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Sample records for 4-week repeated oral

  1. A 4-week Repeated dose Oral Toxicity Study of Mecasin in Sprague-Dawley Rats to Determine the Appropriate Doses for a 13-week, Repeated Toxicity Test

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eunhye; Lee, Jongchul; Lee, Seongjin; Park, Manyong; Song, Inja; Son, Ilhong; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Dongwoung; Lee, Jongdeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated the 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity of gami-jakyak gamcho buja decoction (Mecasin) to develop safe treatments. Methods: In order to investigate the 4-week oral toxicity of Mecasin, we administered Mecasin orally to rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of Mecasin of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of body weight were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution of 10 mL/kg was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rate, weight, clinical signs, and gross findings for four weeks. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weights or food consumption between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Serum biochemistry revealed that some groups showed significant decrease in inorganic phosphorus (IP) (P < 0.05). During necropsy on the rats, one abnormal macroscopic feature, a slight loss of fur, was observed in the mid dosage (1,000 mg/ kg) male group. No abnormalities were observed in any other rats. In histopathological findings, the tubular basophilia and cast of the kidney and extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen were found. However, those changes were minimal and had occurred naturally or sporadically. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion: During this 4-week, repeated, oral toxicity test of Mecasin in SD rats, no toxicity changes due to Mecasin were observed in any of the male or the female rats in the high dosage group. Thus, we suggest that the doses in a 13-week, repeated test should be 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. PMID:26998389

  2. A 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of fucoidan from the Sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Hee-Hyun; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2010-01-12

    Fucoidan is extracted from brown seaweeds, which can have anti-coagulant, antithrombotic, antitumor, and antiviral activities. However, detailed studies on the toxicology of fucoidan have not been performed. Here we tested the toxicity of fucoidan in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fucoidan (1350mg/kg bw/day for 4 weeks) did not induce statistically significant differences in groups matched by gender with respect to body weight, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, and histopathology. Fucoidan did not change prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time, indicating an inability to change blood clotting. This study demonstrated that fucoidan is not toxic under this administration paradigm.

  3. PERSISTENT EFFECTS OF REPEATED INHALATION OF TOLUENE: 4 WEEKS VS. 13 WEEKS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding and predicting the extent of neurotoxic damage from repeated exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a problem for many EPA programs. Eighty adult, male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks in a systema...

  4. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (3). 4-week repeated dose intravenous toxicity study in dogs with 4-week recovery test].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Yanagi, H; Shichino, Y; Shimizu, K; Ueda, H; Oida, H; Tanaka, M; Suzuki, Y; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    4-week repeated dose toxicity study with 4-week recovery test of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, was conducted in beagle dogs. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously to dogs of both sexes at a dose level of 0 (control), 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day. No deaths occurred throughout the treatment period. Transitory licking chops, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and soft feces were observed occasionally in both sexes dosed 25 and 50 mg/kg/day and the incidence seemed dose-dependent. However, those incidence declined in the course of the treatment period. Hematology showed a decrease in red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin value in both sexes receiving 25 and 50 mg/kg/day. ONO-1101 did not effect on body weight, food consumption, respiratory rate, pulse, rectal temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiography, renal or hepatic function, ophthalmology, urinalysis, occult blood in feces, blood chemistry, organ weights, necropsy and microscopic findings at any doses. These results indicate that the no-adverse-effect level of ONO-1101 in dogs is 12.5 mg/kg/day for both sexes in this study.

  5. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (2). 4-week repeated dose intravenous toxicity study in rats with 4-week recovery test].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Yanagi, H; Shimizu, K; Sakai, M; Nishibata, K; Oida, H; Shinomiya, K; Suzuki, Y; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    4-week repeated dose toxicity study with 4-week recovery test of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, was conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously to rats of both sexes at a dose level of 0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. In the 100 mg/kg/day group, bradypnea or dyspnea was seen in all animals, pale in ear, eye and foot, tremor, reddish lacrimation and loss of righting reflex were also observed in some animals right after administration, and then those signs disappeared within 1 min after administration. During the treatment period, 3/20 animals of each sex in the 100 mg/kg/day showed clonic convulsion and died within 2 min after administration. No clinical changes were seen in the 50 mg/kg/day group or lower. Histopathological findings showed atrophy of the submaxillary gland in females and vessel-wall thickening and perivascular fibrosis of the injection site (tail) in both sexes at 100 mg/kg/day, however those changes were reversible. ONO-1101 did not effect on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weights or necropsy at any doses. These results indicate that the no-adverse-effect level of ONO-1101 in rats is 50 mg/kg/day for both sexes in this study.

  6. Oral 4-week and 13-week toxicity studies of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer in rats.

    PubMed

    Messinger, Horst; Bär, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer (PVAcVL) is a useful component of gum base for chewing gum production. The safety of PVAcVL was examined in a 4-week and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. Finely powdered PVAcVL was administered with the diet at levels of 1.25%, 2.0% and 5% in the 4-week study and 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% in the 13-week study. There were no treatment related effects on mortality, bodyweight gains feed efficiency, ophthalmoscopic findings, hematological and clinical chemical parameters, neurobehavioral observations as well as gross and histopathological changes of standard organs and tissues. The highest dose tested in the 13-week study (3783 and 4396mg/kgbw/d for males and females, respectively) proved to be a NOAEL.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral testosterone enanthate plus dutasteride for 4 weeks in normal men: implications for male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Amory, John K; Kalhorn, Thomas F; Page, Stephanie T

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone enanthate (TE) and dutasteride increases serum testosterone and might be useful for male hormonal contraception. To ascertain the contraceptive potential of oral TE and dutasteride by determining the degree of gonadotropin suppression mediated by 4 weeks of oral TE plus dutasteride, 20 healthy young men were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either 400 mg oral TE twice daily or 800 mg oral TE once daily in a double-blinded, controlled fashion at a single site. All men received 0.5 mg dutasteride daily. Blood for measurement of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, dihydrotesterone (DHT), and estradiol was obtained prior to treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 24 hours after the morning dose on the last day of treatment. FSH was significantly suppressed throughout treatment with 800 mg TE once daily and after 4 weeks of treatment with 400 mg TE twice daily. LH was significantly suppressed after 2 weeks of treatment with 800 mg TE, but not with 400 mg TE. Serum DHT was suppressed and serum estradiol increased during treatment in both groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was suppresed during treatment, but liver function tests, hematocrit, creatinine, mood, and sexual function were unaffected. The administration of 800 mg oral TE daily combined with dutasteride for 28 days significantly suppresses gonadotropins without untoward side effects and might have utility as part of a male hormonal contraceptive regimen.

  8. Effects of a 4-Week Eccentric Training Program on the Repeated Bout Effect in Young Active Women

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Bresciani, Guilherme; de Souza-Teixeira, Fernanda; Hernandez-Murua, José Aldo; Jimenez-Jimenez, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier; de Paz, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the responses of women to the repeated bout effect (RBE) and to a short eccentric training program. Twenty-four young females were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n = 14) or a control group (CG, n = 10). They performed two identical acute eccentric bouts (120 repetitions at 70% of 1RM) in a leg-press device in an 8 weeks interval. TG followed a 4-week-eccentric-training program between the bouts. Maximal isometric contraction, range of motion, peak power and quadriceps muscle soreness were compared between and within groups before and after the two acute eccentric bouts. TG and CG presented significant losses of isometric strength and peak power, and an increment in soreness after the first bout. Isometric strength and peak power were recovered faster in CG after the second bout (p < 0.05) compared with TG, which showed a similar recovery of these parameters after the second bout compared with the first one. A decrease in soreness and a faster recovery of range of motion were found in TG (p < 0.05) following the second bout compared with the first one, but not in CG. Data indicate that a 4-week eccentric training program may prevent the RBE over those adaptations related with muscle damage (e.g. strength loss), but it may increase RBE impact on inflammatory processes (e.g. soreness). Key points An acute bout of eccentric exercise induces losses of strength, peak power and range of motion, and increases muscle soreness in young active women. When the acute eccentric bout is repeated by young women, the losses of strength and power are smaller, indicating less muscle damage. However, muscle pain and range of motion do not present any difference with the results obtained after the first bout, which would indicate that the repeated bout effect does not affect inflammatory response after acute eccentric exercise. Four weeks of eccentric training is enough to increase maximal isometric strength, but not dynamic strength (1

  9. Effects of a 4-week eccentric training program on the repeated bout effect in young active women.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Bresciani, Guilherme; de Souza-Teixeira, Fernanda; Hernandez-Murua, José Aldo; Jimenez-Jimenez, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier; de Paz, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the responses of women to the repeated bout effect (RBE) and to a short eccentric training program. Twenty-four young females were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n = 14) or a control group (CG, n = 10). They performed two identical acute eccentric bouts (120 repetitions at 70% of 1RM) in a leg-press device in an 8 weeks interval. TG followed a 4-week-eccentric-training program between the bouts. Maximal isometric contraction, range of motion, peak power and quadriceps muscle soreness were compared between and within groups before and after the two acute eccentric bouts. TG and CG presented significant losses of isometric strength and peak power, and an increment in soreness after the first bout. Isometric strength and peak power were recovered faster in CG after the second bout (p < 0.05) compared with TG, which showed a similar recovery of these parameters after the second bout compared with the first one. A decrease in soreness and a faster recovery of range of motion were found in TG (p < 0.05) following the second bout compared with the first one, but not in CG. Data indicate that a 4-week eccentric training program may prevent the RBE over those adaptations related with muscle damage (e.g. strength loss), but it may increase RBE impact on inflammatory processes (e.g. soreness). Key pointsAn acute bout of eccentric exercise induces losses of strength, peak power and range of motion, and increases muscle soreness in young active women.When the acute eccentric bout is repeated by young women, the losses of strength and power are smaller, indicating less muscle damage. However, muscle pain and range of motion do not present any difference with the results obtained after the first bout, which would indicate that the repeated bout effect does not affect inflammatory response after acute eccentric exercise.Four weeks of eccentric training is enough to increase maximal isometric strength, but not dynamic strength (1RM

  10. Estimation of spatial patterns of urban air pollution over a 4-week period from repeated 5-min measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Jonathan; Masey, Nicola; Heal, Mathew R.; Hamilton, Scott; Beverland, Iain J.

    2017-02-01

    Determination of intra-urban spatial variations in air pollutant concentrations for exposure assessment requires substantial time and monitoring equipment. The objective of this study was to establish if short-duration measurements of air pollutants can be used to estimate longer-term pollutant concentrations. We compared 5-min measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) concentrations made once per week on 5 occasions, with 4 consecutive 1-week average nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations at 18 locations at a range of distances from busy roads in Glasgow, UK. 5-min BC and PN measurements (averaged over the two 5-min periods at the start and end of a week) explained 40-80%, and 7-64% respectively, of spatial variation in the intervening 1-week NO2 concentrations for individual weeks. Adjustment for variations in background concentrations increased the percentage of explained variation in the bivariate relationship between the full set of NO2 and BC measurements over the 4-week period from 28% to 50% prior to averaging of repeat measurements. The averages of five 5-min BC and PN measurements made over 5 weeks explained 75% and 33% respectively of the variation in average 1-week NO2 concentrations over the same period. The relatively high explained variation observed between BC and NO2 measured on different time scales suggests that, with appropriate steps to correct or average out temporal variations, repeated short-term measurements can be used to provide useful information on longer-term spatial patterns for these traffic-related pollutants.

  11. Effects of three biodiesels and a low sulfur diesel in male rats--a pilot 4-week oral study.

    PubMed

    Poon, R; Chu, I; Valli, V E; Graham, L; Yagminas, A; Hollebone, B; Rideout, G; Fingas, M

    2007-10-01

    Because of the accessible and renewable nature of feedstock and the potential for the reduction of harmful combustion emissions and greenhouse gases, biodiesels have received increasing interest as an alternate fuel. Oral exposure to biodiesels is a concern because of contact during refuelling, accidental ingestion and exposure through ground water contamination. Although biodiesels from various feedstock are in use commercially and experimentally, very little is known about their potential adverse effects and no data is available on their potential for ground water contamination. A study was performed on male rats following oral treatment with experimental biodiesels (dissolved in corn oil) derived from canola oil (Bio-C), soy oil (Bio-S) and fish oil (Bio-F), at 500 mg/kg body weight/day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Separate groups of animals were treated with low sulfur diesel (LSD) for comparison purpose, and with corn oil alone to serve as control. The potential for ground water contamination by biodiesels was investigated by the preparation of water-accommodated fractions (WAF) followed by gas chromatographic analysis. WAF from Bio-F and Bio-S was found to have the highest level of dichloromethane extractable materials. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the extractable materials from biodiesels contained much higher proportion of C15-C30 materials than LSD. Increased liver weight was observed in animal treated with Bio-C, Bio-S and LSD and decreased thymus weight was found in those treated with Bio-S. Histopathological changes typical of male-rat specific hyaline-droplet nephropathy were detected in kidney tubules of animals treated with LSD, Bio-S and Bio-C. Mild adaptive changes were observed in thyroids of animals treated with LSD, Bio-S and Bio-F. Clinical chemical and biochemical changes were confined to Bio-S and LSD treated rats and included elevation in some hepatic phase-I and phase-II drug metabolizing enzymes and hepatic palmitoyl Co

  12. Pharmacokinetics and 48-Week Safety and Efficacy of Raltegravir for Oral Suspension in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1-Infected Children 4 Weeks to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, Sharon; Alvero, Carmelita; Acosta, Edward P.; Teppler, Hedy; Homony, Brenda; Graham, Bobbie; Fenton, Terence; Xu, Xia; Rizk, Matthew L.; Spector, Stephen A.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Worrell, Carol; Handelsman, Edward; Wiznia, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background IMPAACT P1066 is a Phase I/II open-label multicenter trial to evaluate safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and efficacy of multiple raltegravir (RAL) formulations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected youth. Methods Dose selection of the oral suspension formulation for each cohort (IV: 6 months to <2 years and V: 4 weeks to <6 months) was based on review of short-term safety (4 weeks) and intensive PK evaluation. Safety data through Weeks 24 and 48 and Grade ≥3 or serious adverse events (AEs) were assessed. The primary virologic endpoint was achieving HIV RNA <400 copies/mL or ≥1 log10 reduction from baseline at Week 24 (Success). For Cohort IV, optimized background therapy (OBT) could have been initiated with RAL either at study entry or after intensive PK sampling was completed at Day 5–12. An OBT was started when RAL was initiated for Cohort V subjects because they were not permitted to have received direct antiretroviral therapy before enrollment. Results Total accrual was 27 subjects in these 2 cohorts, including 1 subject who was enrolled but never started study drug (excluded from the analyses). The targeted PK parameters (area under the curve [AUC]0−12hr and C12hr) were achieved for each cohort allowing for dose selection. Through Week 48, there were 10 subjects with Grade 3+ AEs. Two were judged related to study drug. There was 1 discontinuation due to an AE of skin rash, 1 event of immune reconstitution syndrome, and no drug-related deaths. At Week 48, for Cohorts IV and V, 87.5% of subjects achieved virologic success and 45.5% had HIV RNA <50 copies/mL. At Week 48, gains in CD4 cells of 527.6 cells/mm3 and 7.3% were observed. Conclusions A total of 6 mg/kg per dose twice daily of RAL for oral suspension was well tolerated and showed favorable virologic and immunologic responses. PMID:26582887

  13. Problem Solving with Guided Repeated Oral Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Strobel, Debra

    2006-01-01

    Many students with disabilities require specialized instructional interventions and frequent progress monitoring in reading. The guided repeated oral reading technique promotes oral reading fluency while providing a reliable data-based monitoring system. This article emphasizes the importance of problem-solving when using this reading approach.

  14. Assessment of Labrasol/Labrafil/Transcutol (4/4/2, v/v/v) as a non-clinical vehicle for poorly water-soluble compounds after 4-week oral toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Delongeas, J-L; de Conchard, G Vermeil; Beamonte, A; Bertheux, H; Spire, C; Maisonneuve, C; Becourt-Lhote, N; Goldfain-Blanc, F; Claude, N

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety research is frequently faced with the challenge of the selection of appropriate vehicles for use in in vivo non-clinical safety assessment studies. Reported here are the results of blend Labrasol, Labrafil and Transcutol, [L/L/T, (4/4/2, v/v/v)], excipients used as bioavailability enhancer and solubilizer for poorly water-soluble compounds and tested daily for 4 weeks by oral route in Wistar rats (10/sex/group) at dose volumes of 5, 10 or 20 mL/kg/day and compared to controls given 20 mL/kg/day of 1% (w/v) hydroxyethylcellulose in purified water. L/L/T was broadly well tolerated at 5 mL/kg/day and lethal at 20 mL/kg/day in 1 of 20 rats treated at this level. Changes in appearance and behaviour were observed from 10 mL/kg/day with volume-related incidence, severity and duration. Reduced feed intake observed from 5 (females) or 10 mL/kg/day (males) resulted in low bodyweights for high volume males only (-11% of controls). There was a volume-related induction of hepatic CYP 1A1/2, 2B1/2 and/or 2E1 subfamilies from 5 mL/kg/day, with high liver weight, centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy and high ALT, triglyceride and cholesterol serum values at 20 mL/kg/day. Renal tubular dilation in medulla, cortical cell degeneration/necrosis with granular material in adjacent glomerular spaces, crystal deposits in the inner medulla, papilla and/or renal pelvis, and tubular mineralization, associated with proteinuria and calcium oxalate crystalluria, were observed at 20 mL/kg/day as well as vacuolation in the adrenal cortex, with a sex-dependant localization. According to these results, 5 mL/kg/day was considered as an acceptable volume for further use of L/L/T (4/4/2, v/v/v) blend as a vehicle for poorly water soluble drugs in Wistar rat toxicity studies.

  15. A randomised comparison of increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration after 4 weeks of daily oral intake of 10 microg cholecalciferol from multivitamin tablets or fish oil capsules in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Holvik, Kristin; Madar, Ahmed A; Meyer, Haakon E; Lofthus, Cathrine M; Stene, Lars C

    2007-09-01

    Many types of vitamin supplements are available on the market, but little is known about whether cholecalciferol obtained from fat-containing capsules differs in bioavailability from that of solid tablets. Our objective was to test whether 4 weeks of daily supplementation with 10 mug cholecalciferol given as a fish oil capsule produces a larger increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentration compared with the same dose of cholecalciferol given as a multivitamin tablet. A total of seventy-four healthy subjects aged 19-49 years were initially included and fifty-five of these completed the study and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After completing a self-administered questionnaire about diet and sunshine exposure and having a non-fasting venous blood sample drawn, participants were randomised to receive daily multivitamin tablets (n 28) or fish oil capsules (n 27), each containing equal doses of cholecalciferol. A second blood sample was drawn after 28 d. Mean baseline s-25(OH)D was 40.3 (sd 22.0) nmol/l in the multivitamin group and 48.5 (24.8) nmol/l in the fish oil group. When controlling for baseline s-25(OH)D, mean 4-week increase in s-25(OH)D was 35.8 (95 % CI 30.9, 40.8) nmol/l in the multivitamin group and 32.3 (95 % CI 27.3, 37.4) nmol/l in the fish oil group; the mean difference was 3.5 (95 % CI - 3.6, 10.6) nmol/l (P = 0.33). The results were unaltered by statistical adjustment for BMI, ethnic background, age and sex. We conclude that fish oil capsules and multivitamin tablets containing 10 microg cholecalciferol administered over a 4-week period produced a similar mean increase in s-25(OH)D concentration.

  16. Cetirizine in horses: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics following repeated oral administration.

    PubMed

    Olsén, Lena; Bondesson, Ulf; Broström, Hans; Tjälve, Hans; Ingvast-Larsson, Carina

    2008-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the histamine H(1)-antagonist cetirizine and its effect on histamine-induced cutaneous wheal formation were studied in six healthy horses following repeated oral administration. After three consecutive administrations of cetirizine (0.2 mg/kg body weight, bw) every 12h, the trough plasma concentration of cetirizine was 16+/-4 ng/mL (mean+/-SD) and the wheal formation was inhibited by 45+/-23%. After four additional administrations of cetirizine (0.4 mg/kg bw) every 12 h, the trough plasma concentration was 48+/-15 ng/mL and the wheal formation was inhibited by 68+/-11%. The terminal half-life was about 5.8 h. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic link model showed that the maximal inhibition of wheal formation was about 95% and the EC(50) about 18 ng/mL. It is concluded that cetirizine in doses of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg bw administered at 12 h intervals exhibits favourable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties without causing visible side effects, and the drug may therefore be a useful antihistamine in equine medicine.

  17. Metabolite profiles of rats in repeated dose toxicological studies after oral and inhalative exposure.

    PubMed

    Fabian, E; Bordag, N; Herold, M; Kamp, H; Krennrich, G; Looser, R; Ma-Hock, L; Mellert, W; Montoya, G; Peter, E; Prokudin, A; Spitzer, M; Strauss, V; Walk, T; Zbranek, R; van Ravenzwaay, B

    2016-07-25

    The MetaMap(®)-Tox database contains plasma-metabolome and toxicity data of rats obtained from oral administration of 550 reference compounds following a standardized adapted OECD 407 protocol. Here, metabolic profiles for aniline (A), chloroform (CL), ethylbenzene (EB), 2-methoxyethanol (ME), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofurane (THF), dosed inhalatively for six hours/day, five days a week for 4 weeks were compared to oral dosing performed daily for 4 weeks. To investigate if the oral and inhalative metabolome would be comparable statistical analyses were performed. Best correlations for metabolome changes via both routes of exposure were observed for toxicants that induced profound metabolome changes. e.g. CL and ME. Liver and testes were correctly identified as target organs. In contrast, route of exposure dependent differences in metabolic profiles were noted for low profile strength e.g. female rats dosed inhalatively with A or THF. Taken together, the current investigations demonstrate that plasma metabolome changes are generally comparable for systemic effects after oral and inhalation exposure. Differences may result from kinetics and first pass effects. For compounds inducing only weak changes, the differences between both routes of exposure are visible in the metabolome.

  18. COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARATIVE METABOLISM OF ARSENIC IN MICE AFTER A SINGLE OR REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF ARSENATE
    Michael F. Hughes*1, Elaina M. Kenyon1, Brenda C. Edwards1, Carol T. Mitchell1, Luz Maria Del Razo2 and David J. Thomas1
    1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, Research Triangle Pa...

  19. 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of UP446, a combination of defined extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The needs for relatively safe botanical alternatives to relieve symptoms associated to arthritis have continued to grow in parallel with the ageing population. UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used as over the counter joint care dietary supplements and a prescription medical food. Significant safety data have been documented in rodents and human for this composition. Here we evaluated the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446 in beagle dogs following a 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study. UP446 at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered orally to beagle dogs for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery group from the high dose (1000 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups were included. No morbidity or mortality was observed for the duration of the study. No significant differences between groups in body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, electrocardiograms, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology were documented. Emesis, loose feces and diarrhea were noted in both genders at the 1000 mg/kg treatment groups. These clinical signs were considered to be reversible as they were not evident in the recovery period. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 500 mg/kg/day both in male and female beagle dogs.

  20. Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Response Opportunities: A Comparison of Phrase Drill Error Correction with Repeated Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Daly, Edward J., III; Valleley, Rachel J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two oral reading fluency treatments (repeated readings and phrase drill error correction) which differ in the way they prompt student responding. Repeated readings (RR) and phrase drill (PD) error correction were alternated with a baseline and a reward condition within an alternating treatments design with…

  1. Comparative toxicity of silicon dioxide, silver and iron oxide nanoparticles after repeated oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Seung-Hyun; You, Ji-Ran; Kim, Woo Ho; Jang, Ja-June; Min, Seung-Kee; Kim, Hee Chan; Chung, Doo Hyun; Jeong, Jayoung; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Che, Jeong-Hwan

    2015-06-01

    Although silicon dioxide (SiO2), silver (Ag) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles are widely used in diverse applications from food to biomedicine, in vivo toxicities of these nanoparticles exposed via the oral route remain highly controversial. To examine the systemic toxicity of these nanoparticles, well-dispersed nanoparticles were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats daily over a 13-week period. Based on the results of an acute toxicity and a 14-day repeated toxicity study, 975.9, 1030.5 and 1000 mg kg(-1) were selected as the highest dose of the SiO2 , Ag and Fe2O3 nanoparticles, respectively, for the 13-week repeated oral toxicity study. The SiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles did not induce dose-related changes in a number of parameters associated with the systemic toxicity up to 975.9 and 1000 mg kg(-1) , respectively, whereas the Ag nanoparticles resulted in increases in serum alkaline phosphatase and calcium as well as lymphocyte infiltration in liver and kidney, raising the possibility of liver and kidney toxicity induced by the Ag nanoparticles. Compared with the SiO2 and Fe2O3 nanoparticles showing no systemic distribution in all tissues tested, the Ag concentration in sampled blood and organs in the Ag nanoparticle-treated group significantly increased with a positive and/or dose-related trend, meaning that the systemic toxicity of the Ag nanoparticles, including liver and kidney toxicity, might be explained by extensive systemic distribution of Ag originating from the Ag nanoparticles. Our current results suggest that further study is required to identify that Ag detected outside the gastrointestinal tract were indeed a nanoparticle form or ionized form.

  2. Repeat Brachytherapy for Patients With Residual or Recurrent Tumors of Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji; Nakagawa, Keiko; Toda, Kazuma; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kaida, Atushi; Miura, Masahiko

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze data from patients receiving repeat brachytherapy (re-BT) for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor in the oral cavity. Methods and Materials: Between January 2003 and December 2007, 62 patients who had undergone definitive BT as an initial treatment of oral cancer subsequently underwent re-BT for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumors at the diagnostic radiology and oncology department (Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital). Re-BT was performed 0.9-73 months (median, 5.7) after the initial BT. Au-198 grains were used as the re-BT source in all 62 patients, and an area of 0.8-6.3 cm{sup 2} (median, 3.1) was permanently irradiated with 60-110 Gy (median, 83) according to the system of Paterson-Parker. Results: The 2-year local control and overall survival rate was 53% and 66%, respectively, and local control significantly affected overall survival. Both local control and overall survival were affected by the initial tumor characteristics and the macroscopic appearance of the residual or recurrent tumor. Grade 3 or 4 complications were seen in 5 patients. The incidence of mandibular and mucosal complications was significantly related to a biologic effective dose of {alpha}/{beta} of 3 Gy to the surface of the gingiva and mucosa, respectively. Conclusion: Re-BT using Au-198 grains for the treatment of residual or recurrent tumor after definitive BT in the oral cavity is effective and well tolerated.

  3. Effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate on surface EMG activity during repeated cycling sprints.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Ryouta; Arimitsu, Takuma; Kimura, Takehide; Yunoki, Takahiro; Yano, Tokuo

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on surface electromyogram (SEMG) activity from the vastus lateralis (VL) during repeated cycling sprints (RCS). Subjects performed two RCS tests (ten 10-s sprints) interspersed with both 30-s and 360-s recovery periods 1 h after oral administration of either NaHCO3 (RCSAlk) or CaCO3 (RCSPla) in a random counterbalanced order. Recovery periods of 360 s were set before the 5th and 9th sprints. The rate of decrease in plasma HCO3- concentration during RCS was significantly greater in RCSAlk than in RCSPla, but the rates of decline in blood pH during the two RCS tests were similar. There was no difference between change in plasma lactate concentration in RCSAlk and that in RCSPla. Performance during RCSAlk was similar to that during RCSPla. There were no differences in oxygen uptake immediately before each cycling sprint (preVO2) and in SEMG activity between RCSAlk and RCSPla. In conclusion, oral administration of NaHCO3 did not affect SEMG activity from the VL. This suggests that the muscle recruitment strategy during RCS is not determined by only intramuscular pH.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin after oral administration of single and repeat doses in healthy young males.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C; Bramer, S L; Maroli, A

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin in healthy male subjects following single oral administration of doses ranging from 200 to 1200 mg, and following repeated oral administration of 400 and 800 mg doses are reported. Plasma levels of grepafloxacin reached a peak within 2 hours (on average) following drug administration and then declined bi-exponentially with concentrations being detectable (> 5 micrograms/L) in the plasma for at least up to 72 hours postdose. The high values for the apparent volume of distribution (5 to 8 L/kg) suggested extensive distribution of grepafloxacin in the tissues. Only a small percentage of the administered dose (ranging from 6% to 9.5%) was recovered in the urine as unchanged grepafloxacin, suggesting that metabolism, rather than urinary excretion, is the major elimination route. The half-life of grepafloxacin was about 12 hours after single doses and about 15 hours after repeat doses. The trough levels increased significantly over the first 3 days of repeat administration; thereafter, the changes were small, with steady-state being reached by the fifth day. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24 h) values observed on days 7 and 14 of repeat administration, at each dose level, were similar, suggesting that steady-state is maintained. The area values increased more than proportionally after administration of increasing single and repeat doses, suggesting nonlinear kinetics. The elimination half-life and renal clearance did not change with increasing doses. Saturation in the metabolism of grepafloxacin and possibly in the distribution into a peripheral compartment, as suggested by a decrease in the total plasma clearance and in the apparent volume of distribution, could be the origin of the nonlinear kinetics. However, this deviation from linearity is unlikely to be of clinical significance, since it was very small over the recommended range of therapeutic doses (400 to 600 mg once daily). Compared with other quinolones

  5. Same site submucosal tunneling for a repeat per oral endoscopic myotomy: A safe and feasible option

    PubMed Central

    Wehbeh, Antonios N; Mekaroonkamol, Parit; Cai, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a novel endoscopic procedure for achalasia treatment. Due to its novelty and high success rates, a repeat procedure is usually not warranted, making the feasibility and safety of such approach unknown. We report the first case of a successful repeat POEM done at the same site of a previously uncompleted POEM. An 84-year-old female with type 2 achalasia presented for a POEM procedure. The procedure was aborted at the end of tunneling and before myotomy due to hypotension, which later resolved spontaneously. POEM was re-attempted at the same site of the original tunnel 1 year afterward, and surprisingly we didn’t encounter any submucosal fibrosis. The procedure felt similar to a native POEM and a myotomy was performed uneventfully. Our case is the first to suggest that submucosal tunneling during a repeat POEM can be done at the same site. Hypotension during POEM is a rare complication that should be recognized as a potential result of tension capnothorax, it can however, be managed with close supportive care. PMID:27803774

  6. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing HSP65 and Tandemly Repeated P277 Reduces the Incidence of Type I Diabetes in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanjun; Liu, Jingjing; Hou, Jing; Dong, Yuankai; Lu, Yong; Jin, Liang; Cao, Rongyue; Li, Taiming; Wu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is an autoimmune disease that gradually destroys insulin-producing beta-cells. We have previously reported that mucosal administration of fusion protein of HSP65 with tandem repeats of P277 (HSP65-6P277) can reduce the onset of DM1 in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. To deliver large amounts of the fusion protein and to enhance long-term immune tolerance effects, in the present study, we investigated the efficacy of using orally administrated L. lactis expressing HSP65-6P277 to reduce the incidence of DM1 in NOD mice. L. lactis strain NZ9000 was engineered to express HSP65-6P277 either constitutively or by nisin induction. After immunization via gavage with the recombinant L. lactis strains to groups of 4-week old female NOD mice for 36 weeks, we observed that oral administration of recombinant L. Lactis resulted in the prevention of hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulitis. Immunologic analysis showed that treatment with recombinant L. lactis induced HSP65- and P277- specific T cell immuno-tolerance, as well as antigen-specific proliferation of splenocytes. The results revealed that the DM1-preventing function was in part caused by a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Orally administered recombinant L. lactis delivering HSP65-6P277 may be an effective therapeutic approach in preventing DM1. PMID:25157497

  7. A fourteen-day repeated dose oral toxicity study of APFO in rats.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kotaro

    2006-01-01

    Ammonium perfluoroocanoate (APFO) was repeatedly administered orally to male Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats for 14 days. Doses of APFO were 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg. Significant increases and increasing tendencies in absolute/relative weight of the liver and no change in weight of the spleen were observed in all groups. Although inductions of mitochondrion- and peroxisome-specific enzymes were increased, no decrease was seen in any hematological parameter of lipid metabolism. Red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit or these tendencies showed a significant decrease or a tendency to decrease, but no influence on lymphocyte subsets was noted. Secondary inhibition of immunocompetent cells, previously reported for mice, was not seen in this study of rats.

  8. Orally administered conjugated linoleic acid ameliorates allergic dermatitis induced by repeated applications of oxazolone in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Tomonori; Tokunaga, Yuzo; Yamasaki, Masao; Erickson, Laurie; Kawahara, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is one of the constituents of animal products with possible health benefits such as anti-carcinogenic and anti-obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of CLA using a mouse model of allergic dermatitis. Mice were orally administered either a CLA mixture containing equal amounts of 9c, 11 t-CLA and 10 t, 12c-CLA, or high linoleic acid safflower oil, and allergic dermatitis was induced on the ear by repeated topical applications of oxazolone. Oral administration of the CLA mixture but not the high linoleic safflower oil attenuated the symptoms of allergic dermatitis in both ear weights and clinical scores. This effect was associated with decreased levels of ear interleukin-4 (IL-4) and plasma immunoglobulin E. The immunomodulatory effects of the CLA isomers were compared by an in vitro cytokine production assay. The results showed that 9c, 11 t-CLA, the most predominant isomer in animal products, significantly inhibited IL-4 and interferon-γ production from mouse splenocytes with similar potency to 10 t, 12c-CLA. These findings suggest that CLA, a constituent of animal products, has a potentially beneficial effect for amelioration of allergic dermatitis.

  9. The effect of 4-week aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gunendi, Zafer; Ozyemisci-Taskiran, Ozden; Demirsoy, Nesrin

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of submaximal aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Twenty-five postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and 28 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis enrolled in this study. Balance ability of all subjects was measured by timed up and go test (TUG), four square step test (FSS), Berg balance scale (BBS) and Kinesthetic ability trainer 3000. After completion of initial measurements of balance, postmenopausal women with osteoporosis attended the submaximal aerobic exercise program on treadmill. At the end of the exercise program, balance tests were repeated. Balance tests of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis were repeated approximately 4-weeks after the initial measurement. There was statistically significant improvement in all balance scores in the postmenopausal women with osteoporosis after exercise training whereas there were no statistically significant differences in the scores of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis who did not exercise. This study showed that a 4-week submaximal aerobic exercise program provided significant improvements in static and dynamic balances in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  10. No effects of oral ribose supplementation on repeated maximal exercise and de novo ATP resynthesis.

    PubMed

    Eijnde, B O; Van Leemputte, M; Brouns, F; Van Der Vusse, G J; Labarque, V; Ramaekers, M; Van Schuylenberg, R; Verbessem, P; Wijnen, H; Hespel, P

    2001-11-01

    A double-blind randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral ribose supplementation on repeated maximal exercise and ATP recovery after intermittent maximal muscle contractions. Muscle power output was measured during dynamic knee extensions with the right leg on an isokinetic dynamometer before (pretest) and after (posttest) a 6-day training period in conjunction with ribose (R, 4 doses/day at 4 g/dose, n = 10) or placebo (P, n = 9) intake. The exercise protocol consisted of two bouts (A and B) of maximal contractions, separated by 15 s of rest. Bouts A and B consisted of 15 series of 12 contractions each, separated by a 60-min rest period. During the training period, the subjects performed the same exercise protocol twice per day, with 3-5 h of rest between exercise sessions. Blood samples were collected before and after bouts A and B and 24 h after bout B. Knee-extension power outputs were approximately 10% higher in the posttest than in the pretest but were similar between P and R for all contraction series. The exercise increased blood lactate and plasma ammonia concentrations (P < 0.05), with no significant differences between P and R at any time. After a 6-wk washout period, in a subgroup of subjects (n = 8), needle-biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis before, immediately after, and 24 h after an exercise bout similar to the pretest. ATP and total adenine nucleotide content were decreased by approximately 25 and 20% immediately after and 24 h after exercise in P and R. Oral ribose supplementation with 4-g doses four times a day does not beneficially impact on postexercise muscle ATP recovery and maximal intermittent exercise performance.

  11. Repeated dosing with oral cocaine in humans: assessment of direct effects, withdrawal, and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sharon L; Stoops, William W; Moody, David E; Lin, Shen-Nan; Bigelow, George E

    2009-08-01

    Cocaine withdrawal symptoms are thought to play a role in relapse; studies characterizing the symptomatology have yielded mixed findings. This study sought to examine the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic profile of repeated high dose exposure to oral cocaine and characterize acute and protracted withdrawal in cocaine abusers. This study employed a repeated-dosing, single-blind design in which subjects (n = 9), resided for 40 days on a closed ward. They were maintained for two 4-day cocaine exposure periods (Days 1-4 & Days 9-12, cocaine 175 mg, p.o.; 5 hourly doses; 875 mg/day) separated by a 4-day matched placebo exposure period (Days 5-8). After these 12 days, an additional period of 28 days of placebo maintenance followed (Days 13-40). Test sessions were conducted during each phase; measures of mood, drug effects, sleep, pharmacokinetics, and prolactin were collected throughout the study. The dosing regimen produced cocaine plasma concentrations (Cmax of 680 ng/mL) two to threefold higher than typically seen in acute dose studies. Prototypic psychostimulant effects, including subjective ratings of euphoric effects (liking, high, good effects) and significant cardiopressor effects, were sustained during the active dosing periods, corresponding to the rise and fall of plasma cocaine. Withdrawal-like symptoms (i.e., disruptions of sleep, increased ratings of anxiety, irritability, crashing) were observed within 24-hr after cessation of dosing. Cocaine reduced prolactin acutely, but no sustained alterations were observed for this measure or for other signs or symptoms during the 28-day abstinence period. These findings indicate that exposure to controlled high doses of cocaine produces modest symptoms consistent with cocaine withdrawal within hours of cessation of dosing but provide no evidence of symptoms persisting beyond 24 hours.

  12. The effects of oral creatine supplementation on performance in single and repeated sprint swimming.

    PubMed

    Peyrebrune, M C; Nevill, M E; Donaldson, F J; Cosford, D J

    1998-04-01

    We studied the effects of oral creatine supplementation on sprint swimming performance in 14 elite competitive male swimmers. The subjects performed a single sprint (1 x 50 yards [45.72 m]) and repeated sprint set (8 x 50 yards at intervals of 1 min 30 s) before and after a 5 day period of either creatine (9 g creatine + 4.5 g maltodextrin + 4.5 g glucose day(-1)) or placebo (18 g glucose day(-1); double-blind protocol) supplementation. Venous and capillary blood samples were taken for the determination of plasma ammonia, blood pH and lactate. Mean times recorded for the single 50 yard sprint were unchanged as a result of supplementation (creatine vs control, N.S.). During the repeated sprint test, mean times increased (P< 0.01, main effect time) during all trials, but performance was improved as a result of creatine supplementation (sprints 1-8: control pre-, 23.35+/-0.68 to 26.32+/-1.34 s; control post-, 23.59+/-0.66 to 26.19+/-1.48 s; creatine pre-, 23.20+/-0.67 to 26.85+/-0.42 s; creatine post-, 23.39+/-0.54 to 25.73+/-0.26 s; P < 0.03, group x trial interaction). Thus the percentage decline in performance times was reduced after creatine supplementation (control, 12.7+/-5.7% vs 11.0+/-5.5%; creatine, 15.7+/-4.3% vs 10.0+/-2.5%; P< 0.05, group x trial interaction). The metabolic response was similar before and after supplementation, with no differences in the blood lactate or pH response. Plasma ammonia was lower on the second trial (P< 0.05, main effect trial), but this could not be attributed to the effect of supplementation (group x trial interaction, N.S.). A further urinary analysis study supported these findings by demonstrating an approximately 67% (approximately 26 g) retention of the administered creatine in this group of swimmers after an identical supplementation regimen. In summary, our results suggest that ingesting 9 g creatine per day for 5 days can improve swimming performance in elite competitors during repeated sprints, but appears to have no

  13. Toxicity of palytoxin after repeated oral exposure in mice and in vitro effects on cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Del Favero, Giorgia; Beltramo, Dario; Sciancalepore, Marina; Lorenzon, Paola; Coslovich, Tamara; Poli, Mark; Testai, Emanuela; Sosa, Silvio; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2013-12-01

    Palytoxin (PLTX) is a highly toxic hydrophilic polyether detected in several edible marine organisms from intra-tropical areas, where seafood poisoning were reported. Symptoms usually start with gastro-intestinal malaise, often accompanied by myalgia, muscular cramps, dyspnea and, sometimes, arrhythmias. Monitoring programs in the Mediterranean Sea have detected PLTX-like molecules in edible mollusks and echinoderms. Despite the potential exposure of the human population and its high toxic potential, the toxicological profile of the molecule is still an issue. Thus, the effects of repeated oral administration of PLTX in mice were investigated. Seven days of PLTX administration caused lethality and toxic effects at doses ≥ 30 μg/kg/day. A NOAEL was estimated equal to 3 μg/kg/day, indicating a quite steep dose-response curve. This value, due to the limited number of animal tested, is provisional, although represents a sound basis for further testing. Macroscopic alterations at gastrointestinal level (gastric ulcers and intestinal fluid accumulation) were observed in mice dead during the treatment period. Histological analysis highlighted severe inflammation, locally associated with necrosis, at pulmonary level, as well as hyper-eosinophilia and fiber separation in myocardium. A cardiac damage was supported by the in vitro effect of the toxin on cardiomyocytes, indicating a severe and irreversible impairment of their electrical properties: electrophysiological recordings detected a progressive cell depolarization, arrest of action potentials and beating.

  14. A 4-week instructed minimalist running transition and gait-retraining changes plantar pressure and force.

    PubMed

    Warne, J P; Kilduff, S M; Gregan, B C; Nevill, A M; Moran, K A; Warrington, G D

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare changes in plantar pressure and force using conventional running shoes (CRS) and minimalist footwear (MFW) pre and post a 4-week MFW familiarization period. Ten female runners (age: 21 ± 2 years; stature: 165.8 ± 4.5 cm; mass: 55.9 ± 3.2 kg) completed two 11 km/h treadmill runs, 24 hours apart, in both CRS and MFW (pretest). Plantar data were measured using sensory insoles for foot strike patterns, stride frequency, mean maximum force ( M ⁢ F ¯ ), mean maximum pressure ( M ⁢ P ¯ ) and eight mean maximum regional pressures. Subjects then completed a 4-week familiarization period consisting of running in MFW and simple gait-retraining, before repeating the tests (posttest). During the pretests, 30% of subjects adopted a forefoot strike in MFW, following familiarization this increased to 80%; no change occurred in CRS. A significant decrease in M ⁢ F ¯ in both MFW and CRS (P = 0.024) was observed from pre-post, and a significant decrease in heel pressures in MFW. M ⁢ P ¯ was higher in MFW throughout testing (P < 0.001).A 4-week familiarization to MFW resulted in a significant reduction in M ⁢ F ¯ in both the CRS and MFW conditions, as well as a reduction in heel pressures. Higher M ⁢ P ¯ was observed throughout testing in the MFW condition.

  15. A repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study of cyflumetofen,a novel acaricide, in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshinori; Ikemi, Naoki; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Ebino, Koichi; Kojima, Sayuri; Chiba, Yuko; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Kawakatsu, Hisao; Saka, Machiko; Harada, Takanori

    2012-02-01

    Cyflumetofen is a novel acaricide which is highly active against phytophagous mites. As a part of safety assessment, a repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study of cyflumetofen was conducted in Fischer (F344/DuCrj) rats of both sexes. Technical grade cyflumetofen was administered in feed to groups of 10 males and 10 females at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, 1,000, and 3,000 ppm. Prothrombin time was prolonged in males at 3,000 ppm and plasma globulin levels were decreased in females at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm. At necropsy, enlarged and whitish adrenals were observed in females at 3,000 ppm. There were statistically significant increases in relative liver weight (ratio to body weight) in males and relative adrenal weight in females in the 1,000 ppm group; increased relative liver and kidney weights in both sexes at 3,000 ppm, and increased absolute and relative weights of adrenals in females at 3,000 ppm. Increased absolute liver weight was also noted in males at 3,000 ppm. Histopathologically, at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm males had diffuse vacuolation and females had diffuse hypertrophy of adrenal cortical cells. In addition, vacuolation of ovarian interstitial gland cells was noted in females at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm. There were no treatment-related changes in any parameters for either sex in other dose groups. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of cyflumetofen was judged to be 300 ppm for both sexes (16.5 mg/kg/day for males and 19.0 mg/kg/day for females).

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor knockout rats are insensitive to the pathological effects of repeated oral exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Harrill, Joshua A; Layko, Debra; Nyska, Abraham; Hukkanen, Renee R; Manno, Rosa Anna; Grassetti, Andrea; Lawson, Marie; Martin, Greg; Budinsky, Robert A; Rowlands, J Craig; Thomas, Russell S

    2016-06-01

    Sustained activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is believed to be the initial key event in AHR receptor-mediated tumorigenesis in the rat liver. The role of AHR in mediating pathological changes in the liver prior to tumor formation was investigated in a 4-week, repeated-dose study using adult female wild-type (WT) and AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rats treated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Beginning at 8 weeks of age, AHR-KO and WT rats were dosed by oral gavage with varying concentrations of TCDD (0, 3, 22, 100, 300 and 1000 ng kg(-1)  day(-1) ). Lung, liver and thymus histopathology, hematology, serum chemistry and the distribution of TCDD in liver and adipose tissue were examined. Treatment-related increases in the severity of liver and thymus pathology were observed in WT, but not AHR-KO rats. In the liver, these included hepatocellular hypertrophy, bile duct hyperplasia, multinucleated hepatocytes and inflammatory cell foci. A loss of cellularity in the thymic cortex and thymic atrophy was observed. Treatment-related changes in serum chemistry parameters were also observed in WT, but not AHR-KO rats. Finally, dose-dependent accumulation of TCDD was observed primarily in the liver of WT rats and primarily in the adipose tissue of AHR-KO rats. The results suggest that AHR activation is the initial key event underlying the progression of histological effects leading to liver tumorigenesis following TCDD treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Simulation for clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials applying a peak-and-trough sampling design to estimate oral clearance.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kazuya; Kayano, Yuichiro; Taguchi, Masato; Hashimoto, Yukiya

    2007-11-01

    We performed a simulation for the clinical pharmacokinetic study, in which blood was sampled at two time points corresponding to the peak concentration (C(peak)) and trough concentration (C(trough)) following repetitive oral drug administration to subjects. We estimated the approximate oral clearance (CL/F(approx)) as 2.D/(C(peak).tau+C(trough).tau), where D is the dose, and tau is the dosing interval. The CL/F(approx) value was accurate for drugs with a long-elimination half-life, and the estimation error of the CL/F value was slightly increased for drugs with a shorter elimination half-life. The accuracy of CL/F(approx) in each subject was not affected by the magnitude of the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, but was significantly decreased by the larger measurement error of drug concentrations (or intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability). We further performed several computer simulations to mimic statistical hypothesis testing following the clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials. The statistical power to detect the difference of oral clearance between two groups was marginally dependent on the measurement error of drug concentration, but was highly dependent on the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. These findings suggested that the peak-and-trough sampling design to estimate the CL/F(approx) value is useful for clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials, and that the study design and protocol should be evaluated carefully by computer simulation prior to a real clinical trial.

  18. Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Masalu, Joyce Rose

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. METHODS: The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999 and 2001. RESULTS: Cross-tabulation analyses revealed that in 1999, the rates of abstinence from tobacco use, and of soft drink consumption, regular dental checkups, and intake of chocolate/candy were 84%, 51%, 48%, and 12%, respectively, among students of urban origin and 83%, 29%, 37%, and 5% among their rural counterparts. The corresponding rates in 2001 were 87%, 56%, 50%, and 9% among urban students and 84%, 44%, 38%, and 4% among rural ones. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, age, place of origin, educational level, year of survey, and their interaction terms revealed a significant increase in the rate of soft drink consumption, implementation of oral hygiene measures, and abstinence from tobacco use between 1999 and 2001. Social inequalities observed in 1999, with urban students being more likely than their rural counterparts to take soft drinks and go for regular dental checkups, had leveled off by 2001. CONCLUSION: This study provides initial evidence of oral health behavioral trends, that may be utilized in the planning of preventive programs among university students in Tanzania.

  19. Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Masalu, Joyce Rose

    2001-01-01

    Purpose This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. Methods The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999 and 2001. Results Cross-tabulation analyses revealed that in 1999, the rates of abstinence from tobacco use, and of soft drink consumption, regular dental checkups, and intake of chocolate/candy were 84%, 51%, 48%, and 12%, respectively, among students of urban origin and 83%, 29%, 37%, and 5% among their rural counterparts. The corresponding rates in 2001 were 87%, 56%, 50%, and 9% among urban students and 84%, 44%, 38%, and 4% among rural ones. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, age, place of origin, educational level, year of survey, and their interaction terms revealed a significant increase in the rate of soft drink consumption, implementation of oral hygiene measures, and abstinence from tobacco use between 1999 and 2001. Social inequalities observed in 1999, with urban students being more likely than their rural counterparts to take soft drinks and go for regular dental checkups, had leveled off by 2001. Conclusion This study provides initial evidence of oral health behavioral trends, that may be utilized in the planning of preventive programs among university students in Tanzania. PMID:11782294

  20. BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL OUTCOMES OF REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN POSTNATAL/JUVENILE RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern has been raised regarding potential adverse effects on the nervous system following childhood exposure to chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl-O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl-phosphorothioate). This study examined the outcomes of daily oral dosing with chlorpyrifos, from early postnata...

  1. The Effects of Combining Repeated Reading with "Reading Mastery" on First Graders' Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Alice O.; Fredrick, Laura D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study replicates and extends the work of Frankhauser, Tso, and Martella (2001) using 6 first-grade students in a multiple baseline design across participants to determine if the addition of three repeated readings following "Reading Mastery I and II" (Engelmann & Bruner, 1995) lessons improves student fluency beyond that expected…

  2. Effects of repeated oral corticosterone administration on performance and stress parameters of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of repeated stress during rearing on performance and physiology of laying hens was studied using a corticosterone (Cort) model. 240 Hisex laying hens were reared in environmentally controlled battery cages. At 7, 11, and 15 wk of age they were exposed for 1 wk to the following treatments...

  3. Using a Repeated Reading Program to Improve Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Ya-yu; Cooke, Nancy L.; Starling, A. Leyf Peirce

    2011-01-01

    Three second-grade students at-risk for reading failure participated in an adult-directed repeated reading program that integrated isolated word reading practice, unison reading, error correction, and performance cueing and feedback procedures. During each intervention session, the participants practiced five difficult words key to a first-grade…

  4. Effect of Curriculum Change on Exam Performance in a 4-Week Psychiatry Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermier, Julie; Way, David; Kasick, David; Kuperschmidt, Rada

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated whether curriculum change could produce improved performance, despite a reduction in clerkship length from 8 to 4 weeks. Methods: The exam performance of medical students completing a 4-week clerkship in psychiatry was compared to national data from the National Board of Medical Examiners' Psychiatry Subject…

  5. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  7. Toxicity evaluation of zinc aluminium levodopa nanocomposite via oral route in repeated dose study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Hassan, Zurina; Tengku Azmi, Tengku Ibrahim; Hussein, Nor Fuzina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology, through nanomedicine, allowed drugs to be manipulated into nanoscale sizes for delivery to the different parts of the body, at the same time, retaining the valuable pharmacological properties of the drugs. However, efficient drug delivery and excellent release potential of these delivery systems may be hindered by possible untoward side effects. In this study, the sub-acute toxicity of oral zinc aluminium nanocomposite with and without levodopa was assessed using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines. No sign or symptom of toxicity was observed in orally treated rats with the nanocomposite at 5 and 500 mg/kg concentrations. Body weight gain, feeding, water intake, general survival and organosomatic index were not significantly different between control and treatment groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (169 ± 30 U/L), 5 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (172 ± 49 U/L), and 500 mg/kg layered double hydroxides (LDH) nanocomposite (175 ± 25 U/L) were notably elevated compared to controls (143 ± 05 U/L); but the difference were not significant ( p > 0.05). However, the differences in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio of 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (0.32 ± 0.12) and 500 mg/kg LDH nanocomposite (0.34 ± 0.12) were statistically significant ( p < 0.05) compared to the control (0.51 ± 0.07). Histology of the liver, spleen and brain was found to be of similar morphology in both control and experimental groups. The kidneys of 500-mg/kg-treated rats with levodopa nanocomposite and LDH nanocomposite were found to have slight inflammatory changes, notably leukocyte infiltration around the glomeruli. The ultra-structure of the neurons from the substantia nigra of nanocomposite-exposed group was similar to those receiving only normal saline. The observed result has suggested possible liver and renal toxicity in orally administered levodopa intercalated

  8. Toxicity evaluation of zinc aluminium levodopa nanocomposite via oral route in repeated dose study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology, through nanomedicine, allowed drugs to be manipulated into nanoscale sizes for delivery to the different parts of the body, at the same time, retaining the valuable pharmacological properties of the drugs. However, efficient drug delivery and excellent release potential of these delivery systems may be hindered by possible untoward side effects. In this study, the sub-acute toxicity of oral zinc aluminium nanocomposite with and without levodopa was assessed using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines. No sign or symptom of toxicity was observed in orally treated rats with the nanocomposite at 5 and 500 mg/kg concentrations. Body weight gain, feeding, water intake, general survival and organosomatic index were not significantly different between control and treatment groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (169 ± 30 U/L), 5 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (172 ± 49 U/L), and 500 mg/kg layered double hydroxides (LDH) nanocomposite (175 ± 25 U/L) were notably elevated compared to controls (143 ± 05 U/L); but the difference were not significant (p > 0.05). However, the differences in aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio of 500 mg/kg levodopa nanocomposite (0.32 ± 0.12) and 500 mg/kg LDH nanocomposite (0.34 ± 0.12) were statistically significant (p < 0.05) compared to the control (0.51 ± 0.07). Histology of the liver, spleen and brain was found to be of similar morphology in both control and experimental groups. The kidneys of 500-mg/kg-treated rats with levodopa nanocomposite and LDH nanocomposite were found to have slight inflammatory changes, notably leukocyte infiltration around the glomeruli. The ultra-structure of the neurons from the substantia nigra of nanocomposite-exposed group was similar to those receiving only normal saline. The observed result has suggested possible liver and renal toxicity in

  9. Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2: a marker for survival and anti-EGFR efficacy in oral carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Raybaud, Hélène; Sudaka, Anne; Chamorey, Emmanuel; Brolih, Sanja; Monteverde, Martino; Merlano, Marco; Nigro, Cristiana Lo; Ambrosetti, Damien; Pagès, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral cancer worldwide. Treatments including surgery, radio- and chemo-therapies mostly result in debilitating side effects. Thus, a more accurate evaluation of patients at risk of recurrence after radio/chemo treatment is important for preserving their quality of life. We assessed whether the Telomeric Repeat-binding Factor 2 (TERF2) influences tumor aggressiveness and treatment response. TERF2 is over-expressed in many cancers but its correlation to patient outcome remains controversial in OSCC. Our retrospective study on sixty-two patients showed that TERF2 overexpression has a negative impact on survival time. TERF2-dependent survival time was independent of tumor size in a multivariate analysis. In vitro, TERF2 knockdown by RNA interference had no effect on cell proliferation, migration, senescence and apoptosis. Instead, TERF2 knockdown increased the expression of cytokines implicated in inflammation and angiogenesis, except for vascular endothelial growth factor. TERF2 knockdown resulted in a decrease vascularization and growth of xenograft tumors. Finally, response to erlotinib/Tarceva and cetuximab/Erbitux treatment was increased in TRF2 knocked-down cells. Hence, TERF2 may represent an independent marker of survival for OSCC and a predictive marker for cetuximab/Erbitux and erlotinib/Tarceva efficacy. PMID:27329590

  10. Toxicity of Smokeless Tobacco Extract after 184-Day Repeated Oral Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chenlin; Zhang, Ziteng; Liu, Yangang; Zong, Ying; Chen, Yongchun; Du, Xiuming; Chen, Jikuai; Feng, Shijie; Hu, Jinlian; Cui, Shufang; Lu, Guocai

    2016-01-01

    The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) is growing rapidly and globally. The consumption of ST is associated with an increased risk for developing chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and myocardial infarction, and has led to many public health problems. It is very important to access the toxicity of ST. This experiment presents data from 184-day toxicology studies in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats designed to characterize the chronic effects of a smokeless tobacco extract (STE). The control group and treatment groups were matched for a range of nicotine levels. Animals were given STE by oral gavage with doses of 3.75 (low-dose), 7.50 (mid-dose) and 15.00 (high-dose) mg·nicotine/kg body weight/day for 184 days, followed by 30 days for recovery. Variables evaluated included body weights, feed consumption, clinical observations, clinical and anatomic pathology (including organ weights), and histopathology. Decreased body weights and organ weights (heart, liver and kidney) were found in animals in the mid-dose and high-dose groups. STE also showed moderate and reversible toxicity in esophagus, stomach, liver, kidney and lung. PMID:26959038

  11. Evaluation of 2-week repeated oral dose toxicity of 100 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Je-Won; Hong, Eun-Taek; Lee, In-Chul; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Park, Jong-Il; Seong, Nak-Won; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Yun, Hyo-In

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify subacute oral dose toxicity of positively charged 100 nm zinc oxide (ZnOAE100[+]) nanoparticles (NPs) in Sprague-Dawley rats. ZnOAE100[+] NPs were administered to rats of each sex by gavage at 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 14 days. During the study period, clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weight, and histopathology were examined. Increased mortality and clinical signs, decreased body weight, feed consumption, hemoglobin (HB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet (PT), and lymphocyte (LYM) and increased white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils (NEUs), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and histopathological alterations in the spleen, stomach, and pancreas were observed at 2,000 mg/kg/day. Increased clinical signs, decreased body weight, feed consumption, HB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and LYM and increased WBCs, NEUs, ALP, and histopathological alterations in the spleen, stomach, and pancreas were seen at 1,000 mg/kg/day. Increased clinical signs, decreased MCV and MCH and increased histopathological alterations in the stomach and pancreas were found at 500 mg/kg/day. These results suggest that the target organs were the spleen, stomach, and pancreas in rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was <500 mg/kg for both sexes. PMID:26472967

  12. A 13-week repeated-dose oral toxicity and bioaccumulation of aluminum oxide nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Sim, Jaehoon; Kim, Younghun; Han, Beom Seok; Yoon, Cheolho; Lee, Somin; Cho, Myung-Haing; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Because of an increase in the commercial applications of manufactured nanoparticles, the issue of potential adverse health effects of nanoparticles following intended or unintended exposure is rapidly gaining attention. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (AlNPs, rod-type, 1.5, 3, and 6 mg/kg) after oral administration to mice for 13 weeks. Compared with the control group, the consumption of diet and drinking water and body weight gain decreased in the group treated with AlNPs. The group treated with 6 mg/kg AlNPs also showed a marked elevation in the count of white blood cells that associated with a significant decrease and increase to the proportion of eosinophils and lymphocytes, respectively. In addition, the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 increased in a dose-dependent manner in the treated groups. Furthermore, AlNPs showed the highest accumulation in the liver and kidneys compared with the control group, increased the lactate dehydrogenase level in the blood, and induced the development of a pathological lesion in the liver and kidneys. Taken together, we suggest that the target organs of rod-type AlNPs may be the liver, kidneys and the immune system, and the not-observed adverse effect level may be lower than 6 mg/kg.

  13. Detection of initiation activity of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay system using 4-week-old rats without hepatocellular proliferative stimuli during the test chemical treatment period.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Yoshiji; Sakai, Hiroki; Hirata, Akihiro; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu; Miyamoto, Yohei; Yanai, Tokuma; Masegi, Toshiaki; Okada, Kosuke

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay system to detect initiation activities of chemicals on multi-organ carcinogenesis. However, cell proliferation stimuli during the test chemical treatment period, required in the previously used assay models using adult rats, are laborious; moreover, those cause decrease of hepatic metabolic enzymes and psychological and physical discomfort to animals resulting in inaccurate interpretation. Therefore, we investigated the utility of another in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay model using 4-week-old rats without the cell proliferation stimuli. In this study, we confirmed that 4-week-old and 4.5-week-old male rats have high hepatocyte proliferation activity and similar enzyme activities of hepatic Cytochrome P450 subtypes as compared with 8-week-old male rats. Next, the in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay model using 4-week-old rats without cell proliferation stimuli was evaluated for the detection of the initiation activity of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), which is a well-known genotoxic carcinogen. Four-week-old rats were orally administered DMH (single dose, 4 or 16 mg/kg; or 4-day repeat, 1 or 4 mg/kg); subsequently, these rats were treated promotion treatment consisted of administration of 2-acetylaminofluorene and carbon tetrachloride. Four weeks after the first DMH administration, the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci induced by DMH in the liver was measured immunohistochemically. The inductions of GST-P-positive foci in all DMH-treated groups were dose-dependent, duration-dependent and significantly higher than that in non-DMH-treated group. From these results, our assay model was detected the initiation activity of DMH simply, and would be useful to evaluate the carcinogenicity of chemicals.

  14. Induction of hyperchromic microcytic anaemia by repeated oral administration of methotrexate in rats.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Sayuri; Yoshida, Toshinori; Sasaki, Junya; Takahashi, Naofumi; Kuwahara, Maki; Shutoh, Yasufumi; Saka, Machiko; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Kosaka, Tadashi; Harada, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    Anaemia is a significant prognostic factor in cancer patients receiving anticancer drugs such as methotrexate (MTX). This study focuses on the effects of toxicological changes on the hematopoietic systems in male and female Wistar Hannover rats when MTX is orally administered at a dose of 0, 0.05, 0.15, or 0.45 mg/(kg·day) for a period of 28 days. Both male and female rats receiving 0.45 mg/kg MTX showed a decrease in the haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit, and erythrocyte count. Female rats showed a decrease in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and an increase in cell mean Hb (CHCM) in total erythrocytes, including the mature erythrocytes. These results indicate that MTX causes the production of small, mature erythrocytes that contain a high concentration of Hb. MTX reduced the number of peripheral reticulocytes but produced the cells with a large size and a high concentration of Hb, as demonstrated by the reticulocyte MCV and CHCM as well as the content of haemoglobin per reticulocyte (CHr). Consistent with these findings, bone marrow haematopoiesis was impaired by MTX, as there was a reduction in erythroid count in rats of both sexes. The number of cells of the myeloid lineage reduced in female rats, followed by a reduction in the total leukocyte and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood. Thrombocytopenia was detected in a small population of rats. These results indicate that MTX induces hyperchromic microcytic anaemia and pancytopenia, and the use of MCV and CHCM in mature erythrocytes and reticulocytes, along with the CHr, gives a better understanding of the development and nature of anaemia.

  15. Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the English Oral Reading Fluency of L2 Students with Specific Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi; Charalambous, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of new technologies has been extensively explored in different aspects of language learning pedagogy. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact Repeated Reading activity, supported by iPod Touch could have on the English Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of second language university students with Special…

  16. Evaluation of 90 day repeated dose oral toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bani, Sarang; Natarajan, Sankaran; Pandey, Anjali; S, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium. Despite many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of 3'-HPT has not been established. The present work investigated 90 day repeated oral dose and reproductive (developmental) toxicity of 3'-HPT as a test substance in rats as per OECD guidelines. 90 day toxicity was conducted in sixty Sprague Dawley rats of each sex (120 rats), grouped into six dosage groups of 0 (control), 0 (control recovery), 20 (low dose), 80 (mid dose), 200 (high dose) and 200 (high dose recovery) mg/kg bwt/day (body weight/day) respectively. For the reproductive toxicity study forty Wistar rats of each sex (80 rats) divided into four dosage groups received 0 (vehicle control), 20 (low dose), 100 (mid dose) and 200 (high dose) mg/kg bwt/day of 3'-HPT respectively for a period of two weeks while pre-mating, mating, on the day before sacrifice, in females during pregnancy and four days of lactation period. Results showed no significant differences in body weight, food intake, absolute organ weight, haematology, with no adverse effects (toxicity) on biochemical values nor any abnormal clinical signs or behavioural changes were observed in any of the control/treatment groups, including reproductive and developmental parameters, gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/kg bwt/day in rats after oral administration, implying 3'-HPT did not exhibit any toxicity under the study conditions employed. PMID:28257483

  17. Evaluation of 90 day repeated dose oral toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bani, Sarang; Natarajan, Sankaran; Pandey, Anjali; S, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium. Despite many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of 3'-HPT has not been established. The present work investigated 90 day repeated oral dose and reproductive (developmental) toxicity of 3'-HPT as a test substance in rats as per OECD guidelines. 90 day toxicity was conducted in sixty Sprague Dawley rats of each sex (120 rats), grouped into six dosage groups of 0 (control), 0 (control recovery), 20 (low dose), 80 (mid dose), 200 (high dose) and 200 (high dose recovery) mg/kg bwt/day (body weight/day) respectively. For the reproductive toxicity study forty Wistar rats of each sex (80 rats) divided into four dosage groups received 0 (vehicle control), 20 (low dose), 100 (mid dose) and 200 (high dose) mg/kg bwt/day of 3'-HPT respectively for a period of two weeks while pre-mating, mating, on the day before sacrifice, in females during pregnancy and four days of lactation period. Results showed no significant differences in body weight, food intake, absolute organ weight, haematology, with no adverse effects (toxicity) on biochemical values nor any abnormal clinical signs or behavioural changes were observed in any of the control/treatment groups, including reproductive and developmental parameters, gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/kg bwt/day in rats after oral administration, implying 3'-HPT did not exhibit any toxicity under the study conditions employed.

  18. Toxicological evaluation of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guangqiu; Tang, Song; Li, Shibin; Lu, Haoliang; Wang, Yanwu; Zhao, Peng; Li, Bin; Zhang, Jiehong; Peng, Liang

    2017-02-01

    The increasing application of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been raising concerns about their potential adverse effects to human and the environment. However, the knowledge on the systemic toxicity of AgNPs in mammalian systems is still limited. The present study investigated the toxicity of PVP-coated AgNPs in rats treated with repeated oral administration, and compared that with equivalent dose of AgNO3 . Specifically, one hundred male and female rats were orally administrated with particulate or ionic forms of silver (Ag) separately at doses of 0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1) body weight daily for 28 days. The results reveal no significant toxic effects of AgNPs and AgNO3 up to 1 mg kg(-1) body weight, with respect to the body weight, organ weight, food intake, and histopathological examination. Ag distribution pattern in organs of rats treated with AgNPs was similar to that of AgNO3 treated rats, showing liver and kidneys are the main target organs followed by testis and spleen. The total Ag contents in organs were significantly lower in the AgNPs treated rats than those in the AgNO3 treated rats. However, the comparisons between AgNPs and AgNO3 treatments further indicated more potent of AgNPs in biochemical and hematological parameters in rats, including red blood cell count (RBC), platelet count (PLT), white blood cell count (WBC) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Results of this study suggested that particulate Ag at least partially contributed to the observed toxicity of AgNPs, and both ionic and particulate Ag should be taken into consideration in toxicological evaluation of AgNPs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 609-618, 2017.

  19. Eco-Challenge: A 4-Week Approach to Eco-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, J. Thayer

    1991-01-01

    Describes Challenge Wilderness Camp (Bradford, Vermont), a 4-week residential program designed to teach boys, ages 9-16, environmental ethics through first-hand experiences. The camp incorporates land and waste management policies and procedures; programs in outdoor skills instruction; and wilderness trips including backpacking, off-trail hiking,…

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  1. Effect of the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran on allergic lung inflammation induced by repeated house dust mite administration in mice.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Johannes D; Berkhout, Lea C; de Stoppelaar, Sacha F; Yang, Jack; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Meijers, Joost C M; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-10-15

    Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways; asthma patients are hampered by recurrent symptoms of dyspnoea and wheezing caused by bronchial obstruction. Most asthma patients suffer from chronic allergic lung inflammation triggered by allergens such as house dust mite (HDM). Coagulation activation in the pulmonary compartment is currently recognized as a feature of allergic lung inflammation, and data suggest that coagulation proteases further drive inflammatory mechanisms. Here, we tested whether treatment with the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran attenuates allergic lung inflammation in a recently developed HDM-based murine asthma model. Mice were fed dabigatran (10 mg/g) or placebo chow during a 3-wk HDM airway exposure model. Dabigatran treatment caused systemic thrombin inhibitory activity corresponding with dabigatran levels reported in human trials. Surprisingly, dabigatran did not lead to inhibition of HDM-evoked coagulation activation in the lung as measured by levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes and D-dimer. Repeated HDM administration caused an influx of eosinophils and neutrophils into the lungs, mucus production in the airways, and a T helper 2 response, as reflected by a rise in bronchoalveolar IL-4 and IL-5 levels and a systemic rise in IgE and HDM-IgG1. Dabigatran modestly improved HDM-induced lung pathology (P < 0.05) and decreased IL-4 levels (P < 0.01), without influencing other HDM-induced responses. Considering the limited effects of dabigatran in spite of adequate plasma levels, these results argue against clinical evaluation of dabigatran in patients with asthma.

  2. Effect of orally administered Hochu-ekki-to, a Japanese herbal medicine, on contact hypersensitivity caused by repeated application of antigen.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Kenji; Matsumoto, Tsukasa; Santa, Kazuki; Triizuka, Kazuo; Hanawa, Toshihiko

    2002-06-01

    The effects of oral administration of Hochu-ekki-to (HET; bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang in Chinese), a traditional Japanese and Chinese herbal medicine, on chronic contact hypersensitivity were investigated. HET suppressed ear swelling due to chronic contact hypersensitivity caused by repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB). HET significantly suppressed not only increases in hapten-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG1 titer due to repeated application of TNCB, but also total IgE and IgG1 concentration in the serum. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) level in inflamed ear tissue was significantly increased by repeated application of TNCB, and this increase in IL-4 level in the ear was significantly suppressed by oral administration of HET. Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-2, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-12 levels are not changed as much as IL4 by TNCB and HET did not alter these cytokines as much as IL-4. These results suggest that oral administration of HET suppresses chronic contact hypersensitivity, and it can be assumed that the suppression of serum Ig E and Ig G1 and IL-4 in inflamed ear.

  3. Nutrition Composition and Single, 14-Day and 13-Week Repeated Oral Dose Toxicity Studies of the Leaves and Stems of Rubus coreanus Miquel.

    PubMed

    Om, Ae-Son; Song, Yu-Na; Noh, GeonMin; Kim, HaengRan; Choe, JeongSook

    2016-01-08

    The leaves and stems of the plant Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCMLS) are rich in vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals which have antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fatigue and anti-cancer effects. However, RCMLS is not included in the Korean Food Standards Codex due to the lack of safety assurance concerning RCMLS. We evaluated single and repeated oral dose toxicity of RCMLS in Sprague-Dawley rats. RCMLS did not induce any significant toxicological changes in both male and female rats at a single doses of 2500 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects in clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathology at doses of 625, 1250, and 2500 mg/kg/day. The LD50 and LOAEL of RCMLS might be over 2500 mg/kg body weight/day and no target organs were identified. Therefore, this study revealed that single and repeated oral doses of RCMLS are safe.

  4. Effects of 4 weeks of creatine supplementation in junior swimmers on freestyle sprint and swim bench performance.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Brian; Vladich, Todd; Blanksby, Brian A

    2002-11-01

    To determine whether 4 weeks of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation could enhance single freestyle sprint and swim bench performance in experienced competitive junior swimmers, 10 young men and 10 young women (x age = 16.4 +/- 1.8 years) participated in a 27-day supplementation period and pre- and posttesting sessions. In session 1 (presupplementation testing), subjects swam one 50-m freestyle and then (after approximately 5 minutes of active recovery) one 100-m freestyle at maximum speed. Blood lactate was measured before and 1 minute after each swim trial. Forty-eight hours later, height, mass, and the sum of 6 skinfolds were recorded, and a Biokinetic Swim Bench total work output test (2 x 30-second trials, with a 10-minute passive recovery in between) was undertaken. After the pretests were completed, participants were divided into 2 groups (n = 10, Cr; and n = 10, placebo) by means of matched pairs on the basis of gender and 50-m swim times. A Cr loading phase of 20 g x d(-1) for 5 days was then instituted, followed by a maintenance phase of 5 g x d(-1) for 22 days. Postsupplementation testing replicated the presupplementation tests. Four weeks of Cr supplementation did not influence single sprint performance in the pool or body mass and composition. However, 30-second swim bench total work scores for trial 1 and trial 2 increased after Cr (p < 0.05) but not placebo ingestion. Postexercise blood lactate values were not different after supplementation for the 50- and 100-m sprint trials either within or between groups. It was concluded that 4 weeks of Cr supplementation did not significantly improve single sprint performance in competitive junior swimmers, but it did enhance swim bench test performance.

  5. Effects of acute and repeated oral doses of D-tagatose on plasma uric acid in normal and diabetic humans.

    PubMed

    Saunders, J P; Donner, T W; Sadler, J H; Levin, G V; Makris, N G

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose, a stereoisomer of D-fructose, is a naturally occurring ketohexose proposed for use as a low-calorie bulk sweetener. Ingested D-tagatose appears to be poorly absorbed. The absorbed portion is metabolized in the liver by a pathway similar to that of D-fructose. The main purpose of this study was to determine if acute or repeated oral doses of D-tagatose would cause elevations in plasma uric acid (as is seen with fructose) in normal humans and Type 2 diabetics. In addition, effects of subchronic D-tagatose ingestion on fasting plasma phosphorus, magnesium, lipids, and glucose homeostasis were studied. Eight normal subjects and eight subjects with Type 2 diabetes participated in this two-phase study. Each group was comprised of four males and four females. In the first phase, all subjects were given separate 75 g 3-h oral glucose and D-tagatose tolerance tests. Uric acid, phosphorus, and magnesium were determined in blood samples collected from each subject at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after dose. In the 8-week phase of the study, the normals were randomly placed into two groups which received 75 g of either D-tagatose or sucrose (25 g with each meal) daily for 8 weeks. The diabetics were randomized into two groups which received either 75 g D-tagatose or no supplements of sugar daily for 8 weeks. Uric acid, phosphorus, magnesium, lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose, and insulin were determined in fasting blood plasma of all subjects at baseline (time zero) and biweekly over the 8 weeks. The 8-week test did not demonstrate an increase in fasting plasma uric acid in response to the daily intake of D-tagatose. However, a transient increase of plasma uric acid levels was observed after single doses of 75 g of D-tagatose in the tolerance test. Plasma uric acid levels were found to rise and peak at 60 min after such dosing. No clinical relevance was attributed to this treatment-related effect because excursions of plasma uric acid levels above the normal

  6. Effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness and self-assessment of the quality of health of women of the perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health. Material and methods Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions. Results A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001). Conclusions A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health. PMID:26327897

  7. Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270

  8. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Raltegravir Pediatric Formulations in HIV-infected Children 4 weeks to 18 years of age†

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Matthew L.; Du, Lihong; Bennetto-Hood, Chantelle; Wenning, Larissa; Teppler, Hedy; Homony, Brenda; Graham, Bobbie; Fry, Carrie; Nachman, Sharon; Wiznia, Andrew; Worrell, Carol; Smith, Betsy; Acosta, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    P1066 is an open-label study of raltegravir in HIV+ youth, ages 4 weeks-18 years. Here we summarize P1066 pharmacokinetic (PK) data and a population PK model for the pediatric chewable tablet and oral granules. Raltegravir PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. A two-compartment model was developed using data from P1066 and an adult study of the pediatric formulations. Inter-individual variability was described by an exponential error model, and residual variability was captured by an additive/proportional error model. Twelve-hour concentrations (C12hr) were calculated from the model-derived elimination rate constant and 8-hour observed concentration. Simulated steady-state concentrations were analyzed by non-compartmental analysis. Target area-under-the-curve (AUC0-12hr) and C12hr were achieved in each cohort. For the pediatric formulations, geometric mean AUC0-12hr values were 18.0–22.6 μM*hr across cohorts, and C12hr values were 71–130 nM, with lower coefficients of variation vs the film-coated tablet. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described raltegravir plasma PK in pediatric and adult patients. Weight was a covariate on clearance and central volume, and incorporated using allometric scaling. Raltegravir chewable tablets and oral granules exhibited PK parameters consistent with those from prior adult studies and older children in P1066, as well as lower variability than the film-coated tablet. PMID:25753401

  9. Enterococcus faecium Mediastinitis Complicated by Disseminated Candida parapsilosis Infection after Congenital Heart Surgery in a 4-Week-Old Baby

    PubMed Central

    Renk, Hanna; Neunhoeffer, Felix; Hölzl, Florian; Hofbeck, Michael; Kumpf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiac surgery offers multiple treatment options for children with congenital heart defects. However, infectious complications still remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Mediastinitis is a detrimental complication in children undergoing cardiac surgery. The risk of mediastinitis after delayed sternal closure is up to 10%. Case Presentation. We report a case of Enterococcus faecium mediastinitis in a 4-week-old female baby on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after Norwood procedure. Although repeated antibiotic irrigation, debridement, and aggressive antibiotic treatment were started early, the pulmonary situation deteriorated. Candida parapsilosis was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage after pulmonary hemorrhage. Disseminated C. parapsilosis infection with pulmonary involvement was treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Subsequently, inflammatory markers increased again and eventually C. parapsilosis was isolated from the central venous catheter. Conclusion. Children undergoing delayed sternal closure have a higher risk of mediastinitis. Therefore, antibiotic prophylaxis, for example, for soft tissue infection seems justified. However, long-term antibiotic treatment is a risk factor for fungal superinfection. Antifungal treatment of disseminated C. parapsilosis infection may fail in PICU patients with nonbiological material in place due to capacity of this species to form biofilms on medical devices. Immediate removal of central venous catheters and other nonbiological material is life-saving in these patients. PMID:26605096

  10. Additional notes on clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials applying a peak-and-trough sampling design to estimate oral clearance.

    PubMed

    Takaai, Mari; Kayano, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Takako; Taguchi, Masato; Hashimoto, Yukiya

    2008-01-01

    In the previous study, we performed a simulation of a clinical pharmacokinetic trial, in which blood was sampled at two time points corresponding to the peak concentration (C(peak)) and trough concentration (C(trough)) following repetitive oral administration at the dose, D, and dosing interval, tau. The approximate oral clearance (CL/F(approx)), estimated as 2 x D/(C(peak) x tau+C(trough) x tau), is accurate for drugs with an elimination half-life comparative to or longer than tau; however, it was suggested that we might not use CL/F(approx) for drugs with a considerably short elimination half-life relative to tau. In the present study, we evaluated the accuracy of the alternative oral clearance (CL/F(exp)) estimated by the simple monoexponential model. In contrast to CL/F(approx), CL/F(exp) was accurate for drugs with a short elimination half-life relative to tau. The present finding in conjunction with our previous study suggested that the peak-and-trough sampling design is promising for the clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trial for drugs with not only slow but also rapid elimination from the body. We think that the accuracy and precision of the two analysis methods to estimate oral clearance (CL/F(approx) and CL/F(exp)) for a target drug should be evaluated carefully before and after a real clinical trial.

  11. Correlation among the toxicity profiling (28-days repeated oral dose toxicity), toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin, the active metabolite of prulifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Utpal; Roy, Bikash; Das, Anjan Kumar; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-09-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate correlation among 28-days repeated oral dose toxicity, toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin (active metabolite of prulifloxacin) in Wistar albino rats. Prulifloxacin was administered for 28-days in rats at 0, 100, 200, 400mg/kg/day followed by 14-days recovery period. Simultaneously different toxicokinetic parameters and tissue distributions of ulifloxacin was examined by LC-MS/MS method. Plasma levels and tissue concentrations of ulifloxacin were increased with dose-related manner. Ulifloxacin was also distributed to many tissues, and concentration in lungs nearly equivalent to the plasma concentration. Based on these results it was concluded that long-term repeated dose of prulifloxacin may produce different blood parameters abnormality, liver damage, stomach ulcer, joint damage and dysfunction of lungs in rats which relates to high tissue distribution and accumulation of ulifloxacin in these tissues. These findings help in management of prulifloxacin induced adverse effects by appropriate dose selection in clinical practice.

  12. Cholesterol reduction and lack of genotoxic or toxic effects in mice after repeated 21-day oral intake of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Celso A R A; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Takahira, Regina K; Salvadori, Daisy M F; Barbisan, Luís F; Costa, Mirtes

    2011-09-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) is currently used in traditional folk medicine. Although this species presents widespread use, there are no scientific data on its efficacy or safety after repeated treatments. Therefore, this work investigated the toxicity and genotoxicity of this lemongrass's essential oil (EO) in male Swiss mice. The single LD(50) based on a 24h acute oral toxicity study was found to be around 3500 mg/kg. In a repeated-dose 21-day oral toxicity study, mice were randomly assigned to two control groups, saline- or Tween 80 0.01%-treated groups, or one of the three experimental groups receiving lemongrass EO (1, 10 or 100mg/kg). No significant changes in gross pathology, body weight, absolute or relative organ weights, histology (brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, stomach, spleen and urinary bladder), urinalysis or clinical biochemistry were observed in EO-treated mice relative to the control groups. Additionally, blood cholesterol was reduced after EO-treatment at the highest dose tested. Similarly, data from the comet assay in peripheral blood cells showed no genotoxic effect from the EO. In conclusion, our findings verified the safety of lemongrass intake at the doses used in folk medicine and indicated the beneficial effect of reducing the blood cholesterol level.

  13. Repeated vaginal SHIV challenges in macaques receiving oral or topical Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis induce virus-specific T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsegaye, Theodros Solomon; Butler, Katherine; Luo, Wei; Radzio, Jessica; Srinivasan, Priya; Sharma, Sunita; Aubert, Rachael D.; Hanson, Debra L.; Dobard, Charles; Garcia-Lerma, J. Gerardo; Heneine, Walid; McNicholl, Janet M.; Kersh, Ellen N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is a novel biomedical prevention method. We have previously modeled PrEP during rectal SHIV exposures in macaques and identified that SHIV-specific T cell responses were induced in the presence of antiretroviral drugs, an observation previously termed T cell chemo-vaccination. This report expands those initial findings by examining a larger group of macaques that were given oral or topical PrEP during repeated vaginal virus exposure. Methods Thirty-six female pigtail macaques received up to 20 repeat low-dose vaginal inoculations with wild type (WT) SHIVSF162P3 (n=24) or a clonal derivative with the tenofovir K65R drug resistant mutation (n=12). PrEP consisted of oral Truvada (n=6, WT), tenofovir vaginal gel (n=6, K65R), or tenofovir intra-vaginal ring (n=6, WT). The remaining animals were PrEP-inexperienced controls (n=12, WT; n=6, K65R). SHIV-specific T cells were identified and characterized using IFNγ ELISPOT and multi-parameter flow cytometry. Results Of nine animals that were on PrEP and remained uninfected during WT SHIV vaginal challenges, eight (88.9%) developed virus-specific T cell responses. T cells were in CD4 and CD8 compartments, reached up to 4,900 IFNγ producing cells per million PBMCs, and primarily pol directed. In contrast, the replication impaired K65R virus did not induce detectable T cell responses, likely reflecting the need for adequate replication. Conclusion Virus-specific T cell responses occur frequently in oral or topical PrEP-protected pigtail macaques after vaginal exposure to WT SHIV virus. The contribution of such immune responses to protection from infection during and following PrEP warrants further investigation. PMID:25886925

  14. Accumulation and effects of nodularin from a single and repeated oral doses of cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena on flounder (Platichthys flesus L.).

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Pekka J; Sipiä, Vesa O; Karlsson, Krister; Keinänen, Marja; Furey, Ambrose; Allis, Orla; James, Kevin; Perttilä, Ulla; Rimaila-Pärnänen, Eija; Meriluoto, Jussi A O

    2009-07-01

    Nodularin (NODLN) is a cyclic pentapeptide hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, which occurs regularly in the Baltic Sea during the summer season. In this study flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) was orally exposed to NODLN either as a single dose or as three repeated doses 3 days apart. Liver and bile samples of the fish were taken 4 days after the last dose. Liver glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was also measured and the histopathology of the liver was investigated. The liver of the exposed fish was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for NODLN concentration. The content of NODLN-like compounds in the bile was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NODLN exposure caused slightly incoherent liver architecture and degenerative cell changes in both groups. The mean liver GST activity was significantly higher in the repeatedly dosed flounders than in the singly dosed flounders or in the control. In conclusion, the significantly lower NODLN concentration and the increased GST activity in the liver of the repeatedly dosed flounders compared to the singly dosed flounders suggest that NODLN is rapidly detoxificated. The absence of NODLN glutathione conjugates and the low concentrations of NODLN-like compounds in the bile indicate that detoxification products disintegrate or they are rapidly excreted.

  15. Breastmilk Production in the First 4 Weeks after Birth of Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Jacqueline C.; Gardner, Hazel; Geddes, Donna T.

    2016-01-01

    Breastmilk provides the ideal nutrition for the infant, and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months. Adequate milk production by the mother is therefore critical, and early milk production has been shown to significantly affect milk production during established lactation. Previous studies indicate that milk production should reach the lower limit of normal for established lactation (440 mL per day) by day 11 after birth. We have used test-weighing of term infants before and after each breastfeed over 24 h to measure milk production in the first 4 weeks of lactation in mothers with and without perceived breastfeeding problems to provide information on how often milk production is inadequate. Between days 11 and 13, two-thirds of the mothers had a milk production of less than 440 mL per day, and between days 14 and 28, nearly one-third of the mothers had a milk production of less than 440 mL per day. The high frequency of inadequate milk production in early lactation and the consequence of suboptimal milk production in later lactation if left untreated suggest that objective measurement of milk production can identify mothers and infants at risk and support early intervention by a lactation specialist. PMID:27897979

  16. Impact of Immune Deficiency on Remodeling of Maternal Resistance Vasculature 4 Weeks Postpartum in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Elizabeth A; Howard, Ann; Krebs, Kendall; Begin, Kelly; Veilleux, Kelsey; Gokina, Natalia I

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy manifests changes in the vascular and immune systems that persist postpartum (PP), have important implications for future pregnancies, and may modify responses to cardiovascular stress in late life. The association between immune and vascular function and the generation or progression of cardiovascular disease beg the question of whether altered immunity modifies pregnancy-induced changes in the vasculature. Our objective was to compare changes in the function and remodeling of systemic resistance vessels 4 weeks PP in normal C57BL/6 (B6), and immunodeficient mice recombinase 1-deficient/B6 ( Rag1(-/-)). Immune deficiency did not change the responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) and phenylephrine at baseline but decreased arterial distensibility and increased stiffness PP. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells into Rag1(-/-) mice decreased the response to ACh while increasing distensibility and wall thickness. When compared to PP Rag1(-/-), vessels from PP CD4-deficient mice, which have B cells and CD8 T cells, but no CD4 cells, show increased distensibility and decreased responsiveness to ACh in a pattern similar to that seen in Rag1(-/-) given CD8 T cells prior to mating. These studies suggest a key role for T cell, particularly CD8 T cell, associated factors in the PP remodeling of maternal resistance vessels.

  17. Short-term repeated-dose toxicity profile of archaeosomes administered to mice via intravenous and oral routes.

    PubMed

    Omri, Abdelwahab; Agnew, Brian J; Patel, Girishchandra B

    2003-01-01

    Archaeosomes, liposomes made from polar ether lipids of archaea, show promise for vaccine and drug delivery applications. The potential toxicity of intravenously (14, 70, or 140 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days) and orally (gavaged at 55, 275, or 550 mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days) administered unilamellar archaeosomes, prepared from the total polar lipids (TPLs) extracted from several species of archaea, was assessed in female BALB/c mice. Liposomes prepared from an ester phospholipid composition were included for comparative purposes. Control groups of mice were administered 0.1 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by either route. Animals were monitored at least once daily for temperature, body weight, and clinical signs of adverse reactions. One day after the last dose, the mice were sacrificed. Blood was collected for selected biochemical/enzyme analyses, and the major organs (heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys) were weighed and examined macroscopically. In addition, the spleens were examined histologically. At the two lower dosages of intravenously administered vesicles, there were no significant indications of toxicity, as compared with the PBS-administered control group. At the highest intravenous dose of 140 mg/kg/day, archaeosomes prepared from the TPL of the extreme halophiles, Halobacterium salinarum and Natronobacterium magadii, indicated potential toxicity, as evidenced by clinical signs (hyperactivity and/or piloerection), drop in body temperature, and loss in body weight. Spleens from mice administered some archaeosomes types, primarily at the highest intravenous dose tested, were enlarged, had increased organ weight, and microscopic examination revealed mild to moderate expansion of the red pulp with increased numbers of hematopoietic cells, but no changes in the white pulp. There were similar clinical signs at one or more of the higher oral doses of the ester liposomes and some of the archaeosome types; however, no other apparent toxicity was

  18. 28-day repeated dose oral toxicity of human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase from recombinant Pichia pastori in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Tian, Ying-Juan; Zhu, Si-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase from recombinant Pichia pastori (RH-Cu/Zn-SOD) was orally administered, via gavage, to Sprague-Dawley rats at 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. During the 28-day period, animals were examined for evidence of toxicity; there were no deaths, and in-life physical signs were normal. On day 29, the animals were exsanguinated, examined for gross pathology, and tissues were preserved for histopathology. Although statistical differences were noted in some hematology and clinical chemistry, they were of questionable biological significance. The results of the 28-day oral administration demonstrated a lack of toxicity of RH-Cu/Zn-SOD in rats. There were no treatment-related, toxicologically relevant changes in clinical signs, growth, food consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, or pathology. The no observed adverse effect level was greater than 2,000 mg/kg/day for RH-Cu/Zn-SOD in rats.

  19. Effect of 4-week inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane on blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fen; Ichihara, Sahoko; Yamada, Yuki; Banu, Shameema; Ichihara, Gaku

    2017-03-01

    The pathophysiology of hypertension is complex and multifactorial, and includes exposure to various chemical substances. Several recent studies have documented the reproductive and neurological toxicities of 1-bromopropane (1-BP). Given that 1-BP increased reactive oxygen species in the brain of rats, we hypothesized that 1-BP also has cardiovascular toxicity through increased oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, male F344 and Wistar Nagoya rats (n = 7-8 per group per test) were exposed to 0 or 1000 ppm of 1-BP via inhalation for 4 weeks (8 h per day, 7 days per week). The exposure to 1-BP increased systolic blood pressure. This effect was associated with a significant decrease in the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio. A significant increase in nitrotyrosine levels, activation of the NADPH oxidase pathway, which was evidenced by upregulation of gp91phox, a NADPH oxidase subunit, and significant decreases in the expressions of antioxidant molecules such as Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase catalase, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, were observed in the aortas of Wistar Nagoya rats exposed to 1-BP. Our results indicate that subacute (4-week) inhalation exposure to 1-BP increases blood pressure and suggest that this cardiovascular toxic effect is due, at least in part, to increased oxidative stress mediated through activation of the NADPH oxidase pathway. Further study is needed to assess whether NADPH oxidase activation causes the increase in blood pressure in the rats exposed to 1-BP. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. [Effect of 4 weeks of training on the limit time at VO2 max].

    PubMed

    Heubert, Richard; Bocquet, Valéry; Koralsztein, Jean Pierre; Billat, Véronique

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 4 weeks training in running on the time spent at VO2max (tlim VO2max). Eight athletes carried out, before and after an aerobic training, an incremental and five exhaustive tests at 90, 95, 100, 115% vVO2max and at the critical power at VO2max (CV'; slope of the linear relation between the tlim VO2max and the distance limit at VO2max). This training did not significantly improve VO2max (p = 0.17) or tlim VO2max (p = 0.72). However, the "tlim VO2max-intensity" curve was shifted toward the right, meaning that the athlete had to run at a higher intensity after training to obtain the same tlim VO2max. Tlim VO2max at CV' before training was significantly higher than tlim VO2max at 90, 95, 100, and 115% vVO2max (p < 0.05). This training increased CV' in absolute value (13.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 14.9 +/- 1.2 km.h-1, p < 0.05; n = 6) but not in relative value (86 +/- 4 vs. 86 +/- 5% vVO2max; p = 0.9). In conclusion, in spite of the shift of the "tlim VO2max-intensity" curve, tlim VO2max was not significantly increased by this training. Furthermore, CV' allowed subjects to spend the longest time of exercise at VO2max during a continuous exercise with constant speed, but CV', expressed in % vVO2max, did not improve with this training.

  1. A repeated 28-day oral dose toxicity study of nonylphenol in rats, based on the 'Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407' for screening of endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Shibutani, Makoto; Ichiki, Tsutomu; Hamamura, Masao; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Inoue, Kaoru; Hirose, Masao

    2007-02-01

    A 28-day repeated oral dose toxicity study of nonylphenol (NP) was performed for an international validation of the 'Enhanced OECD Test Guideline 407' paying particular attention to the sensitivity of individual endocrine-related parameters. Sprague-Dawley rats, each group consisting of ten males and ten females, were administered NP once daily by gavage at doses of 0 (control), 10, 50, or 250 mg/kg body weight. At 250 mg/kg, three females died or became moribund during the experiment. At this dose, hepatic and renal toxicity was evident in both sexes with increase of relative liver and kidney weights as well as histopathological changes, such as centrilobular liver cell hypertrophy and a variety of renal tubular lesions, and alteration of serum biochemical parameters, some of them being evident from 50 mg/kg in females (glucose and inorganic phosphates). Hematologically, development of anemia was evident at 250 mg/kg in both sexes. Regarding endocrine-related effects, increase of thyroid weight in males was detected from 50 mg/kg. At 250 mg/kg, males exhibited reduction of relative weights of the ventral prostate and seminal vesicles, and females developed irregular estrous cyclicity and vaginal mucosal hyperplasia. Although changes in serum hormone levels were detected in both sexes, magnitude of the changes was small to be regarded as a low toxicological significance. In summary, repeated oral doses of NP to rats for 28 days resulted in hepato-renal toxicity from 50 mg/kg and anemia at 250 mg/kg. Effects on the endocrine system were observed from 50 mg/kg, and assessment of weights and histopathology of endocrine-related organs and estrous cyclicity may be valid in a battery for detecting endocrine effects of NP. The no-observed-adverse-effect level of NP was estimated to be 10 mg/kg per day.

  2. Corn rootworm-active RNA DvSnf7: Repeat dose oral toxicology assessment in support of human and mammalian safety.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jay S; Frierdich, Gregory E; Carleton, Stephanie M; Kessenich, Colton R; Silvanovich, Andre; Zhang, Yuanji; Koch, Michael S

    2016-11-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been developed and commercialized that utilize double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) to suppress a target gene(s), producing virus resistance, nutritional and quality traits. MON 87411 is a GM maize variety that leverages dsRNAs to selectively control corn rootworm through production of a 240 base pair (bp) dsRNA fragment targeting for suppression the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Snf7 gene (DvSnf7). A bioinformatics assessment found that endogenous corn small RNAs matched ∼450 to 2300 unique RNA transcripts that likely code for proteins in rat, mouse, and human, demonstrating safe dsRNA consumption by mammals. Mice were administered DvSnf7 RNA (968 nucleotides, including the 240 bp DvSnf7 dsRNA) at 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg by oral gavage in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study. No treatment-related effects were observed in body weights, food consumption, clinical observations, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology endpoints. Therefore, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for DvSnf7 RNA was 100 mg/kg, the highest dose tested. These results demonstrate that dsRNA for insect control does not produce adverse health effects in mammals at oral doses millions to billions of times higher than anticipated human exposures and therefore poses negligible risk to mammals.

  3. A Bayesian hierarchical model for multi-level repeated ordinal data: analysis of oral practice examinations in a large anaesthesiology training programme.

    PubMed

    Tan, M; Qu, Y; Mascha, E; Schubert, A

    1999-08-15

    Oral practice examinations (OPEs) are used in many anaesthesiology programmes to familiarize anaesthesiology residents with the format of the oral examination administered by the American Board of Anesthesiology. The OPE outcome (final grade) consists of 'Definite Not Pass', 'Probable Not Pass', 'Probable Pass' and 'Definite Pass'. In our study to assess the validity of the OPE, residents took an average of two (ranging from one to six) OPEs, each of which was evaluated by two board certified anaesthesiologists randomly selected from a pool of 12. A key question of interest was to identify factors, for example, the length of training, didactic experience and other characteristics, that most influence OPE outcome. In addition, we were interested in assessing the reliability of the final grade, that is, the covariance parameters are of interest as well. However, estimating variance components in multi-level data with an unequal number of repeated ordinal outcomes presents several statistical challenges, such as how to estimate high dimensional random effects parameters, especially for ordinal outcomes. We propose a Bayesian hierarchical proportional odds model for data with such complexity. The flexibility of such a model allows us to make inference on the association of OPE outcomes with other factors and to estimate the variance components as well.

  4. Estimation of acute oral toxicity using the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) from the 28 day repeated dose toxicity studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulgheroni, Anna; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-02-01

    Acute systemic toxicity is one of the areas of particular concern due to the 2009 deadline set by the 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (76/768/EEC), which introduces a testing and marketing ban of cosmetic products with ingredients tested on animals. The scientific community is putting considerable effort into developing and validating non-animal alternatives in this area. However, it is unlikely that validated and regulatory accepted alternative methods and/or strategies will be available in March 2009. Following the initiatives undertaken in the pharmaceutical industry to waive the acute oral toxicity testing before going to clinical studies by using information from other in vivo studies, we proposed an approach to identify non-toxic compounds (LD50>2000mg/kg) using information from 28 days repeated dose toxicity studies. Taking into account the high prevalence of non-toxic substances (87%) in the New Chemicals Database, it was possible to set a NOAEL threshold of 200mg/kg that allowed the correct identification of 63% of non-toxic compounds, while <1% of harmful compounds were misclassified as non-toxic. Since repeated dose toxicity studies can be performed in vivo until 2013, the proposed approach could have an immediate impact for the testing of cosmetic ingredients.

  5. Tissue localization, shedding, virus carriage, antibody response, and aerosol transmission of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus following inoculation of 4-week-old feeder pigs.

    PubMed

    Niederwerder, Megan C; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Bai, Jianfa; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Breazeale, Barbara; Anderson, Joe; Kerrigan, Maureen A; An, Baoyan; Oberst, Richard D; Crawford, Kimberly; Lager, Kelly M; Madson, Darin M; Rowland, Raymond R R; Anderson, Gary A; Hesse, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    We determined tissue localization, shedding patterns, virus carriage, antibody response, and aerosol transmission of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) following inoculation of 4-week-old feeder pigs. Thirty-three pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups for the 42-day study: inoculated (group A; n = 23), contact transmission (group B; n = 5), and aerosol transmission (group C; n = 5). Contact transmission occurred rapidly to group B pigs whereas productive aerosol transmission failed to occur to group C pigs. Emesis was the first clinical sign noted at 3 days postinoculation (dpi) followed by mild to moderate diarrhea lasting 5 more days. Real-time PCR detected PEDV in fecal and nasal swabs, oral fluids, serum, and gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues. Shedding occurred primarily during the first 2 weeks postinoculation, peaking at 5-6 dpi; however, some pigs had PEDV nucleic acid detected in swabs collected at 21 and 28 dpi. Antibody titers were measurable between 14 and 42 dpi. Although feces and intestines collected at 42 dpi were PEDV negative by PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, small intestines from 70% of group A pigs were PCR positive. Although disease was relatively mild and transient in this age group, the results demonstrate that 4-week-old pigs are productively infected and can sustain virus replication for several weeks. Long-term shedding of PEDV in subclinically affected pigs should be considered an important source for PEDV transmission.

  6. Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe; Weitz, Karl K.; Wu, Hong; Gies, Richard A.; Moore, Dean A.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2006-05-01

    Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or {approx}1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and ?-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anethetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to PB-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r2=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24 hr post-dosing and a decrease in ?-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These

  7. Repeated Acute Oral Exposure to Cannabis sativa Impaired Neurocognitive Behaviours and Cortico-hippocampal Architectonics in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Imam, A; Ajao, M S; Akinola, O B; Ajibola, M I; Ibrahim, A; Amin, A; Abdulmajeed, W I; Lawal, Z A; Ali-Oluwafuyi, A

    2017-03-06

    The most abused illicit drug in both the developing and the developed world is Cannabis disposing users to varying forms of personality disorders. However, the effects of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal architecture and cognitive behaviours still remain elusive.  The present study investigated the neuro-cognitive implications of oral cannabis use in rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomly grouped to three. Saline was administered to the control rats, cannabis (20 mg/kg) to the experimental group I, while Scopolamine (1 mg/kg. ip) was administered to the last group as a standard measure for the cannabis induced cognitive impairment. All treatments lasted for seven consecutive days. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to assess locomotor activities, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behaviour, and Y maze paradigm for spatial memory and data subjected to ANOVA and T test respectively. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and brains removed for histopathological studies. Cannabis significantly reduced rearing frequencies in the OFT and EPM, and increased freezing period in the OFT. It also reduced percentage alternation similar to scopolamine in the Y maze, and these effects were coupled with alterations in the cortico-hippocampal neuronal architectures. These results point to the detrimental impacts of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal neuronal architecture and morphology, and consequently cognitive deficits.

  8. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-04-10

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  9. Modularity of the Oral Jaws Is Linked to Repeated Changes in the Craniofacial Shape of African Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Kevin J.; Cooper, W. James; Albertson, R. Craig

    2011-01-01

    The African cichlids of the East-African rift-lakes provide one of the most dramatic examples of adaptive radiation known. It has long been thought that functional decoupling of the oral and pharyngeal jaws in cichlids has facilitated their explosive evolution. Recent research has also shown that craniofacial evolution from radiations in lakes Victoria, Malawi, and Tanganyika has occurred along a shared primary axis of shape divergence, whereby the preorbital region of the skull changes in a manner that is, relatively independent from other head regions. We predicted that the preorbital region would comprise a variational module and used an extensive dataset from each lake that allowed us to test this prediction using a model selection approach. Our findings supported the presence of a preorbital module across all lakes, within each lake, and for Malawi, within sand and rock-dwelling clades. However, while a preorbital module was consistently present, notable differences were also observed among groups. Of particular interest, a negative association between patterns of variational modularity was observed between the sand and rock-dwelling clades, a patter consistent with character displacement. These findings provide the basis for further experimental research involving the determination of the developmental and genetic bases of these patterns of modularity. PMID:21716745

  10. Behavioral toxicity and physiological changes from repeated exposure to fluorene administered orally or intraperitoneally to adult male Wistar rats: A dose-response study.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Julie; Grova, Nathalie; Hidalgo, Sophie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Rychen, Guido; Bisson, Jean-François; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schroeder, Henri

    2016-03-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment by reason of its high volatility. Demonstrated to be a neurotoxicant through inhalation, it was also identified as a contributive PAH to food contamination. Since no data are available on its oral neurotoxicity, the purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral and physiological toxicity of repeated oral administration of fluorene to adult Wistar male rats. Animals were daily treated with fluorene at 1, 10 or 100mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. Administration was intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) to evaluate the influence of the route of exposure on fluorene toxicity. Following this period of treatment, animals in both groups were subjected to similar cognitive evaluations, namely anxiety (elevated-plus maze), locomotor activity (open-field) and learning and memory abilities (eight-arm maze and avoidance test of an aversive light stimulus), as well as physiological measurements. The behavioral testing occurred from the 28th to the 60th day of the experiment during which fluorene treatment continued uninterrupted. At the end of this period, the concentration levels of fluorene and of three of its monohydroxylated metabolites in blood and brain were determined using a GC-MS/MS method. The results demonstrated a reduction in rat anxiety level at the lowest doses administered (1 and 10mg/kg/day) regardless of the treatment route, whereas locomotor activity and learning abilities remained unchanged. Moreover, a less significant weight gain was noticed in animals i.p.- and p.o.-treated with 100mg/kg/day during the 28-day period of treatment, which, upon comparison with the three other groups, induced a body weight gap that was maintained throughout the experiment. Significant increases in relative liver weight were also observed in a dose-dependent manner in orally treated rats and only in animal treated i.p. with 100mg/kg/day. According to the dose, higher

  11. Integrating Computer Assisted Language Learning into Out-of-Class Extended Learning: The Impact of iPod Touch-Supported Repeated Reading on the Oral Reading Fluency of English for Specific Academic Purposes Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadima-Sophocleous, Salomi

    2015-01-01

    By using the formative experiment, this study investigated how an instructional intervention, consisting of a Repeated Reading (RR) technique and an iPod Touch, helped achieve a valued pedagogical goal, that of enhancing the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) of sixteen English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) first-year university students. Students…

  12. Adaptation to a long term (4 weeks) arginine- and precursor (glutamate, proline and aspartate)-free diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is not known whether arginine homeostasis is negatively affected by a "long-term" dietary restriction of arginine and its major precursors in healthy adults. To assess the effects of a 4-week arginine- and precursor-free dietary intake on the regulatory mechanisms of arginine homeostasis in healt...

  13. The efficacy of oral ivermectin vs. sulfur 10% ointment for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Human; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Human scabies is caused by an infection of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). There are different medications for the treatment of scabies. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin vs. sulfur 10% ointment for the treatment of scabies. In total, 420 patients with scabies were enrolled, and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 μg/kg body weight, and the second group received sulfur 10% ointment and were told to apply this for three successive days. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 61.9% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 78.5% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with single applications of sulfur 10% ointment was effective in 45.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 59.5% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as single applications of sulfur 10% ointment at the 2-week follow-up. After repeating the treatment, ivermectin was superior to sulfur 10% ointment at the 4-week follow up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against all the stages in the life cycle of the parasite. .

  14. Clinical efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of uncomplicated scabies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2016-01-01

    Many medications are available for scabies treatment including oral and topical ivermectin. However, studies comparing these two forms as a scabies treatment are few. This study compares efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin as scabies treatment. The study included 62 confirmed uncomplicated scabies patients, divided into: Group I (32 patients, received topical ivermectin) and Group II (30 patients, received oral ivermectin). Patients were assessed, clinically and by KOH smear at 1, 2 and 4 weeks. Treatment was repeated after one week in patients with persistent infection. Adverse events were recorded. Most patients (87.5% and 73.5% in group I and group II respectively) were symptom free after a single treatment. A second treatment was required in 4 patients of group I and 8 patients of group II. However, 2 weeks after treatment symptoms and signs completely resolved in all cases with no recurrence at 4 weeks. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin are safe and equally effective in treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Single treatment, whether topical or oral, is associated with high cure rate in a week post treatment. However, repeating treatment after one week may be required to achieve 100% cure.

  15. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    PubMed

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

  16. 14C-NaVP and 14C-PEV repeated dose study in rat. Pharmacokinetic study in rats after repeated oral administrations of 14C-valproic acid sodium salt and 14C-valproic acid pivaloyl oxymethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Bertolino, M; Acerbi, D; Canali, S; Giachetti, C; Poli, G; Ventura, P; Zanolo, G

    1998-01-01

    The absorption, excretion and tissue distribution of radioactivity after repeated oral equimolar doses of 14C-valproic acid sodium salt (NaVP) or 14C-valproic acid pivaloyl oxymethyl ester (PEV) was investigated in male rats treated once a day for 14 consecutive days. The 14th day plasma time-course of radioactivity after PEV administrations was characterised by a slow absorption rate with a delayed peak (tmax 2 h, Cmax 7.52 +/- 1.35 microg eq./ml), followed by a plateau lasting up to 8 h. After NaVP treatment, the main peak of radioactivity was observed 0.5 h after administration (Cmax 8.30 +/- 1.26 microg eq./ml) followed by a secondary peak due to biliary enterohepatic recycling. Starting from 4 h onwards, radioactivity levels after PEV treatment were higher than those after NaVP (AUCtau = 113.3 h.microg eq./ml after PEV vs 71.9 h.microg eq./ml after NaVP), but concentrations declined with similar terminal half-lives (52.8 h for PEV and 49.7 h for NaVP). Radioactivity recovered (0-432 h interval) in urine accounted for 79.3% (PEV) and 56.1% (NaVP) while, in faeces accounted for 9.1% (PEV) and 26.1% (NaVP) of total administered dose (14 days). The difference is attributable to a higher excretion of radioactivity in the bile for NaVP. The missing fraction in the total radioactivity balance is probably excreted in expired air, as observed in single dose studies. Radioactivity excreted in bile (0-8 h interval of the last 14th day) accounted for 5.1% (NaVP) and 0.23% (PEV) of the total administered dose (14 days). A possible explanation of this difference may be a different metabolism pattern for the two compounds. The negligible biliary excretion observed after PEV administration is probably due to an inhibition of the glucuronation of valproic acid (or other metabolites) caused by the pivalic acid. Due to the presence of the enterohepatic recycle, the radioactivity levels in intestine, 0.5 and 2 h after administration, were higher after NaVP administration

  17. Effect of a 4-week weight maintenance diet on circulating hormone levels: implications for clinical weight loss trials.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, A; Evans, I R; Wood, R E; Seimon, R V; King, N A; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M

    2015-04-01

    The majority of weight loss studies fail to standardize conditions such as diet and exercise via a weight maintenance period prior to commencement of the trial. This study aimed to determine whether a weight stabilization period is necessary to establish stable baseline hormone concentrations. Fifty-one obese male participants with a body mass index of 30-40 kg m(-2) and aged 25-54 years underwent 4 weeks on an energy balance diet that was designed to achieve weight stability. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state at commencement and completion of the 4-week period, and circulating concentrations of 18 commonly measured hormones were determined. During the 4-week weight maintenance period, participants achieved weight stability within -1.5 ± 0.2 kg (-1.4 ± 0.2%) of their initial body weight. Significant reductions in serum insulin (by 18 ± 6.5%) and leptin (by 21 ± 6.0%) levels occurred, but no significant changes were observed for gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones. There were no significant correlations between the change in body weight and the change in circulating concentrations of insulin or leptin over the 4-week period, indicating that the observed changes were not due to weight loss, albeit significant negative correlations were observed between the changes in body weight and plasma ghrelin and peptide YY levels. This study demonstrates the need for baseline weight maintenance periods to stabilize serum levels of insulin and leptin in studies specifically investigating effects on these parameters in the obese. However, this does not apply to circulating levels of gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones.

  18. Osteocyte density in the peri-implant bone of implants retrieved after different time periods (4 weeks to 27 years).

    PubMed

    Piattelli, Adriano; Artese, Luciano; Penitente, Enrico; Iaculli, Flavia; Degidi, Marco; Mangano, Carlo; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Coelho, Paulo G; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2014-02-01

    Bone tissue is characterized by a constant turnover in response to mechanical stimuli, and osteocytes play an essential role in bone mechanical adaptation. However, little to no information has been published regarding osteocyte density as a function of implantation time in vivo. The aim of this retrospective histological study was to evaluate the osteocyte density of the peri-implant bone in implants retrieved because of different reasons in a time period from 4 weeks to 27 years. A total of 18 samples were included in the present study. Specimens were divided into 3 groups depending on the loading history of the implants: loading between 4 weeks and 7 months (group 1); loading between 1 and 5 years (group 2); loading between 14 and 27 years (group 3). All the samples were histologically evaluated and osteocyte density was obtained using the ratio of the number of osteocytes to the bone-area (mm(2) ). The osteocyte density values significantly increased in the Group 2 (1-5 years) compared with Group 1 (4 weeks-7 months), and significantly decreased in the Group 3 (14-27 years) compared to Group 2. No significant differences were detected between Group 1 and Group 3. The decrease in osteocyte density observed in samples that were in vivo for long periods of time under loading is possibly because of the fact that once the bone structure is well aligned and biomechanically competent, a lower number of osteocytes are necessary to keep the tissue homeostasis under loading.

  19. Liver and kidney damage induced by 4-aminopyridine in a repeated dose (28 days) oral toxicity study in rats: gene expression profile of hybrid cell death.

    PubMed

    Frejo, María Teresa; Del Pino, Javier; Lobo, Margarita; García, Jimena; Capo, Miguel Andrés; Díaz, María Jesús

    2014-03-03

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is an orphan drug indicated for the treatment of neuromuscular disorders. There is a great controversy around the use of this drug because of its narrow safety index and because a large number of adverse effects have been reported. Moreover, it was shown to induce cell death in different cell lines, being reported mainly apoptosis and necrosis as the principal pathways of cell death mediated by blockage of K channels or the Na, K-ATPase, but until now it was not described in vivo cell death induced by 4-aminipyridine. To provide new subchronic toxicity data and specifically, evaluate if 4-AP is able to induce in vivo cell death process and the main pathways related to it, a repeated dose (28 days) oral toxicity study, at therapeutic range of doses, was conducted in rats. The anatomical pathology, the biochemical and hematological parameters were analyzed and a real-time PCR array analysis was developed with an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The leucocytes number, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymatic activity were increased at all dose but the erythrocytes number, the hemoglobin concentration, the alkaline phosphatase (FAL) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymatic activity were increased only at highest dose studied. However, glucose levels decreased at all doses. The biochemical results are indicative of hepatic damage. The anatomy pathology studies showed cell death only on liver and kidney, and the real-time PCR array on liver tissue expressed a gene expression profile of necrotic and apoptotic induced cell death. The present work shows for the first time in vivo cell death on liver and kidney with features of apoptosis and necrosis induced by 4-AP and the gene expression profile shows that the cell death is mediated by necrotic and apoptotic pathways that support this finding.

  20. Comparing the efficacy of oral ivermectin vs malathion 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies.

    PubMed

    Goldust, Mohamad; Rezaee, Elham; Raghifar, Ramin; Hemayat, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is found worldwide among people of all groups and ages. It is curable with scabicide medications. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of oral ivermectin vs malathion 0.5% lotion for the treatment of scabies. In total, 148 patients with scabies were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the first group received a single dose of oral ivermectin 200 sg/kg body weight, and the second was treated with two applications of topical lindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between applications. Treatment was evaluated at intervals of 2 and 4 weeks, and if there was treatment failure at the 2-week follow-up, treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin provided a cure rate of 60.8% at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 89.1% at the 4-week follow-up after repeating the treatment. Treatment with two applications oflindane lotion 1%, with a 1-week interval between them, was effective in 47.2% of patients at the 2-week follow-up, which increased to 72.9% at the 4-week follow-up after this treatment was repeated. A single dose of ivermectin was as effective as two applications of lindane lotion 1% at the 2-week follow-up. After repeat treatment, ivermectin was superior to lindane lotion 1% at the 4-week follow-up. The delay in clinical response with ivermectin suggests that it may not be effective against the parasite at all stages in the life cycle.

  1. L-arginine does not improve biochemical and hormonal response in trained runners after 4 weeks of supplementation.

    PubMed

    Alvares, Thiago Silveira; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that L-arginine improves exercise performance by increasing nitric oxide synthesis and levels of insulin and growth hormone (GH). Metabolic and hormonal responses to chronic L-arginine supplementation may clarify the mechanisms underlying its putative physiologic effects on physical performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects that 4 weeks of supplementation with L-arginine would have on metabolic and hormonal parameters at rest and in response to exercise. Fifteen healthy runners were divided into treatment (ARG; 6 g L-arginine) and placebo (PLA; 6 g cornstarch) groups. On the first visit, blood samples were collected for baseline, and the supplement or placebo was provided. After 4 weeks of supplementation (second visit), blood samples were collected at the following intervals: at rest, immediately after the first 5-km time-trial running test (5km-TT), immediately after the second 5km-TT, and after 20 minutes of recovery (+20). In addition to exercise performance (total running time), plasma nitrate, nitrite, nitrate plus nitrite, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, lactate, ammonia and serum insulin, GH, insulin-like growth factor 1, and cortisol concentrations were evaluated. There were significant increases in plasma nitrite, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, lactate, ammonia and serum GH, and cortisol at the first 5km-TT, immediately after the second 5km-TT, and +20 in both ARG and PLA. Nitrate plus nitrite and nitrate increased only at +20. No significant change was observed in serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 in any sample period. Total running time did not differ significantly between the 2 tests, in either ARG or PLA. Thus, according to our results, 4 weeks of L-arginine supplementation did not cause beneficial changes in metabolic and hormonal parameters, beyond those achieved with exercise alone.

  2. Effects of a 4-Week Multimodal Rehabilitation Program on Quality of Life, Cardiopulmonary Function, and Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Do, Junghwa; Cho, Youngki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the effects of a rehabilitation program on quality of life (QoL), cardiopulmonary function, and fatigue in breast cancer patients. The program included aerobic exercises as well as stretching and strengthening exercises. Methods Breast cancer patients (n=62) who had completed chemotherapy were randomly assigned to an early exercise group (EEG; n=32) or a delayed exercise group (DEG; n=30). The EEG underwent 4 weeks of a multimodal rehabilitation program for 80 min/day, 5 times/wk for 4 weeks. The DEG completed the same program during the next 4 weeks. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), EORTC Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-BR23), predicted maximal volume of oxygen consumption (VO2max), and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were used for assessment at baseline, and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Results After 8 weeks, statistically significant differences were apparent in global health, physical, role, and emotional functions, and cancer-related symptoms such as fatigue and pain, nausea, and dyspnea on the EORTC QLQ-C30; cancer-related symptoms involving the arm and breast on the EORTC QLQ-BR23; the predicted VO2max; muscular strength; and FSS (p<0.050), according to time, between the two groups. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that a supervised multimodal rehabilitation program may improve the physical symptoms, QoL, and fatigue in patients with breast cancer. PMID:25834616

  3. Neuromuscular Adaptations After 2 and 4 Weeks of 80% Versus 30% 1 Repetition Maximum Resistance Training to Failure.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Buckner, Samuel L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Hill, Ethan C; Smith, Cory M; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Cramer, Joel T

    2016-08-01

    Jenkins, NDM, Housh, TJ, Buckner, SL, Bergstrom, HC, Cochrane, KC, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Schmidt, RJ, Johnson, GO, and Cramer, JT. Neuromuscular adaptations after 2 and 4 weeks of 80% versus 30% 1 repetition maximum resistance training to failure. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2174-2185, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypertrophic, strength, and neuromuscular adaptations to 2 and 4 weeks of resistance training at 80 vs. 30% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in untrained men. Fifteen untrained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.7 ± 2.4 years; weight = 84.7 ± 23.5 kg) were randomly assigned to either a high-load (n = 7) or low-load (n = 8) resistance training group and completed forearm flexion resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Forearm flexor muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity, maximal voluntary isometric (MVIC) and 1RM strength, and the electromyographic, mechanomyographic (MMG), and percent voluntary activation (%VA) responses at 10-100% of MVIC were determined at baseline, 2, and 4 weeks of training. The MT increased from baseline (2.9 ± 0.1 cm) to week 2 (3.0 ± 0.1 cm) and to week 4 (3.1 ± 0.1 cm) for the 80 and 30% 1RM groups. MVIC increased from week 2 (121.5 ± 19.1 Nm) to week 4 (138.6 ± 22.1 Nm) and 1RM increased from baseline (16.7 ± 1.6 kg) to weeks 2 and 4 (19.2 ± 1.9 and 20.5 ± 1.8 kg) in the 80% 1RM group only. The MMG amplitude at 80 and 90% MVIC decreased from baseline to week 4, and %VA increased at 20 and 30% MVIC for both groups. Resistance training to failure at 80 vs. 30% 1RM elicited similar muscle hypertrophy, but only 80% 1RM increased muscle strength. However, these disparate strength adaptations were difficult to explain with neuromuscular adaptations because they were subtle and similar for the 80 and 30% 1RM groups.

  4. Pathological and immunohistochemical studies of subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus in 4-week-old chickens.

    PubMed

    Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Okada, Kosuke; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-06-01

    Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.

  5. Changes in regional activity are accompanied with changes in inter-regional connectivity during 4 weeks motor learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liangsuo; Wang, Binquan; Narayana, Shalini; Hazeltine, Eliot; Chen, Xiying; Robin, Donald A; Fox, Peter T; Xiong, Jinhu

    2010-03-08

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) and fMRI were used to test whether changes in the regional activity are accompanied by changes in the inter-regional connectivity as motor practice progresses. Ten healthy subjects were trained to perform finger movement task daily for 4 weeks. Three sessions of fMRI images were acquired within 4 weeks. The changes in inter-regional connectivity were evaluated by measuring the effective connectivity between the primary motor area (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum (CB), and posterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (pVLPFC). The regional activities in M1 and SMA increased from pre-training to week 2 and decreased from week 2 to week 4. The inter-regional connectivity generally increased in strength (with SEM path coefficients becoming more positive or negative) as practice progressed. The increases in the strength of the inter-regional connectivity may reflect long-term reorganization of the skilled motor network. We suggest that the performance gain was achieved by dynamically tuning the inter-regional connectivity in the motor network.

  6. The Effect of Repeated Reading Instruction on Oral Reading Fluency and Its Impact on Reading Comprehension of Grade 5 English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, W. Maria

    2011-01-01

    The Problem. In its meta-analysis on teaching children to read, U.S. National Reading Panel (NICHD & NIH, 2000) found repeated reading to be an effective technique for reading instruction. Specifically, the report determined that repeated reading procedures had a positive impact on word recognition, fluency, and comprehension across a range of…

  7. Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Duffy, Maresa

    2010-08-01

    The long-term effects of sucrose on appetite and mood remain unclear. Normal weight subjects compensate for sucrose added blind to the diet (Reid et al., 2007). Overweight subjects, however, may differ. In a single-blind, between-subjects design, soft drinks (4x25cl per day; 1800kJ sucrose sweetened versus 67kJ aspartame sweetened) were added to the diet of overweight women (n=53, BMI 25-30, age 20-55) for 4 weeks. A 7-day food diary gave measures of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients. Mood and hunger were measured by ten single Likert scales rated daily at 11.00, 14.00, 16.00, and 20.00. Activity levels were measured by diary and pedometer. Baseline energy intake did not differ between groups. During the first week of the intervention energy intake increased slightly in the sucrose group, but not in the aspartame group, then decreased again, so by the final week intake again did not differ from the aspartame group. Compensation was not large enough to produce significant changes in the composition of the voluntary diet. There were no effects on hunger or mood. It is concluded that overweight women do not respond adversely to sucrose added blind to the diet, but compensate for it by reducing voluntary energy intake. Alternative explanations for the correlation between sugary soft drink intake and weight gain are discussed.

  8. Repeated nightmares

    MedlinePlus

    ... different from night terrors . Alternative Names Nightmares - repeated; Dream anxiety disorder References American Academy of Family Physicians. Information from your family doctor. Nightmares and night terrors in children. ...

  9. The effect of 4-week rehabilitation on heart rate variability and QTc interval in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Zupanic, Eva; Zivanovic, Ina; Kalisnik, Jurij Matija; Avbelj, Viktor; Lainscak, Mitja

    2014-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease negatively affects the autonomic nervous system and increases risks of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were used to compare parameters of heart rate variability and QTc interval in patients with COPD and healthy individuals. The effects of a 4-week program of rehabilitation in patients with COPD were also evaluated by comparing pre- and post-rehabilitation ECGs with age- and sex-matched control COPD patients not participating in the program. Heart rate, average NN, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, TP, LF, HF, LF/HF, and QTc were analyzed. Rehabilitation effects were evaluated using the St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ), the 6-min walk test (6MWT), and the incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT). In comparison with the healthy individuals, the patients with COPD had higher heart rate (p < 0.05) and reduced average NN, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, HF, LF, and TP (all p < 0.05) but similar QTc interval (p = 0.185). During rehabilitation, SDNN and TP (p < 0.05 for both) increased, as did the results for 6MWT, ISWT, and SGRQ (all p < 0.05). No significant change of QTc interval was observed within or between the two groups of patients with COPD. Change in SDNN correlated with a clinically relevant difference in SGRQ (r = 0.538, p = 0.021). It is concluded that patients with COPD demonstrate reduced parameters of heart rate variability and that these can be improved in a rehabilitation program, thus improving health-related quality of life.

  10. Genotoxicity of styrene-7,8-oxide and styrene in Fisher 344 rats: a 4-week inhalation study.

    PubMed

    Gaté, Laurent; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Sébillaud, Sylvie; Langlais, Cristina; Cosnier, Frédéric; Nunge, Hervé; Darne, Christian; Guichard, Yves; Binet, Stéphane

    2012-06-20

    The cytogenetic alterations in leukocytes and the increased risk for leukemia, lymphoma, or all lymphohematopoietic cancer observed in workers occupationally exposed to styrene have been associated with its hepatic metabolisation into styrene-7,8-oxide, an epoxide which can induce DNA damages. However, it has been observed that styrene-7,8-oxide was also found in the atmosphere of reinforced plastic industries where large amounts of styrene are used. Since the main route of exposure to these compounds is inhalation, in order to gain new insights regarding their systemic genotoxicity, Fisher 344 male rats were exposed in full-body inhalation chambers, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks to styrene-7,8-oxide (25, 50, and 75 ppm) or styrene (75, 300, and 1000 ppm). Then, the induction of micronuclei in circulating reticulocytes and DNA strand breaks in leukocytes using the comet assay was studied at the end of the 3rd and 20th days of exposure. Our results showed that neither styrene nor styrene-7,8-oxide induced a significant increase of the micronucleus frequency in reticulocytes or DNA strand breaks in white blood cells. However, in the presence of the formamidopyridine DNA glycosylase, an enzyme able to recognize and excise DNA at the level of some oxidized DNA bases, a significant increase of DNA damages was observed at the end of the 3rd day of treatment in leukocytes from rats exposed to styrene but not to styrene-7,8-oxide. This experimental design helped to gather new information regarding the systemic genotoxicity of these two chemicals and may be valuable for the risk assessment associated with an occupational exposure to these molecules.

  11. Biodistribution of PLGA and PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles after repeat-dose oral delivery in F344 rats for 7 days

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sara M; Darensbourg, Caleb; Cross, Linda; Stout, Rhett; Coulon, Diana; Astete, Carlos E; Morgan, Timothy; Sabliov, Cristina M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To quantify in vivo the biodistribution of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and PLGA/chitosan nanoparticles (PLGA/Chi NPs) and assess if the positive charge of chitosan significantly enhances nanoparticle absorption in the GI tract. Material & methods PLGA and PLGA/Chi NPs covalently linked to tetramethylrhodamine-5-isothiocyanate (TRITC) were orally administered to F344 rats for 7 days, and the biodistribution of fluorescent NPs was analyzed in different organs. Results The highest amount of particles (% total dose/g) was detected for both treatments in the spleen, followed by intestine and kidney, and then by liver, lung, heart and brain, with no significant difference between PLGA and PLGA/Chi NPs. Conclusion Only a small percentage of orally delivered NPs was detected in the analyzed organs. The positive charge conferred by chitosan was not sufficient to improve the absorption of the PLGA/Chi NPs over that of PLGA NPs. PMID:25491670

  12. Consumption of a Bifidobacterium bifidum Strain for 4 Weeks Modulates Dominant Intestinal Bacterial Taxa and Fecal Butyrate in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gargari, Giorgio; Taverniti, Valentina; Balzaretti, Silvia; Ferrario, Chiara; Gardana, Claudio; Simonetti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Modulation of the intestinal microbial ecosystem (IME) is a useful target to establish probiotic efficacy in a healthy population. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled intervention study to determine the impact of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb on the IME of adult healthy volunteers of both sexes. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the fecal microbiota before and after 4 weeks of daily probiotic cell consumption. The intake of approximately one billion live B. bifidum cells affected the relative abundance of dominant taxa in the fecal microbiota and modulated fecal butyrate levels. Specifically, Prevotellaceae (P = 0.041) and Prevotella (P = 0.034) were significantly decreased, whereas Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.039) and Rikenellaceae (P = 0.010) were significantly increased. We also observed that the probiotic intervention modulated the fecal concentrations of butyrate in a manner dependent on the initial levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that a single daily administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb can significantly modify the IME in healthy (not diseased) adults. These findings demonstrate the need to reassess the notion that probiotics do not influence the complex and stable IME of a healthy individual. IMPORTANCE Foods and supplements claimed to contain health-promoting probiotic microorganisms are everywhere these days and mainly intended for consumption by healthy people. However, it is still debated what actual effects probiotic products may have on the healthy population. In this study, we report the results of an intervention trial aimed at assessing the modifications induced in the intestinal microbial ecosystem of healthy adults from the consumption of a probiotic product. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of a probiotic product in the dietary habits of healthy people may significantly modify dominant taxa of

  13. Repeated Reading. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Repeated reading" is an academic practice that aims to increase oral reading fluency. "Repeated reading" can be used with students who have developed initial word reading skills but demonstrate inadequate reading fluency for their grade level. During "repeated reading," a student sits in a quiet location with a…

  14. A 90-day repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in rats (with functional observational battery and motor activity determinations).

    PubMed

    Chengelis, Christopher P; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Radovsky, Ann; Shinohara, Motoki

    2009-06-01

    Possible toxic effects of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) were evaluated when administered orally by gavage to rats at levels up to 200mg/kg/day for 90 days. Lower body weight gains were noted in the 10, 50 and 200mg/kg/day group males (not dose-responsive) throughout dosing. Other changes included lower red blood cell parameters, higher reticulocyte counts and lower globulin in the 200mg/kg/day group males and females, higher liver enzymes in males at 50 and 200mg/kg/day, lower total protein and higher albumin/globulin ratio, and lower cholesterol, calcium in males at 200mg/kg/day. Minimal centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy was present in 200mg/kg/day group males and correlated with higher liver weights and slightly higher peroxisome beta oxidation activity at the end of the dosing period. Based on liver histopathology and liver weight changes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for oral administration was 50mg/kg/day for males and 200mg/kg/day for females.

  15. An open-label, randomized, controlled, 4-week comparative clinical trial of barnidipine hydrochloride, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zheng, F; Chen, P; Tang, L; Wei, R; Yu, Y; Su, Y; Kikkawa, T; Yamamoto, M

    2006-01-01

    This study compared barnidipine, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in 85 Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension (diastolic blood pressure range 95 - 110 mmHg). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg barnidipine or 10 mg benazepril orally daily for 4 weeks. In patients with diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg after 2 weeks of treatment, the dose of barnidipine or benazepril was increased by 5 or 10 mg, respectively. Both the barnidipine-treated group (n = 43) and the benazepril-treated group (n = 42) showed significant mean reductions from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure with benazepril was significantly greater than with barnidipine treatment. Sitting heart rate was not changed by either drug. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. Barnidipine is similar to benazepril for the treatment of renal parenchymal hypertension.

  16. Discovery of a 3-(4-Pyrimidinyl) Indazole (MLi-2), an Orally Available and Selective Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) Inhibitor that Reduces Brain Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jack D; DeMong, Duane E; Greshock, Thomas J; Basu, Kallol; Dai, Xing; Harris, Joel; Hruza, Alan; Li, Sarah W; Lin, Sue-Ing; Liu, Hong; Macala, Megan K; Hu, Zhiyong; Mei, Hong; Zhang, Honglu; Walsh, Paul; Poirier, Marc; Shi, Zhi-Cai; Xiao, Li; Agnihotri, Gautam; Baptista, Marco A S; Columbus, John; Fell, Matthew J; Hyde, Lynn A; Kuvelkar, Reshma; Lin, Yinghui; Mirescu, Christian; Morrow, John A; Yin, Zhizhang; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Xiaoping; Chang, Ronald K; Embrey, Mark W; Sanders, John M; Tiscia, Heather E; Drolet, Robert E; Kern, Jonathan T; Sur, Sylvie M; Renger, John J; Bilodeau, Mark T; Kennedy, Matthew E; Parker, Eric M; Stamford, Andrew W; Nargund, Ravi; McCauley, John A; Miller, Michael W

    2017-03-16

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large, multidomain protein which contains a kinase domain and GTPase domain among other regions. Individuals possessing gain of function mutations in the kinase domain such as the most prevalent G2019S mutation have been associated with an increased risk for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Given this genetic validation for inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity as a potential means of affecting disease progression, our team set out to develop LRRK2 inhibitors to test this hypothesis. A high throughput screen of our compound collection afforded a number of promising indazole leads which were truncated in order to identify a minimum pharmacophore. Further optimization of these indazoles led to the development of MLi-2 (1): a potent, highly selective, orally available, brain-penetrant inhibitor of LRRK2.

  17. Hepatic effects of repeated oral administration of diclofenac to hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null (HRN™) and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Akingbasote, James A; Foster, Alison J; Wilson, Ian; Sarda, Sunil; Jones, Huw B; Kenna, J Gerry

    2016-04-01

    Hepatic NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase null (HRN™) mice exhibit normal hepatic and extrahepatic biotransformation enzyme activities when compared to wild-type (WT) mice, but express no functional hepatic cytochrome P450 activities. When incubated in vitro with [(14)C]-diclofenac, liver microsomes from WT mice exhibited extensive biotransformation to oxidative and glucuronide metabolites and covalent binding to proteins was also observed. In contrast, whereas glucuronide conjugates and a quinone-imine metabolite were formed when [(14)C]-diclofenac was incubated with HRN™ mouse liver, only small quantities of P450-derived oxidative metabolites were produced in these samples and covalent binding to proteins was not observed. Livers from vehicle-treated HRN™ mice exhibited enhanced lipid accumulation, bile duct proliferation, hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration, which were not present in livers from WT mice. Elevated liver-derived alanine aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were also observed in plasma from HRN™ mice. When treated orally with diclofenac for 7 days, at 30 mg/kg/day, the severities of the abnormal liver histopathology and plasma liver enzyme findings in HRN™ mice were reduced markedly. Oral diclofenac administration did not alter the liver histopathology or elevate plasma enzyme activities of WT mice. These findings indicate that HRN™ mice are valuable for exploration of the role played by hepatic P450s in drug biotransformation, but poorly suited to investigations of drug-induced liver toxicity. Nevertheless, studies in HRN™ mice could provide novel insights into the role played by inflammation in liver injury and may aid the evaluation of new strategies for its treatment.

  18. Assessment of the safety of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin: reverse mutation assay, acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity in rats, and acute no-effect level for diarrhea in humans.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    A series of safety assessments were performed on hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin prepared by converting the reducing terminal glucose of resistant maltodextrin into sorbitol. The reverse mutation assay did not show mutagenicity. Acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats showed no death was observed in any groups, including the group receiving the highest single dose of 10 g/kg body weight or the highest dose of 5 g/kg body weight per day for 90 days. Mucous or watery stools were observed in the hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin treatment group on the acute study, which were transient and were associated with the osmotic pressure caused by intake of the high concentrations. Subchronic study showed dose-dependent increases in the weights of cecum alone, cecal contents alone, and cecum with cecal contents as well as hypertrophy of the cecal mucosal epithelium, which are considered to be common physiological responses after intake of indigestible carbohydrates. These results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin was 10 g/kg body weight or more on the acute oral toxicity study and 5.0 g/kg body weight/day or more on the 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study in rats. Further study performed in healthy adult humans showed that the acute no-effect level of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin for diarrhea was 0.8 g/kg body weight for men and more than 1.0 g/kg body weight for women. The results of the current safety assessment studies suggest that hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin is safe for human consumption.

  19. The Impact of Classroom Physical Activity Breaks on Middle School Students' Health-Related Fitness: An Xbox One Kinetic Delivered 4-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Piipari, S.; Layne, T.; McCollins, T.; Knox, T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a 4-week classroom physical activity break intervention on middle school students' health-related physical fitness. The study was a randomized controlled trial with students assigned to the experiment and control conditions. A convenience sample comprised 94 adolescents (experiment group n = 52;…

  20. Single- and repeated-dose oral toxicity studies of citicoline free-base (choline cytidine 5'-pyrophosphate) in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Schauss, A G; Somfai-Relle, S; Financsek, I; Glavits, R; Parent, S C; Endres, J R; Varga, T; Szücs, Z; Clewell, A

    2009-01-01

    The dietary supplement Citicoline free-base (choline cytidine 5'-pyrophosphate) was toxicologically evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats using oral gavage. In an acute 14-day study, 2000 mg/kg was well tolerated. In a 90-day study, 100, 350, and 1000 mg/kg/day doses resulted in no mortality. In males, slight significant increases in serum creatinine (350 and 1000 mg/kg/day), and decreases in urine volume (all treated groups) were observed. In females, slight significant increases in total white blood cell and absolute lymphocyte counts (1000 mg/kg/day), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (100 and 350, but not 1000 mg/kg/day) were noted. A dose-related increase in renal tubular mineralization, without degenerative or inflammatory reaction, was found in females (all treated groups) and two males (1000 mg/kg/day). Renal mineralization in rats (especially females) is influenced by calcium:phosphorus ratios in the diet. A high level of citicoline consumption resulted in increased phosphorus intake in the rats, and likely explains this result.

  1. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  2. Effects of 4-Week Hindlimb Unweighting with and without 1H/Day Standing on Myogenic-Tone and Vasoconstrictor Responses of Mesenteric Arteries in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Le-Jian; Bao, Jun-Xiang; Bai, Yun-Gang; Zhang, Li-Fan; Ma, Jin

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of 4-week hindlimd unweighting (HU) with and without 1h/day standing (STD) on myotonic-tone and vasoconstrictor responses of rats mesenteric resistance arteries. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4-week hindlimb-unweighting to simulate cardiovascular deconditioning due to microgravity, 1h/day standing as the countermeasure. The diameter of isolated mesenteric resistance artery (diameter from 180-220μm) were recorded with Pressure myograph system in both Physiology salt solution (Da) and calcium-free Physiology salt solution (Dp), the myogenic-tone were obtained from (Dp-Da)/Dp*100%. The responses of these arteries to vasoconstrictors Phenylephrine were also detected. Results showed that 1) The myogenic tone of arteries was significantly attenuated by 4-week hindlimb-unweighting in HU group compared to control (CON) group(P<0.05); With 1h/day standing, the attenuated myogenic tone was recovered completely (P<0.05). 2) The vasoconstrictor responses of arteries to PE was decreased by 4-week hindlimb unweighting, and 1h/day standing can also prevent the attenuation (P<0.05). These results indicated that the myogenic tone and vasoconstrictor responses of rats mesenteric arteries were significantly attenuated by 4-week hindlimb-unweighting, 1h/d standing can prevent the attenuation completely, which could give us a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of orthostatic-intolerance post-flight and can also provide us new countermeasures to avoid it.

  3. Citrus aurantium L. essential oil exhibits anxiolytic-like activity mediated by 5-HT1A-receptors and reduces cholesterol after repeated oral treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current treatments for anxiety disorders and depression have multiple adverse effects in addition to a delayed onset of action, which has prompted efforts to find new substances with potential activity in these disorders. Citrus aurantium was chosen based on ethnopharmacological data because traditional medicine refers to the Citrus genus as useful in diminishing the symptoms of anxiety or insomnia, and C. aurantium has more recently been proposed as an adjuvant for antidepressants. In the present work, we investigated the biological activity underlying the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of C. aurantium essential oil (EO), the putative mechanism of the anxiolytic-like effect, and the neurochemical changes in specific brain structures of mice after acute treatment. We also monitored the mice for possible signs of toxicity after a 14-day treatment. Methods The anxiolytic-like activity of the EO was investigated in a light/dark box, and the antidepressant activity was investigated in a forced swim test. Flumazenil, a competitive antagonist of benzodiazepine binding, and the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 were used in the experimental procedures to determine the mechanism of action of the EO. To exclude false positive results due to motor impairment, the mice were submitted to the rotarod test. Results The data suggest that the anxiolytic-like activity observed in the light/dark box procedure after acute (5 mg/kg) or 14-day repeated (1 mg/kg/day) dosing was mediated by the serotonergic system (5-HT1A receptors). Acute treatment with the EO showed no activity in the forced swim test, which is sensitive to antidepressants. A neurochemical evaluation showed no alterations in neurotransmitter levels in the cortex, the striatum, the pons, and the hypothalamus. Furthermore, no locomotor impairment or signs of toxicity or biochemical changes, except a reduction in cholesterol levels, were observed after treatment with the EO. Conclusion

  4. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  5. Functional Improvement After 4-Week Rehabilitation Therapy and Effects of Attention Deficit in Brain Tumor Patients: Comparison With Subacute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Kim, Ha Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To confirm functional improvement in brain tumor patients after 4-week conventional rehabilitation therapy, to compare the cognitive impairment of brain tumor patients with subacute stroke patients using computerized neuropsychological testing, and to determine the effects on functional outcomes of daily activity. Methods From April 2008 to December 2012, 55 patients (29 brain tumor patients and 26 subacute stroke patients) were enrolled. All patients were assessed with a computerized neuropsychological test at baseline. Motricity Index, Korean version of Mini Mental Status Examination, and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index scores were assessed at the beginning and end of 4-week rehabilitation. Conventional rehabilitation therapy was applied to both groups for 4 weeks. Results Functional outcomes of all patients in both groups significantly improved after 4-week rehabilitation therapy. In brain tumor patients, the initial Motricity Index, cognitive dysfunction, and visual continuous performance test correction numbers were strong predictors of initial daily activity function (R2=0.778, p<0.01). The final Motricity Index and word-black test were strong predictors of final daily activity function (R2=0.630, p<0.01). In patients with subacute stroke, the initial Motricity index was an independent predictor of initial daily activity function (R2=0.245, p=0.007). The initial daily activity function and color of color word test were strong predictors of final daily activity function (R2=0.745, p<0.01). Conclusion Conventional rehabilitation therapy induced functional improvement in brain tumor patients. Objective evaluation of cognitive function and comprehensive rehabilitation including focused cognitive training should be performed in brain tumor patients for improving their daily activity function. PMID:26361592

  6. Effects of 4 Weeks of Explosive-type Strength Training for the Plantar Flexors on the Rate of Torque Development and Postural Stability in Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Ueyasu, Y; Yamashita, Y; Akagi, R

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 4-week explosive-type strength training program for the plantar flexors on the rate of torque development and postural stability. The participants were 56 elderly men and women divided into training (17 men and 15 women) and control (14 men and 10 women) groups. The participants in the training group underwent explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors 2 days per week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions of explosive plantar flexion lasting less than 1 s. The following parameters were determined: muscle volume of the plantar flexors estimated by the muscle thickness and lower leg length, maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion, and one-leg standing ability. The training increased the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development, but corresponding increases in muscle volume and one-leg standing ability were not found. These results suggest that, for elderly individuals, the 4-week explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors is effective for increasing the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion but is not effective for improving postural stability.

  7. Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Claire A.

    2010-01-01

    An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

  8. GLYCATED ALBUMIN AT 4 WEEKS CORRELATES WITH A1C LEVELS AT 12 WEEKS AND REFLECTS SHORT-TERM GLUCOSE FLUCTUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Desouza, Cyrus V.; Rosenstock, Julio; Zhou, Rong; Holcomb, Richard G.; Fonseca, Vivian A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the performance of glycated albumin (GA) monitoring by comparing it to other measures of glycemic control during intensification of antidiabetic therapy. Methods This 12-week, prospective, multicenter study compared the diagnostic clinical performance of GA to glycated hemoglobin A1C (A1C), fructosamine corrected for albumin (FRA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and mean blood glucose (MBG) estimated from self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in 30 patients with suboptimally controlled type 1 or 2 diabetes. Results Mean A1C decreased from 9.5% to 8.1%. Mean SMBG correlated closely with CGM (Pearson r = 0.783 for daily estimates and r = 0.746 for weekly estimates, P<.0001). Both GA and FRA levels significantly correlated with changes from baseline in A1C and mean weekly SMBG (P<.001).The lowest observed median GA occurred at 4 weeks, followed by a small increase and then a slight reduction, mirroring changes in overall mean SMBG values. The median A1C fell throughout the treatment period, failing to reflect short-term changes in SMBG. A ≥1% reduction in GA at 4 weeks was significantly associated with a ≥0.5% change in A1C at 12 weeks (odds ratio [OR] = 19.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4, 944, P = .018). Conclusion In patients receiving glucose-lowering therapy, changes in GA at 4 weeks were concordant with changes in A1C at 12 weeks, and both GA and FRA more accurately reflected short-term blood glucose fluctuations than A1C. PMID:26214108

  9. LSVT-BIG Improves UPDRS III Scores at 4 Weeks in Parkinson's Disease Patients with Wearing Off: A Prospective, Open-Label Study.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Megumi; Nishijima, Haruo; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Kon, Tomoya; Haga, Rie; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-Ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of LSVT-BIG for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with wearing off remains to be determined. Therefore, we evaluated whether LSVT-BIG improves motor disability in eight PD patients with wearing off. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores, daily off time, and mobility assessments were evaluated during the "on" time before and after the LSVT-BIG course. LSVT-BIG significantly improved UPDRS III scores at 4 weeks and UPDRS II scores in the "off" state at 12 weeks, with no changes in the other measures. The findings suggest that LSVT-BIG may be an effective therapy for advanced PD patients with wearing off.

  10. Does oral experience terminate ingestion?

    PubMed

    Swithers, S E; Hall, W G

    1994-10-01

    Using data from studies of ingestive behavior in developing rat pups we demonstrate how oral experience can contribute to the termination of ingestion. In rat pups, repeated oral stimulation with sweet solutions causes a decline in oral responsiveness. The diminished responsiveness is specific to the flavor of the stimulus experienced orally and can persist for several hours. We suggest that this experience-based decrement in responsiveness is best considered "oral habituation" and that oral habituation largely accounts for the onset of satiety. Post-ingestive feedback signals may have their influence through the oral habituation process or act in the context of oral habituation. Oral habituation is also shown to depend on the pattern of stimulus presentation, a phenomenon that adds considerable complexity to assessing the contributions of oral experience to satiety. The concept of oral habituation may be useful in understanding the immediate control of ingestion and the moment-to-moment expression of ingestive behavior in adult animals.

  11. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879. PMID:26345602

  12. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879.

  13. Effects of 4-Week Intensive Active-Resistive Training with an EMG-Based Exoskeleton Robot on Muscle Strength in Older People: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Son, Jongsang; Ryu, Jeseong; Ahn, Soonjae; Kim, Eun Joo; Lee, Jung Ah; Kim, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the idea that an active-resistive training with an EMG-based exoskeleton robot could be beneficial to muscle strength and antagonist muscle cocontraction control after 4-week intensive elbow flexion/extension training. Three older people over 65 years participated the training for an hour per session and completed total 20 sessions during four weeks. Outcome measures were chosen as the maximum joint torque and cocontraction ratio between the biceps/triceps brachii muscles at pre-/post-training. The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was performed to evaluate paired difference for the outcome measures. As a result, there was no significant difference in the maximum flexion or extension torque at pre- and post-training. However, the cocontraction ratio of the triceps brachii muscle as the antagonist was significantly decreased by 9.8% after the 4-week intensive training. The active-resistive training with the exoskeleton robot in the older people yielded a promising result, showing significant changes in the antagonist muscle cocontraction.

  14. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-12-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4 ± 1.5 years, 1.83 ± 0.07 m, 88.1 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10 × 6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO₂) or normoxia (21% FiO₂). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10 × 6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33 ± 12%) than the normoxic group (14 ± 10%, p<0.05). During the 10 × 6 s RS test there was a tendency for greater increases in oxygen consumption in the hypoxic group (hypoxic 6.9 ± 9%, normoxic (-0.3 ± 8.8%, p=0.06) and reductions in cerebral deoxygenation (% changes for both groups, p=0.09) after hypoxic than normoxic training. Twelve RS training sessions in hypoxia resulted in twofold greater improvements in capacity to perform repeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block.

  15. LSVT-BIG Improves UPDRS III Scores at 4 Weeks in Parkinson's Disease Patients with Wearing Off: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Megumi; Nishijima, Haruo; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Kon, Tomoya; Haga, Rie; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of LSVT-BIG for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with wearing off remains to be determined. Therefore, we evaluated whether LSVT-BIG improves motor disability in eight PD patients with wearing off. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores, daily off time, and mobility assessments were evaluated during the “on” time before and after the LSVT-BIG course. LSVT-BIG significantly improved UPDRS III scores at 4 weeks and UPDRS II scores in the “off” state at 12 weeks, with no changes in the other measures. The findings suggest that LSVT-BIG may be an effective therapy for advanced PD patients with wearing off. PMID:28255499

  16. Relief of Night-time Symptoms Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Following 4 Weeks of Treatment With Pantoprazole Magnesium: The Mexican Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Orr, William; Vargas-Romero, José Antonio; Remes-Troche, José María; Morales-Arámbula, Miguel; Soto-Pérez, Julio César; Mateos-Pérez, Gualberto; Sobrino-Cossío, Sergio; Teramoto-Matsubara, Oscar; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Orozco-Gamiz, Antonio; Saez-Ríos, Adolfo; Arellano-Plancarte, Araceli; Chiu-Ugalde, Jazmin; Tholen, Anne; Horbach, Silke; Lundberg, Lars; Fass, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of pantoprazole magnesium (pantoprazole-Mg) 40 mg in the relief of esophageal and extra-esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), particularly night-time symptoms. Methods Patients (aged 18-50 years) with 3-month history of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation plus at least one other symptom in the last week were enrolled in a nationwide, prospective and observational study in Mexico. Patients received pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily during 4 weeks. Symptoms were assessed through a physician-administered structured interview and the patient-completed ReQuest in Practice™ questionnaire. Night-time GERD was defined as arousal from sleep during the night due to GERD-associated symptoms. Results Out of 4,343 patients included at basal visit, 3,665 were considered for the effectiveness per protocol analysis. At baseline, patients had a median of 8 GERD related symptoms. Patients with night-time GERD symptoms (42.7%) were more likely to have extra-esophageal symptoms (P < 0.001) than other GERD patients. Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks improved a broad range of GERD-associated symptoms from baseline (80% reduction on physicians assessments; 68-77% reduction on ReQuest in Practice™ dimensions), including both day- and night-time GERD symptoms; improvements were the greatest for extra-esophageal symptoms in patients with night-time symptoms. Pantoprazole-Mg was well tolerated. Conclusions Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg significantly improved a broad range of esophageal and extra-esophageal GERD related symptoms including sleep disturbances, as well as well-being, in patients with daytime or night-time GERD, making it a good option for patients with GERD, especially when extra-esophageal and night-time symptoms are present. PMID:24466446

  17. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  18. A 6-week randomized controlled trial with 4-week follow-up of acupuncture combined with paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shan-Shan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Chen, Jun-Qi; Lin, Ren-Yong; Wang, Chong-Qi; Li, Gan-Long; Wong, Hei Kiu; Zhao, Cang-Huan; Pan, Ji-Yang; Guo, Shen-Chang; Zhang, Yan-Chi

    2013-06-01

    Acupuncture possesses the antidepressant potential. In this 6-week randomized controlled trial with 4-week follow-up, 160 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomly assigned to paroxetine (PRX) alone (n = 48) or combined with 18 sessions of manual acupuncture (MA, n = 54) or electrical acupuncture (EA, n = 58). Treatment outcomes were measured mainly using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), clinical response and remission rates. Average PRX dose taken and proportion of patients who required an increased PRX dose due to symptom aggravation were also obtained. Both additional MA and EA produced a significantly greater reduction from baseline in score on HAMD-17 and SDS at most measure points from week 1 through week 6 compared to PRX alone. The clinical response was markedly greater in MA (69.8%) and EA (69.6%) groups than the group treated with PRX alone (41.7%, P = 0.004). The proportion of patients who required an increase dose of PRX due to symptom aggravation was significantly lower with MA (5.7%) and EA (8.9%) than PRX alone (22.9%, P = 0.019). At 4 weeks follow-up after completion of acupuncture treatment, patients with EA, but not MA, continued to show significantly greater clinical improvement. Incidence of adverse events was not different in the three groups. Our study indicates that acupuncture can accelerate the clinical response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and prevent the aggravation of depression. Electrical acupuncture may have a long-lasting enhancement of the antidepressant effects (Trial Registration: ChiCTR-TRC-08000278).

  19. Absence of in vivo genotoxicity of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and associated fatty acid esters in a 4-week comprehensive toxicity study using F344 gpt delta rats.

    PubMed

    Onami, Saeko; Cho, Young-Man; Toyoda, Takeshi; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Honma, Masamitsu; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2014-07-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is regarded as a rat renal and testicular carcinogen and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by International Agency for Research on Cancer. This is potentially of great importance given that esters of this compound have recently found to be generated in many foods and food ingredients as a result of food processing. There have been a few reports about their toxicity, although we have recently found that the toxicity profile of 3-MCPD esters was similar to that of 3-MCPD in a rat 13-week repeated dose study, except for the acute renal toxicity seen in 3-MCPD-treated females. In the present study, to examine in vivo genotoxicity we administered equimolar doses of 3-MCPD or 3-MCPD fatty acid esters (palmitate diester, palmitate monoester and oleate diester) to 6-week-old male F344 gpt delta rats carrying a reporter transgene for 4 weeks by intragastric administration. In vivo micronucleus, Pig-a mutation and gpt assays were performed, as well as investigations of major toxicological parameters including histopathological features. As one result, the relative kidney weights of the 3-MCPD and all three ester groups were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control group. However, the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant red blood cells did not differ among groups. Moreover, no changes were observed in mutant frequencies of gpt and red/gam (Spi(-)) genes in the kidney and the testis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-fatty-acid-esters-treated rats. In histopathological analyses, no treatment related changes were observed, except for decrease of eosinophilic bodies in the kidneys of all treated groups. These results suggest that 3-MCPD and its fatty acid esters are not in vivo genotoxins, although they may exert renal toxicity.

  20. Are neuroticism and extraversion associated with the antidepressant effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)? An exploratory 4-week trial.

    PubMed

    Berlim, Marcelo T; McGirr, Alexander; Beaulieu, Marie-Martine; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Turecki, Gustavo

    2013-02-08

    Several randomized, controlled trials have found high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) to be effective for treating major depressive disorder (MDD), but its antidepressant mechanisms have yet to be firmly understood. In this context, pre-treatment personality traits and subsequent changes in personality concomitant to treatment may be relevant for our understanding of these mechanisms. To investigate this issue we conducted a naturalistic trial in which 14 subjects with moderate to severe depression were treated with daily HF-rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 4 weeks. Objective depressive symptoms (as assessed by the HAM-D(21)) and the major personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion were measured pre-post HF-rTMS. Pre-rTMS levels of extraversion predicted subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms. Also, HF-rTMS treatment resulted in a decrease in neuroticism scores, and this relative decrease was associated with the relative decrease in depression. Our results suggest that HF-rTMS may positively affect the personality dimension of neuroticism. Also, pre-treatment levels of extraversion may predict the subsequent antidepressant response to HF-rTMS. However, further studies with larger samples and controlled designs are needed to better clarify these preliminary findings.

  1. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-08-06

    (1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) RESULTS: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility.

  2. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  3. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  4. Getting used to academic public speaking: global self-esteem predicts habituation in blood pressure response to repeated thesis presentations.

    PubMed

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone

    2012-06-01

    Global self-esteem was tested to predict quicker cardiovascular adaptation during stressful oral thesis presentation and faster habituation from the first to the second and third thesis presentations. Nineteen graduate students initially rated their global self-esteem and afterwards orally presented their theses proposals in 20-min presentations to their thesis supervisor and peers. A second and third presentation of the revised thesis concepts took place at 4-weeks intervals. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were assessed repeatedly during the presentations. Post-talk self ratings of stressfulness indicated presentations to be a strong public speaking stressor. One hundred and thirty-eight measurements of systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) showed a significant adaptation (decrease) during presentations. There was an overall mean level decrease from the first to the second, and the second to the third presentations in HR, but not in SBP and DBP. However, habituation in SBP and DBP across three presentations was significantly faster (p < .05) in those participants who initially reported higher levels of global self-esteem. Higher global self-esteem did not foster adaptation within the presentations. Self-esteem is discussed as an important individual resource that allows successful coping with recurring evaluative threats.

  5. Noninvasive Digital Detection of Fetal DNA in Plasma of 4-Week-Pregnant Women following In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Bedri; Qubbaj, Wafa; Al-Hassan, Saad; Coskun, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA (cfDNA) circulating in the maternal blood has provided new opportunities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD). However, the extremely low levels of cfDNA within a high background of the maternal DNA in maternal circulation necessitate highly sensitive molecular techniques for its reliable use in NIPD. In this proof of principle study, we evaluated the earliest possible detection of cfDNA in the maternal plasma by a bead-based emulsion PCR technology known as BEAMing (beads, emulsion, amplification, magnetics). Blood samples were collected from in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients at 2 to 6 weeks following embryo transfer (i.e., 4 to 8 week pregnancies) and plasma DNA was extracted. The genomic regions of both X and Y chromosome-specific sequences (AMELX and AMELY) were concurrently amplified in two sequential PCRs; first by conventional PCR then by BEAMing. The positive beads either for AMELX or AMELY gene sequences were counted by a flow cytometer. Our results showed that the pregnancies yielding boys had significantly higher plasma AMELY gene fractions (0.512 ± 0.221) than the ones yielding girls (0.028 ± 0.003) or non-pregnant women (0.020 ± 0.005, P= 0.0059). Here, we clearly demonstrated that the BEAMing technique is capable of reliably detecting cfDNA in the blood circulation of 4-week-pregnant women, which is only two weeks after the embryo transfer. BEAMing technique can also be used to early detect fetal DNA alterations in other pregnancy-associated disorders.

  6. The effect of 4 weeks of aerobic exercise on vascular and baroreflex function of young men with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M J; Boutcher, S H; Boutcher, Y N

    2012-11-01

    The effect of short-term aerobic exercise on vascular function of young individuals with a family history of hypertension was investigated. Thirty young men with a family history of hypertension were randomly assigned to either an exercise (n=15) or control (n=15) group. Exercise subjects performed 30 min of supervised cycle training at 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), three times per week for 4 weeks. Control subjects were asked to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Peak leg and forearm blood flow were assessed using plethysmography and was determined as the highest blood flow following 5 min of reactive hyperemia. Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor (CPBR) sensitivity was measured using lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for 5 min at -20 mm Hg. CPBR was determined by calculating change of stroke volume and forearm vascular resistance at baseline and during LBNP. Carotid baroreceptor (CBR) sensitivity was assessed using neck suction at -20, -40, -60 and -80 mm Hg pressures, and was determined from RR interval divided by systolic blood pressure. Augmentation index (AIx), a measure of arterial stiffness, was assessed using applanation tonometry and was calculated as the ratio of augmented pressure and pulse pressure. The major findings were that the exercise group showed increase in leg vasodilation, reduction in AIx and increase in VO(2max) compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant change for CPBR and CBR. A short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention in young men with a family history of hypertension significantly reduced arterial stiffness and increased aerobic fitness.

  7. Effects of 4 weeks of traditional resistance training vs. superslow strength training on early phase adaptations in strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity in college-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eonho; Dear, Alexis; Ferguson, Steven L; Seo, Dongil; Bemben, Michael G

    2011-11-01

    This study compared SuperSlow resistance training (SRT) to traditional resistance training (TRT) during early phase adaptations in strength, aerobic capacity, and flexibility in college-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to SRT (n = 14); TRT (n = 13); or control (CON; n = 8) groups. To equalize training times, TRT trained 3 times per week for 25 minutes each session, whereas SRT trained twice a week for 35 minutes each session. Both groups trained for 4 weeks, whereas the CON group maintained normal daily activities. Workouts consisted of 5 exercises: shoulder press, chest press, leg press, low row, and lat pull down. The SRT group completed 1 set of each exercise at 50% 1RM until momentary failure with a 10-second concentric and a 10-second eccentric phase. The TRT group completed 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 80% 1RM for each exercise, with 4 seconds of contraction time for each repetition. Groups were statistically similar at baseline. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effect for flexibility with the greatest improvements occurring for the training groups (SRT 14.7% and TRT 11%). All strength tests had significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effects but no group or group by time interactions. Both training groups had large percent improvements in strength compared to CON, but the large variability associated with the SRT group resulted in only the TRT group being significantly different from the CON group. In conclusion, percent improvements were similar for the TRT and SRT groups, but only the TRT group reached statistical significance for the strength improvements, and both groups were equally effective for improving flexibility.

  8. C.E.R.A. once every 4 weeks corrects anaemia and maintains haemoglobin in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Francesco; Woitas, Rainer P.; Laville, Maurice; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Provenzano, Robert; Golper, Thomas A.; Ruangkanchanasetr, Prajej; Lee, Ho Yung; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Nowicki, Michal; Ladanyi, Agnes; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Beyer, Ulrich; Dougherty, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. No previous randomized controlled studies have been reported examining de novo, once every 4 weeks (Q4W) administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We report results from a randomized multinational study that compared continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A.) Q4W with darbepoetin alfa once weekly (QW) or every 2 weeks (Q2W) for the correction of anaemia in non-dialysis CKD patients. Methods. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either 1.2 μg/kg C.E.R.A. Q4W or darbepoetin alfa QW/Q2W during a 20-week correction period and an 8-week evaluation period. Two primary end points were assessed: the haemoglobin (Hb) response rate and the change in average Hb concentration between baseline and evaluation. Results. The Hb response rate for C.E.R.A. was 94.1%, significantly higher than the protocol-specified 60% response rate [95% confidence interval (CI): 89.1, 97.3; P < 0.0001] and comparable with darbepoetin alfa (93.5%; 95% CI: 88.4, 96.8; P < 0.0001). C.E.R.A. Q4W was non-inferior to darbepoetin alfa QW/Q2W, with similar mean Hb changes from baseline of 1.62 g/dL and 1.66 g/dL, respectively. Patients receiving C.E.R.A. showed a steady rise in Hb, with fewer patients above the target range during the first 8 weeks compared with darbepoetin alfa [39 patients (25.8%) versus 72 patients (47.7%); P < 0.0001]. Adverse event rates were comparable between the treatment groups. Conclusion. C.E.R.A. Q4W successfully corrects anaemia and maintains stable Hb levels within the recommended target range in non-dialysis CKD patients. PMID:21505096

  9. A phase I study with MAG-camptothecin intravenously administered weekly for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle in adult patients with solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Wachters, F M; Groen, H J M; Maring, J G; Gietema, J A; Porro, M; Dumez, H; de Vries, E G E; van Oosterom, A T

    2004-06-14

    In MAG-camptothecin (MAG-CPT), the topoisomerase inhibitor camptothecin is linked to a water-soluble polymer. Preclinical experiments showed enhanced antitumour efficacy and limited toxicity compared to camptothecin alone. Prior phase I trials guided the regimen used in this study. The objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, safety profile, and pharmacokinetics of weekly MAG-CPT. Patients with solid tumours received MAG-CPT intravenously administered weekly for 3 weeks in 4-week cycles. At the starting dose level (80 mg x m(-2) week(-1)), no dose-limiting toxicities occurred during the first cycle (n=3). Subsequently, three patients were enrolled at the second dose level (120 mg x m(-2) week(-1)). Two of three patients at the 80 mg x m(-2) week(-1) cohort developed haemorrhagic cystitis (grade 1/3 dysuria and grade 2/3 haematuria) during the second and third cycles. Next, the 80 mg x m(-2) week(-1) cohort was enlarged to a total of six patients. One other patient at this dose level experienced grade 1 haematuria. At 120 mg x m(-2) week(-1), grade 1 bladder toxicity occurred in two of three patients. Dose escalation was stopped at 120 mg x m(-2) week(-1). Cumulative bladder toxicity was dose-limiting toxicity at 80 mg x m(-2) week(-1). Pharmacokinetics revealed highly variable urinary camptothecin excretion, associated with bladder toxicity. Due to cumulative bladder toxicity, weekly MAG-CPT is not a suitable regimen for treatment of patients with solid tumours.

  10. Combined immersion and oral vaccination of Vietnamese catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) confers protection against mortality caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    PubMed

    Thinh, N H; Kuo, T Y; Hung, L T; Loc, T H; Chen, S C; Evensen, O; Schuurman, H J

    2009-12-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri septicemia occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the catfish industry especially in Vietnam and the USA. To control Edwardsiella septicemia farmers extensively use antibiotics and various vaccination methods. Vaccination with inactivated vaccines has come with variable efficacy. In this trial the results of an approach of controlling Edwardsiella septicemia of Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in Vietnam through vaccination via mucosal surfaces are presented. The results show that a combination of primary vaccination by immersion with inactivated E. ictaluri followed by an oral boost with a formulated antigen preparation induces a statistically significant level of protection against mortality caused by experimental infection 4 weeks post-boost. Fish immunized by immersion only show significantly lower level of protection but significantly higher than the controls. Repeated boosts result in improved duration of immunity with a relative percent survival (RPS) of 47% at 90% control mortality. The immunization procedure provides an alternative for disease control through vaccination.

  11. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  12. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250). PMID:28066229

  13. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Moya, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players. Methods Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kg)were divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL). Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects’ individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM). In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press), power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM) and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw) were assessed pre- and post-training intervention. Results Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms) with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM) in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals) and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals). Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7%) and jumping (5.3%) throw (p > 0.05). Conclusions The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training. PMID:27310598

  14. URINE MUTAGENICITY AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF THE DRINKING WATER MUTAGEN, 3-CHLORO-4-(DICHLOROMETHYL)-5-HYDROX-2[5H]-FURANONE (MX), FOLLOWING REPEATED ORAL ADMINISTRATION TO MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenicity analysis of urine from rats treated by oral gavage with MX at a dose of 64 mg/kg for 14 days revealed that only 0.3% of the administered cmpound was excreted in a genotoxically active form. At lower doses, mutagenicity was not detectable. No evidence of micronucleu...

  15. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  16. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and ...

  17. Oral Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  18. Efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin, bevacizumab and oral S-1 for advanced recurrent colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shuji; Shimazaki, Jiro; Morishita, Keiichi; Koike, Nobusada; Harada, Nobuhiko; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of co-administration of oral S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) in combination with bevacizumab (bev) in patients with advanced recurrent colorectal cancer. A retrospective study of 36 patients with advanced recurrent colorectal cancer was performed, of whom 27 received first-line and 9 received second-line SOX+bev chemotherapy between 2010 and 2013 at the Hachioji Digestive Disease Hospital (Hachioji, Japan). The SOX+bev regimen consisted of administration of intravenous oxaliplatin (85 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 14, bevacizumab (5 mg/kg) on day 1, and co-administration of oral S-1 twice daily on days 1-14. The drug regimen was repeated every 4 weeks. SOX+bev treatment was associated with a response rate of 45.2%, a disease control rate of 71%, and a median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 9.9 and 21.9 months, respectively. Patients who received first-line chemotherapy benefited from treatment in terms of prolonged PFS (13.8 months) and OS (28.2 months). Grade 3/4 adverse events were infrequent and included anaemia, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, diarrhea, sensory neuropathy, increased aspartate aminotransferase level and skin rash. In conclusion, SOX+bev therapy was found to be feasible and safe for patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer.

  19. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  20. Functional Brain Activity Changes after 4 Weeks Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Combination: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Exploring Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials during Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    White, David J.; Cox, Katherine H. M.; Hughes, Matthew E.; Pipingas, Andrew; Peters, Riccarda; Scholey, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the neurocognitive effects of 4 weeks daily supplementation with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination (MVM) in healthy adults (aged 18–40 years). Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, participants underwent assessments of brain activity using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI; n = 32, 16 females) and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential recordings (SSVEP; n = 39, 20 females) during working memory and continuous performance tasks at baseline and following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment or placebo. There were several treatment-related effects suggestive of changes in functional brain activity associated with MVM administration. SSVEP data showed latency reductions across centro-parietal regions during the encoding period of a spatial working memory task following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment. Complementary results were observed with the fMRI data, in which a subset of those completing fMRI assessment after SSVEP assessment (n = 16) demonstrated increased BOLD response during completion of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) within regions of interest including bilateral parietal lobes. No treatment-related changes in fMRI data were observed in those who had not first undergone SSVEP assessment, suggesting these results may be most evident under conditions of fatigue. Performance on the working memory and continuous performance tasks did not significantly differ between treatment groups at follow-up. In addition, within the fatigued fMRI sample, increased RVIP BOLD response was correlated with the change in number of target detections as part of the RVIP task. This study provides preliminary evidence of changes in functional brain activity during working memory associated with 4 weeks of daily treatment with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination in healthy adults, using two distinct but complementary measures of functional brain activity. PMID:27994548

  1. Functional Brain Activity Changes after 4 Weeks Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Combination: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Exploring Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials during Working Memory.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Cox, Katherine H M; Hughes, Matthew E; Pipingas, Andrew; Peters, Riccarda; Scholey, Andrew B

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the neurocognitive effects of 4 weeks daily supplementation with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination (MVM) in healthy adults (aged 18-40 years). Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, participants underwent assessments of brain activity using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI; n = 32, 16 females) and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential recordings (SSVEP; n = 39, 20 females) during working memory and continuous performance tasks at baseline and following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment or placebo. There were several treatment-related effects suggestive of changes in functional brain activity associated with MVM administration. SSVEP data showed latency reductions across centro-parietal regions during the encoding period of a spatial working memory task following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment. Complementary results were observed with the fMRI data, in which a subset of those completing fMRI assessment after SSVEP assessment (n = 16) demonstrated increased BOLD response during completion of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) within regions of interest including bilateral parietal lobes. No treatment-related changes in fMRI data were observed in those who had not first undergone SSVEP assessment, suggesting these results may be most evident under conditions of fatigue. Performance on the working memory and continuous performance tasks did not significantly differ between treatment groups at follow-up. In addition, within the fatigued fMRI sample, increased RVIP BOLD response was correlated with the change in number of target detections as part of the RVIP task. This study provides preliminary evidence of changes in functional brain activity during working memory associated with 4 weeks of daily treatment with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination in healthy adults, using two distinct but complementary measures of functional brain activity.

  2. Efficacy and tolerance of repeated oral doses of tolperisone hydrochloride in the treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm: results of a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Pratzel, H G; Alken, R G; Ramm, S

    1996-10-01

    The efficacy and safety of oral tolperisone hydrochloride (Mydocalm) in the treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm was assessed in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 138 patients, aged between 20 and 75 years, with painful reflex muscle spasm associated with diseases of the spinal column or proximal joints were enrolled in eight rehabilitation centers. Patients were randomized to receive either 300 mg tolperisone hydrochloride or placebo for a period of 21 days. Both treatment groups recovered during the 3 weeks rehabilitation program. However, tolperisone hydrochloride proved to be significantly superior to placebo: the change score of the pressure pain threshold as the primary target parameter significantly increased during therapy with tolperisone hydrochloride (P = 0.03, valid-case-analysis) compared to the results obtained on placebo treatment. The overall assessment of efficacy by the patient also demonstrated significant differences in favor of tolperisone hydrochloride. Best results were seen in patients aged between 40 and 60 years with a history of complaints shorter than 1 year and with concomitant physical therapy. The evaluation of safety data, i.e., adverse events, biochemical and hematological laboratory parameters, demonstrated no differences between tolperisone hydrochloride and placebo. As a conclusion tolperisone hydrochloride represents an effective and safe treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm without the typical side effects of centrally active muscle relaxants.

  3. Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jin Woo; Chung, Sun Yong; Kim, Sang Young; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a meridian-based psychological therapy. The present clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of EFT as a new treatment option for Hwabyung (HB) patients experiencing anger and compares the efficacy to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR), the conventional meditation technique. Methods. The EFT and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) methods were performed on 27 HB patients, and their capacities to alleviate anxiety, anger, and emotional status were compared. After a 4-week program, a survey was conducted; patients then completed a self-training program for 4 weeks, followed by a second survey. Results. During the initial 4 weeks, the EFT group experienced a significant decrease in the HB symptom scale, anger state, and paranoia ideation (p < 0.05). Over the entire 9-week interval, there were significant decreases in the HB symptom scale, anxiety state, anger state, anger trait, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and so on in EFT group (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The EFT group showed improved psychological symptoms and physical symptoms greater than those observed in the PMR group. EFT more effectively alleviated HB symptoms compared to PMR. EFT group showed better maintenance during self-training, suggesting good model of self-control treatment in HB patients.

  4. Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jin Woo; Chung, Sun Yong; Kim, Sang Young; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a meridian-based psychological therapy. The present clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of EFT as a new treatment option for Hwabyung (HB) patients experiencing anger and compares the efficacy to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR), the conventional meditation technique. Methods. The EFT and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) methods were performed on 27 HB patients, and their capacities to alleviate anxiety, anger, and emotional status were compared. After a 4-week program, a survey was conducted; patients then completed a self-training program for 4 weeks, followed by a second survey. Results. During the initial 4 weeks, the EFT group experienced a significant decrease in the HB symptom scale, anger state, and paranoia ideation (p < 0.05). Over the entire 9-week interval, there were significant decreases in the HB symptom scale, anxiety state, anger state, anger trait, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and so on in EFT group (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The EFT group showed improved psychological symptoms and physical symptoms greater than those observed in the PMR group. EFT more effectively alleviated HB symptoms compared to PMR. EFT group showed better maintenance during self-training, suggesting good model of self-control treatment in HB patients. PMID:26539218

  5. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  6. Oral candidosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, G T

    2001-04-01

    Oral candidoses are frequently encountered in the practice of dentistry. Although most oral candidoses are symptomless, the can indicate the presence of an underlying systemic disease, and the persistence of oral candidosis following appropriate conventional management may be one of the first signs of undiagnosed immunosuppression. The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from oral candidal lesions; however, the non-albicans Candida spp. are also implicated in the aetiology of oral candidoses. The effective management of oral candidosis is dependent on an accurate diagnosis, identification and elimination of any predisposing factors (where possible), and the prescription of either topical or systemic antifungal agents. Oral candidosis may have significant implications for the general health of immunosuppressed patients, particularly when caused by the non-albicans spp. and, in cases of severe immunosuppression, systemic candidosis can be life-threatening. This article outlines the clinical presentation and appropriate management for the commonly presenting oral candidal conditions.

  7. Treatment of exogenous Candida endophthalmitis in rabbits with oral fluconazole.

    PubMed Central

    Park, S S; D'Amico, D J; Paton, B; Baker, A S

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of oral fluconazole, alone or in combination with oral flucytosine (5FC), in treating Candida endophthalmitis using a rabbit model. Albino rabbits were infected with an intravitreal inoculation of 1,000 CFU of susceptible Candida albicans and randomized 5 days later to receive treatment with oral fluconazole alone (80 mg/kg of body weight per day), a combination of fluconazole and 5FC (100 mg/kg/12 h), or no treatment. The treatment effect was assessed at 2 and 4 weeks after therapy by funduscopy, quantitative vitreous culture, and histopathology. Intravitreal levels of fluconazole, 2 to 24 h after the first dose, were measured to be > 10 times the MIC of the drug for C. albicans. Among rabbits treated with fluconazole for 2 weeks, 67% had a > 90% reduction in fungal load (P < 0.05) and 33% were sterile. After 4 weeks, all had a > 99% reduction in fungal load (P < 0.05) and 75% were sterile (P = 0.01). This treatment effect was unchanged 4 weeks after discontinuation of fluconazole. Among rabbits treated with fluconazole and 5FC for 2 weeks, 67% died during therapy. Among the surviving rabbits, 75% had a > 90% reduction in fungal load (P < 0.05) and 25% were sterile. We conclude that oral fluconazole may be useful for treatment of Candida endophthalmitis. Addition of 5FC was associated with high toxicity and minimal additional antifungal effect in our rabbit model. PMID:7786003

  8. A standard picture of healthy oral mucosae by direct oral microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Drogoszewska, Barbara; Michcik, Adam; Polcyn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Direct oral microscopy constitutes a novel technique of in vivo oral mucosae examination. The basic principles of this method derive from colposcopy and dermoscopy. The main goal of direct oral microscopy is the earliest possible detection of oral precancerous lesions in order to implement their treatment as quickly as possible and prevent malignant transformation. Aim To establish a standard picture of healthy oral mucosae with direct oral microscopy applying standard colposcopic criteria in order to create a reference point for further diagnosis of precancerous lesions. Material and methods Thirty patients of both genders with clinically unaltered oral mucosae were examined. For every individual, clinical examination with the naked eye was performed, followed by direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria. Oral mucosae at various sites (lip, cheek, floor of mouth, ventral and lateral sides of the tongue, alveolar ridge and soft palate) were examined. Results Subepithelial blood vessel patterns, mucosal surface, colour tone and transparency were described for healthy oral mucosae. Moreover, cases with clinically unaltered oral mucosae where direct oral microscopy revealed subclinical alterations were described. Conclusions Direct oral microscopy with colposcopic assessment criteria enables establishment of a repeated picture of unaltered oral mucosae. The standard picture of healthy oral mucosae is an essential reference point for application of this technique to early diagnose potentially malignant oral mucosal lesions as well as apply their early treatment. PMID:24278068

  9. 4-Week Gluten-Free Meal Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... and jam Grapes with 1-2 boiled eggs Quinoa Fiesta Salad Glazed Meatloaf with baked beans Side ... green bell peppers (Su, Tu, W) Scallions (Su) Quinoa (Su) Vanilla extract (dessert) White sugar (Sa) Sweet ...

  10. Facilitating English-Language Learners' Oral Reading Fluency with Digital Pen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Tan, Chia-Chen; Lo, Bey-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is an indicator of overall reading competence. Many studies have claimed that repeated reading can promote oral reading fluency. Currently, novel Web- or computer-based reading technologies offer interactive digital materials that promote English oral reading fluency using the repeated reading strategy; however, paper-based…

  11. Repeating the Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  12. Preclinical safety evaluation of low molecular weight heparin-deoxycholate conjugates as an oral anticoagulant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-young; Jeon, Ok-Cheol; Moon, Hyun Tae; Hwang, Seung Rim; Byun, Youngro

    2016-01-01

    The preclinical safety of a newly developed oral anticoagulant, the low molecular weight heparin-deoxycholate conjugate (OH09208), was evaluated by a comprehensive evaluating program in compliance with standard guidelines. The single dose oral toxicity study in rats receiving 2000 and 5000 mg kg(-1) of OH09208 did not reveal any mortality, unusual body weight changes or necropsy findings. The results of the 4-week oral toxicity study with a 4-week recovery program in rats receiving OH09208 in doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg kg(-1) day(-1) did not reveal any mortality, or indicate any unusual clinical signs, or show any toxicokinetic relationships to the administration of OH09208. Although the increase in liver enzymes in one male dog treated with 300 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and one female dog treated with 1000 mg kg(-1) day(-1) could not be excluded from the effect of the test substance, no other toxicologically significant changes were observed in the 4-week oral toxicity study with a 4-week recovery in beagle dogs. Thus, while the no-observed-adverse-effect level value from the 4-week study in both male and female rats was 1000 mg kg(-1) day(-1), those from the 4-week study in male and female beagle dogs were 300 and 1000 mg kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. Furthermore, OH09208 did not induce anaphylactic reactions in guinea pigs, micronucleated bone marrow cells in male ICR mice, chromosomal aberration in Chinese hamster lung cell lines, bacterial reverse mutation, and any abnormalities in hERG current assay, mouse central nervous system and dog cardiovascular studies. Overall, there were no unexpected toxicities in this preclinical study that might have precluded the safe administration of OH09208 to humans.

  13. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  14. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  15. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  16. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  17. Metabolism of 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (pyridalyl) in rats after repeated oral administration and a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in brown and white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Hirohisa; Matsunaga, Haruyuki; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naohiko; Kaneko, Hideo

    2010-05-01

    Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated oral administration of 14C-2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3- [5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (14C-pyridalyl) at 5 mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days, and 14C excretion, 14C concentration in tissues, and the metabolic fate were determined. Most 14C was excreted into feces. The 14C concentrations in the blood and tissues attained steady-state levels at days 6 to 10, whereas those in white adipose tissues increased until day 14. Tissue 14C concentrations were highest in brown and white adipose tissue (38.37-57.50 ppm) but were 5.60 ppm or less in all the other tissues. Total 14C residues in blood and tissues on the 27th day after the first administration accounted for 2.6 to 3.2% of the total dose. A major fecal metabolite resulted from O-dealkylation. Analysis of metabolites in tissues revealed that the majority of 14C in perirenal adipose tissue and lungs was pyridalyl, accounting for greater than 90 and 60%, respectively, of the total, whereas a major metabolite in whole blood, kidneys, and liver was a dehalogenated metabolite. The experimental data were simulated with simple physiologically based pharmacokinetics using four-compartment models with assumption of lymphatic absorption and membrane permeability in adipose tissues. The different kinetics in brown and white adipose tissues was reasonably predicted in this model, with large distribution volume in adipose tissues and high hepatic clearance in liver. Sex-related difference of pyridalyl concentration in liver was considered to be a result of different unbound fraction times the hepatic intrinsic clearance (f x CL(int)) of 1.8 and 12 l/h for male and female, respectively.

  18. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  19. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  20. 78 FR 65594 - Vehicular Repeaters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... changes, and on whether current mobile repeater filter technologies can support reduced frequency... feasibility of adapting SAW filters, or other filter technology, for mobile repeater use. We particularly... mobile repeaters by public safety licensees on certain frequencies in the VHF band. DATES:...

  1. Using Repeated Reading to Improve Reading Speed and Comprehension in Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated whether children with visual impairments who receive repeated reading instruction exhibit an increase in their oral reading rate and comprehension and a decrease in oral reading error rates. Methods: A single-subject, changing-criterion design replicated across three participants was used to demonstrate the…

  2. Oral home telecare for adults with tetraplegia: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Hon K; Pope, Charlene

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the feasibility of delivering an individualized program of oral home telecare training using PC-based, real-time interactive videoconferencing via the Internet to meet the unique challenges of dental care for people with tetraplegia. A home-based videoconferencing method was tested with two adults with tetraplegia and an occupational therapist (rehabilitation specialist). As part of the proposed rehabilitation training to improve independence in performing oral hygiene, adaptive devices (a rechargeable oscillating-rotating power toothbrush and a cordless oral irrigator) were introduced to facilitate oral care performance with interactive, Web-based instruction. Training was conducted once a week for 4 weeks. The oral home telecare experience was evaluated using a questionnaire and in-depth interviews after the training. Both subjects were satisfied with the oral home telecare services and were enthusiastic about using the services without major difficulty after having previously experienced barriers to dental care. In addition to their positive perceptions about videoconferencing, the subjects suggested adaptations and identified unexpected potential uses for interactive videoconferencing. The use of interactive videoconferencing as a mode of oral hygiene training may lead to a change in oral hygiene service delivery methods, improving accessibility to geographically dispersed populations with tetraplegia. Oral home telecare offers strategies to decrease physical barriers and communication difficulties that correspond to recommendations to improve the quality of dental health services for people with tetraplegia.

  3. RepeatsDB: a database of tandem repeat protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Di Domenico, Tomás; Potenza, Emilio; Walsh, Ian; Gonzalo Parra, R.; Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Piovesan, Damiano; Ihsan, Awais; Ferrari, Carlo; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2014-01-01

    RepeatsDB (http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is a database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Tandem repeats pose a difficult problem for the analysis of protein structures, as the underlying sequence can be highly degenerate. Several repeat types haven been studied over the years, but their annotation was done in a case-by-case basis, thus making large-scale analysis difficult. We developed RepeatsDB to fill this gap. Using state-of-the-art repeat detection methods and manual curation, we systematically annotated the Protein Data Bank, predicting 10 745 repeat structures. In all, 2797 structures were classified according to a recently proposed classification schema, which was expanded to accommodate new findings. In addition, detailed annotations were performed in a subset of 321 proteins. These annotations feature information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units. RepeatsDB is an ongoing effort to systematically classify and annotate structural protein repeats in a consistent way. It provides users with the possibility to access and download high-quality datasets either interactively or programmatically through web services. PMID:24311564

  4. Normal Oral Flora and the Oral Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Lakshman; Matsubara, Victor H

    2017-04-01

    The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease.

  5. Oral myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency. PMID:22114438

  6. Oral immunogenicity of the plant proteinase bromelain.

    PubMed

    Hale, Laura P; Fitzhugh, David J; Staats, Herman F

    2006-12-20

    Bromelain is a natural mixture of proteolytic enzymes derived from pineapple stem that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity when administered orally. Although most proteins given orally without adjuvant (e.g., food) result in tolerance, we previously reported that long-term oral exposure to bromelain stimulated the development of high serum anti-bromelain antibody titers. The purpose of these studies was to further investigate the mechanisms responsible for the immunogenicity of oral bromelain. Results showed that repeated exposure was required for development of anti-bromelain antibodies, with strong antibody responses in all mice that received at least 12 doses of bromelain either orally or intragastrically over 3-6 weeks. Proteolytic activity was required for strong oral immunogenicity in the absence of conventional adjuvant, with strong serum antibody responses generated against proteolytically active bromelain and trypsin, but not against ovalbumin, lysozyme, or inactivated bromelain. Significantly higher anti-bromelain antibody titers were seen in IL-10-deficient versus wild-type mice, suggesting that simultaneous treatments that decrease IL-10 activity may further enhance systemic antibody responses following oral exposure. The antibodies generated did not affect the proteolytic activity of bromelain. The data demonstrate that proteolytically active antigens such as bromelain can stimulate both systemic and mucosal immune responses following repeated oral exposure. Further studies of the mechanisms involved in generation of immune responses following oral exposure to proteolytically active antigens can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms of oral tolerance and to the development of novel adjuvants for oral vaccines.

  7. Oral medications.

    PubMed

    Albretsen, Jay C

    2002-03-01

    Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.

  8. Oral Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197

  9. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  10. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  11. Effect of 4-week feeding of deoxynivalenol- or T-2-toxin-contaminated diet on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system in the hepatopancreas of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of T-2 toxin (4.11 mg T-2 toxin and 0.45 mg HT-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) and deoxynivalenol (5.96 and 0.33 mg 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (DON) kg(-1) feed) in 1-year-old common carp juveniles in a 4-week feeding trial. The exposure of mycotoxins resulted in increased mortality in both groups consuming mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Parameters of lipid peroxidation were not affected during the trial, and antioxidant defence also did not show response to oxidative stress; however, glutatione peroxidase activity slightly, but significantly, decreased in the T-2 toxin group. Glutathione S-transferase activity showed moderate decrease as effect of T-2 toxin, which suggests its effect on xenobiotic transformation. Reduced glutathione concentration showed moderate changes as effect of DON exposure, but T-2 toxin has no effect. Expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes showed different response to mycotoxin exposure. T-2 toxin caused dual response in the expression of gpx4a (early and late downregulation and mid-term upregulation), but continuous upregulation was found as effect of deoxynivalenol. Expression of the other gene, gpx4b, was upregulated by both trichothecenes during the whole period. The results suggested that trichothecenes have some effect on free radical formation and antioxidant defence, but the changes depend on the duration of exposure and the dose applied, and in case of glutathione peroxidase, there was no correlation between expression of genes and enzyme activity.

  12. Oral iodine supplementation does not reduce neutralizing antibody responses to oral poliovirus vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Taffs, R. E.; Enterline, J. C.; Rusmil, K.; Muhilal; Suwardi, S. S.; Rustama, D.; Djatnika; Cobra, C.; Semba, R. D.; Cohen, N.; Asher, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major cause of impaired mental development, goitre, and cretinism in many parts of the world. Because existing immunization programmes can be used to deliver oral iodized oil (OIO) to infants at risk, it was important to know whether OIO could adversely affect the antibody response to vaccines, such as trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Subang, West Java, Indonesia, in which 617 eight-week-old infants received either OIO or a placebo (poppy-seed oil) during a routine visit for their first dose of OPV as part of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The infants received two boosters of OPV at 4-week intervals after the first dose, and were followed up when 6 months old. Neutralizing antibody titres to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3 were compared in serum samples that were taken from 478 of these infants just before the first dose of OPV and at 6 months. It was found that oral iodized oil did not reduce the antibody responses to any of the three serotypes of OPV. These results indicate that oral iodine may safely be delivered to infants at the same time as oral poliovirus vaccine according to current EPI immunization schedules. PMID:10427933

  13. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oesterheld, Jessica R; Cozza, Kelly; Sandson, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the introduction of Enovid (norethynodrel 10 microg and mestranol 150 microg), which provided convenient and reliable contraception, revolutionized birth control. Reports of interactions between oral contraceptives (OCs) and other drugs began to trickle into the literature. At first, these drug interactions appeared to be random and unrelated. Increased understanding of P450 enzymes and phase II reactions of sulfation and glucuronidation has permitted preliminary categorization and assessment of the clinical relevance of these drug interactions.

  14. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  15. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-04-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories.

  16. Acrylamide-induced carcinogenicity in mouse lung involves mutagenicity: cII gene mutations in the lung of big blue mice exposed to acrylamide and glycidamide for up to 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Guo, Li-Wu; Shelton, Sharon D; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-06-01

    Potential health risks for humans from exposure to acrylamide (AA) and its epoxide metabolite glycidamide (GA) have garnered much attention lately because substantial amounts of AA are present in a variety of fried and baked starchy foods. AA is tumorigenic in rodents, and a large number of in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that AA is genotoxic. A recent cancer bioassay on AA demonstrated that the lung was one of the target organs for tumor induction in mice; however, the mutagenicity of AA in this tissue is unclear. Therefore, to investigate whether or not gene mutation is involved in the etiology of AA- or GA-induced mouse lung carcinogenicity, we screened for cII mutant frequency (MF) in lungs from male and female Big Blue (BB) mice administered 0, 1.4, and 7.0 mM AA or GA in drinking water for up to 4 weeks (19-111 mg/kg bw/days). Both doses of AA and GA produced significant increases in cII MFs, with the high doses producing responses 2.7-5.6-fold higher than the corresponding controls (P ≤ 0.05; control MFs = 17.2 ± 2.2 and 15.8 ± 3.5 × 10(-6) in males and females, respectively). Molecular analysis of the mutants from high doses indicated that AA and GA produced similar mutation spectra and that these spectra were significantly different from the spectra in control mice (P ≤ 0.01). The predominant types of mutations in the lung cII gene from AA- and GA-treated mice were A:T → T:A, and G:C → C:G transversions, and -1/+1 frameshifts at a homopolymeric run of Gs. The MFs and types of mutations induced by AA and GA in the lung are consistent with AA exerting its genotoxicity via metabolism to GA. These results suggest that AA is a mutagenic carcinogen in mouse lungs and therefore further studies on its potential health risk to humans are warranted. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:446-456, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, A J; Leversee, J H

    1990-09-01

    Management of oral contraception requires an understanding of the relationships between the method's effectiveness, noncontraceptive benefits, and hormonal adverse effects. The new multiphasic combinations or OCs containing 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5-1.0 mg of norethindrone or equivalent result in a maximum combination of efficacy and safety for the patient with minimal annoying problems for the patient and the prescriber. Patient education regarding early warning symptoms of adverse effects, breakthrough bleeding, and lack of withdrawal bleeding adds an additional margin of safety and reduces patient questions and uncertainties.

  18. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  19. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES. PMID:27274185

  20. Quantum repeaters: fundamental and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Hua, Sha; Liu, Yu; Ye, Jun; Zhou, Quan

    2007-04-01

    An overview of the Quantum Repeater techniques based on Entanglement Distillation and Swapping is provided. Beginning with a brief history and the basic concepts of the quantum repeaters, the article primarily focuses on the communication model based on the quantum repeater techniques, which mainly consists of two fundamental modules --- the Entanglement Distillation module and the Swapping module. The realizations of Entanglement Distillation are discussed, including the Bernstein's Procrustean method, the Entanglement Concentration and the CNOT-purification method, etc. The schemes of implementing Swapping, which include the Swapping based on Bell-state measurement and the Swapping in Cavity QED, are also introduced. Then a comparison between these realizations and evaluations on them are presented. At last, the article discusses the experimental schemes of quantum repeaters at present, documents some remaining problems and emerging trends in this field.

  1. Repeatability in redundant manipulator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ranjan

    1994-02-01

    Terrestrial manipulators with more DOF than the dimension of the workspace and space manipulators with as many manipulator DOF as the dimension of the workspace are both redundant systems. An interesting problem of such redundant systems has been the repeatability problem due to the presence of nonholonomic constraints. We show, contrary to the existing belief, that integrability of the nonholonomic constraints is not a necessary condition for the repeatability of the configuration variables. There exist certain trajectories in the independent configuration variable space that are like 'holonomic loops' along which the redundant manipulators exhibit repeatable motion. We present a simple method based on optimization techniques for designing repeatable trajectories for free-flying space manipulators and terrestrial manipulators under pseudoinverse control.

  2. Protein Repeats from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Turjanski, Pablo; Parra, R Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Becher, Verónica; Ferreiro, Diego U

    2016-04-05

    Some natural proteins display recurrent structural patterns. Despite being highly similar at the tertiary structure level, repeating patterns within a single repeat protein can be extremely variable at the sequence level. We use a mathematical definition of a repetition and investigate the occurrences of these in sequences of different protein families. We found that long stretches of perfect repetitions are infrequent in individual natural proteins, even for those which are known to fold into structures of recurrent structural motifs. We found that natural repeat proteins are indeed repetitive in their families, exhibiting abundant stretches of 6 amino acids or longer that are perfect repetitions in the reference family. We provide a systematic quantification for this repetitiveness. We show that this form of repetitiveness is not exclusive of repeat proteins, but also occurs in globular domains. A by-product of this work is a fast quantification of the likelihood of a protein to belong to a family.

  3. Protein Repeats from First Principles

    PubMed Central

    Turjanski, Pablo; Parra, R. Gonzalo; Espada, Rocío; Becher, Verónica; Ferreiro, Diego U.

    2016-01-01

    Some natural proteins display recurrent structural patterns. Despite being highly similar at the tertiary structure level, repeating patterns within a single repeat protein can be extremely variable at the sequence level. We use a mathematical definition of a repetition and investigate the occurrences of these in sequences of different protein families. We found that long stretches of perfect repetitions are infrequent in individual natural proteins, even for those which are known to fold into structures of recurrent structural motifs. We found that natural repeat proteins are indeed repetitive in their families, exhibiting abundant stretches of 6 amino acids or longer that are perfect repetitions in the reference family. We provide a systematic quantification for this repetitiveness. We show that this form of repetitiveness is not exclusive of repeat proteins, but also occurs in globular domains. A by-product of this work is a fast quantification of the likelihood of a protein to belong to a family. PMID:27044676

  4. Nanospring behaviour of ankyrin repeats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gwangrog; Abdi, Khadar; Jiang, Yong; Michaely, Peter; Bennett, Vann; Marszalek, Piotr E

    2006-03-09

    Ankyrin repeats are an amino-acid motif believed to function in protein recognition; they are present in tandem copies in diverse proteins in nearly all phyla. Ankyrin repeats contain antiparallel alpha-helices that can stack to form a superhelical spiral. Visual inspection of the extrapolated structure of 24 ankyrin-R repeats indicates the possibility of spring-like behaviour of the putative superhelix. Moreover, stacks of 17-29 ankyrin repeats in the cytoplasmic domains of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been identified as candidates for a spring that gates mechanoreceptors in hair cells as well as in Drosophila bristles. Here we report that tandem ankyrin repeats exhibit tertiary-structure-based elasticity and behave as a linear and fully reversible spring in single-molecule measurements by atomic force microscopy. We also observe an unexpected ability of unfolded repeats to generate force during refolding, and report the first direct measurement of the refolding force of a protein domain. Thus, we show that one of the most common amino-acid motifs has spring properties that could be important in mechanotransduction and in the design of nanodevices.

  5. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on mucus clearance.

    PubMed

    Millar, A B; Pavia, D; Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Lauque, D; Clarke, S W

    1985-07-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine has been advocated as a mucolytic agent for use in chronic bronchitis. We have investigated the effects of regular use of this drug at a dose of 200 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks in nine patients with chronic bronchitis on lung function, lung mucociliary clearance and sputum viscosity in a controlled, double-blind, crossover study. No significant differences were found in lung function, mucociliary clearance curves or sputum viscosity following treatment with N-acetylcysteine compared to control or placebo measurements.

  6. Secretory antibody following oral influenza immunization.

    PubMed

    Waldman, R H; Stone, J; Bergmann, K C; Khakoo, R; Lazzell, V; Jacknowitz, A; Waldman, E R; Howard, S

    1986-12-01

    Secretory IgA antibody may be important in protection against respiratory viral infections, and the concept of a common mucosal immune system offers the theoretical basis for the convenient stimulation of this antibody. Therefore, the oral route was compared with intramuscular injection in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in young healthy volunteers. A killed influenza vaccine, given in enteric-coated capsules (total of 98 ug hemagglutinin of A/Bangkok) led to significant salivary and nasal IgA antibody rises in a 4-week period. The preimmunization titers in secretions were inversely correlated with the antibody rise after immunization. The orally administered vaccine was associated with no more side effects than placebo, in contradistinction to reactions following the intramuscular route. The latter route also was without significant effect in regard to a stimulation of secretory antibodies. The observed simultaneous induction of antibodies in saliva and nasal secretions following oral administration of killed vaccine gives further evidence of a common mucosal immune system and its possible clinical use.

  7. Unnecessary repeated total cholesterol tests in biochemistry laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Suleyman; Zorbozan, Nergiz; Basak, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to determine the number of repeated cholesterol (RC) tests and the ratio of unnecessary-repeated cholesterol (URC) tests among patients admitted to Pamukkale University Hospital (Denizli, Turkey) and provide solutions to avoid URC testing. Materials and methods Total cholesterol (T-cholesterol) tests (N = 86,817) between June 2014 and May 2015 were evaluated. The tests performed more than once per patient were determined as RC test (N = 28,811). RC test with an interval shorter than 4 weeks were determined as URC test (N = 3968) according to the shortest retest interval stated in ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guideline. RC testing included internal medicine, surgery and paediatric outpatients and inpatients. Reference change value (RCV) of total cholesterol was calculated. Results The 33.1% of the T-cholesterol tests were RC tests (N = 28,811), 13.7% of them were URC tests (N = 3968). Our RCV value was 25%. The percentage change between consecutive tests was less than RCV in 86.1% (N = 3418) of URC tests. URC tests were performed more frequently in patients with desirable total cholesterol value (P < 0.001). Conclusion There is a significant part of repeated T-cholesterol tests requested in our hospital. URC test requests can be evaluated by laboratories and the obtained data should be shared with clinicians. Laboratories can calculate RCV for the tests they performed and report this value with the test result. To prevent from URC tests, a warning plug-in can be added to hospital information software in accordance with guidelines to prevent from URC test requests. PMID:26981021

  8. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Today! Limited Edition T-Shirt Buy Today! The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ... trustworthy health information: verify here. Social Networks The Oral Cancer Foundation 3419 Via Lido #205 Newport Beach Ca ...

  9. Oral Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  10. Invasive candidiasis and oral manifestations in premature newborns

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco-Araujo, José Endrigo; Araújo, Diana Ferreira Gadelha; Barbosa, Patrícia Gomes; Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; de Medeiros, Ana Myriam Costa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and to evaluate oral diseases and Candida spp. colonization in low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: A descriptive epidemiological study performed in two stages. First, prevalence of candidiasis was analyzed in a database of 295 preterm patients admitted to hospital for over 10 days and birth weight less than 2,000g. In the second stage, oral changes and Candida spp. colonization were assessed in 65 patients weighing less than 2,000g, up to 4 week-old, hospitalized for over 10 days and presenting oral abnormalities compatible with fungal lesions. Swab samples were collected in the mouth to identify fungi. Results: Prevalence of candidiasis was 5.4% in the database analyzed. It correlated with prolonged hospital length of stay (p<0.001), in average, 31 days, and 85% risk of developing infection in the first 25 days. It correlated with low birth weight (p<0.001), with mean of 1,140g. The most frequent alterations were white soft plaques, detachable, in oral mucosa and tongue. Intense oral colonization by Candida spp was observed (80%). Conclusions: The frequency of invasive candidiasis was low and correlated with low birth weight and prolonged hospital stay. The most common oral changes were white plaques compatible with pseudomembranous candidiasis and colonization by Candida spp. was above average. PMID:23579747

  11. Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on facial muscle strength and oral function in stroke patients with facial palsy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on facial muscle strength and oral function in stroke patients with facial palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Nine subjects received the electrical stimulation and traditional dysphagia therapy. Electrical stimulation was applied to stimulate each subject’s facial muscles 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. [Results] Subjects showed significant improvement in cheek and lip strength and oral function after the intervention. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates that electrical stimulation improves facial muscle strength and oral function in stroke patients with dysphagia. PMID:27799689

  12. Systematic review of oral treatments for seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Richardson, M; Paquet, M

    2014-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is normally treated with topical corticosteroids and antifungals. Oral therapies can be prescribed in severe or unresponsive cases. This review aims to assess the quantity and quality of published reports on oral therapies for SD. MEDLINE and Embase databases and the reference listings of publications were searched for any publication using oral treatment for SD. The quality of the included publications was assessed using a modified 27 item checklist by Downs and Black. Twenty-one publications (randomized controlled trials, open trials and case reports) covering eight oral therapies (itraconazole, terbinafine, fluconazole, ketoconazole, pramiconazole, prednisone, isotretinoin and homeopathic mineral therapy) were identified. Most of the publications investigated oral antifungals and the quality of the evidence was generally low. The clinical efficacy outcome reported varied considerably between the studies, preventing statistical analysis and direct comparison between treatments. However, ketoconazole therapy was associated with more relapses compared with other treatments. Itraconazole dosing regimen for SD was generally 200 mg/day for the first week of the month followed by 200 mg/day for the first 2 days for 2-11 months. Terbinafine was prescribed at 250 mg/day either as a continuous (4-6 weeks) or as an intermittent regimen (12 days per month) for 3 months. Fluconazole has administered daily (50 mg/day for 2 weeks) or weekly (200-300 mg) for 2-4 weeks. Ketoconazole dosing regimen was 200 mg daily for 4 weeks. Finally, a single 200 mg dose of pramiconazole was administered to patients. This review also highlights key areas for consideration when designing future studies.

  13. Local toxicity of benzalkonium chloride in ophthalmic solutions following repeated applications.

    PubMed

    Okahara, Akihiko; Kawazu, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    We performed repeated toxicity studies of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing vehicles of ophthalmic solutions in monkeys and rabbits to assess the local toxicity of BAK after repeated applications on the ocular surface. Local toxicity of BAK was evaluated by toxicity studies in which a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 52 weeks, 4 times/day for 39 weeks, or 6 times/day for 13 weeks, or in which a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 52 weeks or twice/day for 4 weeks in monkeys. Local toxicity of BAK was also evaluated where a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 6 weeks, or a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 39 weeks or 8 times/day for 4 weeks in rabbits. These doses were chosen because BAK is generally used at concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solutions. The BAK-containing vehicle did not cause ophthalmological changes suggestive of irritation, allergy, or corneal damage. We also did not observe any histopathological changes in the eyeball, eyelid, lacrimal gland, and nasal cavity, with repeated applications of BAK for up to 52 weeks, up to 8 times/day, or at concentrations up to 0.01%, in monkeys and rabbits. Our results suggest that BAK in concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solution is non-toxic to the eyeball, its accessory organs, and the nasal cavity after long repeated applications.

  14. Cannabinoid Stability in Authentic Oral Fluid after Controlled Cannabis Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Milman, Garry; Schwope, David M.; Barnes, Allan J.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Defining cannabinoid stability in authentic oral fluid (OF) is critically important for result interpretation. There are few published OF stability data, and of those available, all employed fortified synthetic OF solutions or elution buffers; none included authentic OF following controlled cannabis smoking. METHODS An expectorated OF pool and a pool of OF collected with Quantisal™ devices were prepared for each of 10 participants. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) stability in each of 10 authentic expectorated and Quantisal-collected OF pools were determined after storage at 4 °C for 1 and 4 weeks and at −20 °C for 4 and 24 weeks. Results within ±20% of baseline concentrations analyzed within 24 h of collection were considered stable. RESULTS All Quantisal OF cannabinoid concentrations were stable for 1 week at 4 °C. After 4 weeks at 4 °C, as well as 4 and 24 weeks at −20 °C, THC was stable in 90%, 80%, and 80% and THCCOOH in 89%, 40%, and 50% of Quantisal samples, respectively. Cannabinoids in expectorated OF were less stable than in Quantisal samples when refrigerated or frozen. After 4 weeks at 4 and −20 °C, CBD and CBN were stable in 33%–100% of Quantisal and expectorated samples; by 24 weeks at −20 °C, CBD and CBN were stable in ≤44%. CONCLUSIONS Cannabinoid OF stability varied by analyte, collection method, and storage duration and temperature, and across participants. OF collection with a device containing an elution/stabilization buffer, sample storage at 4 °C, and analysis within 4 weeks is preferred to maximize result accuracy. PMID:22532594

  15. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  16. Magnetars as soft gamma repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Karen

    1999-05-01

    The source of non-periodic, repeating, gamma-ray bursts located within our galaxy and near supernova remnants has been a mystery. A new theory by Christopher Thompson and Robert Duncan, postulating the existence of young neutron stars with intense magnetic fields (1E14 Gauss or more) offers an explanation. The intense magnetic fields of these "magnetars" suffice to create the phenomena detected from soft gamma-ray repeaters. The poles of a magnetar are hot enough to emit steady, low level x-ray emissions. Stresses on the star's crust due to the drifting of the magnetic field through the superfluid core create seismic activity and "starquakes," which release enormous bursts of energy. Data collected from recent soft gamma-ray repeater bursts appear to be strong evidence in support of this exciting new theory.

  17. Limitations on quantum key repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  18. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provenzano, Virgil; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H.; ElBidweihy, Hatem

    2014-02-01

    The Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd5Ge2Si2 and Ni50Mn35In15 alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  19. Do Twelfths Terminate or Repeat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Rebecca; Burnison, Erica

    2015-01-01

    When finding the decimal equivalent of a fraction with 12 in the denominator, will it terminate or repeat? This question came from a seventh grader in author Erica Burnison's class as the student was pondering a poster generated by one of her classmates. Not only was the question intriguing, but it also affirmed the belief in the power of…

  20. Mechanical Anisotropy of Ankyrin Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Whasil; Zeng, Xiancheng; Rotolo, Kristina; Yang, Ming; Schofield, Christopher J.; Bennett, Vann; Yang, Weitao; Marszalek, Piotr E.

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells are frequently deformed and their cytoskeletal proteins such as spectrin and ankyrin-R are repeatedly subjected to mechanical forces. While the mechanics of spectrin was thoroughly investigated in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the mechanical behavior of ankyrin-R. In this study, we combine coarse-grained steered molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force spectroscopy to examine the mechanical response of ankyrin repeats (ARs) in a model synthetic AR protein NI6C, and in the D34 fragment of native ankyrin-R when these proteins are subjected to various stretching geometry conditions. Our steered molecular dynamics results, supported by AFM measurements, reveal an unusual mechanical anisotropy of ARs: their mechanical stability is greater when their unfolding is forced to propagate from the N-terminus toward the C-terminus (repeats unfold at ∼60 pN), as compared to the unfolding in the opposite direction (unfolding force ∼ 30 pN). This anisotropy is also reflected in the complex refolding behavior of ARs. The origin of this unfolding and refolding anisotropy is in the various numbers of native contacts that are broken and formed at the interfaces between neighboring repeats depending on the unfolding/refolding propagation directions. Finally, we discuss how these complex mechanical properties of ARs in D34 may affect its behavior in vivo. PMID:22404934

  1. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    OKI, Tomoyuki; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; WATANABE, Osamu; GOTO, Kazuhisa; BOELSMA, Esther; ISHIKAWA, Fumiyasu; SUDA, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18–70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m2, elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure. PMID:27508114

  2. Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins and Cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Buchko, Garry W.

    2009-10-16

    Cyanobacteria are unique in many ways and one unusual feature is the presence of a suite of proteins that contain at least one domain with a minimum of eight tandem repeated five-residues (Rfr) of the general consensus sequence A[N/D]LXX. The function of such pentapeptide repeat proteins (PRPs) are still unknown, however, their prevalence in cyanobacteria suggests that they may play some role in the unique biological activities of cyanobacteria. As part of an inter-disciplinary Membrane Biology Grand Challenge at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) and Washington University in St. Louis, the genome of Cyanothece 51142 was sequenced and its molecular biology studied with relation to circadian rhythms. The genome of Cyanothece encodes for 35 proteins that contain at least one PRP domain. These proteins range in size from 105 (Cce_3102) to 930 (Cce_2929) kDa with the PRP domains ranging in predicted size from 12 (Cce_1545) to 62 (cce_3979) tandem pentapeptide repeats. Transcriptomic studies with 29 out of the 35 genes showed that at least three of the PRPs in Cyanothece 51142 (cce_0029, cce_3083, and cce_3272) oscillated with repeated periods of light and dark, further supporting a biological function for PRPs. Using X-ray diffraction crystallography, the structure for two pentapeptide repeat proteins from Cyanothece 51142 were determined, cce_1272 (aka Rfr32) and cce_4529 (aka Rfr23). Analysis of their molecular structures suggests that all PRP may share the same structural motif, a novel type of right-handed quadrilateral β-helix, or Rfr-fold, reminiscent of a square tower with four distinct faces. Each pentapeptide repeat occupies one face of the Rfr-fold with four consecutive pentapeptide repeats completing a coil that, in turn, stack upon each other to form “protein skyscrapers”. Details of the structural features of the Rfr-fold are reviewed here together with a discussion for the possible role of end

  3. [Prevention of oral diseases].

    PubMed

    Vodanović, Marin

    2013-06-01

    Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. Ever more people are affected with oral diseases. Dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are the most common oral diseases and they can be prevented. Oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programs should be incorporated in national health strategies. Inability to understand health information can be a profound disadvantage to patients when asked to take responsibility for their health. Increasing the level of oral health literacy and improvement of communication between patients and dentists by avoiding the usage of professional dental terminology should be included in each oral prevention program.

  4. Liking of health-functional foods containing lupin kernel fibre following repeated consumption in a dietary intervention setting.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ramon S; Baxter, Amynta L; Fryirs, Cathy; Johnson, Stuart K

    2010-10-01

    Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on sensory acceptability in the dietary intervention setting. In a single-blind randomised crossover 4-week intervention, participants consumed both control and equivalent LKFibre-containing products daily on separate interventions separated by a 4-week period on habitual diet. Seven products: muesli, bread, muffin, chocolate brownie, chocolate milk drink, pasta and instant mashed potato were assessed twice (days 4 and 18 of intervention), by 38 participants for appearance, texture, flavour and general acceptability using a structured graphic hedonic scale. Overall the results showed there was no reduction (P=0.594) in general acceptability of LKFibre foods after repeated consumption, suggesting potential for long-term consumption. The control food products were however generally preferred (P<0.001) over the LKFibre foods; the mean difference for general acceptability between being <6% (0.82cm) of the 15cm hedonic scale used, suggesting LKF addition did not severely affect product palatability.

  5. Repeated intravenous injection of recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor ameliorates liver cirrhosis but causes albuminuria in rats.

    PubMed

    Kusumoto, Kazunori; Ido, Akio; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Katsura, Toshiya; Kim, Ildeok; Takahama, Yuka; Numata, Masatsugu; Kodama, Mayumi; Hasuike, Satoru; Nagata, Kenji; Uto, Hirofumi; Inui, Ken-Ichi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2006-03-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a promising agent for the treatment of liver cirrhosis because of its mitogenic and anti-fibrotic effects. We investigated the effect of recombinant human HGF (rh-HGF) on cirrhosis development; its pharmacokinetics and nephrotoxicity in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by 4-week treatment with dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). rh-HGF (0.3 mg/kg) was intravenously administered to rats once a day for 4 weeks in parallel with DMN treatment or twice a day for the last 2 weeks of DMN treatment. Repeated doses of rh-HGF increased the liver weight and serum albumin, and reduced serum ALT. The development of hepatic fibrosis was inhibited more efficiently by extended low-dose treatment with rh-HGF. In cirrhotic rats, serum levels of rh-HGF increased and clearance was decreased, leading to an increase in the area under the plasma-concentration time curve and a decrease in the steady-state volume of distribution. Repeated doses of rh-HGF led to increased urinary albumin excretion, but no rh-HGF-treated animals developed increased serum creatinine levels. Urinary albumin excretion returned to baseline after the cessation of rh-HGF. These results suggest that extended treatment with rh-HGF is required for the attenuation of cirrhosis, and repeated doses of rh-HGF cause adverse effects in extra-hepatic organs. These issues must be resolved before the widespread application of rh-HGF in the treatment of liver cirrhosis.

  6. Methodology of oral sensory tests.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R; Wu, C-H; Van Loven, K; Desnyder, M; Kolenaar, B; Van Steenberghed, D

    2002-08-01

    Different methods of oral sensory tests including light touch sensation, two-point discrimination, vibrotactile function and thermal sensation were compared. Healthy subjects were tested to assess the results obtained from two psychophysical approaches, namely the staircase and the ascending & descending method of limits for light touch sensation and two-point discrimination. Both methods appeared to be reliable for examining oral sensory function. The effect of topical anaesthesia was also evaluated but no conclusion could be drawn as too few subjects were involved. Newly developed simple testing tools for two-point discrimination and thermal sensation in a clinical situation were developed prior to this study and tested for their reproducibility. Thermal sensation could be reliably detected in repeated trials. Although the hand-held instruments have some drawbacks, the outcome of these instruments in a clinical environment is suitable for assessing oral sensory function. Three different frequencies (32, 128 and 256 Hz) were used to estimate the vibrotactile function. Different threshold levels were found at different frequencies.

  7. Dominant short repeated sequences in bacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut

    2015-03-01

    We use a novel multidimensional searching approach to present the first exhaustive search for all possible repeated sequences in 166 genomes selected to cover the bacterial domain. We found an overrepresentation of repeated sequences in all but one of the genomes. The most prevalent repeats by far were related to interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)—conferring bacterial adaptive immunity. We identified a deep branching clade of thermophilic Firmicutes containing the highest number of CRISPR repeats. We also identified a high prevalence of tandem repeated heptamers. In addition, we identified GC-rich repeats that could potentially be involved in recombination events. Finally, we identified repeats in a 16322 amino acid mega protein (involved in biofilm formation) and inverted repeats flanking miniature transposable elements (MITEs). In conclusion, the exhaustive search for repeated sequences identified new elements and distribution of these, which has implications for understanding both the ecology and evolution of bacteria.

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy of oral cromolyn sodium or an oligoantigenic diet in children with atopic dermatitis: a multicenter study of 1085 patients.

    PubMed

    Businco, L; Meglio, P; Amato, G; Balsamo, V; Cainelli, T; Cantone, P; Castro, M; Coletta, A; Corrias, A; Giorgi, P L; Grazioli, I; Longo-Papadia, L; Marcucci, F; Masi, M; Pavesio, D; Scotta, S; Seidenari, S; Vierucci, A

    1996-01-01

    One thousand eighty-five children with atopic dermatitis were enrolled in a multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy of 4 weeks of oral sodium cromoglycate or 4 weeks of a restricted diet. One thousand-eleven children (93%) concluded the study. At the end of the trial there was a significant improvement in skin lesions in the two groups: 61% of the patients in the sodium cromoglycate group and 69% in the restricted diet showed a significant improvement in atopic dermatitis. We concluded that, at least in our experimental design, both sodium cromoglycate and a restricted diet are equally effective in atopic dermatitis.

  9. Observations of Soft Gamma Repeaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2004-01-01

    Magnetars (Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars) are a subclass of neutron stars characterized by their recurrent X-ray bursts. While in an active (bursting) state (lasting anywhere between days and years), they are emit&ng hundreds of predominantly soft (kT=30 kev), short (0.1-100 ms long) events. Their quiescent source x-ray light ewes exhibit puhlions rotational period rate changes (spin-down) indicate that their magnetic fields are extremely high, of the order of 10^14- 10^l5 G. Such high B-field objects, dubbed "magnetars", had been predicted to exist in 1992, but the first concrete observational evidence were obtained in 1998 for two of these sources. I will discuss here the history of Soft Gamma Repeaters, and their spectral, timing and flux characteristics both in the persistent and their burst emission.

  10. Comparing the Efficiency of Repeated Reading and Listening-While-Reading to Improve Fluency and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Marsicano, Richard; Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2015-01-01

    An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of two reading fluency interventions on the oral reading fluency and maze accuracy of four fourth-grade students. Also, by taking into account time spent in intervention, the efficiency of the two interventions was compared. In the adult-mediated repeated reading (RR) condition,…

  11. The Effects of Repeated Readings on the Development of Lower Identification Skills of FL Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Etsuo

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of repeated readings of a passage in a foreign language (English) on the ability of slow beginning readers at a Japanese university to increase their oral and silent reading rates. Results indicate that, for practice passages, silent reading rates increased significantly. This transfer of practice effects to a new passage…

  12. A repeating fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitler, L. G.; Scholz, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E. C.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Seymour, A.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  13. A repeating fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  14. Repeated sprint training improves intermittent peak running speed in team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jayden R; O'Brien, Brendan J; Mooney, Mitchell G; Berry, Jason; Young, Warren B; Down, Neville

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 2 repeated sprint training interventions on an intermittent peak running speed (IPRS) test designed for Australian Rules football. The test required participants to perform 10 × 10-m maximal efforts on an 80-m course every 25 seconds, for each of which the mean peak speed (kilometers per hour) was recorded to determine IPRS. The training interventions were performed twice weekly for 4 weeks immediately before regular football training. In the constant volume intervention (CVol), sprint repetition number remained at 10 (n = 9), and in the linear increase in volume (LIVol) intervention, repetition number increased linearly each week by 2 repetitions (n = 12). Intermittent peak running speed, 300-m shuttle test performance, and peak running speed were assessed before and upon completion of training. All measures were compared to a control group (CON; n = 8) in which players completed regular football training exclusively. Intermittent peak running speed performance in CVol and LIVol improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 5.2 and 3.8%, respectively, with no change in IPRS for CON. There were no differences in IPRS changes between CVol and LIVol. Additionally, peak running speed improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 5.1% for CVol, whereas 300-m shuttle performance improved significantly (p < 0.01) by 2.6% for LIVol only. Intermittent peak running speed, 300-m shuttle performance and peak running speed were improved after 4 weeks of training; however, progressively increasing sprint repetition number had no greater advantage on IPRS adaptation. Additionally, exclusive regular football training over a 4-week period is unlikely to improve IPRS, peak running speed, or 300-m shuttle performance.

  15. The effect of repeated mild cold water immersions on the adaptation of the vasomotor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Kuroki, Hideto; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    There are several types of cold adaptation based on the alteration of thermoregulatory response. It has been thought that the temperature of repeated cold exposures during the adaptation period is one of the factors affecting the type of cold adaptation developed. This study tested the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersions would induce an insulative cold adaptation but would not alter the metabolic response. Seven healthy male participants were immersed to their xiphoid process level repeatedly in 26°C water for 60 min, 3 days every week, for 4 weeks. During the first and last exposure of this cold acclimation period, the participants underwent body immersion tests measuring their thermoregulatory responses to cold. Separately, they conducted finger immersion into 5°C water for 30 min to assess their cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) response before and after cold acclimation. During the immersion to xiphoid process, participants showed significantly lower mean skin temperature and skin blood flow in the forearm post-acclimation, while no adaptation was observed in the metabolic response. Additionally, blunted CIVD responses were observed after cold acclimation. From these results, it was considered that the participants showed an insulative-type of cold acclimation after the repeated mild cold immersions. The major finding of this study was the acceptance of the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersion was sufficient to induce insulative cold adaptation but did not alter the metabolic response. It is suggested that the adaptation in the thermoregulatory response is specific to the response which is repeatedly stimulated during the adaptation process.

  16. Repeated formaldehyde effects in an animal model for multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sorg, B A; Tschirgi, M L; Swindell, S; Chen, L; Fang, J

    2001-03-01

    Chemical intolerance is a phenomenon observed in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) syndrome, an ill-defined disorder in humans attributed to exposure to volatile organic compounds. Amplification of symptoms in individuals with MCS resembles the phenomenon of psychostimulant- and stress-induced sensitization in rodents. We have recently tested in rats the hypothesis that repeated chemical exposure produces sensitization of central nervous system (CNS) circuitry. A rat model of MCS in our laboratory has employed several endpoints of CNS function after repeated formaldehyde (Form) exposure (1 h/day x 5 days/week x 4 weeks). Repeated Form exposure produced behavioral sensitization to later cocaine injection, suggesting altered dopaminergic sensitivity in mesolimbic pathways. Rats given repeated Form also demonstrated increased fear conditioning to odor paired with footshock, implicating amplification of neural circuitry guiding fear responding to a conditioned odor cue. Recent studies examining the effects of repeated Form on locomotor activity during each daily exposure showed a decrease in rearing activity after 12-15 days of Form exposure compared to air-exposed controls. EEG recordings taken 1 week after withdrawal from daily Form revealed altered sleep architecture. Some of the differences in sleep disappeared after subsequent brief (15 min) challenge with Form the next day. Overall, the findings indicate that repeated low-level chemical exposure produces behavioral changes that may be akin to those observed in individuals with MCS, such as greater sensitivity to chemicals manifest as increased anxiety upon chemical exposure and altered sleep and/or fatigue. Study of the underlying CNS changes will provide a basis for mechanistically based animal models for MCS.

  17. Repeated amphetamine exposure disrupts dopaminergic modulation of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry and cognitive/emotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Tse, Maric T L; Cantor, Anna; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-08-03

    Repeated exposure to psychostimulants such as amphetamine (AMPH) disrupts cognitive and behavioral processes mediated by the medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). The present study investigated the effects of repeated AMPH exposure on the neuromodulatory actions of dopamine (DA) on BLA-mPFC circuitry and cognitive/emotional processing mediated by these circuits. Rats received five AMPH (2 mg/kg) or saline injections (controls) over 10 d, followed by 2-4 week drug washout. In vivo neurophysiological extracellular recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats were used to obtain data from mPFC neurons that were either inhibited or excited by BLA stimulation. In controls, acute AMPH attenuated BLA-evoked inhibitory or excitatory responses; these effects were mimicked by selective D(2) or D(1) agonists, respectively. However, in AMPH-treated rats, the ability of these dopaminergic manipulations to modulate BLA-driven decreases/increases in mPFC activity was abolished. Repeated AMPH also blunted the excitatory effects of ventral tegmental area stimulation on mPFC neural firing. Behavioral studies assessed the effect of repeated AMPH on decision making with conditioned punishment, a process mediated by BLA-mPFC circuitry and mesocortical DA. These treatments impaired the ability of rats to use conditioned aversive stimuli (footshock-associated cue) to guide the direction of instrumental responding. Collectively, these data suggest that repeated AMPH exposure can lead to persistent disruption of dopaminergic modulation of BLA-mPFC circuitry, which may underlie impairments in cognitive/emotional processing observed in stimulant abusers. Furthermore, they suggest that impairments in decision making guided by aversive stimuli observed in stimulant abusers may be the result of repeated drug exposure.

  18. Peptides in oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases.

  19. Oral Health of Patients Treated with Acrylic Partial Dentures Using a Toothpaste Containing Bee Product

    PubMed Central

    Kownacki, Patryk; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Piekarz, Tomasz; Bogacz, Mateusz; Kasperski, Jacek; Niedzielska, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis and tee tree oil-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Thirty-seven patients who underwent oral rehabilitation with a removable acrylic denture were selected and randomly assigned into two groups: study group (A) which received a newly formulated propolis and tee tree oil-containing toothpaste or a control group (C) without an active ingredient. API, S-OHI, and mSBI were assessed in three subsequent stages. During each examination swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation: in the study group after 4 weeks use of the active toothpaste showed a decrease in the number of isolated microorganisms. In the control group, after 4 weeks use of the toothpaste without active ingredients resulted in increase in the number of the isolated microorganisms. Improvements in hygiene and the condition of periodontium were observed in patients using active toothpastes. In the study group the oral flora diversity was reduced by the decrease in the number of cultured microorganism species, while in the control group an increase in the number of cultured microorganisms and their species was observed. PMID:28265291

  20. Oral Health of Patients Treated with Acrylic Partial Dentures Using a Toothpaste Containing Bee Product.

    PubMed

    Wiatrak, Karolina; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Rój, Rafał; Mertas, Anna; Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Kownacki, Patryk; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Baron, Stefan; Piekarz, Tomasz; Wrzoł, Maciej; Bogacz, Mateusz; Kasperski, Jacek; Niedzielska, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis and tee tree oil-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Thirty-seven patients who underwent oral rehabilitation with a removable acrylic denture were selected and randomly assigned into two groups: study group (A) which received a newly formulated propolis and tee tree oil-containing toothpaste or a control group (C) without an active ingredient. API, S-OHI, and mSBI were assessed in three subsequent stages. During each examination swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation: in the study group after 4 weeks use of the active toothpaste showed a decrease in the number of isolated microorganisms. In the control group, after 4 weeks use of the toothpaste without active ingredients resulted in increase in the number of the isolated microorganisms. Improvements in hygiene and the condition of periodontium were observed in patients using active toothpastes. In the study group the oral flora diversity was reduced by the decrease in the number of cultured microorganism species, while in the control group an increase in the number of cultured microorganisms and their species was observed.

  1. Repeated thermal therapy upregulates arterial endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Biro, S; Kamogawa, Y; Yoshifuku, S; Eto, H; Orihara, K; Kihara, T; Tei, C

    2001-05-01

    It has been previously reported that sauna therapy, a thermal therapy, improves the hemodynamics and clinical symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure and also improves endothelial function, which is impaired in such patients. The present study investigated whether the improvements observed with sauna therapy are through modulation of arterial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. Eight male Syrian golden hamsters underwent sauna therapy, using an experimental far infrared-ray dry sauna system, at 39 degrees C for 15 min followed by 30 degrees C for 20 min daily for 4 weeks. Control group hamsters were placed in the sauna system switched off at room temperature of 24 degrees C for 35 min. Immunohistochemistry found greater amounts of the immunoreactive products of eNOS in the endothelial cells of the aorta and carotid, femoral and coronary arteries in the sauna group than in the control group. Western blot analysis also revealed that 4-week sauna therapy significantly increased eNOS expression in aortas by 50% in 4 series of independent experiments with an identical protocol (p<0.01). In reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, the eNOS mRNA in aortas was greater in the sauna group than in controls, with a peak at 1-week of sauna therapy (approximately 40-fold increase). In conclusion, repeated thermal therapy upregulates eNOS expression in arterial endothelium.

  2. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  3. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  4. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  5. Oral Communication K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, June, Ed.

    This speech communication curriculum guide is designed to provide a comprehensive oral language curriculum, to suggest ways for integrating oral activities into other curriculum areas, and to stimulate ideas for using oral language in a holistic rather than a fragmentary learning environment. Following an introductory chapter on "creating the…

  6. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  7. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  8. Crowding by a repeating pattern

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G.

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target–flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker. PMID:26024457

  9. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  10. Oral steroid contraception.

    PubMed

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  11. Essentials of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  12. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  13. Evolution of Protein Domain Repeats in Metazoa

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Andreas; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Repeats are ubiquitous elements of proteins and they play important roles for cellular function and during evolution. Repeats are, however, also notoriously difficult to capture computationally and large scale studies so far had difficulties in linking genetic causes, structural properties and evolutionary trajectories of protein repeats. Here we apply recently developed methods for repeat detection and analysis to a large dataset comprising over hundred metazoan genomes. We find that repeats in larger protein families experience generally very few insertions or deletions (indels) of repeat units but there is also a significant fraction of noteworthy volatile outliers with very high indel rates. Analysis of structural data indicates that repeats with an open structure and independently folding units are more volatile and more likely to be intrinsically disordered. Such disordered repeats are also significantly enriched in sites with a high functional potential such as linear motifs. Furthermore, the most volatile repeats have a high sequence similarity between their units. Since many volatile repeats also show signs of recombination, we conclude they are often shaped by concerted evolution. Intriguingly, many of these conserved yet volatile repeats are involved in host-pathogen interactions where they might foster fast but subtle adaptation in biological arms races. Key Words: protein evolution, domain rearrangements, protein repeats, concerted evolution. PMID:27671125

  14. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  15. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-10-18

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility.

  16. Repeat instability: mechanisms of dynamic mutations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Christopher E; Nichol Edamura, Kerrie; Cleary, John D

    2005-10-01

    Disease-causing repeat instability is an important and unique form of mutation that is linked to more than 40 neurological, neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders. DNA repeat expansion mutations are dynamic and ongoing within tissues and across generations. The patterns of inherited and tissue-specific instability are determined by both gene-specific cis-elements and trans-acting DNA metabolic proteins. Repeat instability probably involves the formation of unusual DNA structures during DNA replication, repair and recombination. Experimental advances towards explaining the mechanisms of repeat instability have broadened our understanding of this mutational process. They have revealed surprising ways in which metabolic pathways can drive or protect from repeat instability.

  17. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity has... skin surface. Both the covering and the washing shall be assayed to recover residual radioactivity....

  18. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity has... skin surface. Both the covering and the washing shall be assayed to recover residual radioactivity....

  19. 40 CFR 795.228 - Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration... repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity has... skin surface. Both the covering and the washing shall be assayed to recover residual radioactivity....

  20. Reproducibility and validity of oral visual inspection by trained health workers in the detection of oral precancer and cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, B.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Sunilkumar, K. B.; Kuruvila, B.; Pisani, P.; Nair, M. K.

    1997-01-01

    A randomized intervention trial is in progress in Kerala, India, to evaluate the effectiveness of oral visual inspection by trained health workers (HWs) in the prevention of oral cancer. Fourteen health workers with college graduation as the basic qualification were trained in oral visual inspection to identify oral cancers and precancers among the participants of the screening trial and to refer them for further confirmation and management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of the screening test provided by the health worker against the reference oral visual findings of three physicians. A total of 2069 subjects who had already been examined were re-examined by the health workers and physicians. The sensitivity and the specificity of the oral visual inspection were 94.3% and 99.3% respectively. There was moderate agreement between the findings of the initial and the repeat mouth examinations carried out by the health workers, which were on average 6 months apart. There was almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.85) between the findings of the health workers and the physicians in identifying the different types of oral precancerous lesions. The findings of our study indicate that it is possible to train resource persons to perform the oral cancer screening test as accurately as doctors, although experience appears to be a crucial component of health workers' accuracy. The efficacy of such an approach to reduce the incidence of and mortality from oral cancer, however, remains to be proven. PMID:9252209

  1. Unfolding a linker between helical repeats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Vanessa; Nielsen, Steven O; Klein, Michael L; Discher, Dennis E

    2005-06-10

    In many multi-repeat proteins, linkers between repeats have little secondary structure and place few constraints on folding or unfolding. However, the large family of spectrin-like proteins, including alpha-actinin, spectrin, and dystrophin, share three-helix bundle, spectrin repeats that appear in crystal structures to be linked by long helices. All of these proteins are regularly subjected to mechanical stress. Recent single molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments demonstrate not only forced unfolding but also simultaneous unfolding of tandem repeats at finite frequency, which suggests that the contiguous helix between spectrin repeats can propagate a cooperative helix-to-coil transition. Here, we address what happens atomistically to the linker under stress by steered molecular dynamics simulations of tandem spectrin repeats in explicit water. The results for alpha-actinin repeats reveal rate-dependent pathways, with one pathway showing that the linker between repeats unfolds, which may explain the single-repeat unfolding pathway observed in AFM experiments. A second pathway preserves the structural integrity of the linker, which explains the tandem-repeat unfolding event. Unfolding of the linker begins with a splay distortion of proximal loops away from hydrophobic contacts with the linker. This is followed by linker destabilization and unwinding with increased hydration of the backbone. The end result is an unfolded helix that mechanically decouples tandem repeats. Molecularly detailed insights obtained here aid in understanding the mechanical coupling of domain stability in spectrin family proteins.

  2. A Semiparametric Bayesian Model for Repeatedly Repeated Binary Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Fernando A.; Müller, Peter; Rosner, Gary L.; Relling, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We discuss the analysis of data from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays comparing tumor and normal tissues. The data consist of sequences of indicators for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and involve three nested levels of repetition: chromosomes for a given patient, regions within chromosomes, and SNPs nested within regions. We propose to analyze these data using a semiparametric model for multi-level repeated binary data. At the top level of the hierarchy we assume a sampling model for the observed binary LOH sequences that arises from a partial exchangeability argument. This implies a mixture of Markov chains model. The mixture is defined with respect to the Markov transition probabilities. We assume a nonparametric prior for the random mixing measure. The resulting model takes the form of a semiparametric random effects model with the matrix of transition probabilities being the random effects. The model includes appropriate dependence assumptions for the two remaining levels of the hierarchy, i.e., for regions within chromosomes and for chromosomes within patient. We use the model to identify regions of increased LOH in a dataset coming from a study of treatment-related leukemia in children with an initial cancer diagnostic. The model successfully identifies the desired regions and performs well compared to other available alternatives. PMID:19746193

  3. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the press run, of a printing and binding requisition to the Government Printing Office on a Standard Form 1. (c) After the press run, each request for extra copies of selected issues must be addressed...

  4. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the press run, of a printing and binding requisition to the Government Printing Office on a Standard Form 1. (c) After the press run, each request for extra copies of selected issues must be addressed...

  5. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the press run, of a printing and binding requisition to the Government Printing Office on a Standard Form 1. (c) After the press run, each request for extra copies of selected issues must be addressed...

  6. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the press run, of a printing and binding requisition to the Government Printing Office on a Standard Form 1. (c) After the press run, each request for extra copies of selected issues must be addressed...

  7. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the press run, of a printing and binding requisition to the Government Printing Office on a Standard Form 1. (c) After the press run, each request for extra copies of selected issues must be addressed...

  8. Cook Like a Chef 1- and 4-Week Camp Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Johnson, Glenda; Corr, Anne; Sharp, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Children participating in cooking classes gain confidence in their abilities to prepare food. If children are to make informed, healthy, food ingredient and cooking method choices, they need to be equipped with these necessary skills, as well as with nutrition competence. Extension programs that incorporate nutrition and hands-on cooking can…

  9. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  10. Modeling Repeatedly Flaring δ Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-03-01

    Active regions (ARs) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into α , β , γ , and δ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the δ sunspots are known to be superactive and produce the most x-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin subphotospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic δ sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  11. Modeling Repeatedly Flaring δ Sunspots.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-03-11

    Active regions (ARs) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into α, β, γ, and δ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the δ sunspots are known to be superactive and produce the most x-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin subphotospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic δ sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  12. Trinucleotide Repeats: A Structural Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Bruno; Fernandes, Sara; Abreu, Isabel A.; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansions are present in a wide range of genes involved in several neurological disorders, being directly involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis through modulation of gene expression and/or the function of the RNA or protein it encodes. Structural and functional information on the role of TNR sequences in RNA and protein is crucial to understand the effect of TNR expansions in neurodegeneration. Therefore, this review intends to provide to the reader a structural and functional view of TNR and encoded homopeptide expansions, with a particular emphasis on polyQ expansions and its role at inducing the self-assembly, aggregation and functional alterations of the carrier protein, which culminates in neuronal toxicity and cell death. Detail will be given to the Machado-Joseph Disease-causative and polyQ-containing protein, ataxin-3, providing clues for the impact of polyQ expansion and its flanking regions in the modulation of ataxin-3 molecular interactions, function, and aggregation. PMID:23801983

  13. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-06

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies.

  14. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations.

  15. TRDB—The Tandem Repeats Database

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Yevgeniy; Rodriguez, Alfredo; Benson, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Tandem repeats in DNA have been under intensive study for many years, first, as a consequence of their usefulness as genomic markers and DNA fingerprints and more recently as their role in human disease and regulatory processes has become apparent. The Tandem Repeats Database (TRDB) is a public repository of information on tandem repeats in genomic DNA. It contains a variety of tools for repeat analysis, including the Tandem Repeats Finder program, query and filtering capabilities, repeat clustering, polymorphism prediction, PCR primer selection, data visualization and data download in a variety of formats. In addition, TRDB serves as a centralized research workbench. It provides user storage space and permits collaborators to privately share their data and analysis. TRDB is available at . PMID:17175540

  16. Oral contraception following abortion

    PubMed Central

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001) compared with the control groups. Group II demonstrated a significant difference in vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.0002), menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and endometrial thickness at 2 (P = 0.003) and 3 (P < 0.00001) weeks postabortion compared with the control group. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in group III for reducing vaginal bleeding time (P < 0.00001) and the amount of vaginal bleeding (P < 0.00001), shortening the menstruation recovery period (P < 0.00001), and increasing endometrial thickness 2 and 3 weeks after surgical abortion (P < 0

  17. Adolescents and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, J S

    1991-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development

  18. Visual Scan Adaptation During Repeated Visual Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    repeated distractor –target configurations both require environmental stability. For stable distractor – target configurations, Chun and Jiang (1998) have...demon- strated search time savings from repeating distractor –target configurations, and Song and Jiang (2005) demonstrated that as little as 25% of the...search environment (i.e., two distractor locations and the target location out of 12 total locations per trial) repeated from trial to trial resulted

  19. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  20. Lambda Exonuclease Digestion of CGG Trinucleotide Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, R.S.; Koretsky, A.P.; Moreland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and other triplet repeat diseases are characterized by an elongation of a repeating DNA triplet. The ensemble-averaged lambda exonuclease digestion rate of different substrates, including one with an elongated FMR1 gene containing 120 CGG repeats, was measured using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using magnetic tweezers sequence-dependent digestion rates and pausing was measured for individual lambda exonucleases. Within the triplet repeats a lower average and narrower distribution of rates and a higher frequency of pausing was observed. PMID:19562332

  1. Human papillomavirus infection in the oral cavity of HIV patients is not reduced by initiating antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shiboski, Caroline H.; Lee, Anthony; Chen, Huichao; Webster-Cyriaque, Jennifer; Seaman, Todd; Landovitz, Raphael J.; John, Malcolm; Reilly, Nancy; Naini, Linda; Palefsky, Joel; Jacobson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral malignancies is increasing among HIV-infected populations, and the prevalence of oral warts has reportedly increased among HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We explored whether ART initiation among treatment-naive HIV-positive adults is followed by a change in oral HPV infection or the occurrence of oral warts. Design: Prospective, observational study. Methods: HIV-1 infected, ART-naive adults initiating ART in a clinical trial were enrolled. End points included detection of HPV DNA in throat-washes, changes in CD4+ T-cell count and HIV RNA, and oral wart diagnosis. Results: Among 388 participants, 18% had at least one HPV genotype present before initiating ART, and 24% had at least one genotype present after 12–24 weeks of ART. Among those with undetectable oral HPV DNA before ART, median change in CD4+ count from study entry to 4 weeks after ART initiation was larger for those with detectable HPV DNA during follow-up than those without (P =  0.003). Both prevalence and incidence of oral warts were low (3% of participants having oral warts at study entry; 2.5% acquiring oral warts during 48 weeks of follow-up). Conclusion: These results suggest: effective immune control of HPV in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients is not reconstituted by 24 weeks of ART; whereas ART initiation was not followed by an increase in oral warts, we observed an increase in oral HPV DNA detection after 12–24 weeks. The prevalence of HPV-associated oral malignancies may continue to increase in the modern ART era. PMID:26919735

  2. Oral pulsatile delivery: rationale and chronopharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Maroni, Alessandra; Zema, Lucia; Del Curto, Maria Dorly; Loreti, Giulia; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2010-10-15

    Oral pulsatile/delayed delivery systems are designed to elicit programmable lag phases preceding a prompt and quantitative, repeated or prolonged release of drugs. Accordingly, they draw increasing interest because of the inherent suitability for accomplishing chronotherapeutic goals, which have recently been highlighted in connection with a number of widespread chronic diseases with typical night or early-morning recurrence of symptoms (e.g. bronchial asthma, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, early-morning awakening). In addition, time-based colonic release can be attained when pulsatile delivery systems are properly adapted to overcome unpredictable gastric emptying and provide delay phases that would approximately match the small intestinal transit time. Oral pulsatile delivery is pursued by means of a variety of release platforms, namely reservoir, capsular and osmotic devices. The aim of the present review is to outline the rationale and main formulation strategies behind delayed-release dosage forms intended for the pharmacological treatment of chronopathologies.

  3. Oral contraceptives in migraine.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Mana, Ornella; Benedetto, Chiara

    2009-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptives are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, but they can also raise problems of clinical tolerability and/or safety in migraine patients. It is now commonly accepted that, in migraine with aura, the use of combined oral contraceptives is always contraindicated, and that their intake must also be suspended by patients suffering from migraine without aura if aura symptoms appear. The newest combined oral contraceptive formulations are generally well tolerated in migraine without aura, and the majority of migraine without aura sufferers do not show any problems with their use; nevertheless, the last International Classification of Headache Disorders identifies at least two entities evidently related to the use of combined oral contraceptives: exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As regards the safety, even if both migraine and combined oral contraceptive intake are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, migraine without aura per se is not a contraindication for combined oral contraceptive use. Other risk factors (tobacco use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes) must be carefully considered when prescribing combined oral contraceptives in migraine without aura patients, in particular in women aged over 35 years. Furthermore, the exclusion of a hereditary thrombophilia and of alterations of coagulative parameters should precede any decision of combined oral contraceptive prescription in migraine patients.

  4. Oral surgery. Basic techniques.

    PubMed

    Ross, D L; Goldstein, G S

    1986-09-01

    Some of the clinical problems most frequently seen in veterinary dentistry and their surgical solutions are discussed. Extraction of teeth, surgical repositioning of teeth, tooth transplant, oral abscesses of tooth origin, impaction of teeth, repair of maxillary canine oronasal fistula, and simple techniques for oral wiring are among the issues considered.

  5. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  6. ORAL AMELANOTIC MELANOMA

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, A.O.; Olawole, W.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  7. Epilepsy and oral care.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Janice; Boyle, Carole

    2002-05-01

    Epilepsy is a common symptom of an underlying neurological disorder. The seizures can take a variety of forms. Both the condition and its medical management can affect oral health. Prevention of oral disease and carefully planned dental treatment are essential to the well-being of people with epilepsy.

  8. Migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mousa, G Y

    1982-10-01

    Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed.

  9. Oral lichen planus and lichenoid mucositis.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Scott S; Ciarrocca, Katharine

    2014-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is commonly found in middle-aged women. Although the cause is unknown, research points to several complex immunologic events and cells that are responsible for the inflammatory destruction and chronicity of these lesions. Biopsy for histologic diagnosis is recommended. The mainstay of treatment remains topical corticosteroids; however, newer therapies such as immunomodulating agents are available for recalcitrant lesions. In cases of lichenoid mucositis or reactions, treatment should be directed at identifying and removing the presumed cause. Given the apparent risk of squamous cell carcinoma in these patients, frequent follow-up and repeat biopsy are vital.

  10. [Oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.

  11. Oral contraceptives: current status.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T

    2001-03-01

    During the past four decades, oral contraceptives have remained a safe and effective method of birth control. Reductions in the estrogen and progestin dosages have significantly decreased the incidence of cardiovascular complications. The association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer appears to be primarily because of detection bias or possibly a promotional effect. Despite the changes in formulation, the problems related to side effects have not been totally solved. Because compliance and successful use is strongly affected by side effects, improvement in this area is probably the biggest challenge faced by developers of oral contraceptives. It is also clear that there are a growing number of significant noncontraceptive benefits that accrue in oral contraceptive users. Unfortunately, many women do not know about these benefits. Thus, one of the issues that providers need to continue to address is how to provide better information about oral contraceptives and contraception in general to patients.

  12. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  13. Oral hydration during growth hormone stimulation with clonidine.

    PubMed

    May, Melissa; Rose, Susan R

    2007-10-01

    The arginine-clonidine growth hormone (GH) stimulation test causes hypotension, requiring intravenous fluids to stabilize blood pressure (BP) and delaying departure from clinic. We hypothesized that oral hydration during the stimulation test would decrease need for intravenous fluids and shorten clinic stay. Children drank a diet electrolyte drink (10 ml/kg) on arrival to the test, which was repeated after clonidine. Fifteen children (7 girls) were tested without oral hydration, and 23 (6 girls) were tested with oral hydration (age range, 2-15 years). Compared with no oral hydration, intake of >13 ml/kg rarely required intravenous fluids, improved diastolic BP, and permitted discharge at the end of the GH test, with a higher BP.

  14. Optical diagnostics in the oral cavity: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, P; Holtzman, J; Epstein, J; Le, A

    2014-01-01

    As the emphasis shifts from damage mitigation to disease prevention or reversal of early disease in the oral cavity, the need for sensitive and accurate detection and diagnostic tools become more important. Many novel and emergent optical diagnostic modalities for the oral cavity are becoming available to clinicians with a variety of desirable attributes including: (i) non-invasiveness, (ii) absence of ionizing radiation, (iii) patient-friendliness, (iv) real-time information (v) repeatability, and (vi) high-resolution surface and subsurface images. In this article, the principles behind optical diagnostic approaches, their feasibility and applicability for imaging soft and hard tissues, and their potential usefulness as a tool in the diagnosis of oral mucosal lesions, dental pathologies, and other dental applications will be reviewed. The clinical applications of light-based imaging technologies in the oral cavity and of their derivative devices will be discussed to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of emergent diagnostic modalities. PMID:20561224

  15. All repeats are not equal: a module-based approach to guide repeat protein design.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Nicholas; Chen, Jieming; Regan, Lynne

    2013-05-27

    Repeat proteins composed of tandem arrays of a short structural motif often mediate protein-protein interactions. Past efforts to design repeat protein-based molecular recognition tools have focused on the creation of templates from the consensus of individual repeats, regardless of their natural context. Such an approach assumes that all repeats are essentially equivalent. In this study, we present the results of a "module-based" approach in which modules composed of tandem repeats are aligned to identify repeat-specific features. Using this approach to analyze tetratricopeptide repeat modules that contain three tandem repeats (3TPRs), we identify two classes of 3TPR modules with distinct structural signatures that are correlated with different sets of functional residues. Our analyses also reveal a high degree of correlation between positions across the entire ligand-binding surface, indicative of a coordinated, coevolving binding surface. Extension of our analyses to different repeat protein modules reveals more examples of repeat-specific features, especially in armadillo repeat modules. In summary, the module-based analyses that we present effectively capture key repeat-specific features that will be important to include in future repeat protein design templates.

  16. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  17. Rapid absorption of diclofenac and acetaminophen after their oral administration to cattle

    PubMed Central

    SAWAGUCHI, Akiyo; SASAKI, Kazuaki; MIYANAGA, Keisuke; NAKAYAMA, Mitsuhiro; NAGASUE, Masato; SHIMODA, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    The oral pharmacokinetics of diclofenac (DF) were evaluated in cattle by analyzing plasma concentration-time data after its intravenous and oral administration in order to propose the oral administration of DF as effective route to avoid long withdraw period. DF was intravenously and orally administered at 1 mg/kg to cattle using a crossover design with a 4-week washout period. Plasma concentrations of DF were determined by a HPLC analysis. The mean absorption time (MAT) and absorption half-life (t1/2ka) were 1.61 ± 0.61 and 1.51 ± 0.38 hr, respectively, and bioavailability was nearly 100%. The oral pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (AAP) were also evaluated in cattle. Plasma concentrations of AAP were determined by a HPLC analysis. MAT and t1/2ka were 2.85 ± 0.93 and 1.53 ± 0.28 hr, respectively, and bioavailability was approximately 70%. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that DF and AAP are rapidly absorbed from the forestomach of cattle. Therefore, the appropriate efficacies of these drugs may be achieved via their oral administration, even in cattle. PMID:27320817

  18. Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Lee, Somin; Ahn, Kyu Sup; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Sik; Ko, Hyuk Ju; Lee, Jin Kyu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Eun Mi; Lim, Jeong Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource. PMID:27123167

  19. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  20. A Comparison of DWI Repeaters and Non-repeaters Who Attended a Level I Rehabilitation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, James W.; Windham, Gerald O.

    1981-01-01

    Compares behavioral and demographic characteristics of drunk drivers with repeated arrests and drivers not having repeated arrests, after attending an alcohol education program. Previous public drunkeness and previous drunk driving arrests were strong predictors of repeat arrests and were judged useful in screening offenders for rehabilitation…

  1. Repeated Testing Produces Superior Transfer of Learning Relative to Repeated Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    The present research investigated whether test-enhanced learning can be used to promote transfer. More specifically, 4 experiments examined how repeated testing and repeated studying affected retention and transfer of facts and concepts. Subjects studied prose passages and then either repeatedly restudied or took tests on the material. One week…

  2. Repeated dose pharmacokinetics of pancopride in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Salva, P; Costa, J; Pérez-Campos, A; Martínez-Tobed, A

    1994-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of pancopride after repeated oral dose administration of 20 mg pancopride in tablet form once a day for 5 d in 12 healthy male volunteers. Plasma levels were measured by HPLC using a solid phase extraction method and automated injection. The minimum quantification limit of pancopride in plasma was 2 ng mL-1. The maximum plasma concentration (mean +/- SD) after the first dose was 92.5 +/- 41.5 ng ML-1 and tmax was 1.7 +/- 0.9 h. The elimination half-life (t1/2) was 14.3 +/- 6.9 h. The area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC) was 997 +/- 396 ng h mL-1. The maximum plasma concentration (mean +/- SD) at steady state (day 5) was 101.8 +/- 36.9 ng mL-1 and tmax was 2.2 +/- 1.2 h. The elimination half-life (t1/2) was 16.3 +/- 2.7 h and the minimum plasma concentration (Cssmin) was 16.6 +/- 6.9 ng mL-1. The area under the concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUCss tau) was 995 +/- 389 ng h mL-1. The average plasma concentration at steady state (Cssav) was 43.3 +/- 16.1 ng mL-1 and the experimental accumulation ratio (RAUC) was 1.34 +/- 0.19, whereas the mean theoretical value (R) was 1.40 +/- 0.29. The results obtained showed a good correlation between the experimental plasma levels and the expected values calculated using a repeated dose two-compartment model assessed by means of the Akaike value. It is concluded that the pharmacokinetics of pancopride are not modified after repeated dose administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The second time around: accounting for retest effects on oral examinations.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Mark R; Luciw-Dubas, Ulana A

    2010-09-01

    Years of research with high-stakes written tests indicates that although repeat examinees typically experience score gains between their first and subsequent attempts, their pass rates remain considerably lower than pass rates for first-time examinees. This outcome is consistent with expectations. Comparable studies of the performance of repeat examinees on oral examinations are lacking. The current research evaluated pass rates for more than 50,000 examinees on written and oral exams administered by six medical specialty boards for several recent years. Pass rates for first-time examinees were similar for both written and oral exams, averaging about 84% across all boards. Pass rates for repeat examinees on written exams were expectedly lower, ranging from 22% to 51%, with an average of 36%. However, pass rates for repeat examinees on oral exams were markedly higher than for written exams, ranging from 53% to 77%, with an average of 65%. Four explanations for the elevated repeat pass rates on oral exams are proposed, including an increase in examinee proficiency, construct-irrelevant variance, measurement error (score unreliability), and memorization of test content. Simulated data are used to demonstrate that roughly one third of the score increase can be explained by measurement error alone. The authors suggest that a substantial portion of the score increase can also likely be attributed to construct-irrelevant variance. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for making pass-fail decisions when retesting is allowed. The article concludes by identifying areas for future research.

  4. [Schizophrenia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Moullan, M; Denis, F

    2017-03-24

    Mental health is an essential component of general health. Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental illness that affects higher brain functions. It is characterized by the presence of a mental dissociation, dampened or inappropriate affects, hallucinations and delirium. Schizophrenia has also a negative impact on oral health. As schizophrenia affects 1% of the population, every practitioner concerned with oral sphere will be confronted one day or another with a patient suffering from this disease. It is therefore important to acquire essential notions. The aim of our work was to make an update about factors that may affect oral health in patients with schizophrenia.

  5. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  6. Etiology of oral habits.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  7. Probiotics and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Haukioja, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics with respect to oral health. The review focuses on probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, genera that are most used in various probiotic products. PMID:20613927

  8. Research and Teaching: Think before (and after) You Speak: Practice and Self-Reflection Bolster Oral Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Eleanor; Bravo, Adriana; Porzecanski, Ana Luz; Burks, Romi L.; Linder, Joshua; Langen, Tom; Fernandez, Denny; Ruby, Douglas; Bynum, Nora

    2016-01-01

    In this study, conservation biology faculty and practitioners from across the United States designed classroom exercises and teaching interventions intended to bolster oral communication skills. Through repeated oral presentation assignments integrated into course requirements, the authors examined individual student learning gains via…

  9. Effects of repeated anthelmintic treatment on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tadao; Fukui, Daisuke; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2005-06-01

    Effects of repeated treatment with pyrantel pamoate on Enterobius vermicularis infection in chimpanzees were assessed by observing worms discharged in the feces after administration of anthelmintic treatment. Three of 9 chimpanzees reared in a zoological garden in Japan were subjected to fecal worm count and morphometric observation, and all were given oral pyrantel pamoate 6 times at 10-day intervals simultaneously. Following the first and second treatments, more than 30,000 pinworms were discharged from 1 chimpanzee. The number of discharged worms abruptly decreased after the third treatment, and only a few worms were recovered after the fifth treatment, indicating that repeated treatment at short intervals was very effective. Complete eradication was not achieved, however, presumably because of reinfection. The female proportion among discharged worms tended to increase as the treatment was repeated.

  10. Repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay: an investigation with 2-nitropropane, a hepatocarcinogen.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Satoru; Araki, Tetsuro; Nakajima, Mikio; Kusuoka, Osamu; Uchida, Keisuke; Sato, Norihiro; Tanabe, Yoko; Takahashi, Kaori; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Tsurui, Kazuyuki

    2015-03-01

    The utility of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay in the detection of a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen was evaluated. In this paper, a rat hepatocarcinogen, 2-nitropropane (2-NP), was administered orally to young adult rats for 14 and 28 days without a partial hepatectomy or a mitogen, and the micronucleus induction in liver was examined using a simple method to isolate hepatocytes. In addition, a bone marrow micronucleus assay was conducted concomitantly. The frequency of micronucleated hepatocytes induced by 2-NP increased significantly in both the 14- and 28-day repeated-dose studies, while the bone marrow micronucleus assays were negative in each study. These results indicate that the RDLMN assay is useful for detecting a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen that is negative in bone marrow micronucleus assays and is a suitable in vivo genotoxicity test method for integration into a repeated-dose general toxicity study.

  11. Validation study of the combined repeated-dose toxicity and genotoxicity assay using gpt delta rats.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Jun-Ichi; Toyoda, Takeshi; Cho, Young-Man; Mizuta, Yasuko; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic rodents carrying reporter genes to detect organ-specific in vivo genetic alterations are useful for risk assessment of genotoxicity that causes cancer. Thus, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has established the guideline for genotoxicity tests using transgenic animals, which may be combined with repeated-dose toxicity studies. Here, we provide evidence to support equivalence of gpt delta and wild type (WT) rats in terms of toxicological responses to a genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), and a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). gpt delta rats treated with DEHP showed similar increases in liver and kidney weights, serum albumin, albumin/globulin ratios, and incidence of diffuse hepatocyte hypertrophy compared to WT F344 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. DEN-treated gpt delta rats showed equivalent increases in the number and area of precancerous GST-P-positive foci in the liver compared to WT rats. The livers of DEN-treated gpt delta rats also showed increased frequencies of gpt and Spi(-) mutations; such changes were not observed in DEHP-treated gpt delta rats. These results indicated that gpt delta rats (both F344 and SD backgrounds) showed comparable DEHP-induced toxicity and DEN-induced genotoxicity to those observed in WT rats. With regard to the administration period, the general toxicity of 1.2% DEHP was evident throughout the experimental period, and the genotoxicity of 10 p.p.m. DEN could be detected after 2 weeks of administration and further increased at 4 weeks. These results suggested that combined assays using gpt delta rats could detect both general toxicity and genotoxicity by the canonical 4-week administration protocol. Therefore, this assay using gpt delta rats would be applicable for risk assessment including early detection of genotoxic carcinogens and ultimately serve to reduce cancer risks in humans from environmental chemicals.

  12. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Budesonide is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in adults and children 6 ...

  13. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Albuterol is used to prevent and treat difficulty breathing, wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness ... for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, ...

  14. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the thin, flat cells that line the lips, oral cavity, and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . See the following PDQ summaries for more information ...

  15. Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ipratropium oral inhalation is used to prevent wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness in people ... damage to the air sacs in the lungs). Ipratropium is in a class of medications called bronchodilators. ...

  16. Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medical conditions, such as asthma, arthritis, or eczema (a skin disease), they may worsen when your oral steroid dose is decreased. Tell your doctor if this happens or if you experience any ...

  17. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medical conditions, such as asthma, arthritis, or eczema (a skin disease), they may worsen when your oral steroid dose is decreased. Tell your doctor if this happens or if you experience any ...

  18. Oral compound nevus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

    2014-02-18

    The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis.

  19. Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Bhor, K.; Shetty, V.; Garcha, V.; Nimbulkar, G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. Materials and Methods: A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12–17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A (n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B (n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. Conclusion: OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille. PMID:27891313

  20. Oral and esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Noyer, C M; Simon, D

    1997-06-01

    This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.

  1. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  2. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  3. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  4. Oral contraception and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Dennerstein, L; Burrows, G

    1976-05-22

    A search of the literature has been carried out to determined how oral contraceptives affect sexuality in women. Some studies featured a high incidence of loss of libido. This could perhaps be attributed to preparations containing progestational compounds. However, no adequate double-blind trial has confirmed this observation. Some psychological and pharmacological aspects of contraceptions are discussed. More research is needed to ascertain why women often lose their sexual interest when taking oral contraceptives.

  5. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  6. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight.

  7. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  8. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term "junk DNA" has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide, and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasized following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy's disease) and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA) in 1991. In this review, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases.

  9. DNA Triplet Repeat Expansion and Mismatch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Ravi R.; Pluciennik, Anna; Napierala, Marek; Wells, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair is a conserved antimutagenic pathway that maintains genomic stability through rectification of DNA replication errors and attenuation of chromosomal rearrangements. Paradoxically, mutagenic action of mismatch repair has been implicated as a cause of triplet repeat expansions that cause neurological diseases such as Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. This mutagenic process requires the mismatch recognition factor MutSβ and the MutLα (and/or possibly MutLγ) endonuclease, and is thought to be triggered by the transient formation of unusual DNA structures within the expanded triplet repeat element. This review summarizes the current knowledge of DNA mismatch repair involvement in triplet repeat expansion, which encompasses in vitro biochemical findings, cellular studies, and various in vivo transgenic animal model experiments. We present current mechanistic hypotheses regarding mismatch repair protein function in mediating triplet repeat expansions and discuss potential therapeutic approaches targeting the mismatch repair pathway. PMID:25580529

  10. HPV-associated oral warts.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts.

  11. Oxidative Lung Damage Resulting from Repeated Exposure to Radiation and Hyperoxia Associated with Space Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Turowski, Jason B; Arguiri, Evguenia; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Solomides, Charalambos C; Thom, Stephen R; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2013-01-01

    Background Spaceflight missions may require crewmembers to conduct Extravehicular Activities (EVA) for repair, maintenance or scientific purposes. Pre-breathe protocols in preparation for an EVA entail 100% hyperoxia exposure that may last for a few hours (5-8 hours), and may be repeated 2-3 times weekly. Each EVA is associated with additional challenges such as low levels of total body cosmic/galactic radiation exposure that may present a threat to crewmember health and therefore, pose a threat to the success of the mission. We have developed a murine model of combined, hyperoxia and radiation exposure (double-hit) in the context of evaluating countermeasures to oxidative lung damage associated with space flight. In the current study, our objective was to characterize the early and chronic effects of repeated single and double-hit challenge on lung tissue using a novel murine model of repeated exposure to low-level total body radiation and hyperoxia. This is the first study of its kind evaluating lung damage relevant to space exploration in a rodent model. Methods Mouse cohorts (n=5-15/group) were exposed to repeated: a) normoxia; b) >95% O2 (O2); c) 0.25Gy single fraction gamma radiation (IR); or d) a combination of O2 and IR (O2+IR) given 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Lungs were evaluated for oxidative damage, active TGFβ1 levels, cell apoptosis, inflammation, injury, and fibrosis at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-initiation of exposure. Results Mouse cohorts exposed to all challenge conditions displayed decreased bodyweight compared to untreated controls at 4 and 8 weeks post-challenge initiation. Chronic oxidative lung damage to lipids (malondialdehyde levels), DNA (TUNEL, cleaved Caspase 3, cleaved PARP positivity) leading to apoptotic cell death and to proteins (nitrotyrosine levels) was elevated all treatment groups. Importantly, significant systemic oxidative stress was also noted at the late phase in mouse plasma, BAL fluid, and urine. Importantly

  12. Cumulative Effect of Repeated Brief Cerebral Ischemia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-31

    KL, Pohost GM and Conger KA, Correlating EEG and Lactate Kinetics During Repeated Brief Cerebral Ischemia, Proceedings of the American Heart Association 1993...Cornelating EEG and Lactate Kinetics During Repeated Brief Cerebral Ischemia, Proceedings of the American Heart Association 1993. 4) HP Hetherington...thes Bernhard Foundation. ass- 134 󈧑&.1 n5. 9# American Heart Association 026085 66th Scientific Sessions Abstract Form Medical Research Nursing

  13. Newly arisen DNA repeats in primate phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Ryan, S C; Dugaiczyk, A

    1989-12-01

    We discovered the presence of an Alu and an Xba repetitive DNA element within introns 4 and 7, respectively, of the human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene; these elements are absent from the same gene in the gorilla. The Alu element is flanked by 12-base-pair direct repeats, AGGATGTTGTGG ... (Alu) ... AGGATGTTGTGG, which presumably arose by way of duplication of the intronic target site AGGATGTTGTGG at the time of the Alu insertion. In the gorilla, only a single copy of the unoccupied target site is present, which is identical to the terminal repeat flanking the human Alu element. There are two copies of an Xba repeat in the human AFP gene, apparently the only two in the genome. Xba1 and Xba2, located within introns 8 and 7, respectively, differ from each other at 3 of 303 positions. Xba1 is referred to as the old (ancestral) repeat because it lacks direct repeats. The new (derived) Xba2 is flanked by direct repeats, TTTCTTTTT ... (Xba) ... TTTCTTCTT, and is thought to have arisen as a result of transposition of Xba1. The ancestral Xba1 and a single copy of the Xba2 target site are present at orthologous positions in the gorilla, but the new Xba2 is absent. We conclude that the Alu and Xba DNA repeats emerged in the human genome at a time postdating the human-gorilla divergence and became established as genetic novelties in the human lineage. We submit that the chronology of divergence of primate lines of evolution can be correlated with the timing of insertion of new DNA repeats into the genomes of those primates.

  14. Repeat radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Christopher J.; Ding, Dale; Leed, Cheng-Chia; Loeffler, Jay S.

    2015-01-01

    We perform a systematic review of repeated radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) with an emphasis on lesion obliteration rates and complications. Radiosurgery is an accepted treatment modality for AVM located in eloquent cortex or deep brain structures. For residual or persistent lesions, repeated radiosurgery can be considered if sufficient time has passed to allow for a full appreciation of treatment effects, usually at least 3 years. A systematic review was performed in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. References for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases. A total of 14 studies comprising 733 patients met the review criteria and were included. For series that reported target dose at both first and repeat treatments, the weighted means were 19.42 Gy and 19.06 Gy, respectively. The mean and median obliteration rate for the repeat radiosurgery treatments were 61% (95% confidence interval 51.9–71.7%) and 61.5%, respectively. The median follow up following radiosurgery ranged from 19.5 to 80 months. Time to complete obliteration after the repeat treatment ranged from 21 to 40.8 months. The most common complications of repeated radiosurgery for AVM included hemorrhage (7.6%) and radiation-induced changes (7.4%). Repeat radiosurgery can be used to treat incompletely obliterated AVM with an obliteration rate of 61%. Complications are related to treatment effect latency (hemorrhage risk) as well as radiation-induced changes. Repeat radiosurgery can be performed at three years following the initial treatment, allowing for full realization of effects from the initial treatment prior to commencing therapy. PMID:25913746

  15. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    PubMed

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  16. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  17. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen prevents trinucleotide repeat expansions by promoting repeat deletion and hairpin removal

    PubMed Central

    Beaver, Jill M.; Lai, Yanhao; Rolle, Shantell J.; Liu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    DNA base lesions and base excision repair (BER) within trinucleotide repeat (TNR) tracts modulate repeat instability through the coordination among the key BER enzymes DNA polymerase β, flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and DNA ligase I (LIG I). However, it remains unknown whether BER cofactors can also alter TNR stability. In this study, we discovered that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cofactor of BER, promoted CAG repeat deletion and removal of a CAG repeat hairpin during BER in a duplex CAG repeat tract and CAG hairpin loop, respectively. We showed that PCNA stimulated LIG I activity on a nick across a small template loop during BER in a duplex (CAG)20 repeat tract promoting small repeat deletions. Surprisingly, we found that during BER in a hairpin loop, PCNA promoted reannealing of the upstream flap of a double-flap intermediate, thereby facilitating the formation of a downstream flap and stimulating FEN1 cleavage activity and hairpin removal. Our results indicate that PCNA plays a critical role in preventing CAG repeat expansions by modulating the structures of dynamic DNA via cooperation with BER enzymes. We provide the first evidence that PCNA prevents CAG repeat expansions during BER by promoting CAG repeat deletion and removal of a TNR hairpin. PMID:27793507

  18. Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis with Injection of Hyaluronidase and Dexamethasone in Grade III Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    James, Leena; Shetty, Akshay; Rishi, Diljith; Abraham, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic debilitating and potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity. It is resistant and progressive affecting the entire oral cavity that sometimes causes a gradual reduction in mouth opening that may even extend up to the pharynx. Although the medical treatment is not completely systematized, optimal doses of its treatment with local injection of corticosteroids with hyaluronidase or placental extract is effective to some extent. However, a combination of steroids and topical hyaluronidase shows better long-term results than either agents used individually. To evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone and hyaluronidase in the treatment of Grade III OSMF. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 patients diagnosed with OSMF were treated in Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences for a time period of 9 months, by obtaining the patient’s consent and with the approval of the institution’s research ethical committee. They were treated by administering an intralesional injection of dexamethasone1.5 ml, hyaluronidase 1500 IU with 0.5 ml lignocaine HCL injected intralesionally biweekly for 4 weeks. Results: Improvement in the patient’s mouth opening with a net gain of 6 ± 2 mm (92%), the range being 4-8 mm. Definite reduction in burning sensation, painful ulceration and blanching of oral mucosa and patient followed up for an average of 9 months. Conclusion: Injection of hyaluronidase with dexamethasone is an effective method of managing Grade III OSMF and can possibly eliminate the morbidity associated with surgical management. PMID:26464545

  19. Oral triazolam pretreatment for intravenous sedation.

    PubMed Central

    Stopperich, P. S.; Moore, P. A.; Finder, R. L.; McGirl, B. E.; Weyant, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    This double-blind, controlled clinical trial assessed the anxiety relief provided by oral triazolam given before intravenous sedation. Twenty-two healthy adults undergoing third-molar surgery with intravenous sedation were enrolled in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 0.25 mg of triazolam p.o. or an identically appearing placebo 45 to 60 min before venipuncture. Immediately before test drug administration, subjects completed the Corah Anxiety Scale, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) assessing state anxiety, and the Interval Scale of Anxiety Response (ISAR). The VAS and ISAR were repeated immediately before venipuncture. Intravenous sedation medications consisted of fentanyl, midazolam, and methohexital. At 24 hr, assessments of the venipuncture and global experience were obtained. Results indicated that the characteristics of the triazolam and placebo patients were similar at baseline. With triazolam pretreatment, both the VAS and ISAR scores decreased significantly. Dose requirements for conscious sedation medications were decreased in the triazolam group. Patients rated the venipuncture experience significantly less unpleasant when pretreated with triazolam, and global ratings of the overall surgical experience favored triazolam. An oral-intravenous combination sedation technique using 0.25 mg of triazolam may have a significant therapeutic advantage for outpatient oral surgery. PMID:7943920

  20. An Investigation of the Influence of the Theory of Automaticity and the Impact of Repeated Reading on the Fluency and Comprehension Skills of Eighth Grade Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Rodney Michael

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method study examined the use of repeated reading with eighteen, eighth grade special education and regular education students. The purpose was to study use of repeated reading's structured, systematic, oral reading intervention while also seeking to further analyze LaBerge and Samuels' "Theory of Automaticity"…

  1. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    SciTech Connect

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. |

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  2. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  3. Effects of acute creatine loading with or without carbohydrate on repeated bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Apostolos S; Havenetidis, Konstantinos; Zanker, Cathy L; O'Hara, John P; King, Roderick F G J; Hood, Colin; Paradisis, Giorgios; Cooke, Carlton B

    2005-05-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) to an acute creatine (Cr) loading regimen has been shown to increase muscle total creatine content significantly beyond that achieved through creatine loading alone. However, the potential ergogenic effects of combined Cr and CHO loading have not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to compare swimming performance, assessed as mean swimming velocity over repeated maximal intervals, in high-performance swimmers before and after an acute loading regimen of either creatine alone (Cr) or combined creatine and carbohydrate (Cr + CHO). Ten swimmers (mean +/- SD of age and body mass: 17.8 +/- 1.8 years and 72.3 +/- 6.8 kg, respectively) of international caliber were recruited and were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. Each swimmer ingested five 5 g doses of creatine for 4 days, with the Cr + CHO group also ingesting approximately 100 g of simple CHO 30 minutes after each dose of creatine. Performance was measured on 5 separate occasions: twice at "baseline" (prior to intervention, to assess the repeatability of the performance test), within 48 hours after intervention, and then 2 and 4 weeks later. All subjects swam faster after either dietary loading regimen (p < 0.01, both regimens); however, there was no difference in the extent of improvement of performance between groups. In addition, all swimmers continued to produce faster swim times for up to 4 weeks after intervention. Our findings suggest that no performance advantage was gained from the addition of carbohydrate to a creatine-loading regimen in these high-caliber swimmers.

  4. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tóthová, L'ubomíra; Kamodyová, Natália; Červenka, Tomáš; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is an interesting alternative diagnostic body fluid with several specific advantages over blood. These include non-invasive and easy collection and related possibility to do repeated sampling. One of the obstacles that hinders the wider use of saliva for diagnosis and monitoring of systemic diseases is its composition, which is affected by local oral status. However, this issue makes saliva very interesting for clinical biochemistry of oral diseases. Periodontitis, caries, oral precancerosis, and other local oral pathologies are associated with oxidative stress. Several markers of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species can be measured in saliva. Clinical studies have shown an association with oral pathologies at least for some of the established salivary markers of oxidative stress. This association is currently limited to the population level and none of the widely used markers can be applied for individual diagnostics. Oxidative stress seems to be of local oral origin, but it is currently unclear whether it is caused by an overproduction of reactive oxygen species due to inflammation or by the lack of antioxidants. Interventional studies, both, in experimental animals as well as humans indicate that antioxidant treatment could prevent or slow-down the progress of periodontitis. This makes the potential clinical use of salivary markers of oxidative stress even more attractive. This review summarizes basic information on the most commonly used salivary markers of oxidative damage, antioxidant status, and carbonyl stress and the studies analyzing these markers in patients with caries or periodontitis. PMID:26539412

  5. A review of biodegradable polymeric systems for oral insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yue Yuan; Xiong, Xiang Yuan; Tian, Yuan; Li, Zi Ling; Gong, Yan Chun; Li, Yu Ping

    2016-07-01

    Currently, repeated routine subcutaneous injections of insulin are the standard treatment for insulin-dependent diabetic patients. However, patients' poor compliance for injections often fails to achieve the stable concentration of blood glucose. As a protein drug, the oral bioavailability of insulin is low due to many physiological reasons. Several carriers, such as macromolecules and liposomes have been used to deliver drugs in vivo. In this review article, the gastrointestinal barriers of oral insulin administration are described. Strategies for increasing the bioavailability of oral insulin, such absorption enhancers, enzyme inhibitors, enteric coatings are also introduced. The potential absorption mechanisms of insulin-loaded nanoparticles across the intestinal epithelium, including intestinal lymphatic route, transcellular route and paracellular route are discussed in this review. Natural polymers, such as chitosan and its derivates, alginate derivatives, γ-PGA-based materials and starch-based nanoparticles have been exploited for oral insulin delivery; synthetic polymers, such as PLGA, PLA, PCL and PEA have also been developed for oral administration of insulin. This review focuses on recent advances in using biodegradable natural and synthetic polymers for oral insulin delivery along with their future prospects.

  6. [MICROFLORA AND ORAL DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Khavkin, A I; Ippolitov, Y A; Aleshina, E O; Komarova O N

    2015-01-01

    Acid-producing microorganisms are base etiological agents of lesions of tooth enamel and destruction of dentin. The process start by specific microflora of tooth deposit--Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacteria and Actinomycetis viscosus which ferment food carbogydrate to form acids. High titre of them in oral cavity may be considered like a marker of carbohydrate food. But the pathogenic bacteria don't have aggression to host organism until they will have virulent factors which help to get over protection of host organism. At the same time, microflora of oral cavity is involved to form pellicula. Pellicula is a biofilm which to protect tooth enamel and dentin. Understanding relationships between safety factors of host and pathogenic microflora of oral cavity will give to create effective methods of prevention and treatment.

  7. Role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kraus, B.; Briegel, H.-J.; Dür, W.

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory and (ii) introducing two operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e., without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an order of magnitude with reasonable overhead in physical resources. We outline the architecture of a quantum repeater that can possibly ensure intercontinental quantum communication.

  8. Spectrin repeat proteins in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Young, Kevin G; Kothary, Rashmi

    2005-02-01

    Spectrin repeat sequences are among the more common repeat elements identified in proteins, typically occurring in large structural proteins. Examples of spectrin repeat-containing proteins include dystrophin, alpha-actinin and spectrin itself--all proteins with well-demonstrated roles of establishing and maintaining cell structure. Over the past decade, it has become clear that, although these proteins display a cytoplasmic and plasma membrane distribution, several are also found both at the nuclear envelope, and within the intranuclear space. In this review, we provide an overview of recent work regarding various spectrin repeat-containing structural proteins in the nucleus. As well, we hypothesize about the regulation of their nuclear localization and possible nuclear functions based on domain architecture, known interacting proteins and evolutionary relationships. Given their large size, and their potential for interacting with multiple proteins and with chromatin, spectrin repeat-containing proteins represent strong candidates for important organizational proteins within the nucleus. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the BioEssays website (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0265-9247/suppmat/index.html).

  9. Adaptation to Damaging Dance and Repeated-Sprint Activity in Women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Keane, Karen M; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-09-01

    Brown, MA, Howatson, G, Keane, KM, and Stevenson, EJ. Adaptation to damaging dance and repeated-sprint activity in women. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2574-2581, 2016-The repeated bout effect (RBE) refers to the prophylactic effect from damaging exercise after a single previous bout of exercise. There is a paucity of data examining the RBE in women, and investigations using exercise paradigms beyond isolated eccentric contractions are scarce. In light of the limited literature, this investigation aimed to determine whether 2 different sport-specific exercise bouts would elicit a RBE in women. Twenty-one female dancers (19 ± 1 years) completed either a dance-specific protocol (n = 10) or sport-specific repeated-sprint protocol (n = 11). Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), limb girths, creatine kinase (CK), countermovement jump height, reactive strength index, maximal voluntary contraction, and 30-meter sprint time were recorded before and 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. An identical exercise bout was conducted approximately 4 weeks after the initial bout, during which time the subjects maintained habitual training and dietary behaviors. DOMS and 30-meter sprint time decreased after a second bout of both activities (p = 0.003; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.38 and p = 0.008; and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.31, respectively). Circulating CK was also lower at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the second bout, independent of group (p = 0.010 and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.23). Compared with the repeated-sprint protocol, the magnitude of change in DOMS was greater after a subsequent bout of the dance protocol (p = 0.010 and (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19). These data are the first to demonstrate that dance and repeated-sprint activity resulting in muscle damage in women confers a protective effect against muscle damage after a subsequent bout.

  10. Clinical efficacy and safety of chelation treatment with typical penicillamine in cross combination with DMPS repeatedly for Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, San-qing; Li, Xu-fang; Zhu, Hui-yun; Liu, Yan; Fang, Feng; Chen, Ling

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of chelation treatment with penicillamine (PCA) in cross combination with sodium 2, 3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS) repeatedly in patients with Wilson's disease (WD). Thirty-five patients with WD were enrolled. They were administrated intravenous DMPS in cross combination with oral PCA alternately which was practiced repeatedly, all with Zinc in the meantime. During the treatment, clinical observations and 24-h urine copper excretion as well as adverse effects of medicines were recorded and analyzed. Although the incidence of adverse effects was not significantly different after either intravenous DMPS or oral PCA treatment, levels of 24-h urine copper tended to be higher after short-term intravenous DMPS than that of oral PCA. Adverse effects in the course of intravenous DMPS were mainly neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, allergic reaction and bleeding tendency. As compared with oral PCA alone or intravenous DMPS alone, such repeated cross combination treatment could as much as possible avoid continued drug adverse effects or poor curative effect and had less chance to stop treatment in WD patients. Improved or recovered liver function in 71% of the patients, alleviated neurologic symptoms in 50% of the patients, and disappeared hematuria in 70% of the patients could be observed during the follow-up period of 6 months to 5 years after such combined chelation regimen. Chelation treatment repeatedly with oral penicillamine in cross combination with intravenous DMPS alternately could be more beneficial for WD patients to relieve symptoms, avoid continued drug adverse effects and maintain lifelong therapy.

  11. Oral contraceptives: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Derman, R

    1989-09-01

    Cardiovascular risks attributable to oral contraceptive use may now be subdivided into those that appear to be secondary to the estrogen component, i.e., venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and those linked to the progestin component, i.e., small vessel disease including myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. It appears that venous risk is attributable to subtle changes in clotting factors, while arterial risk may be secondary to changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. In order to determine which women are at greatest risk from oral contraceptive use, Spellacy et al. has developed a risk scoring form that aids in the screening process. After excluding women with an absolute contraindication to pill use, women at greatest risk for cardiovascular disease related to oral contraceptive use are those with a family history of hyperlipidemia, gestational or overt diabetics, hypertensives, and smokers over the age of 35. The gradual reduction by manufacturers of the steroid content of oral contraceptives appears to have lessened the incidence of adverse effects. Our current knowledge of risk factors permits the clinician to reduce exposure to oral contraceptive-related mortality by as much as 86 per cent. As we continue to search for ways to reduce risk among oral contraceptive users, it is important to note that more than 25 per cent of women are still taking formulations containing 50 micrograms of estrogen. It becomes the responsibility of the practicing physician to "step-down" these patients to lower-dose preparations such as the multiphasics. Such preparations also represent optimal therapy for first-time pill users.

  12. Maintaining oral health after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Hazel

    Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.

  13. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    PubMed

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions.

  14. Per-oral cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

  15. Oral myiasis in children.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R

    2012-04-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

  16. Trial of Repeated Analgesia with Kangaroo Mother Care (TRAKC Trial)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and infant, commonly referred to as Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), is recommended as an intervention for procedural pain. Evidence demonstrates its consistent efficacy in reducing pain for a single painful procedure. The purpose of this study is to examine the sustained efficacy of KMC, provided during all routine painful procedures for the duration of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitalization, in diminishing behavioral pain response in preterm neonates. The efficacy of KMC alone will be compared to standard care of 24% oral sucrose, as well as the combination of KMC and 24% oral sucrose. Methods/design Infants admitted to the NICU who are less than 36 6/7 weeks gestational age (according to early ultrasound), that are stable enough to be held in KMC, will be considered eligible (N = 258). Using a single-blinded randomized parallel group design, participants will be assigned to one of three possible interventions: 1) KMC, 2) combined KMC and sucrose, and 3) sucrose alone, when they undergo any routine painful procedure (heel lance, venipuncture, intravenous, oro/nasogastric insertion). The primary outcome is infant’s pain intensity, which will be assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). The secondary outcome will be maturity of neurobehavioral functioning, as measured by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI). Gestational age, cumulative exposure to KMC provided during non-pain contexts, and maternal cortisol levels will be considered in the analysis. Clinical feasibility will be accounted for from nurse and maternal questionnaires. Discussion This will be the first study to examine the repeated use of KMC for managing procedural pain in preterm neonates. It is also the first to compare KMC to sucrose, or the interventions in combination, across time. Based on the theoretical framework of the brain opioid theory of attachment, it is expected that KMC will be a

  17. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y; Hayes, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human oral microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the oral cavity. Establishing the association of the oral microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.

  18. Rate analysis for a hybrid quantum repeater

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardes, Nadja K.; Loock, Peter van

    2011-01-15

    We present a detailed rate analysis for a hybrid quantum repeater assuming perfect memories and using optimal probabilistic entanglement generation and deterministic swapping routines. The hybrid quantum repeater protocol is based on atomic qubit-entanglement distribution through optical coherent-state communication. An exact, analytical formula for the rates of entanglement generation in quantum repeaters is derived, including a study on the impacts of entanglement purification and multiplexing strategies. More specifically, we consider scenarios with as little purification as possible and we show that for sufficiently low local losses, such purifications are still more powerful than multiplexing. In a possible experimental scenario, our hybrid system can create near-maximally entangled (F=0.98) pairs over a distance of 1280 km at rates of the order of 100 Hz.

  19. Hematuria home screening: repeat testing results.

    PubMed

    Messing, E M; Young, T B; Hunt, V B; Newton, M A; Bram, L L; Vaillancourt, A; Hisgen, W J; Greenberg, E B; Kuglitsch, M E; Wegenke, J D

    1995-07-01

    To determine at what interval screening should be repeated to detect bladder cancer before it becomes muscle invasive 856 men who had 14 negative daily home tests for hematuria with a chemical reagent strip 9 months previously performed repeat tests. Of these men 50 (5.8%) had at least 1 positive test during the second 14-day screening period and 38 were evaluated, 15 of whom (39.5%) had significant urological pathological conditions, including 8 with malignancies. Bladder cancer was noted in 7 men, with no tumor invading the muscularis propria. The finding of 7 bladder cancers in 856 men (0.82%) who had a negative test 9 months previously indicates that bladder cancer has a brief preclinical duration and that testing must be repeated at least annually for screening to detect bladder cancer consistently before invasion occurs.

  20. Some characteristics of repeated sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, David

    1972-01-01

    Ferguson, D. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 420-431. Some characteristics of repeated sickness absence. Several studies have shown that frequency of absence attributed to sickness is not distributed randomly but tends to follow the negative binomial distribution, and this has been taken to support the concept of `proneness' to such absence. Thus, the distribution of sickness absence resembles that of minor injury at work demonstrated over 50 years ago. Because the investigation of proneness to absence does not appear to have been reported by others in Australia, the opportunity was taken, during a wider study of health among telegraphists in a large communications undertaking, to analyse some characteristics of repeated sickness absence. The records of medically certified and uncertified sickness absence of all 769 telegraphists continuously employed in all State capitals over a two-and-a-half-year period were compared with those of 411 clerks and 415 mechanics and, in Sydney, 380 mail sorters and 80 of their supervisors. All telegraphists in Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane, and all mail sorters in Sydney, who were available and willing were later medically examined. From their absence pattern repeaters (employees who had had eight or more certified absences in two and a half years) were separated into three types based on a presumptive origin in chance, recurrent disease and symptomatic non-specific disorder. The observed distribution of individual frequency of certified absence over the full two-and-a-half-year period of study followed that expected from the univariate negative binomial, using maximum likelihood estimators, rather than the poisson distribution, in three of the four occupational groups in Sydney. Limited correlational and bivariate analysis supported the interpretation of proneness ascribed to the univariate fit. In the two groups studied, frequency of uncertified absence could not be fitted by the negative binomial, although the numbers of

  1. Do gamma-ray burst sources repeat?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb, 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter, 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al., 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and the two-point angular correlation function. We find the data to be consistent with the hypothesis that burst sources do not repeat; however, a repeater fraction of up to about 20% of the observed bursts cannot be excluded.

  2. Formation of the Arabidopsis pentatricopeptide repeat family.

    PubMed

    Rivals, Eric; Bruyère, Clémence; Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Lecharny, Alain

    2006-07-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the 466 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are putative RNA-binding proteins with essential roles in organelles. Roughly half of the PPR proteins form the plant combinatorial and modular protein (PCMP) subfamily, which is land-plant specific. PCMPs exhibit a large and variable tandem repeat of a standard pattern of three PPR variant motifs. The association or not of this repeat with three non-PPR motifs at their C terminus defines four distinct classes of PCMPs. The highly structured arrangement of these motifs and the similar repartition of these arrangements in the four classes suggest precise relationships between motif organization and substrate specificity. This study is an attempt to reconstruct an evolutionary scenario of the PCMP family. We developed an innovative approach based on comparisons of the proteins at two levels: namely the succession of motifs along the protein and the amino acid sequence of the motifs. It enabled us to infer evolutionary relationships between proteins as well as between the inter- and intraprotein repeats. First, we observed a polarized elongation of the repeat from the C terminus toward the N-terminal region, suggesting local recombinations of motifs. Second, the most N-terminal PPR triple motif proved to evolve under different constraints than the remaining repeat. Altogether, the evidence indicates different evolution for the PPR region and the C-terminal one in PCMPs, which points to distinct functions for these regions. Moreover, local sequence homogeneity observed across PCMP classes may be due to interclass shuffling of motifs, or to deletions/insertions of non-PPR motifs at the C terminus.

  3. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    SciTech Connect

    Aubuchon, Adam C.; Chan, Michael D.; Lovato, James F.; Balamucki, Christopher J.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  4. The puzzle of the triple repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, V.

    1993-06-04

    Two years ago, when researchers discovered the gene that causes a hereditary form of mental retardation known as fragile-X syndrome, they also turned up a mutation so unexpected geneticists are still scratching their heads over it. The defect, which makes genes balloon in size by adding extra copies of a three base-pair repeated sequence of DNA, was the first of its kind. Despite decades of study, nothing like it had ever been seen in any of the species that laid the foundations for modern genetics: bacteria, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and the mouse. The mutations caused by these expanding trinucleotide repeats turned out be common causes of human disease. In the past 2 years, they have been fingered as the culprits in three hereditary disorders besides fragile-X syndrome: myotronic dystrophy, spinobullar muscular atrophy (also known as Kennedy's disease), and just this March-Huntington's disease. The FMR-1 gene, which is the one at fault in fragile-X syndrome, shows just how much the trinucleotide repeats can expand. The normal gene carries at most 50 copies of the CGG trinucleotide. But in children who inherit the gene from these carriers and actually develop mental retardation and the other fragile-X symptoms, the FMR-1 gene may have hundreds to thousands of CGG repeats. Huge expansions of another trinucleotide repeat (CTG) can also occur from one generation to the next in the gene that causes myotonic dystrophy (DM), while smaller, although no less devastating, expansions in the CAG trinucleotide repeat lead to Huntington's and Kennedy's diseases.

  5. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D.; Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  6. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... indication of immunological effects and reproductive organ toxicity. (c) Definitions. The definitions in...—(1) Number and sex of animals. At least 10 animals (five female and five male) should be used at each... should be carefully recorded, preferably using scoring systems, explicitly defined by the...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... indication of immunological effects and reproductive organ toxicity. (c) Definitions. The definitions in...—(1)Number and sex of animals. At least 10 animals (five female and five male) should be used at each... should be carefully recorded, preferably using scoring systems, explicitly defined by the...

  8. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... indication of immunological effects and reproductive organ toxicity. (c) Definitions. The definitions in...—(1) Number and sex of animals. At least 10 animals (five female and five male) should be used at each... should be carefully recorded, preferably using scoring systems, explicitly defined by the...

  9. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... indication of immunological effects and reproductive organ toxicity. (c) Definitions. The definitions in...—(1)Number and sex of animals. At least 10 animals (five female and five male) should be used at each... should be carefully recorded, preferably using scoring systems, explicitly defined by the...

  10. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... indication of immunological effects and reproductive organ toxicity. (c) Definitions. The definitions in...—(1)Number and sex of animals. At least 10 animals (five female and five male) should be used at each... should be carefully recorded, preferably using scoring systems, explicitly defined by the...

  11. Evaluation of Arecoline Hydrobromide Toxicity after a 14-Day Repeated Oral Administration in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jianrong; Zhou, Xuzheng; Li, Jianyong; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    A subchronic toxicity test was conducted in rats on the basis of a previous acute toxicity test to evaluate the safety of arecoline hydrobromide (Ah), to systematically study its pharmacological effects and to provide experimental support for a safe clinical dose. Eighty rats were randomly divided into four groups: a high-dose group (1000 mg/kg), medium-dose group (200 mg/kg), low-dose group (100mg/kg) and blank control group. The doses were administered daily via gastric lavage for 14 consecutive days. There were no significant differences in the low-dose Ah group compared to the control group (P>0.05) with regard to body weight, organ coefficients, hematological parameters and histopathological changes. The high-dose of Ah influenced some of these parameters, which requires further study. The results of this study indicated that a long-term, continuous high dose of Ah was toxic. However, it is safe to use Ah according to the clinically recommended dosing parameters. The level of Ah at which no adverse effects were observed was 100 mg/kg/day under the present study conditions. PMID:25880067

  12. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of different β-cyclodextrin-based nanosponge formulations.

    PubMed

    Shende, Pravin; Kulkarni, Yogesh A; Gaud, R S; Deshmukh, Kiran; Cavalli, Roberta; Trotta, Francesco; Caldera, Fabrizio

    2015-05-01

    Nanosponges (NS) show promising results in different fields such as medicine, agriculture, water purification, fire engineering and so on. The present study was designed to evaluate toxicity of different NS formulations (namely, S1-S6) synthesized with different cross-linking agents such as carbonyl diimidazole, pyromellitic dianhydride and hexamethylene diisocynate; and preparation methods in experimental animals. Acute and repeated dose toxicity studies of formulations were carried out as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively. For acute toxicity study, formulations were administered to female rats at doses of 300 and 2000 mg/kg orally. The general behaviour of the rats was continuously monitored for 1 h after dosing, periodically during the first 24 h and daily thereafter for a total of 14 days. On day 14, animals were fasted overnight, weighed, and sacrificed. After sacrification, animals were subjected to necropsy. For repeated dose toxicity study, rats of either sex were orally administered with formulations at the dose of 300 mg/kg per day for a period of 28 days. The maximally tolerated dose of all formulations was found to be 2000 mg/kg. Repeated administration of formulations for 28 days did not show any significant changes in haematological and biochemical parameters in experimental animals. These results indicate that the formulations are safe, when tested in experimental animals.

  13. Therapeutics development for triplet repeat expansion diseases.

    PubMed

    Di Prospero, Nicholas A; Fischbeck, Kenneth H

    2005-10-01

    The underlying genetic mutations for many inherited neurodegenerative disorders have been identified in recent years. One frequent type of mutation is trinucleotide repeat expansion. Depending on the location of the repeat expansion, the mutation might result in a loss of function of the disease gene, a toxic gain of function or both. Disease gene identification has led to the development of model systems for investigating disease mechanisms and evaluating treatments. Examination of experimental findings reveals similarities in disease mechanisms as well as possibilities for treatment.

  14. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  15. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  16. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the…

  17. Effect of Repeated Evaluation and Repeated Exposure on Acceptability Ratings of Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zervakis, Jennifer; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated evaluation and repeated exposure on grammatical acceptability ratings for both acceptable and unacceptable sentence types. In Experiment 1, subjects in the Experimental group rated multiple examples of two ungrammatical sentence types (ungrammatical binding and double object with dative-only verb),…

  18. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  19. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  20. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  1. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  2. Oral Language Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno County Dept. of Education, Fresno, CA.

    An oral language continuum designed to help elementary students develop techniques for a variety of speech situations, learn to listen, and learn to be aware of the responsibility of the speaker is presented. The continuum is divided into four sections. Student needs, implications for teaching, and suggested activities are arranged sequentially.…

  3. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  4. The novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernandez, Cristhiam M; Garcia, David A

    2013-03-01

    After the introduction of warfarin, long-term oral anticoagulation treatment remained unchanged for more than 50 years. Most recently, with the development and approval of new oral anticoagulants, the treatment of medical conditions that require thrombosis prophylaxis and long-term anticoagulation has become more complex. In the case of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention after orthopedic surgery, the new oral agents will be less costly than the parenteral alternative. In other settings (such as atrial fibrillation or treatment of acute VTE), the new agents will offer additional convenience at higher cost, but the degree to which they will reduce clinically important events such as thrombosis or bleeding will be limited, especially for patients on optimally controlled warfarin. As the use of the new oral anticoagulants becomes more widespread, it will be important for all clinicians to have a basic understanding of their pharmacology, advantages, and limitations. Although the need to measure or reverse the effect of these drugs will arise infrequently, clinicians--especially hematologists--will desire evidence-based recommendations about how to manage such scenarios, which will require research studies.

  5. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  6. Research in Oral Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Walter T., Ed.

    This collection of six articles on oral language is a product of the cooperative efforts of the National Conference on Research in English, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the International Reading Association, the Association for Childhood Education International, and the National Council of Teachers of English. It is…

  7. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

  8. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V

    2002-10-01

    With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution

  9. AGG interspersions within the FMR1 CGG repeat: Mechanisms and models of triplet repeat instability

    SciTech Connect

    Eichler, E.E.; Nelson, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome CGG repeat alleles are typically classified as normal, premutation, or full mutation based on the length of the repeat in the 5{prime} UTR of the FMR1 gene. The distinction between high-end normals and low-end premutation alleles, however, is not always clear since repeats of similar size differ markedly in their intergenerational stability. This fact suggest that differences in sequence content may play a key role in determining an allele`s predisposition to instability. It has been postulated that the loss of AGG interruptions within the CGG tract may trigger this instability. To test this model, we have developed a simple indirect method to determine the presence or absence of internal AGGs within the FMR1 CGG repeat tract. Analysis of 84 human X chromosomes for the presence of interrupting AGG trinucleotides revealed that most alleles possess two interspersed AGGs at a periodicity of 9 or 10 CGGs. The longest tract of uninterrupted CGG repeats is usually found at the 3{prime} end indicating that variation in the length of the repeat is polar. Alleles containing between 34 and 55 repeats, with documented unstable transmissions, were shown to have lost one or both AGG interruptions when compared to stable alleles of similar length. These comparisons define an instability threshold between 34 and 38 uninterrupted CGG repeats. Analysis of premutation alleles in fragile X syndrome carriers reveals that 70% of these alleles contain a single AGG interruption. Population studies confirm that such highly punctuated FMR1 CGG repeats are virtually static in terms of length variation. These data suggest that the loss of an AGG is an important mutational event in the generation of unstable alleles predisposed to the fragile X syndrome. Loss of AGG trinucleotides and polarized variability support Okazaki fragment slippage as a model for CGG repeat instability and hyperexpansion.

  10. Structures of designed armadillo-repeat proteins show propagation of inter-repeat interface effects

    PubMed Central

    Reichen, Christian; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Hansen, Simon; Grütter, Markus G.; Plückthun, Andreas; Mittl, Peer R. E.

    2016-01-01

    The armadillo repeat serves as a scaffold for the development of modular peptide-recognition modules. In order to develop such a system, three crystal structures of designed armadillo-repeat proteins with third-generation N-caps (YIII-type), four or five internal repeats (M-type) and second-generation C-caps (AII-type) were determined at 1.8 Å (His-YIIIM4AII), 2.0 Å (His-YIIIM5AII) and 1.95 Å (YIIIM5AII) resolution and compared with those of variants with third-generation C-caps. All constructs are full consensus designs in which the internal repeats have exactly the same sequence, and hence identical conformations of the internal repeats are expected. The N-cap and internal repeats M1 to M3 are indeed extremely similar, but the comparison reveals structural differences in internal repeats M4 and M5 and the C-cap. These differences are caused by long-range effects of the C-cap, contacting molecules in the crystal, and the intrinsic design of the repeat. Unfortunately, the rigid-body movement of the C-terminal part impairs the regular arrangement of internal repeats that forms the putative peptide-binding site. The second-generation C-cap improves the packing of buried residues and thereby the stability of the protein. These considerations are useful for future improvements of an armadillo-repeat-based peptide-recognition system. PMID:26894544

  11. Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

  12. [Oral manifestations in systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2010-11-01

    Systemic diseases may affect the oral tissues, i.e. oral mucosa, salivary glands, teeth or bone, and oral manifestations will frequently present early, i.e. in association with (non-fulminant) systemic disease. Thus, recognition and proper diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment schedules. Key examples of systemic disease groups with oral manifestations include dermatological, inflammatory connective tissue diseases, haematological and inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, as well as neurological and endocrine diseases.

  13. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  14. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in women with repeated miscarriages.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard, I; Daniel, V; Link, S; Monga, B; Runnebaum, B

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate a possible etiological role of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the pathogenesis of repeated miscarriages. The blood levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons [CHCs: pentachlorophenol, hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) group, polychlorinated biphenyls] were determined in 89 women with repeated miscarriages, who were referred to the University Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Heidelberg for investigations between 1989 and 1993, and compared to a previously investigated reference population. In more than 20% of the women, at least one of the CHC levels exceeded the reference range. CHC levels did not differ significantly between women with primary or secondary and early or late miscarriages; neither did they differ between women with hormonal or immunological disorders as causes of repeated miscarriages or women with idiopathic repeated miscarriages. No significant associations were detected between CHC levels and further conceptions or the outcome of further pregnancies. As significant associations were found between increasing CHC blood concentrations and immunological and hormonal changes, CHCs may have an impact on the pregnancy course in certain cases. PMID:9755145

  15. Is Retrieval Mediated after Repeated Testing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kole, James A.; Healy, Alice F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2 main experiments, the mediated priming effect was used to determine whether retrieval continues to be mediated after repeated testing. In each experiment, participants used the keyword method to learn French vocabulary, then completed a modified lexical decision task in which they first translated a French word, and then made a lexical…

  16. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  17. Rectourethral fistula after repeat transrectal prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Loran, Oleg B; Veliev, Evgeny I; Sokolov, Egor A; Dadashev, Elmar O; Guspanov, Renat I

    2013-09-01

    Transrectal prostate biopsy is considered a relatively safe procedure, with a quite small number of complications. We report a patient with a rectourethral fistula after a repeat transrectal prostate biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first incident in the published literature.

  18. Repeated Random Sampling in Year 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; English, Lyn D.

    2016-01-01

    As an extension to an activity introducing Year 5 students to the practice of statistics, the software "TinkerPlots" made it possible to collect repeated random samples from a finite population to informally explore students' capacity to begin reasoning with a distribution of sample statistics. This article provides background for the…

  19. [Preventive maintenance of repeated ischemic insults].

    PubMed

    Gavrilenko, A V; Kuklin, A V; Kravchenko, A A; Agafonov, I N

    2008-01-01

    In the review we offer analysis of the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy in treatment of post-functional apoplexy or stroke patients. Published results of the researches specify possible efficiency of carotid endarterectomy in preventive maintenance against repeated apoplectic attack or strokes. Yet the criteria of usage and execution of the carotid endarterectomy are still to be discussed.

  20. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term “junk DNA” has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide, and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasized following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease) and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA) in 1991. In this review, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases. PMID:26733936

  1. Testing Multiple Outcomes in Repeated Measures Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates procedures for controlling the familywise error rate (FWR) when testing hypotheses about multiple, correlated outcome variables in repeated measures (RM) designs. A content analysis of RM research articles published in 4 psychology journals revealed that 3 quarters of studies tested hypotheses about 2 or more outcome…

  2. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  3. Longer-baseline telescopes using quantum repeaters.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Daniel; Jennewein, Thomas; Croke, Sarah

    2012-08-17

    We present an approach to building interferometric telescopes using ideas of quantum information. Current optical interferometers have limited baseline lengths, and thus limited resolution, because of noise and loss of signal due to the transmission of photons between the telescopes. The technology of quantum repeaters has the potential to eliminate this limit, allowing in principle interferometers with arbitrarily long baselines.

  4. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  5. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  6. Oral and perioral piercing complications.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-12-04

    BACKGROUND.: The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing METHODS.: A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ;;oral and perioral, piercing , ;;oral, piercing and disease", ;;recessions and oral piercing . It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series RESULTS.: A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. CONCLUSION.: Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS.: Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures.

  7. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  8. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-01-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4±1.5 years, 1.83±0.07 m, 88.1±8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10×6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO2) or normoxia (21% FiO2). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10×6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33±12%) than the normoxic group (14±10%, p<0.05). During the 10×6 s RS test there was a tendency for greater increases in oxygen consumption in the hypoxic group (hypoxic 6.9±9%, normoxic (−0.3±8.8%, p=0.06) and reductions in cerebral deoxygenation (% changes for both groups, p=0.09) after hypoxic than normoxic training. Twelve RS training sessions in hypoxia resulted in twofold greater improvements in capacity to perform repeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block. PMID:24282212

  9. Pre-Altitude Serum Ferritin Levels and Daily Oral Iron Supplement Dose Mediate Iron Parameter and Hemoglobin Mass Responses to Altitude Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Govus, Andrew D.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Abbiss, Chris R.; Peeling, Peter; Gore, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the influence of daily oral iron supplementation on changes in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and iron parameters after 2–4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure. Methods Hematological data collected from 178 athletes (98 males, 80 females) exposed to moderate altitude (1,350–3,000 m) were analysed using linear regression to determine how altitude exposure combined with oral iron supplementation influenced Hbmass, total iron incorporation (TII) and blood iron parameters [ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT)]. Results Altitude exposure (mean ± s: 21 ± 3 days) increased Hbmass by 1.1% [-0.4, 2.6], 3.3% [1.7, 4.8], and 4.0% [2.0, 6.1] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who ingested nil, 105 mg and 210 mg respectively, of oral iron supplement daily. Serum ferritin levels decreased by -33.2% [-46.9, -15.9] and 13.8% [-32.2, 9.7] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who supplemented with nil and 105 mg of oral iron supplement daily, but increased by 36.8% [1.3, 84.8] in athletes supplemented with 210 mg of oral iron daily. Finally, athletes who ingested either 105 mg or 210 mg of oral iron supplement daily had a greater TII compared with non-supplemented athletes (0 versus 105 mg: effect size (d) = -1.88 [-2.56, -1.17]; 0 versus 210 mg: effect size (d) = -2.87 [-3.88, -1.66]). Conclusion Oral iron supplementation during 2–4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure may enhance Hbmass production and assist the maintenance of iron balance in some athletes with low pre-altitude iron stores. PMID:26263553

  10. Oral Tranexamic Acid with Fluocinolone-Based Triple Combination Cream Versus Fluocinolone-Based Triple Combination Cream Alone in Melasma: An Open Labeled Randomized Comparative Trial

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Tanmay; Pradhan, Swetalina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common acquired cause of facial hyperpigmentation with no definitive therapy. Tranexamic acid, a plasmin inhibitor, has demonstrated depigmenting properties and combining this oral drug with other modalities of treatment has shown promising results. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a combination of oral tranexamic acid and fluocinolone-based triple combination cream with that of fluocinolone-based triple combination cream alone in melasma among Indian patients. Materials and Methods: 40 patients of melasma of either sex attending to dermatology OPD were enrolled in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups with 20 patients in each group. Group A patients were asked to apply the cream only and Group B patients received oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily and applied a triple combination cream containing fluocinolone acetonide 0.01%, tretinoin 0.05%, and hydroquinone 2% once daily for 8 weeks. Response was evaluated using melasma area severity index (MASI) at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Results: 40 patients completed the study. The MASI scores at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks in group A were 15.425 + 1.09, 11.075 + 9.167 and 6.995 + 6.056 respectively and in group B 18.243 + 1.05, 6.135 + 4.94 and 2.19 + 3.38. Intergroup comparison showed a faster reduction in pigmentation in Group B as compared to Group A and the results were statistically significant at 4 weeks (P value 0.014) and 8 weeks (P value 0.000). The efficacy was maintained throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Addition of oral tranexamic acid to fluocinolone-based triple combination cream results in a faster and sustained improvement in the treatment of melasma. PMID:26538719

  11. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  12. Repeated transplantation of hepatocytes prevents fulminant hepatitis in a rat model of Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Vanessa; Siaj, Ramsi; Stöppeler, Sandra; Bahde, Ralf; Spiegel, Hans-Ullrich; Köhler, Gabriele; Zibert, Andree; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2012-02-01

    The outcome of consecutive hepatocyte transplants was explored in a rat model of Wilson's disease before the onset of fulminant hepatitis without preconditioning regimens. Rats received a high-copper diet in order to induce a rapid induction of liver failure. Sham-operated rats (15/15) developed jaundice and fulminant hepatitis, and they died within 4 weeks of first transplantation. Despite the continuation of a high dietary copper challenge, long-term survival was observed for a notable proportion of the transplanted animals (7/18). All survivors displayed normalized levels of hepatitis-associated serum markers and ceruloplasmin oxidase activity by posttransplant days 50 and 98, respectively. The liver copper concentrations, the liver histology, and the expression of marker genes were significantly restored within 4 months of transplantation in comparison with the control group. The high expression of a copper transporter gene (ATPase Cu++ transporting beta polypeptide) in the livers of the survivors indicated a high rate of repopulation by donor hepatocytes. Our data suggest that repeated cell transplantation can overcome the limitations of a single therapy session in rats with severe hepatic disease by functionally restoring the host liver without preconditioning.

  13. Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel S; Silva, Luiz F F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Zin, Walter A; Faffe, Débora S

    2014-01-15

    We compared the toxicity of subchronic exposure to equivalent masses of particles from sugar cane burning and traffic. BALB/c mice received 3 intranasal instillations/week during 1, 2 or 4 weeks of either distilled water (C1, C2, C4) or particles (15μg) from traffic (UP1, UP2, UP4) or biomass burning (BP1, BP2, BP4). Lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress were analyzed 24h after the last instillation. In all instances UP and BP groups presented worse pulmonary elastance, airway and tissue resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction and macrophage influx into the lungs than controls. UP4, BP2 and BP4 presented more alveolar collapse than UP1 and BP1, respectively. UP and BP had worse bronchial and alveolar lesion scores than their controls; BP4 had greater bronchial lesion scores than UP4. Catalase was higher in UP4 and BP4 than in C4. In conclusion, biomass particles were more toxic than those from traffic after repeated exposures.

  14. Bancroftian filariasis: effect of repeated treatment with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on microfilaraemia, antigenaemia and antifilarial antibodies.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Hanan; Weil, Gary J; Ellethy, Abou Sree T; Ahmed, Ehab S; Setouhy, Maged El; Ramzy, Reda M R

    2006-07-01

    Diethylcarbamazine/albendazole (DEC/ALB) therapy is widely used in mass drug administration (MDA) programmes aimed at eliminating lymphatic filariasis. We studied the effects of repeated annual treatments with DEC/ALB on Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia, filarial antigenaemia and IgG4 antibodies to Bm14 antigen. Fifty-seven subjects with asymptomatic microfilaraemia were treated with one or seven daily doses of DEC/ALB at time zero. All subjects were re-treated with single-dose DEC/ALB 12, 24 and 36 months later. The two treatment groups had comparable pre-treatment microfilaria counts. Multidose treatment cleared microfilaraemia more effectively than single-dose treatment. Filarial antigen levels decreased equally in both treatment groups. Total antigen clearance was observed in 29.6%, 52.0%, 63.6% and 79.5% of subjects at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. These clearance rates are much higher than those observed in prior treatment trials with DEC or ivermectin. Antibody levels increased 4 weeks after treatment and then slowly decreased in most subjects. Antibody tests turned negative in 20%, 35%, 39.4% and 52.5% of treated subjects at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months post treatment. These results show that the studied parameters decline at different rates and to differing degrees following DEC/ALB treatment. These findings have important implications regarding strategies for monitoring the effects of MDA in populations.

  15. Efficacy of nystatin for the treatment of oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Xin; Zhao, Chen; Yan, Zhi-min; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically review and assess the efficacy, different treatment protocols (formulation, dosage, and duration), and safety of nystatin for treating oral candidiasis. Methods Four electronic databases were searched for trials published in English till July 1, 2015. Randomized controlled trials comparing nystatin with other antifungal therapies or a placebo were included. Clinical and/or mycological cure was the outcome evaluation. A meta-analysis or descriptive study on the efficacy, treatment protocols, and safety of nystatin was conducted. Results The meta-analysis showed that nystatin pastille was significantly superior to placebo in treating denture stomatitis. Nystatin suspension was not superior to fluconazole in treating oral candidiasis in infants, children, or HIV/AIDS patients. The descriptive investigations showed that administration of nystatin suspension and pastilles in combination for 2 weeks might achieve a higher clinical and mycological cure rate, and using the nystatin pastilles alone might have a higher mycological cure rate, when compared with using nystatin suspensions alone. Nystatin pastilles at a dose of 400,000 IU resulted in a significantly higher mycological cure rate than that administrated at a dose of 200,000 IU. Furthermore, treatment with nystatin pastilles for 4 weeks seemed to have better clinical efficacy than treatment for 2 weeks. Descriptive safety assessment showed that poor taste and gastrointestinal adverse reaction are the most common adverse effects of nystatin. Conclusion Nystatin pastille was significantly superior to placebo in treating denture stomatitis, while nystatin suspension was not superior to fluconazole in treating oral candidiasis in infants, children, or HIV/AIDS patients. Indirect evidence from a descriptive study demonstrated that administration of nystatin pastille alone or pastille and suspension in combination is more effective than that of suspension alone; prolonged treatment duration

  16. The effect of a commercial probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on oral health in healthy dentate people

    PubMed Central

    Sutula, Justyna; Coulthwaite, Lisa Ann; Thomas, Linda Valerie; Verran, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the use of probiotic-containing products has been explored as a potential alternative in oral health therapy. A widely available probiotic drink, Yakult, was evaluated for oral health applications in this longitudinal study. Selected oral health parameters, such as levels and composition of salivary and tongue plaque microbiota and of malodorous gases, in dentate healthy individuals were investigated for changes. The persistence of the probiotic strain in the oral cavity was monitored throughout the study period. Methods A three-phase study (7 weeks) was designed to investigate simultaneously the effect of 4-week consumption of the probiotic-containing milk drink Yakult on the microbiota of saliva and dorsum tongue coating in healthy dentate people (n = 22) and levels of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) in morning breath. Study phases comprised one baseline visit, at which ‘control’ levels of oral parameters were obtained prior to the probiotic product consumption; a 4-week period of daily consumption of one 65 ml bottle of Yakult, each bottle containing a minimum of 6.5×109 viable cells of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS); and a 2-week washout period. The microbial viability and composition of saliva and tongue dorsum coating were assessed using a range of solid media. The presence of LcS in the oral cavity was investigated using a novel selective medium, ‘LcS Select’. Portable sulphur monitors Halimeter® and OralChromaTM were used to measure levels of VSCs in morning breath. Results Utilization of the LcS Select medium revealed a significant (p < 0.05) but temporary and consumption-dependent presence of LcS in saliva and tongue plaque samples from healthy dentate individuals (n = 19) during the probiotic intervention phase. LcS was undetectable with culture after 2 weeks of ceasing its consumption. Morning breath scores measured with Halimeter and OralChroma were not significantly affected throughout the trial

  17. Vectorette PCR isolation of microsatellite repeat sequences using anchored dinucleotide repeat primers.

    PubMed Central

    Lench, N J; Norris, A; Bailey, A; Booth, A; Markham, A F

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a vectorette PCR approach to provide an improved method for isolation of microsatellite repeats. The modified procedure relies on PCR amplification using a vectorette-specific primer in combination with one of a panel of anchored dinucleotide repeat primers. The target DNA to be screened for microsatellite sequences can be from YAC, P1, cosmid, bacteriophage or plasmid clones. We have used this technique to isolate novel, polymorphic microsatellite repeats from clones containing the amelogenin gene (AMGX) located on human chromosome Xp22.3. PMID:8668553

  18. Toxicokinetics of mercury after long-term repeated exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine.

    PubMed

    Barregard, Lars; Rekić, Dinko; Horvat, Milena; Elmberg, Lisa; Lundh, Thomas; Zachrisson, Olof

    2011-04-01

    The preservative thimerosal contains ethyl mercury (EtHg). Concerns over possible toxicity have re-emerged recently due to its presence in (swine and other) flu vaccines. We examined the potential accumulation of mercury in adults given repeated injections of a thimerosal-preserved vaccine for many years. Fifteen female patients were recruited from an outpatient clinic running a clinical trial with repeated injections (1 ml every 3-4 weeks) of a staphylococcus toxoid vaccine containing 0.01% thimerosal to treat chronic fatigue syndrome. Fifteen untreated female patients with the same diagnoses served as controls. Blood samples were taken before injecting the vaccine, 1 day later, about 2 weeks later, and just before the next injection. In the 15 controls, samples were taken twice. Blood was analyzed for total mercury and EtHg. The toxicokinetics were assessed for each patient separately as well as with a population-based pharmacokinetic model. Total mercury in blood increased on Day 1 in all treated patients (median: 0.33, range: 0.17-1.3 μg/l), as did EtHg (median: 0.14 μg/l, range: 0.06-0.43 μg/l). After a few weeks, levels were back to normal and similar to those in controls. Levels of methyl mercury (MeHg; from fish consumption) were much higher than those of EtHg. After exclusion of an outlier, the mean half-life in a population-based model was 5.6 (95% CI: 4.8-6.3) days. The results indicate that mercury from thimerosal is not accumulated in blood in adults. This is in accordance with short half-lives and rapid metabolism of EtHg to inorganic mercury.

  19. Oral, subcutaneous, and intravenous pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Quimby, J M; Lake, R C; Hansen, R J; Lunghofer, P J; Gustafson, D L

    2014-08-01

    Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats. Six cats with normal complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis received 2 mg oral (mean 0.43 mg/kg), subcutaneous (mean 0.4 mg/kg), and intravenous (mean 0.4 mg/kg) ondansetron in a cross-over manner with a 5-day wash out. Serum was collected prior to, and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h after administration of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic modeling and dose interval modeling were performed. Repeated measures anova was used to compare parameters between administration routes. Bioavailability of ondansetron was 32% (oral) and 75% (subcutaneous). Calculated elimination half-life of ondansetron was 1.84 ± 0.58 h (intravenous), 1.18 ± 0.27 h (oral) and 3.17 ± 0.53 h (subcutaneous). The calculated elimination half-life of subcutaneous ondansetron was significantly longer (P < 0.05) than oral or intravenous administration. Subcutaneous administration of ondansetron to healthy cats is more bioavailable and results in a more prolonged exposure than oral administration. This information will aid management of emesis in feline patients.

  20. Experimental oral and nasal transmission of rabies virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A

    1979-01-01

    Weanling female white Swiss mice were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus and street virus isolates from various domestic and wild animals. Virus was given free choice as suspension or as infected mouse brain by stomach tube, by single injection of suspension into the oral cavity of unanesthetized mice, by repeated injection into the oral cavity of anesthetized mice and by single application to the external nares of anesthetized mice. Challenge virus standard virus in mouse brain suspension and a suspension of skunk salivary glands infected with street virus (titers greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) consistently produced high rates of infection in mice exposed intranasally, low to high rates of infection in mice exposed by forced feeding and other artificial methods of oral exposure and very low rates of infection when given free choice. Street virus isolates passaged intracerebrally in mice had titers less than or equal to 10(4.5) MICLD50/0.03 ml and rarely caused rabies in mice exposed orally or nasally by any method. The results indicate that with the isolates used, virus of high titer (greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) is required to consistently produce infection in mice by the nasal route and that the mucosa of the nasal cavity probably is the chief route of infection even after oral administration.

  1. Experimental oral and nasal transmission of rabies virus in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A

    1979-01-01

    Weanling female white Swiss mice were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus and street virus isolates from various domestic and wild animals. Virus was given free choice as suspension or as infected mouse brain by stomach tube, by single injection of suspension into the oral cavity of unanesthetized mice, by repeated injection into the oral cavity of anesthetized mice and by single application to the external nares of anesthetized mice. Challenge virus standard virus in mouse brain suspension and a suspension of skunk salivary glands infected with street virus (titers greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) consistently produced high rates of infection in mice exposed intranasally, low to high rates of infection in mice exposed by forced feeding and other artificial methods of oral exposure and very low rates of infection when given free choice. Street virus isolates passaged intracerebrally in mice had titers less than or equal to 10(4.5) MICLD50/0.03 ml and rarely caused rabies in mice exposed orally or nasally by any method. The results indicate that with the isolates used, virus of high titer (greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) is required to consistently produce infection in mice by the nasal route and that the mucosa of the nasal cavity probably is the chief route of infection even after oral administration. PMID:427634

  2. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eliete Neves da Silva; Vianna, Leonora; Sobreira, Maria Nazareth; de Araújo, Flavio Nader Gross; de Melo, Nilce Santos

    2011-11-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease caused by defects in the metabolism of glyoxylate. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are rare. However, bone and tooth resorption may be the result of chronic inflammation and the presence of osteoclastic cells surrounding the oxalate crystal deposit. A deposit of calcium oxalate in the periodontium was identified in a patient with end-stage renal disease. Dental radiographs indicated bone loss and external tooth resorption. Radiolucent image in the inferior incisor region was observed and removed. The tissue showed granulomatous inflammation with foreign body reaction and associated crystalline deposits. When viewed in polarized light, these deposits are green and presented a birefringent aspect, which were interpreted as calcium oxalate crystals compatible with oxaluria. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are of particular interest because of the unusual location of the oxalate crystal deposition, resulting in aggressive tooth resorption and alveolar bone loss, which may be misdiagnosed.

  3. Damaging Oral Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  4. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  5. Oral chemotherapy in tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kay, N J

    1981-05-01

    A double-blind triple cross-over trial was designed for 21 patients suffering from tinnitus; mexiletine, diazapam, betahistine and placebo were taken each for a month sequentially during which time the patients recorded their tinnitus loudness subjectively on a visual analogue scale. The results showed that these medications did not influence the tinnitus loudness. Since mexiletine is an oral analogue of lignocaine and a cardiovascular drug, any untoward cardiovascular history and clinical finding disqualified such patients from the trial. Twenty-one such patients were rejected from an original group of 42 patients. In a volunteer trial mexiletine unrelated to this, it was reported that a vasovagal attack was suffered by someone who had just consumed 400 mg mexiletine orally. After ethical considerations the tinnitus trial was stopped. Eleven patients completed the cycle of medications, 10 did not. The dangers of using a cardiovascular drug for a non-cardiovascular condition is thus exposed.

  6. Lasers in oral surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

    1994-12-01

    The indications of lasers in oral surgery are defined by the laser-tissue interaction types. These are mainly thermal effects depending especially on the absorption of laser light in varying biological tissues. In histological sections different laser effects are demonstrated on oral mucosa, bone and cartilage, which have a great influence on wound healing and subsequently on clinical indications of the different wavelengths. On the one hand the good coagulation effect of the Nd:YAG laser is wanted for hemostasis in soft tissue surgery. On the other hand, for the treatment of precancerous dysplasias or neoplasias an effective cutting with a coagulation effect like using the CO2 laser is necessary. However, the excision of benign mucosal lesions as well as performing osteotomies or shaping of cartilage should be undertaken with the Er:YAG laser without greater coagulation and consequently without any delay of wound healing.

  7. Oral health & HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan; Naidoo, Sudeshi; Berthold, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Oral lesions are common in women and children with HIV/AIDS and may decrease the overall quality of life in these patients because of pain, dry mouth, and difficulty in eating. An oral cavity screening is an easy, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive procedure that provides nurses with invaluable information about the need for referral, treatment, and health education. Nurses can use the information obtained from a careful oral screening to decrease the symptoms experienced with oral lesions and optimize a patient's ability to chew and enjoy food. Common oral manifestations of HIV infection include fungal, viral, and bacterial infections, although neoplasms, periodontal disease, salivary gland disease, and lesions of uncertain origin are also seen. Oral lesions such as candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpetic ulcers, and Kaposi's sarcoma are often among the first symptoms of HIV infection.

  8. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  9. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  10. [Reiter's syndrome oral manifestations].

    PubMed

    Fotiou, G; Laskaris, G

    1988-01-01

    Reiter's syndrome is characterized by arthritis, non-gonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis and mucocutaneous lesions. Oral lesions occur in 20-40% of the cases. They appear as papules and ulcerations on the buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. Lesions on the tongue resemple "geographic tongue". One case of Reiter's syndrome is described. The significance of the clinical lesions, their microscopic appearance and the differential diagnosis are discussed.

  11. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  12. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.

  13. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    PubMed

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  14. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    PubMed

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  15. Mutagenic inverted repeat assisted genome engineering (MIRAGE).

    PubMed

    Nair, Nikhil U; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-01-01

    Here we describe a one-step method to create precise modifications in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a tool for synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, systems biology and genetic studies. Through homologous recombination, a mutagenesis cassette containing an inverted repeat of selection marker(s) is integrated into the genome. Due to its inherent instability in genomic DNA, the inverted repeat catalyzes spontaneous self-excision, resulting in precise genome modification. Since this excision occurs at very high frequencies, selection for the integration event can be followed immediately by counterselection, without the need for growth in permissive conditions. This is the first time a truly one-step method has been described for genome modification in any organism.

  16. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  17. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  18. Repeated interactions in open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruneau, Laurent; Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco

    2014-07-15

    Analyzing the dynamics of open quantum systems has a long history in mathematics and physics. Depending on the system at hand, basic physical phenomena that one would like to explain are, for example, convergence to equilibrium, the dynamics of quantum coherences (decoherence) and quantum correlations (entanglement), or the emergence of heat and particle fluxes in non-equilibrium situations. From the mathematical physics perspective, one of the main challenges is to derive the irreversible dynamics of the open system, starting from a unitary dynamics of the system and its environment. The repeated interactions systems considered in these notes are models of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. They are relevant in quantum optics, and more generally, serve as a relatively well treatable approximation of a more difficult quantum dynamics. In particular, the repeated interaction models allow to determine the large time (stationary) asymptotics of quantum systems out of equilibrium.

  19. A comparative study of the repeat dose toxicity of grepafloxacin and a number of other fluoroquinolones in rats.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T; Hasimoto, K; Itoh, N; Yamashita, S; Owen, K

    1999-01-01

    Grepafloxacin is a new oral fluoroquinolone with potent activity against community acquired respiratory pathogens, including Streptococcuspneumoniae, and pharmacokinetic properties which allow once daily dosing. As part of its safety evaluation a study of 4 weeks duration was performed to compare the toxicity of grepafloxacin with that of a number of commercially available quinolones in the rat. Groups of eight male Sprague-Dawley rats received either control material or grepafloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin at an oral dosage of 300 mg/kg/day for 4 consecutive weeks. Effects related to the antibacterial activity of the drugs were seen as increased caecal weight, decreased urinary excretion of sodium, increased water consumption, decreased urine volume, increased urine osmolality, soft stools and suppressed body weight gain. It is well documented that fluoroquinolones can cause lesions in the cartilage of the major diarthrodial joints, and blister formation or erosion on the joint surface was observed in all quinolone-treated groups other than the grepafloxacin group. Some quinolones, have been found to cause crystalluria, which is often associated with secondary nephropathy in laboratory animals due to the poor solubility of quinolones under the alkaline conditions of the urine. In the present study, needle-like crystals in the urinary sediment were observed in enoxacin and ciprofloxacin treated groups only. In conclusion, grepafloxacin was well tolerated and showed a low potential for joint toxicity and crystalluria compared to other quinolones.

  20. Nucleosome repeat lengths and columnar chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Trifonov, Edward N

    2016-06-01

    Thorough quantitative study of nucleosome repeat length (NRL) distributions, conducted in 1992 by J. Widom, resulted in a striking observation that the linker lengths between the nucleosomes are quantized. Comparison of the NRL average values with the MNase cut distances predicted from the hypothetical columnar structure of chromatin (this work) shows a close correspondence between the two. This strongly suggests that the NRL distribution, actually, reflects the dominant role of columnar chromatin structure common for all eukaryotes.

  1. Identical repeated backbone of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Identical sequences with a minimal length of about 300 base pairs (bp) have been involved in the generation of various meiotic/mitotic genomic rearrangements through non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) events. Genomic disorders and structural variation, together with gene remodelling processes have been associated with many of these rearrangements. Based on these observations, we identified and integrated all the 100% identical repeats of at least 300 bp in the NCBI version 36.2 human genome reference assembly into non-overlapping regions, thus defining the Identical Repeated Backbone (IRB) of the reference human genome. Results The IRB sequences are distributed all over the genome in 66,600 regions, which correspond to ~2% of the total NCBI human genome reference assembly. Important structural and functional elements such as common repeats, segmental duplications, and genes are contained in the IRB. About 80% of the IRB bp overlap with known copy-number variants (CNVs). By analyzing the genes embedded in the IRB, we were able to detect some identical genes not previously included in the Ensembl release 50 annotation of human genes. In addition, we found evidence of IRB gene copy-number polymorphisms in raw sequence reads of two diploid sequenced genomes. Conclusions In general, the IRB offers new insight into the complex organization of the identical repeated sequences of the human genome. It provides an accurate map of potential NAHR sites which could be used in targeting the study of novel CNVs, predicting DNA copy-number variation in newly sequenced genomes, and improve genome annotation. PMID:20096123

  2. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  3. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  4. Automatic-repeat-request error control schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Miller, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Error detection incorporated with automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) is widely used for error control in data communication systems. This method of error control is simple and provides high system reliability. If a properly chosen code is used for error detection, virtually error-free data transmission can be attained. Various types of ARQ and hybrid ARQ schemes, and error detection using linear block codes are surveyed.

  5. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality and any other general or specific toxic effects... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9310 TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents. (a) Scope. This... no-observed-effects level (NOEL) and toxic effects associated with continuous or repeated exposure...

  6. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality and any other general or specific toxic effects... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9310 TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents. (a) Scope. This... no-observed-effects level (NOEL) and toxic effects associated with continuous or repeated exposure...

  7. Effects of Manipulating Task Complexity on Self-Repairs during L2 Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilabert, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of manipulating the cognitive complexity of L2 oral tasks on language production. It specifically focuses on self-repairs, which are taken as a measure of accuracy since they denote both attention to form and an attempt at being accurate. By means of a repeated measures design, 42 lower-intermediate students were…

  8. Programming for Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency Using Computer-Assisted Instruction and Changing Fluency Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Starr E.; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Robinson-Ervin, Porsha

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supplemental repeated reading intervention delivered through a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on the oral reading fluency (ORF), comprehension, and generalization of second graders who were at risk for reading failure. Six students received the Read Naturally Software Edition (RNSE) treatment…

  9. Orally disintegrating systems: innovations in formulation and technology.

    PubMed

    Goel, Honey; Rai, Parshuram; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2008-01-01

    Orally disintegrating systems have carved a niche amongst the oral drug delivery systems due to the highest component of compliance they enjoy in patients especially the geriatrics and pediatrics. In addition, patients suffering from dysphagia, motion sickness, repeated emesis and mental disorders prefer these medications because they cannot swallow large quantity of water. Further, drugs exhibiting satisfactory absorption from the oral mucosa or intended for immediate pharmacological action can be advantageously formulated in these dosage forms. However, the requirements of formulating these dosage forms with mechanical strength sufficient to with stand the rigors of handling and capable of disintegrating within a few seconds on contact with saliva are inextricable. Therefore, research in developing orally disintegrating systems has been aimed at investigating different excipients as well as techniques to meet these challenges. A variety of dosage forms like tablets, films, wafers, chewing gums, microparticles, nanoparticles etc. have been developed for enhancing the performance attributes in the orally disintegrating systems. Advancements in the technology arena for manufacturing these systems include the use of freeze drying, cotton candy, melt extrusion, sublimation, direct compression besides the classical wet granulation processes. Taste masking of active ingredients becomes essential in these systems because the drug is entirely released in the mouth. Fluid bed coating, agglomeration, pelletization and infusion methods have proven useful for this purpose. It is important to note that although, freeze dried and effervescent disintegrating systems rapidly disintegrate in contact with fluids, they do not generally exhibit the required mechanical strength. Similarly, the candy process cannot be used for thermolabile drugs. In the light of the paradoxical nature of the attributes desired in orally disintegrating systems (high mechanical strength and rapid

  10. Genomic Repeat Abundances Contain Phylogenetic Signal

    PubMed Central

    Dodsworth, Steven; Chase, Mark W.; Kelly, Laura J.; Leitch, Ilia J.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Piednoël, Mathieu; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Leitch, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of different classes of genomic repeats. Phylogenetic trees are then inferred based on the genome-wide abundance of different repeat types treated as continuously varying characters; such repeats are scattered across chromosomes and in angiosperms can constitute a majority of nuclear genomic DNA. In six diverse examples, five angiosperms and one insect, this method provides generally well-supported relationships at interspecific and intergeneric levels that agree with results from more standard phylogenetic analyses of commonly used markers. We propose that this methodology may prove especially useful in groups where there is little genetic differentiation in standard phylogenetic markers. At the same time as providing data for phylogenetic inference, this method additionally yields a wealth of data for comparative studies of genome evolution. PMID:25261464

  11. Landauer's Principle in Repeated Interaction Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Joye, Alain; Pautrat, Yan; Raquépas, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We study Landauer's Principle for Repeated Interaction Systems (RIS) consisting of a reference quantum system S in contact with a structured environment E made of a chain of independent quantum probes; S interacts with each probe, for a fixed duration, in sequence. We first adapt Landauer's lower bound, which relates the energy variation of the environment E to a decrease of entropy of the system S during the evolution, to the peculiar discrete time dynamics of RIS. Then we consider RIS with a structured environment E displaying small variations of order {T^{-1}} between the successive probes encountered by S, after {n ˜eq T} interactions, in keeping with adiabatic scaling. We establish a discrete time non-unitary adiabatic theorem to approximate the reduced dynamics of S in this regime, in order to tackle the adiabatic limit of Landauer's bound. We find that saturation of Landauer's bound is related to a detailed balance condition on the repeated interaction system, reflecting the non-equilibrium nature of the repeated interaction system dynamics. This is to be contrasted with the generic saturation of Landauer's bound known to hold for continuous time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with a single thermal reservoir in the adiabatic regime.

  12. Agreement and repeatability of an infrared thermometer.

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Good, Angela; Mueller, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Recently, manufacturers have devised thermometers for home use by patients, such as the TempTouch Infrared Thermometer (TTIR; Diabetica Solutions, San Antonio, TX), which is designed with a long handle that can be used for self-monitoring localized skin temperature of the feet and legs. This study assessed the level of agreement and repeatability of the TTIR compared to a thermistor-type thermometer (TT; PeriFlux, 5020 Temperature Unit, Perimed, Stockholm, Sweden), the reference standard. In 17 healthy subjects, localized skin temperature was measured 8 cm above the right medial malleolus at baseline (Time 1), after a 10-minute rest period (Time 2), and after 10 minutes of cold provocation (Time 3) with a cryotherapy gel wrap placed around the lower legs using the TTIR and TT for temperature measurement. Scatter plots and correlation coefficients showed strong positive relationships between the two measurement methods at all three time points (Time 1: r = 0.95; Time 2: r = 0.97; and, Time 3: r = 0.87). Results showed a reasonable level of agreement between the two methods at Times 1 and 2 but not after cold provocation. Agreement between the methods appears to be better than repeatability within each method. Results for repeatability from both the TT and TTIR were very similar suggesting that there was a systematic bias with increasing temperatures between Time 1 and Time 2.

  13. Repeated-sprint ability: where are we?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Brian

    2012-09-01

    Repeated-sprint ability (RSA) is now well accepted as an important fitness component in team-sport performance. It is broadly described as the ability to perform repeated short (~3-4 s, 20-30 m) sprints with only brief (~10-30 s) recovery between bouts. Over the past 25 y a plethora of RSA tests have been trialed and reported in the literature. These range from a single set of ~6-10 short sprints, departing every 20-30 s, to team-sport game simulations involving repeating cycles of walk-jog-stride-sprint movements over 45-90 min. Such a wide range of RSA tests has not assisted the synthesis of research findings in this area, and questions remain regarding the optimal methods of training to best improve RSA. In addition, how RSA test scores relate to player "work rate," match performance, or both requires further investigation to improve the application of RSA testing and training to elite team-sport athletes.

  14. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  15. Orthologous repeats and mammalian phylogenetic inference

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Ali; Ye, Chun; Price, Alkes L.; Bafna, Vineet

    2005-01-01

    Determining phylogenetic relationships between species is a difficult problem, and many phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved, even among eutherian mammals. Repetitive elements provide excellent markers for phylogenetic analysis, because their mode of evolution is predominantly homoplasy-free and unidirectional. Historically, phylogenetic studies using repetitive elements have relied on biological methods such as PCR analysis, and computational inference is limited to a few isolated repeats. Here, we present a novel computational method for inferring phylogenetic relationships from partial sequence data using orthologous repeats. We apply our method to reconstructing the phylogeny of 28 mammals, using more than 1000 orthologous repeats obtained from sequence data available from the NISC Comparative Sequencing Program. The resulting phylogeny has robust bootstrap numbers, and broadly matches results from previous studies which were obtained using entirely different data and methods. In addition, we shed light on some of the debatable aspects of the phylogeny. With rapid expansion of available partial sequence data, computational analysis of repetitive elements holds great promise for the future of phylogenetic inference. PMID:15998912

  16. Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Acoustic Neuromas

    SciTech Connect

    Kano, Hideyuki; Kondziolka, Douglas; Niranjan, Ajay M.Ch.; Flannery, Thomas J.; Flickinger, John C.; Lunsford, L. Dade

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for acoustic neuromas, we assessed tumor control, clinical outcomes, and the risk of adverse radiation effects in patients whose tumors progressed after initial management. Methods and Materials: During a 21-year experience at our center, 1,352 patients underwent SRS as management for their acoustic neuromas. We retrospectively identified 6 patients who underwent SRS twice for the same tumor. The median patient age was 47 years (range, 35-71 years). All patients had imaging evidence of tumor progression despite initial SRS. One patient also had incomplete surgical resection after initial SRS. All patients were deaf at the time of the second SRS. The median radiosurgery target volume at the time of the initial SRS was 0.5 cc and was 2.1 cc at the time of the second SRS. The median margin dose at the time of the initial SRS was 13 Gy and was 11 Gy at the time of the second SRS. The median interval between initial SRS and repeat SRS was 63 months (range, 25-169 months). Results: At a median follow-up of 29 months after the second SRS (range, 13-71 months), tumor control or regression was achieved in all 6 patients. No patient developed symptomatic adverse radiation effects or new neurological symptoms after the second SRS. Conclusions: With this limited experience, we found that repeat SRS for a persistently enlarging acoustic neuroma can be performed safely and effectively.

  17. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  18. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  19. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T.; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C.

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  20. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rio, Rute; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, Mário-Jorge; Azevedo, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. Material and Methods The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Results Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Conclusions Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment. Key words:Oral yeast, fungi, pregnancy, saliva pH. PMID:28160578

  1. Oral health problems and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A.; Davarian, Shieva; Crimmins, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Background/purpose Previous studies have shown the relationship between individual oral health conditions and mortality; however, the relationship between mortality and multiple oral health conditions has not been examined. This study investigates the link between individual oral health problems and oral comorbidity and mortality risk. Materials and methods Data are derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004, which is linked to the National Death Index for mortality follow-up through 2006. We estimated the risk of mortality among people with three individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontitis as well as with oral comorbidity—or having all three conditions. Results Significant tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease were associated with increased odds of dying. The relationship between oral health conditions and mortality disappeared when controlling for sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral indicators. Having multiple oral health problems was associated with an even higher rate of mortality. Conclusion Individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease—were not related to mortality when sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral factors were considered, and there was no differential pattern between the three conditions. Multiple oral health problems were associated with a higher risk of dying. PMID:24416472

  2. Oral hygiene, dentition, sexual habits and risk of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Talamini, R; Vaccarella, S; Barbone, F; Tavani, A; Vecchia, C La; Herrero, R; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2000-01-01

    In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027440

  3. Oral sucrose and pain relief for preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Anita; Waltman, Patricia A

    2003-06-01

    The frequency of painful procedures performed on preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) presents a challenge to nurses who are attempting to provide effective pain relief, and to the infants themselves who may suffer adverse consequences in response to repeated painful procedures. One new pain relief intervention under study is the administration of oral sucrose, which may activate endogenous opioid systems within the body. Studies with preterm infants that have examined the use of oral sucrose as an analgesic during heelsticks and venipunctures have shown that sucrose is effective in reducing pain. Sucrose may also be combined with nonnutritive sucking to provide significant pain relief. The use of oral sucrose is now recommended with a wide range of painful procedures in the NICU. Promising results have been observed in studies with both term and preterm infants, but less research has occurred with preterm infants. Additional research is warranted to determine the most effective approaches for the administration of sucrose, to examine the effectiveness of sucrose with additional types of painful procedures, and to examine the effects of long-term repeated use of sucrose.

  4. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Single Intramuscular High Dose versus an Oral Long-Term Supplementation of Cholecalciferol

    PubMed Central

    Krannich, Alexander; Heine, Guido; Dölle, Sabine; Worm, Margitta

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is frequent during the winter and occurs throughout the year in the elderly or patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral supplementation versus a single intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol in healthy individuals. Research design and methods Up to 8,000 I.U. oral cholecalciferol was administered daily for 84 days in a 4 week dose-escalation setting to vitamin D deficient individuals. In another cohort, a single intramuscular injection of 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol was given. In both cohorts, individuals without vitamin D intake served as the comparison group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured in all individuals at defined time points throughout the studies. Results The mean 25(OH)D serum concentration increased significantly after oral cholecalciferol intake compared to the control group (day 28: 83.4 nmol/l and 42.5 nmol/l; day 56: 127.4 nmol/l and 37.3 nmol/l; day 84: 159.7 nmol/l and 30.0 nmol/l). In individuals receiving 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol intramuscular, the mean 25(OH)D serum concentration peaked after 4 weeks measuring 70.9 nmol/l compared to 32.7 nmol/l in the placebo group (p = 0.002). The increase of 25(OH)D serum concentrations after 28 days was comparable between both routes of administration (p = 0.264). Conclusions Oral and intramuscular cholecalciferol supplementation effectively increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations. PMID:28114352

  5. Leucine-rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) Pharmacological Inhibition Abates α-Synuclein Gene-induced Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Daher, João P L; Abdelmotilib, Hisham A; Hu, Xianzhen; Volpicelli-Daley, Laura A; Moehle, Mark S; Fraser, Kyle B; Needle, Elie; Chen, Yi; Steyn, Stefanus J; Galatsis, Paul; Hirst, Warren D; West, Andrew B

    2015-08-07

    Therapeutic approaches to slow or block the progression of Parkinson disease (PD) do not exist. Genetic and biochemical studies implicate α-synuclein and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) in late-onset PD. LRRK2 kinase activity has been linked to neurodegenerative pathways. However, the therapeutic potential of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors is not clear because significant toxicities have been associated with one class of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, LRRK2 kinase inhibitors have not been tested previously for efficacy in models of α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration. To better understand the therapeutic potential of LRRK2 kinase inhibition in PD, we evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of a LRRK2 kinase inhibitor, PF-06447475, in preventing α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Both wild-type rats as well as transgenic G2019S-LRRK2 rats were injected intracranially with adeno-associated viral vectors expressing human α-synuclein in the substantia nigra. Rats were treated with PF-06447475 or a control compound for 4 weeks post-viral transduction. We found that rats expressing G2019S-LRRK2 have exacerbated dopaminergic neurodegeneration and inflammation in response to the overexpression of α-synuclein. Both neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation associated with G2019S-LRRK2 expression were mitigated by LRRK2 kinase inhibition. Furthermore, PF-06447475 provided neuroprotection in wild-type rats. We could not detect adverse pathological indications in the lung, kidney, or liver of rats treated with PF-06447475. These results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of LRRK2 is well tolerated for a 4-week period of time in rats and can counteract dopaminergic neurodegeneration caused by acute α-synuclein overexpression.

  6. Repeated Intramuscular-dose Toxicity Test of Watersoluble Carthami Flos (WCF) Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoo-min; Jung, Da-jung; Kim, Seok-hee; Kim, Jong-uk; Yook, Tae-han

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Water-soluble carthami flos (WCF) is a new mixture of Carthami flos (CF) pharmacopuncture. We conducted a 4-week toxicity test of repeated intramuscular injections of WCF in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Forty male and 40 female rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 male and 10 female SD rats: The control group received 0.5 mL/animal/day of normal saline whereas the three experimental groups received WCF at doses of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal/day, respectively. For 4 weeks, the solutions were injected into the femoral muscle of the rats alternating from side to side. Clinical signs, body weights, and food consumption were observed; opthalmological examinations and urinalyses were performed. On day 29, blood samples were taken for hematological and clinical chemistry analyses. Then, necropsy was conducted in all animals to observe weights and external and histopathological changes in the bodily organs. All data were tested using a statistical analysis system (SAS). Results: No deaths were observed. Temporary irregular respiration was observed in male rats of the experimental group for the first 10 days. Body weights, food consumptions, opthalmological examinations, urinalyses, clinical chemistry analyses, organ weights and necropsy produced no findings with toxicological meaning. In the hematological analysis, delay of prothrombin time (PT) was observed in male rats of the 0.25- and the 0.5-mL/animal/day groups. In the histopathological test, a dose-dependent inflammatory cell infiltration into the fascia and panniculitis in perimuscular tissues was observed in all animals of the experimental groups. However, those symptoms were limited to local injection points. No toxicological meanings, except localized changes, were noted. Conclusion: WCF solution has no significant toxicological meaning, but does produce localized symptoms. No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of WCF in male and female rats is expected for doses over 0.5 mL/animal/day. PMID

  7. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intramuscular and oral administration of a single dose to American flamingos (Phoenicopertus ruber).

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Jennifer L; Cox, Sherry K; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics after IM and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to American flamingos (Phoenicopertus ruber). ANIMALS 14 adult flamingos. PROCEDURES Flamingos were allocated to 2 groups. Each group received a dose of meloxicam (1 mg/kg) by the IM or oral route. After a 4-week washout period, groups received meloxicam via the other route of administration. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography. Data for each bird were analyzed. Estimated values of selected pharmacokinetic parameters were compared by use of a linear mixed-effects ANOVA. Pooled concentration-time profiles for each route of administration were analyzed to examine the influence of body weight on pharmacokinetics. RESULTS Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 1.00 ± 0.88 μg/mL after oral administration. This was approximately 15% of the mean maximum plasma concentration of 5.50 ± 2.86 μg/mL after IM administration. Mean time to maximum plasma concentration was 1.33 ± 1.32 hours after oral administration and 0.28 ± 0.17 hours after IM administration. Mean half-life of the terminal phase after oral administration (3.83 ± 2.64 hours) was approximately twice that after IM administration (1.83 ± 1.22 hours). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the extent and rate of meloxicam absorption were less after oral administration than after IM administration. Intramuscular administration resulted in a short period during which mean plasma concentrations met or exceeded reported efficacious analgesic concentrations in other species, whereas oral administration did not. These results suggested that higher doses may be required for oral administration.

  8. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  9. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  10. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  11. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  12. Oral epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Guledgud, Mahima V.; Patil, Karthikeya

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HE) is an intermediate malignant potential vascular neoplasm with uncertain clinical behavior, wide variations in microscopic findings, and prognosis. According to the World Health Organization (2002) classification, epithelioid HE has been considered under malignant tumors which rarely metastasize. The epithelioid variant, the most aggressive one, has similar gender predilection and sporadic occurrence in children. The patients usually present with an asymptomatic oral mass whereas few cases may report with the painful bleeding lesion. We attempt to present a case in an adolescent male with previously never described biological behavior, diverse histopathological features, and immunohistochemistry findings. PMID:26681871

  13. Oral verruciform xanthoma

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lydia; Staines, Konrad; Pring, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Verruciform xanthoma (VX) of the oral cavity is a benign mucosal growth that often presents as a pink, yellow or grey raised plaque or papule with granular, papillary or verrucous surface morphology. Intraorally this often presents on the masticatory mucosa and extraorally often involves the skin and anogenital mucosa. There are several proposed aetiological factors and the clinical features of VX can be misleading; clinically it can resemble malignancy. Histopathological diagnosis is a key for the correct management of this lesion. Excision of this lesion is curative. PMID:25819830

  14. Improving the Oral Health of Residents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An Oral Health Strategy and Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, Catherine J.; Johnson, Knowlton W.; Abadi, Melissa; Thompson, Kirsten; Shamblen, Stephen R.; Young, Linda; Zaksek, Brigit

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an oral health (OH) strategy and pilot study focusing on individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) living in group homes. The strategy consists of four components: (1) planned action in the form of the behavioral contract and caregiver OH action planning; (2) capacity building through didactic and observation learning training; (3) environmental adaptations consisting of additional oral heath devices and strategies to create a calm atmosphere; and (4) reinforcement by post-training coaching. A pilot study was conducted consisting of pre- and post-assessment data collected one week before and one week after implementing a one-month OH strategy. The study sample comprised 11 group homes with 21 caregivers and 25 residents with IDD from one service organization in a Midwestern city. A process evaluation found high-quality implementation of the OH strategy as measured by dosage, fidelity, and caregiver reactions to implementing the strategy. Using repeated cross-sectional and repeated measures analyses, we found statistically significant positive changes in OH status and oral hygiene practices of residents. Caregiver self-efficacy as a mechanism of change was not adequately evaluated; however, positive change was found in some but not all types of caregiver OH support that were assessed. Lessons learned from implementing the pilot study intervention and evaluation are discussed, as are the next steps in conducting an efficacy study of the OH strategy. PMID:25137553

  15. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  16. Repeatability of a running heat tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Mee, Jessica A; Doust, Jo; Maxwell, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    At present there is no standardised heat tolerance test (HTT) procedure adopting a running mode of exercise. Current HTTs may misdiagnose a runner's susceptibility to a hyperthermic state due to differences in exercise intensity. The current study aimed to establish the repeatability of a practical running test to evaluate individual's ability to tolerate exercise heat stress. Sixteen (8M, 8F) participants performed the running HTT (RHTT) (30 min, 9 km h(-1), 2% elevation) on two separate occasions in a hot environment (40 °C and 40% relative humidity). There were no differences in peak rectal temperature (RHTT1: 38.82 ± 0.47 °C, RHTT2: 38.86 ± 0.49 °C, Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.93, typical error of measure (TEM) = 0.13 °C), peak skin temperature (RHTT1: 38.12 ± 0.45, RHTT2: 38.11 ± 0.45 °C, ICC = 0.79, TEM = 0.30 °C), peak heart rate (RHTT1: 182 ± 15 beats min(-1), RHTT2: 183 ± 15 beats min(-1), ICC = 0.99, TEM = 2 beats min(-1)), nor sweat rate (1721 ± 675 g h(-1), 1716 ± 745 g h(-1), ICC = 0.95, TEM = 162 g h(-1)) between RHTT1 and RHTT2 (p>0.05). Results demonstrate good agreement, strong correlations and small differences between repeated trials, and the TEM values suggest low within-participant variability. The RHTT was effective in differentiating between individuals physiological responses; supporting a heat tolerance continuum. The findings suggest the RHTT is a repeatable measure of physiological strain in the heat and may be used to assess the effectiveness of acute and chronic heat alleviating procedures.

  17. [Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

    2011-02-01

    The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies.

  18. Complications of equine oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Padraic M; Hawkes, Claire; Townsend, Neil

    2008-12-01

    The vast majority of equine oral procedures are dental-related and, unless great care is taken, almost all such procedures have the potential to cause marked short- or long-term damage to other oral structures. This review of the more common complications of oral surgery begins at the rostral oral cavity with procedures of the incisors, and then moves caudally to deal with complications related to procedures of wolf teeth and cheek teeth, including salivary duct disruption and dental sinusitis. Finally, complications associated with maxillary and mandibular fractures are discussed.

  19. Improving oral hygiene for patients.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

    2015-01-13

    Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care.

  20. Are all repeats created equal? Understanding DNA repeats at an individual level.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinpu; Li, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences, comprising up to 50 % of the genome in all eukaryotes, play important roles in a wide range of cellular functions, such as transcriptional regulation, genome stability, and cellular differentiation. However, due to technical difficulties in differentiating their sequences, DNA repeats remain one of the most mysterious parts of eukaryotic genomes. Key questions, such as how repetitive entities behave at individual level and how the internal architecture of these repeats is organized, are still poorly understood. Recent advances from our group reveal unexpected position-dependent variation within tandem DNA repeats in fission yeast. Despite sharing identical DNA sequences, the peri-centromeric repeats are organized into diverse epigenetic states and chromatin structures. We demonstrate that this position-dependent variation requires key heterochromatin factors and condensin. Our works further suggest that the peri-centromeric repeats are organized into distinct higher order structures that ensure a proper positioning of CENP-A, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant, to centromeres. These most recent developments offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the position effect within tandem DNA arrays, and have broad implications in the field of epigenetics and chromatin biology.

  1. Adult Dental Health Survey 2009: implications of findings for clinical practice and oral health policy.

    PubMed

    Watt, R G; Steele, J G; Treasure, E T; White, D A; Pitts, N B; Murray, J J

    2013-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series reporting on the results of the 2009 Adult Dental Health Survey. Since 1968 national adult surveys have been repeated every decade with broadly similar methods providing a unique overview of trends in oral health over a 40-year period. This paper aims to explore the implications for dentists and oral health policy of the key results from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009. Although repeat, cross-sectional, epidemiological surveys provide very valuable data on trends in disease patterns, they do not provide answers to test causal relationships and therefore cannot identify the causes for the significant improvements in oral health over the last 40 years. Evidence would indicate, however, that broad societal shifts in population norms and behaviours, combined with changes in clinical diagnostic criteria, treatment planning and clinical procedures are the main reasons for the changes that have taken place. Key implications of the survey results include the need to monitor, support and maintain the good state of oral health of the increasing proportion of younger adults with relatively simple treatment needs. A smaller number of young and middle aged adults but a significant proportion of older adults will have far more complex treatment needs requiring advanced restorative and periodontal care. Future oral health policy will need to address oral health inequalities, encourage skill mix and promote and facilitate the dental profession to deliver appropriate and high quality care relevant to the needs of their local population.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of cimetidine in dogs after oral administration of cimetidine tablets.

    PubMed

    Le Traon, G; Burgaud, S; Horspool, L J I

    2009-06-01

    Long-term oral treatment with cimetidine is recommended to reduce vomiting in dogs with chronic gastritis. Despite this, few studies have specifically examined the plasma disposition and pharmacokinetics of cimetidine in dogs, particularly following repeated oral administration. The pharmacokinetics of cimetidine following oral administration as tablets was investigated in healthy dogs. Cimetidine was absorbed rapidly post-treatment (t(max) = 0.5 h). A mean absolute bioavailability of 75% was calculated following a single oral administration of 5 mg cimetidine/kg body weight. After intravenous administration, a plasma half-life of 1.6 h was calculated. Repeated oral administration at the recommended dose rate and regime (5 mg/kg body weight three times daily) for 30 consecutive days did not lead to any accumulation of cimetidine in plasma. Food intake concomitant with oral administration of cimetidine delayed (t(max) = 2.25 h) and decreased the rate and extent of absorption (AUC) by about 40%. Cimetidine was well absorbed in fasted dogs. Administration of food decreased the bioavailability of cimetidine by 40%. Cimetidine does not accumulate over time in plasma when administered long term to dogs.

  3. Repeats identification using improved suffix trees.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hongwei; Wang, Xiaowu; Stojkovic, Vojislav

    2009-01-01

    The suffix tree data structure plays an important role in the efficient implementations of some querying algorithms. This paper presents the fast Rep(eats)Seeker algorithm for repeats identification based on the improvements of suffix tree construction. The leaf nodes and the branch nodes are numbered in different ways during the construction of a suffix tree and extra information is added to the branch nodes. The experimental results show that improvements reduce the running time of the RepSeeker algorithm without losing the accuracy. The experimental results coincide with the theoretical expectations.

  4. Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2010-12-15

    Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

  5. Platelet peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in repeated stress

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, D.E.; Bidder, M.; Gavish, M. ); Weizman, A.; Karp, L.; Tyano, S. ); Grinshpoon, A.; Bleich, A.

    1991-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to platelet membranes and plasma stress hormones were studied in soldiers at the beginning of a parachute training course, following 6 days of preparatory exercises, and after the fourth actual parachute jump. A slight reduction (15%; NS) in the number of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) was detected at the end of the exercise period, prior to the first jump. Reduced density of PBR was observed immediately after the repeated actual jumps. Equilibrium dissociation constants were not affected by the stressful situation. Plasma cortisol and prolactin levels remained unaltered during the entire study period.

  6. Platelet peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in repeated stress.

    PubMed

    Dar, D E; Weizman, A; Karp, L; Grinshpoon, A; Bidder, M; Kotler, M; Tyano, S; Bleich, A; Gavish, M

    1991-01-01

    [3H]PK 11195 binding to platelet membranes and plasma stress hormones were studied in soldiers at the beginning of a parachute training course, following 6 days of preparatory exercises, and after the fourth actual parachute jump. A slight reduction (15%; NS) in the number of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) was detected at the end of the exercise period, prior to the first jump. Reduced (26%; P less than 0.05) density of PBR was observed immediately after the repeated actual jumps. Equilibrium dissociation constants were not affected by the stressful situation. Plasma cortisol and prolactin levels remained unaltered during the entire study period.

  7. Apixaban and oral implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword “apixaban” for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment. Key words:Apixaban, dental treatment, dental implications. PMID:26535102

  8. Effect of a Home Telecare Program on Oral Health among Adults with Tetraplegia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Study design one group pre- and post-test design Objective The primary aim was to examine both the short- and long-term effects of an oral home telecare program on improving gingival health among adults with tetraplegia. Methods Eight adults with tetraplegia participated. The oral home telecare program consisted of individualized oral hygiene training in the use of assistive devices (powered toothbrush and adapted flosser and/or oral irrigator) using PC-based videoconferencing between each participant and an occupational therapist. Training was conducted on an average of five 15 to 30 min sessions across three months. During these training sessions, supervised practice of oral hygiene, and provision of immediate corrective feedback and positive reinforcement in the use of adaptive oral hygiene devices was emphasized. Gingival health assessment using the Löe-Silness gingival index (LSGI) was conducted at baseline, six months and 12 months. Results From baseline to six months, participants showed statistically significant differences (i.e., improvement with less gingival inflammation) in their LSGI scores (z=2.18, P=.03). From baseline to 12 months, participants also showed a statistically significant difference (i.e., improvement, z=2.03; P=.04) in their LSGI scores. Conclusion This study indicates that preventive oral home telecare with repeated oral hygiene training in the use of adaptive devices improved gingival health at six and 12 months among adults with tetraplegia. PMID:23318557

  9. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication.

  10. Adaptation to physical training in rats orally supplemented with glycerol.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Eric Francelino; Lobato, Raquel Vieira; de Araújo, Ticiana Vasques; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Vicente da Costa, Diego; de Oliveira Silva, Víviam; Rogatto, Gustavo Puggina; Zangeronimo, Márcio Gilberto; Rosa, Priscila Vieira; Pereira, Luciano José

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated training adaptation and physical performance parameters in rats orally supplemented with glycerol, glucose, or saline, and submitted to moderate aerobic exercise. Thirty male rats were trained for 6 weeks and administered the supplements during the last 4 weeks of the experiment. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized factorial 2 × 3 design (with or without exercise and 3 substrates). Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were compared using the Student-Newmann-Keuls test at 5%. Among the trained animals, none of the substances caused differences in the percentages of protein, fat, or water content in the carcass. Compared with the sedentary animals, the trained animals supplemented with saline and glucose showed a higher protein percentage in the carcass. The relative mass of the heart and adrenal glands was higher in the trained animals. Glycerol improved the protein content in non-trained animals and increased the relative adrenal mass in both groups. Glycerol reduced the variation in levels of lactate and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) during the last exercise session. There was no difference between groups regarding the relative mass of the thymus and gastrocnemius or with the diameter of muscle fibers or the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. Supplementation with glycerol was efficient at attenuating variation in AST and lactate levels during exercise.

  11. Le Discours Oral (Oral Discourse). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulanger, C.; And Others

    The contrast between written language and oral language did not really begin to attract attention until second language teaching defined as its goal the acquisition of a communicative tool rather than a literary tool. This focus on communication made necessary the distinction between language used for oral communication and language used for…

  12. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma.

  13. [Intra-oral and peri-oral piercing].

    PubMed

    Zadik, Y; Becker, T; Levin, L

    2007-01-01

    Oral Piercing is a practice that is gaining acceptance in the western world as a sign of individuality, marginality, decoration, or group membership. In a recent large-scale survey among Israeli young adults, more than half of the study population was not aware of any of the complications of oral piercing. Pain, bleeding, edema, inhalation, dental and gingival trauma, allergic reaction, contact lesions, impaired mastication, deglutition, and speech, are all potential complications of intra-oral and peri-oral piercing. Piercing can induce local as well as distant site infection and inflammation such as Ludwig's angina, endocarditis and cerebellar abscess. Moreover, Piercing is recognized as a potential vector of viral transmitting. Nevertheless, not all piercers have adequate knowledge in infection control techniques. With the increase number of patients with pierced intra and peri-oral sites, dentists should be prepared to address issues, such as potential damage to the teeth and gingival, and risk of oral infection that could arise as a result of Piercing, as well as provide appropriate guidance to patients contemplating body piercing that involve the oral sites. Since common knowledge is poor, patients should be educated regarding the dangers that may follow Piercing of the oral cavity.

  14. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  15. Literacy and Orality in Our Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Walter J.

    1978-01-01

    Points out the importance of orality in past centuries and in some contemporary cultures (including that of the black urban ghetto); discusses the problems in moving from oral expression to writing; and notes contrasts between primary orality, writing and printing, and secondary orality--the orality induced by radio and television. (GW)

  16. Repeatable assessment protocol for electromagnetic trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidegger, Tamas; Sirokai, Beáta; Fenyvesi, Gábor; Kovács, Levente; Benyó, Balázs; Benyó, Zoltán

    2012-02-01

    In the past decades, many new trends appeared in interventional medicine. One of the most groundbreaking ones is Image-Guided Surgery (IGS). The main benefit of IGS procedures is the reduction of the patient's pain and collateral damage through improved accuracy and targeting. Electromagnetic Tracking (EMT) has been introduced to medical applications as an effective tool for navigation. However, magnetic fields can be severely distorted by ferromagnetic materials and electronic equipment, which is a major barrier towards their wider application. The focus of the study is to determine and compensate the inherent errors of the different types of EMTs, in order to improve their accuracy. Our aim is to develop a standardized, simple and repeatable assessment protocol; to determine tracking errors with sub-millimeter accuracy, hence increasing the measurement precision and reliability. For initial experiments, the NDI Aurora and the Ascension medSAFE systems were used in a standard laboratory environment. We aim to advance to the state-of-the art by describing and disseminating an easily reproducible calibration method, publishing the CAD files of the accuracy phantom and the source of the evaluation data. This should allow the wider spread of the technique, and eventually lead to the repeatable and comparable assessment of EMT systems.

  17. Distributed parameter modeling of repeated truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Han-Ching

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to find homogeneous models for beam-like repeated flexible structures is proposed which conceptually involves two steps. The first step involves the approximation of 3-D non-homogeneous model by a 1-D periodic beam model. The structure is modeled as a 3-D non-homogeneous continuum. The displacement field is approximated by Taylor series expansion. Then, the cross sectional mass and stiffness matrices are obtained by energy equivalence using their additive properties. Due to the repeated nature of the flexible bodies, the mass, and stiffness matrices are also periodic. This procedure is systematic and requires less dynamics detail. The first step involves the homogenization from a 1-D periodic beam model to a 1-D homogeneous beam model. The periodic beam model is homogenized into an equivalent homogeneous beam model using the additive property of compliance along the generic axis. The major departure from previous approaches in literature is using compliance instead of stiffness in homogenization. An obvious justification is that the stiffness is additive at each cross section but not along the generic axis. The homogenized model preserves many properties of the original periodic model.

  18. Analysis of a random repeated impact process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, L. A.; Byrne, K. P.

    1981-10-01

    A simple random repeated impact process similar to the classical random walk process is analyzed. The process, which consists of a ball bouncing on a randomly vibrating surface, is analogous to loss-of-contact situations which can occur in linkages and vibrating tools. It also has relevance to rolling contact where the rolling element may separate from the surface and sustain repeated impacts. A coefficient of restitution is used to describe impact, and some important assumptions limit the analysis to values of this coefficient greater than 0°8. The Markov nature of the process is demonstrated by its one-step "memory". It may be regarded as a discrete Markov process "imbedded" in continuous time. A difference equation governing the process is developed and analyzed for the case where the vibrating surface has a Gaussian distribution of velocities. With the one-step transition probability density function a linear weighting function is used to account for the weighting effect of the ball's velocity on the distribution of table velocities at impact. The resulting integral equation is solved iteratively to yield the probability density function of ball velocities after impact. This information may then be used to predict the magnitudes of the impacts and the time between them.

  19. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Takayuki |. E-mail: hashimoto@pmrc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Tokuuye, Koichi |; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi |; Igaki, Hiroshi |; Hata, Masaharu |; Kagei, Kenji |; Sugahara, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Akine, Yasuyuki |

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A.

  20. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.