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Sample records for 4-week washout period

  1. The significance of the washout period in Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Salie, Ruduwaan; Lochner, Amanda; Loubser, Dirk J

    2017-01-24

    Exposure of the heart to 5 min global ischaemia (I) followed by 5 min reperfusion (R) (ischaemic preconditioning, IPC) or transient Beta 2-adrenergic receptor (B2-AR) stimulation with formoterol (B2PC), followed by 5 min washout before index ischaemia, elicits cardioprotection against subsequent sustained ischaemia. Since the washout period during preconditioning is essential for subsequent cardioprotection, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of protein kinase A (PKA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), PKB/Akt, p38 MAPK and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) during this period. Isolated perfused rat hearts were exposed to IPC (1x5min I / 5min R) or B2PC (1x5min Formoterol / 5min R) followed by 35 min regional ischaemia and reperfusion. Inhibitors for PKA (Rp-8CPT-cAMP)(16μM), ROS (NAC)(300μM), PKB (A-6730)(2.5μM), ERKp44/p42 (PD98,059)(10μM), p38MAPK (SB239063)(1μM) or JNK (SP600125)(10μM) were administered for 5 minutes before 5 minutes global ischaemia / 5 min reperfusion (IPC) or for 5 minutes before and during administration of formoterol ( B2PC) prior to regional ischaemia, reperfusion and infarct size (IS) determination. Hearts exposed to B2PC or IPC were freeze-clamped during the washout period for Western blots analysis of PKB, ERKp44/p42, p38MAPK and JNK. The PKA blocker abolished both B2PC and IPC, while NAC significantly increased IS of IPC but not of B2PC. Western blot analysis showed that ERKp44/p42 and PKB activation during washout after B2PC compared to IPC was significantly increased. IPC compared to B2PC showed significant p38MAPK and JNKp54/p46 activation. PKB and ERK inhibition or p38MAPK and JNK inhibition during the washout period of B2PC and IPC respectively, significantly increased IS. PKA activation before regional ischaemia is a prerequisite for cardioprotection in both B2PC and IPC. However, ROS was crucial only in IPC. Kinase activation during the washout phase of IPC and B2

  2. Osteocyte density in the peri-implant bone of implants retrieved after different time periods (4 weeks to 27 years).

    PubMed

    Piattelli, Adriano; Artese, Luciano; Penitente, Enrico; Iaculli, Flavia; Degidi, Marco; Mangano, Carlo; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Coelho, Paulo G; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2014-02-01

    Bone tissue is characterized by a constant turnover in response to mechanical stimuli, and osteocytes play an essential role in bone mechanical adaptation. However, little to no information has been published regarding osteocyte density as a function of implantation time in vivo. The aim of this retrospective histological study was to evaluate the osteocyte density of the peri-implant bone in implants retrieved because of different reasons in a time period from 4 weeks to 27 years. A total of 18 samples were included in the present study. Specimens were divided into 3 groups depending on the loading history of the implants: loading between 4 weeks and 7 months (group 1); loading between 1 and 5 years (group 2); loading between 14 and 27 years (group 3). All the samples were histologically evaluated and osteocyte density was obtained using the ratio of the number of osteocytes to the bone-area (mm(2) ). The osteocyte density values significantly increased in the Group 2 (1-5 years) compared with Group 1 (4 weeks-7 months), and significantly decreased in the Group 3 (14-27 years) compared to Group 2. No significant differences were detected between Group 1 and Group 3. The decrease in osteocyte density observed in samples that were in vivo for long periods of time under loading is possibly because of the fact that once the bone structure is well aligned and biomechanically competent, a lower number of osteocytes are necessary to keep the tissue homeostasis under loading.

  3. Efficacy of periodic centrifugation of primates during 4-week head-down tilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, V. I.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kotovskaya, A. R.; Krotov, V. P.; Vil-Viliams, I. F.; Lobachik, V. I.

    2001-08-01

    Creation of artificial force of gravity (AFG) to counteract the negative consequences of microgravity in manned space missions of extended duration is one of the high-priority problems of space biology and medicine. However, there are a number of especial effects of AFG (namely, structural changes in muscles and bones, and some other system) which need implantation of electrodes and sensors and are possible only with animals. That is why it is of particular interest to make studies with monkeys whose reactions to changed gravity bear much resemblance with human (1). The purpose of the investigation was development of a protocol of periodic gravity loads as a countermeasure against the hypokinetic syndrome in Macaca mulatta. Two series of experiments were performed. In the series, animals were split into two groups of 6 species each who were motor restrained with the head end tilted downward at 5° (HDT) for 28 days. Monkeys of group-2 were periodically subjected to centrifugation (HDT+G). During the first series of experiments rotation was conducted in the +Gz direction at g-loads from 1.2 to 1.6 units for 30-40 minutes 4-5 times a week. In the second series, g-load was equal to 1.2 units and the animals were rotated 30 min. 2-3 time a week. The criterion of g-training protocol efficacy was a test +Gz run at 3 units for 30 s. during which functioning of the cardiovascular systems and its controls was evaluated. The test run was performed prior to and after HDT. Following HDT the animals of group HDT+G were more resistant to the test than their counterparts who had not been trained on the centrifuge. Data of the investigation imply that following HDT and HDT+G alike reduced the amount of total bodily fluids (by approximately 5%), the intracellular component (approximately 4%), and plasma volume (by 6-7%). Yet, there are radical differences between the groups in the levels of reduction in extracellular fluids (by 11% and 6.5%, respectively, P<0,05) and the

  4. Estimation of spatial patterns of urban air pollution over a 4-week period from repeated 5-min measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Jonathan; Masey, Nicola; Heal, Mathew R.; Hamilton, Scott; Beverland, Iain J.

    2017-02-01

    Determination of intra-urban spatial variations in air pollutant concentrations for exposure assessment requires substantial time and monitoring equipment. The objective of this study was to establish if short-duration measurements of air pollutants can be used to estimate longer-term pollutant concentrations. We compared 5-min measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) concentrations made once per week on 5 occasions, with 4 consecutive 1-week average nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations at 18 locations at a range of distances from busy roads in Glasgow, UK. 5-min BC and PN measurements (averaged over the two 5-min periods at the start and end of a week) explained 40-80%, and 7-64% respectively, of spatial variation in the intervening 1-week NO2 concentrations for individual weeks. Adjustment for variations in background concentrations increased the percentage of explained variation in the bivariate relationship between the full set of NO2 and BC measurements over the 4-week period from 28% to 50% prior to averaging of repeat measurements. The averages of five 5-min BC and PN measurements made over 5 weeks explained 75% and 33% respectively of the variation in average 1-week NO2 concentrations over the same period. The relatively high explained variation observed between BC and NO2 measured on different time scales suggests that, with appropriate steps to correct or average out temporal variations, repeated short-term measurements can be used to provide useful information on longer-term spatial patterns for these traffic-related pollutants.

  5. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during periods of high magnitude floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, T.; Lepikhin, A.; Parshakova, Ya.; Tiunov, A.

    2016-03-01

    The risk of river pollution due to washout (removal of pollutants) from contaminated floodplain water bodies (floodplain lakes and quarries whose origin is related to the large-scale mining of nonmetallic building materials in the floodplain zone) during high magnitude flood periods is analyzed using a combination of one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling and in situ measurements. The modeling performed for the floodplain water bodies contaminated by N compounds shows that during large magnitude floods washout occurs. The washout process consists of two stages: an initial rapid stage lasting about two hours during which the upper (3-4 m thick) layer is washed out, followed by a second stage when the concentration of NH4-N in the floodplain water body remains nearly constant. The maximum contaminant concentration in the river in the vicinity of a water intake for drinking water located 21 km downstream is attained about 9 h from the beginning of the flood; concentration of NH4-N can reach values several times larger than acceptable concentration guidelines. The initial primary peak in contaminant concentration at the water intake is followed by a slight decrease in contaminant concentration; a second peak related to the contaminant transport through the inundated floodplain subsequently occurs, after which the concentration slowly decreases, reaching acceptable values after 30-40 h. Contaminated floodplain water bodies located near drinking water supply systems are not significant sources of contamination during small and moderate floods, but during high magnitude floods, they can become sources of water pollution. Operational measures that can decrease potential health risks are discussed.

  6. Detection of initiation activity of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay system using 4-week-old rats without hepatocellular proliferative stimuli during the test chemical treatment period.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Yoshiji; Sakai, Hiroki; Hirata, Akihiro; Sasaki, Jun; Goryo, Masanobu; Miyamoto, Yohei; Yanai, Tokuma; Masegi, Toshiaki; Okada, Kosuke

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay system to detect initiation activities of chemicals on multi-organ carcinogenesis. However, cell proliferation stimuli during the test chemical treatment period, required in the previously used assay models using adult rats, are laborious; moreover, those cause decrease of hepatic metabolic enzymes and psychological and physical discomfort to animals resulting in inaccurate interpretation. Therefore, we investigated the utility of another in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay model using 4-week-old rats without the cell proliferation stimuli. In this study, we confirmed that 4-week-old and 4.5-week-old male rats have high hepatocyte proliferation activity and similar enzyme activities of hepatic Cytochrome P450 subtypes as compared with 8-week-old male rats. Next, the in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay model using 4-week-old rats without cell proliferation stimuli was evaluated for the detection of the initiation activity of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), which is a well-known genotoxic carcinogen. Four-week-old rats were orally administered DMH (single dose, 4 or 16 mg/kg; or 4-day repeat, 1 or 4 mg/kg); subsequently, these rats were treated promotion treatment consisted of administration of 2-acetylaminofluorene and carbon tetrachloride. Four weeks after the first DMH administration, the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci induced by DMH in the liver was measured immunohistochemically. The inductions of GST-P-positive foci in all DMH-treated groups were dose-dependent, duration-dependent and significantly higher than that in non-DMH-treated group. From these results, our assay model was detected the initiation activity of DMH simply, and would be useful to evaluate the carcinogenicity of chemicals.

  7. Effect of hydration on nitrogen washout in human subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Conkin, J.

    1983-01-01

    Five subjects were tested to assess the influence of drinking hypotonic water (distilled water) on whole body tissue nitrogen washout. During the test, the subjects breathed aviators' oxygen for three hours. Each subject performed two baseline nitrogen washouts in a two-week period. The third washout, in the third week, was done under a transient hydrated condition. This was accomplished by having the subjects drink 1.5 liters of hypotonic water 30 minutes before the washout. Five-minute plots of tissue nitrogen removal from the three separate washouts were analyzed to ascertain if the hydration technique had any effect. Our results clearly indicate that the hydration technique did not alter the tissue nitrogen washout characteristics to any degree over three hours. An increase in tissue nitrogen washout under a transient hydrated condition using hypotonic fluid was not demonstrated to be the mechanism responsible for the reported benefit of this technique in preventing Type I altitude decompression pain in man.

  8. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    OKI, Tomoyuki; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; WATANABE, Osamu; GOTO, Kazuhisa; BOELSMA, Esther; ISHIKAWA, Fumiyasu; SUDA, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18–70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m2, elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure. PMID:27508114

  9. HTO washout model: on the relationship between exchange rate and washout coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.; Balashov, Y.; Mavrin, S.; Golubeva, V.; Galeriu, D.

    2015-03-15

    Washout coefficient Λ is widely used as a parameter in washout models. These models describes overall HTO washout with rain by a first-order kinetic equation, while washout coefficient Λ depends on the type of rain event and rain intensity and empirical parameters a, b. The washout coefficient is a macroscopic parameter and we have considered in this paper its relationship with a microscopic rate K of HTO isotopic exchange in atmospheric humidity and drops of rainwater. We have shown that the empirical parameters a, b can be represented through the rain event characteristics using the relationships of molecular impact rate, rain intensity and specific rain water content while washout coefficient Λ can be represented through the exchange rate K, rain intensity, raindrop diameter and terminal raindrop velocity.

  10. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (3). 4-week repeated dose intravenous toxicity study in dogs with 4-week recovery test].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Yanagi, H; Shichino, Y; Shimizu, K; Ueda, H; Oida, H; Tanaka, M; Suzuki, Y; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    4-week repeated dose toxicity study with 4-week recovery test of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, was conducted in beagle dogs. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously to dogs of both sexes at a dose level of 0 (control), 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day. No deaths occurred throughout the treatment period. Transitory licking chops, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and soft feces were observed occasionally in both sexes dosed 25 and 50 mg/kg/day and the incidence seemed dose-dependent. However, those incidence declined in the course of the treatment period. Hematology showed a decrease in red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin value in both sexes receiving 25 and 50 mg/kg/day. ONO-1101 did not effect on body weight, food consumption, respiratory rate, pulse, rectal temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiography, renal or hepatic function, ophthalmology, urinalysis, occult blood in feces, blood chemistry, organ weights, necropsy and microscopic findings at any doses. These results indicate that the no-adverse-effect level of ONO-1101 in dogs is 12.5 mg/kg/day for both sexes in this study.

  11. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (2). 4-week repeated dose intravenous toxicity study in rats with 4-week recovery test].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Yanagi, H; Shimizu, K; Sakai, M; Nishibata, K; Oida, H; Shinomiya, K; Suzuki, Y; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    4-week repeated dose toxicity study with 4-week recovery test of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, was conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously to rats of both sexes at a dose level of 0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. In the 100 mg/kg/day group, bradypnea or dyspnea was seen in all animals, pale in ear, eye and foot, tremor, reddish lacrimation and loss of righting reflex were also observed in some animals right after administration, and then those signs disappeared within 1 min after administration. During the treatment period, 3/20 animals of each sex in the 100 mg/kg/day showed clonic convulsion and died within 2 min after administration. No clinical changes were seen in the 50 mg/kg/day group or lower. Histopathological findings showed atrophy of the submaxillary gland in females and vessel-wall thickening and perivascular fibrosis of the injection site (tail) in both sexes at 100 mg/kg/day, however those changes were reversible. ONO-1101 did not effect on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weights or necropsy at any doses. These results indicate that the no-adverse-effect level of ONO-1101 in rats is 50 mg/kg/day for both sexes in this study.

  12. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value < 0.05). A complete wash-out of VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  13. A 4-week instructed minimalist running transition and gait-retraining changes plantar pressure and force.

    PubMed

    Warne, J P; Kilduff, S M; Gregan, B C; Nevill, A M; Moran, K A; Warrington, G D

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare changes in plantar pressure and force using conventional running shoes (CRS) and minimalist footwear (MFW) pre and post a 4-week MFW familiarization period. Ten female runners (age: 21 ± 2 years; stature: 165.8 ± 4.5 cm; mass: 55.9 ± 3.2 kg) completed two 11 km/h treadmill runs, 24 hours apart, in both CRS and MFW (pretest). Plantar data were measured using sensory insoles for foot strike patterns, stride frequency, mean maximum force ( M ⁢ F ¯ ), mean maximum pressure ( M ⁢ P ¯ ) and eight mean maximum regional pressures. Subjects then completed a 4-week familiarization period consisting of running in MFW and simple gait-retraining, before repeating the tests (posttest). During the pretests, 30% of subjects adopted a forefoot strike in MFW, following familiarization this increased to 80%; no change occurred in CRS. A significant decrease in M ⁢ F ¯ in both MFW and CRS (P = 0.024) was observed from pre-post, and a significant decrease in heel pressures in MFW. M ⁢ P ¯ was higher in MFW throughout testing (P < 0.001).A 4-week familiarization to MFW resulted in a significant reduction in M ⁢ F ¯ in both the CRS and MFW conditions, as well as a reduction in heel pressures. Higher M ⁢ P ¯ was observed throughout testing in the MFW condition.

  14. Association of Deep Brain Stimulation Washout Effects With Parkinson Disease Duration

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Scott E.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Fernandez, Hubert H.; Vitek, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD), including bradykinesia. When stimulation ceases abruptly, bradykinesia returns gradually. The duration of the gradual, slow washout varies across patients, and although the origin of this variability is unclear, it is hypothesized to be related to 1 or more clinical characteristics of patients. Objective To determine if a correlation exists between clinical characteristics of patients with Parkinson disease (age, age at disease onset, disease severity, disease duration, medication dose, or time since surgery) and the washout rate for bradykinesia when STN DBS is discontinued. Design Serial quantitative assessments of bradykinesia were performed during a defined period following cessation of STN DBS. Setting Academic research. Patients Twenty-four patients with Parkinson disease who underwent STN DBS were enrolled in the study. Patients were assessed while off medication (medication had been discontinued 10½ to 16½ hours before testing), and stimulator settings were unchanged for a mean (median) of 20 (14) months. Main Outcome Measures We measured bradykinesia in the dominant hand by assessing finger tapping (item 23 on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale), which was quantified using an angular velocity transducer strapped on the index finger. Finger tapping was assessed every 2 minutes for 20 seconds at a time. This was performed during a 20-minute period with DBS on (baseline period), during a 50-minute period following discontinuation of STN DBS for the dominant hand, and again during a 20-minute period after turning on the device. Results When STN DBS was turned off, an initial fast but partial loss of benefit was observed, which was followed by a further slow washout of the residual therapeutic effect. The half-life of the slow washout phase varied significantly across patients, and this variation was strongly related to disease

  15. Analytical evaluation of two motion washout techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    Practical tools were developed which extend the state of the art of moving base flight simulation for research and training purposes. The use of visual and vestibular cues to minimize the actual motion of the simulator itself was a primary consideration. The investigation consisted of optimum programming of motion cues based on a physiological model of the vestibular system to yield 'ideal washout logic' for any given simulator constraints.

  16. Coordinated adaptive washout for motion simulators.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Dieudonne, J. E.; Bowles, R. L.; Martin, D. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method of providing motion cues to a moving base six-degree-of-freedom flight simulator utilizing nonlinear filters. Coordinated adaptive filters, used to coordinate translational and rotational motion, are derived based on the method of continuous steepest descent, and the basic concept of the digital controllers used for the uncoordinated heave and yaw cues is also presented. The coordinated adaptive washout method is illustrated by an application in a six-degree-of-freedom fixed-base environment.

  17. Effect of a 4-week weight maintenance diet on circulating hormone levels: implications for clinical weight loss trials.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, A; Evans, I R; Wood, R E; Seimon, R V; King, N A; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M

    2015-04-01

    The majority of weight loss studies fail to standardize conditions such as diet and exercise via a weight maintenance period prior to commencement of the trial. This study aimed to determine whether a weight stabilization period is necessary to establish stable baseline hormone concentrations. Fifty-one obese male participants with a body mass index of 30-40 kg m(-2) and aged 25-54 years underwent 4 weeks on an energy balance diet that was designed to achieve weight stability. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state at commencement and completion of the 4-week period, and circulating concentrations of 18 commonly measured hormones were determined. During the 4-week weight maintenance period, participants achieved weight stability within -1.5 ± 0.2 kg (-1.4 ± 0.2%) of their initial body weight. Significant reductions in serum insulin (by 18 ± 6.5%) and leptin (by 21 ± 6.0%) levels occurred, but no significant changes were observed for gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones. There were no significant correlations between the change in body weight and the change in circulating concentrations of insulin or leptin over the 4-week period, indicating that the observed changes were not due to weight loss, albeit significant negative correlations were observed between the changes in body weight and plasma ghrelin and peptide YY levels. This study demonstrates the need for baseline weight maintenance periods to stabilize serum levels of insulin and leptin in studies specifically investigating effects on these parameters in the obese. However, this does not apply to circulating levels of gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones.

  18. Effect of Curriculum Change on Exam Performance in a 4-Week Psychiatry Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedermier, Julie; Way, David; Kasick, David; Kuperschmidt, Rada

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated whether curriculum change could produce improved performance, despite a reduction in clerkship length from 8 to 4 weeks. Methods: The exam performance of medical students completing a 4-week clerkship in psychiatry was compared to national data from the National Board of Medical Examiners' Psychiatry Subject…

  19. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  1. Strong washout approximation to resonant leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Björn; Gautier, Florian; Klaric, Juraj

    2014-09-01

    We show that the effective decay asymmetry for resonant Leptogenesis in the strong washout regime with two sterile neutrinos and a single active flavour can in wide regions of parameter space be approximated by its late-time limit ɛ=Xsin(2varphi)/(X2+sin2varphi), where X=8πΔ/(|Y1|2+|Y2|2), Δ=4(M1-M2)/(M1+M2), varphi=arg(Y2/Y1), and M1,2, Y1,2 are the masses and Yukawa couplings of the sterile neutrinos. This approximation in particular extends to parametric regions where |Y1,2|2gg Δ, i.e. where the width dominates the mass splitting. We generalise the formula for the effective decay asymmetry to the case of several flavours of active leptons and demonstrate how this quantity can be used to calculate the lepton asymmetry for phenomenological scenarios that are in agreement with the observed neutrino oscillations. We establish analytic criteria for the validity of the late-time approximation for the decay asymmetry and compare these with numerical results that are obtained by solving for the mixing and the oscillations of the sterile neutrinos. For phenomenologically viable models with two sterile neutrinos, we find that the flavoured effective late-time decay asymmetry can be applied throughout parameter space.

  2. Strong washout approximation to resonant leptogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Garbrecht, Björn; Gautier, Florian; Klaric, Juraj E-mail: florian.gautier@tum.de

    2014-09-01

    We show that the effective decay asymmetry for resonant Leptogenesis in the strong washout regime with two sterile neutrinos and a single active flavour can in wide regions of parameter space be approximated by its late-time limit ε=Xsin(2φ)/(X{sup 2}+sin{sup 2}φ), where X=8πΔ/(|Y{sub 1}|{sup 2}+|Y{sub 2}|{sup 2}), Δ=4(M{sub 1}-M{sub 2})/(M{sub 1}+M{sub 2}), φ=arg(Y{sub 2}/Y{sub 1}), and M{sub 1,2}, Y{sub 1,2} are the masses and Yukawa couplings of the sterile neutrinos. This approximation in particular extends to parametric regions where |Y{sub 1,2}|{sup 2}>> Δ, i.e. where the width dominates the mass splitting. We generalise the formula for the effective decay asymmetry to the case of several flavours of active leptons and demonstrate how this quantity can be used to calculate the lepton asymmetry for phenomenological scenarios that are in agreement with the observed neutrino oscillations. We establish analytic criteria for the validity of the late-time approximation for the decay asymmetry and compare these with numerical results that are obtained by solving for the mixing and the oscillations of the sterile neutrinos. For phenomenologically viable models with two sterile neutrinos, we find that the flavoured effective late-time decay asymmetry can be applied throughout parameter space.

  3. The field experiments on the HTO washout from the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.V.; Mavrin, S.V.; Golubeva, V.N.; Stengach, A.V.; Balashov, Y.S.; Kovalenko, V.P.; Solomatin, I.I.

    2015-03-15

    HTO (tritiated water) wash-out from the atmosphere is one of the key processes governing the HTO transport from the atmosphere into soil and plants. Experimental studies of the HTO interaction with water drops were carried out both in laboratories and in the field. In the course of experiments, the following rain characteristics were recorded: rain intensity, size distribution of drops, and falling velocities and their dependence on drop diameter. A laser optical device was designed and used to measure the distribution of the drop radius and velocities during the period of experiment. The tritium source was placed at a height of 30 m. Rainwater samples were collected in plastic bottles and their HTO activity was determined by liquid scintillation techniques. The data obtained for the experimental values of the scavenging rate are within the range from 4.12*10{sup -5} to 1.57*10{sup -4} s{sup -1} and correspond to the precipitation intensity from 0.3 to 1.26 mm/hour. These results are in sufficiently good agreement with the results of earlier papers.

  4. PERSISTENT EFFECTS OF REPEATED INHALATION OF TOLUENE: 4 WEEKS VS. 13 WEEKS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding and predicting the extent of neurotoxic damage from repeated exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a problem for many EPA programs. Eighty adult, male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks in a systema...

  5. Eco-Challenge: A 4-Week Approach to Eco-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, J. Thayer

    1991-01-01

    Describes Challenge Wilderness Camp (Bradford, Vermont), a 4-week residential program designed to teach boys, ages 9-16, environmental ethics through first-hand experiences. The camp incorporates land and waste management policies and procedures; programs in outdoor skills instruction; and wilderness trips including backpacking, off-trail hiking,…

  6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Formula (Sample) E Appendix E to Part 110 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... COMMUTATION INSTEAD OF UNIFORMS FOR MEMBERS OF THE SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS Pt. 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Application of 4-Week Summer Field Training Formula (Sample) Zone I Zone II...

  7. L-arginine does not improve biochemical and hormonal response in trained runners after 4 weeks of supplementation.

    PubMed

    Alvares, Thiago Silveira; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that L-arginine improves exercise performance by increasing nitric oxide synthesis and levels of insulin and growth hormone (GH). Metabolic and hormonal responses to chronic L-arginine supplementation may clarify the mechanisms underlying its putative physiologic effects on physical performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects that 4 weeks of supplementation with L-arginine would have on metabolic and hormonal parameters at rest and in response to exercise. Fifteen healthy runners were divided into treatment (ARG; 6 g L-arginine) and placebo (PLA; 6 g cornstarch) groups. On the first visit, blood samples were collected for baseline, and the supplement or placebo was provided. After 4 weeks of supplementation (second visit), blood samples were collected at the following intervals: at rest, immediately after the first 5-km time-trial running test (5km-TT), immediately after the second 5km-TT, and after 20 minutes of recovery (+20). In addition to exercise performance (total running time), plasma nitrate, nitrite, nitrate plus nitrite, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, lactate, ammonia and serum insulin, GH, insulin-like growth factor 1, and cortisol concentrations were evaluated. There were significant increases in plasma nitrite, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, lactate, ammonia and serum GH, and cortisol at the first 5km-TT, immediately after the second 5km-TT, and +20 in both ARG and PLA. Nitrate plus nitrite and nitrate increased only at +20. No significant change was observed in serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 in any sample period. Total running time did not differ significantly between the 2 tests, in either ARG or PLA. Thus, according to our results, 4 weeks of L-arginine supplementation did not cause beneficial changes in metabolic and hormonal parameters, beyond those achieved with exercise alone.

  8. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways.

  9. Hydrogen washout technique in monitoring vascular status after replantation surgery.

    PubMed

    Glogovac, S V; Bitz, D M; Whiteside, L A

    1982-11-01

    The hydrogen washout technique was applied to an experimental model of microvascular repair to evaluate its potential use in determining blood flow after microvascular surgery. Three blood flow measurements were obtained in each of 10 rat hindlimbs with the hydrogen washout technique: a control, a reading with arterial flow disrupted, and a final reading after standard microvascular repair of only the saphenous artery. After repair, flow rate was 0.115 ml/minute/ml compared to 0.008 ml/minute/ml for the disrupted reading (p less than .01). The practical clinical applicability of the hydrogen washout technique for evaluating blood flow in the fingertip was tested on five human volunteers. Ischemia in the upper extremity was produced with a pneumatic tourniquet. The hydrogen washout technique and the Doppler pulse monitor were used simultaneously to evaluate circulation in the small finger. Hydrogen uptake occurred simultaneously with return of clinical signs of tissue perfusion during gradual tourniquet deflation. The Doppler pulse returned while clinical signs of ischemia remained. The use of hydrogen washout in monitoring three patients following microvascular surgery has shown it to be accurate in predicting survival. It has, thus far, proven itself to be easily repeatable and reliable both intraoperatively and postoperatively.

  10. Oral 4-week and 13-week toxicity studies of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer in rats.

    PubMed

    Messinger, Horst; Bär, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer (PVAcVL) is a useful component of gum base for chewing gum production. The safety of PVAcVL was examined in a 4-week and a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats. Finely powdered PVAcVL was administered with the diet at levels of 1.25%, 2.0% and 5% in the 4-week study and 1.25%, 2.5% and 5% in the 13-week study. There were no treatment related effects on mortality, bodyweight gains feed efficiency, ophthalmoscopic findings, hematological and clinical chemical parameters, neurobehavioral observations as well as gross and histopathological changes of standard organs and tissues. The highest dose tested in the 13-week study (3783 and 4396mg/kgbw/d for males and females, respectively) proved to be a NOAEL.

  11. Spectator effects during Leptogenesis in the strong washout regime

    SciTech Connect

    Garbrecht, Björn; Schwaller, Pedro E-mail: pedro.schwaller@cern.ch

    2014-10-01

    By including spectator fields into the Boltzmann equations for Leptogenesis, we show that partially equilibrated spectator interactions can have a significant impact on the freeze-out value of the asymmetry in the strong washout regime. The final asymmetry is typically increased, since partially equilibrated spectators ''hide'' a part of the asymmetry from washout. We study examples with leptonic and non-leptonic spectator processes, assuming thermal initial conditions, and find up to 50% enhanced asymmetries compared to the limit of fully equilibrated spectators. Together with a comprehensive overview of the equilibration temperatures for various Standard Model processes, the numerical results indicate the ranges when the limiting cases of either fully equilibrated or negligible spectator fields are applicable and when they are not. Our findings also indicate an increased sensitivity to initial conditions and finite density corrections even in the strong washout regime.

  12. Wash-out in N2-dominated leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn-Woernle, F.

    2010-08-01

    We study the wash-out of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by subsequent interactions. Therefore we focus on a scenario in which a lepton asymmetry is established in the out-of-equilibrium decays of the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino. We apply the full classical Boltzmann equations without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors to calculate the wash-out of the lepton asymmetry by interactions of the lightest right-handed state. We include scattering processes with top quarks in our analysis. This is of particular interest since the wash-out is enhanced by scatterings and the use of mode equations with quantum statistical distribution functions. In this way we provide a restriction on the parameter space for this scenario.

  13. Burr hole washout versus craniotomy for chronic subdural hematoma: patient outcome and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jacqueline M; Worley, Emmagene; Shelburne, Christopher; Pullarkat, Ranjit; Watson, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH), which are frequently encountered in neurosurgical practice, are, in the majority of cases, ideally treated with surgical drainage. Despite this common practice, there is still controversy surrounding the best surgical procedure. With lack of clear evidence of a superior technique, surgeons are free to base the decision on other factors that are not related to patient care. A retrospective chart review of 119 patients requiring surgical drainage of CSDH was conducted at a large tertiary care center over a three-year period. Of the cases reviewed, 58 patients underwent craniotomy, while 61 patients underwent burr hole washout. The study focused on re-operation rates, mortality, and morbidity, as measured by Glasgow coma scores (GCS), discharge Rankin disability scores, and discharge disposition. Secondary endpoints included length of stay and cost of procedure. Burr hole washout was superior to craniotomy with respect to patient outcome, length of stay and recurrence rates. In both study groups, patients required additional surgical procedures (6.6% of burr hole patients and 24.1% of craniotomy patients) (P = 0.0156). Of the patients treated with craniotomy, 51.7% were discharged home, whereas 65.6% of the burr hole patients were discharged home. Patients who underwent burr hole washout spent a mean of 78.8 minutes in the operating suite while the patients undergoing craniotomy spent 129.4 minutes (P < 0.001). The difference in mean cost per patient, based solely on operating time, was $2,828 (P < 0.001). This does not include the further cost due to additional procedures and hospital stay. The mean length of stay after surgical intervention was 3 days longer for the craniotomy group (P = 0.0465). Based on this retrospective study, burr hole washout is superior for both patients' clinical and financial outcome; however, prospective long-term multicenter clinical studies are required to verify these findings.

  14. Effects of 4 weeks preoperative exercise on knee extensor strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung; Hwang, Ji Hye; Park, Won Hah

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] After an anterior cruciate ligament injury and subsequent reconstruction, quadriceps muscle weakness and disruption of proprioceptive function are common. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4 weeks preoperative exercise intervention on knee strength power and function post-surgery. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty male patients (27.8±5.7 age), scheduled for reconstruction surgery, were randomly assigned to two groups, the preoperative exercise group (n=40) and a no preoperative exercise group (n=40). The preoperative exercise group participated in a 4-week preoperative and 12-week post-operative programs, while the no preoperative exercise group participated only in the 12-week postoperative exercise program. Isokinetic measured of quadriceps strength were obtained at 4 weeks before and 3 months after surgery. [Results] The knee extensor strength deficits measured at 60°/s and 180°/s was significantly lower in the preoperative exercise group compared with the no preoperative exercise group. At 3 months after surgery, the extensor strength deficit was 28.5±9.0% at 60°/sec and 23.3±9.0% at 180°/sec in the preoperative exercise group, whereas the no preoperative exercise group showed extensor strength deficits of 36.5±10.7% and 27.9±12.6% at 60°/sec and 180°/sec, respectively. The preoperative exercise group demonstrated significant improvement the single-leg hop distance. [Conclusion] Four week preoperative exercise may produce many positive effects post reconstruction surgery, including faster recovery of knee extensor strength and function, as measured by single-leg hop ability. PMID:26504270

  15. The effect of 4-week aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Gunendi, Zafer; Ozyemisci-Taskiran, Ozden; Demirsoy, Nesrin

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of submaximal aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Twenty-five postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and 28 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis enrolled in this study. Balance ability of all subjects was measured by timed up and go test (TUG), four square step test (FSS), Berg balance scale (BBS) and Kinesthetic ability trainer 3000. After completion of initial measurements of balance, postmenopausal women with osteoporosis attended the submaximal aerobic exercise program on treadmill. At the end of the exercise program, balance tests were repeated. Balance tests of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis were repeated approximately 4-weeks after the initial measurement. There was statistically significant improvement in all balance scores in the postmenopausal women with osteoporosis after exercise training whereas there were no statistically significant differences in the scores of postmenopausal women without osteoporosis who did not exercise. This study showed that a 4-week submaximal aerobic exercise program provided significant improvements in static and dynamic balances in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

  16. Effects of 4 weeks of creatine supplementation in junior swimmers on freestyle sprint and swim bench performance.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Brian; Vladich, Todd; Blanksby, Brian A

    2002-11-01

    To determine whether 4 weeks of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation could enhance single freestyle sprint and swim bench performance in experienced competitive junior swimmers, 10 young men and 10 young women (x age = 16.4 +/- 1.8 years) participated in a 27-day supplementation period and pre- and posttesting sessions. In session 1 (presupplementation testing), subjects swam one 50-m freestyle and then (after approximately 5 minutes of active recovery) one 100-m freestyle at maximum speed. Blood lactate was measured before and 1 minute after each swim trial. Forty-eight hours later, height, mass, and the sum of 6 skinfolds were recorded, and a Biokinetic Swim Bench total work output test (2 x 30-second trials, with a 10-minute passive recovery in between) was undertaken. After the pretests were completed, participants were divided into 2 groups (n = 10, Cr; and n = 10, placebo) by means of matched pairs on the basis of gender and 50-m swim times. A Cr loading phase of 20 g x d(-1) for 5 days was then instituted, followed by a maintenance phase of 5 g x d(-1) for 22 days. Postsupplementation testing replicated the presupplementation tests. Four weeks of Cr supplementation did not influence single sprint performance in the pool or body mass and composition. However, 30-second swim bench total work scores for trial 1 and trial 2 increased after Cr (p < 0.05) but not placebo ingestion. Postexercise blood lactate values were not different after supplementation for the 50- and 100-m sprint trials either within or between groups. It was concluded that 4 weeks of Cr supplementation did not significantly improve single sprint performance in competitive junior swimmers, but it did enhance swim bench test performance.

  17. Space Suit CO2 Washout During Intravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustine, Phillip M.; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2010-01-01

    Space suit carbon dioxide (CO2) washout refers to the removal of CO2 gas from the oral-nasal area of a suited astronaut's (or crewmember's) helmet using the suit's ventilation system. Inadequate washout of gases can result in diminished mental/cognitive abilities as well as headaches and light headedness. In addition to general discomfort, these ailments can impair an astronaut s ability to perform mission-critical tasks ranging from flying the space vehicle to performing lunar extravehicular activities (EVAs). During design development for NASA s Constellation Program (CxP), conflicting requirements arose between the volume of air flow that the new Orion manned space vehicle is allocated to provide to the suited crewmember and the amount of air required to achieve CO2 washout in a space suit. Historically, space suits receive 6.0 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) of air flow, which has adequately washed out CO2 for EVAs. For CxP, the Orion vehicle will provide 4.5 acfm of air flow to the suit. A group of subject matter experts (SM Es) among the EVA Systems community came to an early consensus that 4.5 acfm may be acceptable for low metabolic rate activities. However, this value appears very risky for high metabolic rates, hence the need for further analysis and testing. An analysis was performed to validate the 4.5 acfm value and to determine if adequate CO2 washout can be achieved with the new suit helmet design concepts. The analysis included computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling cases, which modeled the air flow and breathing characteristics of a human wearing suit helmets. Helmet testing was performed at the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to provide a gross-level validation of the CFD models. Although there was not a direct data correlation between the helmet testing and the CFD modeling, the testing data showed trends that are very similar to the CFD modeling. Overall, the analysis yielded

  18. Application of nonlinear adaptive motion washout to transport ground-handling simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Martin, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The application of a nonlinear coordinated adaptive motion washout to the transport ground-handling environment is documented. Additions to both the aircraft math model and the motion washout system are discussed. The additions to the simulated-aircraft math model provided improved modeling fidelity for braking and reverse-thrust application, and the additions to the motion-base washout system allowed transition from the desired flight parameters to the less restrictive ground parameters of the washout.

  19. Washout kinetics of inhaled hydrogen cyanide in breath.

    PubMed

    Stamyr, Kristin; Nord, Pierre; Johanson, Gunnar

    2008-06-10

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) intoxication causes or contributes significantly to many of the fatalities among fire victims. To enable fast treatment of HCN poisoning, a more rapid diagnostic method than currently available is required. One possibility would be measurement in exhaled air. However, as HCN is highly water soluble, it may be absorbed during inhalation and reabsorbed during exhalation. If this, so-called, washin-washout effect is substantial it may interfere with the diagnosis, as a major part of breath HCN may originate from the respiratory tract, due to recent exposure, and not from systemic exposure. The aim of this study was to estimate the importance of the washin-washout effect of HCN. The time-course of cyanide in exhaled air was measured with an electrochemical detector in 10 volunteers during and after a 1 min x 10 ppm exposure to HCN. The experiment revealed an average half-life of 16s (range 10-24s) in breath. Extrapolating the results to higher exposures suggests that the contribution from washin-washout from the airways will be negligible even at fatal exposures. The results support the use of breath HCN as a potential indicator of systemic intoxication.

  20. Kubo relations and radiative corrections for lepton number washout

    SciTech Connect

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Laine, M. E-mail: laine@itp.unibe.ch

    2014-05-01

    The rates for lepton number washout in extensions of the Standard Model containing right-handed neutrinos are key ingredients in scenarios for baryogenesis through leptogenesis. We relate these rates to real-time correlation functions at finite temperature, without making use of any particle approximations. The relations are valid to quadratic order in neutrino Yukawa couplings and to all orders in Standard Model couplings. They take into account all spectator processes, and apply both in the symmetric and in the Higgs phase of the electroweak theory. We use the relations to compute washout rates at next-to-leading order in g, where g denotes a Standard Model gauge or Yukawa coupling, both in the non-relativistic and in the relativistic regime. Even in the non-relativistic regime the parametrically dominant radiative corrections are only suppressed by a single power of g. In the non-relativistic regime radiative corrections increase the washout rate by a few percent at high temperatures, but they are of order unity around the weak scale and in the relativistic regime.

  1. CO2 Washout Testing of NASA Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    During the presentation "CO2 Washout Testing of NASA Spacesuits," Jason Norcross discussed the results of recent carbon dioxide CO2 washout testing of NASA spacesuits including the Rear Entry I-suit (REI), Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES), and possibly the ACES and Z-1 EVA prototype. When a spacesuit is used during ground testing, adequate CO2 washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on the partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2) available to enter the lungs during respiration. The primary factors during ground-based testing that influence the ppCO2 level in the oronasal area include the metabolic rate of the subject and air flow through the suit. These tests were done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. During this presentation, Norcross provided descriptions of the spacesuits, test hardware, methodology, and results, as well as implications for future ground testing and verification of flight requirements.

  2. Breastmilk Production in the First 4 Weeks after Birth of Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Jacqueline C.; Gardner, Hazel; Geddes, Donna T.

    2016-01-01

    Breastmilk provides the ideal nutrition for the infant, and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months. Adequate milk production by the mother is therefore critical, and early milk production has been shown to significantly affect milk production during established lactation. Previous studies indicate that milk production should reach the lower limit of normal for established lactation (440 mL per day) by day 11 after birth. We have used test-weighing of term infants before and after each breastfeed over 24 h to measure milk production in the first 4 weeks of lactation in mothers with and without perceived breastfeeding problems to provide information on how often milk production is inadequate. Between days 11 and 13, two-thirds of the mothers had a milk production of less than 440 mL per day, and between days 14 and 28, nearly one-third of the mothers had a milk production of less than 440 mL per day. The high frequency of inadequate milk production in early lactation and the consequence of suboptimal milk production in later lactation if left untreated suggest that objective measurement of milk production can identify mothers and infants at risk and support early intervention by a lactation specialist. PMID:27897979

  3. Impact of Immune Deficiency on Remodeling of Maternal Resistance Vasculature 4 Weeks Postpartum in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Elizabeth A; Howard, Ann; Krebs, Kendall; Begin, Kelly; Veilleux, Kelsey; Gokina, Natalia I

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy manifests changes in the vascular and immune systems that persist postpartum (PP), have important implications for future pregnancies, and may modify responses to cardiovascular stress in late life. The association between immune and vascular function and the generation or progression of cardiovascular disease beg the question of whether altered immunity modifies pregnancy-induced changes in the vasculature. Our objective was to compare changes in the function and remodeling of systemic resistance vessels 4 weeks PP in normal C57BL/6 (B6), and immunodeficient mice recombinase 1-deficient/B6 ( Rag1(-/-)). Immune deficiency did not change the responsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh) and phenylephrine at baseline but decreased arterial distensibility and increased stiffness PP. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells into Rag1(-/-) mice decreased the response to ACh while increasing distensibility and wall thickness. When compared to PP Rag1(-/-), vessels from PP CD4-deficient mice, which have B cells and CD8 T cells, but no CD4 cells, show increased distensibility and decreased responsiveness to ACh in a pattern similar to that seen in Rag1(-/-) given CD8 T cells prior to mating. These studies suggest a key role for T cell, particularly CD8 T cell, associated factors in the PP remodeling of maternal resistance vessels.

  4. A comparison of washout filters using a human dynamic orientation model. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The Ormsby model of human dynamic orientation, a discrete time computer program, was used to provide a vestibular explanation for observed differences between two washout schemes. These washout schemes, a linear washout and a nonlinear washout, were subjectively evaluated. It was found that the linear washout presented false rate cues, causing pilots to rate the simulation fidelity of the linear scheme much lower than the nonlinear scheme. By inputting these motion histories into the Ormsby model, it was shown that the linear filter causes discontinuities in the pilot's perceived angular velocity, resulting in the sensation of an anomalous rate cue. This phenomenon does not occur with the use of the nonlinear filter.

  5. Anticontrol of Hopf Bifurcation and Control of Chaos for a Finance System through Washout Filters with Time Delay

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mengxia; Zuo, Junmei

    2014-01-01

    A controlled model for a financial system through washout-filter-aided dynamical feedback control laws is developed, the problem of anticontrol of Hopf bifurcation from the steady state is studied, and the existence, stability, and direction of bifurcated periodic solutions are discussed in detail. The obtained results show that the delay on price index has great influences on the financial system, which can be applied to suppress or avoid the chaos phenomenon appearing in the financial system. PMID:24977239

  6. Anticontrol of Hopf bifurcation and control of chaos for a finance system through washout filters with time delay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huitao; Lu, Mengxia; Zuo, Junmei

    2014-01-01

    A controlled model for a financial system through washout-filter-aided dynamical feedback control laws is developed, the problem of anticontrol of Hopf bifurcation from the steady state is studied, and the existence, stability, and direction of bifurcated periodic solutions are discussed in detail. The obtained results show that the delay on price index has great influences on the financial system, which can be applied to suppress or avoid the chaos phenomenon appearing in the financial system.

  7. Effect of 4-week inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane on blood pressure in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fen; Ichihara, Sahoko; Yamada, Yuki; Banu, Shameema; Ichihara, Gaku

    2017-03-01

    The pathophysiology of hypertension is complex and multifactorial, and includes exposure to various chemical substances. Several recent studies have documented the reproductive and neurological toxicities of 1-bromopropane (1-BP). Given that 1-BP increased reactive oxygen species in the brain of rats, we hypothesized that 1-BP also has cardiovascular toxicity through increased oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, male F344 and Wistar Nagoya rats (n = 7-8 per group per test) were exposed to 0 or 1000 ppm of 1-BP via inhalation for 4 weeks (8 h per day, 7 days per week). The exposure to 1-BP increased systolic blood pressure. This effect was associated with a significant decrease in the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio. A significant increase in nitrotyrosine levels, activation of the NADPH oxidase pathway, which was evidenced by upregulation of gp91phox, a NADPH oxidase subunit, and significant decreases in the expressions of antioxidant molecules such as Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase catalase, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, were observed in the aortas of Wistar Nagoya rats exposed to 1-BP. Our results indicate that subacute (4-week) inhalation exposure to 1-BP increases blood pressure and suggest that this cardiovascular toxic effect is due, at least in part, to increased oxidative stress mediated through activation of the NADPH oxidase pathway. Further study is needed to assess whether NADPH oxidase activation causes the increase in blood pressure in the rats exposed to 1-BP. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [Effect of 4 weeks of training on the limit time at VO2 max].

    PubMed

    Heubert, Richard; Bocquet, Valéry; Koralsztein, Jean Pierre; Billat, Véronique

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 4 weeks training in running on the time spent at VO2max (tlim VO2max). Eight athletes carried out, before and after an aerobic training, an incremental and five exhaustive tests at 90, 95, 100, 115% vVO2max and at the critical power at VO2max (CV'; slope of the linear relation between the tlim VO2max and the distance limit at VO2max). This training did not significantly improve VO2max (p = 0.17) or tlim VO2max (p = 0.72). However, the "tlim VO2max-intensity" curve was shifted toward the right, meaning that the athlete had to run at a higher intensity after training to obtain the same tlim VO2max. Tlim VO2max at CV' before training was significantly higher than tlim VO2max at 90, 95, 100, and 115% vVO2max (p < 0.05). This training increased CV' in absolute value (13.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 14.9 +/- 1.2 km.h-1, p < 0.05; n = 6) but not in relative value (86 +/- 4 vs. 86 +/- 5% vVO2max; p = 0.9). In conclusion, in spite of the shift of the "tlim VO2max-intensity" curve, tlim VO2max was not significantly increased by this training. Furthermore, CV' allowed subjects to spend the longest time of exercise at VO2max during a continuous exercise with constant speed, but CV', expressed in % vVO2max, did not improve with this training.

  9. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  10. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  11. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250). PMID:28066229

  12. Phase V of the single-breath washout test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichol, G. M.; Michels, D. B.; Guy, H. J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A downward-deflecting phase V is often seen following the terminal rise (phase IV) in single-breath washout tests. To investigate the nature of phase V, experiments using simultaneous washouts of N2 and tracer boluses of Ar were performed on eight normal nonsmoking subjects aged 27-41 who exhibited a phase V. Phase V is found to occur in all subjects at expiratory flow rates between 0.1 and 2.0 l/sec shortly after expiration became flow limited. Volumes of both phases IV and V increase with increasing flow rate. The difference between the exhaled volumes at which flow became limited and phase V appeared is shown to be approximately equal to the anatomic dead space. Results support a model of lung emptying in a gravitational field in which flow limitation occurs first in the lower lung regions and then progresses toward the upper regions, causing phase IV. A decrease in the amount of flow from the upper relative to the lower regions after all regions have become flow limited then causes phase V.

  13. Efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound washout rate in predicting hepatocellular carcinoma differentiation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Qin, Xia-Chuan; Luo, Yan; Li, Yong-Zhong; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) washout rate in predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) differentiation. Two hundred seventy-one patients underwent liver resection for HCC between April 2008 and December 2012 after being examined by CEUS using the contrast agent SonoVue with a low mechanical index (<0.1) in a routine procedure. Contrast agent washout rates obtained from video images were divided into four categories from slow to fast: WR1 = no washout in all phases (slowest); WR2 = washout after 120 s from contrast injection (late-phase washout); WR3 = washout between 41 and 120 s from contrast injection (portal venous washout); WR4 = washout before 40 s from contrast injection (fastest washout rate). HCC nodules were graded as well, moderately and poorly differentiated. Spearman rank correlation and χ(2)-tests were used to assess group relationships and differences. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the diagnostic predictive value of CEUS. Among the 271 patients, 18 (6.6%) had well differentiated, 150 (55.4%) had moderately differentiated and 103 (38.0%) had poorly differentiated HCC. Statistical tests indicated that washout rate was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation (p < 0.05), and the poorly differentiated HCCs had earlier washout. At the cutoff point of WR4, CEUS based on washout rate performed poorly in distinguishing poorly differentiated from moderately and well-differentiated HCCs, with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (area under the curve) of 24%, 97% and 0.68, respectively. However, at the cutoff point of WR2, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CEUS in differentiating well-differentiated HCC from other HCCs were significantly better: 98%, 78% and 0.96, respectively. Thus, CEUS washout rate may have a role in identifying patients with well-differentiated HCC.

  14. Early detection of drillstring washouts reduces fishing jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Dudleson, B. ); Arnold, M.; McCann, D. )

    1990-10-01

    Rapid detection of unexpected drilling events requires continuous monitoring of drilling parameters. A major R and D program by a drilling contractor has led to the introduction of a computerized monitoring system on its offshore rigs. System includes advanced color graphics displays and new smart alarms to help both contractor and operator personnel detect and observe drilling events before they would normally be apparent with conventional rig instrumentation. This article describes a module of this monitoring system, which uses expert system technology to detect the earliest stages of drillstring washouts. Field results demonstrate the effectiveness of the smart alarm incorporated in the system. Early detection allows the driller to react before a twist-off results in expensive fishing operations.

  15. Continuous distributions of specific ventilation recovered from inert gas washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.; Evans, J. W.; Jalowayski, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    A new technique is described for recovering continuous distributions of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio from the nitrogen washout. The analysis yields a continuous distribution of ventilation as a function of tidal ventilation/volume ratio represented as fractional ventilations of 50 compartments plus dead space. The procedure was verified by recovering known distributions from data to which noise had been added. Using an apparatus to control the subject's tidal volume and FRC, mixed expired N2 data gave the following results: (a) the distributions of young, normal subjects were narrow and unimodal; (b) those of subjects over age 40 were broader with more poorly ventilated units; (c) patients with pulmonary disease of all descriptions showed enlarged dead space; (d) patients with cystic fibrosis showed multimodal distributions with the bulk of the ventilation going to overventilated units; and (e) patients with obstructive lung disease fell into several classes, three of which are illustrated.

  16. [Estimation of I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial washout].

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Watanabe, N; Saitoh, T; Asakura, T; Kanke, M; Owada, K; Hoshi, K; Kimura, K; Maruyama, Y

    1990-11-01

    A crosstalk from I-123 to Tl-201 (Tl) window was 35 +/- 30% (mean +/- SD) and 30 +/- 10% in a myocardial phantom and the images of 6 patients respectively. However, the crosstalk from Tl to I-123 was approximately 1% in each. I-123 MIBG (MIBG) and Tl myocardial SPECT images were recorded in 3 normal volunteers (N), 10 patients with myocardial infarction (MI), and 4 with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The MIBG and Tl imagings were performed on the other day to avoid the crosstalk. Myocardial washout rates (WR) of Tl and MIBG were derived from 15 min and 4 hour images. WR of Tl was approximately 36% in each group. On the other hand, WR of MIBG in DCM (52 +/- 7%) and MI (41 +/- 14%) groups were statistically higher than in N (24 +/- 7%) group. Thus WR of MIBG would be useful to detect abnormalities in adrenergic nervous system.

  17. Mixed metal hydroxide drilling fluid minimizes well bore washouts

    SciTech Connect

    Lavoix, F. ); Lewis, M. )

    1992-09-28

    This paper reports that the use of a mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) drilling fluid, instead of a conventional polymer-based fluid, improved well bore stability in troublesome formations in West Africa. The unique flow and suspension characteristics of the MMH fluid improved cuttings removal and decreased well bore washouts. With fewer hole problems and better cleaning in the well, the operator reduced drilling time and cost of the well. MMH compounds were developed and introduced to the drilling industry a few years ago. Initially their utility was limited by an inability to achieve reliable filtration control without destroying the unique fluid rheology. A fully functional drilling fluid system, based on this unusual line of chemistry, has been developed and used with great success in dozens of wells around the world.

  18. Adaptation to a long term (4 weeks) arginine- and precursor (glutamate, proline and aspartate)-free diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is not known whether arginine homeostasis is negatively affected by a "long-term" dietary restriction of arginine and its major precursors in healthy adults. To assess the effects of a 4-week arginine- and precursor-free dietary intake on the regulatory mechanisms of arginine homeostasis in healt...

  19. GLYCATED ALBUMIN AT 4 WEEKS CORRELATES WITH A1C LEVELS AT 12 WEEKS AND REFLECTS SHORT-TERM GLUCOSE FLUCTUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Desouza, Cyrus V.; Rosenstock, Julio; Zhou, Rong; Holcomb, Richard G.; Fonseca, Vivian A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the performance of glycated albumin (GA) monitoring by comparing it to other measures of glycemic control during intensification of antidiabetic therapy. Methods This 12-week, prospective, multicenter study compared the diagnostic clinical performance of GA to glycated hemoglobin A1C (A1C), fructosamine corrected for albumin (FRA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and mean blood glucose (MBG) estimated from self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in 30 patients with suboptimally controlled type 1 or 2 diabetes. Results Mean A1C decreased from 9.5% to 8.1%. Mean SMBG correlated closely with CGM (Pearson r = 0.783 for daily estimates and r = 0.746 for weekly estimates, P<.0001). Both GA and FRA levels significantly correlated with changes from baseline in A1C and mean weekly SMBG (P<.001).The lowest observed median GA occurred at 4 weeks, followed by a small increase and then a slight reduction, mirroring changes in overall mean SMBG values. The median A1C fell throughout the treatment period, failing to reflect short-term changes in SMBG. A ≥1% reduction in GA at 4 weeks was significantly associated with a ≥0.5% change in A1C at 12 weeks (odds ratio [OR] = 19.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4, 944, P = .018). Conclusion In patients receiving glucose-lowering therapy, changes in GA at 4 weeks were concordant with changes in A1C at 12 weeks, and both GA and FRA more accurately reflected short-term blood glucose fluctuations than A1C. PMID:26214108

  20. Diffuse slow washout of myocardial thallium-201: a new scintigraphic indicator of extensive coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, T.M.; Maddahi, J.; Gray, R.J.; Murphy, F.L.; Garcia, E.V.; Conklin, C.M.; Raymond, M.J.; Stewart, M.E.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    When coronary artery disease is extensive and of relatively uniform severity, regional myocardial hypoperfusion may be balanced during stress, precluding development of spatially relative perfusion defects. Assessment of the washout of thallium-201 from myocardial regions may provide diagnostic assistance in these cases because washout analysis is spatially nonrelative and hypoperfused myocardial regions manifest a slow thallium-201 washout rate. In 1,265 consecutive patients having quantitatively analyzed stress-redistribution scintigraphy, 46 had a diffuse slow washout pattern with no or a maximum of one regional perfusion defect. Thirty-two underwent clinically indicated coronary angiography, and 23 (72%) of these were found to have three vessel or left main disease. Of 30 similar patients without a diffuse slow washout pattern and with no or a maximum of one perfusion defect, only 5 (17%) had extensive coronary disease. An independent relation between diffuse slow washout and extensive coronary disease was demonstrated by a Mantel- Haentzel chi-square analysis of a wide variety of other indexes of extensive disease. A diffuse washout abnormality, even in the absence of other scintigraphic, clinical or electrocardiographic indicators, carries a high predictive value for three vessel or left main coronary artery disease. The predictive value is maintained when the exercise level achieved is submaximal. Although an infrequent occurrence (3.6% of tested patients), a diffuse slow washout pattern without other scintigraphic indications of extensive coronary disease should lead to further diagnostic testing.

  1. TorsinA expression is detectable in human infants as young as 4 weeks old.

    PubMed

    Siegert, S; Bahn, E; Kramer, M L; Schulz-Schaeffer, W J; Hewett, J W; Breakefield, X O; Hedreen, J C; Rostasy, K M

    2005-06-09

    Familial, early onset, generalized torsion dystonia is the most common and severe primary dystonia. The majority of cases are caused by a 3-bp deletion (GAG) in the coding region of the DYT1 (TOR1A) gene. The cellular and regional distribution of torsinA protein and its message has been described previously in several regions of normal adult human and rodent brain. This study examines the expression of torsinA in the developing human brain of fetuses, infants and children up to 7 years of age in four selected brain regions. Expression of torsinA protein was detectable beginning at 4 to 8 weeks of age postnatally in the cerebellum (Purkinje cells), substantia nigra (dopaminergic neurons), hippocampus and basal ganglia. Prominent torsinA immunoreactivity was not seen before 6 weeks of age postnatally, a period associated with synaptic remodeling, process elimination and the beginning of myelination. Our results indicate that torsinA protein expression is temporally and spatially regulated and is present in all brain regions studied by the age of 2 months on into adulthood.

  2. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    PubMed

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

  3. Polarographic measurement of ascorbate washout in isolated perfused rabbit hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Arts, T.; Kuikka, J.T.; Reneman, R.S.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    To study the myocardial washout of ascorbate, the applicability of polarographic detection of ascorbate ions by a platinum electrode (sensitive area 0.03 mm2) was investigated, in both a calibration setup (sampling flow along the electrode: 100 microliter X s-1) and isolated, retrogradely perfused rabbit hearts. In the calibration setup at pH 7.4, the sensitivity of the electrode was 70 microA/mol. This sensitivity increased moderately with increasing pH (13%/unit pH) and increasing sampling flow rate (14% at an increase from 100 to 150 microliter X s-1). In the isolated hearts, ascorbate infused into the aorta was detected in a right ventricular drain by the electrode as well as by the use of /sup 14/C-labeled ascorbate. Both recorded time courses were similar except for a scaling factor dependent on flow velocity. During continuous infusion the arteriovenous difference of ascorbate was 2 +/- 2% (SD), indicating a relatively low consumption of ascorbate by the isolated heart. The authors conclude that polarographic measurement of ascorbate in the coronary effluent of an isolated rabbit heart can be performed on-line and relatively easily.

  4. Microtubule aging probed by microfluidics-assisted tubulin washout

    PubMed Central

    Duellberg, Christian; Cade, Nicholas Ian; Surrey, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules switch stochastically between phases of growth and shrinkage. The molecular mechanism responsible for the end of a growth phase, an event called catastrophe, is still not understood. The probability for a catastrophe to occur increases with microtubule age, putting constraints on the possible molecular mechanism of catastrophe induction. Here we used microfluidics-assisted fast tubulin washout experiments to induce microtubule depolymerization in a controlled manner at different times after the start of growth. We found that aging can also be observed in this assay, providing valuable new constraints against which theoretical models of catastrophe induction can be tested. We found that the data can be quantitatively well explained by a simple kinetic threshold model that assumes an age-dependent broadening of the protective cap at the microtubule end as a result of an evolving tapered end structure; this leads to a decrease of the cap density and its stability. This analysis suggests an intuitive picture of the role of morphological changes of the protective cap for the age dependence of microtubule stability. PMID:27489342

  5. Relating indices of inert gas washout to localised bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jennine H; Hoffman, Eric A; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2012-09-30

    Asthma is typically characterised by increased ventilation heterogeneity. This can be directly inferred from the visualisation of ventilation defects in imaging studies, or indirectly inferred from indices derived from the multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW). The basis for the understanding of the MBNW indices and their implication for changes in structure and function at the largest and smallest scales in the lung has been facilitated by mathematical models for inert gas transport. A new model is presented that couples airway resistance and regional tissue compliance, for simulation of the effect of 'patchy' bronchoconstriction - as inferred from imaging studies - on the Scond index of ventilation heterogeneity. Patches of reduced washin gas concentration can emerge by constricting only the terminal bronchioles within localised regions, however this pattern of constriction is insufficient to affect Scond; Scond from this model is only sensitive to constriction that occurs within entire contiguous regions. Furthermore the model illustrates the possibility that the MBNW may not detect gas trapped in ventilation defects.

  6. Microtubule aging probed by microfluidics-assisted tubulin washout.

    PubMed

    Duellberg, Christian; Cade, Nicholas Ian; Surrey, Thomas

    2016-11-07

    Microtubules switch stochastically between phases of growth and shrinkage. The molecular mechanism responsible for the end of a growth phase, an event called catastrophe, is still not understood. The probability for a catastrophe to occur increases with microtubule age, putting constraints on the possible molecular mechanism of catastrophe induction. Here we used microfluidics-assisted fast tubulin washout experiments to induce microtubule depolymerization in a controlled manner at different times after the start of growth. We found that aging can also be observed in this assay, providing valuable new constraints against which theoretical models of catastrophe induction can be tested. We found that the data can be quantitatively well explained by a simple kinetic threshold model that assumes an age-dependent broadening of the protective cap at the microtubule end as a result of an evolving tapered end structure; this leads to a decrease of the cap density and its stability. This analysis suggests an intuitive picture of the role of morphological changes of the protective cap for the age dependence of microtubule stability.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral testosterone enanthate plus dutasteride for 4 weeks in normal men: implications for male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Amory, John K; Kalhorn, Thomas F; Page, Stephanie T

    2008-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone enanthate (TE) and dutasteride increases serum testosterone and might be useful for male hormonal contraception. To ascertain the contraceptive potential of oral TE and dutasteride by determining the degree of gonadotropin suppression mediated by 4 weeks of oral TE plus dutasteride, 20 healthy young men were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of either 400 mg oral TE twice daily or 800 mg oral TE once daily in a double-blinded, controlled fashion at a single site. All men received 0.5 mg dutasteride daily. Blood for measurement of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, dihydrotesterone (DHT), and estradiol was obtained prior to treatment, weekly during treatment, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20, and 24 hours after the morning dose on the last day of treatment. FSH was significantly suppressed throughout treatment with 800 mg TE once daily and after 4 weeks of treatment with 400 mg TE twice daily. LH was significantly suppressed after 2 weeks of treatment with 800 mg TE, but not with 400 mg TE. Serum DHT was suppressed and serum estradiol increased during treatment in both groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was suppresed during treatment, but liver function tests, hematocrit, creatinine, mood, and sexual function were unaffected. The administration of 800 mg oral TE daily combined with dutasteride for 28 days significantly suppresses gonadotropins without untoward side effects and might have utility as part of a male hormonal contraceptive regimen.

  8. Skin blood flow in sheep: comparison of xenon-133 washout and radioactive microsphere techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Midtgard, U.H.; Hales, J.R.; Fawcett, A.A.; Sejrsen, P.

    1987-09-01

    Blood flow was measured in leg and torso skin of conscious or anesthetized sheep by using 15-micron radioactive microspheres (Qm) and the /sup 133/Xe washout method (QXe). There was a good relationship between Qm in the cutaneous compartment and QXe calculated from the fast component of the biexponential washout curves (QXe = 0.40.Qm + 6.2, r = 0.90, P less than 0.001) with QXe values substantially below those determined with microspheres. Only at low blood flow levels was there a tendency for QXe to overestimate capillary blood flow as assessed with microspheres, but at higher blood flow levels the /sup 133/Xe washout method resulted in values substantially below those determined with microspheres. The slope of the slow component of the washout curves was inversely related to the tissue-blood partition coefficient in the subcutaneous tissue (r = 0.52, P less than 0.001), indicating an influence of the amount of subcutaneous fat on the washout rate. QXe calculated from the slow component of the washout curves was not significantly correlated with Qm in the subcutaneous compartment (r = 0.19, P greater than 0.10). In leg skin with dilated arteriovenous anastomoses, QXe was generally higher than in torso skin and leg skin with constricted arteriovenous anastomoses, indicating that shunt blood flow increases the washout of /sup 133/Xe.

  9. Effect of coronary blood flow on thallium-201 uptake and washout. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, H.; Adolph, R.J.; Gabel, M.; Lukes, S.J.; Franklin, D.; Williams, C.C.

    1982-03-01

    Myocardial uptake and washout of thallium-201 were studied in an experimental dog model in which regional blood flow to the posterior wall was varied by transient 2-minute occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery to produce transient ischemia and reactive hyperemia. Thallium-201 myocardial activity in a region of interest was determined continuously after i.v. administration by a gamma camera and computer program. Activity in the posterior wall was compared with that in the anterior wall in the same dog and the posterior wall of control dogs. Thallium-201 uptake was directly related to blood flow. With reactive hyperemia, there was a rapid and absolute increase in uptake followed by rapid washout; with ischemia, there was slow and decreased uptake followed by a slow washout. The calculated myocardial activity during washout in both ischemic and hyperemic areas approached values in control dogs long after blood flow had returned to baseline levels. Significant differences in washout slopes were found between the three groups of dogs (-0.156%/min in control dogs, -0.244%/min after reactive hyperemia, and -0.076%/min after transient ischemia, with half-washout times of 5.3 hours, 3.4 hours and 11.0 hours, respectively). These data suggest that both the initial decrease in activity in the ischemic area and the initial excess in the hyperemic area are corrected by different washout rates of ischemic and hyperemic cells during redistribution.

  10. Effects of a 4-Week Multimodal Rehabilitation Program on Quality of Life, Cardiopulmonary Function, and Fatigue in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Do, Junghwa; Cho, Youngki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the effects of a rehabilitation program on quality of life (QoL), cardiopulmonary function, and fatigue in breast cancer patients. The program included aerobic exercises as well as stretching and strengthening exercises. Methods Breast cancer patients (n=62) who had completed chemotherapy were randomly assigned to an early exercise group (EEG; n=32) or a delayed exercise group (DEG; n=30). The EEG underwent 4 weeks of a multimodal rehabilitation program for 80 min/day, 5 times/wk for 4 weeks. The DEG completed the same program during the next 4 weeks. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), EORTC Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-BR23), predicted maximal volume of oxygen consumption (VO2max), and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were used for assessment at baseline, and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Results After 8 weeks, statistically significant differences were apparent in global health, physical, role, and emotional functions, and cancer-related symptoms such as fatigue and pain, nausea, and dyspnea on the EORTC QLQ-C30; cancer-related symptoms involving the arm and breast on the EORTC QLQ-BR23; the predicted VO2max; muscular strength; and FSS (p<0.050), according to time, between the two groups. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that a supervised multimodal rehabilitation program may improve the physical symptoms, QoL, and fatigue in patients with breast cancer. PMID:25834616

  11. Neuromuscular Adaptations After 2 and 4 Weeks of 80% Versus 30% 1 Repetition Maximum Resistance Training to Failure.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Buckner, Samuel L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Hill, Ethan C; Smith, Cory M; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Cramer, Joel T

    2016-08-01

    Jenkins, NDM, Housh, TJ, Buckner, SL, Bergstrom, HC, Cochrane, KC, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Schmidt, RJ, Johnson, GO, and Cramer, JT. Neuromuscular adaptations after 2 and 4 weeks of 80% versus 30% 1 repetition maximum resistance training to failure. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2174-2185, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypertrophic, strength, and neuromuscular adaptations to 2 and 4 weeks of resistance training at 80 vs. 30% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in untrained men. Fifteen untrained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.7 ± 2.4 years; weight = 84.7 ± 23.5 kg) were randomly assigned to either a high-load (n = 7) or low-load (n = 8) resistance training group and completed forearm flexion resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Forearm flexor muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity, maximal voluntary isometric (MVIC) and 1RM strength, and the electromyographic, mechanomyographic (MMG), and percent voluntary activation (%VA) responses at 10-100% of MVIC were determined at baseline, 2, and 4 weeks of training. The MT increased from baseline (2.9 ± 0.1 cm) to week 2 (3.0 ± 0.1 cm) and to week 4 (3.1 ± 0.1 cm) for the 80 and 30% 1RM groups. MVIC increased from week 2 (121.5 ± 19.1 Nm) to week 4 (138.6 ± 22.1 Nm) and 1RM increased from baseline (16.7 ± 1.6 kg) to weeks 2 and 4 (19.2 ± 1.9 and 20.5 ± 1.8 kg) in the 80% 1RM group only. The MMG amplitude at 80 and 90% MVIC decreased from baseline to week 4, and %VA increased at 20 and 30% MVIC for both groups. Resistance training to failure at 80 vs. 30% 1RM elicited similar muscle hypertrophy, but only 80% 1RM increased muscle strength. However, these disparate strength adaptations were difficult to explain with neuromuscular adaptations because they were subtle and similar for the 80 and 30% 1RM groups.

  12. Sex-specific criteria for interpretation of thallium-201 myocardial uptake and washout studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, M.; Suissa, S.; Elstein, J.; Staniloff, H.; Tang, A.; Rush, C.; Aldis, A.; Tannous, R.; Turek, M.; Addas, A.

    1986-12-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of gender on criteria for the quantitative analysis of exercise-redistribution /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy. The studies of 26 normal females and 23 normal males were subjected to bilinear interpolative background subtraction and horizontal profile analysis. Significant sexual differences were found in both regional uptake ratios and washout rates. These differences primarily reflected a proportionately decreased anterior and upper septal uptake in females, and faster washout in females. Faster myocardial /sup 201/Tl washout rates in females could not be clearly ascribed to either a physiological or artifactual explanation. It is concluded that since important differences exist between males and females in the detected pattern of /sup 201/Tl myocardial uptake and washout, sex-specific criteria may enhance the predictive accuracy of exercise-redistribution /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy.

  13. Pathological and immunohistochemical studies of subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus in 4-week-old chickens.

    PubMed

    Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Okada, Kosuke; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-06-01

    Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.

  14. Changes in regional activity are accompanied with changes in inter-regional connectivity during 4 weeks motor learning.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liangsuo; Wang, Binquan; Narayana, Shalini; Hazeltine, Eliot; Chen, Xiying; Robin, Donald A; Fox, Peter T; Xiong, Jinhu

    2010-03-08

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) and fMRI were used to test whether changes in the regional activity are accompanied by changes in the inter-regional connectivity as motor practice progresses. Ten healthy subjects were trained to perform finger movement task daily for 4 weeks. Three sessions of fMRI images were acquired within 4 weeks. The changes in inter-regional connectivity were evaluated by measuring the effective connectivity between the primary motor area (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum (CB), and posterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (pVLPFC). The regional activities in M1 and SMA increased from pre-training to week 2 and decreased from week 2 to week 4. The inter-regional connectivity generally increased in strength (with SEM path coefficients becoming more positive or negative) as practice progressed. The increases in the strength of the inter-regional connectivity may reflect long-term reorganization of the skilled motor network. We suggest that the performance gain was achieved by dynamically tuning the inter-regional connectivity in the motor network.

  15. Plume wash-out near a coal-fired power plant: Measurements and model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten Brink, H. M.; Janssen, A. J.; Slanina, J.

    The contribution of plume wash-out to the wet deposition of pollutants in the vicinity of a 1000 MWe coal-fired power plant in The Netherlands has been investigated. Whereas the extra wet deposition of heavy metals, emitted in the form of fly-ash, is not of importance as compared to the background deposition, drastically increased wet deposition of Cl -, F - and especially B-compounds was observed. Little extra deposition of S compounds was found, due to the fact that increased acidity in precipitation, associated with wash-out of HCl and (to a lesser extent) HF, limits the uptake of SO 2. The results of the experiments near the 1000 MWe installation were used to test and validate a wash-out model developed to study and predict wet removal of the major pollutants from a plume. Annual wet deposition patterns of these constituents due to plume wash-out have been calculated for a more characteristic 600 MWe coal-fired power plant. Very locally, at short distances from the stack, plume washout may nearly double local acid deposition under conditions prevalent in The Netherlands. This is mainly the result of wash-out of HCl, whereas the contribution of SO 2 is negligible. Significant plume contributions to the deposition of HF, B-compounds, Al, Ti and Br may be expected. Application of desulfurization units ('scrubbers') will reduce the emission and deposition of acids.

  16. Binding constants determined from Ca2+ current responses to rapid applications and washouts of nifedipine in frog cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Méry, P F; Hove-Madsen, L; Mazet, J L; Hanf, R; Fischmeister, R

    1996-07-01

    1. A fast perfusion system was used to analyse the kinetics of the response of L-type calcium current (ICa) to rapid applications and washouts of the dihydropyridine antagonist nifedipine in whole-cell patch-clamped frog ventricular myocytes. 2. Both the inhibition of ICa induced by nifedipine and the recovery from inhibition upon washout of the drug behaved as mono-exponential functions of time. 3. During application or washout of 100 nM nifedipine, only the peak amplitude of ICa varied but not its time course of activation or inactivation. 4. The rate constant of the onset of ICa inhibition increased with the concentration of nifedipine. However, the time course of the recovery from inhibition was independent of drug concentration. 5. Both rate constants were strongly sensitive to the holding potential but insensitive to the test potential. 6. Using simple rate equations and a one-binding-site analysis it was possible to determine the rate constants for association (k1) and dissociation (k-1) and the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of the reaction between nifedipine and Ca2+ channels. KD values for nifedipine were identical to IC50 values obtained from classical steady-state experiments. 7. With depolarized holding potentials, KD decreased strongly due to a large reduction in k-1 and a modest increase in k1. Assuming that these changes result from the distribution of Ca2+ channels between resting and inactivated states, a low-affinity binding to the resting state (R) and a high-affinity binding to the inactivated state (I) were obtained with the binding constants: k1R = 1.0 x 10(6) M-1 S-1, k-1R = 0.077 S-1, and KDR = 77 nM for the resting state; k1I = 4.47 x 10(6) M-1 S-1, k-1I = 7.7 x 10(-4) S-1, and KDI = 0.17 nM for the inactivated state. 8. Rapid application/washout experiments provide a unique way to determine, in an intact cell and in a relatively short period (2-4 min), the binding rate constants and the KD value of the reaction between a

  17. Inhomogeneity of pulmonary ventilation during sustained microgravity as determined by single-breath washouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, G. Kim; Elliott, Ann R.; Deutschman, Robert A., III; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity is known to cause inhomogeneity of ventilation. Nongravitational factors are also recognized, but their relative contribution is not understood. We therefore studied ventilatory inhomogeneity during sustained microgravity during the 9-day flight of Spacelab SLS-1. All seven crew members performed single-breath nitrogen washouts. They inspired a vital capacity breath of 100% oxygen with a bolus of argon at the start of inspiration, and the inspiratory and expiratory flow rates were controlled at 0.5 l/s. Control measurements in normal gravity (1 G) were made pre- and postflight in the standing and supine position. Compared with the standing 1-G measurements, there was a marked decrease in ventilatory inhomogeneity during microgravity, as evidenced by the significant reductions in cardiogenic oscillations, slope of phase III, and height of phase IV for nitrogen and argon. However, argon phase IV volume was not reduced, and considerable ventilatory inhomogeneity remained. For example, the heights of the cardiogenic oscillations during microgravity for nitrogen and argon were 44 and 24%, respectively, of their values at 1 G, whereas the slopes of phase III for nitrogen and argon were 78 and 29%, respectively, of those at 1 G. The presence of a phase IV in microgravity is strong evidence that airway closure still occurs in the absence of gravity. The results were qualitatively similar to those found previously during short periods of 0 G in parabolic flight.

  18. Experimental investigation and modelling of tritium washout by precipitation in the area of the nuclear power plant of Paks, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Köllo, Z; Palcsu, L; Major, Z; Papp, L; Molnár, M; Ranga, T; Dombóvári, P; Manga, L

    2011-01-01

    Tritium occurs in nature in trace amounts, but its concentration is changing due to natural and artificial sources. Studies focusing on natural tritium have to take into account the effect of artificial sources. Also, the impact of tritium is an important issue in environmental protection, e.g. in connection with the emissions from nuclear power plants. The present work focuses on the rain washout of tritium emitted from the Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary. Rainwater collectors were placed around the plant and after a period of precipitation, rainwater was collected and analysed for tritium content. Samples were analysed using low-level liquid scintillation counting, with some also subject to the more accurate (3)He ingrowth method. The results clearly show the trace of the tritium plume emitted from the plant; however, values are only about one order of magnitude higher than environmental background levels. A washout model was devised to estimate the distribution of tritium around the plant. The model gives slightly higher concentrations than those measured in the field, but in general the agreement is satisfactory. The modelled values demonstrate that the effect of the plant on rainwater tritium levels is negligible over a distance of some kilometres.

  19. Maintaining Adequate Carbon Dioxide Washout for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Navarro, Moses; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Swickrath, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in technology development that is aimed at the production of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU). Of the many functions provided by the spacesuit and portable life support subsystem within the AEMU, delivering breathing gas to the astronaut along with removing the carbon dioxide (CO2) remains one of the most important environmental functions that the AEMU can control. Carbon dioxide washout is the capability of the ventilation flow in the spacesuit helmet to provide low concentrations of CO2 to the crew member to meet breathing requirements. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as sleep stations and hygiene compartments. Human testing to fully evaluate and validate CO2 washout performance is necessary but also expensive due to the levied safety requirements. Moreover, correlation of math models becomes challenging because of human variability and movement. To supplement human CO2 washout testing, a breathing capability will be integrated into a suited manikin test apparatus to provide a safe, lower cost, stable, easily modeled alternative to human testing. Additionally, this configuration provides NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) the capability to evaluate CO2 washout under off-nominal conditions that would otherwise be unsafe for human testing or difficult due to fatigue of a test subject. Testing has been under way in-house at JSC and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides sufficient performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an extravehicular activity. This paper will review recent CO2 washout testing and analysis activities, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work

  20. The importance of surface adsorption on the washout of semivolatile organic compounds by rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcik, Matt F.

    The washout of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) by rain is an important removal mechanism from the atmosphere and an important loading mechanism to terrestrial and aquatic systems. In this paper, the rain washout equation is modified to include gas-phase SOC adsorption to the surface of raindrops. The relative influence of gas adsorption is a function of the air-water interface adsorption constant, Kia, Henry's law CONSTANT, H, the fraction of the SOCs associated with particles, φ, and the diameter of the raindrop, dR. Theoretical gas-phase washout ratios were calculated assuming a rainfall intensity of 10 mm/h and spherical raindrops for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs). Results for PAHs indicate that gas-phase washout including surface adsorption exceed those calculated considering only Henry's law dissolution for low volatility PAHs. This shift in gas-phase partitioning being dominated by dissolution to the bulk water of the rain drop to being dominated by adsorption to the raindrop surface occurs at sub-cooled liquid saturated vapor pressures around 10 -5 Pa, corresponding to PAHs with greater than or equal to five aromatic rings. Similar calculations for PCBs indicate similar gas-phase washout ratios (10 to ˜10 4), and a similar shift from dissolution to adsorption in the range of sub-cooled liquid saturated vapor pressures of 10 -2.7 to 10 -1.4 Pa. Calculations for polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) indicate that adsorption dominates all gas-phase washout of PCDDs. Kinetic calculations indicate that even the least volatile SOCs reach equilibrium with the rain within hundreds of meters of the bottom of a cloud, depending on rainfall rate. Given the theoretical domination of gas-phase adsorption to the surface of raindrops, traditional rain samplers may underestimate actual washout ratios and ultimately loadings to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces because of

  1. [Application of the hydrogen washout technique to orthopedic research (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ogata, K

    1981-08-01

    Since the first description by Aukland and co-authors in 1964, the hydrogen washout has been shown to be an accurate method in determining regional tissue blood flow. The presence of hydrogen molecules within the tissue is detected with a platinum electrode where a small amount of current is generated by oxidation of molecular hydrogen to hydrogen ions. Therefore, construction of the suitable electrode for the tissue to be measured is essential. The author applied the hydrogen washout technique to the blood flow measurement of bone, muscle, skin, digit and peripheral nerve, and found that the technique was valuable in basic and clinical studies in orthopedics. As a typical experimental study using the hydrogen washout technique, the study on the effect of adrenaline on bone blood flow was presented and the experimental method was explained in detail. Although the hydrogen washout technique has been developed to measure the blood flow, the technique has been found useful in detecting the pathways of microcirculation between different tissues. As an example, the study on nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disk was described. Since the hydrogen gas is harmless, it is possible to apply the technique to the clinical studies including the blood flow measurement of replanted digits, diagnosis of the compartment syndrome and the blood flow measurement of skin flaps. Furthermore, several problems in the hydrogen washout technique were discussed.

  2. Effects of a 4-Week Eccentric Training Program on the Repeated Bout Effect in Young Active Women

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Bresciani, Guilherme; de Souza-Teixeira, Fernanda; Hernandez-Murua, José Aldo; Jimenez-Jimenez, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier; de Paz, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the responses of women to the repeated bout effect (RBE) and to a short eccentric training program. Twenty-four young females were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n = 14) or a control group (CG, n = 10). They performed two identical acute eccentric bouts (120 repetitions at 70% of 1RM) in a leg-press device in an 8 weeks interval. TG followed a 4-week-eccentric-training program between the bouts. Maximal isometric contraction, range of motion, peak power and quadriceps muscle soreness were compared between and within groups before and after the two acute eccentric bouts. TG and CG presented significant losses of isometric strength and peak power, and an increment in soreness after the first bout. Isometric strength and peak power were recovered faster in CG after the second bout (p < 0.05) compared with TG, which showed a similar recovery of these parameters after the second bout compared with the first one. A decrease in soreness and a faster recovery of range of motion were found in TG (p < 0.05) following the second bout compared with the first one, but not in CG. Data indicate that a 4-week eccentric training program may prevent the RBE over those adaptations related with muscle damage (e.g. strength loss), but it may increase RBE impact on inflammatory processes (e.g. soreness). Key points An acute bout of eccentric exercise induces losses of strength, peak power and range of motion, and increases muscle soreness in young active women. When the acute eccentric bout is repeated by young women, the losses of strength and power are smaller, indicating less muscle damage. However, muscle pain and range of motion do not present any difference with the results obtained after the first bout, which would indicate that the repeated bout effect does not affect inflammatory response after acute eccentric exercise. Four weeks of eccentric training is enough to increase maximal isometric strength, but not dynamic strength (1

  3. Effects of a 4-week eccentric training program on the repeated bout effect in young active women.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Bresciani, Guilherme; de Souza-Teixeira, Fernanda; Hernandez-Murua, José Aldo; Jimenez-Jimenez, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier; de Paz, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the responses of women to the repeated bout effect (RBE) and to a short eccentric training program. Twenty-four young females were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n = 14) or a control group (CG, n = 10). They performed two identical acute eccentric bouts (120 repetitions at 70% of 1RM) in a leg-press device in an 8 weeks interval. TG followed a 4-week-eccentric-training program between the bouts. Maximal isometric contraction, range of motion, peak power and quadriceps muscle soreness were compared between and within groups before and after the two acute eccentric bouts. TG and CG presented significant losses of isometric strength and peak power, and an increment in soreness after the first bout. Isometric strength and peak power were recovered faster in CG after the second bout (p < 0.05) compared with TG, which showed a similar recovery of these parameters after the second bout compared with the first one. A decrease in soreness and a faster recovery of range of motion were found in TG (p < 0.05) following the second bout compared with the first one, but not in CG. Data indicate that a 4-week eccentric training program may prevent the RBE over those adaptations related with muscle damage (e.g. strength loss), but it may increase RBE impact on inflammatory processes (e.g. soreness). Key pointsAn acute bout of eccentric exercise induces losses of strength, peak power and range of motion, and increases muscle soreness in young active women.When the acute eccentric bout is repeated by young women, the losses of strength and power are smaller, indicating less muscle damage. However, muscle pain and range of motion do not present any difference with the results obtained after the first bout, which would indicate that the repeated bout effect does not affect inflammatory response after acute eccentric exercise.Four weeks of eccentric training is enough to increase maximal isometric strength, but not dynamic strength (1RM

  4. Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Duffy, Maresa

    2010-08-01

    The long-term effects of sucrose on appetite and mood remain unclear. Normal weight subjects compensate for sucrose added blind to the diet (Reid et al., 2007). Overweight subjects, however, may differ. In a single-blind, between-subjects design, soft drinks (4x25cl per day; 1800kJ sucrose sweetened versus 67kJ aspartame sweetened) were added to the diet of overweight women (n=53, BMI 25-30, age 20-55) for 4 weeks. A 7-day food diary gave measures of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients. Mood and hunger were measured by ten single Likert scales rated daily at 11.00, 14.00, 16.00, and 20.00. Activity levels were measured by diary and pedometer. Baseline energy intake did not differ between groups. During the first week of the intervention energy intake increased slightly in the sucrose group, but not in the aspartame group, then decreased again, so by the final week intake again did not differ from the aspartame group. Compensation was not large enough to produce significant changes in the composition of the voluntary diet. There were no effects on hunger or mood. It is concluded that overweight women do not respond adversely to sucrose added blind to the diet, but compensate for it by reducing voluntary energy intake. Alternative explanations for the correlation between sugary soft drink intake and weight gain are discussed.

  5. Enterococcus faecium Mediastinitis Complicated by Disseminated Candida parapsilosis Infection after Congenital Heart Surgery in a 4-Week-Old Baby

    PubMed Central

    Renk, Hanna; Neunhoeffer, Felix; Hölzl, Florian; Hofbeck, Michael; Kumpf, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiac surgery offers multiple treatment options for children with congenital heart defects. However, infectious complications still remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Mediastinitis is a detrimental complication in children undergoing cardiac surgery. The risk of mediastinitis after delayed sternal closure is up to 10%. Case Presentation. We report a case of Enterococcus faecium mediastinitis in a 4-week-old female baby on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after Norwood procedure. Although repeated antibiotic irrigation, debridement, and aggressive antibiotic treatment were started early, the pulmonary situation deteriorated. Candida parapsilosis was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage after pulmonary hemorrhage. Disseminated C. parapsilosis infection with pulmonary involvement was treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Subsequently, inflammatory markers increased again and eventually C. parapsilosis was isolated from the central venous catheter. Conclusion. Children undergoing delayed sternal closure have a higher risk of mediastinitis. Therefore, antibiotic prophylaxis, for example, for soft tissue infection seems justified. However, long-term antibiotic treatment is a risk factor for fungal superinfection. Antifungal treatment of disseminated C. parapsilosis infection may fail in PICU patients with nonbiological material in place due to capacity of this species to form biofilms on medical devices. Immediate removal of central venous catheters and other nonbiological material is life-saving in these patients. PMID:26605096

  6. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  7. Evaluation of Heat Checking and Washout of Heat Resistant Superalloys and Coatings for Die inserts

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Edward Courtright; Harold Adkins

    2005-01-30

    This project had two main objectives: (1) To design, fabricate and run a full size test for evaluating soldering and washout in die insert materials. This test utilizes the unique capabilities of the 350 Ton Squeeze Casting machine available in the Case Meal Casting Laboratory. Apply the test to evaluate resistance of die materials and coating, including heat resistant alloys to soldering and washout damage. (2) To evaluate materials and coatings, including heat resistant superalloys, for use as inserts in die casting of aluminum alloys.

  8. Functional Brain Activity Changes after 4 Weeks Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Combination: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Exploring Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials during Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    White, David J.; Cox, Katherine H. M.; Hughes, Matthew E.; Pipingas, Andrew; Peters, Riccarda; Scholey, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the neurocognitive effects of 4 weeks daily supplementation with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination (MVM) in healthy adults (aged 18–40 years). Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, participants underwent assessments of brain activity using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI; n = 32, 16 females) and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential recordings (SSVEP; n = 39, 20 females) during working memory and continuous performance tasks at baseline and following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment or placebo. There were several treatment-related effects suggestive of changes in functional brain activity associated with MVM administration. SSVEP data showed latency reductions across centro-parietal regions during the encoding period of a spatial working memory task following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment. Complementary results were observed with the fMRI data, in which a subset of those completing fMRI assessment after SSVEP assessment (n = 16) demonstrated increased BOLD response during completion of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) within regions of interest including bilateral parietal lobes. No treatment-related changes in fMRI data were observed in those who had not first undergone SSVEP assessment, suggesting these results may be most evident under conditions of fatigue. Performance on the working memory and continuous performance tasks did not significantly differ between treatment groups at follow-up. In addition, within the fatigued fMRI sample, increased RVIP BOLD response was correlated with the change in number of target detections as part of the RVIP task. This study provides preliminary evidence of changes in functional brain activity during working memory associated with 4 weeks of daily treatment with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination in healthy adults, using two distinct but complementary measures of functional brain activity. PMID:27994548

  9. Functional Brain Activity Changes after 4 Weeks Supplementation with a Multi-Vitamin/Mineral Combination: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Exploring Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials during Working Memory.

    PubMed

    White, David J; Cox, Katherine H M; Hughes, Matthew E; Pipingas, Andrew; Peters, Riccarda; Scholey, Andrew B

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the neurocognitive effects of 4 weeks daily supplementation with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination (MVM) in healthy adults (aged 18-40 years). Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, participants underwent assessments of brain activity using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI; n = 32, 16 females) and Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential recordings (SSVEP; n = 39, 20 females) during working memory and continuous performance tasks at baseline and following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment or placebo. There were several treatment-related effects suggestive of changes in functional brain activity associated with MVM administration. SSVEP data showed latency reductions across centro-parietal regions during the encoding period of a spatial working memory task following 4 weeks of active MVM treatment. Complementary results were observed with the fMRI data, in which a subset of those completing fMRI assessment after SSVEP assessment (n = 16) demonstrated increased BOLD response during completion of the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) within regions of interest including bilateral parietal lobes. No treatment-related changes in fMRI data were observed in those who had not first undergone SSVEP assessment, suggesting these results may be most evident under conditions of fatigue. Performance on the working memory and continuous performance tasks did not significantly differ between treatment groups at follow-up. In addition, within the fatigued fMRI sample, increased RVIP BOLD response was correlated with the change in number of target detections as part of the RVIP task. This study provides preliminary evidence of changes in functional brain activity during working memory associated with 4 weeks of daily treatment with a multi-vitamin and -mineral combination in healthy adults, using two distinct but complementary measures of functional brain activity.

  10. The effect of 4-week rehabilitation on heart rate variability and QTc interval in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Zupanic, Eva; Zivanovic, Ina; Kalisnik, Jurij Matija; Avbelj, Viktor; Lainscak, Mitja

    2014-12-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease negatively affects the autonomic nervous system and increases risks of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were used to compare parameters of heart rate variability and QTc interval in patients with COPD and healthy individuals. The effects of a 4-week program of rehabilitation in patients with COPD were also evaluated by comparing pre- and post-rehabilitation ECGs with age- and sex-matched control COPD patients not participating in the program. Heart rate, average NN, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, TP, LF, HF, LF/HF, and QTc were analyzed. Rehabilitation effects were evaluated using the St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ), the 6-min walk test (6MWT), and the incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT). In comparison with the healthy individuals, the patients with COPD had higher heart rate (p < 0.05) and reduced average NN, SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, HF, LF, and TP (all p < 0.05) but similar QTc interval (p = 0.185). During rehabilitation, SDNN and TP (p < 0.05 for both) increased, as did the results for 6MWT, ISWT, and SGRQ (all p < 0.05). No significant change of QTc interval was observed within or between the two groups of patients with COPD. Change in SDNN correlated with a clinically relevant difference in SGRQ (r = 0.538, p = 0.021). It is concluded that patients with COPD demonstrate reduced parameters of heart rate variability and that these can be improved in a rehabilitation program, thus improving health-related quality of life.

  11. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Raltegravir Pediatric Formulations in HIV-infected Children 4 weeks to 18 years of age†

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Matthew L.; Du, Lihong; Bennetto-Hood, Chantelle; Wenning, Larissa; Teppler, Hedy; Homony, Brenda; Graham, Bobbie; Fry, Carrie; Nachman, Sharon; Wiznia, Andrew; Worrell, Carol; Smith, Betsy; Acosta, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    P1066 is an open-label study of raltegravir in HIV+ youth, ages 4 weeks-18 years. Here we summarize P1066 pharmacokinetic (PK) data and a population PK model for the pediatric chewable tablet and oral granules. Raltegravir PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. A two-compartment model was developed using data from P1066 and an adult study of the pediatric formulations. Inter-individual variability was described by an exponential error model, and residual variability was captured by an additive/proportional error model. Twelve-hour concentrations (C12hr) were calculated from the model-derived elimination rate constant and 8-hour observed concentration. Simulated steady-state concentrations were analyzed by non-compartmental analysis. Target area-under-the-curve (AUC0-12hr) and C12hr were achieved in each cohort. For the pediatric formulations, geometric mean AUC0-12hr values were 18.0–22.6 μM*hr across cohorts, and C12hr values were 71–130 nM, with lower coefficients of variation vs the film-coated tablet. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described raltegravir plasma PK in pediatric and adult patients. Weight was a covariate on clearance and central volume, and incorporated using allometric scaling. Raltegravir chewable tablets and oral granules exhibited PK parameters consistent with those from prior adult studies and older children in P1066, as well as lower variability than the film-coated tablet. PMID:25753401

  12. Genotoxicity of styrene-7,8-oxide and styrene in Fisher 344 rats: a 4-week inhalation study.

    PubMed

    Gaté, Laurent; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Sébillaud, Sylvie; Langlais, Cristina; Cosnier, Frédéric; Nunge, Hervé; Darne, Christian; Guichard, Yves; Binet, Stéphane

    2012-06-20

    The cytogenetic alterations in leukocytes and the increased risk for leukemia, lymphoma, or all lymphohematopoietic cancer observed in workers occupationally exposed to styrene have been associated with its hepatic metabolisation into styrene-7,8-oxide, an epoxide which can induce DNA damages. However, it has been observed that styrene-7,8-oxide was also found in the atmosphere of reinforced plastic industries where large amounts of styrene are used. Since the main route of exposure to these compounds is inhalation, in order to gain new insights regarding their systemic genotoxicity, Fisher 344 male rats were exposed in full-body inhalation chambers, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks to styrene-7,8-oxide (25, 50, and 75 ppm) or styrene (75, 300, and 1000 ppm). Then, the induction of micronuclei in circulating reticulocytes and DNA strand breaks in leukocytes using the comet assay was studied at the end of the 3rd and 20th days of exposure. Our results showed that neither styrene nor styrene-7,8-oxide induced a significant increase of the micronucleus frequency in reticulocytes or DNA strand breaks in white blood cells. However, in the presence of the formamidopyridine DNA glycosylase, an enzyme able to recognize and excise DNA at the level of some oxidized DNA bases, a significant increase of DNA damages was observed at the end of the 3rd day of treatment in leukocytes from rats exposed to styrene but not to styrene-7,8-oxide. This experimental design helped to gather new information regarding the systemic genotoxicity of these two chemicals and may be valuable for the risk assessment associated with an occupational exposure to these molecules.

  13. C.E.R.A. once every 4 weeks corrects anaemia and maintains haemoglobin in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Francesco; Woitas, Rainer P.; Laville, Maurice; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Provenzano, Robert; Golper, Thomas A.; Ruangkanchanasetr, Prajej; Lee, Ho Yung; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Nowicki, Michal; Ladanyi, Agnes; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Beyer, Ulrich; Dougherty, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. No previous randomized controlled studies have been reported examining de novo, once every 4 weeks (Q4W) administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We report results from a randomized multinational study that compared continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A.) Q4W with darbepoetin alfa once weekly (QW) or every 2 weeks (Q2W) for the correction of anaemia in non-dialysis CKD patients. Methods. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive either 1.2 μg/kg C.E.R.A. Q4W or darbepoetin alfa QW/Q2W during a 20-week correction period and an 8-week evaluation period. Two primary end points were assessed: the haemoglobin (Hb) response rate and the change in average Hb concentration between baseline and evaluation. Results. The Hb response rate for C.E.R.A. was 94.1%, significantly higher than the protocol-specified 60% response rate [95% confidence interval (CI): 89.1, 97.3; P < 0.0001] and comparable with darbepoetin alfa (93.5%; 95% CI: 88.4, 96.8; P < 0.0001). C.E.R.A. Q4W was non-inferior to darbepoetin alfa QW/Q2W, with similar mean Hb changes from baseline of 1.62 g/dL and 1.66 g/dL, respectively. Patients receiving C.E.R.A. showed a steady rise in Hb, with fewer patients above the target range during the first 8 weeks compared with darbepoetin alfa [39 patients (25.8%) versus 72 patients (47.7%); P < 0.0001]. Adverse event rates were comparable between the treatment groups. Conclusion. C.E.R.A. Q4W successfully corrects anaemia and maintains stable Hb levels within the recommended target range in non-dialysis CKD patients. PMID:21505096

  14. The washout of combustion-generated hydrogen chloride. [rocket exhaust raindrop scavenging quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenton, D. L.; Purcell, R. Y.; Hrdina, D.; Knutson, E. O.

    1980-01-01

    The coefficient for the washout from a rocket exhaust cloud of HCl generated by the combustion of an ammonium perchlorate-based solid rocket propellant such as that to be used for the Space Shuttle Booster is determined. A mathematical model of HCl scavenging by rain is developed taking into account rain droplet size, fall velocity and concentration under various rain conditions, partitioning of exhaust HCl between liquid and gaseous phases, the tendency of HCl to promote water vapor condensation and the concentration and size of droplets within the exhaust cloud. The washout coefficient is calculated as a function of total cloud water content, total HCl content at 100% relative humidity, condensation nuclei concentration and rain intensity. The model predictions are compared with experimental results obtained in scavenging tests with solid rocket exhaust and raindrops of different sizes, and the large reduction in washout coefficient at high relative humidities predicted by the model is not observed. A washout coefficient equal to 0.0000512 times the -0.176 power of the mass concentration of HCl times the 0.773 power of the rainfall intensity is obtained from the experimental data.

  15. Pulmonary functional and morphological changes induced by a 4-week exposure to 0. 7 ppm ozone followed by a 9-week recovery period

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, K.B.; White, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to pulmonary-function testing procedures, then exposed to 0.7 ppm ozone for 28 d, 20 h/d. Another group of animals was similarly treated, but at each test point one-third were sacrificed for microscopic evaluation. When percent changes from preexposure values were compared to controls at each time point, the ozone exposure produced obstructive changes in the lung, including significant decreases in forced expiratory flows, lung volumes, and DL/sub CO/; and a significant increase in functional residual capacity. The total lung capacity was not significantly changed by the ozone. Microscopic examination revealed characteristic lesions in the region of terminal bronchioles and central acinar alveoli marked by peribronchiolar edema, bronchiolization of alveolar duct epithelium, and type II cell proliferation in involved alveoli with increased numbers of macrophages and a few leucocytes. Clearly discernable was a focal interalveolar-alveolar duct reaction made up of fibroblasts, a few inflammatory cells, and conspicuous mast cells, all embedded in a loose metachromatic matrix. After 4 wk of recovery, all measurements of lung volume and DL/sub CO/ had returned to the values of the control group; however, even after 9 wk some of the measurements of lung flow remained significantly although less depressed. Histologically, after 4 wk recovery, there remained only a slight unevenly distributed inflammatory reaction. In these foci there was often a residual, narrower, more condensed band of eosinophilic material, presumably colagen, that sometimes contained interspersed mast cells. After 9 wk, this collagen accumulation within the thickened wall of the alveolar duct could occasionally still be noted.

  16. [Assessment of changes in the lesions sizes and the incidence of complete epithelialization during the treatment of diabetic foot syndrome over a period of 4 weeks (multicenter study)].

    PubMed

    Stupin, V A; Silina, E V; Goryunov, S V; Gorsky, V A; Krivikhin, V T; Bogomolov, M S; Barantsevich, E R; Koreiba, K A

    2017-01-01

    Цель исследования — оценка эффективности применения коллагенового биоматериала у пациентов с синдромом диабетической стопы (СДС). Материал и методы. В проспективное многоцентровое исследование был включен 71 пациент в возрасте 30—80 лет с СДС разной степени тяжести. Пациенты рандомизированы на две однородные группы: пациенты группы сравнения (n=35) получали стандартную терапию, основной группы (n=36) дополнительно назначали отечественный биоматериал Коллост в соответствии с инструкцией. Результаты. Использование биоматериала Коллост в комплексном лечении СДС приводит к более быстрому и эффективному заживлению язвенного дефекта, эффективность лечения увеличилась с 43 до 72%. Полная эпителизация достигнута в 2,6 раза чаще на фоне сокращения в 4,1 раза случаев безрезультатного лечения.

  17. Perfluoro-N-Butyl Iodide (PFBI): A 13-Week Nose-Only Inhalation Toxicity Study In Rats With A 4-Week Recovery Period

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    between the upper incisor tooth and incisive papilla . The second section included the area between the incisive papilla and the first palatal ridge...with mainstem bronchi) X X X X lymph node (mediastinal and mesenteric) X X mammary gland X muscle (biceps femoris) X nasopharyngeal tissueb

  18. Consumption of a Bifidobacterium bifidum Strain for 4 Weeks Modulates Dominant Intestinal Bacterial Taxa and Fecal Butyrate in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gargari, Giorgio; Taverniti, Valentina; Balzaretti, Silvia; Ferrario, Chiara; Gardana, Claudio; Simonetti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Modulation of the intestinal microbial ecosystem (IME) is a useful target to establish probiotic efficacy in a healthy population. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled intervention study to determine the impact of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb on the IME of adult healthy volunteers of both sexes. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the fecal microbiota before and after 4 weeks of daily probiotic cell consumption. The intake of approximately one billion live B. bifidum cells affected the relative abundance of dominant taxa in the fecal microbiota and modulated fecal butyrate levels. Specifically, Prevotellaceae (P = 0.041) and Prevotella (P = 0.034) were significantly decreased, whereas Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.039) and Rikenellaceae (P = 0.010) were significantly increased. We also observed that the probiotic intervention modulated the fecal concentrations of butyrate in a manner dependent on the initial levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that a single daily administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb can significantly modify the IME in healthy (not diseased) adults. These findings demonstrate the need to reassess the notion that probiotics do not influence the complex and stable IME of a healthy individual. IMPORTANCE Foods and supplements claimed to contain health-promoting probiotic microorganisms are everywhere these days and mainly intended for consumption by healthy people. However, it is still debated what actual effects probiotic products may have on the healthy population. In this study, we report the results of an intervention trial aimed at assessing the modifications induced in the intestinal microbial ecosystem of healthy adults from the consumption of a probiotic product. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of a probiotic product in the dietary habits of healthy people may significantly modify dominant taxa of

  19. Effects of three biodiesels and a low sulfur diesel in male rats--a pilot 4-week oral study.

    PubMed

    Poon, R; Chu, I; Valli, V E; Graham, L; Yagminas, A; Hollebone, B; Rideout, G; Fingas, M

    2007-10-01

    Because of the accessible and renewable nature of feedstock and the potential for the reduction of harmful combustion emissions and greenhouse gases, biodiesels have received increasing interest as an alternate fuel. Oral exposure to biodiesels is a concern because of contact during refuelling, accidental ingestion and exposure through ground water contamination. Although biodiesels from various feedstock are in use commercially and experimentally, very little is known about their potential adverse effects and no data is available on their potential for ground water contamination. A study was performed on male rats following oral treatment with experimental biodiesels (dissolved in corn oil) derived from canola oil (Bio-C), soy oil (Bio-S) and fish oil (Bio-F), at 500 mg/kg body weight/day, 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Separate groups of animals were treated with low sulfur diesel (LSD) for comparison purpose, and with corn oil alone to serve as control. The potential for ground water contamination by biodiesels was investigated by the preparation of water-accommodated fractions (WAF) followed by gas chromatographic analysis. WAF from Bio-F and Bio-S was found to have the highest level of dichloromethane extractable materials. Gas chromatographic analysis indicated that the extractable materials from biodiesels contained much higher proportion of C15-C30 materials than LSD. Increased liver weight was observed in animal treated with Bio-C, Bio-S and LSD and decreased thymus weight was found in those treated with Bio-S. Histopathological changes typical of male-rat specific hyaline-droplet nephropathy were detected in kidney tubules of animals treated with LSD, Bio-S and Bio-C. Mild adaptive changes were observed in thyroids of animals treated with LSD, Bio-S and Bio-F. Clinical chemical and biochemical changes were confined to Bio-S and LSD treated rats and included elevation in some hepatic phase-I and phase-II drug metabolizing enzymes and hepatic palmitoyl Co

  20. Inert gas washout: theoretical background and clinical utility in respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul D; Goldman, Michael D; Gustafsson, Per M

    2009-01-01

    Inert gas washout was first described more than 60 years ago and 2 principal tests have been developed from it: the single breath and multiple breath washout (MBW) techniques. The invention of fast responding gas analysers almost 60 years ago and small computers 30 years later have facilitated breath-by-breath analysis and the development of sophisticated analysis techniques. It is now possible to detect not only the degree of pulmonary ventilation inhomogeneity, but also to gain important insight into the location of the underlying disease process. While single breath washout requires a full vital capacity effort, tidal breathing during the multiple breath test requires minimal co-operation and co-ordination, and is feasible in subjects of all ages. Available MBW normative data from parameters, such as the lung clearance index, appears to vary minimally with age, making MBW particularly useful to follow children longitudinally. Multiple breath inert gas washout has demonstrated improved sensitivity, in comparison to spirometry, in the early detection of a number of important disease processes, including cystic fibrosis. Despite this, these important techniques remain under-utilised in the clinical setting and there is a lack of commercially available devices currently available. The recent resurgence of research in this area has produced a large number of important studies and a pronounced international interest has developed in these techniques. This review article will provide an overview of the theoretical background of inert gas washout and analysis indices, review important physiological and clinical insights gained from research to date (as well as from our own experience) to illustrate its utility, and outline the challenges that lie ahead in incorporating these techniques into the mainstream clinical setting.

  1. Comparative studies between species that do and do not exhibit the washout effect.

    PubMed

    Scott, Patrick A; Overby, Darryl R; Freddo, Thomas F; Gong, Haiyan

    2007-03-01

    Ocular perfusion studies from all non-human species performed to date consistently demonstrate a perfusion-volume-dependent increase in aqueous outflow facility known as the "washout" effect. However, this "washout" effect does not occur in human eyes. We have recently documented that, in bovine eyes, the washout associated increase in facility correlates with the extent of physical separation between the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium lining the aqueous plexus (the bovine equivalent of Schlemm's canal). We hypothesize that if washout truly correlates with inner wall/JCT separation then this separation should not occur in human eyes that do not exhibit the washout effect, even after prolonged perfusion. Eight enucleated human and eight bovine eyes were used in this study. Aqueous humor outflow facility was measured at 15 mmHg for long-duration (3 h) or short-duration (30 min to 1 h) perfusion (n=4 for each group). All eyes were perfusion-fixed at 15 mmHg, and examined morphologically with both light and electron microscopy. In bovine eyes, outflow facility increased 81% (p=0.049) from 1.06 +/- 0.06 microl/min per mmHg (mean+/-SEM) at baseline to 1.92 +/- 0.30 microl/min per mmHg after 3 h due to washout. The pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes (1.92 +/- 0.30 microl/min per mmHg) was 2-fold greater than pre-fixation facility in short-duration eyes (0.92 +/- 0.11 microl/min per mmHg; p=0.0387). In human eyes, washout was not observed; baseline outflow facility was similar between both groups (0.18 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.08 microl/min per mmHg; p=0.518); however, pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes showed a 40% decrease compared to baseline outflow facility in those same eyes (p=0.017, paired Student's t-test). In bovine eyes, significant expansion and rarefaction of the JCT and inner wall/JCT separation was much more prevalent in long-duration eyes, and data from all bovine eyes revealed a

  2. Analysis of metabolic washout of positron emitters produced during carbon ion head and neck radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Helmbrecht, Stephan; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Parodi, Katia; Didinger, Bernd; Debus, Jürgen; Kunath, Daniela; Priegnitz, Marlen; Fiedler, Fine

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Particle Therapy Positron Emission Tomography (PT-PET) is a suitable method for verification of therapeutic dose delivery by measurements of irradiation-induced β{sup +}-activity. Due to metabolic processes in living tissue β{sup +}-emitters can be removed from the place of generation. This washout is a limiting factor for image quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a washout model obtained by animal experiments is applicable to patient data.Methods: A model for the washout has been developed by Mizuno et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 48(15), 2269–2281 (2003)] and Tomitani et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 48(7), 875–889 (2003)]. It is based upon measurements in a rabbit in living and dead conditions. This model was modified and applied to PET data acquired during the experimental therapy project at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Germany. Three components are expected: A fast one with a half life of 2 s, a medium one in the range of 2–3 min, and a slow component of the order of 2–3 h. Ten patients were selected randomly for investigation of the fast component. To analyze the other two components, 12 one-of-a-kind measurements from a single volunteer patient are available.Results: A fast washout on the time scale of a few seconds was not observed in the patient data. The medium processes showed a mean half life of 155.7 ± 4.6 s. This is in the expected range. Fractions of the activity not influenced by the washout were found.Conclusions: On the time scale of an in-beam or in-room measurement only the medium-time washout processes play a remarkable role. A slow component may be neglected if the measurements do not exceed 20 min after the end of the irradiation. The fast component is not observed due to the low relative blood filled volume in the brain.

  3. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s(-1)) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s(-1) SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  4. Bacterial Selection during the Formation of Early-Stage Aerobic Granules in Wastewater Treatment Systems Operated Under Wash-Out Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Lochmatter, Samuel; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge is attractive for high-rate biological wastewater treatment. Biomass wash-out conditions stimulate the formation of aerobic granules. Deteriorated performances in biomass settling and nutrient removal during start-up have however often been reported. The effect of wash-out dynamics was investigated on bacterial selection, biomass settling behavior, and metabolic activities during the formation of early-stage granules from activated sludge of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) over start-up periods of maximum 60 days. Five bubble-column sequencing batch reactors were operated with feast-famine regimes consisting of rapid pulse or slow anaerobic feeding followed by aerobic starvation. Slow-settling fluffy granules were formed when an insufficient superficial air velocity (SAV; 1.8 cm s−1) was applied, when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing organic matter only, or when reactors were operated at 30°C. Fast-settling dense granules were obtained with 4.0 cm s−1 SAV, or when the inoculation sludge was taken from a WWTP removing all nutrients biologically. However, only carbon was aerobically removed during start-up. Fluffy granules and dense granules were displaying distinct predominant phylotypes, namely filamentous Burkholderiales affiliates and Zoogloea relatives, respectively. The latter were predominant in dense granules independently from the feeding regime. A combination of insufficient solid retention time and of leakage of acetate into the aeration phase during intensive biomass wash-out was the cause for the proliferation of Zoogloea spp. in dense granules, and for the deterioration of BNR performances. It is however not certain that Zoogloea-like organisms are essential in granule formation. Optimal operation conditions should be elucidated for maintaining a balance between organisms with granulation propensity and nutrient removing organisms in order to form granules with BNR activities in short

  5. Krogh-cylinder and infinite-domain models for washout of an inert diffusible solute from tissue

    PubMed Central

    Secomb, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Models based on the Krogh-cylinder concept are developed to analyze the washout from tissue by blood flow of an inert diffusible solute that permeates blood vessel walls. During the late phase of washout, the outflowing solute concentration decays exponentially with time. This washout decay rate is predicted for a range of conditions. Methods A single capillary is assumed to lie on the axis of a cylindrical tissue region. In the classic “Krogh-cylinder” approach, a no-flux boundary condition is applied on the outside of the cylinder. An alternative “infinite-domain” approach is proposed that allows for solute exchange across the boundary, but with zero net exchange. Both models are analyzed, using finite-element and analytical methods. Results The washout decay rate depends on blood flow rate, tissue diffusivity and vessel permeability of solute, and assumed boundary conditions. At low blood flow rates, the washout rate can exceed the value for a single well-mixed compartment. The infinite-domain approach predicts slower washout decay rates than the Krogh-cylinder approach. Conclusions The infinite-domain approach overcomes a significant limitation of the Krogh-cylinder approach, while retaining its simplicity. It provides a basis for developing methods to deduce transport properties of inert solutes from observations of washout decay rates. PMID:25377492

  6. Roll tracking effects of G-vector tilt and various types of motion washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, H. R.; Magdaleno, R. E.; Junker, A. M.

    1978-01-01

    In a dogfight scenario, the task was to follow the target's roll angle while suppressing gust disturbances. All subjects adopted the same behavioral strategies in following the target while suppressing the gusts, and the MFP-fitted math model response was generally within one data symbol width. The results include the following: (1) comparisons of full roll motion (both with and without the spurious gravity tilt cue) with the static case. These motion cues help suppress disturbances with little net effect on the visual performance. Tilt cues were clearly used by the pilots but gave only small improvement in tracking errors. (2) The optimum washout (in terms of performance close to real world, similar behavioral parameters, significant motion attenuation (60 percent), and acceptable motion fidelity) was the combined attenuation and first-order washout. (3) Various trends in parameters across the motion conditions were apparent, and are discussed with respect to a comprehensive model for predicting adaptation to various roll motion cues.

  7. The Impact of Classroom Physical Activity Breaks on Middle School Students' Health-Related Fitness: An Xbox One Kinetic Delivered 4-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Piipari, S.; Layne, T.; McCollins, T.; Knox, T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a 4-week classroom physical activity break intervention on middle school students' health-related physical fitness. The study was a randomized controlled trial with students assigned to the experiment and control conditions. A convenience sample comprised 94 adolescents (experiment group n = 52;…

  8. Alternative inert gas washout outcomes in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Nyilas, Sylvia; Schlegtendal, Anne; Singer, Florian; Goutaki, Myrofora; Kuehni, Claudia E; Casaulta, Carmen; Latzin, Philipp; Koerner-Rettberg, Cordula

    2017-01-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) derived from a nitrogen multiple breath washout test (N2-MBW) is a promising tool to assess small airways disease in primary ciliary dyskinesia, but it is difficult to apply in routine clinical settings because of its long measuring time. In this study, we aimed to assess alternative indices derived from shorter washout protocols.49 patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (mean age 14.7±6.6 years) and 37 controls (mean age 14.3±1.4 years) performed N2-MBW and double-tracer gas (DTG) single-breath washout tests. Global (LCI and moment ratio (M2/M0)), conductive (Scond) and acinar ventilation inhomogeneity (DTG Slope III (SIII-DTG)) were determined for each individual. The main outcomes were 1) the ability to detect abnormal lung function from washout indices (>1.64 z-scores) and 2) measurement duration.The prevalence of abnormal values for LCI2.5% was 37 out of 47 (79%), for LCI5% was 34 out of 47 (72%), for M2/M0 was 34 out of 47 (72%), for Scond was 36 out of 46 (78%) and for SIII-DTG was 12 out of 35 (34%). Mean±sd duration of measurement was 19.8±11.2 min for LCI2.5%, 10.8±4.6 min for LCI5% and 8.6±2.3 min for ScondCompared to standard LCI2.5%, ventilation inhomogeneity was detected by LCI5%, moment ratio and Scond with comparable sensitivity while measurement duration was significantly shorter. Longitudinal studies will show which outcome is most suitable and practical in terms of sensitivity, duration and variability within the course of primary ciliary dyskinesia lung disease.

  9. Ventilatory inhomogeneity determined from multiple-breath washouts during sustained microgravity on Spacelab SLS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Paiva, Manuel; West, John B.

    1995-01-01

    We used multiple-breath N2 washouts (MBNW) to study the homogeneity of ventilation in four normal humans (mean age 42.5 yr) before, during, and after 9 days of exposure to microgravity on Spacelab Life Sciences-1. Subjects performed 20-breath MBNW at tidal volumes of approximately 700 ml and 12-breath MBNW at tidal volumes of approximately 1,250 ml. Six indexes of ventilatory inhomogeneity were derived from data from (1) distribution of specific ventilation (SV) from mixed-expired and (2) end-tidal N2, (3) change of slope of N2 washout (semilog plot) with time, (4) change of slope of normalized phase III of successive breaths, (5) anatomic lead dead space, and (6) Bohr dead space. Significant ventilatory inhomogeneity was seen in the standing position at normal gravity (1 G). When we compared standing 1 G with microgravity, the distributions of SV became slightly narrower, but the difference was not significant. Also, there were no significant changes in the change of slope of the N2 washout, change of normalized phase III slopes, or the anatomic and Bohr dead spaces. By contrast, transition from the standing to supine position in 1 G resulted in significantly broader distributions of SV and significantly greater changes in the changes in slope of the N2 washouts, indicating more ventilatory inhomogeneity in that posture. Thus these techniques can detect relatively small changes in ventilatory inhomogeneity. We conclude that the primary determinants of ventilatory inhomogeneity during tidal breathing in the upright posture are not gravitational in origin.

  10. Empirical comparison of a linear and a nonlinear washout for motion simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Martin, D. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The subjective opinions gathered from seven pilots in the process of comparing a linear and a nonlinear washout for motion simulators reveal an important advance in motion cue presentation. The advance is not in the increased cue provided by the nonlinear filter over a linear filter for the same amount of motion base travel, but rather in the elimination of false rotational rate cues presented by linear filters.

  11. Microcrustacea in flowing water - experimental-analysis of washout times and a field-test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    1. Flow-chamber experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of microcrustacea to maintain position in moving water. These results were compared to distributions of zooplankton and water velocity in a stream pool to determine the relationship of animal density to water movement and swimming ability.^2. Cladocerans exhibited negative rheotaxis (directed behaviour against a current) but poor ability to maintain position at velocities >2.5 Cm s-1. Daphnia and scapholeberis were better at avoiding washout than moina and diaphanosoma. At velocities 2.5 Cm s-1, scapholeberis >3.2 Cm s-1 and eucyclops >7.75 Cm s-1. Washout time of daphnia and scapholeberis was positively related to body size and negatively to water velocity and possession of eggs. Washout was inversely related to water velocity for eucyclops.^4. Highest densities of microcrustacea in a stream pool were found in non-flowing or downstream zones of the pool. Benthic (hydracarina, harpacticoid copepods, ostracods) and fast-swimming (cyclopoids) forms were most common in flowing zones. Facultatively benthic cladocera were abundant in regions of no flow. Rotifers and immature copepods were most abundant at the downstream end of the pool.^5. Behavioural mechanisms for remaining in stream pools at times of high flow appear to include: (i) flow avoidance (simocephalus, chydorus, scapholeberis and cyclopoids), (ii) use of benthic habitat (ostracods, harpacticoids, hydracarina), (iii) strong swimming ability (cyclopoids).

  12. Consensus statement for inert gas washout measurement using multiple- and single- breath tests.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul D; Latzin, Philipp; Verbanck, Sylvia; Hall, Graham L; Horsley, Alexander; Gappa, Monika; Thamrin, Cindy; Arets, Hubertus G M; Aurora, Paul; Fuchs, Susanne I; King, Gregory G; Lum, Sooky; Macleod, Kenneth; Paiva, Manuel; Pillow, Jane J; Ranganathan, Sarath; Ranganathan, Sarah; Ratjen, Felix; Singer, Florian; Sonnappa, Samatha; Stocks, Janet; Subbarao, Padmaja; Thompson, Bruce R; Gustafsson, Per M

    2013-03-01

    Inert gas washout tests, performed using the single- or multiple-breath washout technique, were first described over 60 years ago. As measures of ventilation distribution inhomogeneity, they offer complementary information to standard lung function tests, such as spirometry, as well as improved feasibility across wider age ranges and improved sensitivity in the detection of early lung damage. These benefits have led to a resurgence of interest in these techniques from manufacturers, clinicians and researchers, yet detailed guidelines for washout equipment specifications, test performance and analysis are lacking. This manuscript provides recommendations about these aspects, applicable to both the paediatric and adult testing environment, whilst outlining the important principles that are essential for the reader to understand. These recommendations are evidence based, where possible, but in many places represent expert opinion from a working group with a large collective experience in the techniques discussed. Finally, the important issues that remain unanswered are highlighted. By addressing these important issues and directing future research, the hope is to facilitate the incorporation of these promising tests into routine clinical practice.

  13. Analytic model for washout of HCl(g) from dispersing rocket exhaust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    The potential is investigated that precipitation scavenging of HCl from large solid rocket exhaust clouds may result in unacceptably acidic rain in the Cape Canaveral, Florida, area before atmospheric dispersion reduces HCl concentrations to safe limits. Several analytic expressions for HCl(g) and HCl(g + aq) washout are derived; a geometric mean washout coefficient is recommended. A previous HCl washout model is refined and applied to a space shuttle case (70 t HCl exhausted up to 4 km) and eight Titan 3 (60 percent less exhaust) dispersion cases. The vertical column density (sigma) decays were deduced by application of a multilayer Gaussian diffusion model to seven standard meteorological regimes for overland advection. The Titan 3 decays of sigma and initial rain pH differed greatly among regimes; e.g., a range of 2 pH units was spanned at x 100 km downwind and t = 2 hr. Environmentally significant pH's .5 for infrequent exposures were shown possible at X = 50 km and t 5 hr for the two least dispersive Titan 3 cases. Representative examples of downwind rainwater pH and G(X) are analyzed. Factors affecting the validity of the results are discussed.

  14. The washout effects of rainfall on atmospheric particulate pollution in two Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling-Chuan; Zhang, Yonghui; Lin, Hualiang; Zeng, Weilin; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Rutherford, Shannon; You, Jing; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-08-01

    Though rainfall is recognized as one of the main mechanisms to reduce atmospheric particulate pollution, few studies have quantified this effect, particularly the corresponding lag effect and threshold. This study aimed to investigate the association between rainfall and air quality using a distributed lag non-linear model. Daily data on ambient PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and from 2.5 to 10 μm) and meteorological factors were collected in Guangzhou and Xi'an from 2013 to 2014. A better washout effect was found for PM2.5-10 than for PM2.5, and the rainfall thresholds for both particle fractions were 7 mm in Guangzhou and 1 mm in Xi'an. The decrease in PM2.5 levels following rain lasted for 3 and 6 days in Guangzhou and Xi'an, respectively. Rainfall had a better washout effect in Xi'an compared with that in Guangzhou. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of the washout effects of rainfall on particulate pollution, which may help to understand the category and sustainability of dust-haze and enforce anthropogenic control measures in time.

  15. Effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness and self-assessment of the quality of health of women of the perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health. Material and methods Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions. Results A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001). Conclusions A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health. PMID:26327897

  16. Effects of 4-Week Hindlimb Unweighting with and without 1H/Day Standing on Myogenic-Tone and Vasoconstrictor Responses of Mesenteric Arteries in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Le-Jian; Bao, Jun-Xiang; Bai, Yun-Gang; Zhang, Li-Fan; Ma, Jin

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of 4-week hindlimd unweighting (HU) with and without 1h/day standing (STD) on myotonic-tone and vasoconstrictor responses of rats mesenteric resistance arteries. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4-week hindlimb-unweighting to simulate cardiovascular deconditioning due to microgravity, 1h/day standing as the countermeasure. The diameter of isolated mesenteric resistance artery (diameter from 180-220μm) were recorded with Pressure myograph system in both Physiology salt solution (Da) and calcium-free Physiology salt solution (Dp), the myogenic-tone were obtained from (Dp-Da)/Dp*100%. The responses of these arteries to vasoconstrictors Phenylephrine were also detected. Results showed that 1) The myogenic tone of arteries was significantly attenuated by 4-week hindlimb-unweighting in HU group compared to control (CON) group(P<0.05); With 1h/day standing, the attenuated myogenic tone was recovered completely (P<0.05). 2) The vasoconstrictor responses of arteries to PE was decreased by 4-week hindlimb unweighting, and 1h/day standing can also prevent the attenuation (P<0.05). These results indicated that the myogenic tone and vasoconstrictor responses of rats mesenteric arteries were significantly attenuated by 4-week hindlimb-unweighting, 1h/d standing can prevent the attenuation completely, which could give us a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of orthostatic-intolerance post-flight and can also provide us new countermeasures to avoid it.

  17. A randomised comparison of increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration after 4 weeks of daily oral intake of 10 microg cholecalciferol from multivitamin tablets or fish oil capsules in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Holvik, Kristin; Madar, Ahmed A; Meyer, Haakon E; Lofthus, Cathrine M; Stene, Lars C

    2007-09-01

    Many types of vitamin supplements are available on the market, but little is known about whether cholecalciferol obtained from fat-containing capsules differs in bioavailability from that of solid tablets. Our objective was to test whether 4 weeks of daily supplementation with 10 mug cholecalciferol given as a fish oil capsule produces a larger increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentration compared with the same dose of cholecalciferol given as a multivitamin tablet. A total of seventy-four healthy subjects aged 19-49 years were initially included and fifty-five of these completed the study and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After completing a self-administered questionnaire about diet and sunshine exposure and having a non-fasting venous blood sample drawn, participants were randomised to receive daily multivitamin tablets (n 28) or fish oil capsules (n 27), each containing equal doses of cholecalciferol. A second blood sample was drawn after 28 d. Mean baseline s-25(OH)D was 40.3 (sd 22.0) nmol/l in the multivitamin group and 48.5 (24.8) nmol/l in the fish oil group. When controlling for baseline s-25(OH)D, mean 4-week increase in s-25(OH)D was 35.8 (95 % CI 30.9, 40.8) nmol/l in the multivitamin group and 32.3 (95 % CI 27.3, 37.4) nmol/l in the fish oil group; the mean difference was 3.5 (95 % CI - 3.6, 10.6) nmol/l (P = 0.33). The results were unaltered by statistical adjustment for BMI, ethnic background, age and sex. We conclude that fish oil capsules and multivitamin tablets containing 10 microg cholecalciferol administered over a 4-week period produced a similar mean increase in s-25(OH)D concentration.

  18. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, I; Norcross, J.; Bekdash, O.

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to provide adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout in a space suit to reduce the risks associated with manned operations in space suits. Symptoms of elevated CO2 levels range from reduced cognitive performance and headache to unconsciousness and death at high levels of CO2. Because of this, NASA imposes limits on inspired CO2 levels for space suits when they are used in space and for ground testing. Testing and/or analysis must be performed to verify that a space suit meets CO2 washout requirements. Testing for developmental space suits has traditionally used an oronasal mask that collects CO2 samples at the left and rights sides of the mouth. Testing with this mask resulted in artificially elevated CO2 concentration measurements, which is most likely due to the dead space volume at the front of the mask. The mask also extends outward and into the supply gas stream, which may disrupt the washout effect of the suit supply gas. To mitigate these problems, a nasal cannula was investigated as a method for measuring inspired CO2 based on the assumptions that it is low profile and would not interfere with the designed suit gas flow path, and it has reduced dead space. This test series compared the performance of a nasal cannula to the oronasal mask in the Mark III space suit. Inspired CO2 levels were measured with subjects at rest and at metabolic workloads of 1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/hr. Workloads were achieved by use of an arm ergometer or treadmill. Test points were conducted at air flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 actual cubic feet per minute, with a suit pressure of 4.3 psid. Results from this test series will evaluate the accuracy and repeatability across subjects of the nasal cannula collection method, which will provide rationale for using a nasal cannula as the new method for measuring inspired CO2 in a space suit. Proper characterization of sampling methods and of suit CO2 washout capability will better inform requirements definition and verification

  19. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Moya, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players. Methods Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kg)were divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL). Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects’ individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM). In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press), power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM) and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw) were assessed pre- and post-training intervention. Results Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms) with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM) in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals) and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals). Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7%) and jumping (5.3%) throw (p > 0.05). Conclusions The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training. PMID:27310598

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDIES BETWEEN SPECIES THAT DO AND DO NOT EXHIBIT THE WASHOUT EFFECT

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Patrick A.; Overby, Darryl R.; Freddo, Thomas F.; Gong, Haiyan

    2007-01-01

    Ocular perfusion studies from all non-human species performed to date consistently demonstrate a perfusion-volume-dependent increase in aqueous outflow facility known as the “washout” effect. However, this “washout” effect does not occur in human eyes. We have recently documented that, in bovine eyes, the washout associated increase in facility correlates with the extent of physical separation between the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium lining the aqueous plexus (the bovine equivalent of Schlemm’s canal). We hypothesize that if washout truly correlates with inner wall/JCT separation then this separation should not occur in human eyes that do not exhibit the washout effect, even after prolonged perfusion. Eight enucleated human and eight bovine eyes were used in this study. Aqueous outflow facility was measured at 15 mmHg for long-duration (3 hr) or short-duration (30 min – 1 hr) perfusion (n=4 for each group). All eyes were perfusion-fixed at 15 mmHg, and examined morphologically with both light and electron microscopy. In bovine eyes, outflow facility increased 81% (p=0.049) from 1.06 ± 0.06 μl/min/mmHg at baseline to 1.92 ± 0.30 μl/min/mmHg after 3 hrs due to washout. The pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes (1.92 ± 0.30 μl/min/mmHg) (mean ± SEM) was 2-fold greater than pre-fixation facility in short-duration eyes (0.92 ± 0.11 μl/min/mmHg; p = 0.0387). In human eyes, washout was not observed; baseline outflow facility was similar between both groups (0.18 ± 0.02 vs. 0.25 ± 0.08 μl/min/mmHg; p=0.518); however, pre-fixation outflow facility in long-duration eyes showed a 40% decrease compared to baseline outflow facility in those same eyes (p = 0.017, paired Student’s t-test). In bovine eyes, significant expansion and rarefaction of the JCT and inner wall/JCT separation was much more prevalent in long-duration eyes, and data from all bovine eyes revealed a correlation between the

  1. Neonatal glucocorticosteroid treatment causes systolic dysfunction and compensatory dilation in early life: studies in 4-week-old prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Bal, Miriam P; de Vries, Willem B; van der Leij, Feike R; van Oosterhout, Matthijs F M; Berger, Rolf M F; Baan, Jan; van der Wall, Ernst E; van Bel, Frank; Steendijk, Paul

    2005-07-01

    Glucocorticosteroid treatment is widely used to prevent chronic lung disease in premature infants. Recent studies in adult rats, treated with dexamethasone in the neonatal period, report negative long-term effects on the heart and severely reduced life expectancy. We treated neonatal rats with dexamethasone and studied cardiac function after 4 wk (prepubertal age) to investigate whether the late effects as previously described are preceded by detectable alterations in cardiac function at a younger age. Male rat pups (n = 12) were injected intraperitoneally with dexamethasone on d 1, 2, and 3 (0.5, 0.3, and 0.1 mug/g) of life. Control pups (n = 10) received saline. At 4 wk the animals were anesthetized, and a pressure-conductance catheter was introduced into the left ventricle to measure pressure-volume loops. Cardiac function was measured and pressure-volume relations were determined to quantify intrinsic systolic and diastolic function. Subsequently, hearts were excised for histologic examination. Compared with saline-treated animals, dexamethasone-treated rats had a reduced ventricular weight (270 +/- 40 versus 371 +/- 23 mg, p < 0.001) and reduced systolic function (end-systolic elastance: 1.24 +/- 0.43 versus 2.50 +/- 1.39 mm Hg/muL, p = 0.028). Cardiac output was maintained and end-diastolic volume was increased (84 +/- 23 versus 59 +/- 19 microL, p = 0.012) indicating a state of compensatory dilatation. Heart rate, diastolic function, and systemic vascular resistance were unchanged. Neonatal dexamethasone treatment causes cardiac alterations that can be detected in the prepubertal period and that may precede severe cardiac dysfunction later in life. If our findings are confirmed in humans, this may have consequences for a large patient population and cardiac screening at young age may be indicated to enable secondary prevention.

  2. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  3. Functional Improvement After 4-Week Rehabilitation Therapy and Effects of Attention Deficit in Brain Tumor Patients: Comparison With Subacute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Young; Kim, Bo Ryun; Kim, Ha Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To confirm functional improvement in brain tumor patients after 4-week conventional rehabilitation therapy, to compare the cognitive impairment of brain tumor patients with subacute stroke patients using computerized neuropsychological testing, and to determine the effects on functional outcomes of daily activity. Methods From April 2008 to December 2012, 55 patients (29 brain tumor patients and 26 subacute stroke patients) were enrolled. All patients were assessed with a computerized neuropsychological test at baseline. Motricity Index, Korean version of Mini Mental Status Examination, and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index scores were assessed at the beginning and end of 4-week rehabilitation. Conventional rehabilitation therapy was applied to both groups for 4 weeks. Results Functional outcomes of all patients in both groups significantly improved after 4-week rehabilitation therapy. In brain tumor patients, the initial Motricity Index, cognitive dysfunction, and visual continuous performance test correction numbers were strong predictors of initial daily activity function (R2=0.778, p<0.01). The final Motricity Index and word-black test were strong predictors of final daily activity function (R2=0.630, p<0.01). In patients with subacute stroke, the initial Motricity index was an independent predictor of initial daily activity function (R2=0.245, p=0.007). The initial daily activity function and color of color word test were strong predictors of final daily activity function (R2=0.745, p<0.01). Conclusion Conventional rehabilitation therapy induced functional improvement in brain tumor patients. Objective evaluation of cognitive function and comprehensive rehabilitation including focused cognitive training should be performed in brain tumor patients for improving their daily activity function. PMID:26361592

  4. Effects of 4 Weeks of Explosive-type Strength Training for the Plantar Flexors on the Rate of Torque Development and Postural Stability in Elderly Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Ueyasu, Y; Yamashita, Y; Akagi, R

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 4-week explosive-type strength training program for the plantar flexors on the rate of torque development and postural stability. The participants were 56 elderly men and women divided into training (17 men and 15 women) and control (14 men and 10 women) groups. The participants in the training group underwent explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors 2 days per week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions of explosive plantar flexion lasting less than 1 s. The following parameters were determined: muscle volume of the plantar flexors estimated by the muscle thickness and lower leg length, maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion, and one-leg standing ability. The training increased the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development, but corresponding increases in muscle volume and one-leg standing ability were not found. These results suggest that, for elderly individuals, the 4-week explosive-type strength training of the plantar flexors is effective for increasing the maximal voluntary contraction torque and rate of torque development of plantar flexion but is not effective for improving postural stability.

  5. Premixed, injectable PLA-modified calcium deficient apatite biocement (cd-AB) with washout resistance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Ngothai, Yung; Wei, Jie; Liu, Changsheng; O'Neill, Brian; Wu, Yuequn

    2012-04-01

    By using a non-aqueous solution as the mixing liquid, the washout resistance of the calcium deficient apatite biocement (cd-AB) was significantly improved, over that of the conventional method of using cd-AB with water as the liquid phase. In this study, premixed and injectable cd-AB was prepared, which had the advantage of being stable in the syringe and hardens only after being delivered to the defect area. The cd-AB powder with a Ca/P ratio of 1.5 consists of a mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). A solution of polylactide (PLA) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as the liquid phase of the premixed cd-AB. The premixed cd-AB paste injected into an aqueous environment exhibited excellent washout resistance. The premixed cd-AB had longer setting time and lower compressive strength than conventional cd-AB. The hydration products of premixed cd-AB were a mixture of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (cd-HA) and PLA. In vitro Tris-HCl immersion tests demonstrated that the premixed cd-AB could be degradable. The results revealed that the premixed cd-AB was cytocompatible and had no adverse effects on the attachment and proliferation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in vitro. The most distinct advantages of premixed and injectable PLA-modified cd-AB were its excellent washout resistance and in vitro degradability, suggesting that it may be a promising candidate for bone repair.

  6. Kinetics of Uptake and Washout of Lidocaine in Rat Sciatic Nerve In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, Stanley; Strichartz, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background The potency and efficacy of local anesthetics injected clinically for peripheral nerve block depends strongly on the rate of neural drug uptake. However, since diffusion into surrounding tissues and removal by the vascular system are major factors in the overall distribution of lidocaine in vivo, true kinetics of drug/neural tissue interactions must be studied in the absence of those confounding factors. Methods Uptake: Ensheathed or desheathed isolated rat sciatic nerves were exposed to [14C]-lidocaine for 0-180min and then removed and the lidocaine content of nerve and sheath analyzed. Washout: Isolated nerves were soaked in [14C]-lidocaine for 60min and then placed in lidocaine-free solution for 0-30min, with samples removed at different times to assess the drug content. Experimental variables included the effects of the ensheathing epineurium, lidocaine concentration, pH, presence of CO2-bicarbonate, and incubation duration. Results The equilibrium uptake of lidocaine increased with incubation time, concentration and the fraction of molecules in the non-ionized form. The uptake rate was unaffected by drug concentration, but was about halved by the presence of the epineurial sheath, with the washout rate slowed less. Slight alkalinization, from pH 6.8 to pH 7.4, by bicarbonate-CO2 buffer or a non-bicarbonate buffer, enhanced the neural uptake, and to the same degree. The washout of lidocaine was faster after shorter incubations at high concentrations than when equal amounts of lidocaine were taken up after long incubations at low lidocaine concentrations. Conclusion Lidocaine enters a nerve by a process other than free diffusion, through an epineurial sheath that is a slight obstacle. Given the rapid entry in vitro compared to the much smaller and transient content measured in vivo, it seems highly unlikely that lidocaine equilibrates with the nerve during a peripheral blockade. PMID:23400993

  7. Closed circuit rebreathing to achieve inert gas wash-in for multiple breath wash-out

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Katherine; Downey, Damian G.; Elborn, J. Stuart; Bell, Nicholas J.; Smith, Jaclyn; Owers-Bradley, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple breath wash-out (MBW) testing requires prior wash-in of inert tracer gas. Wash-in efficiency can be enhanced by a rebreathing tracer in a closed circuit. Previous attempts to deploy this did not account for the impact of CO2 accumulation on patients and were unsuccessful. We hypothesised that an effective rebreathe wash-in could be delivered and it would not alter wash-out parameters. Computer modelling was used to assess the impact of the rebreathe method on wash-in efficiency. Clinical testing of open and closed circuit wash-in–wash-out was performed in healthy controls and adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using a circuit with an effective CO2 scrubber and a refined wash-in protocol. Wash-in efficiency was enhanced by rebreathing. There was no difference in mean lung clearance index between the two wash-in methods for controls (6.5 versus 6.4; p=0.2, n=12) or patients with CF (10.9 versus 10.8; p=0.2, n=19). Test time was reduced by rebreathe wash-in (156 versus 230 s for CF patients, p<0.001) and both methods were well tolerated. End wash-in CO2 was maintained below 2% in most cases. Rebreathe–wash-in is a promising development that, when correctly deployed, reduces wash-in time and facilitates portable MBW testing. For mild CF, wash-out outcomes are equivalent to an open circuit. PMID:27730167

  8. Closed circuit rebreathing to achieve inert gas wash-in for multiple breath wash-out.

    PubMed

    Horsley, Alex R; O'Neill, Katherine; Downey, Damian G; Elborn, J Stuart; Bell, Nicholas J; Smith, Jaclyn; Owers-Bradley, John

    2016-01-01

    Multiple breath wash-out (MBW) testing requires prior wash-in of inert tracer gas. Wash-in efficiency can be enhanced by a rebreathing tracer in a closed circuit. Previous attempts to deploy this did not account for the impact of CO2 accumulation on patients and were unsuccessful. We hypothesised that an effective rebreathe wash-in could be delivered and it would not alter wash-out parameters. Computer modelling was used to assess the impact of the rebreathe method on wash-in efficiency. Clinical testing of open and closed circuit wash-in-wash-out was performed in healthy controls and adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) using a circuit with an effective CO2 scrubber and a refined wash-in protocol. Wash-in efficiency was enhanced by rebreathing. There was no difference in mean lung clearance index between the two wash-in methods for controls (6.5 versus 6.4; p=0.2, n=12) or patients with CF (10.9 versus 10.8; p=0.2, n=19). Test time was reduced by rebreathe wash-in (156 versus 230 s for CF patients, p<0.001) and both methods were well tolerated. End wash-in CO2 was maintained below 2% in most cases. Rebreathe-wash-in is a promising development that, when correctly deployed, reduces wash-in time and facilitates portable MBW testing. For mild CF, wash-out outcomes are equivalent to an open circuit.

  9. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, Ian M.; Norcross, Jason; Bekdash, Omar; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A space suit must provide adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout inside the helmet to prevent symptoms of hypercapnia. In the past, an oronasal mask has been used to measure the inspired air of suited subjects to determine a space suit's CO2 washout capability. While sufficient for super-ambient pressure testing of space suits, the oronasal mask fails to meet several human factors and operational criterion needed for future sub-ambient pressure testing (e.g. compatibility with a Valsalva device). This paper describes the evaluation of a nasal cannula as a device for measuring inspired air within a space suit. Eight test subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill or operating an arm ergometer to achieve target metabolic rates of 1000, 2000, and 3000 British thermal units per hour (BTU/hr), at flow rates of 2, 4, and 6 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM). Each test configuration was conducted twice, with subjects instructed to breathe either through their nose only, or however they felt comfortable. Test data shows that the nasal cannula provides more statistically consistent data across test subjects than the oronasal mask used in previous tests. The data also shows that inhaling/exhaling through only the nose provides a lower sample variance than a normal breathing style. Nose-only breathing reports better CO2 washout due to several possible reasons, including a decreased respiratory rate, an increased tidal volume, and because nose-only breathing directs all of the exhaled CO2 down and away from the oronasal region. The test subjects in this study provided feedback that the nasal cannula is comfortable and can be used with the Valsalva device.

  10. Computerized Mathematical Models of Spray Washout of Airborne Contaminants (Radioactivity) in Containment Vessels.

    SciTech Connect

    TAM, P. S.

    2003-05-23

    Version 01 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles, the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties of steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.

  11. Utilizing a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus and Space Suit Ventilation Loop to Evaluate Carbon Dioxide Washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; Kanne, Bryan; McMillin, Summer; Paul, Thomas; Norcross, Jason; Alonso, Jesus Delgado; Swickrath, Mike

    2015-01-01

    NASA is pursuing technology development of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) which is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a pressure garment system and a portable life support subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. One of the key functions of the ventilation system is to remove and control the carbon dioxide (CO2) delivered to the crewmember. Carbon dioxide washout is the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the space suit helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the crew member. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and robust designs that are insensitive to human variabilities in a space suit. A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) was developed to augment testing of the PLSS ventilation loop in order to provide a lower cost and more controlled alternative to human testing. The CO2 removal function is performed by the regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) within the PLSS ventilation loop and its performance is evaluated within the integrated SMTA and Ventilation Loop test system. This paper will provide a detailed description of the schematics, test configurations, and hardware components of this integrated system. Results and analysis of testing performed with this integrated system will be presented within this paper.

  12. Emptying patterns of the lung studied by multiple-breath N2 washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the nitrogen concentration seen during the single-breath nitrogen washout reflect changes in relative flow (ventilation) from units with differing ventilation/volume ratios. The multiple-breath washout provides sufficient data on ventilation for units with varying ventilation/volume ratios to be plotted as a function of the volume expired. Flow from the dead space may also be determined. In young normals the emptying patterns are narrow and unimodal throughout the alveolar plateau with little or no flow from the dead space at the end of the breath. Older normals show more flow from the dead space, particularly toward the end of the breath, and some show a high ventilation/volume ratio mode early in the breath. Patients with obstructive lung disease have a high flow from the dead space which is present throughout the breath. A well ventilated mode at the end of the breath is seen in some obstructed subjects. Patients with cystic fibrosis showed a poorly ventilated mode appearing at the end of the breath as well as a very high dead space.

  13. Utilizing a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus and Spacesuit Ventilation Loop to Evaluate Carbon Dioxide Washout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; Kanne, Bryan; McMillin, Summer; Norcross, Jason; Jeng, Frank; Swickrath, Mike

    2014-01-01

    NASA is pursuing technology development of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) which is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a pressure garment system and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. One of the key functions of the ventilation system is to remove and control the carbon dioxide delivered to the crewmember. Carbon dioxide washout is the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the spacesuit helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the crew member. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and robust designs that are insensitive to human variabilities in a spacesuit. A Suited Manikin Test Apparatus (SMTA) is being developed to augment testing of the PLSS ventilation loop in order to provide a lower cost and more controlled alternative to human testing. The CO2 removal function is performed by the regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) within the PLSS ventilation loop and its performance is evaluated within the integrated SMTA and Ventilation Loop test system. This paper will provide a detailed description of the schematics, test configurations, and hardware components of this integrated system. Results and analysis of testing performed with this integrated system will be presented within this paper.

  14. Determination of washout performance of various monochrome displays under simulated flight ambient and solar lighting conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, Vernon M.; Robertson, James B.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    The aircraft cockpit ambient lighting simulation system (ACALSS) has been developed to study display readability and associated pilot/vehicle performance effects in a part-task simulator cockpit. In the study reported here, the ACALSS was used to determine the illumination levels at which subjects lose the ability to maintain aircraft states when using three display technologies as display media for primary flight displays: a standard monochrome EL (electroluminescent) flat-panel, a laboratory-class monochrome CRT, and an enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel. The multivariate statistical technique of modified profile analysis was used to test for performance differences between display devices as functions of illumination levels. The standard monochrome EL flat-panel display began to washout after the 2500 foot-candle level of illumination. The monochrome CRT began to washout after the 5500 foot-candle level of illumination. No performance decrements by increased illumination up to the 12,000 foot-candle level were found for the enhanced-brightness EL flat-panel display. What was not anticipated was that half the subjects would subjectively prefer the CRT over the enhanced-brightness EL, even though their performance errors would have indicated the opposite.

  15. Ventilation Inception and Washout, Scaling, and Effects on Hydrodynamic Performance of a Surface Piercing Strut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Casey; Young, Yin Lu; Ceccio, Steven

    2014-11-01

    High-lift devices that operate at or near a fluid free surface (such as surface-piercing or shallowly-submerged propellers and hydrofoils) are prone to a multiphase flow phenomenon called ventilation, wherein non-condensable gas is entrained in the low-pressure flow, forming a cavity around the body and dramatically altering the global hydrodynamic forces. Experiments are being conducted at the University of Michigan's towing tank using a canonical surface-piercing strut to investigate atmospheric ventilation. The goals of the work are (i) to gain an understanding of the dominant physics in fully wetted, partially ventilated, and fully ventilated flow regimes, (ii) to quantify the effects of governing dimensionless parameters on the transition between flow regimes, and (iii) to develop scaling relations for the transition between flow regimes. Using theoretical arguments and flow visualization techniques, new criteria are developed for classifying flow regimes and transition mechanisms. Unsteady transition mechanisms are described and mapped as functions of the governing non-dimensional parameters. A theoretical scaling relationship is developed for ventilation washout, which is shown to adequately capture the experimentally-observed washout boundary. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE 1256260. Support also comes from the Naval Engineering Education Center (Award No. N65540-10-C-003).

  16. A study of moving base simulation motion cues utilizing washout technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N., Jr.; Brye, R.; Vinz, F. L.

    1975-01-01

    The present study was conducted to derive data on non-visual motion thresholds utilizing washout technique, and to develop specific threshold values for use as washout parameters. It describes the results of acceleration detection studies carried out using the NASA MSFC General Purpose Simulator which provides six degree-of-freedom cab motion. A series of experiments was performed to test the hypothesis that constant velocity visual cues might suppress non-visual deceleration sensitivity. The psychophysical method employed was the forced-choice procedure which theoretically yields a pure sensitivity measure. The MSFC General Purpose Simulator was programmed to provide velocity ramps in three axes - pitch, fore-aft translation, and vertical translation. Data were collected with and without a constant velocity visual input. Comparison of the current results with classical data suggested significantly greater sensitivity of the human observer to fore-aft accelerations than has generally been reported, sensitivity tending to depend on motion direction and sign of velocity change.

  17. Penile xenon (/sup 133/Xe) washout: a rapid method of screening for vasculogenic impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Wilbur, H.J.; Kang, S.A.; Flesh, L.; Bennett, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The radioactive inert gas xenon (/sup 133/Xe) is a well-established isotopic indicator used to assess vascular status in many organ systems. Xenon-133 was used to evaluate male impotence. Xenon-133 was injected subcutaneously at the level of the coronal sulcus in the detumescent state. Using the gamma camera, sequential images were obtained and computer-generated curves calculated. The clearance time for 50 per cent washout of the injected /sup 133/Xe (T1/2) was then calculated for each patient, as well as a control group. Preliminary findings indicate a correlation with such established techniques of evaluating erectile impotence as history, physical examination, penile pulse Doppler tracings, and brachial-penile blood pressure index. The xenon-133 washout study was a rapid, minimally invasive, reproducible, and cost-effective method of screening those impotent patients for vasculogenic etiology of their erectile impotence. We recommend the addition of this method to the surgeon engaged in the care of impotent males.

  18. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently and the ventilation flow is adequate for maintaining CO2 washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, testing planned in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing. 1

  19. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, J.; Bekdash, O.; Meginnis, I.

    2016-01-01

    Providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout is essential to the reduction of risk in performing suited operations. Long term CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms such as headache, lethargy, dizziness, and in severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and death. Thus maintaining adequate CO2 washout in both ground testing and during in flight EVAs is a requirement of current and future suit designs. It is necessary to understand the inspired CO2 of suit wearers such that future requirements for space suits appropriately address the risk of inadequate washout. Testing conducted by the EVA Physiology Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center aimed to characterize a method for noninvasively measuring inspired oronasal CO2 under pressurized suited conditions in order to better inform requirements definition and verification techniques for future CO2 washout limits in space suits. Prior work conducted by the EPL examined several different wearable, respirator style, masks that could be used to sample air from the vicinity surround the nose and mouth of a suited test subject. Previously published studies utilized these masks, some being commercial products and some novel designs, to monitor CO2 under various exercise and flow conditions with mixed results for repeatability and/or consistency between subjects. Based on a meta-analysis of those studies it was decided to test a nasal cannula as it is a commercially available device that is placed directly in the flow path of the user as they breathe. A nasal cannula was used to sample air inhaled by the test subjects during both rest and exercise conditions. Eight subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill or operating an arm ergometer to reach target metabolic rates of 1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/hr. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid for all tests, with supply flow rates of 6, 4, and 2 actual cubic feet per minute depending on the test condition. Each test configuration was conducted twice with subjects breathing

  20. A 4-week Repeated dose Oral Toxicity Study of Mecasin in Sprague-Dawley Rats to Determine the Appropriate Doses for a 13-week, Repeated Toxicity Test

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eunhye; Lee, Jongchul; Lee, Seongjin; Park, Manyong; Song, Inja; Son, Ilhong; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Dongwoung; Lee, Jongdeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated the 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity of gami-jakyak gamcho buja decoction (Mecasin) to develop safe treatments. Methods: In order to investigate the 4-week oral toxicity of Mecasin, we administered Mecasin orally to rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of Mecasin of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of body weight were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution of 10 mL/kg was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rate, weight, clinical signs, and gross findings for four weeks. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weights or food consumption between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Serum biochemistry revealed that some groups showed significant decrease in inorganic phosphorus (IP) (P < 0.05). During necropsy on the rats, one abnormal macroscopic feature, a slight loss of fur, was observed in the mid dosage (1,000 mg/ kg) male group. No abnormalities were observed in any other rats. In histopathological findings, the tubular basophilia and cast of the kidney and extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen were found. However, those changes were minimal and had occurred naturally or sporadically. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion: During this 4-week, repeated, oral toxicity test of Mecasin in SD rats, no toxicity changes due to Mecasin were observed in any of the male or the female rats in the high dosage group. Thus, we suggest that the doses in a 13-week, repeated test should be 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. PMID:26998389

  1. LSVT-BIG Improves UPDRS III Scores at 4 Weeks in Parkinson's Disease Patients with Wearing Off: A Prospective, Open-Label Study.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Megumi; Nishijima, Haruo; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Kon, Tomoya; Haga, Rie; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-Ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of LSVT-BIG for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with wearing off remains to be determined. Therefore, we evaluated whether LSVT-BIG improves motor disability in eight PD patients with wearing off. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores, daily off time, and mobility assessments were evaluated during the "on" time before and after the LSVT-BIG course. LSVT-BIG significantly improved UPDRS III scores at 4 weeks and UPDRS II scores in the "off" state at 12 weeks, with no changes in the other measures. The findings suggest that LSVT-BIG may be an effective therapy for advanced PD patients with wearing off.

  2. A 4-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of fucoidan from the Sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Hee-Hyun; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2010-01-12

    Fucoidan is extracted from brown seaweeds, which can have anti-coagulant, antithrombotic, antitumor, and antiviral activities. However, detailed studies on the toxicology of fucoidan have not been performed. Here we tested the toxicity of fucoidan in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fucoidan (1350mg/kg bw/day for 4 weeks) did not induce statistically significant differences in groups matched by gender with respect to body weight, ophthalmoscopy, urinalysis, hematology, and histopathology. Fucoidan did not change prothrombin time or activated partial thromboplastin time, indicating an inability to change blood clotting. This study demonstrated that fucoidan is not toxic under this administration paradigm.

  3. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test is to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III space suit across a range of workload and flow rates. As a secondary objective, results will be compared to the predicted CO2 concentrations and used to refine existing CFD models. These CFD models will then be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit, which maximizes oronasal CO2 washout. This test has not been completed, but is planned for January 2014. The results of this test will be incorporated into this paper. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects will be tested in the Mark-III space suit with each subject performing two test sessions to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations will be evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure will be maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects will wear the suit while walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) will be tested at each workload. Subjects will wear an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and will be allowed to

  4. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879. PMID:26345602

  5. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Alcala, Hector; Santos Vichido, Celia Isabel; Islas Macedo, Silverio; Genestier-Tamborero, Christelle Nathalie; Minutti-Palacios, Marissa; Hirales Tamez, Omara; García, Carlos; Ziegler, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA) over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid) for 4 weeks (phase 1). Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n = 16) or to ALA withdrawal (n = 17) for 16 weeks (phase 2). During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS) decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p < 0.05) and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid) administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd) over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879.

  6. Effects of 4-Week Intensive Active-Resistive Training with an EMG-Based Exoskeleton Robot on Muscle Strength in Older People: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Son, Jongsang; Ryu, Jeseong; Ahn, Soonjae; Kim, Eun Joo; Lee, Jung Ah; Kim, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the idea that an active-resistive training with an EMG-based exoskeleton robot could be beneficial to muscle strength and antagonist muscle cocontraction control after 4-week intensive elbow flexion/extension training. Three older people over 65 years participated the training for an hour per session and completed total 20 sessions during four weeks. Outcome measures were chosen as the maximum joint torque and cocontraction ratio between the biceps/triceps brachii muscles at pre-/post-training. The Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was performed to evaluate paired difference for the outcome measures. As a result, there was no significant difference in the maximum flexion or extension torque at pre- and post-training. However, the cocontraction ratio of the triceps brachii muscle as the antagonist was significantly decreased by 9.8% after the 4-week intensive training. The active-resistive training with the exoskeleton robot in the older people yielded a promising result, showing significant changes in the antagonist muscle cocontraction.

  7. Tissue localization, shedding, virus carriage, antibody response, and aerosol transmission of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus following inoculation of 4-week-old feeder pigs.

    PubMed

    Niederwerder, Megan C; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Bai, Jianfa; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Breazeale, Barbara; Anderson, Joe; Kerrigan, Maureen A; An, Baoyan; Oberst, Richard D; Crawford, Kimberly; Lager, Kelly M; Madson, Darin M; Rowland, Raymond R R; Anderson, Gary A; Hesse, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    We determined tissue localization, shedding patterns, virus carriage, antibody response, and aerosol transmission of Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) following inoculation of 4-week-old feeder pigs. Thirty-three pigs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups for the 42-day study: inoculated (group A; n = 23), contact transmission (group B; n = 5), and aerosol transmission (group C; n = 5). Contact transmission occurred rapidly to group B pigs whereas productive aerosol transmission failed to occur to group C pigs. Emesis was the first clinical sign noted at 3 days postinoculation (dpi) followed by mild to moderate diarrhea lasting 5 more days. Real-time PCR detected PEDV in fecal and nasal swabs, oral fluids, serum, and gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues. Shedding occurred primarily during the first 2 weeks postinoculation, peaking at 5-6 dpi; however, some pigs had PEDV nucleic acid detected in swabs collected at 21 and 28 dpi. Antibody titers were measurable between 14 and 42 dpi. Although feces and intestines collected at 42 dpi were PEDV negative by PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, small intestines from 70% of group A pigs were PCR positive. Although disease was relatively mild and transient in this age group, the results demonstrate that 4-week-old pigs are productively infected and can sustain virus replication for several weeks. Long-term shedding of PEDV in subclinically affected pigs should be considered an important source for PEDV transmission.

  8. Gravitational independence of single-breath washout tests in recumbent dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomioka, Shinichi; Kubo, Susumu; Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gravitational orientation in the mechanism of lung filling and emptying in dogs was examined by conducting simultaneously Ar-bolus and N2 single-breath washout tests (SBWTs) in 10 anesthetized dogs (prone and supine), with three of the dogs subjected to body rotation. Transpulmonary pressure was measured simultaneously, allowing identification of the lung volume above residual volume at which there was an inflection point in the pressure-volume curve. Combined resident gas and bolus SBWTs in recumbent dogs were found to be different from such tests in humans; in dogs, the regional distribution of ventilation was not primarily determined by gravity. The measurements did not make it possible to discern exact mechanisms of filling and emptying, but both processes appear to be related to lung, thorax, and mediastinum interactions and/or differences in regional mechanical properties of the lungs.

  9. Evaluation of a linear washout for simulator motion cue presentation during landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Martin, D. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The comparison of a fixed-base versus a five-degree-of-freedom motion base simulation of a 737 conventional take-off and landing (CTOL) aircraft performing instrument landing system (ILS) landing approaches was used to evaluate a linear motion washout technique. The fact that the pilots felt that the addition of motion increased the pilot workload and this increase was not reflected in the objective data results, indicates that motion cues, as presented, are not a contributing factor to root-mean-square (rms) performance during the landing approach task. Subjective results from standard maneuvering about straight-and-level flight for specific motion cue evaluation revealed that the longitudinal channels (pitch and surge) possibly the yaw channel produce acceptable motions. The roll cue representation, involving both roll and sway channels, was found to be inadequate for large roll inputs, as used for example, in turn entries.

  10. Neuromuscular Responses to Short-Term Resistance Training With Traditional and Daily Undulating Periodization in Adolescent Elite Judoka.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Boris; Pelzer, Thiemo; Oliveira, Sergio; Pfeiffer, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Ullrich, B, Pelzer, T, Oliveira, S, and Pfeiffer, M. Neuromuscular responses to short-term resistance training with traditional and daily undulating periodization in adolescent elite judoka. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2083-2099, 2016-The influence of different periodization models on neuromuscular outcomes after short-term strength training periods has not been examined in adolescent athletes. Eleven elite judoka (age: 14.8 ± 0.6 years, height: 163.2 ± 7.5 cm, body mass: 57.3 ± 11.1 kg, 5 boys/6 girls, and strength training experience: 2.7 ± 1.1 years) performed two 4-week strength training mesocycles (each with 12 sessions) with either traditional (TP) or daily undulating (DUP) periodization. Both mesocycles were separated by a 7-week washout period and added to the regular judo training. Strength training was performed as lifting and lowering of weights using squats, knee flexion curl, clean & jerk, snatch, bench press, barbell bench pull, and lat pull-down. The mesocycles were equated for the number of repetitions and different intensity zones (50-90% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), addressing the optimization of strength, power, or velocity. Laboratory and 1RM testing was carried out 2 times during the baseline (T1 and T2), after the TP mesocycle (T3), after the washout period (T4), and after the DUP mesocycle (T5). Isometric knee extensor and knee flexor maximum voluntary contractive capacity (MVC), electromyographic-estimated neural drive of the quadriceps femoris, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and 1RMs of all training exercises were measured. ANOVA revealed moderate (5.5-13.5%) but significant (p ≤ 0.05) temporal gains in knee extensor MVC, 1RMs, and VL architecture during both the mesocycles. Wilcoxon tests detected no significant differences for the percentage changes of any outcome between the mesocycles. For adolescent judoka, TP and DUP were equally adept in improving neuromuscular outcomes during short-term training periods.

  11. Washout allometric reference method (WARM) for parametric analysis of [(11)C]PIB in human brains.

    PubMed

    Rodell, Anders; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Rapid clearance and disappearance of a tracer from the circulation challenges the determination of the tracer's binding potentials in brain (BP ND) by positron emission tomography (PET). This is the case for the analysis of the binding of radiolabeled [(11)C]Pittsburgh Compound B ([(11)C]PIB) to amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques in brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). To resolve the issue of rapid clearance from the circulation, we here introduce the flow-independent Washout Allometric Reference Method (WARM) for the analysis of washout and binding of [(11)C]PIB in two groups of human subjects, healthy aged control subjects (HC), and patients suffering from AD, and we compare the results to the outcome of two conventional analysis methods. We also use the rapid initial clearance to obtain a surrogate measure of the rate of cerebral blood flow (CBF), as well as a method of identifying a suitable reference region directly from the [(11)C]PIB signal. The difference of average absolute CBF values between the AD and HC groups was highly significant (P < 0.003). The CBF measures were not significantly different between the groups when normalized to cerebellar gray matter flow. Thus, when flow differences confound conventional measures of [(11)C]PIB binding, the separate estimates of CBF and BP ND provide additional information about possible AD. The results demonstrate the importance of data-driven estimation of CBF and BP ND, as well as reference region detection from the [(11)C]PIB signal. We conclude that the WARM method yields stable measures of BP ND with relative ease, using only integration for noise reduction and no model regression. The method accounts for relative flow differences in the brain tissue and yields a calibrated measure of absolute CBF directly from the [(11)C]PIB signal. Compared to conventional methods, WARM optimizes the Aβ plaque load discrimination between patients with AD and healthy controls (P = 0.009).

  12. Maintaining Adequate CO2 Washout for an Advanced EMU via a New Rapid Cycle Amine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda

    2011-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has realized tremendous progress in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology development. This has been evidenced by the progressive development of a new Rapic Cycle Amine (RCA) system for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is responsible for the life support of the crew member in the spacesuit. The RCA technology is responsible for carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity control. Another aspect of the RCA is that it is on-back vacuum-regenerable, efficient, and reliable. The RCA also simplifies the PLSS schematic by eliminating the need for a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control in the current EMU. As development progresses on the RCA, it is important that the sizing be optimized so that the demand on the PLSS battery is minimized. As well, maintaining the CO2 washout at adequate levels during an EVA is an absolute requirement of the RCA and associated ventilation system. Testing has been underway in-house at NASA Johnson Space Center and analysis has been initiated to evaluate whether the technology provides exemplary performance in ensuring that the CO2 is removed sufficiently enough and the ventilation flow is adequate enough to maintain CO2 1 Project Engineer, Space Suit and Crew Survival Systems Branch, Crew and Thermal Systems Division, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058/EC5. washout in the AEMU spacesuit helmet of the crew member during an EVA. This paper will review the recent developments of the RCA unit, the testing results performed in-house with a spacesuit simulator, and the associated analytical work along with insights from the medical aspect on the testing.

  13. LSVT-BIG Improves UPDRS III Scores at 4 Weeks in Parkinson's Disease Patients with Wearing Off: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Megumi; Nishijima, Haruo; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Kon, Tomoya; Haga, Rie; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of LSVT-BIG for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with wearing off remains to be determined. Therefore, we evaluated whether LSVT-BIG improves motor disability in eight PD patients with wearing off. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores, daily off time, and mobility assessments were evaluated during the “on” time before and after the LSVT-BIG course. LSVT-BIG significantly improved UPDRS III scores at 4 weeks and UPDRS II scores in the “off” state at 12 weeks, with no changes in the other measures. The findings suggest that LSVT-BIG may be an effective therapy for advanced PD patients with wearing off. PMID:28255499

  14. Relief of Night-time Symptoms Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Following 4 Weeks of Treatment With Pantoprazole Magnesium: The Mexican Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Orr, William; Vargas-Romero, José Antonio; Remes-Troche, José María; Morales-Arámbula, Miguel; Soto-Pérez, Julio César; Mateos-Pérez, Gualberto; Sobrino-Cossío, Sergio; Teramoto-Matsubara, Oscar; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Orozco-Gamiz, Antonio; Saez-Ríos, Adolfo; Arellano-Plancarte, Araceli; Chiu-Ugalde, Jazmin; Tholen, Anne; Horbach, Silke; Lundberg, Lars; Fass, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of pantoprazole magnesium (pantoprazole-Mg) 40 mg in the relief of esophageal and extra-esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), particularly night-time symptoms. Methods Patients (aged 18-50 years) with 3-month history of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation plus at least one other symptom in the last week were enrolled in a nationwide, prospective and observational study in Mexico. Patients received pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily during 4 weeks. Symptoms were assessed through a physician-administered structured interview and the patient-completed ReQuest in Practice™ questionnaire. Night-time GERD was defined as arousal from sleep during the night due to GERD-associated symptoms. Results Out of 4,343 patients included at basal visit, 3,665 were considered for the effectiveness per protocol analysis. At baseline, patients had a median of 8 GERD related symptoms. Patients with night-time GERD symptoms (42.7%) were more likely to have extra-esophageal symptoms (P < 0.001) than other GERD patients. Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks improved a broad range of GERD-associated symptoms from baseline (80% reduction on physicians assessments; 68-77% reduction on ReQuest in Practice™ dimensions), including both day- and night-time GERD symptoms; improvements were the greatest for extra-esophageal symptoms in patients with night-time symptoms. Pantoprazole-Mg was well tolerated. Conclusions Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg significantly improved a broad range of esophageal and extra-esophageal GERD related symptoms including sleep disturbances, as well as well-being, in patients with daytime or night-time GERD, making it a good option for patients with GERD, especially when extra-esophageal and night-time symptoms are present. PMID:24466446

  15. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  16. A 6-week randomized controlled trial with 4-week follow-up of acupuncture combined with paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shan-Shan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Chen, Jun-Qi; Lin, Ren-Yong; Wang, Chong-Qi; Li, Gan-Long; Wong, Hei Kiu; Zhao, Cang-Huan; Pan, Ji-Yang; Guo, Shen-Chang; Zhang, Yan-Chi

    2013-06-01

    Acupuncture possesses the antidepressant potential. In this 6-week randomized controlled trial with 4-week follow-up, 160 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomly assigned to paroxetine (PRX) alone (n = 48) or combined with 18 sessions of manual acupuncture (MA, n = 54) or electrical acupuncture (EA, n = 58). Treatment outcomes were measured mainly using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), clinical response and remission rates. Average PRX dose taken and proportion of patients who required an increased PRX dose due to symptom aggravation were also obtained. Both additional MA and EA produced a significantly greater reduction from baseline in score on HAMD-17 and SDS at most measure points from week 1 through week 6 compared to PRX alone. The clinical response was markedly greater in MA (69.8%) and EA (69.6%) groups than the group treated with PRX alone (41.7%, P = 0.004). The proportion of patients who required an increase dose of PRX due to symptom aggravation was significantly lower with MA (5.7%) and EA (8.9%) than PRX alone (22.9%, P = 0.019). At 4 weeks follow-up after completion of acupuncture treatment, patients with EA, but not MA, continued to show significantly greater clinical improvement. Incidence of adverse events was not different in the three groups. Our study indicates that acupuncture can accelerate the clinical response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and prevent the aggravation of depression. Electrical acupuncture may have a long-lasting enhancement of the antidepressant effects (Trial Registration: ChiCTR-TRC-08000278).

  17. Washout of tritium from 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-L-aspartate in the aspartase reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.M.; Cook, P.F.

    1987-05-01

    Bacterial aspartase catalyzes the reversible conversion of L-aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. Recent studies that made use of deuterium and /sup 15/N isotope effects suggested a carbanion intermediate mechanism in which C-N bond cleavage is rate determining. This could result in removal of a proton from the 3R position of aspartate at a rate of faster than the elimination of ammonia. 3R-3(/sup 3/H)-Aspartate was prepared enzymatically using aspartase from fumarate, ammonia and /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and aspartate isolated via chromatography on Dowex 50W x 8 at pH 1, eluting with 2N pyridine. The rate of /sup 3/H washout from this aspartate was then measured as a function of aspartate concentration and compared to the rate of production of fumarate. Tritium does washout of aspartate at a rate faster than fumarate is formed but the proton is apparently not rapidly equilibrated with solvent. The tritium washout experiments were supplemented using 3R-3(/sup 2/H)-aspartate prepared as above with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O replacing /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and monitoring the appearance of 3R-3(/sup 1/H)-aspartate via /sup 1/H-NMR. Results confirm the tritium washout results. Data are discussed in terms of the carbanion mechanism.

  18. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Today, the potential impact of extremely high floods, which in the last years have become a rather frequent weather-related disaster, is the problem of primary concern. In studies of the potential impact of floods the emphasis is placed first of all on the estimation of possible flood zones and the analysis of the flow regimes in these zones. However, in some cases the hydrochemical parameters related to changes in the chemical composition of water are more important than the hydraulic parameters. It is generally believed that the higher is the flow rate, the more intensive is the process of dissolution, i.e. the lower is the concentration of limiting contaminants in water. However, this statement is valid provided that flooding does not activate new sources of water pollution such as contaminated floodplain water bodies located in the vicinity of water supply systems. Being quite reliable and safe at small and moderate discharges, in the case of extremely high level of river waters they become intensive sources of water pollution, essentially limiting the water consumption schedule for downstream water consumers. It should be noted that compared to the well-studied mechanisms of waste discharge due to failure of hydraulic engineering structures by flood waves, the mechanisms of pollutant washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies by the flood waves is still poorly understood. We analyze the impacts of such weather-related events on the quality of water in the water intake system, taking as an example, the section of the Vyatka River located in the Prikamskaya lowland of the Russian Federation. The risk of river pollution due to washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods is studied by hydrodynamical modeling in the framework of combined approach using one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models are implemented and by in situ measurements. It is shown that during high floods the removal of pollutants from the

  19. Combined measurement of pulmonary inert gas washout and regional ventilation heterogeneity by MR of a single dose of hyperpolarized 3He.

    PubMed

    Deppe, Martin H; Parra-Robles, Juan; Ajraoui, Salma; Wild, Jim M

    2011-04-01

    Washout of inert gases is a measure of pulmonary function well-known in lung physiology. This work presents a method combining inert gas washout and spatially resolved imaging using hyperpolarized (3) He, thus providing complementary information on lung function and physiology. The nuclear magnetic resonance signal of intrapulmonary hyperpolarized (3) He is used to track the total amount of gas present within the lungs during multiple-breath washout via tidal breathing. Before the washout phase, 3D ventilation images are acquired using (3) He magnetic resonance imaging from the same dose of inhaled gas. The measured washout signal is corrected for T(1) relaxation and radiofrequency depletion, converting it into a quantity proportional to the apparent amount of gas within the lungs. The use of a pneumotachograph for acquisition of breathing volumes during washout, together with lung volumes derived from the magnetic resonance imaging data, permits assessment of the washout curves against physiological model predictions for healthy lungs. The shape of the resulting washout curves obtained from healthy volunteers matches the predictions, demonstrating the utility of the technique for the quantitative assessment of lung function. The proposed method can be readily integrated with a standard breath-hold (3) He ventilation imaging sequence, thus providing additional information from a single dose of gas.

  20. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future

  1. Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy, and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject, and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit, and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit. Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were used to adjust the treadmill workload to meet

  2. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with

  3. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Realtime metabolic rate measurements were

  4. CO2 Washout Testing Using Various Inlet Vent Configurations in the Mark-III Space Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Norcross, Jason; Conger, Bruce; Navarro, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including inspired partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis has predicted that the configuration of the suit inlet vent has a significant effect on oronasal CO2 concentrations. The main objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 for a variety of inlet vent configurations in the Mark-III suit across a range of workload and flow rates. Data and trends observed during testing along with refined CFD models will be used to help design an inlet vent configuration for the Z-2 space suit. The testing methodology used in this test builds upon past CO2 washout testing performed on the Z-1 suit, Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES). Three subjects performed two test sessions each in the Mark-III suit to allow for comparison between tests. Six different helmet inlet vent configurations were evaluated during each test session. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Suited test subjects walked on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 2000 and 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow rates of 6 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) were tested at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total oxygen consumption and CO2 production measured by additional gas analyzers at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate measurements were

  5. Pharmacokinetics and 48-Week Safety and Efficacy of Raltegravir for Oral Suspension in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1-Infected Children 4 Weeks to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Nachman, Sharon; Alvero, Carmelita; Acosta, Edward P.; Teppler, Hedy; Homony, Brenda; Graham, Bobbie; Fenton, Terence; Xu, Xia; Rizk, Matthew L.; Spector, Stephen A.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Worrell, Carol; Handelsman, Edward; Wiznia, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background IMPAACT P1066 is a Phase I/II open-label multicenter trial to evaluate safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and efficacy of multiple raltegravir (RAL) formulations in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected youth. Methods Dose selection of the oral suspension formulation for each cohort (IV: 6 months to <2 years and V: 4 weeks to <6 months) was based on review of short-term safety (4 weeks) and intensive PK evaluation. Safety data through Weeks 24 and 48 and Grade ≥3 or serious adverse events (AEs) were assessed. The primary virologic endpoint was achieving HIV RNA <400 copies/mL or ≥1 log10 reduction from baseline at Week 24 (Success). For Cohort IV, optimized background therapy (OBT) could have been initiated with RAL either at study entry or after intensive PK sampling was completed at Day 5–12. An OBT was started when RAL was initiated for Cohort V subjects because they were not permitted to have received direct antiretroviral therapy before enrollment. Results Total accrual was 27 subjects in these 2 cohorts, including 1 subject who was enrolled but never started study drug (excluded from the analyses). The targeted PK parameters (area under the curve [AUC]0−12hr and C12hr) were achieved for each cohort allowing for dose selection. Through Week 48, there were 10 subjects with Grade 3+ AEs. Two were judged related to study drug. There was 1 discontinuation due to an AE of skin rash, 1 event of immune reconstitution syndrome, and no drug-related deaths. At Week 48, for Cohorts IV and V, 87.5% of subjects achieved virologic success and 45.5% had HIV RNA <50 copies/mL. At Week 48, gains in CD4 cells of 527.6 cells/mm3 and 7.3% were observed. Conclusions A total of 6 mg/kg per dose twice daily of RAL for oral suspension was well tolerated and showed favorable virologic and immunologic responses. PMID:26582887

  6. Modelling responses of the inert-gas washout and MRI to bronchoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Foy, Brody H; Kay, David; Bordas, Rafel

    2017-01-01

    Many lung diseases lead to an increase in ventilation heterogeneity (VH). Two clinical practices for the measurement of patient VH are in vivo imaging, and the inert gas multiple breath washout (MBW). In this study computational modelling was used to compare the responses of MBW indices LCI and scond and MRI measured global and local ventilation indices, σr and σlocal, to constriction of airways in the conducting zone of the lungs. The simulations show that scond, LCI and σr behave quite similarly to each other, all being sensitive to increases in the severity of constriction, while exhibiting little sensitivity to the depth at which constriction occurs. In contrast, the local MRI index σlocal shows strong sensitivity to depth of constriction, but lowered sensitivity to constriction severity. We finish with an analysis of the sensitivity of MRI indices to grid sizes, showing that results should be interpreted with reference to the image resolution. Overall we conclude that the application of both local and global VH measures may help to classify different types of bronchoconstriction.

  7. Are neuroticism and extraversion associated with the antidepressant effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)? An exploratory 4-week trial.

    PubMed

    Berlim, Marcelo T; McGirr, Alexander; Beaulieu, Marie-Martine; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Turecki, Gustavo

    2013-02-08

    Several randomized, controlled trials have found high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) to be effective for treating major depressive disorder (MDD), but its antidepressant mechanisms have yet to be firmly understood. In this context, pre-treatment personality traits and subsequent changes in personality concomitant to treatment may be relevant for our understanding of these mechanisms. To investigate this issue we conducted a naturalistic trial in which 14 subjects with moderate to severe depression were treated with daily HF-rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 4 weeks. Objective depressive symptoms (as assessed by the HAM-D(21)) and the major personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion were measured pre-post HF-rTMS. Pre-rTMS levels of extraversion predicted subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms. Also, HF-rTMS treatment resulted in a decrease in neuroticism scores, and this relative decrease was associated with the relative decrease in depression. Our results suggest that HF-rTMS may positively affect the personality dimension of neuroticism. Also, pre-treatment levels of extraversion may predict the subsequent antidepressant response to HF-rTMS. However, further studies with larger samples and controlled designs are needed to better clarify these preliminary findings.

  8. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-08-06

    (1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) RESULTS: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility.

  9. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  10. Special report on the data collection programs for the ground based nitrogen washout experiment. Volume 1: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bueker, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Nitrogen Washout System measures nitrogen elimination on a breath basis from the body tissues of a subject breathing pure oxygen. The system serves as a prototype for a Space Shuttle Life Sciences experiment and in the Environmental Physiology Laboratory. Typically, a subject washes out body nitrogen for three hours while breathing oxygen from a mask enclosed in a positive-pressure oxygen tent. A nitrogen washout requires one test operator and the test subject. A DEC LSI-11/02 computer is used to (1) control and calibrate the mass spectrometer and Skylab spirometer, (2) gather and store experimental data and (3) provide limited real time analysis and more extensive post-experiment analysis. Five programs are used to gather and store the experimental data and perform all the real time control and analysis.

  11. A functional mathematical model to simulate the single-breath nitrogen washout.

    PubMed

    Barbini, Paolo; Brighenti, Chiara; Gnudi, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model is proposed to reproduce and interpret the influence of pulmonary inhomogeneities on the single-breath nitrogen washout (SBNW) curve. The model is characterized by two parallel zones. In each zone, the upper airways are described by a Rohrer resistor. Intermediate airways are represented as a collapsible segment, the volume of which depends on transmural pressure. Smaller airways are described by a resistance which increases when transpulmonary pressure decreases. The respiratory region is modeled as a Voigt element. Three different conditions were simulated: a reference case, characterized by airway-parameter values for normal conditions, and two pathological states corresponding to different levels of disease. In the reference case, a straight line was a good approximation of SBNW phase III and the last point of departure of the nitrogen trace from this line unambiguously identified the onset of phase IV. The slope of phase III rose with disease severity (from a 1.1% increase in nitrogen concentration per 1000 ml of expired volume in the reference case to 3.6% and 7.7% in the pathological cases) and the distinction between phases III and IV became less evident. The results obtained indicate that the slope of phase III depends primarily on nitrogen-concentration differences between lung zones, as determined by different mechanical properties of the respiratory airways. In spite of the simplified representation of the lungs, the similarity of the simulation results to actual data suggests that the proposed model describes important physiological mechanisms underlying changes observed during SBNW in normal and pathological patients.

  12. A Functional Mathematical Model to Simulate the Single-Breath Nitrogen Washout

    PubMed Central

    Barbini, Paolo; Brighenti, Chiara; Gnudi, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model is proposed to reproduce and interpret the influence of pulmonary inhomogeneities on the single-breath nitrogen washout (SBNW) curve. The model is characterized by two parallel zones. In each zone, the upper airways are described by a Rohrer resistor. Intermediate airways are represented as a collapsible segment, the volume of which depends on transmural pressure. Smaller airways are described by a resistance which increases when transpulmonary pressure decreases. The respiratory region is modeled as a Voigt element. Three different conditions were simulated: a reference case, characterized by airway-parameter values for normal conditions, and two pathological states corresponding to different levels of disease. In the reference case, a straight line was a good approximation of SBNW phase III and the last point of departure of the nitrogen trace from this line unambiguously identified the onset of phase IV. The slope of phase III rose with disease severity (from a 1.1% increase in nitrogen concentration per 1000 ml of expired volume in the reference case to 3.6% and 7.7% in the pathological cases) and the distinction between phases III and IV became less evident. The results obtained indicate that the slope of phase III depends primarily on nitrogen-concentration differences between lung zones, as determined by different mechanical properties of the respiratory airways. In spite of the simplified representation of the lungs, the similarity of the simulation results to actual data suggests that the proposed model describes important physiological mechanisms underlying changes observed during SBNW in normal and pathological patients. PMID:24044025

  13. The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Giovanna; Avagyan, Rozanna; Hongyu, Ren; Östman, Conny

    2016-02-01

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 μg/g (median 0.44 μg/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 μg/g (median 0.21 μg/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

  14. Diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence: Combination of penile xenon-133 washout and papaverine tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.N.; Liu, R.S.; Yu, P.C.; Chang, L.S.; Yeh, S.H.; Kuo, J.S.

    1989-07-01

    The present study evaluates both penile xenon-133 washout (XWT) and papaverine tests (PT) in the diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence. XWT was accomplished by subcutaneous injection of xenon-133 (1-2 mCi in 0.1 mL saline solution) into the dorsal coronal prepuce. Abnormal XWT was suggested in patients whose clearance time (T1/2) was longer than 7.5 minutes and whose penile blood flow rate (Q) was less than 6 mL/100 g tissue/min. PT was done by intracavernous injection of papaverine (60 mg in 20 mL normal saline). Abnormal PT was indicated in patients whose onset of full erection was more than ten minutes after papaverine injection and whose duration of erection was less than one hour. Ten young and 11 older normal volunteers were examined with XWT only; all showed normal results. A total of 60 impotent patients were examined with both XWT and PT and were classified into four groups: in 2 patients (3.3%) both XWT and PT were normal (group I); in 8 (13.3%) XWT was abnormal and PT normal (group II); in 14 (23.3%) XWT was normal and PT abnormal (group III); and in 36 (60%) both XWT and PT were abnormal (group IV). On further examination with bilateral hypogastric arteriography in 10 XWT-abnormal patients and on surgical correction of abnormal curvature in 5 XWT-abnormal patients, all (100%) were proved to have penile arterial insufficiency. Erection cavernosography performed in 15 PT-abnormal patients confirmed penile venous insufficiency in 80 percent. We conclude both XWT and PT are simple and effective for evaluation of the penile arterial blood flow and venous competence, respectively.

  15. Noninvasive Digital Detection of Fetal DNA in Plasma of 4-Week-Pregnant Women following In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Bedri; Qubbaj, Wafa; Al-Hassan, Saad; Coskun, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA (cfDNA) circulating in the maternal blood has provided new opportunities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD). However, the extremely low levels of cfDNA within a high background of the maternal DNA in maternal circulation necessitate highly sensitive molecular techniques for its reliable use in NIPD. In this proof of principle study, we evaluated the earliest possible detection of cfDNA in the maternal plasma by a bead-based emulsion PCR technology known as BEAMing (beads, emulsion, amplification, magnetics). Blood samples were collected from in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients at 2 to 6 weeks following embryo transfer (i.e., 4 to 8 week pregnancies) and plasma DNA was extracted. The genomic regions of both X and Y chromosome-specific sequences (AMELX and AMELY) were concurrently amplified in two sequential PCRs; first by conventional PCR then by BEAMing. The positive beads either for AMELX or AMELY gene sequences were counted by a flow cytometer. Our results showed that the pregnancies yielding boys had significantly higher plasma AMELY gene fractions (0.512 ± 0.221) than the ones yielding girls (0.028 ± 0.003) or non-pregnant women (0.020 ± 0.005, P= 0.0059). Here, we clearly demonstrated that the BEAMing technique is capable of reliably detecting cfDNA in the blood circulation of 4-week-pregnant women, which is only two weeks after the embryo transfer. BEAMing technique can also be used to early detect fetal DNA alterations in other pregnancy-associated disorders.

  16. The effect of 4 weeks of aerobic exercise on vascular and baroreflex function of young men with a family history of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M J; Boutcher, S H; Boutcher, Y N

    2012-11-01

    The effect of short-term aerobic exercise on vascular function of young individuals with a family history of hypertension was investigated. Thirty young men with a family history of hypertension were randomly assigned to either an exercise (n=15) or control (n=15) group. Exercise subjects performed 30 min of supervised cycle training at 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), three times per week for 4 weeks. Control subjects were asked to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Peak leg and forearm blood flow were assessed using plethysmography and was determined as the highest blood flow following 5 min of reactive hyperemia. Cardiopulmonary baroreceptor (CPBR) sensitivity was measured using lower body negative pressure (LBNP) for 5 min at -20 mm Hg. CPBR was determined by calculating change of stroke volume and forearm vascular resistance at baseline and during LBNP. Carotid baroreceptor (CBR) sensitivity was assessed using neck suction at -20, -40, -60 and -80 mm Hg pressures, and was determined from RR interval divided by systolic blood pressure. Augmentation index (AIx), a measure of arterial stiffness, was assessed using applanation tonometry and was calculated as the ratio of augmented pressure and pulse pressure. The major findings were that the exercise group showed increase in leg vasodilation, reduction in AIx and increase in VO(2max) compared with the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant change for CPBR and CBR. A short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise intervention in young men with a family history of hypertension significantly reduced arterial stiffness and increased aerobic fitness.

  17. Effects of 4 weeks of traditional resistance training vs. superslow strength training on early phase adaptations in strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity in college-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eonho; Dear, Alexis; Ferguson, Steven L; Seo, Dongil; Bemben, Michael G

    2011-11-01

    This study compared SuperSlow resistance training (SRT) to traditional resistance training (TRT) during early phase adaptations in strength, aerobic capacity, and flexibility in college-aged women. Subjects were randomly assigned to SRT (n = 14); TRT (n = 13); or control (CON; n = 8) groups. To equalize training times, TRT trained 3 times per week for 25 minutes each session, whereas SRT trained twice a week for 35 minutes each session. Both groups trained for 4 weeks, whereas the CON group maintained normal daily activities. Workouts consisted of 5 exercises: shoulder press, chest press, leg press, low row, and lat pull down. The SRT group completed 1 set of each exercise at 50% 1RM until momentary failure with a 10-second concentric and a 10-second eccentric phase. The TRT group completed 3 sets of 8 repetitions at 80% 1RM for each exercise, with 4 seconds of contraction time for each repetition. Groups were statistically similar at baseline. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effect for flexibility with the greatest improvements occurring for the training groups (SRT 14.7% and TRT 11%). All strength tests had significant (p ≤ 0.01) time main effects but no group or group by time interactions. Both training groups had large percent improvements in strength compared to CON, but the large variability associated with the SRT group resulted in only the TRT group being significantly different from the CON group. In conclusion, percent improvements were similar for the TRT and SRT groups, but only the TRT group reached statistical significance for the strength improvements, and both groups were equally effective for improving flexibility.

  18. A phase I study with MAG-camptothecin intravenously administered weekly for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle in adult patients with solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Wachters, F M; Groen, H J M; Maring, J G; Gietema, J A; Porro, M; Dumez, H; de Vries, E G E; van Oosterom, A T

    2004-06-14

    In MAG-camptothecin (MAG-CPT), the topoisomerase inhibitor camptothecin is linked to a water-soluble polymer. Preclinical experiments showed enhanced antitumour efficacy and limited toxicity compared to camptothecin alone. Prior phase I trials guided the regimen used in this study. The objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, safety profile, and pharmacokinetics of weekly MAG-CPT. Patients with solid tumours received MAG-CPT intravenously administered weekly for 3 weeks in 4-week cycles. At the starting dose level (80 mg x m(-2) week(-1)), no dose-limiting toxicities occurred during the first cycle (n=3). Subsequently, three patients were enrolled at the second dose level (120 mg x m(-2) week(-1)). Two of three patients at the 80 mg x m(-2) week(-1) cohort developed haemorrhagic cystitis (grade 1/3 dysuria and grade 2/3 haematuria) during the second and third cycles. Next, the 80 mg x m(-2) week(-1) cohort was enlarged to a total of six patients. One other patient at this dose level experienced grade 1 haematuria. At 120 mg x m(-2) week(-1), grade 1 bladder toxicity occurred in two of three patients. Dose escalation was stopped at 120 mg x m(-2) week(-1). Cumulative bladder toxicity was dose-limiting toxicity at 80 mg x m(-2) week(-1). Pharmacokinetics revealed highly variable urinary camptothecin excretion, associated with bladder toxicity. Due to cumulative bladder toxicity, weekly MAG-CPT is not a suitable regimen for treatment of patients with solid tumours.

  19. Technical Note: Implementation of biological washout processes within GATE/GEANT4—A Monte Carlo study in the case of carbon therapy treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Rovira, I. Jouvie, C.; Jan, S.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The imaging of positron emitting isotopes produced during patient irradiation is the only in vivo method used for hadrontherapy dose monitoring in clinics nowadays. However, the accuracy of this method is limited by the loss of signal due to the metabolic decay processes (biological washout). In this work, a generic modeling of washout was incorporated into the GATE simulation platform. Additionally, the influence of the washout on the β{sup +} activity distributions in terms of absolute quantification and spatial distribution was studied. Methods: First, the irradiation of a human head phantom with a {sup 12}C beam, so that a homogeneous dose distribution was achieved in the tumor, was simulated. The generated {sup 11}C and {sup 15}O distribution maps were used as β{sup +} sources in a second simulation, where the PET scanner was modeled following a detailed Monte Carlo approach. The activity distributions obtained in the presence and absence of washout processes for several clinical situations were compared. Results: Results show that activity values are highly reduced (by a factor of 2) in the presence of washout. These processes have a significant influence on the shape of the PET distributions. Differences in the distal activity falloff position of 4 mm are observed for a tumor dose deposition of 1 Gy (T{sub ini} = 0 min). However, in the case of high doses (3 Gy), the washout processes do not have a large effect on the position of the distal activity falloff (differences lower than 1 mm). The important role of the tumor washout parameters on the activity quantification was also evaluated. Conclusions: With this implementation, GATE/GEANT 4 is the only open-source code able to simulate the full chain from the hadrontherapy irradiation to the PET dose monitoring including biological effects. Results show the strong impact of the washout processes, indicating that the development of better models and measurement of biological washout data are

  20. In vitro and in vivo studies of boron neutron capture therapy: boron uptake/washout and cell death.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C; Bakeine, J; Ballarini, F; Boninella, A; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Cansolino, L; Clerici, A M; Coppola, A; Di Liberto, R; Dionigi, P; Protti, N; Stella, S; Zonta, A; Zonta, C; Altieri, S

    2011-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy based on thermal-neutron irradiation of cells enriched with (10)B, which produces α particles and (7)Li ions of short range and high biological effectiveness. The selective uptake of boron by tumor cells is a crucial issue for BNCT, and studies of boron uptake and washout associated with cell survival studies can be of great help in developing clinical applications. In this work, boron uptake and washout were characterized both in vitro for the DHDK12TRb (DHD) rat colon carcinoma cell line and in vivo using rats bearing liver metastases from DHD cells. Despite a remarkable uptake, a large boron release was observed after removal of the boron-enriched medium from in vitro cell cultures. However, analysis of boron washout after rat liver perfusion in vivo did not show a significant boron release, suggesting that organ perfusion does not limit the therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment. The survival of boron-loaded cells exposed to thermal neutrons was also assessed; the results indicated that the removal of extracellular boron does not limit treatment effectiveness if adequate amounts of boron are delivered and if the cells are kept at low temperature. Cell survival was also investigated theoretically using a mechanistic model/Monte Carlo code originally developed for radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and extended here to cell death; good agreement between simulation outcomes and experimental data was obtained.

  1. Comparison of a linear and a nonlinear washout for motion simulators utilizing objective and subjective data from CTOL transport landing approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, R. V.; Martin, D. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Objective and subjective data gathered in the processes of comparing a linear and a nonlinear washout for motion simulators reveal that there is no difference in the pilot performance measurements used during instrument landing system (ILS) approaches with a Boeing 737 conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) airplane between fixed base, linear washout, and nonlinear washout operations. However, the subjective opinions of the pilots reveal an important advance in motion cue presentation. The advance is not in the increased cue available over a linear filter for the same amount of motion base travel but rather in the elimination of false rotational rate cues presented by linear filters.

  2. Washout rate in rat brain irradiated by a 11C beam after acetazolamide loading using a small single-ring OpenPET prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-03-01

    In dose verification techniques of particle therapies based on in-beam positron emission tomography (PET), the causes of washout of positron emitters by physiological effects should be clarified to correct washout for accurate verification. As well, the quantitative washout rate has a potential usefulness as a diagnostic index which should be explored. Therefore, we measured washout rates of rat brain after vasodilator acetazolamide loading to investigate the possible effects of blood flow on washout. Six rat brains were irradiated by a radioisotope 11C beam and time activity curves on the whole brains were obtained with a small single-ring OpenPET prototype. Then, washout rates were calculated with the Mizuno model, where two washout rates (k 2m and k 2s ) were assumed, and a two-compartment model including efflux from tissue to blood (k 2) and influx (k 3) and efflux (k 4) between the two tissue compartments. Before the irradiations, we used laser-Doppler flowmetry to confirm that acetazolamide increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a rat. We compared means of k 2m , k 2s and k 2, k 3 and k 4 without acetazolamide loading (Rest) and with acetazolamide loading (ACZ). For all k values, ACZ values were lower than Rest values. In other words, though CBF increased, washout rates were decreased. This may be attributed to the implanted 11C reacting to form 11CO2. Because acetazolamide increased the concentration of CO2 in brain, suppressed diffusion of 11CO2 and decomposition of 11CO2 into ions were prevented.

  3. Effect of 4-week feeding of deoxynivalenol- or T-2-toxin-contaminated diet on lipid peroxidation and glutathione redox system in the hepatopancreas of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pelyhe, Csilla; Kövesi, Benjámin; Zándoki, Erika; Kovács, Balázs; Szabó-Fodor, Judit; Mézes, Miklós; Balogh, Krisztián

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of T-2 toxin (4.11 mg T-2 toxin and 0.45 mg HT-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) and deoxynivalenol (5.96 and 0.33 mg 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (DON) kg(-1) feed) in 1-year-old common carp juveniles in a 4-week feeding trial. The exposure of mycotoxins resulted in increased mortality in both groups consuming mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Parameters of lipid peroxidation were not affected during the trial, and antioxidant defence also did not show response to oxidative stress; however, glutatione peroxidase activity slightly, but significantly, decreased in the T-2 toxin group. Glutathione S-transferase activity showed moderate decrease as effect of T-2 toxin, which suggests its effect on xenobiotic transformation. Reduced glutathione concentration showed moderate changes as effect of DON exposure, but T-2 toxin has no effect. Expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) genes showed different response to mycotoxin exposure. T-2 toxin caused dual response in the expression of gpx4a (early and late downregulation and mid-term upregulation), but continuous upregulation was found as effect of deoxynivalenol. Expression of the other gene, gpx4b, was upregulated by both trichothecenes during the whole period. The results suggested that trichothecenes have some effect on free radical formation and antioxidant defence, but the changes depend on the duration of exposure and the dose applied, and in case of glutathione peroxidase, there was no correlation between expression of genes and enzyme activity.

  4. Reverse and pseudo redistribution of thallium-201 in healed myocardial infarction and normal and negative thallium-201 washout in ischemia due to background oversubtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, J.L.; Raff, U.; Jain, R.

    1988-09-15

    While the interpolative background subtraction used in quantitative planar thallium scanning can significantly overestimate the background overlying the heart, the effects of background oversubtraction on quantitative analysis have not been well defined. A mathematical model that relates myocardial washout determined using interpolative background subtraction to true myocardial washout is presented. The model was validated using phantoms and applied to myocardial and pulmonary thallium kinetic data in 100 patients, 85 with and 15 without coronary artery disease. The model showed that when using interpolative background subtraction, measured washout equals true washout in normally perfused myocardium; however, depending on the relation between myocardial and pulmonary thallium clearance, myocardial washout in ischemic regions and areas of infarction can be substantially over- or underestimated. Based on generally accepted quantitative criteria, this incorrect washout determination can at times lead to misdiagnosis of infarction as ischemia and ischemia as normally perfused tissue. It can also cause both ''reverse redistribution'' and ''pseudo redistribution'' of thallium in myocardial infarction in the absence of a physiologic basis.

  5. 1980 Volvo award winner in basic science. Nutritional pathways of the intervertebral disc. An experimental study using hydrogen washout technique.

    PubMed

    Ogata, K; Whiteside, L A

    1981-01-01

    The pathways of material transfer to the intervertebral disc were studied in adult dogs by measuring diffusion of hydrogen molecules in the nucleus pulposus before and after disruption of the route through the annulus fibrosus and before and after disruption of the end-plate route. The interfaces was only in the central two-thirds of one side, caused significantly greater decrease in the rate of hydrogen washout than the disruption of the annulus route. Histologically, the bone-cartilage interface was frequently perforated by marrow cavity and vascular buds. These findings suggest that the end-plate route is a major pathway for material transfer to the intervertebral disc.

  6. Visualization of inert gas wash-out during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation using fluorine-19 MRI.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ursula; Scholz, Alexander; Terekhov, Maxim; Koebrich, Rainer; David, Matthias; Schreiber, Laura Maria

    2010-11-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation is looked upon as a lung-protective ventilation strategy. For a further clarification of the physical processes promoting gas transport, a visualization of gas flow and the distribution of ventilation are of considerable interest. Therefore, fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging of the imaging gas octafluorocyclobutane (C(4) F(8) ) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation was performed in five healthy pigs. For that, a mutually compatible ventilation-imaging system was set up and transverse images were acquired every 5 sec using FLASH sequences on a 1.5 T scanner. Despite a drop in signal-to-noise ratio after the onset of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, for each pig, the four experiments could be analyzed. A mean wash-out time (τ) at 5 Hz of 52.7 ± 18 sec and 125.9 ± 39 sec at 10 Hz, respectively, were found for regions of interest including the whole lung. This is in agreement with the clinical findings, in that wash-out of respiratory gases is significantly prolonged for increased high-frequency oscillatory ventilation frequencies. Our study could be a good starting-point for a further optimization of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

  7. Results from Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus with a Space Suit Ventilation Test Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; Kanne, Bryan; McMillin, Summer; Vonau, Walt; Swickrath, Mike

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) to meet the needs of a new NASA advanced space suit. The PLSS is one of the most critical aspects of the space suit providing the necessary oxygen, ventilation, and thermal protection for an astronaut performing a spacewalk. The ventilation subsystem in the PLSS must provide sufficient carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and ensure that the CO2 is washed away from the oronasal region of the astronaut. CO2 washout is a term used to describe the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the astronaut. Accumulation of CO2 in the helmet or throughout the ventilation loop could cause the suited astronaut to experience hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide in the blood). A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) integrated with a space suit ventilation test loop was designed, developed, and assembled at NASA in order to experimentally validate adequate CO2 removal throughout the PLSS ventilation subsystem and to quantify CO2 washout performance under various conditions. The test results from this integrated system will be used to validate analytical models and augment human testing. This paper presents the system integration of the PLSS ventilation test loop with the SMTA including the newly developed regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine component used for CO2 removal and tidal breathing capability to emulate the human. The testing and analytical results of the integrated system are presented along with future work.

  8. Preparation of hydroxyapatite/collagen injectable bone paste with an anti-washout property utilizing sodium alginate. Part 1: influences of excess supplementation of calcium compounds.

    PubMed

    Sato, Taira; Kikuchi, Masanori; Aizawa, Mamoru

    2017-03-01

    The anti-washout property, viscosity, and cytocompatibility to an osteoblastic cell line, MG-63, of anti-washout pastes were investigated. Mixing a hydroxyapatite/collagen bone-like nanocomposite (HAp/Col), an aqueous solution of sodium alginate (Na-Alg), which is a paste hardening and lubricant agent, and supplementation of calcium carbonate or calcium citrate (Ca-Cit) as a calcium resource for the hardening reaction realized an injectable bone paste. Adding Ca-Cit at a concentration greater than eight times the Ca(2+) ion concentration to Na-Alg improved the anti-washout property. Although the viscosity test indicated a gradual increase in the paste viscosity as the calcium compounds increased, pastes with excess supplementation of calcium compounds exhibited injectability through a syringe with a 1.8 mm inner diameter, realizing an injectable bone filler. Furthermore, the anti-washout pastes with Ca-Cit had almost the same cell proliferation rate as that of the HAp/Col dense body. Therefore, HAp/Col injectable anti-washout pastes composed of the HAp/Col, Na-Alg, and Ca-Cit are potential candidates for bioresorbable bone filler pastes.

  9. Characterization of an artificial valve flow using the numerical dye washout visualization technique: application to the monoleaflet valve with purged flow.

    PubMed

    Goubergrits, Leonid; Timmel, Tobias; Affeld, Klaus; Petz, Christoph; Stalling, Detlev; Hege, Hans Christian

    2006-08-01

    Until today, no ideal heart valve prosthesis for the replacement of a diseased natural valve or for use in ventricular assist devices exists. Valves still cause thromboembolic complications originating from thrombus formations in the valve's stagnant zones. Optimization of valve design involves avoiding stagnation zones and zones of high shear stresses. This requires detailed flow field investigations. Usually, the regions which are more prone to thrombus formation can be estimated using a dye washout experiment. The method allows an assessment of regions with a high or low residence time that may in turn predict regions with a corresponding thrombus risk. This successful experimental method was simulated using numerical methods with a combination of the computational fluid dynamics program FLUENT (Fluent Inc., Lebanon, NH, USA) and of the visualization tool AMIRA (TGS Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). The numerical dye washout visualization was applied to four monoleaflet valves with varying valve housing geometries. The results show a significant difference in the washout processes of the examined valves. The dye washout was characterized by a time course of the gray value averaged over a defined region of interest. Finally, these curves were quantified by a half dye time. The half dye time in the best optimized valve was only 0.2753 s. The same time in the original valve was 0.6834 s. This study shows that the proposed numerical method of dye washout visualization can be used as an additional tool of the flow characterization in artificial organs.

  10. Acrylamide-induced carcinogenicity in mouse lung involves mutagenicity: cII gene mutations in the lung of big blue mice exposed to acrylamide and glycidamide for up to 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Guo, Li-Wu; Shelton, Sharon D; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-06-01

    Potential health risks for humans from exposure to acrylamide (AA) and its epoxide metabolite glycidamide (GA) have garnered much attention lately because substantial amounts of AA are present in a variety of fried and baked starchy foods. AA is tumorigenic in rodents, and a large number of in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that AA is genotoxic. A recent cancer bioassay on AA demonstrated that the lung was one of the target organs for tumor induction in mice; however, the mutagenicity of AA in this tissue is unclear. Therefore, to investigate whether or not gene mutation is involved in the etiology of AA- or GA-induced mouse lung carcinogenicity, we screened for cII mutant frequency (MF) in lungs from male and female Big Blue (BB) mice administered 0, 1.4, and 7.0 mM AA or GA in drinking water for up to 4 weeks (19-111 mg/kg bw/days). Both doses of AA and GA produced significant increases in cII MFs, with the high doses producing responses 2.7-5.6-fold higher than the corresponding controls (P ≤ 0.05; control MFs = 17.2 ± 2.2 and 15.8 ± 3.5 × 10(-6) in males and females, respectively). Molecular analysis of the mutants from high doses indicated that AA and GA produced similar mutation spectra and that these spectra were significantly different from the spectra in control mice (P ≤ 0.01). The predominant types of mutations in the lung cII gene from AA- and GA-treated mice were A:T → T:A, and G:C → C:G transversions, and -1/+1 frameshifts at a homopolymeric run of Gs. The MFs and types of mutations induced by AA and GA in the lung are consistent with AA exerting its genotoxicity via metabolism to GA. These results suggest that AA is a mutagenic carcinogen in mouse lungs and therefore further studies on its potential health risk to humans are warranted. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:446-456, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The effect of intermittent use of occlusal splint devices on sleep bruxism: a 4-week observation with a portable electromyographic recording device.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, H; Tsukiyama, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Koyano, K

    2015-04-01

    This randomised controlled study investigated the effect of intermittent use of occlusal splints on sleep bruxism compared with that of continuous use by measuring masseter muscle electromyographic activity using a portable electromyographic recording system. Twenty bruxers were randomly allocated to the continuous group and intermittent group. Subjects in the continuous group wore stabilisation splints during sleep for 29 nights continuously, whereas those in the intermittent group wore splints during sleep every other week, that is they used splints on the 1st-7th, 15th-21st and 29th nights. Electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle during sleep was recorded for the following six time points: before (baseline), immediately after, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after the insertion of a stabilisation splint. The number of nocturnal masseter electromyographic events, duration and the total activity of sleep bruxism were analysed. In the continuous group, nocturnal masseter electromyographic events were significantly reduced immediately and 1 week after the insertion of the stabilisation splint, and duration was reduced immediately after the insertion (P < 0·05, Dunnett's test), but no reduction was observed at 2, 3 and 4 weeks after insertion. In the intermittent group, nocturnal masseter electromyographic events and duration were significantly reduced immediately after and also 4 weeks after insertion of the stabilisation splint (P < 0·05, Dunnett's test). The obtained results of the present exploratory trial indicate that the intermittent use of stabilisation splints may reduce sleep bruxism activity for a longer period compared with that of continuous use.

  12. Calcitonin measurement in fine-needle aspirate washouts vs. cytologic examination for diagnosis of primary or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Crea, C; Raffaelli, M; Maccora, D; Carrozza, C; Canu, G; Fadda, G; Bellantone, R; Lombardi, C P

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) is able to detect approximately 63% of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The measurement of calcitonin in the needle washout (FNAB-CT) could improve its accuracy. Sixty-two FNAB-C were performed in 38 patients. Serum calcitonin (sCT) was measured before performing FNAB-C. After obtaining a FNAB-C specimen, the needle was washed with 0.5 ml of saline solution to obtain the CT washouts. Receiver operating characteristic (RO C) analysis identified the cut-offs of FNAB-CT and FNAB-CT/sCT. Eighteen MTC were found at final histology. RO C analysis indicated FNAB-CT > 10.4 pg/ml and FNABCT/ sCT > 1.39 as more accurate cut-off values. Overall accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 85%, 100 and 83%, respectively, for FNAB-C, 97%, 100%, 96% for FNAB-CT and 90%, 83% and 93% for FNAB-CT/sCT. The integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT resulted in 98% overall accuracy, 100% PPV and 98% NPV; the integration of FNAB-C and FNAB-CT/sCT in 90% overall accuracy, 80% PPV and 95% NPV. One of 2 false negative FNAB-CT and one of 3 false negative FNAB CT/sCT were correctly diagnosed by FNAB-C. Eight of 9 non-diagnostic FNAB-C were correctly classified by FNAB-CT and 7 by FNAB CT/sCT. FNAB-CT should integrate but not replace FNAB-C. FNAB-CT is particularly useful in the presence of non-diagnostic FNAB-C.

  13. The effect of gas exchange on multiple-breath nitrogen washout measures of ventilation inhomogeneity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Dharmakumara, Mahesh; Prisk, G Kim; Royce, Simon G; Tawhai, Merryn; Thompson, Bruce R

    2014-11-01

    Inert-gas washout measurements using oxygen, in the lungs of small animals, are complicated by the continuous process of oxygen consumption (V̇o2). The multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) technique uses the alveolar slope to determine measures of ventilation inhomogeneity in the acinar (Sacin) and conducting (Scond) airway regions, as well as overall inhomogeneity, as determined by the lung clearance index (LCI). We hypothesized that measured ventilation inhomogeneity in the mouse lung while it is alive is in fact an artifact due to the high V̇o2 in proportion to alveolar gas volume (Va), and not ventilation inhomogeneity per se. In seven male C57BL/6 mice, MBNW was performed alive and postmortem to derive measures with and without the effect of gas exchange, respectively. These results were compared with those obtained from an asymmetric multibranch point mathematical model of the mouse lung. There was no statistical difference in Sacin and LCI between alive and postmortem results (Sacin alive = 0.311 ± 0.043 ml(-1) and Sacin postmortem = 0.338 ± 0.032 ml(-1), LCI alive = 7.0 ± 0.1 and LCI postmortem = 7.0 ± 0.1). However, there was a significant decrease in Scond from 0.086 ± 0.005 ml(-1) alive to 0.006 ± 0.002 ml(-1) postmortem (P < 0.01). Model simulations replicated these results. Furthermore, in the model, as V̇o2 increased, so did the alveolar slope. These findings suggests that the MBNW measurement of Scond in the mouse lung is confounded by the effect of gas exchange, a result of the high V̇o2-to-Va ratio in this small animal, and not due to inhomogeneity within the airways.

  14. Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jin Woo; Chung, Sun Yong; Kim, Sang Young; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a meridian-based psychological therapy. The present clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of EFT as a new treatment option for Hwabyung (HB) patients experiencing anger and compares the efficacy to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR), the conventional meditation technique. Methods. The EFT and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) methods were performed on 27 HB patients, and their capacities to alleviate anxiety, anger, and emotional status were compared. After a 4-week program, a survey was conducted; patients then completed a self-training program for 4 weeks, followed by a second survey. Results. During the initial 4 weeks, the EFT group experienced a significant decrease in the HB symptom scale, anger state, and paranoia ideation (p < 0.05). Over the entire 9-week interval, there were significant decreases in the HB symptom scale, anxiety state, anger state, anger trait, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and so on in EFT group (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The EFT group showed improved psychological symptoms and physical symptoms greater than those observed in the PMR group. EFT more effectively alleviated HB symptoms compared to PMR. EFT group showed better maintenance during self-training, suggesting good model of self-control treatment in HB patients.

  15. Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jin Woo; Chung, Sun Yong; Kim, Sang Young; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, Jong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a meridian-based psychological therapy. The present clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of EFT as a new treatment option for Hwabyung (HB) patients experiencing anger and compares the efficacy to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR), the conventional meditation technique. Methods. The EFT and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) methods were performed on 27 HB patients, and their capacities to alleviate anxiety, anger, and emotional status were compared. After a 4-week program, a survey was conducted; patients then completed a self-training program for 4 weeks, followed by a second survey. Results. During the initial 4 weeks, the EFT group experienced a significant decrease in the HB symptom scale, anger state, and paranoia ideation (p < 0.05). Over the entire 9-week interval, there were significant decreases in the HB symptom scale, anxiety state, anger state, anger trait, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and so on in EFT group (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The EFT group showed improved psychological symptoms and physical symptoms greater than those observed in the PMR group. EFT more effectively alleviated HB symptoms compared to PMR. EFT group showed better maintenance during self-training, suggesting good model of self-control treatment in HB patients. PMID:26539218

  16. Different milk feeding intensities during the first 4 weeks of rearing in dairy calves: Part 1: Effects on performance and production from birth over the first lactation.

    PubMed

    Korst, M; Koch, C; Kesser, J; Müller, U; Romberg, F-J; Rehage, J; Eder, K; Sauerwein, H

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to test the effects of ad libitum feeding of whole milk (WM) or milk replacer (MR) versus restrictive feeding of MR during the first 4 wk of life on growth performance and on milk yield in the first lactation. We studied 57 German Holstein calves (29 females, 28 males) from birth until d 110 of life (trial 1). The 28 females from trial 1 were further studied during their first lactation (trial 2). In trial 1, all calves were randomly allocated at birth to 1 of 3 groups: MR-res [n = 20, 6.78 kg MR (11.5% solids)/calf per day], MR-ad lib (n = 17, 13.8% solids) or WM-ad lib (n = 20). All calves received colostrum ad libitum from their dam until d 3 of age. From d 4 to 27, calves were fed according to their group regimen. From d 28 to 55, all calves received MR-res feeding and were then gradually weaned until d 69. We recorded body weight (until d 110) and feed intake (amount, metabolizable energy, and frequency of liquid feed intake until weaning). We estimated the profitability of the different feeding regimens, taking into account income from milk yield (trial 2) and feed costs during rearing. In trial 1, the calves from WM-ad lib and MR-ad lib had total metabolizable energy intakes 2.02- and 1.65-fold greater than the MR-res group during the first 4 wk of life. During this period, concentrate intake did not differ among groups, but tended to be greater in WM-ad lib than in MR-ad lib calves from d 28 to 69. The MR-res calves visited the automatic feeders more often than the ad libitum-fed groups during differential feeding, but 70% of the visits were unrewarded (<10% in the ad libitum-fed calves). When all calves were fed at the MR-res level, the average proportion of unrewarded visits was 65% in all groups. Average daily gain and body weight were greater among MR-ad lib and WM-ad lib calves than among MR-res animals during the first 4 wk of life, but not from d 1 to 110. In trial 2, age at first calving, dry matter intake, and body weight over the first 10

  17. Special Report on the Data Collection Programs for the Ground Based Nitrogen Washout Experiment. Volume 2 - Detailed Program Descriptions, Listings, Examples and Hardware Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Personal data input, decompression data, nitrogen washout, nitrogen data, and update computer programs are described. Input data and formats; program output, reports, and data; program flowcharts; program listings; sample runs with input and output pages; hardware operation; and engineering data are provided.

  18. 4-Week Gluten-Free Meal Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... and jam Grapes with 1-2 boiled eggs Quinoa Fiesta Salad Glazed Meatloaf with baked beans Side ... green bell peppers (Su, Tu, W) Scallions (Su) Quinoa (Su) Vanilla extract (dessert) White sugar (Sa) Sweet ...

  19. Risk assessment for the Explosive Washout Lagoons (Site 4), Umatilla Depot Activity Hermiston, Oregon. Final report, Mar 91-Mar 92

    SciTech Connect

    Leinbach, A.; Enright, A.M.; Eaton, W.; Lemont, S.

    1992-03-01

    This document is the Risk Assessment (RA) for the Explosive Washout Lagoons (Site 4) at Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA). The purpose of this RA is to address the potential future health risks posed by explosives-contaminated soil and groundwater associated with Site 4 in the absence of remediation, and to identify safe residual explosives concentrations (remedial action criteria) in soil if remediation is determined to be a requirement. This RA is not intended to address the remediation of contaminated groundwater; contaminated groundwater is addressed only to the extent that contaminants in Site 4 soil are affecting groundwater quality. The potential remediation of contaminated groundwater will be addressed in the installation-wide Baseline RA for UMDA. Based on the available data, explosives contamination appears to be widespread in soil near the lagoons and in groundwater at distances of over 650 yards from the lagoons. Three future land use scenarios-residential, light industrial, and military-and four potential future exposure pathways-soil ingestion, dust inhalation, dermal contact with soil, and groundwater ingestion-were evaluated in the RA to estimate potential future carcinogenic hazards. The results of RA indicate that remediation may be a requirement for soil at Site 4; therefore, remedial action criteria for soil were developed.

  20. Effect of elastase or histamine on single-breath N/sub 2/ washouts in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Likens, S.A.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method for performing single-breath N/sub 2/ washouts (SBNW) in rats was developed and the test's usefulness was studied using two experimentally induced models of lung disease. Rats were anesthetized, intubated with oral tracheal and esophageal catheters, and tested by plethysmography. The SBNW expirogram was recorded during exhalation after inhaling 100% O/sub 2/ from residual volume. The slope of phase III (slope III), closing volume (CV), and closing capacity (CC) were calculated. Changes in the SBNW expirogram were compared with changes in breathing pattern, dynamic and quasistatic lung mechanics, lung volumes, and forced expiratory indices. Pre- and postinstillation tests were performed on rats treated with elastase or histamine and on untreated controls. The SBNW indices were altered at significance levels equal to those of other indices of lung function, and different patterns of change were induced by the two disease models. Elastase increased CV and CC, but slope III was unchanged. Other tests suggested loss of elastic recoil and expiratory flow limitation. Histamine increased slope III, but CV and CC were unchanged. Other tests suggested large airway constriction. These results suggested the usefulness of the SBNW in rats, but the relationships between SBNW changes and underlying physiological phenomena remain to be defined.

  1. Prevalence of Shunt Dependency and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Massive Intraventricular Haemorrhage Treated with Endoscopic Washout and External Ventricular Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jason Raj; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Alias, Azmi; Haspani, Mohammad Saffari Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background Intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) causes blockage of ventricular conduits leading to hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and a reduced level of consciousness. The current standard management of IVH is insertion of an external ventricular drainage (EVD) catheter. However, this procedure addresses only the problems of acute hydrocephalus and raised ICP. Endoscopic washout allows for a more complete removal of the intraventricular clot. This study compared these two types of treatment in terms of shunt dependency and relevant clinical outcomes. Methods Patients who were 10–80 years old and presented with a Graeb score of more than six were randomised into endoscopic washout and EVD treatment groups. A CT brain was repeated on each patient within 24 hours after surgery, and if a patient’s Graeb score was still more than six, a repeat endoscopic washout was performed to clear the remaining clots. All patients were monitored for shunt dependency at two weeks and three months, and clinical outcomes were measured at six months after the procedure. Results A total of 39 patients were recruited; 19 patients were randomised into the endoscopic washout group, and 20 were randomised into the EVD group. However, three patients in the endoscopic group refused that treatment and opted for EVD insertion. Patients treated with endoscopic washout had significantly less drainage dependency at two weeks (P < 0.005) and at three months (P < 0.004) as compared to patients in the external ventricular drainage group. The reduction in Graeb scores was also significantly greater in the endoscopic washout group (P < 0.001). However, the functional outcome at six months measured via a modified Rankin scale score was no different in the two groups of patients. The difference in the functional outcome of the patients was mainly dependent on the initial pathology, with those presenting with a thalamic bleed with IVH showing a poor functional outcome. This

  2. Preventing a Washout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poindexter, Dave

    1996-01-01

    Offers ideas for locating a roof leak. Discusses why many leaks originate in the roof's base flashings and the importance of knowing the roof's material makeup. Advocates keeping a roof-leak history and gives advice on performing inspections to check for leaks. Discusses how to find small holes in roofs. (RJM)

  3. Use of arterial to equilibrium enhancement washout to predict viability in liver cancers treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Hye Young; Park, Hyunjin

    2013-04-01

    Liver cancers are very common in Korea and Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is commonly used to diagnose them. This study improves the diagnosis of liver cancer by using a novel parametric image combining various phases of dynamic CT imaging. The objective of this study is to investigate the diagnostic value of arterial to equilibrium enhancement washout (AEEW) obtained by image registration and dynamic subtraction in predicting tumor viability in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Forty patients who had forty-seven iodized-oil defect areas (IODAs) in HCCs treated with TACE were included. These patients were divided into two groups, one group with viable tumors (n = 27) and the other group with non-viable tumors (n = 20) in the IODAs. All the patients underwent triple-phase CT before and after TACE. The attenuation differences of the IODAs between the arterial and the equilibrium phases were measured and compared between two groups. Quantitative AEEW color maps of the whole liver were created from the triple-phase CT image by using prototype research software. Two radiologists independently analyzed following two sets of image: one with standard tri-phase CT images and the other with tri-phase CT images and quantitative AEEW color map images. The diagnostic performances in terms of mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying viable or non-viable tumors by using quantitative AEEW color map images in addition to tri-phase CT was larger than the performance obtained using tri-phase CT only. In conclusion, quantitative AEEW color map images improve the diagnostic performances of multiphasic CT for determining the viability of the IODA in a HCC treated with TACE.

  4. Novel methodology to perform sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)-based multiple-breath wash-in and washout in infants using current commercially available equipment.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, P M; Robinson, P D; Lindblad, A; Oberli, D

    2016-11-01

    Multiple-breath inert gas washout (MBW) is ideally suited for early detection and monitoring of serious lung disease, such as cystic fibrosis, in infants and young children. Validated commercial options for the MBW technique are limited, and suitability of nitrogen (N2)-based MBW is of concern given the detrimental effect of exposure to pure O2 on infant breathing pattern. We propose novel methodology using commercially available N2 MBW equipment to facilitate 4% sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) multiple-breath inert gas wash-in and washout suitable for the infant age range. CO2, O2, and sidestream molar mass sensor signals were used to accurately calculate SF6 concentrations. An improved dynamic method for synchronization of gas and respiratory flow was developed to take into account variations in sidestream sample flow during MBW measurement. In vitro validation of triplicate functional residual capacity (FRC) assessments was undertaken under dry ambient conditions using lung models ranging from 90 to 267 ml, with tidal volumes of 28-79 ml, and respiratory rates 20-60 per minute. The relative mean (SD, 95% confidence interval) error of triplicate FRC determinations by washout was -0.26 (1.84, -3.86 to +3.35)% and by wash-in was 0.57 (2.66, -4.66 to +5.79)%. The standard deviations [mean (SD)] of percentage error among FRC triplicates were 1.40 (1.14) and 1.38 (1.32) for washout and wash-in, respectively. The novel methodology presented achieved FRC accuracy as outlined by current MBW consensus recommendations (95% of measurements within 5% accuracy). Further clinical evaluation is required, but this new technique, using existing commercially available equipment, has exciting potential for research and clinical use.

  5. Determination of the subcutaneous tissue to blood partition coefficient in patients with severe leg ischaemia by a double isotope washout technique.

    PubMed

    Bjerre-Jepsen, K; Faris, I; Henriksen, O; Tønnesen, K H

    1982-12-01

    Knowledge of the tissue to blood partition coefficient (lambda) is essential for calculation of the perfusion coefficient in a single tissue based on measurements of the washout of locally injected isotopes. No measurements of lambda for Xenon in subcutaneous tissue in the leg have been done in patients with occlusive arterial disease. In 12 patients with occlusive arterial disease in the legs lambda for Xenon was determined in subcutaneous tissue in the calf region and foot as the ratio between the washout rate constant of 131I-Antipyrine and 133Xe. A mixture of the two indicators was injected subcutaneously laterally on the calf and in the first interosseous space on the foot. The time until the curves followed a monoexponential course varied between 15 and 45 min in the calf and 5 and 45 min in the foot. The calculated lambda for Xe showed a great variance between individuals in calf as well as foot. Mean value was 3.7 ml X g-1 (range: 1 X 7-10 X 7) in the calf and 2 X 7 ml X g-1 (range: 1 X 2-4 X 9) in the foot. It is concluded that lambda measurements are necessary for determination of subcutaneous blood flow from 133Xe washout curves in these patients. Determination of lambda is especially important when comparisons are made between individuals.

  6. An open-label, randomized, controlled, 4-week comparative clinical trial of barnidipine hydrochloride, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zheng, F; Chen, P; Tang, L; Wei, R; Yu, Y; Su, Y; Kikkawa, T; Yamamoto, M

    2006-01-01

    This study compared barnidipine, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in 85 Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension (diastolic blood pressure range 95 - 110 mmHg). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg barnidipine or 10 mg benazepril orally daily for 4 weeks. In patients with diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg after 2 weeks of treatment, the dose of barnidipine or benazepril was increased by 5 or 10 mg, respectively. Both the barnidipine-treated group (n = 43) and the benazepril-treated group (n = 42) showed significant mean reductions from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure with benazepril was significantly greater than with barnidipine treatment. Sitting heart rate was not changed by either drug. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. Barnidipine is similar to benazepril for the treatment of renal parenchymal hypertension.

  7. Relationships between increased aqueous outflow facility during washout with the changes in hydrodynamic pattern and morphology in bovine aqueous outflow pathways.

    PubMed

    Scott, Patrick A; Lu, Zhaozeng; Liu, Ye; Gong, Haiyan

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that the structural correlate for the increased outflow facility (C) during washout in the bovine eye is separation between the inner wall (IW) and underlying juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT). However, how these structural changes affect hydrodynamic patterns of outflow during washout has not been studied. We hypothesize that an increase in the outflow facility during washout is associated with an increase in the effective filtration area (EFA) of aqueous outflow, which is regulated by a loss of the connectivity between the IW and JCT. To test this hypothesis, the relationship between C and the hydrodynamic patterns of outflow as well as the morphological changes in JCT and IW during the washout were investigated. Ten bovine eyes were perfused at 15 mmHg with Dulbecco's PBS + 5.5 mM glucose (DPBS) for 30 min to establish stable baseline C. After measuring baseline C, five eyes (short-duration group) were perfused with 0.5 mL DPBS containing 0.002% microspheres (0.5 microm) to trace the hydrodynamic pattern of outflow. Five other eyes (long-duration group) were perfused for 3 h to elicit a significant washout effect followed by subsequent perfusion of the same volume (0.5 mL) of microspheres to map out the outflow pattern after washout. All eyes were then perfusion-fixed. Anterior segments were sectioned and prepared for confocal and light microscopy. Total length (TL) and filtration length (FL) of the IW were measured in > or =15 images/eye to calculate percent effective filtration length (PEFL = FL/TL) while TL and length exhibiting JCT/IW separation (SL) were measured in > or =13 images/eye to calculate percent separation length (PSL = SL/TL). In long-duration eyes, C increased 170.5 +/- 21.3% (mean +/- SEM, 1.55 +/- 0.24 vs 4.13 +/- 0.55 microl/min/mmHg, p = 0.001) above baseline. Pre-fixation C (4.13 +/- 0.55 microl/min/mmHg) in long-duration was 1.6-fold greater than that (2.14 +/- 0.61 microl/min/mmHg; p = 0.042) in short

  8. Comprehensive integrated spirometry using raised volume passive and forced expirations and multiple-breath nitrogen washout in infants.

    PubMed

    Morris, Mohy G

    2010-02-28

    With the rapid somatic growth and development in infants, simultaneous accurate measurements of lung volume and airway function are essential. Raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RTC) is widely used to generate forced expiration from an airway opening pressure of 30 cmH(2)O (V(30)). The (dynamic) functional residual capacity (FRC(dyn)) remains the lung volume most routinely measured. The aim of this study was to develop comprehensive integrated spirometry that included all subdivisions of lung volume at V(30) or total lung capacity (TLC(30)). Measurements were performed on 17 healthy infants aged 8.6-119.7 weeks. A commercial system for multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) to measure lung volumes and a custom made system to perform RTC were used in unison. A refined automated raised volume RTC and the following two novel single maneuvers with dual volume measurements were performed from V(30) during a brief post-hyperventilation apneic pause: (1) the passive expiratory flow was integrated to produce the inspiratory capacity (IC) and the static (passive) FRC (FRC(st)) was estimated by initiating MBNW after end-passive expiration; (2) RTC was initiated late during passive expiration, flow was integrated to produce the slow vital capacity ((j)SVC) and the residual volume (RV) was measured by initiating MBNW after end-expiration while the jacket (j) was inflated. Intrasubject FRC(dyn) and FRC(st) measurements overlapped (p=0.6420) but neither did with the RV (p<0.0001). Means (95% confidence interval) of FRC(dyn), IC, FRC(st), (j)SVC, RV, forced vital capacity and tidal volume were 21.2 (19.7-22.7), 36.7 (33.0-40.4), 21.2 (19.6-22.8), 40.7 (37.2-44.2), 18.1 (16.6-19.7), 40.7 (37.1-44.2) and 10.2 (9.6-10.7)ml/kg, respectively. Static lung volumes and capacities at V(30) and variables from the best forced expiratory flow-volume curve were dependent on age, body length and weight. In conclusion, we developed a comprehensive physiologically integrated

  9. Organophosphate Related Alterations in Myelin and Axonal Transport in the Living Mammalian Brain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    a third scan after a 4 week (OP-free) washout period. For each animal, a separate 6 hour and 24 hour scan was performed after Mn2+ eye injection...third scan was performed after a 4 week (OP-free) washout period (after the third and final Mg2+ eye injection) in each animal. 5. For each animal a...performed on the day following the last drug injection (after another Mg2+ eye injection) in each animal. 4. A third scan was performed after a 4 week (OP

  10. The relationship between inert gas wash-out and radioactive tracer microspheres in measurement of bone blood flow: effect of decreased arterial supply and venous congestion on bone blood flow in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Kiaer, T; Dahl, B; Lausten, G S

    1993-01-01

    Several methods have been employed in the study of bone perfusion. We used a method of determining inert gas wash-out by mass spectrometry in the study of blood flow rates in pigs. The method was validated by comparison of the result obtained with inert gas wash-out to that with measurement by microspheres. Furthermore, the effect of decreased inlet flow and venous congestion on the bone perfusion data was tested. The undisturbed bone blood flow was not significantly different when measured with wash-out of inert gas (7 +/- 0.7 ml/min/100 g) or with microspheres (9 +/- 2.9 ml/min/100 g), and the methods were correlated. Perfusion was reduced significantly, to 20% of the original value, after arterial occlusion. The changes in wash-out curves and accumulation of radioactive tracer provided substantial evidence for impaired intraosseous circulation following venous obstruction also. In conclusion, the study showed that this method of determining inert gas wash-out is feasible for studies of local perfusion rates in bone. The flow rates obtained by wash-out correlated well with the results of microsphere studies. In this animal model, both methods detected a fivefold reduction in flow rate after clamping of the arterial inflow. Obstruction of the venous outflow also impaired blood flow and lowered the cellular supply.

  11. Isotropic, anisotropic, and borehole washout analyses in Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II, Alaminos Canyon well 21-A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2012-01-01

    Through the use of three-dimensional seismic amplitude mapping, several gas hydrate prospects were identified in the Alaminos Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico. Two of the prospects were drilled as part of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Program Leg II in May 2009, and a suite of logging-while-drilling logs was acquired at each well site. Logging-while-drilling logs at the Alaminos Canyon 21–A site indicate that resistivities of approximately 2 ohm-meter and P-wave velocities of approximately 1.9 kilometers per second were measured in a possible gas-hydrate-bearing target sand interval between 540 and 632 feet below the sea floor. These values are slightly elevated relative to those measured in the hydrate-free sediment surrounding the sands. The initial well log analysis is inconclusive in determining the presence of gas hydrate in the logged sand interval, mainly because large washouts in the target interval degraded well log measurements. To assess gas-hydrate saturations, a method of compensating for the effect of washouts on the resistivity and acoustic velocities is required. To meet this need, a method is presented that models the washed-out portion of the borehole as a vertical layer filled with seawater (drilling fluid). Owing to the anisotropic nature of this geometry, the apparent anisotropic resistivities and velocities caused by the vertical layer are used to correct measured log values. By incorporating the conventional marine seismic data into the well log analysis of the washout-corrected well logs, the gas-hydrate saturation at well site AC21–A was estimated to be in the range of 13 percent. Because gas hydrates in the vertical fractures were observed, anisotropic rock physics models were also applied to estimate gas-hydrate saturations.

  12. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  13. Absence of in vivo genotoxicity of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and associated fatty acid esters in a 4-week comprehensive toxicity study using F344 gpt delta rats.

    PubMed

    Onami, Saeko; Cho, Young-Man; Toyoda, Takeshi; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Honma, Masamitsu; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2014-07-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is regarded as a rat renal and testicular carcinogen and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by International Agency for Research on Cancer. This is potentially of great importance given that esters of this compound have recently found to be generated in many foods and food ingredients as a result of food processing. There have been a few reports about their toxicity, although we have recently found that the toxicity profile of 3-MCPD esters was similar to that of 3-MCPD in a rat 13-week repeated dose study, except for the acute renal toxicity seen in 3-MCPD-treated females. In the present study, to examine in vivo genotoxicity we administered equimolar doses of 3-MCPD or 3-MCPD fatty acid esters (palmitate diester, palmitate monoester and oleate diester) to 6-week-old male F344 gpt delta rats carrying a reporter transgene for 4 weeks by intragastric administration. In vivo micronucleus, Pig-a mutation and gpt assays were performed, as well as investigations of major toxicological parameters including histopathological features. As one result, the relative kidney weights of the 3-MCPD and all three ester groups were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control group. However, the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant red blood cells did not differ among groups. Moreover, no changes were observed in mutant frequencies of gpt and red/gam (Spi(-)) genes in the kidney and the testis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-fatty-acid-esters-treated rats. In histopathological analyses, no treatment related changes were observed, except for decrease of eosinophilic bodies in the kidneys of all treated groups. These results suggest that 3-MCPD and its fatty acid esters are not in vivo genotoxins, although they may exert renal toxicity.

  14. Assessment of Labrasol/Labrafil/Transcutol (4/4/2, v/v/v) as a non-clinical vehicle for poorly water-soluble compounds after 4-week oral toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Delongeas, J-L; de Conchard, G Vermeil; Beamonte, A; Bertheux, H; Spire, C; Maisonneuve, C; Becourt-Lhote, N; Goldfain-Blanc, F; Claude, N

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety research is frequently faced with the challenge of the selection of appropriate vehicles for use in in vivo non-clinical safety assessment studies. Reported here are the results of blend Labrasol, Labrafil and Transcutol, [L/L/T, (4/4/2, v/v/v)], excipients used as bioavailability enhancer and solubilizer for poorly water-soluble compounds and tested daily for 4 weeks by oral route in Wistar rats (10/sex/group) at dose volumes of 5, 10 or 20 mL/kg/day and compared to controls given 20 mL/kg/day of 1% (w/v) hydroxyethylcellulose in purified water. L/L/T was broadly well tolerated at 5 mL/kg/day and lethal at 20 mL/kg/day in 1 of 20 rats treated at this level. Changes in appearance and behaviour were observed from 10 mL/kg/day with volume-related incidence, severity and duration. Reduced feed intake observed from 5 (females) or 10 mL/kg/day (males) resulted in low bodyweights for high volume males only (-11% of controls). There was a volume-related induction of hepatic CYP 1A1/2, 2B1/2 and/or 2E1 subfamilies from 5 mL/kg/day, with high liver weight, centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy and high ALT, triglyceride and cholesterol serum values at 20 mL/kg/day. Renal tubular dilation in medulla, cortical cell degeneration/necrosis with granular material in adjacent glomerular spaces, crystal deposits in the inner medulla, papilla and/or renal pelvis, and tubular mineralization, associated with proteinuria and calcium oxalate crystalluria, were observed at 20 mL/kg/day as well as vacuolation in the adrenal cortex, with a sex-dependant localization. According to these results, 5 mL/kg/day was considered as an acceptable volume for further use of L/L/T (4/4/2, v/v/v) blend as a vehicle for poorly water soluble drugs in Wistar rat toxicity studies.

  15. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products Consumption as a Direct Modulator of Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Humans: A Study Protocol for a Double-Blind, Randomized, Two Period Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Courten, Maximilian PJ; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Walker, Karen Z; Forbes, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Background Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed during the processing, storage, and cooking of foods. As part of a western diet, AGEs are consumed in excess and impair glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the absence of diabetes, AGE-mediated decreases in insulin sensitivity and signaling have been postulated. However, randomized studies to test this relationship in humans are limited. Objective The primary aim of this trial is to determine whether dietary consumption of AGEs will decrease insulin sensitivity in healthy overweight adults. A secondary aim is to determine the effects of dietary AGEs on insulin secretion, circulating soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE), and inflammation markers. Methods Overweight, but otherwise healthy, non-diabetic adults (N=20) aged 18-50 years old will complete a randomized cross-over design intervention study alternating low and high (4-fold increase) AGE diets (2-week duration). At baseline, participants will undergo a medical review including an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and anthropometric measures and questionnaires assessing diet, physical activity, and general wellness. Each test diet will be followed for 14 days, followed by a 4-week washout period before commencement of the second alternate dietary period. Energy, macronutrient, and AGE intake will be calculated for each dietary period. Additionally, the AGE content of foods used in the study will be measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. All measurements will be repeated at the beginning and end of each dietary period. Primary and secondary outcomes will be expressed as a change over the dietary period for insulin sensitivity, secretion, anthropometric parameters, sRAGE, and inflammation markers and compared by paired t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The study will be completed in early 2016. Conclusion The proposed trial will provide much

  16. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  17. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  18. Disease Systems Analysis of Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Response to Alendronate, Placebo, and Washout in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Stone, JA; Verhamme, KM; Danhof, M; Post, TM

    2016-01-01

    A previously established mechanism‐based disease systems model for osteoporosis that is based on a mathematically reduced version of a model describing the interactions between osteoclast (bone removing) and osteoblast (bone forming) cells in bone remodeling has been applied to clinical data from women (n = 1,379) receiving different doses and treatment regimens of alendronate, placebo, and washout. The changes in the biomarkers, plasma bone‐specific alkaline phosphatase activity (BSAP), urinary N‐telopeptide (NTX), lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), and total hip BMD, were linked to the underlying mechanistic core of the model. The final model gave an accurate description of all four biomarkers for the different treatments. Simulations were used to visualize the dynamics of the underlying network and the natural disease progression upon alendronate treatment and discontinuation. These results complement the previous applications of this mechanism‐based disease systems model to data from various treatments for osteoporosis. PMID:27869358

  19. Use of a Cholestyramine Washout in a Patient With Septic Shock on Leflunomide Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Laub, Melissa; Fraser, Robert; Kurche, Jonathan; Lara, Abigail; Kiser, Tyree H; Reynolds, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Patients presenting with infections while receiving disease-modifying antirheumatic agents (DMARD) may be predisposed to a higher degree illness due to immunosuppression. This can be particularly problematic in patients who are receiving DMARDs with prolonged pharmacokinetic profiles. Leflunomide is a DMARD that has a prolonged half-life due to enterohepatic recirculation. We report a case of a patient with severe septic shock secondary to a prosthetic joint infection in which therapeutic levels of leflunomide were discovered, despite the patient ceasing therapy several weeks prior to admission. An orogastric cholestyramine washout was given to the patient to expedite the removal of the drug. Serum levels rapidly declined over the next several days, corresponding with resolution of her sepsis. A review of the literature relevant to the incidence of DMARD-related infections was conducted as well as discussion regarding the role of leflunomide drug monitoring and cholestyramine-facilitated removal of the drug in episodes of acute infectious syndromes.

  20. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  1. The Association between Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy and Maternal Behavior during the Neonatal Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D.; Dombkowski, Laura

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal behavior during mother-infant interactions during the neonatal period. Participants included 84 mother-infant dyads (43 cigarette-exposed and 41 nonexposed) who were recruited after birth and assessed at 2 to 4 weeks of infant age. Results indicated that…

  2. Noninvasive identification of left main and triple vessel coronary artery disease: improved accuracy using quantitative analysis of regional myocardial stress distribution and washout of thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Maddahi, J.; Abdulla, A.; Garcia, E.V.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of visual and quantitative analysis of stress redistribution thallium-201 scintigrams, exercise electrocardiography and exercise blood pressure response were compared for correct identification of extensive coronary disease, defined as left main or triple vessel coronary artery disease, or both (50% or more luminal diameter coronary narrowing), in 105 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Extensive disease was present in 56 patients and the remaining 49 had either less extensive coronary artery disease (n = 34) or normal coronary arteriograms (n = 15). Although exercise blood pressure response, exercise electrocardiography and visual thallium-201 analysis were highly specific (98, 88 and 96%, respectively), they were insensitive for identification of patients with extensive disease (14, 45 and 16%, respectively). Quantitative thallium-201 analysis significantly improved the sensitivity of visual thallium-201 analysis for identification of patients with extensive disease (from 16 to 63%, p less than 0.001) without a significant loss of specificity (96 versus 86%, p = NS). Eighteen (64%) of the 28 patients who were misclassified by visual analysis as having less extensive disease were correctly classified as having extensive disease by virtue of quantitative analysis of regional myocardial thallium-201 washout. When the results of quantitative thallium-201 analysis were combined with those of blood pressure and electrocardiographic response to exercise, the sensitivity and specificity for identification of patients with extensive disease was 86 and 76%, respectively, and the highest overall accuracy (0.82) was obtained.

  3. Effects of gravity on the circadian period in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Dean M.; Demaria, Victor H.; Fuller, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increased gravity force on the circadian period of body temperature and activity of rats was investigated using rats implanted with a small radio telemetry device and, after a 2-week recovery and a 3-week control period at 1G, rotated at for 4 weeks at a constant 2G field in a 18-ft-diam centrifuge. Measurements of the mean freerunning period of the temperature and activity rhythms after 10 days showed that the exposure to 2G led to a functional separation of the pacemakers that regulate the activity and the temperature in the animals. Each pacemaker reacted differently: the activity period increased and the temperature period decreased. By the third or the fourth week, the activity and the temperature periods have returned to 1G control levels.

  4. Different milk feeding intensities during the first 4 weeks of rearing dairy calves: Part 2: Effects on the metabolic and endocrine status during calfhood and around the first lactation.

    PubMed

    Kesser, J; Korst, M; Koch, C; Romberg, F-J; Rehage, J; Müller, U; Schmicke, M; Eder, K; Hammon, H M; Sadri, H; Sauerwein, H

    2017-04-01

    Feeding dairy calves at high intensity has been demonstrated to increase milk yield in later life. We investigated the effect of 3 different feeding regimens in the preweaning period on the metabolic and endocrine status during calfhood and in heifers at the onset of the first lactation. In trial 1, 57 German Holstein calves were allocated to 3 different feeding groups: milk replacer restricted to 6.78 kg/calf per day, 11.5% solids (MR-res, n = 20), milk replacer 13.8% solids, ad libitum (MR-ad lib, n = 17), and whole milk ad libitum (WM-ad lib, n = 20). All calves received ad libitum colostrum for 3 d postnatal (p.n.). From d 4 to 27, all calves were fed according to their respective feeding regimen, resulting in average intakes of 6.38, 9.25, and 9.47 kg/d in MR-res, MR-ad lib, and WM-ad lib, respectively. Thereafter, all calves were fed according to the MR-res regimen until weaning at d 55 (gradually until d 69 p.n.). Blood samples were collected on d 0 before colostrum intake and on d 1, 3, 11, 22, 34, 43, 52, 70, 90, and 108 p.n. Liver biopsies were taken on d 19 and 100, and on d 22, 52, and 108 p.n. intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed. The male calves (n = 8 to 10 per group) underwent also an insulin tolerance test on d 24, 54, and 110 p.n. The females (n = 28) from trial 1 were further reared and bred as common practice, and were enrolled in trial 2 when beginning the last trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected monthly antepartum starting 91 d before calving and weekly (0-70 d) postpartum. Trial 1 was subdivided into 4 phases (P): P0 (d 0-1), P1 (d 2-27), P2 (d 28-69), and P3 (d 70-110 p.n.). In trial 1, the leptin and adiponectin concentrations increased with colostrum intake. Differences in fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI), and variables from the glucose tolerance tests were largely limited to P1. The MR-res group had greater RQUICKI and fatty acid values, and

  5. The 6-month safety and efficacy of abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who underwent a washout after anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy or were directly switched to abatacept: the ARRIVE trial

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, M; Pritchard, C; Huffstutter, J E; Rodriguez-Valverde, V; Durez, P; Zhou, X; Li, T; Bahrt, K; Kelly, S; Le Bars, M; Genovese, M C

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of abatacept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who had failed anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy and were switched to abatacept directly or after completing washout. Methods: In this international, 6-month, open-label trial, patients had active RA, an inadequate response to anti-TNF therapy for 3 months or longer and a disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28 (C-reactive protein; CRP) of 5.1 or greater. “Washout” patients discontinued anti-TNF therapy 2 months or longer pre-screening; “direct-switch” patients began abatacept (∼10 mg/kg) at their next scheduled anti-TNF therapy dose. Results: 1046 patients were treated (449 washout, 597 direct-switch; baseline characteristics were similar between groups). At 6 months, adverse events (AE; 78.0% vs 79.2%), serious AE (11.1% vs 9.9%) and discontinuations due to AE (3.8% vs 4.0%) and serious AE (2.0% vs 1.3%) were comparable in washout versus direct-switch patients. There were no opportunistic infections. At 6 months, in washout versus direct-switch patients, similar clinically meaningful improvements were seen in DAS28 (CRP) (⩾1.2 unit improvement, 59.5% vs 53.6%, respectively; low disease activity state, 22.5% vs 22.3%; DAS28-defined remission, 12.0% vs 13.7%), physical function (health assessment questionnaire disability index ⩾0.22 improvement; 46.3% vs 47.1%) and health-related quality of life (mean change in short-form 36 scores: physical component summary, 5.5 vs 6.1; mental component summary, 4.8 vs 5.4). Conclusion: Abatacept demonstrated acceptable safety and tolerability and clinically meaningful efficacy over 6 months in patients with inadequate response to anti-TNF therapy. Results were comparable with or without a washout, supporting direct switching from anti-TNF therapy to abatacept as an option in clinical practice. Trial registration number: NCT00124982. PMID:19074911

  6. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  7. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the press run, of a printing and binding requisition to the Government Printing Office on a Standard Form 1. (c) After the press run, each request for extra copies of selected issues must be addressed...

  8. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the press run, of a printing and binding requisition to the Government Printing Office on a Standard Form 1. (c) After the press run, each request for extra copies of selected issues must be addressed...

  9. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the press run, of a printing and binding requisition to the Government Printing Office on a Standard Form 1. (c) After the press run, each request for extra copies of selected issues must be addressed...

  10. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the press run, of a printing and binding requisition to the Government Printing Office on a Standard Form 1. (c) After the press run, each request for extra copies of selected issues must be addressed...

  11. 1 CFR 12.4 - Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the press run, of a printing and binding requisition to the Government Printing Office on a Standard Form 1. (c) After the press run, each request for extra copies of selected issues must be addressed...

  12. Cook Like a Chef 1- and 4-Week Camp Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Johnson, Glenda; Corr, Anne; Sharp, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Children participating in cooking classes gain confidence in their abilities to prepare food. If children are to make informed, healthy, food ingredient and cooking method choices, they need to be equipped with these necessary skills, as well as with nutrition competence. Extension programs that incorporate nutrition and hands-on cooking can…

  13. Comparison of cetirizine with astemizole in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis and study of the concomitant effect on histamine and allergen-induced wheal responses.

    PubMed

    Lobaton, P; Moreno, F; Coulie, P

    1990-11-01

    Thirty patients suffering from perennial allergic rhinitis took astemizole and cetirizine, 10 mg/d, under double-blind, crossover randomized conditions for 4 weeks. Four weeks washout separated the two periods. Nasal condition was improved, histamine and allergen-induced wheal responses were inhibited by both treatments with a slight advantage for cetirizine. Both treatments were well tolerated.

  14. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  15. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  16. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hypokalemic; Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis; HOKPP; HypoKPP; HypoPP ... is not inherited. Unlike other forms of periodic paralysis, people with hypoPP have normal thyroid function. But ...

  17. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with periodic paralysis. It affects men more often than women.

  18. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods; Intermenstrual bleeding; Spotting; Metrorrhagia Images Female reproductive anatomy Bleeding between periods Uterus References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  19. Explosives Washout Lagoons Soils Operable Unit supplemental investigation technical and environmental management support of installation-restoration technology development program, Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final report, May 91-May 92

    SciTech Connect

    Raymondi, R.

    1992-04-15

    As part of an ongoing Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Umatilla Army Depot, the soils of the Explosives Washout Lagoons at that installation were assigned as an operable unit for a possible expedited remedial action. Additional sampling was conducted to determine the explosives concentrations at depth beneath the lagoons, and to verify the absence of other contaminants. Explosives contamination was found from the ground surface to the groundwater at 47 feet. Concentrations were much higher in the top 3 feet than in the soil beneath that. Other organic contamination was not present; some metals were elevated slightly above background. The results of the study are being used in a feasibility study of remedial action alternatives.

  20. Explosive washout lagoons soils operable unit supplemental investigation technical and environmental management support of installation restoration technology development program, Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston. Oregon. Phase 2. Final Draft report, May 1991-May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Raymondi, R.

    1992-04-15

    As part of an ongoing Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at the Umatilla Army Depot, the soils of the Explosives Washout Lagoons at that installation were assigned as an operable unit for a possible expedited remedial action. Additional sampling was conducted to determine the explosives concentrations at depth beneath the lagoons, and to verify the absence of other contaminants. Explosives contamination was found from the ground surface to the groundwater at 47 feet. Concentrations were much higher in the top 3 feet than in the soil beneath that. Other organic contamination was not present; some metals were elevated slightly above background. The results of the study are being used in a feasibility study of remedial action alternatives.

  1. Silicones used in permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes to reduce the fading and color change process of dyed hair occurred by wash-out or UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Arndt

    2004-01-01

    Different kinds of silicones were incorporated directly into permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes. To ensure that the silicone was deposited to the hair fibers Si deposition was measured. Hair treated with a silicone free control or the silicone modified hair dyes was tested for color and lightness change (fading) by washing the treated tresses several times and measuring the color change. In a second experiment, hair treated with permanent hair dye was treated with UV radiation to show if silicones can reduce the color change initiated by UV light. The influence of the silicones to dry combing forces of permanent dyed hair untreated and treated with UV was also investigated. The tests showed that dimethiconol/dimethicone mixtures can reduce the washout of hair colorant clearly and silicone resins like trimethylsiloxysilcate or propylphenylsilsesquioxane are able to decrease the color change occurred by UV radiation in dyed hair.

  2. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  3. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  4. Community College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Eldor O.

    Drawing from an examination of community college periodicals, their availability and characteristics, the academic affiliations of contributing authors, and the topics of their articles, this paper discusses the minor role which community college periodicals appear to play. A list of 35 periodicals dealing primary with community college education…

  5. Periodic chiral structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, Dwight L.; Engheta, Nader; Pelet, Philippe; Liu, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.; Kim, Yunjin

    1989-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a structure that is both chiral and periodic are investigated using coupled-mode equations. The periodicity is described by a sinusoidal perturbation of the permittivity, permeability, and chiral admittance. The coupled-mode equations are derived from physical considerations and used to examine bandgap structure and reflected and transmitted fields. Chirality is observed predominantly in transmission, whereas periodicity is present in both reflection and transmission.

  6. Periodic Solutions of Spatially Periodic Hamiltonian Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-10

    Theorem 0.2 generalizes Theorem 1.5 of Rabinowitz in [201. 3 Equation (0.1), under spatially periodic assumptions has been studied by several au...n x n symmetric matrix, H satisfying (HO), (H1) and (H2), and f = (0, fq) satisfying (fM), (fl) and (f2), Rabinowitz in [201 showed the existence of... Rabinowitz [17]. We consider a functional I : E x M ) R of class C’, where E is a Hilbert space and M is a compact manifold. Assuming that I satisfies a

  7. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  8. Multidimensional period doubling structures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yup; Flom, Dvir; Ben-Abraham, Shelomo I

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops the formalism necessary to generalize the period doubling sequence to arbitrary dimension by straightforward extension of the substitution and recursion rules. It is shown that the period doubling structures of arbitrary dimension are pure point diffractive. The symmetries of the structures are pointed out.

  9. Latent Period of Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H

    1961-10-27

    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  10. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  11. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Jalali, Bahram

    2009-03-01

    We propose a new class of photonic devices based on periodic stress fields in silicon that enable second-order nonlinearity as well as quasi-phase matching. Periodically poled silicon (PePSi) adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on second-order nonlinear effects. As an example of the utility of the PePSi technology, we present simulations showing that midwave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  12. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  13. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  14. Effects of a periodized small-sided game training intervention on physical performance in elite professional soccer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adam L; Wong, Del P; Paul, Darren; Dellal, Alexandre

    2012-10-01

    The present study examined the effects of periodized small-sided game (SSG) training intervention during a 4-week in-season break on the physical performance changes (i.e., speed, aerobic performance, and repeated sprint ability) within elite European soccer players. Fifteen, elite, male, professional players (age: 24.5 ± 3.45 years; height: 181.1 ± 5.78 cm; body mass: 78.7 ± 7.67 kg; VO2max: 54.88 ± 5.25 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) from a Scottish Premier League team participated in 7 separate SSG sessions (3 vs. 3 plus goalkeepers) of which games lasted for a 3-minute duration for the selected number of games (ranged from 5 to 11) increasing over the intervention period. To examine the effects of the SSG intervention on physical performance changes, pre- and posttesting sessions took place over a 2-day period (day 1: anthropometry and repeated sprint ability [RSA] assessments; day 2: running economy [RE] and blood lactate assessments). Results show that the 4-week SSG training intervention induced significant improvement in RSA as indicated by faster 10-m sprint time (p < 0.05, small effect), total sprint time (p < 0.05, medium effect), and smaller percentage decrement score (p < 0.05, medium effect). Furthermore, the SSGs also led to an improvement in RE as indicated through significantly reduced VO2 and heart rate at running speed 9, 11, and 14 km·h(-1) (all p's < 0.05, large effects). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that implementing a periodized SSG training intervention during the 4-week in-season break is capable of improving elite-level soccer players' physical fitness characteristics. Being able to develop physical characteristics in conjunction to technical and tactical elements of the game, within a relatively short period, makes SSGs an appealing proposition for fitness coaches, players, and technical coaches alike.

  15. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO.

  16. Anisotropic models to account for large borehole washouts to estimate gas hydrate saturations in the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II Alaminos 21 B well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Through the use of 3-D seismic amplitude mapping, several gashydrate prospects were identified in the Alaminos Canyon (AC) area of the Gulf of Mexico. Two locations were drilled as part of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (JIP Leg II) in May of 2009 and a comprehensive set of logging-while-drilling (LWD) logs were acquired at each well site. LWD logs indicated that resistivity in the range of ~2 ohm-m and P-wave velocity in the range of ~1.9 km/s were measured in the target sand interval between 515 and 645 feet below sea floor. These values were slightly elevated relative to those measured in the sediment above and below the target sand. However, the initial well log analysis was inconclusive regarding the presence of gashydrate in the logged sand interval, mainly because largewashouts caused by drilling in the target interval degraded confidence in the well log measurements. To assess gashydratesaturations in the sedimentary section drilled in the Alaminos Canyon 21B (AC21-B) well, a method of compensating for the effect of washouts on the resistivity and acoustic velocities was developed. The proposed method models the washed-out portion of the borehole as a vertical layer filled with sea water (drilling fluid) and the apparent anisotropic resistivity and velocities caused by a vertical layer are used to correct the measured log values. By incorporating the conventional marine seismic data into the well log analysis, the average gashydratesaturation in the target sand section in the AC21-Bwell can be constrained to the range of 8–28%, with 20% being our best estimate.

  17. Hyperthyroid hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Neki, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism commonly occurring in young Asian males but sporadically found in other races. It is characterised by hypokalemia and acute onset paraparesis with prevalence of one in one hundred thousand (1 in 100000). The symptoms resolve promptly with potassium supplementation. Nonselective beta blockers like propranol can also be used to ameliorate and prevent subsequent paralytic attack. We report a case of 22 year old male presenting with hyperthyroid periodic paralysis (HPP) having very low serum potassium level. PMID:27648066

  18. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  19. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  20. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  1. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

  2. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  3. Periodically structured plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saj, W. M.; Foteinopoulou, S.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2008-04-01

    We study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) guiding structures, which are a modification of the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) waveguide. The designs are constructed by introducing a periodic modulation in a MIM waveguide, with a glass core and silver claddings. This periodic modulation is created either by causing periodic indentations in the silver slabs encompassing the glass core, or by increasing the glass spacer material in certain periodic locations. Our objective is to achieve long range sub-wavelength waveguiding with vast dispersion engineering capabilities. We employ the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) with the Auxiliary Differential Equation method (ADE) for the calculation of the dispersion relation of the guided modes, as well as the real time propagation suggests that the guiding mechnism in the examined structures is based on the electromagnetic (EM) couping between the slit plasmon modes. These - depending on the design - exist in the grooves between the silver plates or in the larger areas of the glass core spacer. Put it different, the guiding mechanism in the examined SPP waveguide designs is analogous to the EM energy transfer along metallic nanoparticle chains.

  4. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  5. Inter-comparison of radon detectors for one to four week measurement periods.

    PubMed

    Gunning, G A; Murray, M; Long, S C; Foley, M J; Finch, E C

    2016-03-01

    Seven different types of radon detectors (Atmos 12 dpx, RAD7, RStone, Sun Nuclear 1028, Ramon 2.2, Canary and CR-39) were compared for exposure periods of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The comparison was conducted under two conditions: (a) in a purpose-built radon chamber with an average radon concentration of 2560 Bq m(-3) (b) in a home environment with a radon concentration of 57 Bq m(-3), in both cases measured by the reference detector (Atmos 12 dpx) with a  ±10% uncertainty range. In (a) 5 out of 8 detectors recorded radon concentrations within the Atmos uncertainty range and all detectors recorded within  ±15%; in (b) 3 out of 9 detectors recorded within the Atmos uncertainty range and 6 out of 9 measured within  ±20%, for a 4 week measurement. The results from this study show that radon surveys can be conducted for shorter periods than the recommended 3 months where a rapid indication is needed of whether the radon concentration is above the reference level, such as when assessing the concentration during and after remediation work.

  6. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  7. Phase III Randomized Study of 4 Weeks of High-Dose Interferon-α-2b in Stage T2bNO, T3a-bNO, T4a-bNO, and T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic) Melanoma: A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group (E1697).

    PubMed

    Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Lee, Sandra J; Yip, Waiki; Rao, Uma N; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Cohen, Gary I; Reintgen, Douglas S; Evans, Terry L; Brell, Joanna M; Albertini, Mark R; Atkins, Michael B; Dakhil, Shaker R; Conry, Robert M; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Flaherty, Lawrence E; Sondak, Vernon K; Carson, William E; Smylie, Michael G; Pappo, Alberto S; Kefford, Richard F; Kirkwood, John M

    2017-03-10

    Purpose To test the efficacy of 4 weeks of intravenous (IV) induction with high-dose interferon (IFN) as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group regimen compared with observation (OBS) in patients with surgically resected intermediate-risk melanoma. Patients and Methods In this intergroup international trial, eligible patients had surgically resected cutaneous melanoma in the following categories: (1) T2bN0, (2) T3a-bN0, (3) T4a-bN0, and (4) T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic). Patients were randomly assigned to receive IFN α-2b at 20 MU/m(2)/d IV for 5 days (Monday to Friday) every week for 4 weeks (IFN) or OBS. Stratification factors were pathologic lymph node status, lymph node staging procedure, Breslow depth, ulceration of the primary lesion, and disease stage. The primary end point was relapse-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, toxicity, and quality of life. Results A total of 1,150 patients were randomly assigned. At a median follow-up of 7 years, the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for OBS and 0.70, (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for IFN ( P = .964). The 5-year overall survival rate was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.86) for OBS and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.86) for IFN ( P = .558). Treatment-related grade 3 and higher toxicity was 4.6% versus 57.9% for OBS and IFN, respectively ( P < .001). Quality of life was worse for the treated group. Conclusion Four weeks of IV induction as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group high-dose IFN regimen is not better than OBS alone for patients with intermediate-risk melanoma as defined in this trial.

  8. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  9. The postanesthetic period. Complications.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S F

    1987-01-01

    Postanesthetic complications can occur even in the best of circumstances. Proper preparation of the staff, aggressive monitoring of the recovering patient, and early recognition and management of the complications are essential if the outcome is to be successful. In reviewing postanesthetic complications, two factors are present in the overwhelming majority of situations--hypoxia and hypercarbia--often the direct result of inadequate monitoring during the postanesthetic period. The anesthetic procedure is not over once the anesthetic agents are discontinued. The skillful anesthetist is aware of the possibilities of postoperative complications and prevents problems by employing enhanced monitoring techniques during the recovery phase.

  10. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-05

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  11. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  12. Multifunctional periodic cellular metals.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Haydn N G

    2006-01-15

    Periodic cellular metals with honeycomb and corrugated topologies are widely used for the cores of light weight sandwich panel structures. Honeycombs have closed cell pores and are well suited for thermal protection while also providing efficient load support. Corrugated core structures provide less efficient and highly anisotropic load support, but enable cross flow heat exchange opportunities because their pores are continuous in one direction. Recent advances in topology design and fabrication have led to the emergence of lattice truss structures with open cell structures. These three classes of periodic cellular metals can now be fabricated from a wide variety of structural alloys. Many topologies are found to provide adequate stiffness and strength for structural load support when configured as the cores of sandwich panels. Sandwich panels with core relative densities of 2-10% and cell sizes in the millimetre range are being assessed for use as multifunctional structures. The open, three-dimensional interconnected pore networks of lattice truss topologies provide opportunities for simultaneously supporting high stresses while also enabling cross flow heat exchange. These highly compressible structures also provide opportunities for the mitigation of high intensity dynamic loads created by impacts and shock waves in air or water. By filling the voids with polymers and hard ceramics, these structures have also been found to offer significant resistance to penetration by projectiles.

  13. Periodic truss structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zok, Frank W.; Latture, Ryan M.; Begley, Matthew R.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the recognition of the enormous potential of periodic trusses for use in a broad range of technologies, there are no widely-accepted descriptors of their structure. The terminology has been based loosely either on geometry of polyhedra or of point lattices: neither of which, on its own, has an appropriate structure to fully define periodic trusses. The present article lays out a system for classification of truss structure types. The system employs concepts from crystallography and geometry to describe nodal locations and connectivity of struts. Through a series of illustrative examples of progressively increasing complexity, a rational taxonomy of truss structure is developed. Its conceptual evolution begins with elementary cubic trusses, increasing in complexity with non-cubic and compound trusses as well as supertrusses, and, finally, with complex trusses. The conventions and terminology adopted to define truss structure yield concise yet unambiguous descriptions of structure types and of specific (finite) trusses. The utility of the taxonomy is demonstrated by bringing into alignment a disparate set of ad hoc and incomplete truss designations previously employed in a broad range of science and engineering fields. Additionally, the merits of a particular compound truss (comprising two interpenetrating elementary trusses) is shown to be superior to the octet truss for applications requiring high stiffness and elastic isotropy. By systematically stepping through and analyzing the finite number of structure types identified through the present classification system, optimal structures for prescribed mechanical and functional requirements are expected to be ascertained in an expeditious manner.

  14. Model Valid Prediction Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, P. C.

    2002-12-01

    A new concept, valid prediction period (VPP), is presented here to evaluate model predictability. VPP is defined as the time period when the prediction error first exceeds a pre-determined criterion (i.e., the tolerance level). It depends not only on the instantaneous error growth, but also on the noise level, the initial error, and tolerance level. The model predictability skill is then represented by a single scalar, VPP. The longer the VPP, the higher the model predictability skill is. A theoretical framework on the base of the backward Fokker-Planck equation is developed to determine the probability density function (pdf) of VPP. Verification of a Gulf of Mexico nowcast/forecast model is used as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of VPP. Power law scaling is found in the mean square error of displacement between drifting buoy and model trajectories (both at 50 m depth). The pdf of VPP is asymmetric with a long and broad tail on the higher value side, which suggests long-term predictability. The calculations demonstrate that the long-term (extreme long such as 50-60 day) predictability is not an "outlier" and shares the same statistical properties as the short-term predictions. References Chu P. C., L. M. Ivanov, and C.W. Fan, Backward Fokker-Plank equation for determining model predictability with unknown initial error distribution. J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2002. Chu P.C., L.M.Ivanov, T.M. Margolina, and O.V.Melnichenko, 2002b: On probabilistic stability of an atmospheric model to various amplitude perturbations. J. Atmos. Sci., in press Chu P.C., L.M. Ivanov, L. Kantha, O.V. Melnichenko and Y.A. Poberezhny, 2002c: The long-term correlations and power decay law in model prediction skill. Geophys. Res. Let., in press.

  15. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  16. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure: Developmental Outcomes in the Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Johnson, Craig; Stopp, Christian; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Respass, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a persistent public health problem that has been linked to later adverse outcomes. The neonatal period, the first month of life, carries substantial developmental change in regulatory skills, and is the period when tobacco metabolites are cleared physiologically. Studies to date mostly have used cross-sectional designs that limit characterizing potential impacts of prenatal tobacco exposure on the development of key self-regulatory processes and cannot disentangle short-term withdrawal effects from residual exposure-related impacts. In this study, pregnant participants (N = 304) were recruited prospectively during pregnancy and smoking was measured at multiple time points, using both self report and biochemical measures. Neonatal attention, irritable reactivity, and stress dysregulation were examined longitudinally at three time points during the first month of life, and physical growth indices were measured at birth. Tobacco-exposed infants showed significantly poorer attention skills after birth, and the magnitude of the difference between exposed and non-exposed groups attenuated across the neonatal period. In contrast, exposure-related differences in irritable reactivity were not evident and stable across the first month of life, but differed only marginally at 4-weeks of age. Third trimester smoking was associated with pervasive, deleterious, dose-response impacts on physical growth measured at birth, whereas nearly all smoking indicators throughout pregnancy predicted level and growth rates of early attention. The observed neonatal pattern is consistent with the neurobiology of tobacco on the developing nervous system and fits with developmental vulnerabilities observed later in life. PMID:21038943

  17. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  18. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity – very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions. PMID:26853945

  19. Doubly Resonant Optical Periodic Structure.

    PubMed

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2016-02-08

    Periodic structures are well known in various branches of physics for their ability to provide a stopband. In this article, using optical periodic structures we showed that, when a second periodicity--very closed to the original periodicity is introduced, large number of states appears in the stopband corresponding to the first periodicity. In the limit where the two periods matches, we have a continuum of states, and the original stopband completely disappears. This intriguing phenomena is uncovered by noticing that, regardless of the proximities of the two periodicities, there is an array of spatial points where the dielectric functions corresponding to the two periodicities interfere destructively. These spatial points mimic photonic atoms by satisfying the standards equations of quantum harmonic oscillators, and exhibit lossless, atom-like dispersions.

  20. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\...

  1. 75 FR 1301 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Docket No. RM2009-10, Order on Analytical Principles Used in Periodic Reporting (Proposals Three...

  2. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  3. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  4. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  5. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  6. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  7. 24 CFR 203.266 - Period covered by periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Period covered by periodic MIP. 203.266 Section 203.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  8. High sensitive reflection type long period fiber grating biosensor for real time detection of thyroglobulin, a differentiated thyroid cancer biomarker: the Smart Health project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quero, G.; Severino, R.; Vaiano, P.; Consales, M.; Ruvo, M.; Sandomenico, A.; Borriello, A.; Giordano, M.; Zuppolini, S.; Diodato, L.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a reflection-type long period fiber grating (LPG) biosensor able to perform the real time detection of thyroid cancer markers in the needle washout of fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A standard LPG is first transformed in a practical probe working in reflection mode, then it is coated by an atactic-polystyrene overlay in order to increase its surrounding refractive index sensitivity and to provide, at the same time, the desired interfacial properties for a stable bioreceptor immobilization. The results provide a clear demonstration of the effectiveness and sensitivity of the developed biosensing platform, allowing the in vitro detection of human Thyroglobulin at sub-nanomolar concentrations.

  9. Sensitivity of measurements of regional brain activation with oxygen-15-water and PET to time of stimulation and period of image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Mullani, N.; Gould, L.K.; Adler, S.S.; Gatley, S.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of oxygen-15- (15O) water uptake with positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive technique to monitor regional brain activation secondary to stimulation paradigms. In order to investigate data acquisition times that show maximal changes in regional activation and to assess the optimal time for stimulus presentation, we investigated 10 controls with 15O-water and PET during baseline and stroboscopic light stimulation. Sequential scans were done varying the time of stimulus presentation. The images were reconstructed using three different periods of data acquisition: uptake phase (initial 30-35 sec), washout phase (40 sec following peak activity in brain), and total activity (3 min). The images reconstructed during the uptake phase showed the largest changes in occipital cortex from stimulation. Maximal changes in occipital cortex were obtained when the visual stimulus was maintained during the uptake phase only.

  10. [Detection of bocavirus in 4-week-old puppies with acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Rudolf, S; Neiger, R; König, M

    2016-01-01

    Two 4-month-old female Doberman puppies were presented with clinical signs of acute diarrhea and emesis. They also showed sneezing and nasal discharge. The clinical presentation and neutropenia were suggestive of a parvovirus infection. The puppies were hospitalized for several days and treated symptomatically. Fecal samples tested negative for parasites. Virological examination of feces using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immune electron microscopy failed to confirm a parvovirus infection. With a recently developed PCR, bocavirus could be identified, thus making an infection with this virus a possible diagnosis. This case report presents a less well-known viral puppy disease and its successful therapy.

  11. Gastrointestinal discomfort from legumes varies with type and diminishes after 4 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A questionnaire to identify perceived changes in flatulence with daily consumption of ½ cup legumes was administered as part of 3 studies that examined the effects of legumes on blood lipids. Forty men and women in each cohort of pinto beans vs. placebo (soup) ate the ½ cup of food daily for 12 week...

  12. Pathogenicity evaluation of different Newcastle disease virus chimeras in 4-week-old chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with a virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus is considered one of the most important threats to the poultry industry worldwide. The causative virus, Newcastle disease virus, belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family, genus Avulavirus, and its genome encodes for 6 structural proteins: nu...

  13. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Ito, Nozomi; Nagashima, Shuntarou; Matsui, Motozumi; Sawada, Kumiko; Schweigert, Florian J; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0-3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7-4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3-1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0-3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene.

  14. 75 FR 7426 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Advance notice of...-789-6820 or stephen.sharfman@prc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Background II... approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1\\ The Postal Service labels its proposal ``Proposal One''...

  15. 76 FR 296 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... consider a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The proposed change... rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in periodic reporting.\\1... Requesting Initiation of a Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposals...

  16. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  17. Time domain period determination techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.

    1980-05-01

    Two simple period determination schemes are discussed. They are well suited to problems involving non-sinusoidal periodic phenomena sampled at a few irregularly spaced points. Statistical properties are discussed. The techniques are applied to the double mode Cepheids BK Cen and TU Cas as test cases.

  18. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested. PMID:27727295

  19. Periodic and Quasi-Periodic Orbitsfor the Standard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretti, Alberto; Gentile, Guido

    We consider both periodic and quasi-periodic solutions for the standard map, and we study the corresponding conjugating functions, i.e. the functions conjugating the motions to trivial rotations. We compare the invariant curves with rotation numbers ω satisfying the Bryuno condition and the sequences of periodic orbits with rotation numbers given by their convergents ωN = pN/qN. We prove the following results for N--> ∞: (1) for rotation numbers ωNN we study the radius of convergence of the conjugating functions and we find lower bounds on them, which tend to a limit which is a lower bound on the corresponding quantity for ω (2) the periodic orbits consist of points which are more and more close to the invariant curve with rotation number ω (3) such orbits lie on analytical curves which tend uniformly to the invariant curve.

  20. The Stability of Periodic Orbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-21

    I AOB a7 PRIlNCETON UNIV NJ JOSEPH HENRY LABS OF PHYSICS FD 7/S THE STABILITY OF PERIODIC ORBITS. (U) JAN 81 L SNEDOOM N00014-77-C-0711 UNCLASSIFIE-D...NL I - The Stability of Periodic Orbits Leigh Sneddon* Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 ABSTRACT...eigenvalue of the Poincare map passes out through the unit circle at -1 : see Appendix 1) 9,10 are observed and are referred to as subharmonic or period

  1. Chaos in Periodic Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuming; Zhang, Lijuan; Yu, Panpan; Huang, Qiuling

    This paper focuses on chaos in periodic discrete systems, whose state space may vary with time. Some close relationships between some chaotic dynamical behaviors of a periodic discrete system and its autonomous induced system are given. Based on these relationships, several criteria of chaos are established and some sufficient conditions for no chaos are given for periodic discrete systems. Further, it is shown that a finite-dimensional linear periodic discrete system is not chaotic in the sense of Li-Yorke or Wiggins. In particular, an interesting problem of whether nonchaotic rules may generate a chaotic system is studied, with some examples provided, one of which surprisingly shows that a composition of globally asymptotically stable maps can be chaotic. In addition, some properties of sign pattern matrices of non-negative square matrices are given for convenience of the study.

  2. Autism: a "critical period" disorder?

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jocelyn J; Fagiolini, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.

  3. Prolonged rest period enables the detection of micronucleated hepatocytes in the liver of young adult rats after a single dose of diethylnitrosamine or mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Mika; Takashima, Miyuki; Seki, Jiro; Miyamae, Yoichi; Wakata, Akihiro

    2015-09-01

    A repeated-dose micronucleus assay utilizing young adult rat hepatocytes was recently developed to evaluate the genotoxicity. In this assay, accumulation of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) induced by repeated dosing of genotoxic chemicals is considered to be a key factor in the detection of micronuclei induction. Then, we hypothesized that the period following chemical exposure enable the detection of MNHEP induction in young adult rats, namely that MNHEPs can be generated from chromosomally damaged cells and accumulate following initiation of chemical exposure until sampling. We therefore measured MNHEP induction at 2 or 4 weeks after a single oral administration of 12.5, 50, or 100mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or an intraperitoneal administration of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0mg/kg of mitomycin C (MMC) to young adult rats. Results showed a statistically significant, dose-dependent increase in the numbers of MNHEPs in DEN- or MMC-treated rats, indicating that prolonged rest period following a single dose of a genotoxic chemical enables the detection of MNHEP induction in the liver of young adult rats. From these results, a single oral administration of 50mg/kg of DEN with a 2- or 4- week rest period can be used as a positive control in repeated-dose liver micronucleus assays. This procedure is superior in terms of labor saving and animal welfare to repeated dosing of DEN.

  4. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour, Maryam; Mansouri, Akram; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Asghari, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively) and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001) and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001) were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth. PMID:27095995

  5. Periodic solar wind density structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, Nicholeen Mary

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a specific aspect of the Sun-Earth connection: we show that coronal activity creates periodic density structures in the solar wind which convect radially outward and interact with Earth's magnetosphere. First, we analyze 11 years (1995-2005) of in situ solar wind density observations from the Wind spacecraft and find that periodic density structures occur at particular sets of radial length-scales more often than others. This indicates that these density fluctuations, which have radial length-scales of hundreds of megameters, cannot be attributed entirely to turbulence. Next, we analyze their effect on Earth's magnetosphere. Though these structures are not waves in the solar wind rest frame, they appear at discrete frequencies in Earth's reference frame. They compress the magnetosphere as they convect past, driving global magnetospheric oscillations at the same discrete frequencies as the periodic density structures. Last, we investigate source regions and mechanisms of the periodic solar wind density structures. We analyze the alpha particle to proton abundance ratio during events of periodic density structures. In many events, the proton and alpha density fluctuations are anti- correlated, which strongly argues for either temporally or spatially varying coronal source plasma. We examine white light images of the solar wind taken with SECCHI HI1 on the STEREO spacecraft and find periodic density structures as near to the Sun as 15 solar radii. The smallest resolvable periodic structures that we identify are of comparable length to those found at 1 AU, providing further evidence that at least some periodic density structures are generated in the solar corona as the solar wind is formed. Guided by the properties observed during previous studies and the characteristics established through the work presented here, we examine possible candidate mechanisms in the solar corona that can form periodic density structures. We conclude that

  6. Shortest recurrence periods of novae

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Saio, Hideyuki; Hachisu, Izumi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-10-01

    Stimulated by the recent discovery of the 1 yr recurrence period nova M31N 2008-12a, we examined the shortest recurrence periods of hydrogen shell flashes on mass-accreting white dwarfs (WDs). We discuss the mechanism that yields a finite minimum recurrence period for a given WD mass. Calculating the unstable flashes for various WD masses and mass accretion rates, we identified a shortest recurrence period of about two months for a non-rotating 1.38 M {sub ☉} WD with a mass accretion rate of 3.6 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. A 1 yr recurrence period is realized for very massive (≳ 1.3 M {sub ☉}) WDs with very high accretion rates (≳ 1.5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We revised our stability limit of hydrogen shell burning, which will be useful for binary evolution calculations toward Type Ia supernovae.

  7. Bragg interactions in periodic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggard, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic waves of wavelength lambda with periodic structures of spatial period lambda are studied. The emphasis of the work is on Bragg interactions where lambda approximately equal to 2 lambda/N and the Bragg order N takes on the values 1, 2,.... An extended coupled waves (ECW) theory is developed for the case N greater or equal to 2 and the results of the theory are found to compare favorably with the exact results of Floquet theory. Numerous numerical results are displayed as Brillouin diagrams for the first few Bragg orders. Moreover, explicit expressions for coupling coefficients, bandgap shifts and bandgap widths are derived for singly periodic media. Particular note is taken of phase speeding effects.

  8. Geologic periodicities and the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    New geologic and astronomical developments are reviewed that have recently led to the proposal of various Galactic theories to explain the temporal pattern of impact craters on earth. Linear and harmonic time series analyses have revealed that two dominant periodicities about equal to 33 + or - 3 Myr and 260 + or - 25 Myr underlie the geologic record of terrestrial impact cratering and global tectonic phenomena. It is argued that purely terrestrial mechanisms cannot account for the cratering cycles as being preservational artifacts; cratering rather appears to influence tectonism, possibly through perturbations of mantle convection. Galactic models proposed to explain the two long-term periodicities are reviewed critically. The most likely explanation for the 33 Myr cycle involves the comparatively stable half period of vertical oscillation of the solar system about the Galactic plane. The 260 Myr cycle may be related to rare encounters with Galactic spiral arms during the revolution of the solar system around the Galactic center.

  9. Physical Fitness and Hormonal Profile During an 11-Week Paratroop Training Period.

    PubMed

    Vaara, Jani P; Kalliomaa, Riikka; Hynninen, Petri; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    Physical fitness and serum hormone concentrations have been shown to change during military training. The purpose was to examine these chronic changes in paratroopers (n = 52 male conscripts) during an 11-week training period, including acute changes induced by strenuous 5-day military field training. Hormonal profiles, body mass, maximal strength, muscle endurance, and 12-minute running test were assessed at several time points during paratrooper training. In the latter part of the training period, conscripts were involved in strenuous military field training (5 days). At week 7, during specialized military training period, aerobic performance decreased (3,146 ± 163 m) but recovered back to a baseline level (3,226 ± 190 m) at the end of the study period (p < 0.001). Standing long jump decreased at week 7 (242 ± 13 cm) (p < 0.001) from the baseline value (248 ± 13 cm), whereas push-up (52 ± 11, 60 ± 13 repetitions per minute) and sit-up (54 ± 6, 56 ± 7 repetitions per minute) performances increased (p < 0.001). No changes were observed in maximal strength and body composition, neither mostly in hormone concentrations, although cortisol decreased but increased back to baseline value at the end of the study period (p ≤ 0.05). Acute responses after the 5-day military field training included decreased maximal strength of the lower extremities and body mass, as well as changes in androgen hormone concentrations ([INCREMENT]testosterone: -46%, [INCREMENT]insulin-like growth factor-1: -28%, [INCREMENT]sex hormone-binding globulin: +25%) compared with all other measurements (p ≤ 0.05). The first 4 weeks of parachute military training decreased maximal aerobic capacity and neuromuscular performance of the lower body, whereas muscular endurance increased. Moreover, 5-day military field training resulted in dramatic changes in hormone concentrations. These findings highlight the importance of periodizing paratrooper training and underline the need for sufficient

  10. Periodicity in marine extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. John, Jr.; Raup, David M.

    1986-01-01

    The periodicity of extinction events is examined in detail. In particular, the temporal distribution of specific, identifiable extinction events is analyzed. The nature and limitations of the data base on the global fossil record is discussed in order to establish limits of resolution in statistical analyses. Peaks in extinction intensity which appear to differ significantly from background levels are considered, and new analyses of the temporal distribution of these peaks are presented. Finally, some possible causes of periodicity and of interdependence among extinction events over the last quarter billion years of earth history are examined.

  11. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Erin; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pieracci, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:28251004

  12. 76 FR 80312 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... of the Business Reply Mail cost model in periodic reporting of service performance measurement... initiate a rulemaking proceeding to address the current methodology used to develop the avoided cost.... SUMMARY: The Commission is establishing a docket to consider new measurement of Flats Sequencing...

  13. A Special Section. College Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currents, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Special section includes "True to Format," an editor's guide to periodicals (Robin Goldman); "The Move to Magazine," focusing on format (Patricia Ann LaSalle); "The Fast-paced Alternative," about timely tabloids (Janis D. Gleason, Lynn Donham); and also about tabloids, "Why Don't We Have a Magazine?" (Marsha…

  14. 76 FR 20906 - Periodic Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... a proposed change in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. This action responds to... an informal rulemaking proceeding to consider changes in the analytical methods approved for use in... Proceeding to Consider Proposed Changes in Analytic Principles (Proposal One), April 6, 2011...

  15. Quantifying periodicity in omics data

    PubMed Central

    Amariei, Cornelia; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations play a significant role in biological systems, with many examples in the fast, ultradian, circadian, circalunar, and yearly time domains. However, determining periodicity in such data can be problematic. There are a number of computational methods to identify the periodic components in large datasets, such as signal-to-noise based Fourier decomposition, Fisher's g-test and autocorrelation. However, the available methods assume a sinusoidal model and do not attempt to quantify the waveform shape and the presence of multiple periodicities, which provide vital clues in determining the underlying dynamics. Here, we developed a Fourier based measure that generates a de-noised waveform from multiple significant frequencies. This waveform is then correlated with the raw data from the respiratory oscillation found in yeast, to provide oscillation statistics including waveform metrics and multi-periods. The method is compared and contrasted to commonly used statistics. Moreover, we show the utility of the program in the analysis of noisy datasets and other high-throughput analyses, such as metabolomics and flow cytometry, respectively. PMID:25364747

  16. Shell Games: Uncovering Periodic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities (demonstrations/experiments) used to introduce history of periodic properties--without electrons, orbitals, filling shells, or any conception of atoms beyond Dalton's model. Activities supplement first chapter in a currently available chemistry text. Indicates potential danger of experiments if proper safety precautions are…

  17. Fast excitation variable period wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

    1991-01-01

    The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced field reflectors,'' is discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

  18. Fast excitation variable period wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    van Steenbergen, A.; Gallardo, J.; Romano, T.; Woodle, M.

    1991-12-31

    The design of an easily stackable, variable period length, fast excitation driven wiggler, making use of geometrically alternating substacks of Vanadium Permandur ferromagnetic laminations, interspaced with conductive, non magnetic, laminations which act as eddy current induced ``field reflectors,`` is discussed and experimental results obtained with short wiggler models are presented.

  19. Stability of underwater periodic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fangxu; Kanso, Eva

    2013-07-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates swim by lateral flapping of their bodies and caudal fins. While much effort has been devoted to understanding the flapping kinematics and its influence on the swimming efficiency, little is known about the stability (or lack of) of periodic swimming. It is believed that stability limits maneuverability and body designs/flapping motions that are adapted for stable swimming are not suitable for high maneuverability and vice versa. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of a planar elliptic body undergoing prescribed periodic heaving and pitching in potential flow. We show that periodic locomotion can be achieved due to the resulting hydrodynamic forces, and its value depends on several parameters including the aspect ratio of the body, the amplitudes and phases of the prescribed flapping.We obtain closedform solutions for the locomotion and efficiency for small flapping amplitudes, and numerical results for finite flapping amplitudes. This efficiency analysis results in optimal parameter values that are in agreement with values reported for some carangiform fish. We then study the stability of the (finite amplitude flapping) periodic locomotion using Floquet theory. We find that stability depends nonlinearly on all parameters. Interesting trends of switching between stable and unstable motions emerge and evolve as we continuously vary the parameter values. This suggests that, for live organisms that control their flapping motion, maneuverability and stability need not be thought of as disjoint properties, rather the organism may manipulate its motion in favor of one or the other depending on the task at hand.

  20. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  1. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J

    1999-12-15

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.

  2. 12 CFR 390.285 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit period. 390.285 Section 390.285 Banks and... Associations § 390.285 Audit period. The audit period of a State savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual audit conducted...

  3. 12 CFR 161.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit period. 161.6 Section 161.6 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 161.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual...

  4. 12 CFR 561.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit period. 561.6 Section 561.6 Banks and... SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual...

  5. 12 CFR 390.285 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit period. 390.285 Section 390.285 Banks and... Associations § 390.285 Audit period. The audit period of a State savings association means the twelve month period (or other period in the case of a change in audit period) covered by the annual audit conducted...

  6. 7 CFR 1160.113 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fiscal period. 1160.113 Section 1160.113 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.113 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the initial period of up to 30 months that this subpart is effective. Thereafter, the fiscal period shall be such annual period as the Board may...

  7. Quantum gates by periodic driving

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum computation has been extensively studied in the past decades due to its robustness against decoherence. One way to realize the topological quantum computation is by adiabatic evolutions—it requires relatively long time to complete a gate, so the speed of quantum computation slows down. In this work, we present a method to realize single qubit quantum gates by periodic driving. Compared to adiabatic evolution, the single qubit gates can be realized at a fixed time much shorter than that by adiabatic evolution. The driving fields can be sinusoidal or square-well field. With the sinusoidal driving field, we derive an expression for the total operation time in the high-frequency limit, and an exact analytical expression for the evolution operator without any approximations is given for the square well driving. This study suggests that the period driving could provide us with a new direction in regulations of the operation time in topological quantum computation. PMID:26911900

  8. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  9. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  10. Delayed coupling to feedback inhibition during a critical period for the integration of adult-born granule cells.

    PubMed

    Temprana, Silvio G; Mongiat, Lucas A; Yang, Sung M; Trinchero, Mariela F; Alvarez, Diego D; Kropff, Emilio; Giacomini, Damiana; Beltramone, Natalia; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Schinder, Alejandro F

    2015-01-07

    Developing granule cells (GCs) of the adult dentate gyrus undergo a critical period of enhanced activity and synaptic plasticity before becoming mature. The impact of developing GCs on the activity of preexisting dentate circuits remains unknown. Here we combine optogenetics, acute slice electrophysiology, and in vivo chemogenetics to activate GCs at different stages of maturation to study the recruitment of local target networks. We show that immature (4-week-old) GCs can efficiently drive distal CA3 targets but poorly activate proximal interneurons responsible for feedback inhibition (FBI). As new GCs transition toward maturity, they reliably recruit GABAergic feedback loops that restrict spiking of neighbor GCs, a mechanism that would promote sparse coding. Such inhibitory loop impinges only weakly in new cohorts of young GCs. A computational model reveals that the delayed coupling of new GCs to FBI could be crucial to achieve a fine-grain representation of novel inputs in the dentate gyrus.

  11. Compensatory growth of juvenile brown flounder Paralichthys olivaceus following low temperature treatment for different periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yinhui; Liu, Xiujia; Huang, Guoqiang; Wei, Liuzhi; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of low temperature (8.5°C) on the growth and feeding rates and feed conversion efficiency of juvenile P. olivaceus with an average initial weight of 3.87 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SE). Fish were exposed to 8.5°C for 0 (control), 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, and then to 20°C for 10, 9, 8, 7 and 6 weeks, respectively. Low temperature clearly led to growth depression. The weight of fish exposed to low temperature for 1 week was restored to that of control, while that of fish exposed to low temperature longer was significantly decreased ( P < 0.05). During the entire low-temperature period, specific growth rate, feeding rate and feed conversion efficiency of the fish were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) than those of control, while in the whole recovery period, specific growth and average feeding rate were markedly higher ( P < 0.05) than those of control. At the end of experiment, only the feeding rate of the fish exposed to low temperature for 1 week was not significantly different from that of control ( P > 0.05). Feeding rate and feed conversion efficiency were reduced at low temperature in juvenile P. olivaceus. The compensatory growth of juvenile P. olivaceus may therefore be attributed to the improvement of feeding rate. Our results suggested that growth depression occurs when juvenile P. olivaceus are exposed to low temperature for more than one week.

  12. Haemocytic periodicity and periodic disorders: Periodic neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis and anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Hobart A.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated of rhythmic numerical oscillation of each of the blood cells either independently or in combinations. The cyclic changes originate in the marrow of some normal persons and animals without causing illness, and can be induced experimentally. In more than 100 reported instances, periodic oscillations of various cells were accompanied by respective episodes of the disorders named in the title. The disorders may be transitory but usually recur throughout life and occasionally are fatal. All resist therapy. Features in common suggest an interrelationship of the haemal disorders and other disparate heritable periodic diseases. Theoretically, the rhythms are regulated by ubiquitous, inherent, intracellular bioclocks controlled hypothalamically or neurohumorally in relation to a feedback mechanism. Reactions to long cycles are of greater clinical importance than disturbances arising from the circadian rhythm. PMID:4397784

  13. Rotational period of GQ Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, C.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Guenther, E.; Gaedke, A.; Bedalov, A.; Neuhäuser, R.; Walter, F. M.

    2007-06-01

    Aims: We wanted to determine the rotation parameters of GQ Lup A, thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the GQ Lup system. Methods: We have undertaken a photometric monitoring campaign on GQ Lup A consisting of two epochs spaced one year apart. We also searched the photometric archives to enlarge the data set. Results: We were able to determine the photometric period (8.45±0.2 days) in both epochs in several photometric bands. This periodicity could also be found in some of the archival data. The combined false-alarm probability is 0.015. The variation is most likely caused by hot spots on the surface of GQ Lup A. This, combined with high-resolution spectra (v sin i) allows calculation of GQ Lup A's inclination (i=27±5°). Radial velocity data also contains this period but is inconclusive. Nevertheless, the RV data supports the interpretation that hot spots cause the photometric variation. We use the known K-band variability, amplitude, and phase of GQ Lup A together with a new image of GQ Lup A+b, taken quasi-simultaneously with our monitoring of the star, to confirm the magnitude and, hence, luminosity of the companion. Based on observations obtained on Cerro Paranal, Chile, in ESO program 075.C-0710(C) and on La Silla, Chile, in ESO programs 074.C-0034(A),075.C-0710(E), 075.C-0710(F), 075.C-0202(A), 076.C-0010(A) as well as with ANDICAM of the SMARTS consortium. Photometry data of epochs I and II are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/468/1039

  14. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  15. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  16. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  17. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  18. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  19. 44 CFR 206.112 - Registration period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Registration period. 206.112... Households § 206.112 Registration period. (a) Initial period. The standard FEMA registration period is 60...) Extension of the registration period. The regional administrator or his/her designee may extend...

  20. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  1. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  2. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  3. Long-Period Solar Variability

    SciTech Connect

    GAUTHIER,JOHN H.

    2000-07-20

    Terrestrial climate records and historical observations of the Sun suggest that the Sun undergoes aperiodic oscillations in radiative output and size over time periods of centuries and millenia. Such behavior can be explained by the solar convective zone acting as a nonlinear oscillator, forced at the sunspot-cycle frequency by variations in heliomagnetic field strength. A forced variant of the Lorenz equations can generate a time series with the same characteristics as the solar and climate records. The timescales and magnitudes of oscillations that could be caused by this mechanism are consistent with what is known about the Sun and terrestrial climate.

  4. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  5. Chronic speciation in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, M G.

    2001-02-01

    Allochronic speciation and reproductive character displacement are two intuitively attractive models of speciation. The first proposes that changes in the timing of life cycles produce new species, whereas the second suggests that speciation is due to the exaggeration of sexual isolation in sympatric populations. Clear examples of either process in nature remain elusive, despite some extensive searches. Two recent studies of mtDNA markers and behaviour of periodical cicadas in North America have identified a new species of cicada that seems to provide good evidence for the involvement of both processes in its origin.

  6. A model for periodic blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Sormani, Mattia C.; Stamerra, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We describe a scenario to explain blazar periodicities with time-scales of ˜ few years. The scenario is based on a binary supermassive black hole (SMBH) system in which one of the two SMBHs carries a jet. We discuss the various mechanisms that can cause the jet to precess and produce corkscrew patterns through space with a scale of ˜ few pc. It turns out that the dominant mechanism responsible for the precession is simply the imprint of the jet-carrying SMBH orbital speed on the jet. Gravitational deflection and Lense-Thirring precession (due to the gravitational field of the other SMBH) are second-order effects. We complement the scenario with a kinematical jet model which is inspired to the spine-sheath structure observed in M87. One of the main advantages of such a structure is that it allows the peak of the synchrotron emission to scale with frequency according to νF ∝ νξ as the viewing angle is changed, where ξ is not necessarily 3 or 4 as in the case of jets with uniform velocity, but can be ξ ˜ 1. Finally, we apply the model to the source PG1553+113, which has been recently claimed to show a Tobs = (2.18 ± 0.08) yr periodicity. We are able to reproduce the optical and gamma-ray light curves and multiple synchrotron spectra simultaneously. We also give estimates of the source mass and size.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions hypokalemic periodic paralysis hypokalemic periodic paralysis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a condition that causes episodes of extreme ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions hyperkalemic periodic paralysis hyperkalemic periodic paralysis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is a condition that causes episodes of extreme ...

  9. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra improves first-phase insulin secretion and insulinogenic index in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, P C M; van Asseldonk, E J P; Holst, J J; Vilsbøll, T; Netea, M G; Tack, C J

    2014-12-01

    Inflammation at the level of the β cell appears to be involved in progressive β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. We assessed the effect of blocking interleukin-1 (IL-1) by anakinra [recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra)] on β-cell function. Sixteen participants with impaired glucose tolerance were treated with 150 mg anakinra daily for 4 weeks in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study with a wash-out period of 4 weeks. At the end of each treatment period, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) and hyperglycaemic clamps were performed. First-phase insulin secretion improved after anakinra treatment compared with placebo, 148 ± 20 versus 123 ± 14 mU/l, respectively (p = 0.03), and the insulinogenic index was higher after anakinra treatment. These results support the concept of involvement of IL-1β in the (progressive) decrease of insulin secretion capacity associated with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Antihypertensive effect of low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in comparison with drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Silverdal, Jonas; Mourtzinis, Georgios; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Mannheimer, Clas; Manhem, Karin

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for vascular disease, yet blood pressure (BP) control is unsatisfactory low, partly due to side-effects. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is well tolerated and studies have demonstrated BP reduction. In this study, we compared the BP lowering effect of 2.5 mg felodipin once daily with 30 min of bidaily low-frequency TENS in 32 adult hypertensive subjects (mean office BP 152.7/90.0 mmHg) in a randomized, crossover design. Office BP and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were performed at baseline and at the end of each 4-week treatment and washout period. Felodipin reduced office BP by 10/6 mmHg (p <0.001 respectively) and after washout BP rose to a level still significantly lower than at baseline. TENS reduced office BP by 5/1.5 mmHg (p <0.01, ns). After TENS washout, BP was further reduced and significantly lower than at baseline, but at levels similar to BP after felodipin washout and therefore reasonably caused by factors other than the treatment per se. ABPM revealed a significant systolic reduction of 3 mmHg by felodipin, but no significant changes were noted after TENS. We conclude that our study does not present any solid evidence of BP reduction of TENS.

  11. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND... term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  12. A periodic table for cancer.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  13. Water repellent periodic mesoporous organosilicas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendong; Grozea, Daniel; Kohli, Sandeep; Perovic, Douglas D; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2011-02-22

    This paper demonstrates for the first time thermally induced gradual hydrophobization, monitored quantitatively by ellipsometric porosimetry, of four prototypical periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) that are tailored through materials chemistry for use as low-dielectric-constant (low k) materials in microprocessors. Theoretical aspects of this quantification are briefly discussed. A comparison of structural, mechanical, dielectric, and hydrophobic properties of ethane, methane, ethene, and 3-ring PMOs is made. Particularly, ethane, methane, and 3-ring PMOs show impressive water repellency at post-treatment temperatures as low as 350 °C, with corresponding Young's modulus values greater than 10 GPa and k values smaller than 2, a figure of merit that satisfies the technological requirements of future generation microchips.

  14. Nonlinear growth of periodic patterns.

    PubMed

    Villain-Guillot, Simon; Josserand, Christophe

    2002-09-01

    We study the growth of a periodic pattern in one dimension for a model of spinodal decomposition, the Cahn-Hilliard equation. We particularly focus on the intermediate region, where the nonlinearity cannot be neglected anymore, and before the coalescence dominates. The dynamics is captured through the standard technique of a solubility condition performed over a particular family of quasistatic solutions. The main result is that the dynamics along this particular class of solutions can be expressed in terms of a simple ordinary differential equation. The density profile of the stationary regime found at the end of the nonlinear growth is also well characterized. Numerical simulations correspond satisfactorily to the analytical results through three different methods and asymptotic dynamics are well recovered, even far from the region where the approximations hold.

  15. Quercetin lowers plasma uric acid in pre-hyperuricaemic males: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2016-03-14

    Elevated plasma uric acid concentration is a risk factor for gout, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Quercetin, a flavonoid found in high levels in onions, tea and apples, inhibits xanthine oxidoreductase in vitro, the final step in intracellular uric acid production, indicating that quercetin might be able to lower blood uric acid in humans. We determined the effects of 4 weeks of oral supplementation of quercetin on plasma uric acid, blood pressure and fasting glucose. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial recruited twenty-two healthy males (19-60 years) with baseline plasma uric acid concentration in the higher, but still considered healthy, range (339 (SD 51) µmol/l). The intervention included one tablet containing 500 mg quercetin daily for 4 weeks, compared with placebo, with a 4-week washout period between treatments. The primary outcome was change in concentrations of plasma uric acid after 2 and 4 weeks; secondary outcome measures were changes in fasting plasma glucose, 24-h urinary excretion of uric acid and resting blood pressure. After quercetin treatment, plasma uric acid concentrations were significantly lowered by -26·5 µmol/l (95% CI, -7·6, -45·5; P=0·008), without affecting fasting glucose, urinary excretion of uric acid or blood pressure. Daily supplementation of 500 mg quercetin, containing the bioavailable amount of quercetin as present in approximately 100 g red onions, for 4 weeks, significantly reduces elevated plasma uric acid concentrations in healthy males.

  16. 34 CFR 75.251 - Budget periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget periods. 75.251 Section 75.251 Education Office...-Year Projects § 75.251 Budget periods. (a) The Secretary usually approves a budget period of not more... multi-year project period, the Secretary: (1) Makes a grant to the project for the initial budget...

  17. 7 CFR 959.16 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 959.16 Section 959.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.16 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the annual period beginning...

  18. 7 CFR 945.12 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.12 Section 945.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning and ending on the dates approved by the...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.9 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1230.9 Section 1230.9 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the 12-month period ending on December 31 or such other consecutive...

  20. 7 CFR 947.9 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 947.9 Section 947.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning and ending on the dates...

  1. 7 CFR 948.103 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 948.103 Section 948.103 Agriculture... Rules and Regulations General § 948.103 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 948.10, the fiscal periods for each... following year, both dates inclusive. The 1986-87 fiscal period which began July 1, 1986, will be...

  2. 7 CFR 948.10 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 948.10 Section 948.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.10 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period...

  3. 7 CFR 953.122 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 953.122 Section 953.122 Agriculture... STATES Rules and Regulations Change in Date for Completing Nominations, Term of Office, and Fiscal Period § 953.122 Fiscal period. The fiscal period, pursuant to § 953.9, which began on April 1, 1976, shall...

  4. 7 CFR 956.113 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 956.113 Section 956.113 Agriculture... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.113 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 956.13, fiscal period shall mean the period beginning January 1 and ending December 31...

  5. 7 CFR 958.12 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 958.12 Section 958.12 Agriculture... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.12 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning and ending on the dates approved by the Secretary pursuant...

  6. 7 CFR 946.9 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 946.9 Section 946.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the period beginning...

  7. Epigenetics in the perioperative period

    PubMed Central

    Lirk, P; Fiegl, H; Weber, N C; Hollmann, M W

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative period is characterized by profound changes in the body's homoeostatic processes. This review seeks to address whether epigenetic mechanisms may influence an individual's reaction to surgery and anaesthesia. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that epigenetic mechanisms can explain many facets of susceptibility to acute and chronic pain, making them potential therapeutic targets. Modern pain management is still based upon opiates, and both the developmental expression of opioid receptors and opioid-induced hyperalgesia have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms. In general, opiates seem to increase global DNA methylation levels. This is in contrast to local anaesthetics, which have been ascribed a global demethylating effect. Even though no direct investigations have been carried out, the potential influence of epigenetics on the inflammatory response that follows surgery seems a promising area for research. There is a considerable body of evidence that supports the involvement of epigenetics in the complex process of wound healing. Epigenetics is an important emerging research topic in perioperative medicine, with a huge potential to positively influence patient outcome. PMID:25073649

  8. Metamaterial properties of periodic laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ankit

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we show that a 1-D phononic crystal (laminate) can exhibit metamaterial wave phenomena which are traditionally associated with 2- and 3-D crystals. Moreover, due to the absence of a length scale in 2 of its dimensions, it can outperform higher dimensional crystals on some measures. This includes allowing only negative refraction over large frequency ranges and serving as a near-omnidirectional high-pass filter up to a large frequency value. First we provide a theoretical discussion on the salient characteristics of the dispersion relation of a laminate and formulate the solution of an interface problem by the application of the normal mode decomposition technique. We present a methodology with which to induce a pure negative refraction in the laminate. As a corollary to our approach of negative refraction, we show how the laminate can be used to steer beams over large angles for small changes in the incident angles (beam steering). Furthermore, we clarify how the transmitted modes in the laminate can be switched on and off by varying the angle of the incident wave by a small amount. Finally, we show that the laminate can be used as a remarkably efficient high-pass frequency filter. An appropriately designed laminate will reflect all plane waves from quasi-static to a large frequency, incident at it from all angles except for a small set of near-normal incidences. This will be true even if the homogeneous medium is impedance matched with the laminate. Due to the similarities between SH waves and electromagnetic (EM) waves it is expected that some or all of these results may also apply to EM waves in a layered periodic dielectric.

  9. The effects of soy bean flour enriched bread intake on anthropometric indices and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic women: a crossover randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Salari Moghaddam, Asma; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholamreza; Sharifi Zahabi, Elham; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that soy bean has the potential to improve many aspects of diabetes state and provide metabolic benefits that aid in weight management. We aimed to determine the effects of soy bean flour enriched bread on anthropometric indices and blood pressure among type 2 diabetic patients. This randomized, crossover, clinical trial was performed in 30 type 2 diabetic women. There were two trial periods for 6 weeks and a wash-out period for 4 weeks. In the soy bread diet period, 120 g of soy bean flour enriched bread was consumed each day instead of the same amount of their usual bread or other cereal products. After a 4-week wash-out period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Mean (±SD) age of study participants was 45.7 ± 3.8 years. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soy bean flour enriched bread on anthropometric indices and blood pressure among diabetic patients. Despite the slight reduction in BMI, waist circumference, and percent of body fat, there were no significant differences in changes of these values between two groups. No significant changes in waist to hip ratio and blood pressure were seen.

  10. Lisuride reduces involuntary periodic leg movements in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 patients.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Álvarez-González, Lázaro; Aguilera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Álvarez Sánchez, Mario; Canales-Ochoa, Nalia; Galicia Polo, Lourdes; Haro-Valencia, Reyes; Medrano-Montero, Jacqueline; Vázquez-Mojena, Yaimeé; Peña-Acosta, Arnoy; Estupiñán-Rodríguez, Annelié; Rodríguez Pupo, Noemí

    2012-12-01

    Periodic leg movements (PLMs) are a common sleep disorder in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) being associated to higher disease severity and altered sleep patterns. To assess the efficacy and safety of lisuride for the treatment of PLMs in SCA2 patients, an open-label clinical trial was conducted in 12 SCA2 patients suffering from PLMs associated to other subjective sleep complaints. All subjects received 0.1 mg of oral lisuride daily for 4 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the change of PLMs index. Changes in the subjective sleep quality, other polysomnographical sleep parameters, Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score, and saccadic velocity were assessed as secondary outcome parameters. Safety assessments included hemoglobin, hematocrit, cholesterol, creatinine, and TGP. A significant decrease in both the PLMs index and R stage latency were observed during the treatment, associated to subjective improvement of frequent awakenings, early insomnia, restless leg syndrome, and nocturnal limb paresthesias in most cases. Ataxia score and saccadic pathology were unchanged. No significantly adverse events were observed. Our study suggests the efficacy of dopamine agonist therapy in the treatment of PLMs in SCA2, improving various subjective sleep complaints. These findings serve to promote the adequate management of sleep-related disorders in SCA2, which could improve the life quality of the patients.

  11. Acceleration of consolidation period by thrombin peptide 508 in tibial distraction osteogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Cakarer, S; Olgac, V; Aksakalli, N; Tang, A; Keskin, C

    2010-12-01

    We aimed to find out whether a single local injection of two different doses of thrombin peptide 508 (TP508) could accelerate consolidation of bone in sites of tibial distraction osteogenesis in rats. Forty-eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally (n=16 in each group) into controls (given saline alone), and two experimental groups, given injections of TP508 10μg or 100 μg. The animals were killed on days 14 and 28 after distraction. Histomorphometric evaluation showed that the TP508 resulted in significantly larger areas of newly formed bone (p<0.003 and p<0.0001) than saline alone. At 2 weeks, more new bone had formed in the group given TP508 100 μg than in the group given 10 μg, but the difference was not significant (p=0.8). However, the difference was significant at 4 weeks (p=0.03). These findings suggest that a single injection of TP508 given at the end of the distraction period increased the degree of consolidation. The higher dose was more effective at the later time point.

  12. Evaluation of combined effects of ageing period and freezing rate on quality attributes of beef loins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yuan H Brad; Liesse, Charlotte; Kemp, Robert; Balan, Prabhu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the combined effects of ageing period and different freezing rates on meat quality attributes of beef loins. Pairs of loins (M. longissimus at 1 day post mortem) from 12 carcasses were divided into four equal portions and randomly assigned to four ageing/freezing treatments (aged only, frozen only, and 3 or 4 weeks ageing at -1.5°C then frozen). Two freezing methods (fast freezing by calcium chloride immersion or slow freezing by air freezer at -18°C) were applied to the loin sections. Fast freezing had no effect on shear force (P>0.05), but significantly improved the water-holding capacity of the aged/frozen loins by reducing purge and drip losses. Ageing-then-freezing significantly improved shear force values of loins compared to both the aged only and frozen only loins. These observations suggest that fast freezing will add more value to the aged/frozen/thawed meat by minimising the amount of water-loss due to the freezing/thawing process.

  13. Passive mobilization after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is not detrimental in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Pieter-Jan; Muermans, Stijn; Maroy, Mathieu; Linden, Patrick; Van den Daelen, Luc

    2015-09-01

    This prospective randomized study compares the clinical results of immediate passive mobilization versus delayed mobilization in the rehabilitation of rotator cuff repair during the early postoperative period. The mobilization group (79 patients) received immediate daily passive mobilization. The immobilization group (51 patients) was immobilized for 4 weeks until physiotherapy was started. Passive range of motion was noted preoperatively, at 6 weeks and 4 months. Strength was measured preoperatively and at 4 months. Constant-Murley, Simple Shoulder Test, SPADI and UCLA scores were noted at baseline and at 4 months. Ultrasonography was performed at 6 weeks to exclude early failures of repair. We noted no significant difference between the two groups regarding range of motion at 6 weeks and range of motion, strength and functional outcome scores at 4 months. Ultrasound didn't show a difference in healing at 6 w in either of both groups. Both rehabilitation protocols seem applicable as well as safe in the early post-operative phase.

  14. Pre-culture period of mesenchymal stem cells in osteogenic media influences their in vivo bone forming potential.

    PubMed

    Castano-Izquierdo, Harold; Alvarez-Barreto, José; van den Dolder, Juliette; Jansen, John A; Mikos, Antonios G; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if the in vitro pre-culture period in osteogenic media of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), influences their ability to regenerate bone when implanted in a critical size cranial defect. MSCs were harvested from the bone marrow of 6-8 weeks old male Fisher rats and expanded in vitro in osteogenic media for different time periods (4, 10, and 16 days) in tissue culture plates (TCP), seeded on sintered titanium fiber meshes without the extracellular matrix (ECM) generated in vitro, and implanted in the rat cranium after 12 h. Thirty two adult Fisher rats received the implants, divided in four groups. Three groups were implanted with cells cultured for 4, 10, or 16 days in osteogenic media and at that time their alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition denoted that they were at different stages of their osteoblastic maturation (undifferentiated MSC, committed, and mature Osteoblasts, respectively). MSCs cultured without osteogenic media for 6 days were used as controls. The constructs were retrieved 4 weeks later and processed for histomorphometric analysis. Implants seeded with cells that have been cultured with osteogenic media for only 4 days revealed the highest bone formation. The lowest bone formation was obtained with the implants seeded with MSCs cultured for 16 days in the presence of osteogenic media. The results of this study suggested that the in vitro pre-culture period of MSCs is a critical factor for their ability to regenerate bone when implanted to an orthotopic site.

  15. Man Made Elements Periodic Table, Astronomical Periodic Table, Geographic Periodic Table-Dimitri Mendeleev Imitation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, J.-T.

    2013-11-01

    A man made elements periodic table, including every single current element not just synthetic elements can be built differently than the naturally occurring element periodic table. Implications for knowing producible elements in space travel.

  16. NMR Shielding and the Periodic Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerothanassis, I. P.; Kalodimos, C. G.

    1996-08-01

    The object of this article is to find periodic, structurally significant observables that can be correlated to the nuclear shielding or alternatively to investigate whether chemical shift can be used to intensify the periodic disposition of valence electrons.

  17. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  18. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  19. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  20. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  1. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  2. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  3. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-06-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell's theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks.

  4. 40 CFR 35.508 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.508 Section 35.508... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Preparing An Application § 35.508 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for...

  5. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  6. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  7. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  8. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  9. 40 CFR 35.108 - Funding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Funding period. 35.108 Section 35.108... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Preparing An Application § 35.108 Funding period. The Regional Administrator and applicant may negotiate the length of the funding period for environmental program...

  10. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  11. Extracting Fundamental Periods to Segment Biomedical Signals.

    PubMed

    Motrenko, Anastasia; Strijov, Vadim

    2016-11-01

    We address the problem of segmenting nearly periodic time series into period-like segments. We introduce a definition of nearly periodic time series via triplets 〈 basic shape, shape transformation, time scaling 〉 that covers a wide range of time series. To split the time series into periods, we select a pair of principal components of the Hankel matrix. We then cut the trajectory of the selected principal components by its symmetry axis and, thus, obtaining half-periods that are merged into segments. We describe a method of automatic selection of periodic pairs of principal components, corresponding to the fundamental periodicity. We demonstrate the application of the proposed method to the problem of period extraction for accelerometric time series of human gait. We see the automatic segmentation into periods as a problem of major importance for human activity recognition problem, since it allows to obtain interpretable segments: each extracted period can be seen as an ultimate entity of gait. The method we propose is more general compared to the application specific methods and can be used for any nearly periodical time series. We compare its performance to classical mathematical methods of period extraction and find that it is not only comparable to the alternatives, but in some cases performs better.

  12. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for the... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section...

  13. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  14. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  15. 8 CFR 244.17 - Periodic registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Periodic registration. 244.17 Section 244... STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.17 Periodic registration. (a) Aliens granted Temporary Protected Status must re-register periodically in accordance with USCIS instructions. Such...

  16. 8 CFR 244.17 - Periodic registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Periodic registration. 244.17 Section 244... STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.17 Periodic registration. (a) Aliens granted Temporary Protected Status must re-register periodically in accordance with USCIS instructions. Such...

  17. 8 CFR 244.17 - Periodic registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic registration. 244.17 Section 244... STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.17 Periodic registration. (a) Aliens granted Temporary Protected Status must re-register periodically in accordance with USCIS instructions. Such...

  18. 77 FR 73452 - Grace Period Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Grace Period Study ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The...Collection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Grace Period Study comment'' in the subject line of the message... are not fully understood. Few studies in the past ten years have dealt with the grace period, and...

  19. About the Solar Activity Rotation Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Zadig

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evidence, from a statistical point of view, the different periods of solar activity. The well known period is that of 150-160 days, but many others were detected between 9 and 4750 days (length of solar cycle). We tabulated 49 articles revealing 231 periods. In order to explain them, different hypotheses were suggested.

  20. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  1. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  2. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  3. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of...

  4. Prebifurcation periodic ghost orbits in semiclassical quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Kus, M. ); Haake, F. ); Delande, D. )

    1993-10-04

    Classical periodic orbits are stationary-phase points in path integral representations of quantum propagators. We show that complex solutions of the stationary-phase equation, not corresponding to real classical periodic orbits, give additional contributions to the propagator which can be important, especially near bifurcations. We reveal the existence and relevance of such periodic ghost orbits for a kicked top.

  5. 32 CFR 552.80 - Suspension period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Suspension period. 552.80 Section 552.80 National... Suspension period. All solicitation privileges suspended by installation commanders will be for a specific time. Normally, it will not exceed 2 years. When the suspension period expires, the agent may...

  6. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal period. 9901.411 Section 9901... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) and (b) of this section, the appraisal period will be October 1 to September...

  7. 12 CFR 34.82 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.82 Holding period. (a) Holding period for OREO. A national bank shall dispose of... estate acquired for future bank expansion. (c) Effect of statutory redemption period. For DPC real...

  8. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  9. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  10. 30 CFR 725.14 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant periods. 725.14 Section 725.14 Mineral... REGULATIONS REIMBURSEMENTS TO STATES § 725.14 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally approve a grant for a period of one year or less. OSM shall fund a program that extends over...

  11. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  12. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  13. 32 CFR 37.1325 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Periodic audit. 37.1325 Section 37.1325 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1325 Periodic audit. An audit of... awards. Appendix C to this part describes what such an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a...

  14. 10 CFR 603.1295 - Periodic audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audit. 603.1295 Section 603.1295 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1295 Periodic audit. An audit of a participant, performed at an agreed-upon... an audit may cover. A periodic audit of a participant differs from an award-specific audit of...

  15. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  16. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  17. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  18. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  19. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  20. CICATRIZATION OF WOUNDS : XI. LATENT PERIOD.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A; du Noüy, P L

    1921-09-30

    1. The latent period of cicatrization varies generally from 5 to 7 days. 2. It stops abruptly and contraction starts with its maximum velocity. 3. The formula of du Noüy applies to the beginning of the contraction period as well as to the subsequent periods.

  1. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  2. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  3. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  4. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  5. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  6. 40 CFR 46.195 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project period. 46.195 Section 46.195... During the Fellowship § 46.195 Project period. Based on the “Date Fellow Will Enter on Duty” which you enter on the Activation Notice (see § 46.185(a)), EPA will establish the project period for...

  7. 40 CFR 35.538 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project period. 35.538 Section 35.538... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Performance Partnership Grants § 35.538 Project period. If... that is added to a Performance Partnership Grant extends beyond the end of the project period for...

  8. 7 CFR 916.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 916.7 Section 916.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is synonymous with fiscal year and...

  9. Islets of stability beyond period doubling

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, R.S.

    1981-11-01

    Period doubling of a periodic orbit of an area preserving map appears to lead to the elimination of all closed invariant curves in the vicinity. We show, however, that there are always islets of stabilhty again beyond the accumulation point of the period doubling sequence.

  10. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the appraisal....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR...

  11. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  12. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  13. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  14. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  15. 14 CFR 413.15 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review period. 413.15 Section 413.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.15 Review period. (a) Review period...

  16. 7 CFR 930.107 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 930.107 Section 930.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.107 Fiscal period. Pursuant to § 930.7, fiscal period shall mean the...

  17. 7 CFR 947.114 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 947.114 Section 947.114 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.114 Fiscal period. The fiscal period shall begin July 1 of each year and end June 30 of...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.307 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1205.307 Section 1205.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.307 Fiscal period. Fiscal period is the 12-month...

  19. 7 CFR 1250.303 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 1250.303 Section 1250.303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.303 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the calendar...

  20. 7 CFR 959.104 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 959.104 Section 959.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations General § 959.104 Fiscal period. The fiscal period shall begin August 1 of each year and end...

  1. 7 CFR 953.9 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 953.9 Section 953.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.9 Fiscal period. Fiscal period means the...

  2. 7 CFR 945.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period. 945.111 Section 945.111 Agriculture... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 945.111 Fiscal period. The fiscal period that began June 1, 1981, shall end July 31, 1982. Each year thereafter...

  3. 12 CFR 561.6 - Audit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit period. 561.6 Section 561.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.6 Audit period. The audit period of a savings association means the...

  4. Quasi-Periodically Driven Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdeny, Albert; Puig, Joaquim; Mintert, Florian

    2016-10-01

    Floquet theory provides rigorous foundations for the theory of periodically driven quantum systems. In the case of non-periodic driving, however, the situation is not so well understood. Here, we provide a critical review of the theoretical framework developed for quasi-periodically driven quantum systems. Although the theoretical footing is still under development, we argue that quasi-periodically driven quantum systems can be treated with generalisations of Floquet theory in suitable parameter regimes. Moreover, we provide a generalisation of the Floquet-Magnus expansion and argue that quasi-periodic driving offers a promising route for quantum simulations.

  5. Light period regulation of carbohydrate partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janes, Harry W.

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that the photosynthetic period is important in regulating carbon partitioning. Even when the same amount of carbon is fixed over a 24h period considerably more is translocated out of the leaf under the longer photosynthetic period. This is extremely important when parts of the plant other than the leaves are to be sold. It is also important to notice the amount of carbon respired in the short photosynthetic period. The light period effect on carbohydrate fixation, dark respiration, and translocation is shown in this report.

  6. Latent period in clinical radiation myelopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, T.E.; Higgins, E.M.; El-Mahdi, A.M.

    1984-07-01

    Seventy-seven papers containing data on more than 300 cases of radiation myelopathy have been analyzed. The data suggest that the latent periods are similar in the cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord and are bimodally distributed. Myelopathy of lumbar cord apparently has a shorter latent period. As in controlled animal experiments, the latent period decreases with increasing dose. Furthermore, the variation in latent periods also decreases with dose. It is also seen that retreated patients and pediatric or adolescent patients have greatly reduced latent periods. The implications of these findings as they compare with the animal data are discussed.

  7. Long Periodic Terms in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretagnon, P.

    1982-01-01

    The long period variations of the first eight planets in the solar system are studied. First, the Lagrangian solution is calculated and then the long period terms with fourth order eccentricities and inclinations are introduced into the perturbation function. A second approximation was made taking into account the short period terms' contribution, namely the perturbations of first order with respect to the masses. Special attention was paid to the determination of the integration constants. The relative importance of the different contributions is shown. It is useless, for example, to introduce the long period terms of fifth order if no account has been taken of the short period terms. Meanwhile, the terms that have been neglected would not introduce large changes in the integration constants. Even so, the calculation should be repeated with higher order short period terms and fifth order long periods.

  8. A highly specific test for periodicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ansmann, Gerrit

    2015-11-15

    We present a method that allows to distinguish between nearly periodic and strictly periodic time series. To this purpose, we employ a conservative criterion for periodicity, namely, that the time series can be interpolated by a periodic function whose local extrema are also present in the time series. Our method is intended for the analysis of time series generated by deterministic time-continuous dynamical systems, where it can help telling periodic dynamics from chaotic or transient ones. We empirically investigate our method's performance and compare it to an approach based on marker events (or Poincaré sections). We demonstrate that our method is capable of detecting small deviations from periodicity and outperforms the marker-event-based approach in typical situations. Our method requires no adjustment of parameters to the individual time series, yields the period length with a precision that exceeds the sampling rate, and its runtime grows asymptotically linear with the length of the time series.

  9. Coexisting attractors in periodically modulated logistic maps.

    PubMed

    Singh, Thounaojam Umeshkanta; Nandi, Amitabha; Ramaswamy, Ram

    2008-06-01

    We consider the logistic map wherein the nonlinearity parameter is periodically modulated. For low periods, there is multistability, namely two or more distinct dynamical attractors coexist. The case of period 2 is treated in detail, and it is shown how an extension of the kneading theory for one-dimensional maps can be applied in order to analyze the origin of bistability, and to demarcate the principal regions of bistability in the phase space. When the period of the modulation is increased-and here we choose periods which are the Fibonacci numbers-the measure of multistable regions decreases. The limit of quasiperiodic driving is approached in two different ways, by increasing the period and keeping the drive dichotomous, or by increasing the period and varying the modulation sinusoidally. In the former case, we find that multistability persists in small regions of the phase space, while in the latter, there is no evidence of multistability but strange nonchaotic attractors are created.

  10. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  11. Long period coupling terms for Lagrange's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A generalization of that portion of the work of Berger, which deals with the long period coupling effect of certain pairs of zonal harmonics. Long period terms arising from the short short period coupling of zonal harmonics are derived for Lagrange's equations. The formulation is general so that the results are valid for any pairs of zonal harmonics. Formulas are given to generate the various functions and integrals needed for the results given. Checks have been made against the work of Kozai.

  12. Do triatomic molecules echo atomic periodicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Hefferlin, R. Barrow, J.

    2015-03-30

    Demonstrations of periodicity among triatomic-molecular spectroscopic constants underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. The objective of this work is to prepare for another test using vibration frequencies ν{sub 1} of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected ν{sub 1} data for molecules formed from second period atoms.

  13. Preparing to perform: periodization and dance.

    PubMed

    Wyon, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the historical and current literature on periodization in sport before applying the concept to dance from scientific and anecdotal points of view. Preparing the dancer through the use of a periodization model, in a professional or vocational setting, will potentially help prevent overtraining and its link to injury, while improving the dancer's readiness to perform optimally. Practical examples of tapering and periodization of training are discussed for companies and vocational schools.

  14. Periodicity In The Intervals Between Primes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    statistically strong periodicity is identified in the counting function giving the total number of intervals of a certain size. The nature of the periodic...positive intervals among the first n<=10^6 prime numbers as a probe of the global nature of the sequence of primes. A statistically strong periodicity is...Let x = x1, x2, . . . be an increasing sequence of real numbers which may be either finite or infinitely long. Throughout the following every bold

  15. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  16. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  17. 18 CFR 154.303 - Test periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test periods. 154.303... Changes § 154.303 Test periods. Statements A through M, O, P, and supporting schedules, in § 154.312 and § 154.313, must be based upon a test period. (a) If the natural gas company has been in operation for...

  18. The 51-day periodicity in cycle 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of the occurrence rate of major flares (X-ray class greater than or equal to M3.0), we present evidence that the 51-day periodicity was in operation during the interval from May 4, 1991 to November 15, 1992. This periodicity is noted to be two times 25.5 days, which has been proposed as the fundamental period of the Sun.

  19. A Method to Compute Periodic Sums

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-15

    A method to compute periodic sums Nail A. Gumerov∗ and Ramani Duraiswami† Institute for Advanced Computer Studies University of Maryland, College...fast summa- tion algorithms, such as the fast multipole method (FMM), the periodized extension is usually treated via a different algorithm, Ewald...summation algorithm is presented in this paper. The method splits the periodized sum in to two parts. The first, comprising the contribution of all

  20. LOG PERIODIC DIPOLE ARRAY WITH PARASITIC ELEMENTS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The design and measured characteristics of dipole and monopole versions of a log periodic array with parasitic elements are discussed. In a dipole...for the elements to obtain log periodic performance of the anntenna. This design with parasitic elements lends itself to a monopole version of the...antenna which has a simplified feeding configuration. The result is a log periodic antenna design that can be used from high frequencies through microwave frequencies.

  1. Update on Saturn's energetic electron periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, James F.

    2017-01-01

    The periodicities in fluxes of energetic electrons (110-365 keV) in Saturn's magnetosphere were determined from late 2004 to mid-2016. The electron periods were calculated using Lomb periodogram analyses within windows of 200 days at sliding intervals of 10 days, which tracked changes in the periodicity. Sometimes the periodicity showed a clear duality, as in 2007-2008, while at other times the two periods came together so closely as to be indistinguishable, as after equinox in 2010 and in 2015. At still other times, the periodicity apparently vanished altogether, as in 2014. These periodicities generally agreed with those of other phenomena such as the magnetic field and radio emissions. Whether dual or mono, the periods generally remained between 10.58 h and 10.84 h, with two statistical peaks at 10.68 h and 10.81 h. This observation suggests that magnetospheric periodicities at Saturn lie within a limited range of values, which places constraints on the generative mechanism for the phenomena.

  2. NONPARAMETRIC BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yuyang; Khardon, Roni; Protopapas, Pavlos

    2012-09-01

    Many astronomical phenomena exhibit patterns that have periodic behavior. An important step when analyzing data from such processes is the problem of identifying the period: estimating the period of a periodic function based on noisy observations made at irregularly spaced time points. This problem is still a difficult challenge despite extensive study in different disciplines. This paper makes several contributions toward solving this problem. First, we present a nonparametric Bayesian model for period finding, based on Gaussian Processes (GPs), that does not make assumptions on the shape of the periodic function. As our experiments demonstrate, the new model leads to significantly better results in period estimation especially when the light curve does not exhibit sinusoidal shape. Second, we develop a new algorithm for parameter optimization for GP which is useful when the likelihood function is very sensitive to the parameters with numerous local minima, as in the case of period estimation. The algorithm combines gradient optimization with grid search and incorporates several mechanisms to overcome the high computational complexity of GP. Third, we develop a novel approach for using domain knowledge, in the form of a probabilistic generative model, and incorporate it into the period estimation algorithm. Experimental results validate our approach showing significant improvement over existing methods.

  3. Non-Periodic Helix TWT Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    IA-A087 413 LITTON SYSTEMS INC SAN CARLOS CA ELECTRON TUBE DIV F/6 9/1 NON-PERIODIC HELIX TWT STUDY.(U) MAY 80 N00173-76C-014 UNCLASSIFIED ML...IEEEEEEmhEEI U-80 - ’l////////,, 11111 128 25 L1. = *""L 1- 1.8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ’IT-, ( (NO-PERIODIC HELIX WTSTUDY0 I EXTENSION OF CONTRACT... Helix Circuit 4 - 2 Non-Periodic Helix Structure 7 3 Unwound Tape for Non-Periodic Helix 8 4 Typical Helix Assembly 10 5 Typical Ladder Assembly 11 6

  4. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.111 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.111 Fiscal period. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  10. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  11. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  12. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  13. 7 CFR 1206.7 - Fiscal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.7 Fiscal period. Fiscal...

  14. Dark periodic lattices in nonlinear liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado-Méndez, Edgar; Trejo-Durán, Mónica; Cano-Lara, Miroslava; Huerta-Mascotte, Eduardo; Castaňo, Víctor M.

    2007-11-01

    Experimental evidence of the formation of one- and two-dimensional dark periodic lattices in a negative Kerr-type nonlinear liquid media is presented. Bright periodic lattices propagate throughout two nonlinear liquids [alcohol with rhodamine (R6G), and acetone with R6G] as the negative nonlinear refractive index forms a dark periodic lattice. Our experiments demonstrate that the nonlinearity increases with the optical power and that a proper selection of the period leads to self-phase modulation of the lattice.

  15. On periodicity of solar wind phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, V. K.; Joshi, G. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the rate of occurrence of solar wind phenomena observed between 1972-1984 using power spectrum analysis. The data have been taken from the high speed solar wind (HSSW) streams catalogue published by Mavromichalaki et al. (1988). The power spectrum analysis of HSSW events indicate that HSSW stream events have a periodicity of 9 days. This periodicity of HSSW events is 1/3 of the 27 days period of coronal holes which are the major source of solar wind events. In our opinion the 9 days period may be the energy build up time to produce the HSSW stream events.

  16. [Hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Areta-Higuera, J D; Algaba-Montes, M; Oviedo-García, A Á

    2014-01-01

    Periodic paralysis is a rare disorder that causes episodes of severe muscle weakness that can be confused with other diseases, including epilepsy or myasthenia gravis. Hyperkalemic and hypokalemic paralysis are included within these diseases, the latter being divided into periodic paralysis (familial, thyrotoxic or sporadic) and non-periodic paralysis. In this regard, we present a case of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis in an eighteen year-old female who was diagnosed with epilepsy in childhood, as well as a subclinical hypothyroidism (for which she received replacement therapy) months ago. The diagnosis was made by the anamnesis and the confirmation of hypokalemia.

  17. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  18. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  19. 40 CFR 91.105 - Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Useful life period, recall, and... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.105 Useful life period, recall, and warranty periods. (a) The useful life for PWC engines is a period of 350 hours of operation or 5 years of use, whichever...

  20. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... began or ended during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam era or the Persian Gulf War, if... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  1. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... began or ended during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam era or the Persian Gulf War, if... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  2. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... began or ended during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam era or the Persian Gulf War, if... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  3. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... began or ended during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam era or the Persian Gulf War, if... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  4. 38 CFR 3.17 - Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... began or ended during World War II, the Korean conflict, the Vietnam era or the Persian Gulf War, if... pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.17 Section 3.17 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation General § 3.17 Disability and death pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  5. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  6. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  7. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  8. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  9. 38 CFR 3.252 - Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods. 3.252 Section 3.252 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.252 Annual income; pension; Mexican border period and later war periods....

  10. Is acetazolamide similar to topiramate for reversal of antipsychotic-induced weight gain?

    PubMed

    Schneiderhan, Mark E; Marvin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Acetazolamide (AZD), a sulfa-like moiety, is a potent, nonspecific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes and has been demonstrated to decrease lipogenesis in adipose cells in in vitro cell culture studies. In contrast, topiramate (a sulfamate moiety) appears to inhibit specific (CA) enzymes II and V. Four placebo-controlled trials with topiramate have demonstrated positive results in weight loss. There is only anecdotal evidence that AZD may cause weight loss. The following case is of a 49-year-old African-American woman with a long history of schizoaffective disorder, hypertension, diabetes type II, stress incontinence, and obesity (body mass index, 45.5 kg/m2). Previous trials of topiramate demonstrated temporary but significant weight loss before AZD use. A 4 week washout period occurred before starting AZD, 250 mg twice daily. Significant weight loss of 11.5 lbs was seen over 4 weeks. During washout periods of either topiramate or AZD, her total mean weight was approximately 2 to 7 lbs higher than when she was treated with AZD. Although tolerance and side effects may limit the use of AZD as a safe and effective strategy for medication-related weight gain, the pharmacology may provide research insights into the causes and treatments of obesity.

  11. Radiation–Induced Signaling Results in Mitochondrial Impairment in Mouse Heart at 4 Weeks after Exposure to X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Schmaltz, Dominik; Shyla, Alena; Azimzadeh, Omid; Schulz, Sabine; Haagen, Julia; Dörr, Wolfgang; Sarioglu, Hakan; Schäfer, Alexander; Atkinson, Michael J.; Zischka, Hans; Tapio, Soile

    2011-01-01

    Backround Radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease or childhood cancers expose the heart to high local radiation doses, causing an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the survivors decades after the treatment. The mechanisms that underlie the radiation damage remain poorly understood so far. Previous data show that impairment of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is directly linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the radiation-induced in vivo effects on cardiac mitochondrial proteome and function were investigated. C57BL/6N mice were exposed to local irradiation of the heart with doses of 0.2 Gy or 2 Gy (X-ray, 200 kV) at the age of eight weeks, the control mice were sham-irradiated. After four weeks the cardiac mitochondria were isolated and tested for proteomic and functional alterations. Two complementary proteomics approaches using both peptide and protein quantification strategies showed radiation-induced deregulation of 25 proteins in total. Three main biological categories were affected: the oxidative phophorylation, the pyruvate metabolism, and the cytoskeletal structure. The mitochondria exposed to high-dose irradiation showed functional impairment reflected as partial deactivation of Complex I (32%) and Complex III (11%), decreased succinate-driven respiratory capacity (13%), increased level of reactive oxygen species and enhanced oxidation of mitochondrial proteins. The changes in the pyruvate metabolism and structural proteins were seen with both low and high radiation doses. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study showing the biological alterations in the murine heart mitochondria several weeks after the exposure to low- and high-dose of ionizing radiation. Our results show that doses, equivalent to a single dose in radiotherapy, cause long-lasting changes in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mitochondria-associated cytoskeleton. This prompts us to propose that these first pathological changes lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease after radiation exposure. PMID:22174747

  12. The influence of prematurity and long chain polyunsaturate supplementation in 4-week adjusted age baboon neonate brain and related tissues.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Wijendran, Vasuki; Diau, Guan-Yeu; Chao, Angela Chueh; Hsieh, Andrea T; Turpeinen, Anu; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Brenna, J Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Clinical studies show that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) supplemented formula improve visual function in preterm infants, however improved fatty acid status is known only for plasma and red blood cells (RBC) since target organs cannot be sampled from humans. Baboons were randomized to one of four groups: Term breast-fed (B); Term formula-fed (T-); Preterm formula-fed (P-); and Preterm DHA/ARA-supplemented formula-fed (P+). The P+ contained 0.61 +/- 0.03% DHA and 1.21 +/- 0.09% ARA, and breast milk had 0.68 +/- 0.22% and 0.62 +/- 0.12% as DHA and ARA, respectively. The B and P+ groups had significantly higher DHA concentration in all tissues than T- and P-. The P- group showed dramatically lower DHA content of 35%, 27%, 66%, and 75% in the brain, retina, liver, and plasma, respectively, compared with B. Supplementation prevented declines in DHA levels in the retina, and liver, and attenuated the decline in brain, plasma and RBC of preterm animals. In contrast, ARA was not significantly lower compared with B in any group in any tissue but was significantly elevated in liver and brain. RBC and plasma DHA were correlated with DHA in tissues; RBC/plasma ARA were uncorrelated with tissue ARA. We conclude that 1) DHA drops precipitously in term and preterm primates consuming formula without long chain polyunsaturates, while 22:5n-6 concentration rises; 2) tissue ARA levels are insensitive to dietary LCP supplementation or prematurity, 3) plasma and RBC levels of ARA are uncorrelated with total ARA levels; 4) DHA levels are correlated with group effects and are uncorrelated within groups.

  13. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration to dairy cows without a corpus luteum 4 weeks after calving increases reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J K; Kang, H G; Hur, T Y; Kim, I H

    2013-12-01

    This field study investigated whether the administration of a single dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to dairy cows without a corpus luteum (CL) 4 weeks after calving can improve reproductive performance. Holstein dairy cows underwent ultrasonography to assess the presence of ovarian structures at 29.2 ± 5.2 days post-partum, and cows were divided into two main groups based on the presence (CL group, n = 230) or absence (non-CL group, n = 460) of a CL. The non-CL group was further randomly divided into two subgroups based on the administration of GnRH (non-CL GnRH group, n = 230) or no GnRH (non-CL control group, n = 230). Subsets of cows from non-CL control (n = 166) and non-CL GnRH (n = 175) groups received a second ultrasonography at 44.5 ± 5.4 days post-partum to assess CL formation. The percentage of cows with CL at the second ultrasonography was greater in the non-CL GnRH group (70.9%) than in the non-CL control group (53.0%, p = 0.0006). The hazard of the first post-partum insemination by 150 days in milk (DIM) was higher in the CL group than in the non-CL control group (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.36, p = 0.001). The probability of a pregnancy to the first insemination was higher in non-CL GnRH (odds ratio [OR]: 1.50, p = 0.04) and CL groups (OR: 1.55, p = 0.03) compared to the non-CL control group. Furthermore, the hazard of pregnancy by 210 DIM was higher in non-CL GnRH (HR: 1.30, p = 0.01) and CL (HR: 1.51, p = 0.0001) groups than in the non-CL control group. In conclusion, administration of GnRH to dairy cows without a CL 4 weeks after calving was associated with an increase in ovulation and improved reproductive performance.

  14. Effect of chronic (4 weeks) ingestion of ethanol on transport of proline into intestinal brush border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Beesley, R.C.; Jones, T.D.

    1986-03-01

    Hamsters were separated into two groups and fed liquid diets ad lib. Controls were given a diet similar to that described by DeCarli and Lieber while alcoholics received the same diet containing 5% ethanol isocalorically substituted for sucrose. The volume of diet consumed daily and the gain in body weights of alcoholics were not significantly different from those of controls. After four weeks the animals were sacrificed and the upper third of the small intestine was used to prepare brush border membrane vesicles. In the presence of a Na/sup +/ gradient, uptake of proline into vesicles prepared from both groups was rapid, reaching a maximum accumulation in 1 to 2 min and then decreasing to the equilibrium level. To normalize the results, the amount of proline take up at each time point was divided by the amount present at equilibrium. From the normalized data it was concluded that both the rate of uptake and the maximum accumulation of proline into brush border membrane vesicles isolated from alcoholics were significantly less than those obtained with vesicles from controls. These results suggest that chronic ingestion of ethanol results in a reduction in Na/sup +/-dependent transport of proline across the brush border membrane and, thus, may contribute to the malnutrition which is frequently associated with chronic alcoholism.

  15. Alteration of sweet taste in high-fat diet induced obese rats after 4 weeks treatment with exenatide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-juan; Wang, Yu-qing; Long, Yang; Wang, Lei; Li, Yun; Gao, Fa-bao; Tian, Hao-ming

    2013-09-01

    Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is effective in inducing weight loss. The exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Reduced appetite and food intake may play important roles. Sweet taste contributes to food palatability, which promotes appetite. Interestingly, GLP-1 and its receptor are expressed in the taste buds of rodents and their interaction has an effect on mediating sweet taste sensitivity. Our aim was to investigate whether sweet taste will be changed after long term treatment with exenatide. The results showed that high-fat diet induced obese rats (HF-C) presented metabolic disorders in food intake, body weight, blood glucose and lipid metabolism compared with long term exenatide treated obese rats (EX) and normal chow fed control rats (NC). Meanwhile, greater preference for sweet taste was observed in HF-C rats but not in EX rats. Compared with NC rats, brain activities induced by sweet taste stimulation were stronger in HF-C rats, however these stronger activities were not found in EX rats. We further found reduced sweet taste receptor T1R3 in circumvallte taste buds of HF-C rats, while GLP-1 was increased. Besides, serum leptin was evaluated in HF-C rats with decreased leptin receptor expressed in taste buds. These changes were not observed in EX rats, which suggest them to be the underlying hormone and molecular mechanisms responsible for alterations in sweet taste of HF-C rats and EX rats. In summary, our results suggest that long term treatment with exenatide could benefit dietary obese rats partially by reversing sweet taste changes.

  16. Leukapheresis reduces 4-week mortality in acute myeloid leukemia patients with hyperleukocytosis - a retrospective study from a tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xinyu; Qin, Qian; Gentille, Cesar; Ensor, Joe; Leveque, Christopher; Pingali, Sai R; Phan, Alexandria T; Rice, Lawrence; Iyer, Swaminathan

    2017-01-31

    Hyperleukocytosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can lead to leukostasis, which if left untreated, has a high mortality. While prompt cytoreductive chemotherapy is essential, treatment with leukapheresis is controversial. This study investigated the outcomes of patients with hyperleukocytosis who received leukapheresis. From 5596 encounters of patients with leukemia seen at Houston Methodist Hospital, we identified 26 patients who had newly diagnosed AML, WBC >50,000/μL, and received leukapheresis. We matched 26 patients who had similar baseline characteristics but did not receive leukapheresis. The primary endpoint was to compare the 28-day mortality rates between the treatment and the control groups. Secondary endpoints were 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year mortality rates. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, leukapheresis was associated with significantly lower 28-day mortality rate (30.8% vs. 57.7%, p = .022). There was, however, no difference in long-term mortality rate. Our study demonstrates the short-term mortality benefit of using leukapheresis in AML patients presenting with hyperleukocytosis.

  17. The effect of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 against irritable bowel syndrome: a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the digestive tract that causes chronic abdominal symptoms. We evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290), which has been demonstrated to be effective at improving bowel movements and the composition of intestinal microflora, on IBS symptoms. Methods We performed a placebo control double-blind cross matched trial. Thirty-five males and females (aged 6 years and above) who had been diagnosed with IBS according to the Rome III criteria were divided into 2 groups, and after a 4-week pre-trial observation period, they were administered test capsules containing KB290 or placebo for 4 weeks (consumption period I). Then, the capsule administration was suspended for 4 weeks in both groups (washout period), before the opposite capsules were administered for a further 4 weeks (consumption period II). Fecal samples were collected on the first day of the pre-consumption observation period, the last day of consumption period I, the last day of the washout period, and the last day of consumption period II. In addition, the subjects’ IBS symptoms and quality of life (QOL) and any adverse events that they experienced were evaluated. Results No significant difference in IBS symptoms was noted among the various periods. However, the mean QOL scores were improved during the test capsule consumption. The frequencies of watery and mushy feces were significantly lower in the test capsule consumption period than during the pre-consumption observation period, and the frequency of abdominal pain was significantly reduced in the test capsule consumption period compared with the other periods. The frequency of the genus Bifidobacterium was significantly higher, and that of the genus Clostridium was significantly lower, after the test capsule consumption than after the placebo consumption. The frequencies of the genera Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Enterococcus were also investigated, but no differences

  18. Time periodic solution to the compressible Euler equations with damping in a periodic domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhong; Xu, Qiuju; Wang, Huaqiao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the existence and uniqueness of a time periodic solution to the three-dimensional compressible damped Euler equations in a periodic domain. By adapting a regularized approximation scheme and applying the topological degree theory, we establish the existence of the time periodic solution under some smallness and structure assumptions imposed on a time periodic force. And based on energy estimates, the uniqueness of the periodic solution is proved.

  19. 30 CFR 735.17 - Grant periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant periods. 735.17 Section 735.17 Mineral... REGULATORY PROGRAMS FOR NON-FEDERAL AND NON-INDIAN LANDS GRANTS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.17 Grant periods. The Director or his authorized designee shall normally...

  20. 39 CFR 3055.22 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodicals. 3055.22 Section 3055.22 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.22 Periodicals. For each product within...