of interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Methods Following databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. The search was limited to English peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials published from 2000 to 2013. This review includes all types of interventions aiming to reduce IPV around the time of pregnancy as a primary outcome, and as secondary outcomes to enhance physical and/or mental health, quality of life, safety behavior, help seeking behavior, and/or social support. Results We found few randomized controlled trials evaluating interventions for IPV around the time of pregnancy. Moreover, the nine studies identified did not produce strong evidence that certain interventions are effective. Nonetheless, home visitation programs and some multifaceted counseling interventions did produce promising results. Five studies reported a statistically significant decrease in physical, sexual and/or psychological partner violence (odds ratios from 0.47 to 0.92). Limited evidence was found for improved mental health, less postnatal depression, improved quality of life, fewer subsequent miscarriages, and less low birth weight/prematurity. None of the studies reported any evidence of a negative or harmful effect of the interventions. Conclusions and implications Strong evidence of effective interventions for IPV during the perinatal period is lacking, but some interventions show promising results. Additional large-scale, high-quality research is essential to provide further evidence about the effect of certain

  14. Periodic Early Childhood Hearing Screening: The EHDI Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. Concerning periodic early childhood hearing screening, 47 coordinators listed 241 items and themes were identified within each SWOT…

  15. Health promotion through forgiveness intervention.

    PubMed

    Recine, Ann C; Stehle Werner, Joan; Recine, Louis

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer evidence-based forgiveness interventions clinically useful to nurses in holistic health promotion for individuals, families, and communities. Forgiveness interventions are developed and described within four approaches inspired by midrange nursing theorists who have adapted their theories from Bandura's Social Learning Theory and Frankl's Theory of Meaning. Interventions are also assimilated from a comprehensive review of theoretical and research literature. The four interventional approaches include persuasive information, vicarious experience, awareness of physiological reactions, and enactive attainment. Barriers to implementation are discussed as well as ways to individualize the interventions. PMID:19182268

  16. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776

  17. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

  18. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Paritosh; Landskron, Kai

    2009-02-01

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol-gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g-1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  19. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  20. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  1. Periodate oxidation of dextrans

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodskaya, O.A.; Poletaeva, L.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors estimate the degree of oxidation of the thiol group in dextran with various mol. wt. and make an attempt at a kinetic description of the main parameters of the process. Polyglucin was used. The results are shown of experiments done on the estimation of the amount of products formed in the process of oxidation of polyglucin in which the reaction stopped as a result of complete exhaustion of one of the original reagents. To estimate the reactivity of the thiol group toward oxidation, the authors studied the interaction of potassium periodate with alpha-D-glucose, isolated by the monomer unit of dextran.

  2. [Drug therapy in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Sumkauskaite, M; Bryant, M; Kortes, N; Stampfl, U; Radeleff, B

    2015-06-01

    In the context of pre-interventional drug therapy, a premedication is given to patients who are known to have an allergy to contrast media, have renal impairment or hyperthyroidism. An already existing anticoagulation therapy, in anticipation of the planned intervention, must be reviewed and changed or even suspended as required. For peri-interventional drug therapy it is important to consider how strenuous the procedure will be as well as the general condition of the patient. Further discussion with anesthetists may be required for the planning of pain therapy or sedation during the procedure. These factors help to ensure maximum patient comfort as well as the success of the intervention. Post-interventional anticoagulation therapy, usually started peri-interventionally, plays an important role in minimizing the risk of acute thrombosis as well as in maintaining long-term functioning of the implanted material. The form of the anticoagulation therapy is set according to the type of intervention. PMID:26063076

  3. "It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

    2010-01-01

    Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

  4. Interventions for trachoma trichiasis

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Matthew; Habtamu, Esmael; Ho, Derek; Gower, Emily W

    2015-01-01

    Background Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends eliminating trachomatous blindness through the SAFE strategy: Surgery for trichiasis, Antibiotic treatment, Facial cleanliness and Environmental hygiene. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2006. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions for trachomatous trichiasis for people living in endemic settings. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 4), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to May 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2015), the ISRCTN registry (http://www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), http://ClinicalTrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (http://www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 7 May 2015. We searched the reference lists of included studies to identify further potentially relevant studies. We also contacted authors for details of other relevant studies. Selection criteria We included randomised trials of any intervention intended to treat trachomatous trichiasis. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently selected and assessed the trials, including the risk of bias. We contacted trial authors for missing data when necessary. Our primary outcome was post-operative trichiasis which was defined as any lash touching the globe at three months, one year or two years after surgery. Main results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria with 8586 participants. Most of the studies were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of the studies were of a low or unclear risk of bias. Five studies compared different

  5. Are Mantle Plumes Periodic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Prokoph, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    In the past few years, researchers have uncovered evidence that several kinds of geological and biological events seem to show regular cycles of similar lengths. For example, Rohde and Muller [2005] looked at the record of diversity of marine organisms over the past 540 million years and found evidence for two cycles in the data—a roughly 62-million-year cycle and a longer cycle of about 140 million years. This was followed by reports of an approximately 56-million-year cycle in long-term stratigraphic sequences in sedimentary basins [Meyers and Peters, 2011] and a 59-million-year period in the marine strontium-isotope record [Melott et al., 2012]. A similar period may even exist in atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 542 million years of the Phanerozoic [Franks et al., 2012]. A cycle of about 140 million years was reported by Veizer et al. [2000] and Mayhew et al. [2008] in long-term fluctuations in global climate.

  6. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    PubMed

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation. PMID:27138033

  7. Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Turner, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

  8. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products Consumption as a Direct Modulator of Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Humans: A Study Protocol for a Double-Blind, Randomized, Two Period Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Courten, Maximilian PJ; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Walker, Karen Z; Forbes, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Background Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed during the processing, storage, and cooking of foods. As part of a western diet, AGEs are consumed in excess and impair glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the absence of diabetes, AGE-mediated decreases in insulin sensitivity and signaling have been postulated. However, randomized studies to test this relationship in humans are limited. Objective The primary aim of this trial is to determine whether dietary consumption of AGEs will decrease insulin sensitivity in healthy overweight adults. A secondary aim is to determine the effects of dietary AGEs on insulin secretion, circulating soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE), and inflammation markers. Methods Overweight, but otherwise healthy, non-diabetic adults (N=20) aged 18-50 years old will complete a randomized cross-over design intervention study alternating low and high (4-fold increase) AGE diets (2-week duration). At baseline, participants will undergo a medical review including an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and anthropometric measures and questionnaires assessing diet, physical activity, and general wellness. Each test diet will be followed for 14 days, followed by a 4-week washout period before commencement of the second alternate dietary period. Energy, macronutrient, and AGE intake will be calculated for each dietary period. Additionally, the AGE content of foods used in the study will be measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. All measurements will be repeated at the beginning and end of each dietary period. Primary and secondary outcomes will be expressed as a change over the dietary period for insulin sensitivity, secretion, anthropometric parameters, sRAGE, and inflammation markers and compared by paired t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The study will be completed in early 2016. Conclusion The proposed trial will provide much

  9. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. PMID:24726388

  10. Venous interventions in children.

    PubMed

    Kukreja, Kamlesh; Vaidya, Sandeep

    2011-03-01

    Advanced medical treatment options have improved pediatric survival but often require invasive vascular procedures or venous access. These procedures increase the risk for thromboembolism in children, and there has been a corresponding increase in the reported incidence of deep venous thrombosis and postthrombotic syndrome in the pediatric population. Percutaneous venous interventions using catheter-directed therapy (CDT), like mechanical thrombectomy and infusion thrombolysis, have been used much less frequently in children, even though they have shown good results in adults. A multidisciplinary team including pediatric hematology, interventional radiology, and intensive care unit is suggested for management of venous thrombosis in children. Indications and contraindications for CDT in children are similar to adults. Mechanical thrombectomy and infusion thrombolysis are some of the more commonly performed treatments. CDT in children requires adapting to patient size and locally available equipment. Ultrasound guidance for access, "cork" technique, appropriate dosing of tissue plasminogen activator for infusion/pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and simultaneous administration of heparin, plasminogen (fresh frozen plasma), and deficient coagulation factors are some of the important variations of CDT technique in children. Postprocedure monitoring is very important for successful thrombolysis. Retrievable inferior vena cava filters are increasingly being used in children as well, for prophylaxis against pulmonary embolism (PE) if there is a significant risk of PE with/without contraindications to anticoagulation. PMID:21335289

  11. Anabolic interventions in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W

    2009-11-01

    ESRD produces a chronic catabolic state that results in significant skeletal muscle atrophy, weakness, and physical dysfunction. Any intervention that can ameliorate this process can significantly improve quality of life. Some studies have shown that endurance exercise training, even at low intensities, may exhibit anabolic effects and improved physical function. However, resistance exercise training is of primary interest as an anabolic intervention because it is the mode of exercise that is most efficacious in stimulating anabolic responses, improved muscle performance, and physical function. A relatively small number of controlled trials of resistance training in ESRD patients have failed to show significant changes in LBM, although some studies have shown significant improvements in other markers of anabolism. Increases in muscle strength with resistance training are typical but improved physical function, either by objective measurement or self-report, are equivocal. Study durations, loads used during training, and relatively small sample sizes may in part explain the inability of previous studies to observe more substantial changes in LBM and physical function. Androgens and growth hormone have been shown to significantly improve LBM and strength, although longer-term studies for safety and efficacy are necessary before their general recommendation for patients with ESRD. PMID:19801139

  12. Multilevel Interventions: Measurement and Measures

    PubMed Central

    Charns, Martin P.; Alligood, Elaine C.; Benzer, Justin K.; Burgess, James F.; Mcintosh, Nathalie M.; Burness, Allison; Partin, Melissa R.; Clauser, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Multilevel intervention research holds the promise of more accurately representing real-life situations and, thus, with proper research design and measurement approaches, facilitating effective and efficient resolution of health-care system challenges. However, taking a multilevel approach to cancer care interventions creates both measurement challenges and opportunities. Methods One-thousand seventy two cancer care articles from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed to examine the state of measurement in the multilevel intervention cancer care literature. Ultimately, 234 multilevel articles, 40 involving cancer care interventions, were identified. Additionally, literature from health services, social psychology, and organizational behavior was reviewed to identify measures that might be useful in multilevel intervention research. Results The vast majority of measures used in multilevel cancer intervention studies were individual level measures. Group-, organization-, and community-level measures were rarely used. Discussion of the independence, validity, and reliability of measures was scant. Discussion Measurement issues may be especially complex when conducting multilevel intervention research. Measurement considerations that are associated with multilevel intervention research include those related to independence, reliability, validity, sample size, and power. Furthermore, multilevel intervention research requires identification of key constructs and measures by level and consideration of interactions within and across levels. Thus, multilevel intervention research benefits from thoughtful theory-driven planning and design, an interdisciplinary approach, and mixed methods measurement and analysis. PMID:22623598

  13. Exploring outcome measures for exercise intervention in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    King, L A; Salarian, A; Mancini, M; Priest, K C; Nutt, J; Serdar, A; Wilhelm, J; Schlimgen, J; Smith, M; Horak, F B

    2013-01-01

    Background. It is widely believed that exercise improves mobility in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to determine whether a specific type of exercise is the most effective. The purpose of this study was to determine which outcome measures were sensitive to exercise intervention and to explore the effects of two different exercise programs for improving mobility in patients with PD. Methods. Participants were randomized into either the Agility Boot Camp (ABC) or treadmill training; 4x/week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures were grouped by the International Classification of Function/Disability (ICF). To determine the responsiveness to exercise, we calculated the standardized response means. t-tests were used to compare the relative benefits of each exercise program. Results. Four of five variables at the structure/function level changed after exercise: turn duration (P = 0.03), stride velocity (P = 0.001), peak arm speed (P = 0.001), and horizontal trunk ROM during gait (P = 0.02). Most measures improved similarly for both interventions. The only variable that detected a difference between groups was postural sway in ABC group (F = 4.95; P = 0.03). Conclusion. Outcome measures at ICF body structure/function level were most effective at detecting change after exercise and revealing differences in improvement between interventions. PMID:23738230

  14. Behavioral interventions for Cambodian female entertainment and sex workers who use amphetamine-type stimulants.

    PubMed

    Carrico, Adam W; Nil, Ean; Sophal, Chhit; Stein, Ellen; Sokunny, Muth; Yuthea, Neak; Evans, Jennifer L; Ngak, Song; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

    2016-06-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) and cognitive-behavioral treatments are evidence-based approaches to reduce stimulant use and sexual risk taking. We describe the adaptation and implementation of sequential behavioral interventions for Cambodian female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) who use amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS): (1) a 12-week CCT intervention; and (2) a 4-week cognitive-behavioral aftercare (AC) group. An ongoing cluster randomized stepped wedge trial in 10 Cambodian provinces is enrolling FESW with confirmed recent ATS use to examine the effectiveness of CCT + AC. In the first six provinces, 138 of the 183 eligible FESW (75 %) enrolled in CCT and completed a median of 25 (interquartile range 9-32) of the 36 urine screening visits. Of the 84 participants who were eligible for AC, 79 completed at least one session (94 %) and 57 completed three or more sessions (68 %). Culturally tailored behavioral interventions to reduce ATS use and optimize HIV prevention are feasible in resource-limited settings. PMID:26782667

  15. Evaluation of Satisfaction and Use of Electronic Intervention for Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    MAIERLE, DENISE; RYAN, POLLY

    2015-01-01

    This report describes use and satisfaction of a tailored intervention delivered via Web site and handheld computer. All participants used both delivery methods. Healthy women (N = 74) aged 40 to 60 years participated in this mixed-method descriptive study. Satisfaction was measured via Computer Satisfaction Questionnaire and open-ended comments. Data on use of the handheld computer were embedded into program and captured real time. Unique Internet provider addresses tracked Web site use from March 2007 through August 2008. Results indicate 80% of participants were very to extremely satisfied. There was no significant relationship between use and satisfaction. Knowledge but not self-efficacy scores differed over time. Usage was not related to knowledge scores. Handheld computer was used most frequently during the first week, with use decreasing over 7 weeks. Personal assessment of calcium intake and feedback sections were used most frequently. Handheld computer was used by 71% of participants for 4 weeks, 55% for 6 weeks, and 29% for the full 8 weeks. Participants commented on intervention content and positive and negative aspects of the devices and keyboard. This study presented an opportunity to examine data related to actual use. This dimension of intervention fidelity is more readily available in eHealth applications than with printed information. PMID:21697706

  16. Evaluation of satisfaction and use of electronic intervention for behavior change.

    PubMed

    Maierle, Denise; Ryan, Polly

    2011-11-01

    This report describes use and satisfaction of a tailored intervention delivered via Web site and handheld computer. All participants used both delivery methods. Healthy women (N = 74) aged 40 to 60 years participated in this mixed-method descriptive study. Satisfaction was measured via Computer Satisfaction Questionnaire and open-ended comments. Data on use of the handheld computer were embedded into program and captured real time. Unique Internet provider addresses tracked Web site use from March 2007 through August 2008. Results indicate 80% of participants were very to extremely satisfied. There was no significant relationship between use and satisfaction. Knowledge but not self-efficacy scores differed over time. Usage was not related to knowledge scores. Handheld computer was used most frequently during the first week, with use decreasing over 7 weeks. Personal assessment of calcium intake and feedback sections were used most frequently. Handheld computer was used by 71% of participants for 4 weeks, 55% for 6 weeks, and 29% for the full 8 weeks. Participants commented on intervention content and positive and negative aspects of the devices and keyboard. This study presented an opportunity to examine data related to actual use. This dimension of intervention fidelity is more readily available in eHealth applications than with printed information. PMID:21697706

  17. An Arts Intervention for Older Adults Living in Subsidized Retirement Homes

    PubMed Central

    Noice, Helga; Noice, Tony

    2009-01-01

    A theatrically-based intervention was given to 122 older adults who took acting lessons twice a week for 4 weeks. The training consisted of multi-modal activities (cognitive-affective-physiological) typically employed in college acting classes. Comparison groups consisted of no-treatment controls and participants instructed in a different performing art, singing. Assessment of effectiveness was performed using a battery of 11 cognitive/affective test measures that included word recall, prose comprehension/recall, word generation, digit-span ability, and problem-solving. It was found that the acting group improved significantly from pretest to posttest over both other groups. Digit-span was the only measure that failed to improve. No aspects of the intervention supplied specific training or practice on the test measures. Previous versions of the intervention with community-dwelling adults had produced similar findings but the current participants were older, less well-educated, and lived in subsidized, primarily low-income, retirement homes. PMID:18686051

  18. Effective coviewing: Preschoolers' learning from video after a dialogic questioning intervention.

    PubMed

    Strouse, Gabrielle A; O'Doherty, Katherine; Troseth, Georgene L

    2013-12-01

    Young preschoolers rapidly acquire new information from social partners but do not learn efficiently from people on video. We trained parents to use Whitehurst's dialogic reading questioning techniques while watching educational television with their children. Eighty-one parents coviewed storybook videos with their 3-year-old children in 1 of 4 conditions: dialogic questioning (pause, ask questions, and encourage children to tell parts of the story), directed attention (pause and comment but do not ask questions), dialogic actress (show the videos with dialogic questioning by an on-screen actress embedded in them), or no intervention (show the videos as usual). After 4 weeks, children in the dialogic questioning group scored higher than children in the directed attention and no-intervention groups on story comprehension and story vocabulary measures. Scores from the dialogic actress group fell in between. On a standardized measure of expressive vocabulary, children in the 2 parent-interaction groups exhibited significant improvement over their pretest scores. Results indicate that parent-led questioning enhances children's learning from video stories at age 3 and that a video incorporating an on-screen dialogic questioner may also be effective. Mechanisms behind the effect of dialogic reading-style interventions are discussed. PMID:23544859

  19. Feasibility of a Computer-Based Intervention Addressing Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Patients Who Decline Tests at Triage.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Ian David; Cleland, Charles M; Perlman, David C; Rajan, Sonali; Sun, Wendy; Bania, Theodore C

    2016-09-01

    Young people face greatly increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and high rates of undiagnosed HIV, yet are unlikely to test. Many also have limited or inconsistent access to health care, including HIV testing and prevention education, and prior research has documented that youth lack knowledge necessary to understand the HIV test process and to interpret test results. Computer-based interventions have been used to increase HIV test rates and knowledge among emergency department (ED) patients, including those who decline tests offered at triage. However, patients aged 18-24 years have been less likely to test, even after completing an intervention, compared to older patients in the same ED setting. The current pilot study sought to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new tablet-based video intervention designed to address established barriers to testing among ED patients aged 18-24 years. In particular, we examined whether young ED patients would: agree to receive the intervention; complete it quickly enough to avoid disrupting clinical workflows; accept HIV tests offered by the intervention; demonstrate increased postintervention knowledge; and report they found the intervention acceptable. Over 4 weeks, we recruited 100 patients aged 18-24 in a high-volume urban ED; all of them declined HIV tests offered at triage. Almost all (98%) completed the intervention (mean time <9 mins), 30% accepted HIV tests offered by the tablets. Knowledge was significantly higher after than before the intervention (t = -6.67, p < .001) and patients reported generally high acceptability. Additional research appears warranted to increase postintervention HIV testing. PMID:27565191

  20. Result of school-based intervention on cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Magnusson, Kristjan Th.; Thorsdottir, Inga; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a two-year school-based intervention, consisting of integrated and replicable physical activity and nutritional education on weight, fat percentage, cardiovascular risk factors, and blood pressure. Design and setting. Six elementary schools in Reykjavik were randomly assigned to be either intervention (n = 3) or control (n = 3) schools. Seven-year-old children in the second grade in these schools were invited to participate (n = 321); 268 (83%) underwent some or all of the measurements. These 286 children were followed up for two years. Intervention. Children in intervention schools participated in an integrated and replicable physical activity programme, increasing to approximately 60 minutes of physical activity during school in the second year of intervention. Furthermore, they received special information about nutrition, and parents, teachers, and school food service staff were all involved in the intervention. Subjects. 321seven-year-old schoolchildren. Main outcome measures. Blood pressure, obesity, percentage of body fat, lipid profile, fasting insulin. Results. Children in the intervention group had a 2.3 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and a 2.9 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over the two-year intervention period, while children in the control group increased SBP by 6.7 mmHg and DPB by 8.4 mmHg. These changes were not statistically significant. Furthermore there were no significant changes in percentage body fat, lipid profile, or fasting insulin between the intervention and control schools. Conclusion. A two-year school-based intervention with increased physical activity and healthy diet did not have a significant effect on common cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25424464

  1. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  2. Early intervention for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small

  3. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Schöttker, Ben; Lühmann, Dagmar; Boulkhemair, Dalila; Raspe, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    any comparator, all randomised controlled trials (RCT) that provide a study arm with the intervention of interest. Adjusted indirect comparisons and metaregression analyses include only those studies that provide one study arm with the intervention of interest and another study arm with a common comparator. While the aforementioned methods use conventional metaanalytical techniques, Mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) use Bayesian statistics. They are able to analyse a complex network of RCT with multiple comparators simultaneously. During the period from 1999 to 2008 adjusted indirect comparisons are the most commonly used method for indirect comparisons. Since 2006 an increase in the application of the more methodologically challenging MTC is being observed. For the validity check 248 data sets, which include results of a direct and an indirect comparison, are available. The share of statistically significant discrepant results is greatest in the unadjusted indirect comparisons (25,5% [95% CI: 13,1%; 38%]), followed by metaregression analyses (16,7% [95% CI: -13,2%; 46,5%]), adjusted indirect comparisons (12,1% [95% CI: 6,1%; 18%]) and MTC (1,8% [95% CI: -1,7%; 5,2%]). Discrepant results are mainly detected if the basic assumption for an indirect comparison – between-study homogeneity – does not hold. However a systematic over- or underestimation of the results of direct comparisons by any of the indirectly comparing methods was not observed in this sample. Discussion The selection of an appropriate method for an indirect comparison has to account for its validity, the number of interventions to be compared and the quality as well as the quantity of available studies. Unadjusted indirect comparisons provide, contrasted with the results of direct comparisons, a low validity. Adjusted indirect comparisons and MTC may, under certain circumstances, give results which are consistent with the results of direct comparisons. The limited number of available reviews

  4. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure: Developmental Outcomes in the Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Respass, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a persistent public health problem that has been linked to later adverse outcomes. The neonatal period, the first month of life, carries substantial developmental change in regulatory skills, and is the period when tobacco metabolites are cleared physiologically. Studies to date mostly have used cross-sectional designs that limit characterizing potential impacts of prenatal tobacco exposure on the development of key self-regulatory processes and cannot disentangle short-term withdrawal effects from residual exposure-related impacts. In this study, pregnant participants (N = 304) were recruited prospectively during pregnancy and smoking was measured at multiple time points, using both self report and biochemical measures. Neonatal attention, irritable reactivity, and stress dysregulation were examined longitudinally at three time points during the first month of life, and physical growth indices were measured at birth. Tobacco-exposed infants showed significantly poorer attention skills after birth, and the magnitude of the difference between exposed and non-exposed groups attenuated across the neonatal period. In contrast, exposure-related differences in irritable reactivity were not evident and stable across the first month of life, but differed only marginally at 4-weeks of age. Third trimester smoking was associated with pervasive, deleterious, dose-response impacts on physical growth measured at birth, whereas nearly all smoking indicators throughout pregnancy predicted level and growth rates of early attention. The observed neonatal pattern is consistent with the neurobiology of tobacco on the developing nervous system and fits with developmental vulnerabilities observed later in life. PMID:21038943

  5. Necessary components for lifestyle modification interventions to reduce diabetes risk.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Elizabeth M; Kramer, M Kaye

    2012-04-01

    Several efficacy trials and subsequent dissemination studies indicate that behavioral lifestyle interventions for diabetes risk reduction require, at a minimum, provision of 4 to 6 months of frequent intervention contact to induce clinically meaningful weight losses of at least 5% of initial body weight. Weekly contact during the first several months of intervention, followed by less frequent but regular therapeutic contact for a longer time period, appears necessary for participants to adopt and enact behavioral self-regulatory skills such as the self-monitoring of diet, weight, and physical activity and the problem solving of common physical, social, and cognitive barriers that impede sustained weight loss. In-person contact is associated with the largest effect sizes but may not be a necessary component for clinically meaningful weight loss. Regardless of intervention mode, setting, or provider, the interactive process of feedback and social support is crucial for skill development and sustained weight loss. PMID:22350807

  6. Acute Ischemic Stroke Intervention.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Priyank; Yavagal, Dileep R; Sacco, Ralph L

    2016-06-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the leading cause of disability worldwide and among the leading causes of mortality. Although intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA) was approved nearly 2 decades ago for treatment of AIS, only a minority of patients receive it due to a narrow time window for administration and several contraindications to its use. Endovascular approaches to recanalization in AIS developed in the 1980s, and recently, 5 major randomized trials showed an overwhelming superior benefit of combining endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with IV-rtPA over IV-rtPA alone. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of catheter-based treatment from first-generation thrombectomy devices to the game-changing stent retrievers, results from recent trials, and the evolving stroke systems of care to provide timely access to acute stroke intervention to patients in the United States. PMID:27256835

  7. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  8. Participant-level meta-analysis of mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation across different countries.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Jiang, Yannan; Free, Caroline; Abroms, Lorien C; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-08-01

    With meta-analysis, participant-level data from five text messaging-based smoking cessation intervention studies were pooled to investigate cessation patterns across studies and participants. Individual participant data (N=8315) collected in New Zealand (2001-2003; n=1705), U.K. (2008-2009; n=5792), U.S. (2012; n=503; n=164) and Turkey (2012; n=151) were collectively analyzed in 2014. The primary outcome was self-reported 7-day continuous abstinence at 4weeks post-quit day. Secondary outcomes were: (1) self-reported 7-day continuous abstinence at 3months and (2) self-reported continuous abstinence at 6months post-quit day. Generalized linear mixed models were fit to estimate the overall treatment effect, while accounting for clustering within individual studies. Estimates were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, previous quit attempts, and baseline Fagerstrom score. Analyses were intention to treat. Participants lost to follow-up were treated as smokers. Twenty-nine percent of intervention participants and 12% of control participants quit smoking at 4weeks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.89, 95% CI [2.57, 3.26], p<.0001). An attenuated but significant effect for cessation for those in the intervention versus control groups was observed at 3months (aOR=1.88, 95% CI [1.53, 2.31]) and 6months (aOR=2.24, 95% CI [1.90, 2.64]). Subgroup analyses were conducted but few significant findings were noted. Text messaging-based smoking cessation programs increase self-reported quitting rates across a diversity of countries and cultures. Efforts to expand these low-cost and scalable programs, along with ongoing evaluation, appear warranted. PMID:27154349

  9. Dairy cows affected by ketosis show alterations in innate immunity and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during the dry off period and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to search for alterations in blood variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during the transition period in cows affected by ketosis. One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected at -8, -4, week of disease diagnosis (+1 to +3weeks), and +4weeks relative to parturition from 6 healthy cows (CON) and 6 cows with ketosis and were analyzed for serum variables. Results showed that cows with ketosis had greater concentrations of serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate in comparison with the CON animals. Serum concentrations of BHBA, IL-6, TNF, and lactate were greater starting at -8 and -4weeks prior to parturition in cows with ketosis vs those of CON group. Cows with ketosis also had lower DMI and milk production vs CON cows. Milk fat also was lower in ketotic cows at diagnosis of disease. Cows affected by ketosis showed an activated innate immunity and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism several weeks prior to diagnosis of disease. Serum IL-6 and lactate were the strongest discriminators between ketosis cows and CON ones before the occurrence of ketosis, which might be useful as predictive biomarkers of the disease state. PMID:27474003

  10. Intervention All Day Long: New Hope for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    School districts have come to think of intervention for struggling readers as something accomplished in a session outside the classroom, one period long, taught by someone other than that student's usual teacher. This often leaves struggling readers in a learning environment where no theory or empirical evidence would predict substantial learning.…

  11. Enhancing Verbal Creativity via Brief Interventions during an Incubation Interval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Grabner, Roland H.; Fink, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings about the effects of cognitively low or high demanding interpolated tasks during incubation period on post-incubation creative performance. To explain this contradiction, two intervention tasks were administered (Reflecting on the generated ideas [RF] and the Word puzzle task [WP]), which are…

  12. First Step to Success. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "First Step to Success" is an early intervention program designed to help children who are at risk for developing aggressive or antisocial behavioral patterns. The program uses a trained behavior coach who works with each student and his or her class peers, teacher, and parents for approximately 50 to 60 hours over a three-month period. "First…

  13. Early Intervention Practitioner Approaches To Natural Environment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Practitioner beliefs about and understanding of natural environment interventions were examined. Sixteen early intervention practitioners from two programs in a southeastern state were interviewed about their understanding and use of natural environments as sources of learning opportunities for young children. Practitioners in one program had…

  14. Early Intervention Practitioner Approaches to Natural Environment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Practitioner beliefs about and understanding of natural environment interventions were examined. Sixteen early intervention practitioners from two programs in a southeastern state were interviewed about their understanding and use of natural environments as sources of learning opportunities for young children. Practitioners in one program had…

  15. Privileging and credentialing for interventional cardiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, James C; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Jennings, Henry S

    2015-10-01

    Local institutional-specific credentialing and privileging for procedures is an important process for ensuring the quality of care provided by interventional cardiologists. Recently revised standards for coronary intervention and the blossoming of structural heart disease programs have generated controversy over these processes. How standards are set for credentialing and privileging is poorly understood by most interventional cardiologists, including those responsible for credentialing and privileging. Requirements from The Joint Commission dictate how credentialing and privileging is performed at hospitals they accredit. Physicians must be recredentialed every 2 years at each hospital, with privileges renewed at that time. Hospitals must review quality of physicians even more frequently using Ongoing Professional Practice Evaluations. Hospitals must also evaluate the performance of physicians when they join a hospital staff or when they begin performing new procedures using Focused Professional Practice Evaluations. Cardiology department directors and catheterization laboratory directors are responsible for recredentialing and reprivileging members of their departments. Individual physicians are responsible for cooperating with these processes, and for periodic recertification with specialty boards and governmental agencies. We provide specific guidance to help physicians navigate these processes. PMID:25534235

  16. Weight loss interventions in young people (18 to 25 year olds): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Poobalan, A S; Aucott, L S; Precious, E; Crombie, I K; Smith, W C S

    2010-08-01

    This systematic review assesses weight loss interventions in young adults (18-25 years), who are vulnerable to weight gain. This age group experience critical life course points (leaving home for higher studies or job, pregnancy, cohabitation) and develop/establish lifestyle and behavioural patterns making this an opportune intervention period. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsychINFO and Cochrane Library were searched (1980 to March 2008). All trials and cohort studies with control groups that assessed weight loss interventions in this specific age group were included finally identifying 14 studies. Before and after comparison of behavioural/motivational interventions (-2.40 kg; 95% CI -5.4 to 0.6) and combination interventions (-2.96; 95% CI -4.4 to -1.5) consistently showed weight loss. Behavioural/motivational interventions increased self-efficacy, the desire to control weight, boosted self-esteem, and increased satisfaction with body areas and appearance. Interventions also showed improvements in HDL cholesterol, insulin, glucose and maximum oxygen uptake. However, recruitment to participation in interventions was a barrier for this age group with small sample sizes and short-term interventions. There may be gender differences in preference to participation in certain type of interventions. Further research to understand attitudes towards healthy lifestyle and preferences of interventions is needed to develop suitable interventions for this vulnerable age group. PMID:19874531

  17. The Effects of a Responsive Parenting Intervention on Parent-Child Interactions during Shared Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Zucker, Tricia; Crawford, April D.; Solari, Emily F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined mother-child shared book reading behaviors before and after participation in a random-assignment responsive parenting intervention called Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) that occurred during infancy (PALS I), the toddler-preschool (PALS II) period, or both as compared with a developmental assessment (DAS) intervention (DAS…

  18. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: What Are the Costs and Benefits? Congressional Research Briefing Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Currie, Janet; Besharov, Douglas J.

    While recent research in cognitive development suggests that the period from birth to age 3 provides a unique opportunity for interventions to change the life-course of children, there is great disagreement regarding the best means of allocating public funds toward early childhood intervention. Further, there is little research into the long-term…

  19. Food Preferences in Young Dutch Children and Recommendations for Feeding Intervention in Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckers, Stijn R. J. M.; De Moor, Jan M. H.; Van der Burg, Jan J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Total and chronic food refusal (i.e., the refusal of all types of food during a prolonged period) in young children with developmental disabilities can be treated effectively using a combination of environmental interventions. However, no guidelines for the selection of food items to offer the child in these interventions are available. The aim of…

  20. Improving Below-Proficient Information Literacy Skills: Designing an Evidence-Based Educational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Melissa; Latham, Don; Armstrong, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the design and development of an educational intervention intended to improve information literacy skills based on research with first-year college students. The intervention was developed over the course of a three-year period, during which time grant funding was received from the Institute of Museum and Library Services…

  1. The Effects of a Comprehensive Reading Intervention Programme for Grade 3 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Jorgen; Sorensen, Peer Moller

    2007-01-01

    A group of 37 8-year-old children who had scored below the 20th percentile on a national reading test were offered intensive reading instruction in groups of four during Grade 3 in two periods (10 and 5 weeks). The intervention was delivered by six teachers who received training in a comprehensive reading intervention programme called…

  2. Developmental intervention: a pediatric clinical review.

    PubMed

    Casey, P H; Bradley, R H; Caldwell, B M; Edwards, D R

    1986-08-01

    We have attempted to review developmental intervention for pediatricians in a way that is of clinical relevance to primary care pediatricians. In so doing, we chose not to evaluate certain topics such as therapeutic intervention for handicapped children or center-based educational programs because these have been adequately addressed elsewhere. It is clear that pediatricians have a unique and important role to play in developmental intervention for the following reasons: pediatricians have easy and routinely accepted access to infants and families in the prenatal, perinatal, and preschool periods: pediatricians possess a socially accepted role of authority; and pediatricians can integrate understanding of the child's health and developmental status within the context of the family and social environment to make clinical interpretation regarding the child's developmental status and prognosis. Pediatricians are thus in the best position to convince parents of their impact on their child's development. The following general roles have been identified for pediatricians. First, pediatricians should be aware of the child's biologic status and family environmental situation and the relative degree of risk for developmental problems. This clinical awareness, in combination with the use of appropriate screening instruments of the child's development and family environment, will allow clinical judgment regarding the frequency and type of child health supervision, the need for further diagnostic evaluation, and the need for referral to intervention programs and other resources. Second, the pediatrician should develop an approach for developmental intervention for all children, whatever their degree of biological risk. This review of medical, educational, and psychological literature demonstrate the following recurring important themes as goals for primary intervention: Improve parental understanding of normal child development and developmental expectations. Assist parent

  3. Interventions for intermittent exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Sarah R; Gnanaraj, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical management of intermittent exotropia has been discussed extensively in the literature, yet there remains a lack of clarity regarding indications for intervention, the most effective form of treatment and whether or not there is an optimal time in the evolution of the disease at which any treatment should be carried out. Objectives The objective of this review was to analyse the effects of various surgical and non-surgical treatments in randomised trials of participants with intermittent exotropia, and to report intervention criteria and determine the significance of factors such as age with respect to outcome. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2012), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to May 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 4 May 2012. We are no longer searching the UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG) for this review. We manually searched the British Orthoptic Journal up to 2002, and the proceedings of the European Strabismological Association (ESA), International Strabismological Association (ISA) and American Academy of Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus meeting (AAPOS) up to 2001. We contacted researchers who are active in the field for information about further published or unpublished studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials of any surgical or non-surgical treatment for intermittent exotropia. Data collection and

  4. Mobile Diabetes Intervention for Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Sareh, Patricia L.; Shardell, Michelle L.; Terrin, Michael L.; Barr, Erik A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.

    2014-01-01

    Of adults with type 2 diabetes, 84% take antihyperglycemic medication. Successful treatment requires active monitoring and medication dose adjustment by health providers. The objective of this study was to determine how a mobile-phone-based coaching system for diabetes management influences physician prescribing behavior. This secondary data analysis is based on a cluster randomized clinical trial that reported patients provided with mobile self-management had reduction in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of 1.9% over 1 year, compared to 0.7% in control patients (P < .001). Participants were primary care patients with type 2 diabetes randomized at physician practice level into a control group (n = 55) and intervention group (n = 62). Main study measures were patients’ medication records (medication, dose, frequency, start and end date) abstracted at baseline and study end. Antihyperglycemic medications, including sulfonylureas or thiazolidinediones, and antihypertensive and antilipemic medications were analyzed. A higher percentage of patients in the intervention group had modification and intensification of incretin mimetics during the 1-year study period (9.7% vs 0.0% and 8.1% vs 0.0%, both P = .008). A higher percentage of patients in the intervention group had modification and intensification of metformin (24.2% vs 7.3%, P = .033). The overall difference in physician prescribing of oral antihyperglycemic medications was not statistically significant. Our results suggest mobile diabetes interventions can encourage physicians to modify and intensify antihyperglycemic medications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Differences in physician prescribing behavior were modest, and do not appear to be large enough to explain a 1.2% decrease in HbA1c. PMID:24876589

  5. Therapeutic Intervention and Parenting Style of Abusive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Arabgol, Fariba; Hakim-Shooshtari, Mitra; Panaghi, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Background: Victims of abuse comprise a significant proportion of all child psychiatric admissions, with an estimated 30% incidence of lifetime of physical and sexual abuse among child and adolescent outpatients, and as high as 55% among psychiatric inpatients. Objectives: The present study was conducted to examine the effects of therapeutic intervention and parent management training on parenting skill of abusive parents. Patients and Methods: The study population consisted of all children who were referred to Child Psychiatric and Pediatric Departments of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, IR Iran diagnosed with child abuse. Children and their families were visited by a psychiatrist for psychiatric problems. Later, the necessary interventions were taken for the children. To study the effect of intervention, parents completed ‘Being a Parent and Parenting Scale’ before intervention, and then again, in the third and sixth months following the intervention. The interventions included 8 weekly parent management training sessions for all of the involved parents and additional pharmacologic and psychological interventions according to the subjects’ needs. Results: Participants included 73 children with the mean age of 6.9 ± 4.3 year, while the mean age of parents was 31.76 ± 6.52 year for the mothers and 38.07 ± 8.45 year for the fathers. General anxiety disorder (30.1%) and depression (27.4%) were the most common psychiatric disorders among mothers. In parenting scale, there were significant differences between the zero and third month in all subscales (P = 0.008), but there was no significant difference in verbosity and overreactivity after 6 months. Laxness showed significant changes over the period (P = 0.03). In viewing the ‘Being a Parent Scale’, there was no significant difference in satisfaction and competency subscales before and after the intervention. Conclusions: Therapeutic intervention and parent management training improves parenting skill of

  6. AAC Modeling Intervention Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennott, Samuel C.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of research on the effects of interventions that include communication partner modeling of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) on the language acquisition of individuals with complex communication needs was conducted. Included studies incorporated AAC modeling as a primary component of the intervention,…

  7. Early Intervention: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The recognition of the importance of brain development in the early years of life has led to expanded early intervention programs for very young children with or at risk for developmental disabilities. A biological basis for early intervention is explored, and brain plasticity is discussed. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  8. Response to Intervention: What & Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is the practice of providing high quality-instruction and intervention matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying student response data to important education decisions. In essence, RTI expands the practice of looking at students' risk…

  9. A Revisionist View of Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, Mary Lou; And Others

    A study of professional development intervention programs in which schools choose their own issues and action plans is presented in this report. "Intervention" refers to university introduction of new professional development models into the school. A 3-year program involving five schools in collaboration with university staff members and…

  10. Systematic Interventions for Teaching Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Amy E.; Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics interventions for struggling students supplement regular instruction and are frequently implemented through computer programs and activity sheet practice (Swanson et al. 2012). However, students with foundational misunderstandings do not benefit from additional drill and practice alone. Instead, interventions that balance concepts with…

  11. Nonverbal Interventions in Clinical Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison of nonverbal with verbal clinical group interventions suggested that some traditional self-report devices show less differentiation between these two interventions than do measures of group cohesion. A strong, replicable manipulation tested these findings, which were consistent with previous research. (Author/BEF)

  12. Paradoxical Interventions in Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, E. Thomas; Milne, Christopher R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the use of paradoxical interventions in counseling psychology and surveys the research literature to date. After a description of the historical background of paradoxical interventions, current schools of therapy using paradox are presented. Discusses theoretical and definitional underpinnings, with particular attention paid to the…

  13. Health Counseling Strategies and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Acknowledging the increasing need for professionals trained to provide health counseling, describes number of interventions mental health counselors can incorporate and thereby extend their practice options. Presents three-phase strategy along with interventions for assessment, treatment, follow-up, and relapse prevention. Uses extensive case…

  14. Snoezelen: a multisensory environmental intervention.

    PubMed

    Chitsey, Amanda M; Haight, Barbara K; Jones, Melaina M

    2002-03-01

    Snoezelen is a multisensory intervention delivered in a specially designed room with high-tech instruments. It is especially useful for end-stage patients with Alzheimer's disease. Snoezelen provides an enabling atmosphere in a failure-free environment. It has been a popular intervention in Great Britain and is just beginning to appear in the United States. PMID:11913515

  15. The Advantage of Timely Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagnado, David A.; Sloman, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Can people learn causal structure more effectively through intervention rather than observation? Four studies used a trial-based learning paradigm in which participants obtained probabilistic data about a causal chain through either observation or intervention and then selected the causal model most likely to have generated the data. Experiment 1…

  16. Period variations in SZ ARIETIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, R. K.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented of a detailed period study of the eclipsing binary system SZ Arietis, based on up-to-date collection of minima. A new period (P = 1.7175405 d) of the SZ Ari was found, and the period changes (with the new period) in different portions of the O-C diagram were estimated. The average period change (leaving out an unusual value) was estimated to be about 0.00006 d. The O-C diagram displayed a sinusoidal variation, indicating that the SZ Ari system may be a three-body system, having a period of nearly 66 years.

  17. [Sexological intervention on premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    San Martín Blanco, C

    2014-07-01

    Strategies, recommendations and techniques proposed by sex therapy for intervention on premature ejaculation, have represented for nearly four decades the most effective model of intervention in this sexual dysfunction, which currently is complemented by the efficacy of dapoxetine drug treatment. Clinical experience and recent studies support that combined intervention offers the best therapeutic results. In addition in sex therapy, etiologic diagnosis is obtained from the analysis of the interrelationship of the couple. Diagnostic and therapeutic intervention has to be always centered in the relationship, so the techniques and resources must be applied with the expectation of being implemented in the sexual interaction. It will therefore be the relationship that receive treatment, even if medication is used for one of the members of the couple. On the other hand, this model of intervention can be implemented by a professional with training, although not necessarily a specialist. PMID:25953038

  18. How to Start Interventional Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Ghanaati, Hossein; Firouznia, Kavous; Jalali, Amir Hossein; Shakiba, Madjid

    2013-01-01

    Interventional techniques aim to find safer and better ways to treat vascular diseases even in many instances, the interventional radiology solutions has been considered the only treatment option for the patients. Interventional radiologists are specialists who perform minimally invasive procedures instead of surgery or other treatments. These procedures apply various imaging and catheterization procedures in order to diagnose and treat diseases. In each country, interventional radiology practice establishment of varies according to local factors, but following a standard strategy seems better to set up this facility. According to above mentioned points, we decided to establish this specialty in our hospital since 2001 as the pioneer center in Iran. In this presentation we will discuss about our experience for start interventional radiology. PMID:24693402

  19. Early Literacy Instruction and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Foorman, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the efficacy of early literacy interventions and to discuss possible roles for volunteer tutors in helping prevent reading difficulties within the Response to Intervention process. First, we describe a landmark study that evaluated the impact of primary classroom instruction on reducing the proportion of students at risk for reading failure, and a more recent series of studies exploring the effects of individualizing classroom reading instruction based on students’ initial skills. Second, we review studies of more intensive early intervention to demonstrate how these interventions substantially reduce the proportion of students at risk. Third, we examine effective tutoring models that utilize volunteers. Finally, we discuss the potential role of community tutors in supporting primary classroom instruction and secondary interventions. PMID:25221452

  20. Benefits of the uncertainty management intervention for African American and White older breast cancer survivors: 20-month outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gil, Karen M; Mishel, Merle H; Belyea, Michael; Germino, Barbara; Porter, Laura S; Clayton, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    In a 2 x 2 randomized block repeated measure design, this study evaluated the follow-up efficacy of the uncertainty management intervention at 20 months. The sample included 483 recurrence-free women (342 White, 141 African American women; mean age = 64 years) who were 5-9 years posttreatment for breast cancer. Women were randomly assigned to either the intervention or usual care control condition. The intervention was delivered during 4 weekly telephone sessions in which survivors were guided in the use of audiotaped cognitive-behavioral strategies and a self-help manual. Repeated measures MANOVAs evaluating treatment group, ethnic group, and treatment by ethnic interaction effects at 20 months indicated that training in uncertainty management resulted in improvements in cognitive reframing, cancer knowledge, and a variety of coping skills. Importantly, the 20-month outcomes also demonstrated benefits for women in the intervention condition in terms of declines in illness uncertainty and stable effects in personal growth over time. PMID:17228986

  1. Dissemination strategies and adherence predictors for web-based interventions-how efficient are patient education sessions and email reminders?

    PubMed

    Schweier, R; Romppel, M; Richter, C; Grande, G

    2016-06-01

    The Internet offers the potential to efficaciously deliver health interventions at a low cost and with a low threshold across any distance. However, since many web-based interventions are confronted with low use and adherence, proactive dissemination strategies are needed. We, therefore, tested the efficacy of a 1-h patient education session as part of a rehabilitation program and an email reminder 4 weeks later on the publicity and use of a web-based intervention aimed at lifestyle changes in patients with either coronary heart disease or chronic back pain (CBP) and examined adherence predictors. The website www.lebensstil-aendern.de is a cost-free, German-language website providing more than 1000 patient narratives about successful lifestyle changes. To test the efficacy of the dissemination strategies and to examine adherence predictors, we conducted a sequential controlled trial with heart and CBP patients recruited from German inpatient rehabilitation centers. The dissemination strategies were found to be efficient. Use rates, however, remained low. The email reminder and internal health locus of control emerged as notable factors in motivating patients to participate in the web-based intervention. Other factors that have been suggested to be related to nonuse, e.g. sociodemographic characteristics and medical condition, did not predict use or adherence. PMID:27107431

  2. Interventional video tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truppe, Michael J.; Pongracz, Ferenc; Ploder, Oliver; Wagner, Arne; Ewers, Rolf

    1995-05-01

    Interventional Video Tomography (IVT) is a new imaging modality for Image Directed Surgery to visualize in real-time intraoperatively the spatial position of surgical instruments relative to the patient's anatomy. The video imaging detector is based on a special camera equipped with an optical viewing and lighting system and electronic 3D sensors. When combined with an endoscope it is used for examining the inside of cavities or hollow organs of the body from many different angles. The surface topography of objects is reconstructed from a sequence of monocular video or endoscopic images. To increase accuracy and speed of the reconstruction the relative movement between objects and endoscope is continuously tracked by electronic sensors. The IVT image sequence represents a 4D data set in stereotactic space and contains image, surface topography and motion data. In ENT surgery an IVT image sequence of the planned and so far accessible surgical path is acquired prior to surgery. To simulate the surgical procedure the cross sectional imaging data is superimposed with the digitally stored IVT image sequence. During surgery the video sequence component of the IVT simulation is substituted by the live video source. The IVT technology makes obsolete the use of 3D digitizing probes for the patient image coordinate transformation. The image fusion of medical imaging data with live video sources is the first practical use of augmented reality in medicine. During surgery a head-up display is used to overlay real-time reformatted cross sectional imaging data with the live video image.

  3. Interventional spinal procedures.

    PubMed

    Andreula, Cosma; Muto, Mario; Leonardi, Marco

    2004-05-01

    The interventional procedures for disk herniation and protrusion by percutaneous techniques are decompressive such as chemodiscolysis with chimopapain, nucleo-discectomy introduced by Onik, LASER discectomy, and recently nucleoplasty, and decompressive and direct antinflammatory such as chemiodiscolysis with an Oxygen-ozone mixture. These techniques have minimized the invasive nature of surgery and avoid or decrease complications like infection linked to surgery. Reducing intervertebral disc size by mechanical aspiration of a part of the disc or partially dissolving the herniation by drying reduces the conic pressure on the torn annulus and creates the space necessary for retropulsion whenever the circular fibres of the annulus regain a minimum capacity to contain the disc under tension. The proposed suggestion in these techniques is that a small change in volume produces large change in pressure. The success rates reported in different studies vary from 65 to 80% of excellent or good results with chemonucleolysis and aspiration. Vertebroplasty (VP) is done by percutaneous injection of acrylic cement (polymethylmetacrylate-PMMA) into the vertebrae under fluoroscopic and/or CT control to achieve an antalgic effect and stabilize the vertebral body. VP has been used for vertebral collapses caused by osteoporosis, long-term steroid treatment, aggressive symptomatic angiomas and lytic metastasis. The reported figures in literature are 80-95% of pain relief, within 7 days after procedure, commonly on the same day. PMID:15081127

  4. Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Mohsen; Alizadeh, Keivan; Ghazaee, Sepideh Parchami; Zavarehee, Abbas; Abdi, Seifollah; Shakerian, Farshad; Salehi, Negar; Firouzi, Ata

    2013-01-01

    Regardless of the diabetic status of patients with coronary artery disease, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are adversely associated with cardiovascular events. The relationship between glucose levels and increased mortality risk in acute myocardial infarction has been shown through various glucose metrics; however, there is a dearth of multivariate analysis of the relationship between elective coronary angioplasty and preprocedural blood glucose levels. We evaluated the relationship between preprocedural blood glucose levels and myocardial injury in 1,012 consecutive patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary angioplasty. The patients were classified into 4 glycemic groups on the basis of blood glucose levels measured immediately before the procedure: hypoglycemic, euglycemic, mildly hyperglycemic, and hyperglycemic. Samples for troponin I and creatine kinase–MB fraction were collected before each procedure and at 8, 16, and 24 hours after each procedure. Bivariate analysis revealed that postprocedural troponin I levels were significantly higher in the hyperglycemic group (P=0.027). Although postprocedural levels of creatine kinase–MB fraction rose insignificantly in the hypoglycemic patients, our results showed that these patients were more likely to have postprocedural levels 2 to 5 times the upper limit of normal (P=0.013). We tentatively conclude that abnormally low preprocedural plasma glucose levels—together with a recent history of smoking—are associated with an increased incidence of periprocedural myocardial injury in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:24082370

  5. Cascading Effects Following Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  6. Youth to youth intervention.

    PubMed

    Silayan-go, A

    1998-01-01

    The early and unplanned sexual activities of Filipino teenagers result in a number of undesirable consequences. Teenagers usually discuss their sexuality- and relationship-related concerns and questions with their peers, not adults. As such, the Foundation for Adolescent Development's (FAD) most recent project, "Capability Building of Colleges and Universities in Metro Manila on Adolescent Health, Sexuality and Development," emphasizes youth-to-youth interventions by providing technical assistance to schools which are willing to allow their students to help their peers deal with sexuality and reproductive health concerns. Since its inception, FAD has developed programs which maximize the full potential of youth to help other youth. The program uses a school-based, but out-of-classroom approach, to focus upon the behavioral management of adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. In a bid to ensure program sustainability, the program is working to integrate adolescent health concerns into student campus organizations. The consequences of early and unplanned sexual activities, and the peer counselor approach are discussed. PMID:12294074

  7. Imaging Guided Breast Interventions.

    PubMed

    Masroor, Imrana; Afzal, Shaista; Sufian, Saira Naz

    2016-06-01

    Breast imaging is a developing field, with new and upcoming innovations, decreasing the morbidity and mortality related to breast pathologies with main emphasis on breast cancer. Breast imaging has an essential role in the detection and management of breast disease. It includes a multimodality approach, i.e. mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine techniques and interventional procedures, done for the diagnosis and definitive management of breast abnormalities. The range of methods to perform biopsy of a suspicious breast lesion found on imaging has also increased markedly from the 1990s with hi-technological progress in surgical as well as percutaneous breast biopsy methods. The image guided percutaneous breast biopsy procedures cause minimal breast scarring, save time, and relieve the patient of the anxiety of going to the operation theatre. The aim of this review was to describe and discuss the different image guided breast biopsy techniques presently employed along with the indications, contraindication, merits and demerits of each method. PMID:27353993

  8. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome managed with the couple canakinumab-alendronate.

    PubMed

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Rigante, Donato; Vitale, Antonio; Frediani, Bruno; Iannone, Florenzo; Cantarini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Management of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is puzzling, and therapeutic choices can be complicated, due to both wide genetic heterogeneity and protean clinical phenotype. We report on a 35-year-old female who was diagnosed with TRAPS, after finding the V95M mutation on the TNFRSF1A gene; who was treated in order with etanercept, anakinra, and canakinumab (150 mg/every 8 weeks by subcutaneous injection, then increased to 150 mg every 4 weeks); and who started therapy with oral alendronate (70 mg/weekly) to control her osteoporosis. Alendronate combined with canakinumab led to the optimal clinical control of all TRAPS manifestations and normalization of inflammatory markers. Further studies should be performed to clarify bisphosphonates' role in the scenery of autoinflammatory disorders. PMID:24609716

  9. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity – very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  10. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  11. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity - very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  12. 76 FR 8325 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... certain temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement. Establishing this...). SUPPLEMENTARY HISTORY: On February 3, 2011, the Postal Service filed a request for temporary waivers from periodic reporting of service performance measurement for various market dominant postal services,...

  13. Betelgeuse Period Analysis Using VSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, F.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Betelgeuse was studied using the VSTAR software package and analysis of the observations in the AAVSO database. Period analysis derived a period of 376 days, in comparison with literature periods of 420 days using satellite UV data but significantly different from the VSX period of 2,335 days. The unique set of PEP observations of this star is also shown and advantage of PEP Johnson V observations is shown in comparison with the visual observations.

  14. Diet Intervention and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Green, Pattie S.; Montine, Thomas J.; VanFossen, Brian; Baker, Laura D.; Watson, G. Stennis; Bonner, Laura M.; Callaghan, Maureen; Leverenz, James B.; Walter, Brooke K.; Tsai, Elaine; Plymate, Stephen R.; Postupna, Nadia; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Zhang, Jing; Lampe, Johanna; Kahn, Steven E.; Craft, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of a 4-week high–saturated fat/high–glycemic index (HIGH) diet with a low–saturated fat/low–glycemic index (LOW) diet on insulin and lipid metabolism, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of Alzheimer disease, and cognition for healthy adults and adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Veterans Affairs Medical Center clinical research unit. Participants Forty-nine older adults (20 healthy adults with a mean [SD] age of 69.3 [7.4] years and 29 adults with aMCI with a mean [SD] age of 67.6 [6.8] years). Intervention Participants received the HIGH diet (fat, 45% [saturated fat, >25%]; carbohydrates, 35%–40% [glycemic index, >70]; and protein, 15%–20%) or the LOW diet (fat, 25%; [saturated fat, <7%]; carbohydrates, 55%–60% [glycemic index, <5]; and protein, 15%–20%) for 4 weeks. Cognitive tests, an oral glucose tolerance test, and lumbar puncture were conducted at baseline and during the fourth week of the diet. Main Outcome Measures The CSF concentrations of β-amyloid (Aβ42 and Aβ40), tau protein, insulin, F2-isoprostanes, and apolipoprotein E, plasma lipids and insulin, and measures of cognition. Results For the aMCI group, the LOW diet increased CSF Aβ42 concentrations, contrary to the pathologic pattern of lowered CSF Aβ42 typically observed in Alzheimer disease. The LOW diet had the opposite effect for healthy adults, ie, decreasing CSF Aβ42, whereas the HIGH diet increased CSF Aβ42. The CSF apolipoprotein E concentration was increased by the LOW diet and decreased by the HIGH diet for both groups. For the aMCI group, the CSF insulin concentration increased with the LOW diet, but the HIGH diet lowered the CSF insulin concentration for healthy adults. The HIGH diet increased and the LOW diet decreased plasma lipids, insulin, and CSF F2-isoprostane concentrations. Delayed visual memory improved for both groups after completion of 4 weeks of the LOW diet

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Coparenting and Relationship Interventions During the Transition to Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Brian D.; Cicila, Larisa N.; Hsueh, Annie C.; Morrison, Kristen R.; Carhart, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The transition to parenthood has been repeatedly identified as a stressful period, with couples reporting difficulties in domains of individual, coparenting, and relationship functioning. Moreover, these difficulties have been shown to impact children’s development. To buffer against these difficulties, numerous effective parenting, couple, and combined interventions have been developed; however, these interventions are typically lengthy, which limits their potential for dissemination. Therefore, in the present study, we developed and tested separate six-hour interventions that focused exclusively on improving either coparenting or relationship functioning. In a randomized control trial, 90 heterosexual couples (180 individuals) were randomly assigned to an information control group, a coparenting intervention, or a relationship intervention and assessed on seven occasions during the two years following birth. Results revealed that women and high-risk men in both the couple and coparenting interventions showed fewer declines in relationship satisfaction (Cohen’s d = 0.53–0.99) and other areas of relationship functioning. Women also reported improved coparenting in both intervention groups (Cohen’s d = 0.47–1.06). Additionally, women in both interventions experienced less perceived stress during the first year after birth. Given similar effects of the two interventions on coparenting and relationship functioning, future dissemination may be enhanced by delivery of coparenting interventions, as coparenting (compared to relationship) interventions seem to attract more interest from couples and are likely easier to integrate into existing services. PMID:25090255

  16. Interventional Treatments of Cancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Sindt, Jill E; Brogan, Shane E

    2016-06-01

    Pain is a significant burden for patients with cancer and is particularly prevalent among those with advanced cancer. Appropriate interventional cancer pain therapies complement conventional pain management by reducing the need for systemic opioid therapy and its associated toxicity; however, these therapies are often underutilized. This article reviews techniques, indications, complications, and outcomes of the most common interventional approaches for the management of cancer-related pain. These approaches include intrathecal drug delivery, vertebral augmentation, neurolysis of the celiac, superior hypogastric and ganglion impar plexus', image-guided tumor ablation, and other less commonly performed but potentially beneficial interventions. PMID:27208713

  17. Interventional procedures for facial pain.

    PubMed

    Vorenkamp, Kevin E

    2013-01-01

    Interventional pain procedures are critical in the diagnosis and management of a variety of facial pain conditions. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is the most frequent diagnosis for facial pain, with a reported prevalence 10 times greater than persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP). Although pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions benefit many patients with these diagnoses, the pain remains disabling for a significant portion of others. Percutaneous interventions targeting the gasserian ganglion and its branches have proven effective in the management of TN, while there is also supportive evidence for treating the sphenopalatine ganglion in PIFP. PMID:23250793

  18. Hybrid Interventions in Limb Salvage

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tam T.T.; Bechara, Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid interventions have become an integral part of our strategy for limb salvage in patients with multilevel arterial occlusive disease. In this article, we describe the commonly used hybrid interventions and review their indications and outcomes. Iliac stenting and femoral endarterectomy are the two most frequently performed procedures in hybrid cases. Short- and long-term outcomes of hybrid interventions are at least comparable to conventional endovascular and surgical revascularization procedures. Hybrid revascularization offers the efficiency and convenience of a single-stage revascularization. PMID:23805341

  19. Nonpharmacologic interventions for pain management.

    PubMed

    Doody, S B; Smith, C; Webb, J

    1991-03-01

    Managing pain is a complex and inexact science. Acute and chronic pain physically and psychologically affects and disables an overwhelming number of people. Nonpharmacologic interventions for pain management have been reviewed. These methods can be used independently or in combination with other nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic methods of pain control. The goals of nonpharmacologic interventions for pain management include the reduction of pain, minimal adverse effects, and allowing patients to become active participants in their own care. Nurses are called on many times to comfort patients in pain. It is through their expertise and intervention that the goals of pain management succeed. PMID:2043331

  20. Sprinting performance and resistance-based training interventions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bolger, Richard; Lyons, Mark; Harrison, Andrew J; Kenny, Ian C

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to search the scientific literature for original research, addressing the effects different forms of resistance-based training have on sprinting performance in competitive sprinters. Specific key words (Sprinters OR Sprint) NOT (Rugby, Soccer, Cycling, Swimming, Paralympic, and Nutrition) were used to search relevant databases through November 2013 for related literature. Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Five studies met the inclusion criteria: actively competitive adult male sprinters who participated in a resistance-based intervention (>4 weeks), with outcome measures in the form of 10- to 100-m sprint times. Exclusion criteria included acute studies (<4 weeks), nonsprinting populations, and studies with no performance outcome measures (10- to 100-m sprint times). Three of the 5 studies used both locomotor resistance and fixed plane resistance, whereas the remaining 2 studies used more fixed plane resistance, for example, squat and leg extension. Three of the studies showed a statistical improvement in sprinting performance measures, for example, a decrease in 30-m sprint time (p = 0.044), whereas 1 study showed a decrease in sprinting performance. The analysis concluded that resistance-based training has a positive effect on sprinting performance. Varied input of locomotor resistance and fixed plane resistance has resulted in similar percentage change for sprinting performance. This review adds to the body of knowledge by strongly highlighting the dearth of literature exploring the effects of resistance-based training on sprinting performance in competitive sprinters. The short duration and wide range of exercises implemented in studies to date are of concern, but coaches should not hesitate to implement well-planned resistance programs for their sprint athletes. PMID:25268287

  1. A Phase II Study of Additional Four-Week Chemotherapy With Capecitabine During the Resting Periods After Six-Week Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Ha; Song, Min Sang; Park, Jun Boem; Kim, Jin Soo; Kang, Dae Young

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of additional 4-week chemotherapy with capecitabine during the resting periods after a 6-week neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods Radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis at a total dose of 50.4 Gy for 6 weeks. Oral capecitabine was administered at a dose of 825 mg/m2 twice daily for 10 weeks. Surgery was performed 2-4 weeks following the completion of chemotherapy. Results Between January 2010 and September 2011, 44 patients were enrolled. Forty-three patients underwent surgery, and 41 patients completed the scheduled treatment. Pathologic complete remission (pCR) was noted in 9 patients (20.9%). T down-staging and N down-staging were observed in 32 patients (74.4%) and 33 patients (76.7%), respectively. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was noted in 5 patients (11.4%). The pCR rate was similar with the pCR rates obtained after conventional NCRT at our institute and at other institutes. Conclusion This study showed that additional 4-week chemotherapy with capecitabine during the resting periods after 6-week NCRT was safe, but it was no more effective than conventional NCRT. PMID:24278857

  2. Large minimal period orbits of periodic autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Juan; Tarallo, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    We prove the existence of periodic orbits with minimal period greater than any prescribed number for a natural Lagrangian autonomous system in several variables that is analytic and periodic in each variable and whose potential is nonconstant. Work supported by Acción Integrada Italia-España HI2000-0112, Azione Integrata Italia-Spagna IT-117, MCYT BFM2002-01308, Spain.

  3. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  4. Lifestyle interventions for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, V; Dillon, JF; Miller, MH

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide is a significant clinical and public health issue, affecting approximately one third of the Western population. This review assesses the effect and impact lifestyle interventions have on the treatment of this common condition. We review studies comparing the effect of calorie restriction and exercise programs, as well as comparison of lifestyle intervention with pharmaceutical intervention. Both calorie restriction and exercise programs are shown to be beneficial in improving features of metabolic syndrome and surrogate markers of NAFLD. The paucity of studies using histological improvement hinders the ability to conclude a benefit on improvement of histological NAFLD, although this is shown in a small number of studies. There is a need to extend the intervention period to show a sustained improvement with intervention as most studies have a follow up period of 12 months of less. PMID:24826079

  5. Sleep and Mood During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Bei, Bei; Coo, Soledad; Trinder, John

    2015-03-01

    During the perinatal period, compromises in sleep duration and quality are commonly reported by women and confirmed by objective measurements of sleep. Self-reported poor sleep has been associated with concurrent mood disturbance and with increased risk for future mood problems during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Findings on the relationship between objectively measured sleep and mood in perinatal women have been mixed. This article reviews the literature on the nature of and contributing factors to perinatal sleep disturbance, the relationship between sleep and mood, and intervention studies that aim to improve maternal sleep. PMID:26055670

  6. Magnetospheric Periodicities at Saturn Equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roelof, E.; Paranicas, C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.; Hamilton, D. C.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2010-12-01

    For several years before equinox, the energetic charged and neutral particles in Saturn’s magnetosphere displayed strong periodicities near 10.8 hours, the same period observed in radio emissions and magnetic fields. These particle periodicities have now been observed at equinox in electrons, protons, oxygen ions, and neutral hydrogen and oxygen atoms at all energies greater than ~3 keV, the lowest energies measured by the Magnetospheric IMaging Instrument (MIMI) on the Cassini spacecraft. The equinoctial electrons exhibit a very strong period at 10.72 hours, while the protons have essentially no periodicity at all. Water group ions display a notable period at 10.73 hours. Both the electrons and the ions have curious overtones in their spectral structure that may be related to solar wind modulation. The energetic neutral hydrogen and oxygen atoms have strong periods of 10.79 hours at equinox. Within the uncertainties of the measurements, the ENA periods are slightly longer than the charged particle periods, although they cover a somewhat different time interval. For comparison, the Cassini magnetometer observed periodicities in Saturn’s magnetic field of 10.65 hours during the same equinoctial interval. These observations will be interpreted in terms of a wavy magnetodisk model.

  7. Dietary intervention in acne

    PubMed Central

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the endocrine signaling of Western diet, a fundamental environmental factor involved in the pathogenesis of epidemic acne. Western nutrition is characterized by high calorie uptake, high glycemic load, high fat and meat intake, as well as increased consumption of insulin- and IGF-1-level elevating dairy proteins. Metabolic signals of Western diet are sensed by the nutrient-sensitive kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which integrates signals of cellular energy, growth factors (insulin, IGF-1) and protein-derived signals, predominantly leucine, provided in high amounts by milk proteins and meat. mTORC1 activates SREBP, the master transcription factor of lipogenesis. Leucine stimulates mTORC1-SREBP signaling and leucine is directly converted by sebocytes into fatty acids and sterols for sebaceous lipid synthesis. Over-activated mTORC1 increases androgen hormone secretion and most likely amplifies androgen-driven mTORC1 signaling of sebaceous follicles. Testosterone directly activates mTORC1. Future research should investigate the effects of isotretinoin on sebocyte mTORC1 activity. It is conceivable that isotretinoin may downregulate mTORC1 in sebocytes by upregulation of nuclear levels of FoxO1. The role of Western diet in acne can only be fully appreciated when all stimulatory inputs for maximal mTORC1 activation, i.e., glucose, insulin, IGF-1 and leucine, are adequately considered. Epidemic acne has to be recognized as an mTORC1-driven disease of civilization like obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. These new insights into Western diet-mediated mTORC1-hyperactivity provide a rational basis for dietary intervention in acne by attenuating mTORC1 signaling by reducing (1) total energy intake, (2) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, (3) insulinotropic dairy proteins and (4) leucine-rich meat and dairy proteins. The necessary dietary changes are opposed to the evolution of

  8. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radionuclide Techniques in Peripherral Vascular Disease; Central Nervous System Studies; Hepatic Artery Perfusion Imaging; Drug-Radiopharmaceutical Interactions; and Formulary; Pharmacologic Interventions in Nuclear Medicine.

  9. Cognitive Interventions for Older Diabetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sheila; Scogin, Forrest

    1998-01-01

    Older diabetic adults should receive memory training to improve their compliance with medication taking. The intervention should include comprehensible medical instructions, assistance with remembering the nutritional values of food, and higher order skills for disease management. (SK)

  10. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  11. Humor as a nursing intervention.

    PubMed

    Hunt, A H

    1993-02-01

    This article describes the use of humor as a nursing intervention and asks if nurses can justify the integration of the use of humor into the repertoire of nursing interventions. Several uses for humor are illustrated, and humor is differentiated from laughter. The article quotes many nurse leaders' opinions about humor and identifies do's and do not's of appropriate humor; it discusses six research studies in which health care professionals used humor as a treatment protocol. The studies were in the areas of preoperative teaching, clinical evaluation, strategies to prevent hopelessness in adolescents with oncologic illness, and group cohesiveness. Results of these six studies give some evidence, although not robust, that humor is an effective intervention. Methods of determining and implementing humor as an appropriate nursing intervention are included. PMID:8457984

  12. Interventions to reduce school bullying.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen

    2003-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions. PMID:14631879

  13. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:16391455

  14. Responsive parenting: interventions and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Martines, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. PMID:17242836

  15. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  16. Counseling Interventions with Depressed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Defines depression and anxiety in children and addresses assessment issues. Describes nine specific interventions within the home and school that have helped depressed children. Provides case example of depressed sixth grade boy. (ABL)

  17. Pricing Health Behavior Interventions to Promote Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Kurt M.; Leeman, Jennifer; Glasser, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high cost of delivering many public health interventions limits their potential for broad public impact by reducing their likelihood of adoption and maintenance over time. Practitioners identify cost as the primary factor for which interventions they select to implement, but researchers rarely disseminate cost information or consider its importance when developing new interventions. A new approach is proposed, whereby intervention developers assess what individuals and agencies adopting their interventions are willing to pay and then design interventions that are responsive to this price range. The ultimate goal is to develop effective and affordable interventions, called lean interventions, which are widely adopted and have greater public health impact. PMID:24842743

  18. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Sheri L.; Burns, Debra S.; Carpenter, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are used to address a variety of problems experienced by individuals across the developmental lifespan (infants to elderly adults). In order to improve the transparency and specificity of reporting music-based interventions, a set of specific reporting guidelines is recommended. Recommendations pertain to reporting seven different components of music-based interventions including intervention theory, intervention content, intervention delivery schedule, interventionist, treatment fidelity, setting, and unit of delivery. Recommendations are intended to support CONSORT and TREND statements for transparent reporting of interventions while taking into account the variety, complexity, and uniqueness of music-based interventions. PMID:20709884

  19. Reporting Guidelines for Music-based Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Sheri L.; Burns, Debra S.; Carpenter, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Music-based interventions are used to address a variety of problems experienced by individuals across the developmental lifespan (infants to elderly adults). In order to improve the transparency and specificity of reporting music-based interventions, a set of specific reporting guidelines is recommended. Recommendations pertain to reporting seven different components of music-based interventions including intervention theory, intervention content, intervention delivery schedule, interventionist, treatment fidelity, setting, and unit of delivery. Recommendations are intended to support CONSORT and TREND statements for transparent reporting of interventions while taking into account the variety, complexity, and uniqueness of music-based interventions. PMID:23646227

  20. Brief motivational intervention for college drinking: the synergistic impact of social anxiety and perceived drinking norms.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D; Larimer, Mary E; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Despite the efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), students with higher social anxiety appear vulnerable to poorer outcomes. A possible explanation for these outcomes is that corrective normative feedback (an active component of BASICS) may be less effective for socially anxious students if their beliefs about others' drinking are less malleable because of intense fear of negative evaluation for deviating from perceived drinking norms. This study evaluated whether socially anxious students demonstrated less change in perceived norms during BASICS. We also examined whether change in norm endorsement moderated the relation between social anxiety and BASICS outcomes. Undergraduates (n = 52) who underwent BASICS completed measures of drinking, social anxiety, and perceived norms at baseline and 4 weeks post-BASICS. Higher social anxiety was related to less change in norm endorsement after receiving BASICS. Change in perceived norms during treatment moderated the relation between social anxiety and follow-up drinking. Among students with smaller change in norm endorsement after BASICS, higher social anxiety was related to heavier follow-up drinking. Among students with greater changes to norm endorsement during BASICS, the effect of social anxiety was nonsignificant. Results suggest that corrective perceived norms interventions may be less effective among socially anxious students, contributing to continued heavy drinking. Development of social anxiety-specific BASICS components warrants attention. PMID:22612254

  1. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    KAWASHIMA, Chiho; ITO, Nozomi; NAGASHIMA, Shuntarou; MATSUI, Motozumi; SAWADA, Kumiko; SCHWEIGERT, Florian J.; MIYAMOTO, Akio; KIDA, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0–3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7–4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3–1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0–3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene. PMID:26935323

  2. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Ito, Nozomi; Nagashima, Shuntarou; Matsui, Motozumi; Sawada, Kumiko; Schweigert, Florian J; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0-3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7-4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3-1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0-3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene. PMID:26935323

  3. The Role of a Conservative Minimal Interventional Management Protocol in the Fractures of the Dentate Portion of the Adult Mandible.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Balasubramanian

    2016-03-01

    Mandibular fractures are commonly encountered by the maxillofacial surgeon. Maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), or a combination of both, are the accepted standard treatments. This study aims to assess the role of a conservative minimal intervention protocol in the management of undisplaced/minimally displaced fractures of the dentate portion of the adult mandible and the complications associated with such minimalistic intervention. Thirty-four patients with undisplaced/minimally displaced fractures of the dentate portion of the adult mandible were advised to restrict mouth opening and limit themselves to a soft diet for a minimum of 4 weeks. All patients were advised follow-up at regular intervals for at least 3 months. Five patients were lost to follow-up. Symphysis and parasymphysis fractures were the most common fracture locations. Fourteen patients needed tension band stabilization with a mandibular arch bar/bridle wiring and three patients required extraction of luxated teeth. All patients showed satisfactory healing except three in whom additional intervention (ORIF) was performed. The improvement in mouth opening was statistically significant. Complications were seen more frequently among smokers and alcoholics. For patients with minimally displaced mandibular fractures, it is necessary to consider if the perceived benefits of intervention justify the associated added costs and possible complications. Patients have to be fully informed about the possible complications while using this minimal intervention protocol. This study concludes that a conservative minimal intervention management protocol for such fractures of the dentate portion of the mandible can produce satisfactory results. PMID:26889344

  4. A culturally-tailored behavioral intervention trial for alcohol use disorders in three American Indian communities: Rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    McDonell, Michael G.; Nepom, Jenny R.; Leickly, Emily; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid; Hirchak, Kait; Echo-Hawk, Abigail; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Calhoun, Darren; Donovan, Dennis; Roll, John; Ries, Richard; Buchwald, Dedra

    2016-01-01

    Background Disproportionately high rates of alcohol use disorders are present in many American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, yet little information exists regarding the effectiveness of alcohol treatments in AI/AN populations. Contingency management is an intervention for illicit drug use in which tangible reinforcers (rewards) are provided when patients demonstrate abstinence as assessed by urine drug tests. Contingency management has not been widely studied as an intervention for alcohol problems because until recently, no alcohol biomarker has been available to adequately verify abstinence. Aims The HONOR Study is designed to determine whether a culturally-tailored contingency management intervention is an effective intervention for AI/AN adults who suffer from alcohol use disorders. Methods Participants include 400 AI/AN alcohol-dependent adults residing in one rural reservation, one urban community, as well as a third site to be decided, in the Western U.S. Participants complete a 4-week lead-in phase prior to randomization, then 12 weeks of either a contingency management intervention for alcohol abstinence, or a control condition where participants receive reinforcers for attending study visits regardless of alcohol use. Participants are then followed for 3-more months post-intervention. The primary study outcome is urinary ethyl glucuronide-confirmed alcohol abstinence; secondary outcomes include self-reported alcohol and drug use, HIV risk behaviors, and self-reported cigarette smoking. Discussion This will be the largest randomized, controlled trial of any alcohol for AI/ANs and the largest contingency management study targeting alcohol use disorders, thus providing important information to AI/AN communities and the alcohol treatment field in general. PMID:26706667

  5. Preconception interventions in infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Kazemi, Ashraf; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preconception interventions in infertile couples can increase the chance of pregnancy and lower its complications. The success in infertility treatment and achieving a successful pregnancy is of great importance among infertile couples compared to others. This study has tried to investigate necessary preconception interventions before beginning of infertility treatment cycle among infertile couples. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 268 individuals presenting to fertility clinics (Moshtagh and Shahid beheshty) across the city of Isfahan, Iran. Simple sampling method was used. Questionnaire and patients’ medical records were used to collect data. Descriptive and analytic statistical methods and SPSS software were used for analysis. Results: The results showed that the interventions related to diseases treatment and prescription of folic acid before the beginning of infertility treatment were complete for most of the subject (47.06% and 79.9% respectively), but referral for genetics counseling had not been conducted in most of the cases (98.9%). Specific interventions in relation with the infertility treatment before beginning the treatment cycle had been conducted in 50% of the subjects. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a weakness concerning necessary preconception interventions before beginning of infertility treatment cycle in most of the studied subjects. With regard to the effect of preconception interventions on outcome of infertility treatment, and with consideration of high importance of pregnancy success in infertile couples, paying more attention to conduct this manner is necessary. PMID:25250367

  6. Intervention analysis in environmental engineering.

    PubMed

    Hipel, K W; McLeod, A I

    1989-11-01

    Intervention analysis techniques are described for identifying and statistically modelling trends which may be present in water quality time series. At the exploratory data analysis stage, simple graphical and modelling methods can be employed for visually detecting and examining trends in a time series caused by one or more external interventions. For instance, a plot of a robust locally weighted regression smooth through a graph of the observations over time may reveal trends and other interesting statistical properties contained in the time series. In addition, statistical tests, such as different versions of the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test, can be used to detect the presence of trends caused by unknown or known external interventions. To characterize rigorously and estimate trends which may be known in advance or else detected using exploratory data analysis studies, different parametric methods can be utilized at the confirmatory data analysis stage. Specifically, the time series modelling approach to intervention analysis can be employed to estimate the magnitudes of the changes in the mean level of the series due to the interventions. Particular types of regression models can also be used for estimating trends, especially when there are many missing observations. To demonstrate how intervention analysis methods can be effectively used in environmental impact assessment, representative applications to water quality time series are presented. PMID:24243172

  7. A Multimedia Mobile Phone–Based Youth Smoking Cessation Intervention: Findings From Content Development and Piloting Studies

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ralph; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Denny, Simon; Dorey, Enid; Ellis-Pegler, Mary; van Rooyen, Jaco; Rodgers, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Background While most young people who smoke want to quit, few access cessation support services. Mobile phone–based cessation programs are ideal for young people: mobile phones are the most common means of peer communication, and messages can be delivered in an anonymous manner, anywhere, anytime. Following the success of our text messaging smoking cessation program, we developed an innovative multimedia mobile phone smoking cessation intervention. Objective The aim of the study was to develop and pilot test a youth-oriented multimedia smoking cessation intervention delivered solely by mobile phone. Methods Development included creating content and building the technology platform. Content development was overseen by an expert group who advised on youth development principles, observational learning (from social cognitive theory), effective smoking cessation interventions, and social marketing. Young people participated in three content development phases (consultation via focus groups and an online survey, content pre-testing, and selection of role models). Video and text messages were then developed, incorporating the findings from this research. Information technology systems were established to support the delivery of the multimedia messages by mobile phone. A pilot study using an abbreviated 4-week program of video and text content tested the reliability of the systems and the acceptability of the intervention. Results Approximately 180 young people participated in the consultation phase. There was a high priority placed on music for relaxation (75%) and an interest in interacting with others in the program (40% would read messages, 36% would read a blog). Findings from the pre-testing phase (n = 41) included the importance of selecting “real” and “honest” role models with believable stories, and an interest in animations (37%). Of the 15 participants who took part in the pilot study, 13 (87%) were available for follow-up interviews at 4 weeks: 12

  8. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  9. On the Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Examined are Period-Amplitude and Amplitude-Period relationships based on the cyclic behavior of the 12-month moving averages of monthly mean sunspot numbers for cycles 0.23, both in terms of Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 contingency tables and linear regression analyses. Concerning the Period-Amplitude relationship (same cycle), because cycle 23's maximum amplitude is known to be 120.8, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that its period will be 131 +/- 24 months (using all cycles) or 131 +/- 18 months (ignoring cycles 2 and 4, which have the extremes of period, 108 and 164 months, respectively). Because cycle 23 has already persisted for 142 months (May 1996 through February 2008), based on the latter prediction, it should end before September 2008. Concerning the Amplitude-Period relationship (following cycle maximum amplitude versus preceding cycle period), because cycle 23's period is known to be at least 142 months, the inferred regressions (90-percent prediction intervals) suggest that cycle 24's maximum amplitude will be about less than or equal to 96.1 +/- 55.0 (using all cycle pairs) or less than or equal to 91.0 +/- 36.7 (ignoring statistical outlier cycle pairs). Hence, cycle 24's maximum amplitude is expected to be less than 151, perhaps even less than 128, unless cycle pair 23/24 proves to be a statistical outlier.

  10. Paliperidone Palmitate Associated with Necrotizing Deep Tissue Infection and Sepsis Requiring Surgical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jonathan G.; Kooda, Kirstin J.; Frazee, Erin N.; Nelson, Sarah; Moore, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-acting injectable antipsychotics provide the delivery of medication over an extended period of time requiring administration typically only every 2 to 4 weeks. The side effect profile of a long-acting injectable antipsychotic is predictable and similar to the oral formulation. However, injection site reactions may occur with this novel delivery system. The risk of an injection site reaction may be greater with the repeated administration of a lipophilic decanoate formulation and include pain, development of indurations, and fibrosis. Severe complications from injection site reactions have rarely been described in the literature with newer agents. We report the first case of a patient prescribed paliperidone palmitate every 3 weeks that developed severe sepsis requiring vasopressors and intubation due to delayed relayed recognition of a necrotizing infection at an injection site. Clinicians should be alerted to screen for injection site reactions when there is an unknown source infection in a patient receiving a long-acting injectable antipsychotic. PMID:26843999

  11. Scaling limits of periodic monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to explore the structure of singly periodic monopoles for different values of the size to period ratio. The transition between a chain of small monopoles and the approximately two dimensional chain of large monopoles takes us through a region with an unintuitive dependence on the periodic direction. The focus is mainly on the smooth SU(2) monopole of charge 2.

  12. Changing Periods of ST Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S.; Butterworth, N.; Pearce, A.

    2015-12-01

    ST Puppis is a reasonably bright W Virginis variable star, a Type 2 Cepheid with a record of substantial and erratic period changes—21 during the interval 1900 to 1985 with a range of magnitude from 17.4 to 19.2. It was observed as part of Variable Stars South's Cepheid project by Butterworth in 2014 and 2015 using DSLR photometry in BGR passbands and visually by Pearce in 2015. The known period changes are shown graphically and doubtful ones examined and discarded if necessary. With its period and amplitude with a frequently changing period it is a suitable and worthwhile object for visual observing.

  13. Replicated Findings of an Evaluation of a Brief Intervention Designed to Prevent High-Risk Drinking among First-Year College Students: Implications for Social Norming Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, Georgia Ann; Smith, Bradley H.; Gant, Rick; Bogle, Kristin E.

    2004-01-01

    College students were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard alcohol programming (SAP) or (b) SAP plus an intervention designed to change perceptions of alcohol norms (PAN). Effects of the intervention delivered during one class period (i.e., 55 minutes) were assessed using pre- and post-intervention surveys about personal alcohol use…

  14. A one-year school-based diet/exercise intervention improves non-traditional disease biomarkers in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    School-based interventions are an effective way to treat childhood obesity. The purpose of the present study was to biologically validate an established school-based intervention designed to reduce standardized body mass index (zBMI) over a period of 12 months. This intervention focused on a subset ...

  15. Process evaluation of a web-based intervention aimed at empowerment of disability benefit claimants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this process evaluation study was to gain insight into the reach, compliance, appreciation, usage barriers, and users' perceived effectiveness of a web-based intervention http://www.wiagesprek.nl. This intervention was aimed at empowerment of disability claimants, prior to the assessment of disability by an insurance physician. Methods Reach was determined by registering claimants exposed to the study's invitation brochures, and by comparing trial participant characteristics with non-participants and nationwide claimant data. Compliance was registered by analyzing weblogs, which were automatically collected during the period of the trial. This made it possible to analyze individual use of the intervention. Appreciation, usage barriers, and users' perceived effectiveness were assessed using an online questionnaire that was sent to participants from the intervention group, 6 weeks after enrolment. Results Only 9% of the target population enrolled in the internet program. Because of selective enrolment, more females, higher educated claimants, and less ethnical minorities were reached. Compliance was ambiguous: out of the 123 participants randomized into the intervention group, a significant proportion (33%) did not use the intervention at all, while, at the same time, many participants (32%) used the intervention for more than two hours (i.e. in approximately two weeks). Overall satisfaction with the intervention was good. Claimants perceived the intervention most effective in increasing knowledge, while also a fair amount of users perceived the intervention effective in gaining right expectations or being able to communicate better with their physician. Conclusions The uptake of the intervention http://www.wiagesprek.nl was disappointing. Specifically, the poor reach and compliance of the intervention resulted in a small proportion of the target population using the intervention as intended. Improvements in the implementation process are

  16. The interventionalism of medicine: interventional radiology, cardiology, and neuroradiology

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Kaplan, Anna; Laird, Cyndi; Leiter, Yaacov

    2009-01-01

    Interventional medical practitioners are specialists who do minimally invasive procedures instead of surgery or other treatment. Most often, these procedures utilize various imaging and catheterization techniques in order to diagnose and treat vascular issues in the body. Interventionalist techniques, including injecting arteries with dye, visualizing these via x-ray, and opening up blockages, developed from early pioneers' bold and sometimes controversial experiments which aimed to find safer and better ways to treat coronary artery and other atherosclerotic vascular disease. Currently, the major interventional specialties are interventional (or vascular) radiology, interventional cardiology, and endovascular surgical (interventional) neuroradiology. All three are perfecting the use of stents and other procedures to keep diseased arteries open, while also evaluating the application these procedures. The rapid new development of imaging technologies, mechanical devices, and types of treatment, while certainly beneficial to the patient, can also lead to ambiguity regarding specific specialty claims on certain techniques and devices. While these practitioners can be in competition with each other, cooperation and communication are the most advantageous methods to deal with these "turf wars." All of the interventionalists are needed to deliver the best medical care to patients, now and in the future. PMID:19740425

  17. Response to intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between children with and without reading disabilities: Evidence for the role of kindergarten and first-grade interventions.

    PubMed

    Vellutino, Frank R; Scanlon, Donna M; Small, Sheila; Fanuele, Diane P

    2006-01-01

    Children at risk for early reading difficulties were identified on entry into kindergarten, and half of these children received small-group intervention two to three times a week during their kindergarten year. The other half received whatever remedial assistance was offered by their home schools. These children were again assessed at the beginning of first grade, and those who continued to have difficulties in reading received either one-to-one daily tutoring offered by project teachers from the beginning to the end of first grade or whatever remedial assistance was offered by their home schools over the same time period. All target children were periodically assessed through the end of third grade. Results suggest that either kindergarten intervention alone or kindergarten intervention combined with first-grade intervention are both useful vehicles for preventing early and long-term reading difficulties in most at-risk children. PMID:16583795

  18. Quasi-periodicity in relative quasi-periodic tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassò, Francesco; García-Naranjo, Luis C.; Giacobbe, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    At variance from the cases of relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits of dynamical systems with symmetry, the dynamics in relative quasi-periodic tori (namely, subsets of the phase space that project to an invariant torus of the reduced system on which the flow is quasi-periodic) is not yet completely understood. Even in the simplest situation of a free action of a compact and abelian connected group, the dynamics in a relative quasi-periodic torus is not necessarily quasi-periodic. It is known that quasi-periodicity of the unreduced dynamics is related to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, and sufficient conditions for it are virtually known only in a perturbation context. We provide a different, though equivalent, approach to this subject, based on the hypothesis of the existence of commuting, group-invariant lifts of a set of generators of the reduced torus. Under this hypothesis, which is shown to be equivalent to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, we give a complete description of the structure of the relative quasi-periodic torus, which is a principal torus bundle whose fibers are tori of a dimension which exceeds that of the reduced torus by at most the rank of the group. The construction can always be done in such a way that these tori have minimal dimension and carry ergodic flow.

  19. Community interventions for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Parker, Donna R; Assaf, Annlouise R

    2005-12-01

    Review of the community-based CVD intervention programs suggests that a number of components have been successful using varying methods and materials for CVD risk reduction. It should be noted, however, that in multi-intervention programs it is often difficult to determine which components of the intervention were responsible for the overall success of the study. The community-based approach to CVD prevention is generalizable, cost-effective (because of the use of mass communication methods), and has the potential for modifying the environment and influencing health policies. Based on the experiences and successes of a number of community projects, recommendations have been proposed for developing future programs. Although they are not totally comprehensive, it has been suggested that a community-based intervention program should consider the following recommendations: 1) An understanding of the community: the needs and priorities of the community should be assessed, and close collaboration with individuals from the community, including community leaders, opinion leaders, community health care providers, and community organizations from various sectors of the community, should be consulted. Efforts should be focused on underserved and vulnerable populations. 2) Inclusion of community activities: these activities should be integrated within the context of the community environment, including primary health care services, voluntary organizations, grocery stores, restaurants, work sites, schools, and local media. 3) Inclusion mass media messages: the mass media can provide information and reinforcement of the behavior change. 4) Develop cost-effective interventions to assure that the community is exposed to an effective dose of the intervention. 5) Work with community organizations to help change social and physical environments to make them more conducive to health and healthy life-styles changes. 6) Develop a reliable monitoring and evaluation system: monitor the

  20. Perioperative Interventions to Reduce Chronic Postsurgical Pain

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ian; Hah, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean; Ottestad, Einar; Kong, Jiang Ti; Lahidji, Sam; Tawfik, Vivianne; Younger, Jarred; Curtin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of patients following a variety of surgeries develop chronic postsurgical pain. Reducing chronic postoperative pain is especially important to reconstructive surgeons because common operations such as breast and limb reconstruction have even higher risk for developing chronic postsurgical pain. Animal studies of posttraumatic nerve injury pain demonstrate that there is a critical time frame before and immediately after nerve injury in which specific interventions can reduce the incidence and intensity of chronic neuropathic pain behaviors–so called “preventative analgesia.” In animal models, perineural local anesthetic, systemic intravenous local anesthetic, perineural clonidine, systemic gabapentin, systemic tricyclic antidepressants, and minocycline have each been shown to reduce pain behaviors days to weeks after treatment. The translation of this work to humans also suggests that brief perioperative interventions may protect patients from developing new chronic postsurgical pain. Recent clinical trial data show that there is an opportunity during the perioperative period to dramatically reduce the incidence and severity of chronic postsurgical pain. The surgeon, working with the anesthesiologist, has the ability to modify both early and chronic postoperative pain by implementing an evidence-based preventative analgesia plan. PMID:23463498

  1. Current North American Indian Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blew, Carol Van Antwerp Holliday; And Others

    Approximately 150 newsletters, newspapers, and other periodicals are cited in this bibliography of current sources of information about or directed toward North American Indians. One-sentence descriptions of content, ordering information, and frequency of publication are provided. The majority of the periodicals cited emphasize current events of…

  2. 75 FR 39200 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Counsel, at stephen.sharfman@prc.gov or 202-789-6820. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... rulemaking proceeding to consider a change in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic...

  3. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  4. Testing for periodicity of extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, David M.; Sepkoski, J. J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical techniques used by Raup and Sepkoski (1984 and 1986) to identify a 26-Myr periodicity in the biological extinction record for the past 250 Myr are reexamined, responding in detail to the criticisms of Stigler and Wagner (1987). It is argued that evaluation of a much larger set of extinction data using a time scale with 51 sampling intervals supports the finding of periodicity. In a reply by Sigler and Wagner, the preference for a 26-Myr period is attributed to a numerical quirk in the Harland et al. (1982) time scale, in which the subinterval boundaries are not linear interpolations between the stage boundaries but have 25-Myr periodicity. It is stressed that the results of the stringent statistical tests imposed do not disprove periodicity but rather indicate that the evidence and analyses presented so far are inadequate.

  5. Schuler Period in LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Russell J.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes and extends the concept of the Schuler oscillation that occurs in the theory of inertial navigation systems, allowing one to see how the Schuler phenomenon affects inertial navigation systems operating in space. We show why a low earth orbit satellite's orbital period is identical to the period of the Schuler pendulum, which is the period of the errors for terrestrial inertial navigation systems. We also show that the generalized form of the Schuler oscillation takes the same form as the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for satellite relative motion and that the period of the out-of-plane motion in neighboring satellite relative trajectories is the same as the Schuler period. Finally, we describe how INS gyro drift manifests itself in different coordinate systems for the orbital case. These results may assist orbital flight dynamics and attitude control systems engineers in the design and analysis of INS-equipped spacecraft

  6. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, M. J. S.

    1990-07-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  7. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  8. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  9. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  10. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....

  11. 29 CFR 102.65 - Motions; interventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Act § 102.65 Motions; interventions. (a) All motions, including motions for intervention pursuant to... any proceeding shall make a motion for intervention, stating the grounds upon which such person claims... be, may by order permit intervention in person or by counsel or other representative to such...

  12. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....

  13. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....

  14. 29 CFR 102.65 - Motions; interventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Act § 102.65 Motions; interventions. (a) All motions, including motions for intervention pursuant to... any proceeding shall make a motion for intervention, stating the grounds upon which such person claims... be, may by order permit intervention in person or by counsel or other representative to such...

  15. 29 CFR 102.65 - Motions; interventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Act § 102.65 Motions; interventions. (a) All motions, including motions for intervention pursuant to... any proceeding shall make a motion for intervention, stating the grounds upon which such person claims... be, may by order permit intervention in person or by counsel or other representative to such...

  16. 29 CFR 102.65 - Motions; interventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Act § 102.65 Motions; interventions. (a) All motions, including motions for intervention pursuant to... any proceeding shall make a motion for intervention, stating the grounds upon which such person claims... be, may by order permit intervention in person or by counsel or other representative to such...

  17. 39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....

  18. 24 CFR 901.210 - Interventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interventions. 901.210 Section 901... PUBLIC HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.210 Interventions. (a) Interventions under this part... development or a group of developments. Under this limited intervention procedure, the Department could...

  19. 40 CFR 164.31 - Intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intervention. 164.31 Section 164.31... (Other Than Expedited Hearings) Appearances, Intervention, and Consolidation § 164.31 Intervention. (a... motion must set forth the grounds for the proposed intervention, the position and interest of the...

  20. 24 CFR 902.83 - Interventions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interventions. 902.83 Section 902... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.83 Interventions. (a) Interventions... management) or to a single development or a group of developments. Under this limited intervention...

  1. Issues in the timing of integrated early interventions: contributions from nutrition, neuroscience and psychological research

    PubMed Central

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Georgieff, Michael; Cusick, Sarah; McEwen, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A central issue when designing multi-dimensional biological and psychosocial interventions for children who are exposed to multiple developmental risks is identification of the age period(s) in which such interventions will have the strongest and longest lasting impact (sensitive periods). In this paper we review nutritional, neuroscience and psychological evidence on this issue. Nutritional evidence is used to identify nutrient sensitive periods of age-linked dimensions of brain development, with specific reference to iron deficiency. Neuroscience evidence is used to assess the importance of timing of exposures to environmental stressors for maintaining neural, neuroendocrine and immune systems integrity. Psychological evidence illustrates the sensitivity of cognitive and social-emotional development to contextual risk and protective influences encountered at different ages. Evidence reviewed documents that the early years of life are a sensitive period where biological or psychosocial interventions or exposure to risk or protective contextual influences can produce unique long-term influences upon human brain, neuroendocrine and cognitive or psychosocial development. However, the evidence does not identify the early years as the sole sensitive time period within which to have a significant influence upon development. Choice of age(s) to initiate interventions should be based on what outcomes are targeted and what interventions are used. PMID:24354763

  2. Nutritional interventions to prevent and rear low-birthweight piglets.

    PubMed

    De Vos, M; Che, L; Huygelen, V; Willemen, S; Michiels, J; Van Cruchten, S; Van Ginneken, C

    2014-08-01

    Selection for hyperprolific sows, as a means of increasing litter size and profit, has resulted in an increased number of low-birthweight (LBW) piglets. These LBW piglets might suffer from increased morbidity and mortality during the early neonatal period. In addition, they show reduced growth performance, meat and carcass quality, which leads to an important economic loss for the farmer in the post-natal period. Therefore, nutritional interventions can be undertaken to prevent and rear LBW piglets. In the first part of this review, the preventive strategies at the sow level will be discussed. Approaches in preventing LBW piglets are to optimize the intrauterine environment via supplementing the sow during gestation. In the second part of this review, the interventions at the piglet level will be described. To increase the survival and growth rates of LBW piglets, one must focus on ensuring adequate colostrum and milk intake. Interventions include supplementing piglets, split nursing, split weaning and cross-fostering. Additional interventions increasing the probability of optimal post-natal food intake will be discussed. PMID:24118084

  3. Eye dose to staff involved in interventional and procedural fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, D.; Hadaya, D.; Tse, J.

    2016-03-01

    In 2011 the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) lowered the occupational eye dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv/yr [1]. While international jurisdictions are in a process of adopting these substantial changes, medical physicists at the clinical level have been advising medical colleagues on specific situations based on dose measurements. Commissioned and calibrated TLDs mounted in commercially available holders designed to simulate the measurement of Hp(3), were applied to staff involved in x-ray procedures for a one month period. During this period clinical procedure data was concurrently collected and subject to audit. The use or not of eye personal protective equipment (PPE) was noted for all staff. Audits were conducted in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory, the interventional angiography rooms and the procedural room where endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures are performed. Significant levels of occupational dose were recorded in the cardiac and interventional procedures, with maximum reading exceeding the new limit for some interventional radiologists. No significant eye doses were measured for staff performing ERCP procedures. One outcome of the studies was increased use of eye PPE for operators of interventional equipment with increased availability also to nursing staff, when standing in close proximity to the patient during procedures.

  4. Duplicated laboratory tests: evaluation of a computerized alert intervention abstract.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Sharon A; Papa, Linda; Norris, Anne E; Chase, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Redundant testing contributes to reductions in healthcare system efficiency. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine if the use of a computerized alert would reduce the number and cost of duplicated Acute Hepatitis Profile (AHP) laboratory tests and (2) assess what patient, test, and system factors were associated with duplication. This study used a quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design to determine the proportion of duplication of the AHP test before and after implementation of a computerized alert intervention. The AHP test was duplicated if the test was requested again within 15 days of the initial test being performed and the result present in the medical record. The intervention consisted of a computerized alert (pop-up window) that indicated to the clinician that the test had recently been ordered. A total of 674 AHP tests were performed in the pre-intervention period and 692 in the postintervention group. In the pre-intervention period, 53 (7.9%) were duplicated and in postintervention, 18 (2.6%) were duplicated (p<.001). The implementation of the alert was shown to significantly reduce associated costs of duplicated AHP tests (p≤.001). Implementation of computerized alerts may be useful in reducing duplicate laboratory tests and improving healthcare system efficiency. PMID:22963261

  5. Learning disabilities identification: primary intervention, secondary intervention, and then what?

    PubMed

    Reschly, Daniel J

    2005-01-01

    A broad consensus has been achieved regarding the importance of early primary and secondary interventions for children in academic domains for the purposes of improving overall academic competencies and preventing low achievement that often leads to a diagnosis of specific learning disability (SLD) and long-term special education placement. The characteristics of effective prevention programs generally are well established. The degree to which these programs prevent SLD is uncertain, and the subsequent procedures for determining SLD eligibility are very much at issue. Issues are discussed regarding what should be done about SLD identification after primary and secondary intervention efforts are proven inadequate for individual children. PMID:16392692

  6. Methylation patterns in sentinel genes in peripheral blood cells of heavy smokers: Influence of cruciferous vegetables in an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Scoccianti, Chiara; Ricceri, Fulvio; Ferrari, Pietro; Cuenin, Cyrille; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Jenab, Mazda; Hainaut, Pierre; Vineis, Paolo; Herceg, Zdenko

    2011-09-01

    Changes in DNA methylation patterns are a hallmark of tobacco-induced carcinogenesis. We have conducted a randomized 4-week intervention trial to investigate the effects of three dietary regimens to modify DNA methylation patterns in peripheral white blood cells of heavy smokers. A group of 88 smokers were randomly assigned to and distributed among three diets, including (1) normal isocaloric diet (balanced in fruits and vegetables), according to international guidelines; (2) a diet enriched in flavonoids and isothiocyanates (particularly cruciferous vegetables); (3) a regimen consisting of diet 1 supplemented with flavonoids (green tea and soy products). Methylation patterns were analyzed by pyrosequencing in LINE1 (Long Interspersed DNA Elements), RASSF1A, ARF and CDKN2a (tumor suppressor genes), MLH1 (mismatch DNA repair) and MTHFR (folate metabolism). Three distinct patterns of methylation were observed. In LINE1, methylation showed a small but reproducible increase with all three regimens. MTHFR was constitutively methylated with no significant modulation by diets. The four other loci showed low basal levels of methylation with no substantial change after intervention. These data suggest that the isocaloric diet may stabilize global epigenetic (LINE1 DNA methylation) patterns in peripheral white blood cells but does not provide evidence for methylation changes in specific genes associated with this short-term dietary intervention. PMID:21822058

  7. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine may be defined as the coadministration of a nonradioactive drug or application of a physical stimulus or physiologic maneuver to enhance the diagnostic utility of a nuclear medicine test. The rationale for each interventional maneuver follows from the physiology or metabolism of the particular organ or organ system under evaluation. Diagnostic inference is drawn from the pattern of change in the biodistribution of the tracer in response to the intervention-induced change in metabolism or function. In current practice, the most commonly performed interventional maneuvers are aimed at studies of the heart, genitourinary system, hepatobiliary system, and gastrointestinal tract. The single most commonly performed interventional study in the United States is the stress Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan aimed at the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The stress portion of the study is accomplished with dynamic leg exercise on a treadmill and is aimed at increasing myocardial oxygen demands. Areas of myocardium distal to hemodynamically significant lesions in the coronary arteries become ischemic at peak stress due to the inability of the stenotic vessel to respond to the oxygen demand/blood flow needs of the myocardium. Ischemic areas are readily recognized as photopenic defects on scans obtained immediately after exercise, with normalization upon delayed imaging. Diuresis renography is aimed at the differential diagnosis of hydroureteronephrosis. By challenging the urinary tract collecting structures with an augmented urine flow, dilated, unobstructed systems can be differentiated from systems with significant mechanical obstruction. 137 references.

  8. Operational Interventions to Maintenance Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Walter, Diane; Dulchinos, VIcki

    1997-01-01

    A significant proportion of aviation accidents and incidents are known to be tied to human error. However, research of flight operational errors has shown that so-called pilot error often involves a variety of human factors issues and not a simple lack of individual technical skills. In aircraft maintenance operations, there is similar concern that maintenance errors which may lead to incidents and accidents are related to a large variety of human factors issues. Although maintenance error data and research are limited, industry initiatives involving human factors training in maintenance have become increasingly accepted as one type of maintenance error intervention. Conscientious efforts have been made in re-inventing the team7 concept for maintenance operations and in tailoring programs to fit the needs of technical opeRAtions. Nevertheless, there remains a dual challenge: 1) to develop human factors interventions which are directly supported by reliable human error data, and 2) to integrate human factors concepts into the procedures and practices of everyday technical tasks. In this paper, we describe several varieties of human factors interventions and focus on two specific alternatives which target problems related to procedures and practices; namely, 1) structured on-the-job training and 2) procedure re-design. We hope to demonstrate that the key to leveraging the impact of these solutions comes from focused interventions; that is, interventions which are derived from a clear understanding of specific maintenance errors, their operational context and human factors components.

  9. Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Pandemic Influenza, National and Community Measures

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization's recommended pandemic influenza interventions, based on limited data, vary by transmission pattern, pandemic phase, and illness severity and extent. In the pandemic alert period, recommendations include isolation of patients and quarantine of contacts, accompanied by antiviral therapy. During the pandemic period, the focus shifts to delaying spread and reducing effects through population-based measures. Ill persons should remain home when they first become symptomatic, but forced isolation and quarantine are ineffective and impractical. If the pandemic is severe, social distancing measures such as school closures should be considered. Nonessential domestic travel to affected areas should be deferred. Hand and respiratory hygiene should be routine; mask use should be based on setting and risk, and contaminated household surfaces should be disinfected. Additional research and field assessments during pandemics are essential to update recommendations. Legal authority and procedures for implementing interventions should be understood in advance and should respect cultural differences and human rights. PMID:16494723

  10. The early history of ideas on brief interventions for alcohol

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. Methods The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. Results After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Conclusions Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. PMID:24354855

  11. Sustainability of a Parental Tobacco Control Intervention in Pediatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nabi-Burza, Emara; Chang, Yuchiao; Regan, Susan; Drehmer, Jeremy; Finch, Stacia; Wasserman, Richard; Ossip, Deborah; Hipple, Bethany; Woo, Heide; Klein, Jonathan; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an evidence-based pediatric outpatient intervention for parents who smoke persisted after initial implementation. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 pediatric practices in 16 states that received either Clinical and Community Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) intervention or usual care. The intervention provided practices with training to provide evidence-based assistance to parents who smoke. The primary outcome, assessed by the 12-month follow-up telephone survey with parents, was provision of meaningful tobacco control assistance, defined as discussing various strategies to quit smoking, discussing smoking cessation medication, or recommending the use of the state quitline after initial enrollment visit. We also assessed parental quit rates at 12 months, determined by self-report and biochemical verification. RESULTS: Practices’ rates of providing any meaningful tobacco control assistance (55% vs 19%), discussing various strategies to quit smoking (25% vs 10%), discussing cessation medication (41% vs 11%), and recommending the use of the quitline (37% vs 9%) were all significantly higher in the intervention than in the control groups, respectively (P < .0001 for each), during the 12-month postintervention implementation. Receiving any assistance was associated with a cotinine-confirmed quitting adjusted odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.13–3.19). After controlling for demographic and behavioral factors, the adjusted odds ratio for cotinine-confirmed quitting in intervention versus control practices was 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.64–1.78). CONCLUSIONS: Intervention practices had higher rates of delivering tobacco control assistance than usual care practices over the 1-year follow-up period. Parents who received any assistance were more likely to quit smoking; however, parents’ likelihood of quitting smoking was not statistically different between the intervention and

  12. Goal-directed Resuscitative Interventions during Pediatric Interfacility Transport

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Michael H; Sanders, Ronald C; Moss, M Michele; Sullivan, Janice E; Prodhan, Parthak; Melguizo-Castro, Maria; Nick, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives This manuscript reports results of the first NIH-funded prospective interfacility transport study, to determine the effect of goal-directed therapy administered by a specialized pediatric team to critically ill children with the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS). We hypothesized that goal-directed therapy during interfacility transport would decrease hospital length of stay, prevent multiple organ dysfunction, and reduce subsequent ICU interventions. Methods Prospective data was collected on all pediatric interfacility transport patients with SIRS transported by the Angel One Transport team at Arkansas Children’s Hospital. A 10 month data collection period was followed by institution of a goal-directed resuscitation protocol. Data was subsequently collected for 10 additional months followed by comparison of pre and post-intervention groups. All transport personnel underwent training with didactics and high-fidelity simulation until mastery with goal-directed resuscitation was achieved. Results All transport patients were screened for SIRS using established parameters, and 235 (123 pre-intervention; 112 post-intervention) were enrolled. Univariate analysis revealed shorter hospital stay (11±15vs.7±10days; p=0.02) and fewer required therapeutic ICU interventions in the post-intervention group (TISS-28 scores:19.4±6.8vs.17.3; p=0.04). ICU stay and incidence of organ dysfunction were not statistically different. Multi-variable analysis showed a 1.6 day (95%CI:1.3-2.03; p=0.02) decrease in hospital stay in the post-intervention group. Conclusions and Relevance This study suggests that goal-directed therapy administered by a specialized pediatric transport team has the potential to impact the outcomes of critically ill children. Findings from this study should be confirmed across multiple institutions, but have the potential to impact the clinical outcomes of critically ill children with SIRS. PMID:25860203

  13. Social network diagnostics: a tool for monitoring group interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many behavioral interventions designed to improve health outcomes are delivered in group settings. To date, however, group interventions have not been evaluated to determine if the groups generate interaction among members and how changes in group interaction may affect program outcomes at the individual or group level. Methods This article presents a model and practical tool for monitoring how social ties and social structure are changing within the group during program implementation. The approach is based on social network analysis and has two phases: collecting network measurements at strategic intervention points to determine if group dynamics are evolving in ways anticipated by the intervention, and providing the results back to the group leader to guide implementation next steps. This process aims to initially increase network connectivity and ultimately accelerate the diffusion of desirable behaviors through the new network. This article presents the Social Network Diagnostic Tool and, as proof of concept, pilot data collected during the formative phase of a childhood obesity intervention. Results The number of reported advice partners and discussion partners increased during program implementation. Density, the number of ties among people in the network expressed as a percentage of all possible ties, increased from 0.082 to 0.182 (p < 0.05) in the advice network, and from 0.027 to 0.055 (p > 0.05) in the discussion network. Conclusions The observed two-fold increase in network density represents a significant shift in advice partners over the intervention period. Using the Social Network Tool to empirically guide program activities of an obesity intervention was feasible. PMID:24083343

  14. Mediators of change following a senior school physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the low level of effectiveness of youth interventions is due to a lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms responsible for behaviour change. The identification of behaviour mediators is necessary for the progression of physical activity research, as it allows researchers to determine which components of an intervention are responsible for mediating behaviour change. The purpose of this study was to identify mediators of behaviour change in a physical activity intervention for senior school students. Participants (n=78) were randomly allocated to control or intervention conditions for a period of 10 weeks. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and potential mediators were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (10 weeks). Hypothesized mediators were derived from Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and included: peer support, exercise self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. Mediation was assessed using the product-of-coefficients test described by MacKinnon and colleagues, based on the criteria for mediation identified by Baron and Kenny. While none of the variables satisfied all four criteria for mediation among males or females, self-efficacy was able to satisfy the first three criteria among females in the study. Exercise self-efficacy may be a mediator of physical activity behaviour in adolescent girls. PMID:18069061

  15. Assessing intervention effects in the Minnesota Heart Health Program.

    PubMed

    Murray, D M; Hannan, P J; Jacobs, D R; McGovern, P J; Schmid, L; Baker, W L; Gray, C

    1994-01-01

    The Minnesota Heart Health Program is a 13-year research and demonstration project to reduce morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease in whole communities in the upper Midwest. Six communities were selected for the study: three intervention and three comparison sites, matched to increase baseline comparability. After 2-4 years of baseline observations, a 5- to 6-year program of intensive intervention was introduced in the three intervention communities. Periodic cross-sectional and cohort surveys provided data on risk factors and related behaviors. Regression adjustments within and between communities reduced the confounding influences of important covariates and the variance inflation associated with the nesting of individuals within communities and surveys. Post hoc stratification allowed exploration of the main and strata-specific effects of the intervention program. Finally, the intervention effect was modeled as a departure from the trend line fit to the nonintervention city-year means. Together, these procedures explicitly acknowledged the component of variance associated with communities, and so avoided a major source of bias created in the usual analysis when that variation is ignored. They also increased the interpretability of the analyses and reduced the mean square errors used to assess the treatment effects. PMID:8296778

  16. A responsive parenting intervention: the optimal timing across early childhood for impacting maternal behaviors and child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R; Guttentag, Cathy

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the optimal timing (infancy, toddler-preschool, or both) for facilitating responsive parenting and the intervention effects on maternal behaviors and child social and communication skills for children who vary in biological risk. The intervention during infancy, Playing and Learning Strategies (PALS I), showed strong changes in maternal affective-emotional and cognitively responsive behaviors and infants' development. However, it was hypothesized that a 2nd intervention dose in the toddler-preschool period was needed for optimal results. Families from the PALS I phase were rerandomized into either the PALS II, the toddler-preschool phase, or a Developmental Assessment Sessions condition, resulting in 4 groups. Facilitation of maternal warmth occurred best with the PALS I intervention, while cognitive responsive behaviors were best supported with the PALS II intervention. Behaviors that required responsiveness to the child's changing signals (contingent responsiveness, redirecting) required the intervention across both the early and later periods. PMID:18793067

  17. Weight Maintenance Following the STRIDE Weight Loss and Lifestyle Intervention for Individuals taking Antipsychotic Medications

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.; Leo, Michael C.; Stumbo, Scott P.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Nichols, Gregory A.; Stevens, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Individuals taking antipsychotic medications have increased risk of obesity-related early morbidity/mortality. This report presents weight maintenance results from a successful weight loss and behavioral lifestyle change program developed for people taking antipsychotic medications. Design and Methods STRIDE was a 2-arm, randomized controlled trial. Intervention participants attended weekly group meetings for 6 months, then monthly group meetings for 6 months. Assessments were completed at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Results At 24-months, intervention participants lost 3.7% of baseline weight and control participants 2.1%, a non-significant difference. Fasting glucose results followed a similar pattern. There was a statistically significant difference, however, for fasting insulin—the intervention group’s levels decreased between the end of the intensive intervention (at 6 months) and 24 months (10.1 to 7.91μU/mL); control participants’ levels increased (11.66 to 12.92μU/mL) during this period. There were also fewer medical hospitalizations among intervention participants (5.7%) than controls (21.1%; Χ2=8.47, p=0.004) during the 12 to 24-month post-intervention maintenance period. Conclusions Weight-change differences between arms diminished following the intervention period, though fasting insulin levels continued to improve. Reduced hospitalizations suggest that weight loss, even with regain, may have long-term positive benefits for people taking antipsychotic medications and may reduce costs. PMID:26334929

  18. Maturation of the MOUTh Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adult with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. PMID:26934969

  19. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. PMID:26913507

  20. [Psychosocial interventions and caregiver support].

    PubMed

    Hüll, M; Wernher, I

    2010-07-01

    Despite an increasing number of trials on the effects of psychosocial interventions in dementia, recommendations concerning these interventions are still based on limited evidence. The S3 dementia guidelines, initiated by the German associations of psychiatry and neurology (DGPPN and DGN), suggest the use of procedures including reality orientation, reminiscence, and cognitive stimulation at recommendation level C. Occupational therapy (including caregiver education), physical activation and music therapy are also suggested at recommendation level C. On a higher level of recommendation (level B), structured support of the caregiver is recommended. Based on the German healthcare system and depending on local structures, this may be offered at the medical office of a general practitioner, a specialist for neurology or psychiatry or at a memory clinic or an outpatient clinic. Furthermore, caregiver support is provided by local branches of the German Alzheimer Association. An increase in recent high level trials suggests an upcoming improvement of the evidence base for psychosocial interventions. PMID:20567961

  1. 2014 update on interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, Felipe; de la Torre Hernández, José M; Rumoroso Cuevas, José R; García del Blanco, Bruno; Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Trillo Nouche, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the most relevant publications and studies in the field of interventional cardiology in 2014. In the area of coronary interventional procedures, integrated treatment of acute coronary syndrome continues to be the subject of numerous studies that evaluate different devices and pharmacological and mechanical strategies that can be used without increasing the risk of hemorrhage or the need for reintervention. Certain anatomical substrates continue to generate a considerable number of publications, both on the outcomes with different stents and on the use of specific techniques. Bioabsorbable drug-eluting stents are used in increasingly complex lesions with promising results. The development of interventional procedures for structural heart disease continues to advance, with new evidence on percutaneously placed aortic valve prostheses, the outcome of percutaneous mitral valve repair, and the safety and efficacy of left atrial appendage occlusion. Finally, renal denervation has generated one of the major debates of the year. PMID:25749393

  2. Positive interventions in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Tayyab

    2009-05-01

    Mainstream psychotherapy has made huge strides in treating symptoms and disorders, but it has largely overlooked happiness as a therapeutic goal despite frequently hearing from clients, "Doctor, I want to be happy." This issue of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session describes a number of positive interventions for specific clinical problems, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, loss, grief, and relationship distress. Although the name may suggest it, positive interventions do not imply that rest of psychotherapies are negative. Neither are negatives denied nor minimized. Distinct from self-help recipes proffering instant changes, positive psychology interventions refer to systematic approaches to overcome challenges by using clients' strengths and assets. A hybrid psychotherapy-coaching model and strength-based assessment can ask a client "What is right with you?" All articles are supplemented with rich case illustrations. PMID:19294745

  3. An environmental disinfection odyssey: evaluation of sequential interventions to improve disinfection of Clostridium difficile isolation rooms.

    PubMed

    Sitzlar, Brett; Deshpande, Abhishek; Fertelli, Dennis; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Sethi, Ajay K; Donskey, Curtis J

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE. Effective disinfection of hospital rooms after discharge of patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is necessary to prevent transmission. We evaluated the impact of sequential cleaning and disinfection interventions by culturing high-touch surfaces in CDI rooms after cleaning. DESIGN. Prospective intervention. SETTING. A Veterans Affairs hospital. INTERVENTIONS. During a 21-month period, 3 sequential tiered interventions were implemented: (1) fluorescent markers to provide monitoring and feedback on thoroughness of cleaning facility-wide, (2) addition of an automated ultraviolet radiation device for adjunctive disinfection of CDI rooms, and (3) enhanced standard disinfection of CDI rooms, including a dedicated daily disinfection team and implementation of a process requiring supervisory assessment and clearance of terminally cleaned CDI rooms. To determine the impact of the interventions, cultures were obtained from CDI rooms after cleaning and disinfection. RESULTS. The fluorescent marker intervention improved the thoroughness of cleaning of high-touch surfaces (from 47% to 81% marker removal; P < .0001). Relative to the baseline period, the prevalence of positive cultures from CDI rooms was reduced by 14% (P=.024), 48% (P <.001), and 89% (P=.006) with interventions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. During the baseline period, 67% of CDI rooms had positive cultures after disinfection, whereas during interventions periods 1, 2, and 3 the percentages of CDI rooms with positive cultures after disinfection were reduced to 57%, 35%, and 7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. An intervention that included formation of a dedicated daily disinfection team and implementation of a standardized process for clearing CDI rooms achieved consistent CDI room disinfection. Culturing of CDI rooms provides a valuable tool to drive improvements in environmental disinfection. PMID:23571361

  4. Improving Adherence to Sertraline Treatment: The Effectiveness of a Patient Education Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bron, Morgan S.; O'Neill, John; Fogel, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous attempts to improve anti-depressant adherence have achieved mixed results. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a patient education intervention designed to increase adherence to sertraline treatment. Method: Data from a national pharmacy claims database were used to retrospectively match (along key demographic and clinical variables) consecutive patients prescribed sertraline (N = 1462) who received an educational intervention (Knowing More) between May 1, 2003, and April 30, 2004, with a control group of concurrent sertraline-treated patients who did not receive the intervention (N = 1462). The intervention consisted of 10 newsletters distributed over a 9-month period by mail and e-mail. The intervention and control groups were compared over a 7-month follow-up period on 3 adherence measures: time to discontinuation, days on therapy, and percentage of days on therapy. Results: Cox regression analysis revealed that the time to discontinuation of sertraline (median = 100 days) was significantly greater (p < .0001) for the intervention group compared with the control group (median = 60 days). By the end of the follow-up period, 27% of patients remained on therapy with Knowing More versus 15% of those not enrolled in the compliance program. The mean number of days on therapy was 24.8 days (25.5%) longer for the intervention group compared with the control group (122.5 days for the intervention group versus 97.7 days for the control group). The percentage of days on therapy was 88.2% for the intervention group versus 77.7% for the control group among patients with at least 1 refill prescription (p < .001). Conclusion: The educational compliance intervention, Knowing More, was associated with a significant increase in adherence to antidepressant treatment. PMID:17235385

  5. Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Manini, Todd M.; Carr, Lucas J.; King, Abby C.; Marshall, Simon; Robinson, Thomas N.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on presentations and discussion from the working group on “Influences on Sedentary Behavior & Interventions” as part of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities Workshop. Methods Interventions were discussed in the context of targeting sedentary behavior (SB) as a concept distinct from physical activity (PA). It was recommended that interventions targeting SB should consider a life course perspective, a position predicated on the assumption that SB is age and life stage dependent. Additionally, targeting environments where individuals have high exposure to SB— such as workplace sitting— could benefit from new technology (e.g., computer-based prompting to stand or move), environmental changes (e.g., active workstations), policies targeting reduced sedentary time (e.g., allowing employees regular desk breaks), or by changing norms surrounding prolonged sitting (e.g., standing meetings). Results & Conclusions There are limited data about the minimal amount of SB change required to produce meaningful health benefits. In addition to developing relevant scientific and public health definitions of SB, it is important to further delineate the scope of health and quality of life outcomes associated with reduced SB across the life course, and clarify what behavioral alternatives to SB can be used to optimize health gains. SB interventions will benefit from having more clarity about the potential physiological and behavioral synergies with current PA recommendations, developing multi-level interventions aimed at reducing SB across all life phases and contexts, harnessing relevant and effective strategies to extend the reach of interventions to all sectors of society, as well as applying state-of-the-science adaptive designs and methods to accelerate advances in the science of sedentary behavior interventions. PMID:25222818

  6. Safety Planning Intervention: A Brief Intervention to Mitigate Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    The usual care for suicidal patients who are seen in the emergency department (ED) and other emergency settings is to assess level of risk and refer to the appropriate level of care. Brief psychosocial interventions such as those administered to promote lower alcohol intake or to reduce domestic violence in the ED are not typically employed for…

  7. Play-Based Interventions. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Play-based interventions" are practices designed to improve socio-emotional, physical, language, and cognitive development through guided interactive play. During play sessions, an interventionist uses strategies including modeling, verbal redirection, reinforcement, and indirect instruction to sustain and encourage child play activities. Through…

  8. Reading Intervention: The Effectiveness of Leveled Literacy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton-Archie, Sonya H.

    2014-01-01

    Reading challenges are still evident for more than 90 million adults in the United States who are functioning at the lowest levels of literacy (United States Department of Education, 2004). Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) is one program designed to address these educational needs. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the…

  9. LDA Educational Intervention Research Symposium Intervention Perspectives and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrill, Melinda; Satterfield, Jule

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the journal's special issue on educational intervention research for students with learning disabilities and identifies the following common themes in the preceding papers: (1) effective teaching, (2) the match between teacher and learner characteristics, (3) flexibility in delivery and use, and (4) teacher and student…

  10. Velocardiofacial Syndrome and Early Intervention Providers: Recommendations for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Valerie E.; Fullman, Leah I.; Bruns, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), the most common microdeletion syndrome, is increasingly diagnosed in young children because of advances in diagnostic testing. The result is an increase in the number of young children with VCFS referred for early intervention (EI) services. We describe early development of children with VCFS and strategies to…

  11. Interventional Radiology in Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Karani, John B. Yu, Dominic F.Q.C.; Kane, Pauline A.

    2005-04-15

    Radiology is a key specialty within a liver transplant program. Interventional techniques not only contribute to graft and recipient survival but also allow appropriate patient selection and ensure that recipients with severe liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma or portal hypertension are transplanted with the best chance of prolonged survival. Equally inappropriate selection for these techniques may adversely affect survival. Liver transplantation is a dynamic field of innovative surgical techniques with a requirement for interventional radiology to parallel these developments. This paper reviews the current practice within a major European center for adult and pediatric transplantation.

  12. Fetal Diagnostics and Fetal Intervention.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Ericka S; Schlosser, Brian A; Border, William L

    2016-03-01

    Advances in ultrasound technology and specialized training have allowed clinicians to diagnose congenital heart disease in utero and counsel families on perinatal outcomes and management strategies, including fetal cardiac interventions and fetal surgery. This article gives a detailed approach to fetal cardiac assessment and provides the reader with accompanying figures and video clips to illustrate unique views and sweeps invaluable to diagnosing congenital heart disease. We demonstrate that using a sequential segmental approach to evaluate cardiac anatomy enables one to decipher the most complex forms of congenital heart disease. Also provided is a review of fetal cardiac intervention and surgery from the fetal cardiologist's perspective. PMID:26876119

  13. The Addition of an Individualized Cognitive Intervention to a Standardized Behavioral Intervention for Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Janice L.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the addition of a cognitive intervention based on individualized assessment to a behavioral intervention for obesity. Overweight subjects (N=63) were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention or a behavioral intervention combined with a cognitive intervention which focused on changing specific…

  14. Simple In-Hospital Interventions to Reduce Door-to-CT Time in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Taheraghdam, Aliakbar; Rikhtegar, Reza; Mehrvar, Kaveh; Mehrara, Mehrdad; Hassasi, Rogayyeh; Aliyar, Hannane; Farzi, Mohammadamin; Hasaneh Tamar, Somayyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, a time dependent therapy, can reduce the morbidity and mortality of acute ischemic stroke. This study was designed to assess the effect of simple in-hospital interventions on reducing door-to-CT (DTC) time and reaching door-to-needle (DTN) time of less than 60 minutes. Methods. Before any intervention, DTC time was recorded for 213 patients over a one-year period at our center. Five simple quality-improvement interventions were implemented, namely, call notification, prioritizing patients for CT scan, prioritizing patients for lab analysis, specifying a bed for acute stroke patients, and staff education. After intervention, over a course of 44 months, DTC time was recorded for 276 patients with the stroke code. Furthermore DTN time was recorded for 106 patients who were treated with IV thrombolytic therapy. Results. The median DTC time significantly decreased in the postintervention period comparing to the preintervention period [median (IQR); 20 (12–30) versus 75 (52.5–105), P < 0.001]. At the postintervention period, the median (IQR) DTN time was 55 (40–73) minutes and proportion of patients with DTN time less than 60 minutes was 62.4% (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Our interventions significantly reduced DTC time and resulted in an acceptable DTN time. These interventions are feasible in most hospitals and should be considered. PMID:27478641

  15. Current Proportion of Women Receiving Perinatal Psychosocial or Psychological Intervention in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Kuribayashi, Yasushi; Matsuda, Hideo; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Masanobu; Okai, Takashi; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study, we examined the current status of psychosocial or psychological intervention for women during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Japan. Methods We estimated the number of women receiving perinatal psychosocial or psychological intervention in Japan. On December 2015, we requested 2,462 obstetrical facilities that are members of the Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG) to provide information on women who received psychosocial or psychological intervention during pregnancy, the hospitalization period for childbirth and the puerperal 1 month in 2014. A total of 1,305 (53.0%) of the 2,462 obstetrical facilities responded with valid information on a total of 515,373 women, accounting for approximately 52% of all deliveries that occurred in Japan during the study period. Results The number of women who received psychosocial or psychological intervention during pregnancy, the hospitalization period for childbirth and the puerperal 1 month were 4,843 (0.94%), 4,791 (0.93%) and 3,015 (0.59%), respectively. In total, 8,743 women (1.70%) received psychosocial or psychological intervention in 2014. Conclusion Considering the response rate, the number of women requiring perinatal psychosocial or psychological intervention was estimated to be 16,000 per year in Japan. PMID:27222675

  16. A self-regulation-based intervention to increase physical activity in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Nadine; Sieverding, Monika; Weidner, Gerdi; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether a behavior-change intervention focusing on self-regulatory strategies and emphasizing role model support increases physical activity (PA) among insufficiently active (not meeting PA guidelines of 150 min/week) cancer patients. Ambulatory cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION-study, a 4-week intervention (1-hr counseling, followed by weekly phone calls), with pretest (T1), posttest (T2) and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise or to a stress management intervention (active control). The exercise intervention emphasized self-regulatory strategies (e.g. action- and coping planning and self-monitoring); patients were also encouraged to contact a physically active same-sex role model as a potential exercise partner. The active control condition consisted of coping and relaxation techniques. Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA and a measure of perceived stress. PA was validated by Actigraph accelerometry. At T2, 46% of the patients in the exercise group and 19% of stress management patients increased their activity levels to meet PA guidelines (>150 min/week; χ(2)(1) = 5.51, p = .019). At T3, participants in the exercise intervention maintained their exercise level (46%), but also 31% of the stress management patients met the guidelines. All patients reported reductions in perceived stress. Additional analyses comparing patients in the exercise group by role model contact (63% realized contact) revealed that those who had contact with their role model were significantly more likely to adhere to the recommended guidelines (T2:50%; T3:64%) compared to those who did not have contact with a role model (T2:39%; T3:15%), suggesting the potential of mobilizing role model support to facilitate PA. In sum, cancer patients may not only benefit from an exercise

  17. Development of an Online Well-Being Intervention for Young People: An Evaluation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Blake, Victoria; Schrader, Geoffrey; Kaambwa, Billingsley; Quinn, Stephen; Orlowski, Simone; Winsall, Megan; Battersby, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    be recruited from the general Australian population and randomized online. The trial will last for 4 weeks. Results Small but clinically significant increases in well-being symptoms are expected to be detected in the intervention group compared with the control group. Conclusions If this intervention proves to be effective, it will have an impact on the future design and implementation of online-based well-being interventions as a valid and cost-effective way to support mental health clinical treatment. Findings regarding recruitment effectiveness will also contribute to developing better ways to engage this population in research. ClinicalTrial This study is registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12614000710628. PMID:25929201

  18. Randomized Trial of a Fitbit-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Women

    PubMed Central

    Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A.; Marcus, Bess H.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Parker, Barbara A.; Morey, Brittany L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Direct-to-consumer mHealth devices are a potential asset to behavioral research but are rarely tested as intervention tools. This trial examined the accelerometer-based Fitbit tracker and website as a basis for a low-touch physical activity intervention. Purpose To evaluate, within a randomized controlled trial, the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of integrating the Fitbit tracker and website into a physical activity intervention for postmenopausal women. Methods Fifty-one inactive, postmenopausal women with BMI≥25.0 kg/m2 were randomized to a 16-week web-based self-monitoring intervention (N=25) or a comparison group (N=26). Those in the Web-Based Tracking Group received a Fitbit, an instructional session, and a follow-up call at 4 weeks. The comparison group received a standard pedometer. All were asked to perform 150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Physical activity outcomes were measured by the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Results Data were collected and analyzed in 2013–2014. Participants were 60±7 years old with BMI=29.2±3.5 kg/m2. Relative to baseline, the Web-Based Tracking Group increased MVPA by 62±108 min/week (p<.01), MVPA in 10-min bouts by 38±83 min/week (p=.008), and steps by 789±1,979 (p=.01), compared to non-significant increases in the Pedometer Group (between-group p-values: .11, .28 and .30, respectively). The Web-Based Tracking Group wore the tracker on 95% of intervention days; 96% reported liking the website and 100% liked the tracker. Conclusions The Fitbit was well-accepted in this sample of women and was associated with increased physical activity at 16 weeks. By leveraging direct-to-consumer mHealth technologies that align with behavior change theories, researchers can strengthen physical activity interventions. PMID:26071863

  19. Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling

    This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrices of non-negative square matrices are given for convenience of the study.

  20. Periodical Vandalism: A Chronic Condition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleep, Esther L.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the losses due to theft and mutilation in the periodicals collection at Brock University indicates that security needs to be tightened. Nine suggestions for improving security are offered, and six references are cited. (CHC)