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Sample records for 4-year cohort graduation

  1. 4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate: Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Federal law requires Pennsylvania, and all other states, to transition to a new calculation method for determining high school graduation rates. Beginning in 2012, using graduation data from the Classes of 2010 and 2011, the "4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate" calculation will replace the "4-Year Leaver Graduation Rate" calculation. The new…

  2. WCPSS High School Graduation Rates: 4-Year and 5-Year Cohort Rates 2011-12. Measuring Up. D&A Report No. 13.04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) four-year cohort graduation rate declined slightly to 80.6% in 2011-12 from 80.9% in the previous year. Disaggregated graduation rates for most racial and ethnic groups stayed nearly the same or declined slightly in 2011-12, but the rate for African-American students rose from 67.9% to 69.6%. The other…

  3. 2011 Cohort Graduation and Dropout Rate Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    To align with new federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) regulations for graduation rate calculations, the Utah State Office of Education (USOE) is reporting a new graduation rate beginning with the 2011 graduating class (also known as the 2011 cohort). The four-year cohort rate (includes all students who started 9th grade in 2007-2008 plus…

  4. Graduate Cohort Approach in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson-Gearhart, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    The use of the cohorts in teacher education has steadily increased over the last decade. Research indicates both beneficial and negative aspects to this approach, with the field undecided. This study focuses on a Midwestern university's accelerated graduate program for special educators. The program uses a mixed cohort approach to model…

  5. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples. PMID:27014145

  6. Shifting gears higher - digital slides in graduate education - 4 years experience at Semmelweis University

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The spreading of whole slide imaging or digital slide systems in pathology as an innovative technique seems to be unstoppable. Successful introduction of digital slides in education has played a crucial role to reach this level of acceptance. Practically speaking there is no university institute where digital materials are not built into pathology education. At the 1st. Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University optical microscopes have been replaced and for four years only digital slides have been used in education. The aim of this paper is to summarize our experiences gathered with the installation of a fully digitized histology lab for graduate education. Methods We have installed a digital histology lab with 40 PCs, two slide servers - one for internal use and one with external internet access. We have digitized hundreds of slides and after 4 years we use a set of 126 slides during the pathology course. A Student satisfaction questionnaire and a Tutor satisfaction questionnaire have been designed, both to be completed voluntarily to have feed back from the users. The page load statistics of the external slide server were evaluated. Results The digital histology lab served ~900 students and ~1600 hours of histology practice. The questionnaires revealed high satisfaction with digital slides. The results also emphasize the importance of the tutors' attitude towards digital microscopy as a factor influencing the students' satisfaction. The constantly growing number of page downloads from the external server confirms this satisfaction and the acceptance of digital slides. Conclusions We are confident, and have showed as well, that digital slides have got numerous advantages over optical slides and are more suitable in education. PMID:21092205

  7. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  8. Stuttering, Temperament, and Anxiety: Data from a Community Cohort Ages 2-4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…

  9. Increase in child behavior problems among urban Brazilian 4-year olds: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Murray, Elizabeth; Stein, Alan; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio JD; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an increasing number of reports on time trends in child and adolescent psychological problems but none from low- and middle-income countries, and very few covering the preschool period. The aim was to investigate changes in preschool behavioral/emotional problems in two birth cohorts from a middle-income country born 11 years apart. Methods We analyzed data from the 1993 and 2004 Pelotas birth cohort studies from Brazil. A subsample of 4-year olds from the 1993 cohort (634) and all 4-year olds from the 2004 cohort (3750) were assessed for behavioral/emotional problems through maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Response rates in these two population-based cohorts were above 90%. Results We found a significant increase in CBCL total problems, internalizing and externalizing mean scores over the 11-year period. For 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohorts, respectively, CBCL mean values (SE) total problems scores were 27.9 (0.8) and 34.7 (0.3); for internalizing scores, 5.7 (0.2) and 6.3 (0.1) and for externalizing scores, 12.4 (0.4) and 15.5 (0.1). After adjusting for confounding variables, the largest increase from 1993 to 2004 was identified in the aggressive behavior syndrome score (Cohen's d = .50), followed by the externalizing problem score (Cohen's d = .40) and CBCL total problem score (Cohen's d = .36), respectively. The rise in child psychological problems was more marked in children from families with fewer assets and with less educated mothers. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a substantial increase in preschool behavioral problems among children in Brazil over an 11-year period. PMID:24735354

  10. Psychotropic drug use in a cohort of workers 4 years after an industrial disaster in France.

    PubMed

    Diène, Eloi; Geoffroy-Perez, Béatrice; Cohidon, Christine; Gauvin, Stéphanie; Carton, Matthieu; Fouquet, Aurélie; Fatras, Jean-Yves; Imbernon, Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Two years after the 2001 Toulouse industrial disaster, a longitudinal study was set up to evaluate the impact of the disaster. The current substudy examines the medium-term impact (5 years) the incident had on the mental health of 3,004 participants. As part of the monitoring, data relating to the psychotropic drug use of 2,494 participants were collected from administrative databases 4 years after the disaster. Use of psychotropics was higher among women for anxiolytics (10.4% for men and 15.0% for women), hypnotics (10.5% and 17.0%), and antidepressants (7.6% and 11.2%). Exposure to the disaster, especially proximity to the exposure, was significantly associated with the use of antidepressants in men, OR = 3.22, 95% CI[1.57, 6.61]. This was also the case for other exposure factors (saw dead or injury, injured, home damage, death or injury loved one, psychological disorders, exposure toxic fumes): range of OR 1.75 to 2.52 in men, 1.48 to 1.62 in women. In conclusion, this study highlights the medium-term psychological impact of an industrial disaster on psychotropic drug use and the potential for using medical records data as a means for tracking postdisaster mental health. PMID:25158636

  11. Impact of hypothyroidism on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A 4-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kil Woo; Bang, Ki Bae; Rhee, Eun Jung; Kwon, Heon Ju; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Hypothyroidism is reported to contribute to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We compared the risk of the development of NAFLD among three groups with different thyroid hormonal statuses (control, subclinical hypothyroidism, and overt hypothyroidism) in a 4-year retrospective cohort of Korean subjects. Methods Apparently healthy Korean subjects without NAFLD and aged 20-65 years were recruited (n=18,544) at health checkups performed in 2008. Annual health checkups were applied to the cohort for 4 consecutive years until December 2012. Based on their initial serum-free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, they were classified into control, subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH >4.2 mIU/L, normal fT4), and overt hypothyroidism (TSH >4.2 mIU/L, fT4 <0.97 ng/dL) groups. NAFLD was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography findings. Results NAFLD developed in 2,348 of the 18,544 subjects, representing an overall incidence of 12.7%: 12.8%, 11.0%, 12.7% in the control, subclinical hypothyroidism, and overt hypothyroidism groups, respectively. The incidence of NAFLD did not differ significantly with the baseline thyroid hormonal status, even after multivariate adjustment (subclinical hypothyroidism group: hazard ratio [HR]=0.965, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.814-1.143, P=0.67; overt hypothyroidism group: HR=1.255, 95% CI=0.830-1.899, P=0.28). Conclusions Our results suggest that the subclinical and overt types of hypothyroidism are not related to an increased incidence of NAFLD. PMID:26770926

  12. Social Origin and Graduation Age: A Cohort Comparison of Danish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960-1975. These are cohorts for whom university attendance increased steeply. Contrary to recent findings…

  13. Increased risk of severe vaso-occlusive episodes after initial acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell anemia less than 4 years old: Sleep and asthma cohort.

    PubMed

    Vance, Leah D; Rodeghier, Mark; Cohen, Robyn T; Rosen, Carol L; Kirkham, Fenella J; Strunk, Robert C; DeBaun, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the highest incidence of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease occurs in children <4 years old, and a history of ACS at this age is a risk factor for future ACS episodes. However, the interval associated with the highest risk of subsequent ACS or severe pain is not known. Through this mixed retrospective-prospective observational study, the Sleep and Asthma Cohort, we sought to determine the interval after an initial ACS episode during which the majority of children <4 years old are rehospitalized for ACS or severe pain. The cumulative prevalence of rehospitalization for ACS or severe pain within 6 months, 1 years, and 2 years was calculated for children with an initial ACS episode <4 years old and compared to children with an initial ACS episode ≥4 years old. A total of 44.8% and 55.2% of participants had an initial ACS episode <4 years and ≥4 years old (Range: 4-17.7 years), respectively. At 1 year following the initial ACS episode, children <4 years old had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of rehospitalizations for ACS or pain as compared to children ≥4 years of age, 62.5 and 39.1%, respectively (P = 0.009). After initial ACS episodes, the majority of children <4 years old will be rehospitalized for ACS or severe pain within one year, suggesting the need for a therapeutic intervention for this high-risk group. PMID:25619382

  14. Transfer and Graduation Rates, Full-Time Entrants after 4 Years. Revised Brief RB93-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    Drawing from annual data provided by the Maryland Higher Education Commission, Prince George's Community College (PGCC) in Maryland conducted a study of the status of first-time, full-time students at PGCC 4 years after entry. In particular, the study examined the number and percentages of students earning certificates and associate degrees and/or…

  15. [A continuous 4-year evaluation of medical informatics education in a graduate school of health sciences using a questionnaire survey].

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Matsutani, Hideya; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of awareness among undergraduate students regarding medical informatics and to ascertain whether educational training has progressed with time in the Department of Health Sciences at Hirosaki University, Japan, which is a co-medical staff training institution that conducts a 4-year university course in medical informatics. The university accepts students who have completed the 3rd grade of medical licensing tests and who have attended the medical informatics lectures for 4 years (2007-2010). The ratio of first sight terminology percentage in any given fiscal year in all the 30 terminology categories varied widely from 0% to 80%, but the trend in various categories did not vary between fiscal years. The terminology of informatics under medical technology students obtained high scores of 52.5-77.3% after attending courses, which was higher compared with students from other classes. On the other hand, student nurses and occupational therapy students obtained 0-44.2%. Each class scored a high percentage of correct answers in the medical information-related terminology. Among the radiology students who attended the classes, the percentage of correct answers in categories of "digital imaging and communication in medicine" and "picture archiving and communication system" were lower than other medical terminology categories. These results reflect the gaps in educational curriculum of 1st and 2nd grades of medical licensing tests. PMID:23358336

  16. Cohort Learning for Graduate Students at the Dissertation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Barbara D.; Birds, Kimberly; Seay, Angela D.; Smith, Debra B.; Wilson, Kimberly N.

    2010-01-01

    Doctoral students discuss the power of collaborative cohort learning in transforming the dissertation phase of doctoral study. Innovative components of doctoral cohort learning and dissertation preparation are detailed.

  17. Increased risk of severe vaso-occlusive episodes after initial acute chest syndrome in children with sickle cell anemia less than 4 years old: Sleep and Asthma Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Leah D; Rodeghier, Mark; Cohen, Robyn T.; Rosen, Carol L.; Kirham, Fenella J.; Strunk, Robert C.; DeBaun, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the highest incidence of acute chest syndrome (ACS) in sickle cell disease (SCD) occurs in children less than 4 years old, and a history of ACS at this age is a risk factor for future ACS episodes. However, the interval associated with the highest risk of subsequent ACS or severe pain is not known. Through this mixed retrospective-prospective observational study, the Sleep and Asthma Cohort, we sought to determine the interval after an initial ACS episode during which the majority of children <4 years old are re-hospitalized for ACS or severe pain. The cumulative prevalence of re-hospitalization for ACS or severe pain within 6 months, 1 years, and 2 years was calculated for children with an initial ACS episode <4 years old and compared to children with an initial ACS episode ≥4 years old. A total of 44.8% and 55.2% of participants had an initial ACS episode <4 years and ≥4 years old (Range: 4-17.7 years), respectively. At 1 year following the initial ACS episode, children <4 years old had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of re-hospitalizations for ACS or pain as compared to children ≥4 years of age, 62.5% and 39.1%, respectively (P = 0.009). After initial ACS episodes, the majority of children <4 years old will be re-hospitalized for ACS or severe pain within one year, suggesting the need for a therapeutic intervention for this high-risk group. PMID:25619382

  18. Advising Experiences and Needs of Online, Cohort, and Classroom Adult Graduate Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Shawnda M.; Terras, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Although a majority of graduate students fall under the definition of adult learners (over age 24 years), many traditional institutions do not offer advising specific to them, nor do they recognize advising needs of these older students in online, classroom, or cohort situations. In this phenomenological study, 9 adult graduate learners were…

  19. National High School Graduation Rate: Are Recent Birth Cohorts Taking More Time to Graduate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Myungkook; Kim, Jeounghee

    2016-01-01

    Debates about the national high school graduation rate have heated up as various national high school graduation estimates based on the Common Core of Data (CCD) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) do not coincide with one another partially due to different assumptions about graduation age. This study found that (a) while graduation rate by…

  20. Graduate Student Experiences: The Impact of a Mixed-Cohort Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Kacy Kilner

    2012-01-01

    Student cohorts have been regaining popularity among graduate programs over the past few decades because they offer numerous advantages for students and can be molded to fit programmatic needs. The format of these cohorts range from open to closed according to the inclusion or exclusion of additional students during the life of the program.…

  1. Sugar Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain over 4 Years in a Thai National Cohort – A Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lynette; Banwell, Cathy; Bain, Chris; Banks, Emily; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Kelly, Matthew; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) are implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide. However, little is known about their contribution to weight gain in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate weight change associated with SSB consumption between 2005 and 2009 in a large national cohort of Thai university students. Methods Questionnaire data were collected from a large Thai cohort (the Thai Health-Risk Transition: a National Cohort Study). The analysis was based on responses from 59 283 of the 60 569 (98%) cohort members who had valid SSB consumption and weight variables in 2005 and 2009. The relationship between SSB consumption in 2005 and self-reported weight change was analysed using multiple linear regression models controlled for socio-demographic, activity and (non-validated) dietary factors shown to influence weight. Results Higher frequency of SSB consumption in 2005 was significantly associated with greater weight gain between 2005 and 2009 in all age groups and in both sexes (p<0.0001); persons who consumed SSBs at least once a day in 2005 gained 0.5 kg more than those who consumed SSBs less than once a month. The estimated weight gain for the average person in the sample was 1.9 kg (95% C I 1.95–1.96). The difference in weight gain between those who increased their consumption frequency ( once per day) between 2005 and 2009 compared to those who maintained it was 0.3 kgs, while persons who reduced their consumption frequency (once a day to > once a month) gained 0.2 kgs less than those whose consumption remained unchanged. Conclusion SSB consumption is independently associated with weight gain in the Thai population. Research and health promotion in Thailand and other economically transitioning countries should focus on reducing their contribution to population weight gain and to diet-related chronic diseases. PMID:24805125

  2. The Proportion of Women Who Have a Breast 4 Years after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mennie, Joanna C.; Mohanna, Pari-Naz; O’Donoghue, Joseph M; Rainsbury, Richard; Cromwell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are numerous pathways in breast cancer treatment, many of which enable women to retain a breast after treatment. We evaluated the proportion of women who have a breast, either through conserving surgery (BCS) or reconstruction, at 4-years after diagnosis, and how this varied by patient group. Methods and Findings We identified women with breast cancer who underwent initial BCS or mastectomy in English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals between January 2008 and December 2009 using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Women were assigned into one of four patient groups depending on their age at diagnosis and presence of comorbidities. The series of breast cancer procedure (BCS, mastectomy, immediate, or delayed reconstruction) undergone by each women was identified over four years, and the proportion of women with a breast calculated. Variation was examined across patient groups, and English Cancer Networks. Between 2008 and 2009, 60,959 women underwent BCS or mastectomy. The proportion with a breast at 4 years was 79.3%, and 64.0%, in women less than 70 years without, and with comorbidities. Whilst in women aged 70 and over without, and with comorbidities, proportions were 52.6%, and 38.2%, respectively. Comorbidities were associated with lower proportions of BCS, but had little effect on reconstruction rates unlike age. Networks variation of 15% or more was found within each patient group, and Cancer Networks tended to have either a high or low proportion across all four patient groups. However, while 14% of women under 70 years had undergone reconstruction, less than 2% of women aged 70 or more had this treatment option. Conclusion The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer who retain a breast at 4 years is strongly associated with age, and presence of comorbidities. There was significant variation between Cancer Networks indicating that women’s experience in England was dependent on their geographical location of

  3. Maternal depression from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum and emotional/behavioural difficulties in children: results from a prospective pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Mensah, Fiona; Giallo, Rebecca; Brown, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on women's mental health in the perinatal period and the subsequent impacts on children. Comparatively, we know much less about maternal depression at later time points and the potential implications for child mental health. The objective of this paper was to explore the association between maternal depression and child emotional/behavioural difficulties at 4 years postpartum, taking into account earlier episodes of perinatal depression. The Maternal Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 1,507 nulliparous women. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in early pregnancy and at 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum and again at 4 years postpartum. Maternal depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum were associated with significantly increased odds of child emotional/behavioural difficulties (odds ratio (OR) = 3.46, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.21-5.43). This remained significant after adjusting for earlier episodes of perinatal depression and socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 2.07, 95 % CI = 1.18-3.63). We also observed a robust association between child difficulties at age 4 and measures of socio-economic disadvantage. Our findings suggest a pressing need to rethink current paradigms of maternal health surveillance and extend mental health surveillance and support to at least 4 years postpartum. PMID:26271281

  4. Health risk factors and the incidence of hypertension: 4-year prospective findings from a national cohort of 60 569 Thai Open University students

    PubMed Central

    Thawornchaisit, Prasutr; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Reid, Christopher M; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluates the impact of a number of demographic, biological, behavioural and lifestyle health risk factors on the incidence of hypertension in Thailand over a 4-year period. Design A 4-year prospective study of health risk factors and their effects on the incidence of hypertension in a national Thai Cohort Study from 2005 to 2009. Setting As Thailand is transitioning from a developing to a middle-income developed country, chronic diseases (particularly cardiovascular disease) have emerged as major health issues. Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart attack and stroke and cross-sectional studies have indicated that the prevalence is increasing. Study participants A total of 57 558 Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University students who participated in both the 2005 and 2009 questionnaire surveys and who were normotensive in 2005 were included in the analysis. Measures Adjusted relative risks associating each risk factor and incidence of hypertension by sex, after controlling for confounders such as age, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI) and underlying diseases. Results The overall 4-year incidence of hypertension was 3.5%, with the rate in men being remarkably higher than that in women (5.2% vs 2.1%). In both sexes, hypertension was associated with age, higher BMI and comorbidities but not with income and education. In men, hypertension was associated with physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and fast food intake. In women, hypertension was related to having a partner. Conclusions In both men and women, hypertension was strongly associated with age, obesity and comorbidities while it had no association with socioeconomic factors. The cohort patterns of socioeconomy and hypertension reflect that the health risk transition in Thais is likely to be at the middle stage. Diet and lifestyle factors associate with incidence of hypertension in Thais and may be amenable targets for hypertension control programmes. PMID:23801711

  5. Cliques and Cohesion in a Clinical Psychology Graduate Cohort: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunze, Kimberley Annette

    2013-01-01

    To date, no published research has utilized social network analysis (SNA) to analyze graduate cohorts in clinical psychology. The purpose of this research is to determine how issues of likability among students correlate with other measures, such as disclosure, health, spiritual maturity, help in projects, familiarity, and ease of providing…

  6. The Earnings and Employment Outcomes of the 2005 Cohort of Canadian Postsecondary Graduates with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Zarifa, David; Walters, David; Seward, Brad

    2015-11-01

    Canada's fear of future skill and labor shortages has brought youth with disabilities to the forefront of public policy. Many universities are now reporting that an increased proportion of their graduating students identify as having a disability, and as a result, educational achievement-based programs designed to accommodate students' needs are growing across campuses. Despite recent attention by policymakers on improving accessibility standards and increasing employer incentives, young Canadians with disabilities continue to face barriers in their transitions to the workforce. The nature and extent of the early workforce inequalities faced by postsecondary graduates with disabilities remains unclear. This paper draws on the 2005 cohort of Statistics Canada's National Graduates Survey to examine the early workforce outcomes of postsecondary graduates with disabilities. Contrary to theories of human capital, the results reveal significant earnings gaps between graduates with and without disabilities of various fields of study and levels of schooling. Further, graduates with a disability are even more disadvantaged in terms of securing employment, as they were significantly less likely to be employed full-time, and were overrepresented among unemployed and part-time workers across various fields of study and levels of postsecondary education. PMID:26577879

  7. Medical Graduates, Tertiary Hospitals, and Burnout: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Justin M.; Pinto, Nigel; Hanson, Martin; Meehan, Ashlea; Moore, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout among junior doctors can affect patient care. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study designed to explore the incidence of burnout in medical interns and to examine the changes in burnout during the course of the intern year. Methods: Interns were recruited at two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (n=180). Participants completed surveys at four time points during their internship year. All interns (100%) completed the baseline survey during their orientation. Response rates were 85%, 88%, and 79%, respectively, at 5-week, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Interns reported high levels of personal and work-related burnout throughout the year that peaked at 6 months with mean scores of 42.53 and 41.81, respectively. Increases of 5.1 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.5,7.7; P=0.0001) and 3.5 points (CI 1.3,5.6; P=0.0015) were seen at 6 months for personal and work-related burnout, respectively. The mean score for patient-related burnout at 12 months was 25.57, and this number had increased significantly by 5.8 points (CI 3.2,8.5; P<0.0001) throughout the year. Correlation with demographic variables (age, sex) were found. The total incidence of burnout was 55.9%. Conclusion: Our study showed that burnout is a common problem among interns. The high incidence of burnout demonstrates the need for appropriate strategies to prevent adverse effects on doctors' quality of life and on the quality of care patients receive. PMID:27046399

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Collaborative Leadership Skills Employed by Graduates of Cohort Based and Non-Cohort Based Doctoral Programs in Eduational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton Caminos, Michelle Evangeline

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative comparative case analysis investigates the leadership approaches of the graduates of two educational leadership doctoral programs in Upstate New York--one a cohort-modeled program, the other a non-cohort program--with specific attention to collaboration. Responses from participants indicate key differences in Engaging Communities,…

  9. When Does Education Matter? The Protective Effect of Education for Cohorts Graduating in Bad Times

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, David; Huang, Wei; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Using Eurobarometer data, we document large variation across European countries in education gradients in income, self-reported health, life satisfaction, obesity, smoking and drinking. While this variation has been documented previously, the reasons why the effect of education on income, health and health behaviors varies is not well understood. We build on previous literature documenting that cohorts graduating in bad times have lower wages and poorer health for many years after graduation, compared to those graduating in good times. We investigate whether more educated individuals suffer smaller income and health losses as a result of poor labor market conditions upon labor market entry. We confirm that a higher unemployment rate at graduation is associated with lower income, lower life satisfaction, greater obesity, more smoking and drinking later in life. Further, education plays a protective role for these outcomes, especially when unemployment rates are high: the losses associated with poor labor market outcomes are substantially lower for more educated individuals. Variation in unemployment rates upon graduation can potentially explain a large fraction of the variance in gradients across different countries. PMID:25113567

  10. Does Percentage of Latinas/os Affect Graduation Rates at 4-Year Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs), Emerging HSIs, and Non-HSIs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.

    2013-01-01

    As the population of college-aged Latinas/os grows, the number of Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) increases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the percentage of Latinas/os has an effect on the institutional graduation rates of Latina/o students attending HSIs, emerging HSIs, and non-HSIs. Data were drawn from the Integrated…

  11. Baccalaureate and Beyond: A First Look at the Employment Experiences and Lives of College Graduates, 4 Years On (B&B:08/12). NCES 2014-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Siegel, Peter; Shepherd, Bryan; Cooney, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This report presents initial findings about the employment outcomes of bachelor's degree recipients approximately 4 years after they completed their 2007-08 degrees. These findings are based on data from the second follow-up of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12), a nationally representative longitudinal sample…

  12. Graduation and Dropout Trends in Chicago: A Look at Cohorts of Students from 1991 through 2004. Report Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    This summary is based on the findings of the full-length report, "Graduation and Dropout Trends in Chicago: A Look at Cohorts of Students from 1991 through 2004." The report was written to disseminate accurate and detailed information on student outcomes in Chicago's public schools. This summary includes information on how the rates in the full…

  13. The Impact of Admission Diagnosis on Recurrent or Frequent Hospitalizations in 3 Dementia Subtypes: A Hospital-Based Cohort in Taiwan with 4 Years Longitudinal Follow-Ups.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Chih; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Nai-Ching; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lui, Chun-Chung; Huang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lee, Chen-Chang; Lai, Wei-An

    2015-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients with different types of dementia have resulted in the increasing medical care loads. It is not known whether explanatory factors for recurrent or prolong hospitalization were driven by the subtypes of dementia. We analyzed 203 dementia patients aged >65-year-old with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), or Parkinsonism-related dementia (PRD). With a 4-year follow-up period, logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of dementia diagnosis, cerebrovascular risk factors, chronic systemic diseases, and the etiology for admission for recurrent (>4 times/4 years) or prolonged hospitalization stay (>14 days per hospitalization). There were 48 AD, 96 VaD, and 59 PRD patients that completed the 4-year study. The average length of hospital stay was significant, the shortest in AD and the longest in PRD (P = 0.01), whereas the frequency of hospitalization was not different among 3 dementia subtypes. Although delirium is the most common etiology for admission in the patients, diabetes mellitus (Odds ratio, OR = 2.79, P = 0.02), pneumonia (OR = 11.21, P < 0.001), and fall-related hip fracture (OR = 4.762, P = 0.029) were significantly associated with prolong hospitalization. Patients with coronary artery disease (OR = 9.87, P = 0.02), pneumonia (OR = 84.48, P < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR = 55.09, P < 0.001), and fall-related fracture (OR = 141.7, P < 0.001) predict recurrent hospitalization. Dementia subtypes did not influence directly on the hospitalization courses. The etiologies for admission carried higher clinical significance, compared with the coexisted systemic diseases. PMID:26579820

  14. Cognitive performance as a predictor of functional decline among the non-disabled elderly dwelling in a Japanese community: a 4-year population-based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Hajime; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Yuko; Kwon, Jinhee; Inagaki, Hiroki; Kawaai, Chieko; Masui, Yukie; Kim, Hunkyung; Yoshida, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takao

    2008-01-01

    This study longitudinally examined the relationships between the specific domains of cognitive performance and functional decline among the community elderly. The study population was 119 men and 194 women aged 70-84 at baseline, who were examined at both baseline and in a 4-year follow-up survey. Katz's Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) were used for measuring the functional capacities of basic activities of daily living (BADL) and higher-level competence, respectively. For the purpose of analyses, declines in each subscale of functional capacity during the follow-up period were used as outcome variables; and specific domains of cognitive performances, including information processing speed, executive function, orientation, and episodic memory at baseline, were used as independent variables. Multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusted for the potential confounders, showed that information processing speed and orientation were associated independently and inversely with BADL decline, and that information processing speed and executive function were related independently and inversely to higher-level competence decline. These results suggested that information processing speed and orientation are reliable predictors for decline in BADL, and information processing speed and executive function are also reliable predictors for decline in higher-level competence among the community elderly. PMID:17854924

  15. The effect of psychosocial syndemic production on 4-year HIV incidence and risk behavior in a large cohort of sexually active men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    MIMIAGA, Matthew J.; O’CLEIRIGH, Conall; BIELLO, Katie B.; ROBERTSON, Angela M.; SAFREN, Steven A.; COATES, Thomas J.; KOBLIN, Beryl A.; CHESNEY, Margaret A.; DONNELL, Deborah J.; STALL, Ron D.; MAYER, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or “syndemics” of psychosocial health problems may accelerate HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We aimed to assess how five syndemic conditions (depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use, stimulant use, polydrug use, and childhood sexual abuse) affected HIV incidence and sexual risk behavior over time. Methods Eligible men in a large, prospective cohort of sexually active, HIV-uninfected MSM completed HIV testing and behavioral surveys at baseline and every 6 months for 48 months. We examined interrelationships between psychosocial problems and whether these interactions increased the odds of HIV risk behaviors and risk of seroconversion over study follow-up. Results Among 4295 men, prevalence of psychosocial conditions was substantial at baseline and was positively associated with each other. We identified a statistically significant positive dose-response relationship between numbers of syndemic conditions and HIV seroconversion for all comparisons (with the greatest hazard among those with 4-5 conditions, aHR=8.69; 95% CI: 4.78-15.44). The number of syndemic conditions also predicted increased HIV related risk behaviors over time, which mediated the syndemic-HIV seroconversion association. Conclusions The accumulation of “syndemic” psychosocial problems predicted HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion in a large sample of U.S. MSM. Given the high prevalence of syndemic conditions among MSM and the moderate effect sizes attained by traditional brief behavioral interventions to date, the HIV prevention agenda requires a shift toward improved assessment of psychosocial comorbidities and stronger integration with mental health and substance abuse treatment services. PMID:25501609

  16. Predictors of full-time faculty appointment among MD–PhD program graduates: a national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Andriole, Dorothy A.; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The authors sought to identify variables associated with MD–PhD program graduates’ academic medicine careers. Methods We analyzed data for a national cohort of MD–PhD program graduates from 2000 to 2005, using multivariable logistic regression to identify independent predictors of full-time academic medicine faculty appointment through 2013. Results Of 1,860 MD–PhD program graduates in 2000–2005, we included 1,846 (99.2%) who had completed residency training before 2014. Of these 1,846 graduates, 968 (52.4%) held full-time faculty appointments. Graduates who attended schools with Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) funding (vs. no MSTP funding; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–1.74) and participated in ≥1 year of research during residency (vs. no documented research year; aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.50–2.28) were more likely to have held full-time faculty appointments. Asian/Pacific Islander (aOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60–0.93) and under-represented minority (URM; aOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48–0.98) graduates (each vs. white graduates), graduates who reported total debt of ≥$100,000 (vs. no debt) at graduation (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39–0.88), and graduates in surgical practice (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48–0.84) and other practice (aOR, 0.66, 95% CI, 0.54–0.81) specialties (each vs. ‘medicine, pediatrics, pathology, or neurology’) were less likely to have held full-time faculty appointments. Gender was not independently associated with likelihood of full-time faculty appointment. Conclusions Over half of all MD–PhD program graduates in our study had full-time faculty appointments. Our findings regarding variables independently associated with full-time faculty appointments can inform the design of strategies to promote academic medicine career choice among MD–PhD program graduates. Further research is warranted to identify other factors amenable to intervention, in addition to those included in our study

  17. Establishing and Maintaining Program Coherence in a Cohort-Based Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Lisa Clement; Jacobs, Victoria R.

    2009-01-01

    One characteristic of master's programs that has received little attention in the literature is the opportunity that cohorts allow for creating intellectually coherent programs rather than a collection of independent courses. We thus describe how the faculty who taught in a cohort for students earning a master of arts degree in K-8 mathematics…

  18. Support for Civil Liberties Among a Cohort of High School Graduates and College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Darrel

    1975-01-01

    This study examines one facet of political attitudes, support for those civil liberties guaranteed in the Bill of Rights, employing an index of libertarian attitudes, administered by mail questionnaire to an entire high school senior class four years after graduation. Findings are discussed in reference to the role of higher education in…

  19. Academic Feedback in Veterinary Medicine: A comparison of School Leaver and Graduate Entry cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Kirsty Jean; McCune, Velda; Rhind, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the expectations and experiences of students on a five-year undergraduate ("n"?=?91) and four-year graduate entry ("n"?=?47) veterinary medicine degree programme relating to academic feedback. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to explore new students' expectations and prior experiences of feedback and capture…

  20. Sex-specific trends in 4-year survival in 37 276 men and women with acute myocardial infarction before the age of 55 years in Sweden, 1987–2006: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, S; Björck, L; Berg, J; Giang, K W; Zverkova Sandström, T; Falk, K; Määttä, S; Rosengren, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine sex-specific trends in 4-year mortality among young patients with first acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 1987–2006. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants We identified 37 276 cases (19.4% women; age, 25–54 years) from the Swedish Inpatient Register, 1987–2006, who had survived 28 days after an AMI. Outcome measures 4-year mortality from all causes and standard mortality ratio (SMR). Results From the first to last 5-year period, the absolute excess risk decreased from 1.38 to 0.50 and 1.53 to 0.59 per 100 person-years among men aged 25–44 and 45–54 years, respectively. Corresponding figures for women were a decrease from 2.26 to 1.17 and from 1.93 to 1.45 per 100 person-years, respectively. Trends for women were non-linear, decreasing to the same extent as those for men until the third period, then increasing. For the last 5-year period, the standardised mortality ratio for young survivors of AMI compared with the general population was 4.34 (95% CI 3.04 to 5.87) and 2.43 (95% CI 2.12 to 2.76) for men aged 25–44 and 45–54 years, respectively, and 13.53 (95% CI 8.36 to 19.93) and 6.42 (95% CI 5.24 to 7.73) for women, respectively. Deaths not associated with cardiovascular causes increased from 21.5% to 44.6% in men and 41.5% to 65.9% in women. Conclusions Young male survivors of AMI have low absolute long-term mortality rates, but these rates remain twofold to fourfold that of the general population. After favourable development until 2001, women now have higher absolute mortality than men and a 6-fold to 14-fold risk of death compared with women in the general population. PMID:24793251

  1. Graduation Rates for Selected Cohorts, 2006-11; Student Financial Aid, Academic Year 2013-14; and Admissions in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2014. First Look (Provisional Data). NCES 2015-181

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott A.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Mann, Farrah B.

    2015-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the provisional data of the IPEDS winter 2014-15 data collection, which included four survey components: (1) Graduation Rates (GR); (2) 200 Percent Graduation Rates (GR200); (3) Student Financial Aid (SFA); and (4) Admissions (ADM). GR and GR200 present graduation rates for selected cohorts within…

  2. Developmental milestones record - 4 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 years; Growth milestones for children - 4 years; Childhood growth milestones - 4 years ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR During the fourth year, a child typically: Gains weight at the rate ...

  3. Study and Labour Market Effects of Graduate Students' Interaction with Work Organisations during Education: A Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Taran; Støren, Liv Anne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an empirically based discussion of how cooperation between higher education institutions and work organisations (WOs) can increase graduate learning experiences and employability. Design/methodology/approach: Data are based on an electronic and mail-based graduate survey among Norwegian master's…

  4. Public High School Four-Year On-Time Graduation Rates and Event Dropout Rates: School Years 2010-11 and 2011-12. First Look. NCES 2014-391

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetser, Marie C.; Stillwell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) First Look report introduces new data for two separate measures of 4-year on-time graduation rates as well as event dropout rates for school year (SY) 2010-11 and SY 2011-12. Specifically this report provides the following: (1) Four-year adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR) data reported by…

  5. Eight-Year Trends in Federal Graduation Rates and Graduation Success Rates at NCAA Division I Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Data is presented on: (1) Comparison of GSR and Federal Graduation Rate Cohorts (1999-2002 Entering Classes); (2) Average GSRs for Division I Student-Athletes in 1998-01 Cohorts Vs. 1999-2002 Cohorts; (3) Graduation Success Rate Trends for Division I Men's Sports: Four-Class Averages for 1998-01 Cohorts vs. 1999-02 Cohorts; (4) Graduation Success…

  6. College for All? Is There Too Much Emphasis on Getting a 4-Year College Degree? Research Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesel, David; Fredland, Eric

    Over the years, larger and larger portions of high school graduates have enrolled in 4-year colleges. Although many people view college as essential to success in the labor market, the movement toward 4-year colleges also has its critics. These critics contend that the public has come to believe that almost all high school graduates should go to…

  7. Design and conduct of Xtreme Everest 2: An observational cohort study of Sherpa and lowlander responses to graduated hypobaric hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Sheperdigian, Adam; Adams, Thomas; Mitchell, Kay; Feelisch, Martin; Murray, Andrew; Peters, Mark; Gilbert-Kawai, Grace; Montgomery, Hugh; Levett, Denny; Kumar, Rajendra; Mythen, Michael; Grocott, Michael; Martin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Oxygen availability falls with ascent to altitude and also as a consequence of critical illness. Because cellular sequelae and adaptive processes may be shared in both circumstances, high altitude exposure (‘physiological hypoxia’) assists in the exploration of the response to pathological hypoxia. We therefore studied the response of healthy participants to progressive hypobaric hypoxia at altitude. The primary objective of the study was to identify differences between high altitude inhabitants (Sherpas) and lowland comparators. Methods: We performed an observational cohort study of human responses to progressive hypobaric hypoxia (during ascent) and subsequent normoxia (following descent) comparing Sherpas with lowlanders. Studies were conducted in London (35m), Kathmandu (1300m), Namche Bazaar (3500m) and Everest Base Camp (5300m). Of 180 healthy volunteers departing from Kathmandu, 64 were Sherpas and 116 were lowlanders. Physiological, biochemical, genetic and epigenetic data were collected. Core studies focused on nitric oxide metabolism, microcirculatory blood flow and exercise performance. Additional studies performed in nested subgroups examined mitochondrial and metabolic function, and ventilatory and cardiac variables. Of the 180 healthy participants who left Kathmandu, 178 (99%) completed the planned trek. Overall, more than 90% of planned testing was completed. Forty-four study protocols were successfully completed at altitudes up to and including 5300m. A subgroup of identical twins (all lowlanders) was also studied in detail. Conclusion: This programme of study (Xtreme Everest 2) will provide a rich dataset relating to human adaptation to hypoxia, and the responses seen on re-exposure to normoxia. It is the largest comprehensive high altitude study of Sherpas yet performed. Translational data generated from this study will be of relevance to diseases in which oxygenation is a major factor. PMID:26064476

  8. Early Career Patterns for Social Work Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Mi Jin; Urbanski, Paul; Fortune, Anne E.; Rogers, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    This study examines master's of social work graduates' early careers. Six cohorts graduating from 2002 through 2007 (N = 246) completed a questionnaire 9-15 months after graduation. Most reported adequate or exceptional preparation on both generalist and advanced concentration practice behaviors. Almost all direct practice graduates and 2/3 of…

  9. The Effect of Family Background, University Quality and Educational Mismatch on Wage: An Analysis Using a Young Cohort of Italian Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordine, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of university quality, family background and mismatch on the wages of young Italian graduates. An empirical analysis is undertaken using a representative sample of graduates merged with a dataset containing information on the characteristics of universities. By utilizing quantile regression techniques, some evidence…

  10. Who Graduates from Irish Distance University Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines results from an online survey of recent distance graduates. The study, based in Dublin City University (DCU) addresses a gap in the research on this cohort of graduates. Findings indicate that distance graduates are primarily from lower socio economic backgrounds, a group largely under-represented in full-time university…

  11. Subject Choice and Earnings of UK Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of a cohort of UK graduates, linked to administrative data on higher education participation, this paper investigates the labour market attainment of recent graduates by subject of study. We document a large heterogeneity in the mean wages of graduates from different subjects and a considerably larger one within subject with…

  12. First Decade after Graduation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Eugene

    This final report summarizes findings of the First Decade Project, which examined factors related to the successful transition from school to adult life for youth with disabilities. Subjects were two cohorts of graduates from 1985 and 1990, including all special education graduates (N=488) and randomly selected nondisabled graduates (N=610) from…

  13. Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2010; Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2010; and Graduation Rates, Selected Cohorts, 2002-07. First Look. NCES 2012-280

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) spring 2011 data collection. This collection included five components: Student Financial Aid for the 2009-10 academic year; Enrollment for fall 2010; Graduation Rates within 150 percent of normal program completion time for full-time, first-time…

  14. Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2009; Graduation Rates, 2003 & 2006 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2009. First Look. NCES 2011-230

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Ginder, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) spring 2010 data collection. This collection included five components: Student Financial Aid for full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students for the 2009-10 academic year; Enrollment for fall 2009; Graduation Rates within…

  15. Institutional Characteristics and Student Retention in Public 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of specific student and institutional factors and characteristics on the retention of students at public, 4-year colleges and universities in the United States based on aggregate student cohort and institutional data. The overriding goal of this research was to identify any…

  16. Relations of Television Viewing and Reading: Findings from a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…

  17. Graduation: 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    The program is a series of interviews and montages on the topic of graduation at all levels: high school, college, graduate, and honorary degrees. Among those interviewed are: Caroline Bird, author of "The Case Against College"; Judith Harrison, Maureen Smith, and Frank Meta, graduates; Roy Forbes, Director of the National Assessment of…

  18. SMOS Mission completes 4 years in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Yann; Richaume, Philippe; Mialon, Arnaud; Cabot, François; Bitar, Ahmad Al; Delwart, Steven; Drush, Matthias; Mecklenburg, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    In early November 2013, the SMOS mission celebrated 4 years in orbit. Since its launch, this mission has given many opportunities for breaking new grounds. Shortly after launch, first global maps of soil moisture ever measured from space were produced. Since then, the achieved accuracy has continuously improved to match the requirements. The long term trends of surface moisture can now be closely linked to precipitation regime, and SMOS results have been successfully used in response to extreme events. On the other hand, ocean salinity results have also improved dramatically. Here again, some amazing results regarding river plumes or fresh water pools related to precipitation have been obtained. At last, new applications have been imagined in various fields such as of sea ice thickness, or hurricane winds. This presentation will give an extensive status of the mission, emphasizing the many lessons learned and demonstrating some outstanding results. Some perspectives on the mission and future missions will also be given. A particular emphasis will be given on new level 4 products currently being produced as well as comparisons with other existing sensors.

  19. Cohort Size Effects on Earnings: Differences by College Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Mark C.

    1988-01-01

    Examines effects of cohort size on starting salaries of college graduates from different areas of study. Increases in the size of graduating classes relative to the population depress their starting salaries relative to other workers. Smallest negative cohort size effects are found for engineering and business graduates, while the largest are…

  20. Undergraduate public health at 4-year institutions: it's here to stay.

    PubMed

    Riegelman, Richard K; Albertine, Susan

    2011-02-01

    Undergraduate public health education at 4-year institutions, those with and without graduate public health education, has grown rapidly during the first decade of the 21st century since the IOM recommended that "all undergraduates have access to education in public health." Much of this growth has been guided by the Educated Citizen and Public Health initiative, a collaboration of arts and sciences and public health educators that encourages introductory course work in public health, epidemiology, and global health plus undergraduate minors and majors in public health. The Educated Citizen and Public Health model, as opposed to existing professional models, envisions core public health education based on the Association of American Colleges and Universities' Liberal Education and America's Promise essential learning outcomes that encourage experiential learning, evidence-based thinking, a global and community focus, plus integration and synthesis. Public health education in this model provides solid generalist grounding for graduate education in public health as well as a range of graduate disciplines from the health professions to international affairs and from law to business. In addition, it helps ensure a broad range of college graduates who understand and support public health approaches. The Healthy People 2020 objective to increase the proportion of 4-year colleges and universities that offer minor or major in public health should help propel additional growth, especially in 4-year colleges without graduate public health education. Integrative curricula designed as part of the reform of undergraduate education provide opportunities to make evidence-based public health approaches available to a large number of undergraduates. PMID:21238873

  1. Changes in Student Choices and Graduate Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an comprehensive analysis of the way recession is impacting upon graduate outcomes. Data used in this report reflects the current level of applications to higher education (HE) for 2010 entry, but, due to data collection timing differences, the employment and training destinations of the graduating cohorts of 2005/06-2008/09.…

  2. Graduation Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Lipka, Sara; Wasley, Paula

    2007-01-01

    As seniors throughout the nation prepare to graduate this spring, they are cramming for finals, finishing theses, and saying goodbye to friends. At many colleges, they are also looking forward to participating in graduation rituals--and scrambling to complete lists of things they must do before they leave their campuses behind. These rites of…

  3. A Five-Year Study on the Employability of UKM Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoon, Koh Aik; Din, Laily; Ahmad, Shaharuddin; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Samah, Fatin Nur Diana Abu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the employability of UKM graduates for the past five years (2006-2010). The employability of our graduates has consistently improved through the years. Medical and dental cohorts have less problems finding gainful employment compared with cohorts from other disciplines. Since 2008, our graduates have made inroads into sectors…

  4. Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Jacqueline; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of getting graduate degrees in pharmaceutical sciences, physical therapy, occupational therapy, nursing, and respiratory therapy. Looks at the cost of education, degrees offered, research and clinical options, availability of programs, and career options. (JOW)

  5. From community college to 4-year institutions: Latinas' successful completion of STEM baccalaureate degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio, Rocio

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the narrative of Latina graduates who successfully navigated through community college and 4-year institutions in the STEM fields. Rather than focus on what these students lack as much of the current research does, the study explored what assets these students bring that supports their success in STEM fields. Utilizing an ethnographic interview approach, participants who attained STEM baccalaureates in California were interviewed. Qualitative findings revealed various experiences, attitudes, and cultural influences that led to successful completion of a STEM degree. First, the study found that successful community college Latina STEM graduates exhibit grit, are resilient, determined, and have positive attitudes about their underrepresentation in STEM. Second, participants sought after peer, faculty, and staff relationships that helped them be successful. Lastly, participants had the support of their families and reported a high level of connectedness to their culture. Implications, recommendations for practice, and directions for future research are discussed.

  6. Degrees of Debt. Student Borrowing and Loan Repayment of Bachelor's Degree Recipients 1 Year after Graduating: 1994, 2001, and 2009. Stats in Brief. NCES 2014-011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.

    2013-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines three cohorts of recent college graduates 1 year after they attained their bachelor's degree. The graduation years for the three cohorts span a 15-year period: 1992-93, 1999-2000, and 2007-08. The latest cohort (2007-08) graduated in the midst of the 2008 recession. This Statistics in Brief first examines how…

  7. May Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Kentucky's public and independent postsecondary institutions are graduating another historic class in 2009. Total degrees and credentials awarded this spring increased 7 percent over last year and an impressive 40 percent in the past five years. Other highlights include: (1) Increases were seen in all sectors and at virtually all institutions.…

  8. Development of a distance education program by a Land-Grant University augments the 2-year to 4-year STEM pipeline and increases diversity in STEM.

    PubMed

    Drew, Jennifer C; Oli, Monika W; Rice, Kelly C; Ardissone, Alexandria N; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Sacasa, Pablo R; Belmont, Heather J; Wysocki, Allen F; Rieger, Mark; Triplett, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Although initial interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is high, recruitment and retention remains a challenge, and some populations are disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. To address these challenges, the Microbiology and Cell Science Department in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida has developed an innovative 2+2 degree program. Typical 2+2 programs begin with a student earning an associate's degree at a local community college and then transferring to a 4-year institution to complete a bachelor's degree. However, many universities in the United States, particularly land-grant universities, are located in rural regions that are distantly located from their respective states' highly populated urban centers. This geographical and cultural distance could be an impediment to recruiting otherwise highly qualified and diverse students. Here, a new model of a 2+2 program is described that uses distance education as the vehicle to bring a research-intensive university's life sciences curriculum to students rather than the oft-tried model of a university attempting to recruit underrepresented minority students to its location. In this paradigm, community college graduates transfer into the Microbiology and Cell Science program as distance education students to complete their Bachelor of Science degree. The distance education students' experiences are similar to the on-campus students' experiences in that both groups of students take the same department courses taught by the same instructors, take required laboratory courses in a face-to-face format, take only proctored exams, and have the same availability to instructors. Data suggests that a hybrid online transfer program may be a viable approach to increasing STEM participation (as defined by enrollment) and diversity. This approach is particularly compelling as the distance education cohort has comparable grade point averages and

  9. Development of a Distance Education Program by a Land-Grant University Augments the 2-Year to 4-Year STEM Pipeline and Increases Diversity in STEM

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Jennifer C.; Oli, Monika W.; Rice, Kelly C.; Ardissone, Alexandria N.; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Sacasa, Pablo R.; Belmont, Heather J.; Wysocki, Allen F.; Rieger, Mark; Triplett, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Although initial interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is high, recruitment and retention remains a challenge, and some populations are disproportionately underrepresented in STEM fields. To address these challenges, the Microbiology and Cell Science Department in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Florida has developed an innovative 2+2 degree program. Typical 2+2 programs begin with a student earning an associate’s degree at a local community college and then transferring to a 4-year institution to complete a bachelor’s degree. However, many universities in the United States, particularly land-grant universities, are located in rural regions that are distantly located from their respective states’ highly populated urban centers. This geographical and cultural distance could be an impediment to recruiting otherwise highly qualified and diverse students. Here, a new model of a 2+2 program is described that uses distance education as the vehicle to bring a research-intensive university’s life sciences curriculum to students rather than the oft-tried model of a university attempting to recruit underrepresented minority students to its location. In this paradigm, community college graduates transfer into the Microbiology and Cell Science program as distance education students to complete their Bachelor of Science degree. The distance education students’ experiences are similar to the on-campus students’ experiences in that both groups of students take the same department courses taught by the same instructors, take required laboratory courses in a face-to-face format, take only proctored exams, and have the same availability to instructors. Data suggests that a hybrid online transfer program may be a viable approach to increasing STEM participation (as defined by enrollment) and diversity. This approach is particularly compelling as the distance education cohort has comparable grade point

  10. Faculty Perceptions of Graduate International Students: The Benefits and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice, Andrea G.

    The attitudes of faculty members toward international students were studied through comparative case studies of four academic departments at three professional schools of a Midwestern university. The focus was on graduate students because most international students at a 4-year institution study at the graduate level. In all 54 faculty members in…

  11. Retention and Graduation Rates: Insights from an Extended Longitudinal View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Gary T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a 118-year continuous record of retention and graduation rates at a public university for long-term trends not observable in shorter studies. While the first year retention rates stayed level over much of this period, second year rates increased steadily by 1.2% per decade. In contrast, graduation rates at 4 years compared to 6…

  12. Career Placement and Graduate Transfer Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    The primary mission of the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) is to help students succeed in reaching their educational goals by preparing them to enter the workforce or transfer to a 4-year college or university. Each year, CCRI surveys the previous year's graduates as a way of measuring success. About 1,379 members of the class of 2001…

  13. Nested Cohort

    Cancer.gov

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  14. Differential Developmental Pathways of High School Dropouts and Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Bartholomew, Mitchell; Mathwig, Jennifer; Heinrich, Randy S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the developmental pathways between high school graduates and dropouts. The authors obtained official school data via a random sample of 119 students enrolled across 4 cohorts. The authors postulated 2 research questions: (a) Do differences exist in the developmental pathways of high school graduates in comparison with high…

  15. Adult Graduate Student Voices: Good and Bad Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Marianne; Ballin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    During their master's degree work, cohorts of adult graduate students participated in a common learning task in which they listed their factors of good and bad learning experiences. The lead author collected these factors from students over the course of 3 years. The purpose of our inquiry was to examine and document what adult graduate students…

  16. The Passive in 3- and 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Barros Pereira Rubin, Maraci Coelho

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that analyzing the patterns of individual subject performance in tests of comprehension of passives might give insight into how little children interpret passives: 3 and 4 year-olds seem to go through a range of passive interpretation, that varies from actual comprehension to total non-comprehension. The fact that some small…

  17. 20 CFR 210.4 - Year of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Year of service. 210.4 Section 210.4... RAILROAD SERVICE § 210.4 Year of service. (a) A year of service is twelve months of reported or deemed service, consecutive or not consecutive. A fraction of a year of service is taken at its actual value....

  18. 20 CFR 210.4 - Year of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Year of service. 210.4 Section 210.4... RAILROAD SERVICE § 210.4 Year of service. (a) A year of service is twelve months of reported or deemed service, consecutive or not consecutive. A fraction of a year of service is taken at its actual value....

  19. Head Start, 4 years After Completing the Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Joo

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of the Head Start program on children's achievements in reading and math tests during their first 4 years of schooling after completing the program. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, I found large measurement error in the parental reports of Head Start attendance,…

  20. Grammatical Morpheme Production in 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balason, Denise V.; Dollaghan, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Grammatical morpheme (GM) production was studied in 15-minute spontaneous language samples from 100 4-year-olds. Substantial variability was observed in both the frequency of obligatory contexts and in the percentages of correct usage of GM. For only one morpheme did all 100 participants contain the minimum number of 3 obligatory contexts.…

  1. The Effectiveness of Alcohol Policies in 4-Year Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Gayle T.

    2010-01-01

    A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public…

  2. 20 CFR 210.4 - Year of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Year of service. 210.4 Section 210.4 Employees... SERVICE § 210.4 Year of service. (a) A year of service is twelve months of reported or deemed service, consecutive or not consecutive. A fraction of a year of service is taken at its actual value. (b) The...

  3. 20 CFR 210.4 - Year of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Year of service. 210.4 Section 210.4 Employees... SERVICE § 210.4 Year of service. (a) A year of service is twelve months of reported or deemed service, consecutive or not consecutive. A fraction of a year of service is taken at its actual value. (b) The...

  4. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qingling; Li, Feng; Wang, Junli; Shen, Lixiao; Sheng, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA. Results In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR) 14.69–419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g). All of the children were divided into three groups, 1–2 years (12–24 months), 2–3 years (24–36 months), 3–4 years (36–48 months), with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g), 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g), 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g), respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1–2 years, 2–3 years and 3–4 years (P = 0.016). In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1–2 years and children aged 3–4 years (P = 0.007). A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005) in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed. Conclusion Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years), and higher FC

  5. Graduation and Persistence Rates: University of Hawaii Community Colleges, Fall 1987-Fall 1995 Cohorts. A Summary of Selected Data from the NCHEMS/University of Hawaii System Longitudinal Database Project. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Institutional Research Office.

    This report details graduation and persistence rates for degree-seeking students at the seven University of Hawaii Community Colleges (UHCC) from Fall 1987-Fall 1995. The data are from the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems/University of Hawaii System Longitudinal Database Project. The report focuses on full-time and part-time…

  6. Great Expectations: A Longitudinal Analysis of Outcomes Following Graduation. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitter, Gita Wijesinghe; Whitfield, Duane; Lanham, Claudia; Savon, Brian

    Reports on an automated system used to examine progression to higher degrees and to analyze the employment and earnings of university graduates by discipline and degree level during the first and fifth years after graduation from the State University System (SUS) of Florida. The cohort examined was the 1990-91 graduating class, which consisted of…

  7. Project-Based Learning as a Contributing Factor to Graduates' Work Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jollands, Margaret; Jolly, Lesley; Molyneaux, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores what work readiness means for two cohorts of graduate engineers, one from a traditional curriculum, the second from a largely project-based curriculum. Professional bodies and employers have defined a set of attributes for engineering graduates so that graduates will be "work ready". Problem-based learning (PBL) is claimed to…

  8. Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Paya, K; Hayek, B F; Rebhandl, W; Pollak, A; Horcher, E

    1998-05-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare but serious condition with a poor prognosis both in adults and in children. Retroperitoneal localization is mostly associated with fatal outcome. Early diagnosis, extensive and repeated surgical debridement, and use of antibiotics are necessary. Herein the authors report on a 4-year-old girl in whom retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis developed after she suffered from pyelonephritis. In this case, the outcome was favorable because of early surgical intervention, confirming the diagnosis. PMID:9607500

  9. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in a 4-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Harish; Sudarshan, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a very distressing disorder for both patient and caregiver. Usual onset of the disorder is in late second or early third decade of life. It is diagnosed in children but rarely before 5 years. A case of OCD in a 4-year-old girl is reported here. Diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in such a situation are discussed. PMID:25969614

  10. Are Students of Color More Likely to Graduate from College if They Attend More Selective Institutions? Evidence from a Cohort of Recipients and Nonrecipients of the Gates Millennium Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melguizo, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    The study takes advantage of the nontraditional selection process of the Gates Millennium Scholars (GMS) program to test the association between selectivity of 4-year institution attended as well as other noncognitive variables on the college completion rates of a sample of students of color. The results of logistic regression and propensity score…

  11. Organized Physical Activity in Young School Children Predicts Subsequent 4-Year Change in Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve; McConnell, Rob; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Lam, Claudia; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether participation in organized outdoor team sports and structured indoor non-school activity programs in kindergarten and first grade predicted subsequent 4-year change in Body Mass Index (BMI) across the adiposity rebound period of childhood. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Forty-five schools in 13 communities across Southern California. Participants Largely Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children (N = 4,550; average age at study entry 6.60 years, standard deviation 0.65). Main Exposures Parents completed questionnaires assessing physical activity, demographic characteristics and other relevant covariates at baseline. Data on built and social environmental variables were linked to the neighborhood around children’s homes using geographical information systems (GIS). Main Outcome Measures Each child’s height and weight were measured annually during 4-years of follow-up. Results After adjusting for several confounders, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate for children who participated in outdoor organized team sports at least twice per week as compared to children who did not. For participation in each additional indoor non-school structured activity classes, lessons, and program, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate, and the attained BMI level at age 10 was 0.48 units lower. Conclusions Engagement in organized sports and activity programs as early as kindergarten and the first grade may result in smaller increases in BMI during the adiposity rebound period of childhood. PMID:22869403

  12. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis 4 years after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Zimmermann, Arthur; Bernasch, Dirke; Furrer, Hansjakob; Dufour, Jean-FranCois

    2003-01-01

    If not promptly recognized and treated, herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is associated with a high mortality. A patient transplanted for primary sclerosing cholangitis required, 4 years later, a colectomy for a steroid-resistant flare of ulcerative colitis. He subsequently developed fever, with genital and oral ulcerations. He was hospitalized for diabetic decompensation with massive elevation of serum aminotransferases. Examination revealed vesicles on the hands. Liver biopsy showed Cowdry type B inclusions. Therapy with acyclovir was immediately initiated and the patient recovered. This case illustrates the diagnostic importance of mucocutaneous lesions in the assessment of complications after liver transplantation. PMID:14614611

  13. The perception of science department chairs regarding the performance of community college science majors transferring to 4-year institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Brenda Jordan

    The purpose for conducting the study was to determine the perceptions held by science department chairs toward 2-year college transfer students regarding their ability to succeed in upper level science courses as compared to that of native students. A two-section, researcher-developed questionnaire was utilized to collect data. The first section was related to demographic information about the department chair's institution, such as institution size, number of transfer students at the institution, and the post-graduate plans of students. The second section presented 15 skills that if found in students should lead to academic success. A total of 61 (N = 61) surveys were returned, representing an overall return rate of 54.4%. The mean, the standard deviation, and paired t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results showed that science department chairs perceived significant differences in native and transfer students. The significant differences found between native and transfer students became greater as the size of the institution increased. The significant differences found between native and transfer students became less the greater the number of transfer students attending an institution. Significant differences were found between students planning to attend professional school and students going to jobs after graduation. No significant differences were found between students going to graduate school and those who were undecided about post-graduation plans. Two-year college transfer students were perceived by department chairs as having the ability to be academically successful at 4-year institutions.

  14. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  15. Graduate Student Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Patricia B.

    1987-01-01

    A study of graduate student recruitment practices was conducted in the spring of 1986 to determine the current practice of graduate schools and to determine the extent to which they are using marketing techniques. The members of the Council of Graduate Schools were surveyed; 250 graduate schools responded (69% response rate). Questions concerned…

  16. Fermi Large Area Telescope Operations: Progress Over 4 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Robert A.; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched into orbit in June 2008, and is conducting a multi-year gamma-ray all-sky survey, using the main instrument on Fermi, the Large Area Telescope (LAT). Fermi began its science mission in August 2008, and has now been operating for almost 4 years. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory hosts the LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC), which supports the operation of the LAT in conjunction with the Mission Operations Center (MOC) and the Fermi Science Support Center (FSSC), both at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The LAT has a continuous output data rate of about 1.5 Mbits per second, and data from the LAT are stored on Fermi and transmitted to the ground through TDRS and the MOC to the ISOC about 10 times per day. Several hundred computers at SLAC are used to process LAT data to perform event reconstruction, and gamma-ray photon data are subsequently delivered to the FSSC for public release with a few hours of being detected by the LAT. We summarize the current status of the LAT, and the evolution of the data processing and monitoring performed by the ISOC during the first 4 years of the Fermi mission, together with future plans for further changes to detected event data processing and instrument operations and monitoring.

  17. Comparisons of Undergraduate Borrowing and Its Effects on Graduate School Aspirations and Graduate School Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyermann, Therese S.; Kim, Dongbin

    The factors that affect graduate school aspirations and attendance were studied in light of the fact that student loan borrowing has more than doubled in the past decade. Using data from two surveys conducted by the Higher Education Research Institute, this study investigated the educational degree aspirations of two separate college cohorts, one…

  18. Outpatient angioplasty: 4-year experience in one practice.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, S. P.; Stanton, A.; Travers, P.; Glenn, D.; Hanel, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    Angioplasty is often performed as an inpatient procedure after preliminary angiography. In order to increase efficiency and patient comfort we introduced a policy of performing angioplasty for chronic leg ischaemia as an outpatient whenever possible, using duplex scanning to select suitable lesions. This paper examines the safety and feasibility of this policy over a 4-year period. We prospectively assessed 168 consecutive cases which were planned for outpatient angioplasty from a total of 190 cases undergoing angioplasty and found full agreement between duplex scanning and angiography in 92%. Six patients (4%) developed complications of angioplasty requiring admission and another five were admitted for unexpected organisational reasons. Thus, the complication rate of outpatient angioplasty was 4%. All complications were noted at the time of angioplasty with no unexpected readmissions. Angioplasty for leg ischaemia is feasible and safe to perform as an outpatient using duplex scanning to select appropriate cases. PMID:9326123

  19. Project-based learning as a contributing factor to graduates' work readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollands, Margaret; Jolly, Lesley; Molyneaux, Tom

    2012-05-01

    This paper explores what work readiness means for two cohorts of graduate engineers, one from a traditional curriculum, the second from a largely project-based curriculum. Professional bodies and employers have defined a set of attributes for engineering graduates so that graduates will be 'work ready'. Problem-based learning (PBL) is claimed to be a suitable approach to develop such skills. The graduates were interviewed some months after starting work, along with their managers. All the graduates recognised the benefits of taking PBL subjects as well as vacation work, with success in communication attributed more to PBL. Both cohorts had similar learning outcomes, high skill levels in project management, problem solving, communication skills, research and sustainability. A skills gap in ethics was identified for both cohorts of graduates and their managers. Further work is planned to link skill development with undergraduate learning experience.

  20. Rapid Buildup of Brain White Matter Hyperintensities Over 4 Years Linked to Ambulatory Blood Pressure, Mobility, Cognition, and Depression in Old Persons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Brain white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are associated with functional decline in older people. We performed a 4-year cohort study examining progression of WMH, its effects on mobility, cognition, and depression with the role of clinic and 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure as a predisposing factor. Methods. Ninety-nine subjects, 75–89 years were stratified by age and mobility, with the 67 completing 4-years comprising the cohort. Mobility, cognition, depressive symptoms, and ambulatory blood pressure were assessed, and WMH volumes were determined by quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance images. Results. WMH increased from 0.99±0.98% of intracranial cavity volume at baseline to 1.47±1.2% at 2 years and 1.74±1.30% after 4 years. Baseline WMH was associated with 4-year WMH (p < .0001), explaining 83% of variability. Small, but consistent mobility decrements and some evidence of cognitive decline were noted over 4 years. Regression analyses using baseline and 4-year WMHs were associated with three of five mobility measures, two of four cognitive measures and the depression scale, all performed at 4 years. Increases in ambulatory systolic blood pressure but not clinic systolic blood pressure during the initial 2 years were associated with greater WMH accrual during those years, while ambulatory systolic blood pressure was related to WMH at 4 years. Conclusion. Declines in mobility, cognition, and depressive symptoms were related to WMH accrual over 4 years, and WMH was related to out-of-office blood pressure. This suggests that prevention of microvascular disease, even in asymptomatic older persons, is fundamental for preserving function. There may be value in tighter 24-hour blood pressure control in older persons although this requires further investigation. PMID:23766429

  1. ALEXIS, the little satellite that could -- 4 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Bloch, J.; Little, C.

    1997-10-01

    The 113-kg Array of Low Energy X-ray Imaging Sensors (ALEXIS) satellite was launched from the fourth flight of Pegasus on 25 April, 1993 into a 750 x 850 km, 70 degree inclination orbit. Due to damage sustained at the time of launch, ground controllers did not make contact with the satellite until late June. By late July, full satellite operations had been restored through the implementation of new procedures for attitude control. Science operations with the two onboard experiments began at that time. Now 4 years later is still collecting more than 100 MB of mission data per day. ALEXIS was originally designed to be a high risk, single string. {open_quotes}Smarter-Faster-Cheaper{close_quotes} satellite, with a 1 year nominal and a 3 year design limit. This paper will discuss how well the various satellite and experiment subsystems are surviving a variety of low and high radiation environments and what improvements have been made to make operations more autonomous. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Careers in the Private Sector--A National Study of College Graduates in Business and Industry. Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisconti, Ann Stouffer; Gomberg, Irene L.

    Three out of ten college graduates and other advanced degree recipients enter employment in private companies. The document focuses on this situation and describes the characteristics of two cohorts of college graduates (who entered college in 1961 and 1966) several years after graduation (1971). The study is based on responses from 127,212…

  3. Using Online Learning for Credit Recovery: Getting Back on Track to Graduation. Promising Practices in Blended and Online Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Allison; Roberts, Verena; Patrick, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Our country has been trying to address the graduation crisis in many ways. We are seeing the impact of the efforts to improve graduation rates over the past twenty years including agreement among states to implement a common cohort-based graduation rate, research-based efforts to improve the transition to 9th grade, increased academic and social…

  4. Graduate Study in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuther, Tara L.

    2004-01-01

    In this book, the author Tara Kuther takes the reader step-by-step through the graduate admissions process. She begins with posing the question of whether graduate school is right for everyone and the differences between pursuing a master's degree or a doctoral degree. The chapters contain information regarding what graduate school is like, how to…

  5. Graduate Identity and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey William; Jolly, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of graduate identity as a way of deepening the understanding of graduate employability. It does this through presenting research in which over 100 employers in East Anglia were asked to record their perceptions of graduates in respect of their employability. The findings suggest a composite and complex graduate…

  6. Problems in Graduate Education...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, W. Gordon

    The Commission on Graduate Education of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges has assembled in this booklet the nature of the fundamental problems of graduate education accompanied by recommendations for action. Nine areas of concern include redesigning graduate education for the twentieth century, distinguishing…

  7. Handbook for Graduate Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew P.

    This handbook is designed for the graduate student in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Minnesota State University, Mankato. Any graduate program is well-served by having a clearly defined and concisely written plan, handbook, or curriculum, and this one, although it is intended for graduate students in this particular department at…

  8. The National Practitioner Data Bank: the first 4 years.

    PubMed

    Oshel, R E; Croft, T; Rodak, J

    1995-01-01

    The National Practitioner Data Bank became operational September 1, 1990, as a flagging system to identify health care practitioners who may have been involved in incidents of medical incompetence. Query volumes have grown substantially over the Data Bank's first 4 years of operation. The greatest increase has come in the number of voluntary queries. By the end of 1994, the Data Bank had processed more than 4.5 million requests for information on practitioners, more than 1.5 million of which were received in 1994 alone. The proportion of queries for which the Data Bank contains information on the practitioner in question has grown as the Data Bank has come to contain more reports. During 1994, 7.9 percent of queries were matched. The Data Bank contained more than 97,500 reports at the end of 1994. More than 82 percent of the reports concerned malpractice payments. Licensure reports made up the bulk of the rest. Physicians predominate in reports, accounting for slightly more than 76 percent of the total. The remainder are related to dentists (16 percent) and all other types of practitioners (8 percent). Since reporting of adverse actions is mandatory only for physicians and dentists, the proportion of reports attributable to these types of practitioners is higher than it would be if adverse action reporting requirements were uniform for all practitioners. State malpractice payment rates and adverse action rates vary widely, but a State's rate in any given year is highly correlated with its rate in any other year. State malpractice rates are not strongly correlated with adverse action rates, neither are the rates for physicians strongly correlated with those for dentists. There is a weak tendency for States with smaller physician populations to have higher levels of licensure and privileging actions. PMID:7638325

  9. College Challenge to Ensure "Timely Graduation": Understanding College Students' Mindsets during the Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaoying; Yur-Austin, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Since mid-2007, the United States has experienced the direst economic recession since the Great Depression. While considerable institutional resources have been spent on boosting 4-year graduation rates, many college students purposefully delayed graduation, waiting to enter the labor market until the overall economic situation had improved. The…

  10. Beyond the Baccalaureate: Black Students' Decisions to Pursue a Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond 1993/03 (B&B: 93/03) Longitudinal Study to investigate the issues that affect the likelihood of graduate/professional school enrollment of Black, 4-year degree earners. Also of particular interest were a comparison of graduate degree aspirations to actual post baccalaureate participation…

  11. Feasibility and psychometric analysis of graduate satisfaction survey of medical students graduating from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland-Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain).

    PubMed

    Strachan, Kathryn; Ansari, Ahmed Al

    2016-01-01

    To assess the satisfaction levels of graduates of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain). The graduate survey was administered to four groups of graduates of the RCSI Bahrain who graduated between the years 2010 and 2014. The graduate survey assessed five major domains and comprised 41 items. The RCSI Bahrain opened its doors in 2004, with the first class graduating in 2010. The graduate cohorts used in this study were working in various countries at the time of survey completion. Out of 599 graduates, 153 responded to the graduate survey. The total mean response rate of the graduate survey was 26 %, including 102 females, 44 males, and 7 students who did not indicate their gender. 49 students graduated in 2012, and 53 students graduated in 2013. Of these graduates, 83 were working in Bahrain at the time of survey administration, 11 in the USA, 4 in Malta, and 3 in the UK; the total number of countries where graduates were working was 14. Reliability analysis found high internal consistency for the instrument (with a Cronbach's α of 0.97). The whole instrument was found to be suitable for factor analysis (KMO = 0.853; Bartlett test significant, p < 0.00). Factor analysis showed that the data on the questionnaire decomposed into five factors, which accounted for 72.3 % of the total variance: future performance, career development, skills development, graduate as collaborator, and communication skills. The survey results found that graduates of the RCSI Bahrain program who responded to this questionnaire are generally satisfied with their experience at the university, feel well prepared to join the field and feel ready to compete with graduates of competing universities. Furthermore, the graduate survey was found to be a reliable instrument and we provided some evidence to support the construct validity of the instrument. PMID:27066343

  12. 75 FR 82583 - Recruiting and Hiring Students and Recent Graduates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... paths to Federal internships for students from high school through post- graduate school; offer clear... schools, community colleges, 4-year colleges, trade schools, career and technical education programs, and... work in agencies and explore Federal careers while still in school. The Internship Program...

  13. Identifying Peer Institutions for Graduation Rate Comparisons. AIR 2000 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Timothy A.

    This study used publicly available information to identify institutional controllable variables that influence graduation rate and to group colleges using these factors. The dependent variable for the correlation analysis was the six-year graduation rate of the fall 1993 freshman cohort (as reported by US News and World Report) at more than 1,400…

  14. Resource Distribution and Graduation Rates in SREB States: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Eric A.; Kurtz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the interrelated nature of the standards movement, school finance litigation, and student outcomes, this study investigates the relationship of school funding and the specific outcome measure of cohort graduation rates in 16 Southern states that comprise the Southern Region Education Board (SREB). Research indicates that Southern…

  15. Graduate Liberal Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    An article on graduate liberal studies (GLS) and descriptions of GLS programs are presented. In "The Concept of Graduate Liberal Studies," Allie M. Frazier considers GLS curricular offerings, characteristics of students pursuing these studies, and the future of GLS. GLS degree programs allow adults to pursue a liberal education, which is seen as a…

  16. Graduations on the Rise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnane, Richard J.; Hoffman, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1970 and 2000, the U.S. high-school graduation stagnated while in many other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries it rose markedly. By 2000, the high school graduation rate in the United States ranked 13th among the 19 OECD countries for which comparable data are available. Evidence from two independent…

  17. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  18. 1994 Graduate Student Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    An annual study of physical science graduate students' background characteristics and degree recipients' employment outcomes was conducted for 1994. Surveys were mailed to about 13,000 graduate physics students and 6,800 were returned. Highlights include the following: (1) most U.S. citizens take an average of 6.5 years to complete a doctoral…

  19. Housing for Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that housing administrators must develop close cooperation with their institution's graduate school, be sensitive to the needs of international graduate students, and engage in thoughtful deliberation about issues related to domestic partners, health care, spouses, and children. Profiles housing's mission and philosophy, organizational…

  20. Graduate Engineering Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Joseph M.; Gere, James M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes rapid growth of graduate education in engineering between 1900 and 1969. Points out need for graduate curricula in engineering that are both practical and research-oriented. Adapted from paper presented at International Conference on the Trends in the Teaching and Training of Engineers, Paris, France, December 9-13, 1968, and at Second…

  1. Graduating to a Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that industries desire college graduates who are able to perform scientific technical skills. As a result, colleges are attempting to produce graduates with a hybrid course of study emphasizing skills and traditional theories. Programs in chemistry, ecology, urban planning, and science technology have been developed…

  2. Colorado's Guaranteed Graduate Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    An overview of the nature, benefits, and steps involved in Colorado's Guaranteed Graduate Program, a process that assures that high school graduates have the knowledge and skills considered essential for entry into employment and postsecondary education, begins this document. A discussion of the portfolio process follows, along with descriptions…

  3. The ABCs of Keeping on Track to Graduation: Research Findings from Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study of graduation outcomes in Baltimore uses multivariate analysis of longitudinal student cohort data to examine the impact of factors identified in previous research as early warning indicators of a dropout outcome. Student cohort files were constructed from longitudinal administrative data (following all first-time 2004-2005 and…

  4. School Mobility, Dropout, and Graduation Rates across Student Disability Categories in Utah. REL 2015-055

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrat, Vanessa X.; Berliner, BethAnn; Voight, Adam; Tran, Loan; Huang, Chun-Wei; Yu, Airong; Chen-Gaddini, Min

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of students with disabilities in Utah public schools, and presents the single-year mobility and dropout rates for students in grades 6-12, as well as the four-year cohort dropout and graduation rates, for students who started grade 9 for the first time in 2007/08 and constituted the 2011 cohort. Results…

  5. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI. PMID:27235850

  6. Meet Your Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents five vocational graduates who have become successful entrepreneurs. Their businesses include an ice cream parlor, an investment service, a dog grooming business, microcomputer program manufacturing, and high-fashion clothing and cosmetics for problem skin. (JOW)

  7. Graduate and Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and University, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings of the 66th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers which relate to graduate and professional education are summarized. Names and institutions of conference participants are included. (MSE)

  8. Graduate and Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Proceedings of the 67th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers which relate to graduate and professional education are summarized. Names and institutions of conference participants are included. (MSE)

  9. Reforming Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Zodiac

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the problem with the career track in graduate study in astronomy. Reports that the number of postdoctoral positions has doubled in the last ten years and far exceeds the number of tenure-track openings in astronomy departments. (DDR)

  10. Factors That Influence African American Male Retention and Graduation: The Case of Gateway University, a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Errick D.; Hope, Warren C.

    2015-01-01

    African American males face major challenges in retention and graduation from institutions of higher education. The 6-year graduation rate for African American males at 4-year public institutions and private nonprofit colleges is less than 40%. This figure suggests that persistence toward degree attainment is a problem. The purpose of this study…

  11. 3 CFR 13562 - Executive Order 13562 of December 27, 2010. Recruiting and Hiring Students and Recent Graduates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Internship Program. The Internship Program shall provide students in high schools, community colleges, 4-year colleges, trade schools, career and technical education programs, and other qualifying educational... school through post-graduate school; offer clear paths to civil service careers for recent graduates;...

  12. Integrating an Informationist Into Graduate Education: Case Study With Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Tmanova, Lyubov L; Ancker, Jessica S; Johnson, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    An informationist taught, consulted, and mentored graduate students enrolled in a graduate research project course in Health Informatics. An observational cohort study was conducted to determine the effect of an early (first term) and continued (subsequent term) exposure of course-integrated instruction, individual consultations, information resource mentoring, and educational collaboration partnership on the development of information literacy, research skills, and integrative competencies in graduate students. Student progress was assessed by survey, class performance, and faculty feedback. The course-integrated lectures, consultations, mentoring, and educational partnership between the informationist and academic advisors increased the students' course performance, information literacy, and research skills in graduate students. PMID:26211791

  13. Pay Differences among the Highly Trained: Cohort Differences in the Sex Gap in Lawyers' Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Mary C.; Corcoran, Mary E.; Courant, Paul N.

    2005-01-01

    Using unique data from a survey of University of Michigan Law School graduates, we test various models of how sex differences in pay, labor supply and job settings should have evolved as women entered the elite male field of law. We compare the sex gap in earnings 15 years after graduation for two cohorts of lawyers and find that it has remained…

  14. Maternal child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Durão, Catarina; Andreozzi, Valeska; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices and dietary inadequacy of 4-year-old children. We studied 4122 mothers and children enrolled in the population-based birth cohort - Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Mothers self-completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and a scale on covert and overt control, and answered to a food frequency questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Using dietary guidelines for preschool children, adequacy intervals were defined: fruit and vegetables (F&V) 4-7 times/day; dairy 3-5 times/day; meat and eggs 5-10 times/week; fish 2-4 times/week. Inadequacy was considered as below or above these cut-points. For energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDF), a tolerable limit was defined (<6 times/week). Associations between maternal perceived responsibility and child-feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, overt and covert control) and children's diet were examined by logistic regression models. After adjustment for maternal BMI, education, and diet, and children's characteristics (sex, BMI z-scores), restriction, monitoring, overt and covert control were associated with 11-18% lower odds of F&V consumption below the interval defined as adequate. Overt control was also associated with 24% higher odds of their consumption above it. Higher perceived responsibility was associated with higher odds of children consuming F&V and dairy above recommendations. Pressure to eat was positively associated with consumption of dairy above the adequate interval. Except for pressure to eat, maternal practices were associated with 14-27% lower odds of inadequate consumption of EDF. In conclusion, children whose mothers had higher levels of covert control, monitoring, and restriction were less likely to consume F&V below recommendations and EDF above tolerable limits. Higher overt control and pressure to eat were associated, respectively, with higher

  15. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... partnership items over 4 years, regardless of whether such election was in fact made. Thus, for example, if a... partnership items are taken into account under the rules of this section. Thus, for example, a partner who does not elect out of the 4-year spread must take into account, for purposes of determining...

  16. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1.702-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a) Applicability. This section applies to...

  17. Institutional Characteristics Contributing to the Effectiveness of 4-Year Business Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book-Ellard, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Over $8 billion is spent yearly, on college education in one Southern U.S. state, yet the employment effectiveness of public and private 4-year undergraduate business degrees (effectiveness defined as obtaining employment or entering into a degree program requiring a 4-year business degree by the end of Year 1 and remaining employed or in a degree…

  18. Should Community College Students Earn an Associate Degree before Transferring to a 4-Year Institution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopko, Elizabeth M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Using data on over 41,000 students in one state who entered community college before transferring to a 4-year institution, this study examines the following question: Are community college students who earn an associate degree before transferring to a 4-year college more likely to earn a bachelor's degree? Due to the causal nature surrounding this…

  19. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule. For...

  20. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule. For...

  1. The Maine Question: How Is 4-Year College Enrollment Affected by Mandatory College Entrance Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Niu, Sunny; Howell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We use a difference-in-differences analytic approach to estimate postsecondary consequences from Maine's mandate that all public school juniors take the SAT®. We find that, overall, the policy increased 4-year college-going rates by 2- to 3-percentage points and that 4-year college-going rates among induced students increased by 10-percentage…

  2. Changes in Early Childhood: Public School Programs for 4-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, S. Dianne; Boals, Beverly M.

    Education programs for 4-year-olds may offer unique opportunities for the growth of services for young children. Currently, the role of state departments of education in preschool instruction is evolving; no single approach to public school programming for 4-year-olds exists. Approximately two-thirds of the 28 state and District of Columbia early…

  3. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  4. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule....

  5. 42 CFR 414.42 - Adjustment for first 4 years of practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. 414.42 Section 414.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.42 Adjustment for first 4 years of practice. (a) General rule....

  6. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a) Applicability... spread. A partner may elect out of the rules of paragraph (b) of this section by meeting the...

  7. 26 CFR 1.702-3T - 4-Year spread (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 4-Year spread (temporary). 1.702-3T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Partners and Partnerships § 1.702-3T 4-Year spread (temporary). (a... taxable year for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986 (partnership's year of...

  8. Academic and Professional Career Outcomes of Medical School Graduates Who Failed USMLE Step 1 on the First Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougle, Leon; Mavis, Brian E.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Roberts, Nicole K.; Ephgrave, Kimberly; Hageman, Heather L.; Lypson, Monica L.; Thomas, Lauree; Andriole, Dorothy A.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic and professional outcomes of medical school graduates who failed the United States Licensing Examination Step 1 on the first attempt. This retrospective cohort study was based on pooled data from 2,003 graduates of six Midwestern medical schools in the classes of 1997-2002. Demographic, academic, and…

  9. Public High School Graduates Who Participated in Vocational/Technical Education: 1982-1998. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Karen

    Patterns and trends in the vocational-technical course taking of public high school graduates between 1982 and 1998 were examined in a study of high school transcripts for the graduating classes of 1982, 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1998. The source data came from the following five studies: (1) High School and Beyond Sophomore Cohort, First Follow-up…

  10. Sustaining Evidence-Based Practices by Graduated Special Educators of Students with ASD: Creating a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Laura J.

    2015-01-01

    Supporting special educators' sustained use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is a priority for the field. In this study, the authors used multiple measures to evaluate the first graduated cohort from a university program 6 years after graduation with a master's degree with a specialization in autism, and at least 8 years working as…

  11. Higher Education over a Lifespan: A Gown to Grave Assessment of a Lifelong Relationship between Universities and Their Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Graduation day often includes an oration by a Vice-Chancellor or President reminding the newest cohort of alumni to "keep in touch" with their alma mater. Often, graduates dismiss this invitation instead of embracing this lifelong opportunity. As the only constant -- and constantly growing -- stakeholder group of higher education…

  12. Academic Cohorts: Benefits and Drawbacks of Being a Member of a Community of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Simon; Gorelick, Denise; Short, Keily; Smallwood, Lauren; Wright-Porter, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In response to the increasing rate of students failing to complete their bachelor, master, and doctoral programs, many colleges and universities are now offering cohort education models of study. The goals of cohort education are to promote retention, graduation, and success rates of students. This non-traditional approach to education places…

  13. Logit Analysis of Graduate Student Retention and Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Mary Diederich; Markewich, Theodore S.

    Logit analysis coupled with the BMDP4F computer program (Brown, 1983) was used to derive an appropriate model for the study of student retention and graduation. The model was then applied to graduate student retention and graduation data from the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP). Logit analysis is a method of determining what effects…

  14. Graduate School Reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Considering graduate school? Come by and meet with representatives from physics departments in a casual, low-key environment to learn about their programs and research opportunities. Don't miss out on this chance to learn more about grad school and to plan your next steps. Light refreshments will be provided.

  15. Measuring Graduate Student Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual and technical problems that need to be considered when studying graduate student retention and degree progress are examined, and practical suggestions for the institutional researcher are offered. Terms are defined, retention measures are explained, and different types of analysis are outlined. Ideas are given for database…

  16. Telecomm: Graduate & Inservice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Sue, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on issues related to telecommunications and online learning in graduate and inservice teacher education: (1) "Using Qualitative Research Methods To Study Preservice Teachers' Use of a Computer Conference" (Douglass J. Scott); (2) "Interaction and Collaboration among Teachers: On the Use of a Knowledge…

  17. Funds Fuel Graduation Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    In the first wave of funding under a revitalized high school graduation initiative, the U.S. Department of Education is betting nearly $50 million that it can help states and school districts find better ways to hang onto students who might drop out and bring back those who have disappeared without diplomas. Twenty-nine states and districts won…

  18. Choosing a Graduate School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Dennis E.

    2012-01-01

    If you are finishing your undergraduate degree or wrapping up your first few years in the classroom, you may be starting to think about what is next in your professional life. Should you go to graduate school? Many states now mandate either the completion of a master's degree in education or additional training for teacher licensure in addition to…

  19. Information for the Graduate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Special Education and Related Services.

    This booklet for graduates of special education programs in Montgomery County, Maryland, briefly describes and lists local resources for further education, work opportunities, recreation, and health/safety. The first section provides information on being independent and covers school records, social security cards, armed services registration,…

  20. Following Engineering Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feutz, Michael; Zinser, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an in-depth analysis of recent graduates' experience with completing an engineering technology program and entering the profession. It is unique because the study was conducted on a baccalaureate-level program and because it helps fill a gap in the literature. The phenomenological method was used to obtain qualitative data to…

  1. A Graduate Tax Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennerster, Howard; Merrett, Stephen; Wilson, Gail

    2003-01-01

    In light of recent policy debate concerning higher education financing in Britain, reprints this article proposing a graduate tax, with a new introduction. Discusses main arguments in favor of the tax (it would eliminate the subsidy of the meritocratic elite, provide more funds for education, be a more efficient and egalitarian form of finance,…

  2. Graduate Statistics: Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Robert L.; Broadston, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes toward statistics of graduate students who used a computer program as part of the instruction, which allowed for an individualized, self-paced, student-centered, activity-based course. The twelve sections involved in this study were offered in the spring and fall 2001, spring and fall 2002, spring and fall…

  3. Graduate Education at Berkeley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duster, Troy

    1987-01-01

    Explains the history and orientation of Berkeley's graduate program in sociology which leans more toward the European than the U.S. tradition of postgraduate education. The doctoral student is most likely the principal architect of the research design and sole collector of primary data for the dissertation. The program emphasizes negotiation and a…

  4. Supervising Graduate Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jessica; Nonnamaker, John

    2011-01-01

    Discussions of personnel management in student affairs literature and at national conferences often focus on supervising new or midlevel professionals and the myriad challenges and possibilities these relationships entail (Carpenter, 2001; Winston and Creamer, 1997). Graduate students as employees and the often-complicated and ill-structured…

  5. Graduating to Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, John

    1993-01-01

    Former middle-school principal's graduation speech to fifth graders and their parents focuses on three areas: students and psychological and physiological changes they will experience; what to expect in middle school (teamwork and advisee-group activities); and secrets for success and happiness. Students and parents are advised to concentrate on…

  6. The Professional Socialization of the Graduate Assistant Athletic Trainer

    PubMed Central

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Clines, Stephanie; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The graduate assistant athletic trainer (AT) position often serves as one's first experience working independently as an AT and is also an important aspect of the professional socialization process. The socialization experiences of graduate assistant ATs have yet to be fully explored. Objective: To understand the socialization process for graduate assistant ATs during their graduate experience. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: We conducted phone interviews with all participants. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 25 graduate assistant ATs (20 women, 5 men) studying in 1 of 3 academic tracks: (1) accredited postprofessional athletic training program (n = 8), (2) postprofessional athletic training program (n = 11), or (3) a nonathletic training degree program (n = 6). The average age was 25 ± 5 years, and the median age was 24 years. Participants were certified by the Board of Certification for an average of 2 ± 0.4 years. Data Collection and Analysis: We analyzed the data using a general inductive approach. Peer review, field notes, and intercoder reliability established trustworthiness. Data saturation guided participant recruitment. Results: The ability to gain clinical independence as a practitioner was an important socialization process. Having the chance to develop a relationship with a mentor, who provided support, guidance, and more of a hierarchical relationship, was an important socializing agent for the graduate assistant AT. Participants used the orientation session as a means to understand the expectations and role of the graduate-assistant position. Academic coursework was a way to achieve better inductance into the role via the opportunity to apply classroom skills during their clinical practice. Conclusions: Socializing the graduate assistant blends formal and informal processes. Transition to practice is a critical aspect of the profession; thus, supporting autonomous practice with directed mentoring can promote professional

  7. Longitudinal relations between child vagal tone and parenting behavior: 2 to 4 years.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Amy E; Rubin, Kenneth H; Hastings, Paul D; Maisel, Beth

    2004-07-01

    The longitudinal relations between physiological markers of child emotion regulation and maternal parenting practices were examined from 2 to 4 years of age. At Time 1, cardiac vagal tone was assessed for one hundred four 2-year-olds (54 females); their mothers completed an assessment of parenting styles. Two years later, at Time 2, 84 of the original participants were reassessed on measures of cardiac vagal tone and parenting style. Results indicated both baseline cardiac vagal tone and maternal parenting practices to be stable from 2 to 4 years of age. Children's cardiac vagal tone predicted specific parenting practices from the toddler to preschool years. Further, child cardiac vagal tone moderated maternal restrictive-parenting practices from 2 to 4 years of age; mothers of children who were highly or moderately physiologically dysregulated were more likely to report restrictive parenting practices at both 2 and 4 years of age. PMID:15229872

  8. Development of a New Graduate Perioperative Nursing Program at an Urban Pediatric Institution.

    PubMed

    Gorgone, Pamela D; Arsenault, Loretta; Milliman-Richard, Yolanda J; Lajoie, Debra L

    2016-07-01

    In 2012, perioperative personnel from Boston Children's Hospital began the process of planning for perioperative staff member attrition and retirement by developing a new graduate perioperative nursing program geared toward our pediatric urban academic institution. We selected two cohorts of new graduate nurses to begin the program in 2013. To date, two cohorts of six graduate nurses have completed the program and have been hired. Our new perioperative nurse retention rate is 100%. All of these nurses are currently practicing in the main OR at our facility. In one year, we recovered the initial program costs, which included the expenses incurred by hiring 12 full-time employees to replace more highly paid tenured RNs lost to attrition or retirement and training costs for new graduates. We believe the program has reduced overall long-term staffing costs and has prevented disruption to services as a result of unexpected vacancies from retirements and resignations. PMID:27350352

  9. Electives in Graduate Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Santosh; Zayapragassarazan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Modern curricula have both compulsory portions and electives or portions chosen by students. Electives have been a part of graduate and postgraduate general higher education. Electives are included in various standards for graduate medical education and are also included in proposed Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical…

  10. A Sustainable Cohort of Professional Civil Engineering Graduates? Uncovering the United Kingdom Graduate Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, David J.; Dainty, Andrew R. J.; Love, Peter E. D.

    2004-01-01

    Undergraduate applications to civil engineering courses have been declining at an alarming rate despite the industry's healthy economic activity. Concerns abound as to the long-term impact of this decline as the sector is already suffering skills shortages across virtually all of its occupations. This paper investigates the likely future trends in…

  11. High School and Beyond. Financial Aid Supplement (Senior Cohort). Data File User's Manual. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James E.; Hall, Kevin B.

    Supplementary data on college student financial aid recipients for academic years 1980-1981 through 1983-1984 are presented for a sample of the Senior Cohort of the High School and Beyond Study (HS&B). By 1984 the HS&B senior cohort had been out of high school for 4 years. Background information on the Center for Education Statistics Longitudinal…

  12. Development of an intravenous skills module for graduate nurses.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Graduate nurses (GNs) are a major part of hospital recruitment. Forty-two percent of new hires are likely to be GNs. Many GNs feel ill prepared in intravenous (i.v.) catheter insertion and central line care. The purpose of this evidence-based practice project was to determine if an i.v. skills workshop would have a positive impact on GNs' comfort and skills. Casey-Fink Graduate Nurse Experience Survey data indicate that 29% of graduate nurse residents participating in the first cohort of this workshop list i.v. skills as most challenging. Postsurvey data showed that GN comfort level improved. Supporting the GN in this challenging transition by providing focused education and skills practice may alleviate this discomfort. PMID:25723836

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids on prevalence ofallergic diseases among 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Houman; Miyashita, Chihiro; Okada, Emiko; Kashino, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Chen, Chi-Jen; Ito, Sachiko; Araki, Atsuko; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Ito, Yoichi M; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are ubiquitous chemicals extremely resistant and widespread throughout the environment, frequently being detected in human blood samples. Animal studies have revealed that exposure to PFAAs results in immunotoxicity. However, the association between PFAAs, especially long-chain PFAAs, and allergies in humans is not well established. We examined whether prenatal exposure to PFAAs is associated with allergic diseases among 4-year-old children in a large-scale prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan. In total, 1558 mother-child pairs were included in this study and prenatal levels of eleven PFAAs were measured in maternal plasma samples obtained between 28 and 32weeks of pregnancy by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Participant demographic and characteristic information were obtained from self-administered pre- and postnatal questionnaires and medical birth records. Infant allergies were assessed using the Japanese version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three questionnaire, which was administered 4years post-delivery. Symptoms included eczema, wheezing and rhinoconjunctivitis with a prevalence of 19.0%, 18.7%, and 5.4%, respectively. Associations of PFAA quartiles with allergic outcomes were examined using logistic models. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in the 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile (Q4 vs. Q1) for total allergic diseases (including at least one allergic outcome) significantly decreased for perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDa) (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.621; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.454, 0.847) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.712; 95% CI: 0.524, 0.966) in all children. We obtained similar results when examining the association between PFAAs and eczema. The adjusted OR (Q4 vs. Q1) for wheezing in relation to higher maternal PFHxS levels was 0.728 (95% CI: 0.497, 1.06) in all children. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to long

  14. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  15. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2012-09-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. PMID:23856451

  16. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  17. Survey of foreign graduate students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In the 1983 American Institute of Physics (AIP) Graduate Student Survey, the issue of foreign versus national students in U.S. graduate programs was explored. In the past decade, the number of entering graduate students from foreign nations in American universities has risen from about 600 to about 1100, an increase from 23% in 1973 to 40% in 1983 of all entering physics graduate students in the United States. There are more than 10,000 graduate students in physics in the United StatesThe benefits, or lack thereof, of having foreign graduate students raises a number of philosophical points. Like all students, foreign students learn from academic programs; but at high competitive levels, they contribute as well. The essence of growth in any academic program is described by the creativity supplied by ever incoming students. In an academically competitive system the question of foreign students displacing U.S. students in graduate programs has no definition. On the other hand, what about the graduate job market after graduation? Some would point to the return of foreign graduates to their homeland as an example of U.S. education efforts not benefitting U.S. society, at least directly. Others worry about foreign graduates flooding the U.S. job market.

  18. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Latino Students in Tennessee's Private 4-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abood, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to identify the perceived effective strategies utilized by colleges and universities to recruit, retain, and graduate Latino students. This study specifically explored the self-reported enrollment and retention strategies and their perceived effectiveness by the 34 member institutions of the Tennessee…

  19. Within State Transactions from 2-Year to 4-Year Public Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Smith, Christopher L.

    This study developed and tested a method to determine how well each two-year institution in a state system is in preparing students for the successful completion of four-year college study and how successful each four-year institution is in graduating students from the two-year colleges that transfer to it. The study used data provided by the…

  20. A Cooperative Endeavor for Integrating Re-Entry Adults in a 4-Year University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; Lenihan, Genie O.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a cooperative venture between a counselor educator and a university counseling center in providing a program for reentry adults. Counseling graduate students participated in organizing and conducting workshops for reentry students and providing a noontime information series organized around psychological life adjustment themes.…

  1. Late juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy treated with bone marrow transplantation; a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Navarro, C; Fernández, J M; Domínguez, C; Fachal, C; Alvarez, M

    1996-01-01

    We treated a 28-year-old woman who had metachromatic leukodystrophy with bone marrow transplantation. Leukocyte arylsulfatase A levels increased to the donor's range after successful graft. Motor and sensory nerve conduction values did not change significantly in the 4 years after the transplant, and subcortical white matter lesions, as shown on MRI, remained stable during that period of time. The results, after 4 years of follow-up, indicate that the disease has not progressed and signs and symptoms are stabilized. PMID:8559389

  2. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  3. Predictors of Funded Scholarly Activity at 4-Year, Non-Doctoral Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Maria Montoro

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to develop a model of institutional supports necessary for faculty to succeed as funded scholars at 4-year non-doctoral colleges and universities. Research was conducted using secondary data analysis on a pre-existing, cross-sectional database from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. Expectancy theory was used as the…

  4. My Body. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on the body for 4-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood environments.…

  5. Comparing Student Performance and Growth in 2- and 4-Year Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Linda C.; Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2002-01-01

    Examined the organizational characteristics of 51 higher education institutions in relationship to student performance and growth. Findings included that the different 2-year and 4-year campus missions do exert significantly different influences on undergraduate GPA and self-reported intellectual growth, with students at 2-year institutions…

  6. Transfer Rates of Texas Hispanic Community College Students to 4-Year Institutions: Selected Institutional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klement, Emily Conrady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental, quantitative study was to determine how well selected institutional characteristics explain the variance in Hispanic community college students' transfer rates to 4-year institutions. Due to the rapidly growing Texas Hispanic population, understanding challenges to their educational attainment has become…

  7. Trends in the Educational Experience of 3- to 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Phillip; And Others

    Using data from the Census Bureau's 1991 Current Population Survey and the National Household Education Survey, this study examined the trends in nursery school enrollment of 3- and 4-year-old children from 1975 to 1990. Factors examined included number of enrollments in nursery schools, race and ethnicity of the students, students' family income,…

  8. Intergenerational Relations across 4 Years: Well-Being Is Affected by Quality, Not by Support Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Schuengel, Carlo; Schulze, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Providing support to an aging parent may pose challenges to adult children but also provide an opportunity to "give back" to loved ones. The current study investigated changes in emotional and instrumental support and quality across a period of 4 years. Additionally, associations between intergenerational support and well-being in adult…

  9. Vowel Confusion Patterns in Adults during Initial 4 Years of Implant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaalimaa, Taina T.; Sorri, Martti J.; Laitakari, Jaakko; Sivonen, Ville; Muhli, Arto

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated adult cochlear implant users' (n == 39) vowel recognition and confusions by an open-set syllable test during 4 years of implant use, in a prospective repeated-measures design. Subjects' responses were coded for phoneme errors and estimated by the generalized mixed model. Improvement in overall vowel recognition was highest…

  10. Transfer between Community Colleges and 4-Year Colleges: The All-American Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Moon, Hye Sun; Cypers, Scott; Maxwell, William E.; Lester, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a novel way, using the metaphor of a baseball game, to evaluate and measure community college student progress for those whose stated goal is to transfer to a 4-year institution and, ultimately, earn a bachelor's degree. The proposed framework of "the Transfer Game" is an outgrowth of the Transfer and…

  11. Title VI-A. Higher Education Act in New York State. 4-Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Higher Education Planning.

    Title VI-A provides matching federal funds for the purchase of college and university laboratory and audiovisual equipment, closed-circuit television equipment and classroom materials related to the improvement of undergraduate education. This report presents case studies of 12 institutions which obtained Title VI-A funds in the past 4 years. The…

  12. Universal SAT® Policy Boosts 4-Year College Enrollment. Info to Go™ 2015-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Niu, Sunny; Howell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Maine replaced its existing high school statewide assessment with the SAT® and administered the exam to almost all public high school juniors. A primary goal of this policy change was to increase 4-year college enrollment by public school students in Maine. This brief report provides an overview of the data, research methodology employed, as well…

  13. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  14. Spontaneous Analogical Transfer in 4-Year-Olds: A Microgenetic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunteler, Erika; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2002-01-01

    This microgenetic experimental study examined children's spontaneous application of analogical problem solving from story problems to physical tasks. Results indicated that 4-year-olds did, with varying success, spontaneously apply analogical solutions to physical problems across sessions. A few children even gave an analogical strategy-related…

  15. Through Another's Eyes: Elements in the Eyes of a 4-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xuan

    2004-01-01

    My husband, who is a scientist, often brings home different scientific journals and magazines to read, and my 4-year-old son, Nicholas J. Hu, likes to flip through them. A recent issue of Chemical and Engineering News (September, 2003) caught his interest more than usual because there were stories of different elements. Nicholas has been able to…

  16. A Gender Comparison of the Cooperation of 4-Year-Old Children in Classroom Activity Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Genan T.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Wouden-Miller, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the proportion of cooperative play in 4-year-old children across centers (housekeeping, block, manipulative, and computer) and gender in a natural classroom setting. Eighty-four white, middle-income children (41 boys and 43 girls, mean age = 55 months) were videotaped during free-play for 30 minutes per day for four weeks in…

  17. Collaboration between 3- and 4-Year-Olds in Self-Initiated Play on Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a study of collaborative music-making on instruments among 3- and 4-year-old children. An area equipped with musical instruments was provided as a free-choice play option in an early childhood setting and a fixed camera recorded the children's play continuously during a number of visits. From the total 17 h of data five…

  18. Examining the Role of Advanced Placement[R] Exam Participation in 4-Year College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chajewski, Michael; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) exam participation and enrollment in a 4-year postsecondary institution. A positive relationship was expected given that the primary purpose of offering AP courses is to allow students to engage in college-level academic work while in high school, and…

  19. Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…

  20. Creppy Crawlies. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (4-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This science teaching guide on insects and animals for 4-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various…

  1. Preventing and Responding to Bullying: An Elementary School's 4-Year Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormac, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a pervasive problem in schools and requires a schoolwide approach. This article describes the action research process used to examine the impact of a 4-year, K-5 school bullying prevention and intervention. The school counselors collaborated with students, staff, and parents to implement the program, and collected and…

  2. Markers for Persistent Specific Expressive Language Delay in 3-4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Andrea; Hannaford, Philip; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Identifying 3-4-year-olds who are most at risk of persisting language difficulties, and possibly specific language impairment (SLI), is difficult due to the natural variation of language in young children. In older children, markers for SLI have been identified that differentiate between children with and without SLI. It is not known…

  3. Overweight among Low-Income Texas Preschoolers Aged 2 to 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kayan L.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Gossman, Ginger; Mirchandani, Gita; Sayegh, M. Aaron; Moehlman, Clint; Van Eck, Mary; Petrilli, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine child/maternal factors associated with overweight among 2- to 4-year-olds enrolled in the Texas Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Matched child and maternal data collected by self-report of the mother during WIC certification. These data were extracted from existing…

  4. Women’s Satisfaction with Body Image before Pregnancy and Body Mass Index 4 Years after Delivery in the Mothers of Generation XXI

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Ana; Alves, Elisabete; Barros, Henrique; Azevedo, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background Body image satisfaction (BIS) influences body weight regulation and may contribute to long-term healthier lifestyle after pregnancy. Thus, we aimed to assess the association between BIS before pregnancy and body mass index (BMI) 4 years after the index pregnancy. Methods As part of the follow-up of a birth cohort, 3612 women with prepregnancy BMI >18.5 kg/m2 were reevaluated 4 years after the birth of a child. BIS was defined as the difference between perceived and ideal body size before pregnancy, assessed by Stunkard Silhouettes after birth. The associations of BIS with BMI change (continuous) and BMI classes at 4 years, based on measured weight and height, were estimated using linear and multinomial regression, respectively. Results Among women with normal prepregnancy BMI, those who felt too small, regarding their ideal, had a 0.25 kg/m2 smaller increase in BMI within 4 years and a lower likelihood of becoming overweight or obese [multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.63; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.44–0.91 and OR = 0.21; 95%CI: 0.05–0.91, respectively) than those satisfied with body image. Feeling too large was associated with a 0.41 kg/m2 larger increase in BMI and a higher risk of becoming overweight or obese (OR = 2.12; 95%CI:1.73–2.59 and OR = 3.42; 95%CI:2.02–5.79, respectively). A similar, non-significant, trend was observed for overweight women. Obese women who felt too large had a non-significant decrease in BMI. Conclusions BIS plays a role in maternal body weight after delivery. Realistic body size goals may promote the motivation to lose weight and contribute to higher success in attaining them. PMID:23936169

  5. Stepping Back to Move Forward? Exploring Outdoor Education Students' Fresher and Graduate Identities and Their Impact on Employment Destinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Tim; Zaitseva, Elena; Cui, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This four-year mixed method longitudinal study utilises data collected from four cohorts of Outdoor Education (OE) students to compare "fresher" and "graduate" identities and to explore the impact of identity on graduate employment. Findings demonstrate that compared to other programmes, and the university as a whole, OE…

  6. In-Hospital and 4-Year Clinical Outcomes Following Transcatheter Versus Surgical Closure for Secundum Atrial Septal Defect in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tien-Hsing; Hsiao, Yuan-Chuan; Cheng, Chia-Chi; Mao, Chun-Tai; Chen, Dong-Yi; Tsai, Ming-Lung; Yang, Teng-Yao; Lin, Yu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atrial septal defect (ASD) closure is major therapy for patients with secundum ASD. Although surgical closure (SC) and transcatheter closure (TC) are usually performed in such patients, data on the long-term outcomes comparing TC and SC in adults are limited. Data on the participants of this cohort study were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2004 to 2011. Secundum ASD patients > 18 years of age who underwent TC or SC were initially enrolled, and those with associated comorbidities were excluded. After propensity score matching, the clinical outcomes between the TC and SC groups were analyzed. There were 595 patients recruited in the TC group and 308 patients in the SC group. The SC group had a higher incidence of systemic thromboembolism (P < 0.001), ischemic stroke (P = 0.002), and all-cause mortality (P = 0.013) when compared with those of the TC group at the index hospitalization, and similar phenomena could also be seen in a around 4-year follow-up period after the procedures (systemic thromboembolism (P < 0.001, HR = 11.48, 95% CI: 3.29–40.05), ischemic stroke (P = 0.005, HR = 9.28, 95% CI: 1.94–44.39), and all-cause mortality (P = 0.035, HR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.06–4.89). In addition, atrial fibrillation (P = 0.005) and atrial flutter (P = 0.049) more frequently developed in the SC group than in the TC group at the index hospitalization. The adult secundum ASD patients had lower incidence rates of systemic thromboembolism, ischemic stroke, and all-cause mortality after TC than those after SC in the 4-year follow-up after procedures. Transcatheter ASD closure should therefore be given priority PMID:26402807

  7. Vehicle child restraint usage for Pacific children aged 6 weeks to 4 years: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Philip J; Paterson, Janis

    2010-11-01

    Child restraint systems (CRSs) for vehicles are designed to provide protection and prevent or reduce child mortality and morbidity in road traffic accidents. Overall, 90% of children under 5 years of age in New Zealand currently use CRSs. There is considerable regional variability in CRS usage, but little information exists on its ethnic variations or determinants. "Increasing the level of restraint use" is explicitly stated as one of the 13 priorities within the New Zealand Ministry of Transport's new road safety strategy. As such, understanding CRS prevalence, patterns and associates within different communities is essential in realising this priority. Utilising a large birth cohort of Pacific children (n=1376 mothers), this study aimed to report the prevalence of maternal self-reported car seat usage at the 6 weeks, 1-year, and 2 years postpartum measurement waves; car/booster seat usage at the 4 years postpartum measurement wave; and to identify important associates using generalised estimating equation (GEE) models. Car seats were not used by 161 (11.8%) Pacific children at the 6 weeks measurement wave, 71 (5.8%) at 1-year, and 44 (3.8%) at 2 years, while car/booster seats were not used by 139 (13.3%) at the 4 years wave. Multivariable GEE model results revealed that mothers with no formal education, high parity, who smoked tobacco, lower household income, who lacked English language proficiency, and had multiple births were all at higher odds of failing to use car seat/booster seats. Despite differential attrition being noted in mothers over time, a sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation methods yielded similar findings. Targeted initiatives and education programs focusing on these higher risk groups, in particular, is needed to increase uptake and use of CRS thereby decreasing Pacific children's exposure to injury risk. As New Zealand has a large and increasing proportion of Pacific, Maori and Asian people, there is a continuing need to understand

  8. Rescuing from oblivion: social characteristics and career destinations of early British 'sociology' graduates, 1907-39.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Christopher T

    2015-12-01

    Those students who were among the first sociology graduates in the UK barely feature in standard histories of the discipline, which all have an intellectual and institutional focus. This article remedies this neglect by researching the social backgrounds and later careers of sociology graduates from the London School of Economics and Political Science [LSE] and Bedford College for Women from the first such graduate in 1907 until those graduating in the 1930s. Data for this exercise were compiled from a variety of sources. The more important are: UK censuses, especially that of 1911; various civil registration records; archived student files; and, for the graduates who entered university teaching, issues of the Yearbook of the Universities of the Empire [later the Commonwealth Universities' Yearbook]. The dataset includes all identified graduates in the BSc(Econ), Special Subject Sociology, degree from 1907 to 1935 and all in the BA (Honours) in Sociology degree from 1925 to 1939. LSE sociology graduates tended to be older and to have more cosmopolitan backgrounds, with fathers more likely than for Bedford College graduates to come from commercial rather than professional backgrounds. Both institutions' graduates' careers tended to the Civil Service and local government. LSE graduates gravitated to education, especially to higher education if male, whilst those of Bedford College went into welfare work, countering a stereotype from some previous literature that especially women graduates were heavily constrained to follow careers in schoolteaching. The article also gives comparisons with the social-class profile and career destinations of several cohorts of postwar sociology graduates, noting a number of similarities. PMID:26607691

  9. Graduation Matters: Improving Accountability for High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Daria

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of accountability for high school graduation rates under the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) reveals two major problems: (1) State goals for raising graduation rates are far too low to spur needed improvement and (2) Gaps between student groups are allowed to persist by an accountability system that looks only at average…

  10. Graduate Conversations: Assessing the Space Needs of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsley, Kirsten; Besara, Rachel; Scheel, Abby; Colvin, Gloria; Brady, Jessica Evans; Burel, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the preferences, habits, and needs of graduate students as they relate to spaces for research and study. The findings are based on a large-scale ethnographic study of graduate students at Florida State University conducted between 2010 and 2013. Using a variety of ethnographic methods, researchers found that graduate…

  11. Graduate Deans and Graduate Education: A National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, David M.; Bowker, Lee H.

    The responsibility for graduate education and the power and authority structure among graduate deans, college or school deans, departments, and faculty were studied using a sample of 338 schools. Attention was directed to the following concerns: institutional characteristics that are related to the organization and administration of graduate…

  12. The Impact of Prematriculation Admission Characteristics on Graduation Rates in an Accelerated Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Anna K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the impact of admission characteristics on graduation in an accelerated doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Methods. Selected prematriculation characteristics of students entering the graduation class years of 2009-2012 on the Worcester and Manchester campuses of MCPHS University were analyzed and compared for on-time graduation. Results. Eighty-two percent of evaluated students (699 of 852) graduated on time. Students who were most likely to graduate on-time attended a 4-year school, previously earned a bachelor’s degree, had an overall prematriculation grade point average (GPA) greater than or equal to 3.6, and graduated in the spring just prior to matriculating to the university. Factors that reduced the likelihood of graduating on time were also identified. Work experience had a marginal impact on graduating on time. Conclusion. Although there is no certainty in college admission decisions, prematriculation characteristics can help predict the likelihood for academic success of students in an accelerated PharmD program. PMID:26689686

  13. A Prediction Model for Community Colleges Using Graduation Rate as the Performance Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosai, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis a prediction model using graduation rate as the performance indicator is obtained for community colleges for three cohort years, 2003, 2004, and 2005 in the states of California, Florida, and Michigan. Multiple Regression analysis, using an aggregate of seven predictor variables, was employed in determining this prediction model.…

  14. Early Identification of High School Graduation Outcomes in Oregon Leadership Network Schools. REL 2015-079

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student characteristics related to completing high school within four years, with particular emphasis on graduation outcomes for male and English language learner students. The authors looked at a cohort of students who began grade 9 in the 2007/08 school year in four Oregon districts. Factors related to…

  15. Moving Forward: College and Career Transitions of LAMP Graduates. Findings from the LAMP Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Kim, Scott; Bozick, Robert

    A longitudinal study examined the college and career transitions of graduates of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) program, which is a school-to-career (STC) program sponsored by the United Auto Workers, General Motors Corporation, and Michigan's Ingham County Intermediate School District. The progress of three cohorts of LAMP…

  16. Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institution Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Lois A.

    2012-01-01

    This research attempted to understand the experiences of a cohort of informal and formal science educators and informal science institution (ISI) community representatives during and after completion of a pilot graduate certificate program. Informal science educators (ISEs) find limited opportunities for professional development and support which…

  17. Phobic anxiety and cognitive performance over 4 years among community-dwelling older women in the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Okereke, Olivia I.; Grodstein, Francine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation of phobic anxiety to late-life cognitive trajectory. Design Prospective cohort. Setting Nurses’ Health Study – U.S. registered nurses. Participants 16,351 women among whom phobic anxiety symptoms were assessed in 1988 (mean age=63 years). Measurements Beginning a decade after phobic anxiety ascertainment (mean age=74 years), three assessments of general cognition, word and paragraph immediate and delayed recall, category fluency, and attention/working memory were administered over an average of 4.4 years; global cognitive and verbal memory composite scores were generated from the component tests. General linear models of response profiles were used to evaluate relations of phobic anxiety to initial cognitive performance and subsequent change. Results Higher phobic anxiety was associated with poorer initial performance: e.g., comparing women with the highest anxiety to those with no/minimal symptoms, the multivariate-adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval) in scores was −0.10 (−0.13,−0.06) standard units for the global score summarizing all tests, and −0.08 (−0.11,−0.04) standard units for verbal memory (summarizing 4 word- and paragraph-recall tasks). Mean differences between extreme categories of phobic anxiety were equal to those for participants aged 1.5–2 years apart: i.e., cognitively equivalent to being about two years older. There were no relations of phobic anxiety to subsequent cognitive change. Conclusions Higher mid-life phobic anxiety was related to worse later-life overall cognition and verbal memory. Yet, profiles of poorer cognition with higher anxiety remained parallel over time, suggesting phobic anxiety may impose impact on cognition earlier in life, rather than ongoing impact in later-life. PMID:23567369

  18. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Patient with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: 4-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Okida, Ricardo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Vechiato Filho, Aljomar José; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; de Medeiros, Rodrigo Antonio; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2014-01-01

    The gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the main causes of dental erosion. The aim of this case presented is to describe the prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with GERD after 4 years of followup. A 33-year-old male patient complained about tooth sensitivity. The lingual surface of the maxillary anterior teeth and the cusps of the upper and lower posterior teeth presented wear. It was suspected that the feeling of heartburn reported by the patient associated with the intake of sports supplements (isotonics) was causing gastroesophageal changes. The patient was referred to a gastroenterologist and was diagnosed with GERD. Dental treatment was performed with metal-free crowns and porcelain veneers after medical treatment of the disease. With the change in eating habits, the treatment of GERD and lithium disilicate ceramics provided excellent cosmetic results after 4 years and the patient reported satisfaction with the treatment. PMID:24715992

  19. Graduate Opportunities for Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Julie, Ed.

    This document catalogues graduate opportunities specifically for black students in 1969-70 at 42 universities, 96 additional graduate departments (social sciences, natural sciences, mathematics, and humanities), and 111 additional professional schools (particularly social work, education, law, medicine, theology, business, and library science).…

  20. Engineering and Technology Graduates 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iceland, Carol; And Others

    A report on the placement status of engineering and technology graduates in 1972 is presented on the basis of survey data obtained from registrars and placement directors of institutions in the U. S. The numbers of graduates were: (1) 44,190 bachelor's, 17,003 master's, 353 engineer, and 3,774 doctorate degrees in engineering, and (2) 22,578…

  1. PROSPECTS OF ENGINEERING GRADUATES 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALDEN, JOHN

    TO KEEP UP-TO-DATE ON TRENDS IN JOBS FOR ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY GRADUATES, THE COMMISSION HAS TAKEN SURVEYS OF JUNE GRADUATING CLASSES SINCE 1957, EXCEPT FOR 1962-63. THIS 1967 SURVEY OF 229 ENGINEERING SCHOOLS AND 85 OTHER TECHNICAL SCHOOLS PROVIDES DATA ON KINDS OF INSTITUTIONS, CURRICULUMS, POSTGRADUATE ACTIVITY, STARTING SALARIES,…

  2. Financing of Graduate Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Fiscal Services, Annapolis.

    This study, conducted for the Maryland legislature, evaluated the current method for financing graduate medical education in hospital rates, particularly whether the costs of graduate education at the state's two academic medical centers are too high. The study involved discussions with the Health Services Cost Review Commission (HSCRC),…

  3. Survey of April 1995 Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monson, Kyle C.

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the programs and services at the Community College of the Air Force (CCAF), a survey was conducted of 1,127 students who graduated in April 1995. Study results, based on responses from 34.1% (n=384) of the graduates, included the following: (1) the proportion of females answering the survey was 3% higher that their…

  4. Nursing Alumni Surveys: 2002 Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Santa Clarita, CA.

    This document reports on outcomes of the College of the Canyons, California, 2002 survey of nursing alumni. Surveys of RN, LVN, and LVN-RN graduates and their employers aimed to assess graduates' satisfaction with the preparation and training they received. Surveys also collected information intended to assess the current position in which the…

  5. Graduates' Perceptions towards UKM's Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Ramli; Khoon, Koh Aik; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Ahmadan, Siti Rohayu

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the surveys which were conducted between 2006 and 2008 on graduates' perceptions towards the infrastructure at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). It covered three major aspects pertaining to learning, living and leisure on campus. Eight out of 14 components received overwhelming approval from our graduates. (Contains 1…

  6. Graduate Student Success in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschberg, Nancy; Itkin, Stuart

    1978-01-01

    Correlations between standard ability variables such as first year grades and early graduate school success criteria are supported by data from a study of graduate psychology students at the University of Illinois. Certain peer ratings emerged as important predictors of later success. Sex differences were less than anticipated. (Author/EB)

  7. Federal Policy and Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    What role should the federal government play in support of graduate education? Based on the principles that: (1) American graduate education and research establishment is a national resource; (2) the market for highly trained manpower is national; (3) the federal government itself employs the service of many highly trained personnel; (4) it is in…

  8. Teaching Writing in Graduate School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret; Hallett, Ronald; Tierney, William

    2011-01-01

    Graduate students are typically expected to know how to write. Those who write poorly are occasionally penalized, but little in-class attention is given to help students continue to develop and refine their writing skills. More often than not, writing courses at the graduate level are remedial programs designed for international students and…

  9. Cooperative Education for Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sylvia J.; Whitten, Cynthia Jahn

    Recent development and implementation of cooperative education on the graduate level in the U.S. and Canada is examined in this study. Several questions are addressed: How and why did graduate cooperative education programs begin? How was the program received on campus? What are the major program characteristics? What problems or issues are…

  10. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better. PMID:22448609

  11. Pott puffy tumor in a 4-year-old boy presenting in status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Strony, Robert J; Dula, David

    2007-11-01

    Pott puffy tumor is an osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with the development of a subperiosteal abscess manifesting as a puffy swelling of the forehead or scalp. It is believed to occur as a complication of frontal sinusitis. The modern antibiotic era has made it a rarely encountered entity. This case describes a 4-year-old boy who presented in status epilepticus secondary to Pott puffy tumor. PMID:18007214

  12. Surgical Treatment of a 4-Year-Old Child with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin; Wu, Qingyu; Xu, Zhonghua; Kong, Xiangchen

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of pediatric hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy is low. The lesions usually involve the left ventricle or ventricular septum, leading to either left or right ventricular outflow tract stenosis. However, combined left and right ventricular outflow tract stenosis is rare, and the surgical treatment is limited, especially in children. Surgery to release the obstruction was performed successfully in a 4-year-old child with right and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction together with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The result was excellent. PMID:26913685

  13. Inflammatory epidermolysis bullosa acquisita in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Lazić-Mosler, Elvira; Jukić, Ines Lakoš; Murat-Sušić, Slobodna; Husar, Karmela; Skerlev, Mihael; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi; Marinović, Branka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a case of linear immunoglobulin A dermatosis-like epidermolysis bullosa acquisita in a 4-year-old girl showing rapid, widespread and inflammatory skin lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology, direct and indirect immunofluorescence, various immunoblotting analyses and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Despite the severe clinical manifestations, the disease was successfully controlled by combination therapy of oral prednisolone and dapsone. PMID:26046385

  14. Efficacy and safety of continuous 4-year telbivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Thongsawat, S; Gane, E J; Liaw, Y-F; Jia, J; Hou, J; Chan, H L Y; Papatheodoridis, G; Wan, M; Niu, J; Bao, W; Trylesinski, A; Naoumov, N V

    2013-01-01

    In the phase-III GLOBE/015 studies, telbivudine demonstrated superior efficacy vs lamivudine during 2-year treatment in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB). After completion, 847 patients had an option to continue telbivudine treatment for further 2 years. A total of 596 (70%) of telbivudine-treated patients, who were serum HBV DNA positive or negative and without genotypic resistance to telbivudine at the end of the GLOBE/015 trials, were enrolled into a further 2-year extension study. A group of 502 patients completed 4 years of continuous telbivudine treatment and were included in the telbivudine per-protocol population. Amongst 293 HBeAg-positive patients, 76.2% had undetectable serum HBV DNA and 86.0% had normal serum ALT at the end of 4 years. Notably, the cumulative rate of HBeAg seroconversion was 53.2%. Amongst 209 HBeAg-negative patients, 86.4% had undetectable HBV DNA and 89.6% had normal serum ALT. In patients who had discontinued telbivudine treatment due to HBeAg seroconversion, the HBeAg response was durable in 82% of patients (median 111 weeks of off-treatment follow-up). The cumulative 4-year resistance rate was 10.6% for HBeAg-positive and 10.0% for HBeAg-negative patients. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity and transient. Renal function measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) increased by 14.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 (16.6%) from baseline to 4 years (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB patients without resistance after 2 years, two additional years of telbivudine treatment continued to provide effective viral suppression with a favourable safety profile. Moreover, telbivudine achieved 53% of HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive patients. PMID:23490388

  15. STEm Minority Graduate Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, Kaen E

    2012-09-20

    ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee's chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcing students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit it's a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years the EAA has

  16. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs). PMID:24550246

  17. Longitudinal patterns of enrollment and expenditures for a Medicaid cohort

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Embry M.; Andrews, Roxanne M.; Gornick, Marian

    1988-01-01

    This article is based on 4 years of data for a cohort of Medicaid enrollees in California and Georgia to determine patterns of enrollment and expenditures. The analyses were developed from the statistical system known as Tape-to-Tape, which is based on Medicaid enrollment and claims files from these and other States. The composition of the cohort changed over time as a result of the differential rates of turnover for subgroups of the Medicaid population. Longitudinal expenditure patterns also varied by health service and eligibility group. These Medicaid expenditure patterns differed from those observed previously in Medicare studies, undoubtedly reflecting differences in service coverage under Medicare and Medicaid. PMID:10312822

  18. Defining success in graduate school.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sean M; Blumstein, Jessica; Brose, Katja; Carroll, Adam; Chang, Jean; Charles, Julia; Haswell, Elizabeth S; Michelitsch, Melissa; Owens, Julia C; Patil, Christopher K; Smith, Rebecca; Tupy, Jon; Walsh, Emily; Ware, Tracy

    2014-07-01

    We agree with the author that a quantitative analysis of the predictive nature of the metrics used in graduate student admissions is a worthy pursuit and value the sincere intentions behind the UCSF Tetrad study. However, these types of analyses would benefit from the same rigorous approaches that we employ in our other research endeavors. As UCSF Tetrad graduates with diverse careers in academia, medicine, industry, and publishing, we hope that the definition of success in graduate school can be as thoughtfully and scientifically examined as the measurements used to select the next young people to follow in our footsteps. PMID:24970485

  19. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Tiffany J.; Sentongo, Timothy A.; Mak, Grace Z.; Kahn, Stacy A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26925282

  20. Crown fracture of the mandibular second primary molars in a 4-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Patel, Jalark; Sujan, Sunanda Gul; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Dental traumas are highly prevalent lesions in primary teeth, but crown root fractures are rare. Mostly anterior tooth segment is more commonly involved. Posterior crown root fractures are very rare. A 4-year-old girl reported to our paediatric dentistry department with a 10-day history of severe pain and discomfort in both right and left posterior teeth region. The child was suffering from severe and continuous pain and was unable to chew food. After an examination a fracture was noticed in intraoral periapical radiograph and treatment plan was decided to preserve the affected teeth. PMID:23780765

  1. Case Report: Traumatic anterior cerebral artery aneurysm in a 4-year old child

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Tamrakar, Karuna; Chaudhary, Pramod; Bhattarai, Binod; Cherian, Iype

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysm in the proximal part of the anterior cerebral artery in the pediatric population has not been documented so far. Here we report the case of a 4 year-old child who developed a pseudo-aneurysm after minor head trauma and was managed successfully with trapping of the aneurysm. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was placed as the child became dependent on extraventricular drain during the post-operative period. The patient made excellent recovery in neurological status within 1 month of post-operative clinical follow up.

  2. Adoptive and Nonadoptive Mother–Child Behavioral Interaction: A Comparative Study at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518

  3. Preservation of the lung after 4-year compression by fibrous tumors of pleura.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hironori; Takahashi, Ken; Kumazawa, Sachiko; Okubo, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a neoplasm arising from mesenchymal tissue, which may cause dyspnea and cough. Computed tomography in a 72-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed with a 3-cm mass in the left upper lung 24 years previously, identified 15- and 10-cm tumors, with complete collapse of the lingula and lower lobe. The tumors were successfully excised with partial lung resection, and the collapsed lung was preserved. There was no recurrence or atelectasis at 4 years postoperatively. PMID:27357112

  4. [Awake Nasotracheal Intubation for a 4-Year-old Boy with an Oral Penetrating Toothbrush Injury].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Ando, Kokichi; Saito, Kazutomo; Toyama, Hiroaki; Fudeta, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Masanori

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of an oral penetrating injury caused by a toothbrush in a 4-year-old 17-kg boy. The toothbrush was lodged in the right cervical region through the oral cavity, and emergency surgery for removal was planned under general anesthesia. Although mask ventilation was not possible because of the protruding toothbrush handle, awake nasotracheal intubation was successfully performed with a fiber-scope and intravenous fentanyl 25 μg. We conclude that appropriate analgesics could facilitate awake intubation in pediatric patients. PMID:26466500

  5. Association of Waist-Height Ratio with Diabetes Risk: A 4-Year Longitudinal Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Hye-Jeong; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of various baseline adiposity indices, including WHtR, with the development of diabetes over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean individuals. Methods A total of 2,900 nondiabetic participants (mean age, 44.3 years; 2,078 men) in a health screening program, who repeated the medical check-up in 2005 and 2009, were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups according to development of diabetes after 4 years. The cut-off values of baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and WHtR for the development of diabetes over 4 years were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and mean area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of each index were assessed. The odds ratio (OR) for diabetes development was analyzed for each of the three baseline adiposity indices. Results During the follow-up period, 101 new cases (3.5%) of diabetes were diagnosed. The cut-off WHtR value for diabetes development was 0.51. Moreover, WHtR had the highest AUROC value for diabetes development among the three adiposity indices (0.716, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.669 to 0.763; 0.702, 95% CI, 0.655 to 0.750 for WC; 0.700, 95% CI, 0.651 to 0.750 for BMI). After adjusting for confounding variables, the ORs of WHtR and WC for diabetes development were 1.95 (95% CI, 1.14 to 3.34) and 1.96 (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.49), respectively. No significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding BMI. Conclusion Increased baseline WHtR and WC correlated with the development of diabetes after 4 years. WHtR might be a useful screening measurement to identify individuals at high risk for diabetes. PMID:26754587

  6. Colonic Necrosis in a 4-Year-Old with Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Patton, Tiffany J; Sentongo, Timothy A; Mak, Grace Z; Kahn, Stacy A

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the case of a 4-year-old male with severe acute pancreatitis due to hyperlipidemia, who presented with abdominal pain, metabolic abnormalities, and colonic necrosis. This colonic complication was secondary to the extension of a large peripancreatic fluid collection causing direct serosal autodigestion by pancreatic enzymes. Two weeks following the initial presentation, the peripancreatic fluid collection developed into a mature pancreatic pseudocyst, which was percutaneously drained. To our knowledge, this is the youngest documented pediatric case of colonic necrosis due to severe pancreatitis and the first descriptive pediatric case of a colonic complication due to hyperlipidemia-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:26925282

  7. Information literacy skills of occupational therapy graduates: promoting evidence-based practice in the MOT curriculum.

    PubMed

    Powell, Carol A; Case-Smith, Jane

    2010-10-01

    Are Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT) graduates more successful than BS graduates in accessing and analyzing research literature? This retrospective cohort study used a survey sent to Ohio State University MOT graduates, asking why they need information for their practice, what types of information they seek, and how they search for and use it. Results suggest that the MOT program has fostered higher-level skills than did the BS program in independent writing, a greater focus on evidence-based practice, and the use of bibliographic databases. The MOT graduates report high confidence in their ability to apply research to practice and high satisfaction with the lifelong learning skills they learned. The survey findings support the importance of collaboration between Occupational Therapy faculty and medical librarians in developing MOT educational programs. PMID:21058179

  8. Graduated Driver Licensing

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Allen, Siobhan; Armstrong, Kerry; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Davey, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group. PMID:25364543

  9. Filling the Graduate Student Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winey, Karen I.

    2003-03-01

    As a professor who relies on graduate students to participate in my research program, I work to ensure that the pipeline of graduate students is full. This presentation will discuss a variety of strategies that I have used to advertise the opportunities of graduate school, many of which use existing infrastructure at the University of Pennsylvania. These strategies involve a combination of public speaking, discussion groups, and faculty advising. During these exchanges it's important to both contrast the career opportunities for B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degree holders and outline the financial facts about graduate school. These modest efforts have increased the number of Penn undergraduates pursuing doctorate degrees.

  10. Selling College Graduates to Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Daniel R.; Biehl, Kimberly A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a University of Pittsburgh placement office program to increase placement of graduates with local businesses. To challenge the employment agencies' monopoly on this market, an advertising and direct communications program was launched with continuing good results. (JAC)

  11. Experience with headwear influences the other-race effect in 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Suhrke, Janina; Freitag, Claudia; Lamm, Bettina; Teiser, Johanna; Poloczek, Sonja; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Voehringer, Isabel; Keller, Heidi; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2015-09-01

    The other-race effect (ORE) implies the better recognition of faces of one's own race compared with faces of a different race. It demonstrates that face recognition is shaped by daily experience with human faces. Such experience mainly includes structural information of own-race faces and also information on the way faces are usually seen, as a whole or partly covered by scarves or other headwear. In two experiments, we investigated how this mode of presentation is related to the occurrence of the ORE during childhood. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old German children (N = 104), accustomed to seeing faces without headwear in daily life, were asked to recognize female Caucasian or African faces, presented either as a whole or wearing a woolen hat, in a forced choice paradigm. In Experiment 2, 4-year-olds from rural Cameroon (N = 70), accustomed to seeing faces with and without headwear in daily life, participated in the same task. In both groups, the ORE was present in the familiar mode of presentation, that is, in whole faces in German children and in whole and partly covered faces in Cameroonian children. The results are discussed in relation to the role of experience for face recognition processes. PMID:25935463

  12. Enactment of Third-Party Punishment by 4-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Kenward, Ben; Östh, Therese

    2012-01-01

    When prompted, preschoolers advocate punishment for moral transgressions against third parties, but little is known about whether and how they might act out such punishment. In this study, adult demonstrators enacted doll stories in which a perpetrator child doll made an unprovoked attack on a victim child doll, after which an adult doll punished either the perpetrator (consistent punishment) or victim (inconsistent punishment). When asked to help retell the story, given free choice of their own preferred actions for the adult doll, 4-year-olds (N = 32) were influenced by the demonstrated choice of target when selecting a target for punishment or admonishment. This influence was weak following inconsistent punishment, however, because the participants tended to change the story by punishing or admonishing the perpetrator when the demonstrator had punished the victim. Four-year-olds’ tendency to select a moral rule violator as a target for punishment is therefore stronger than their tendency to copy the specific actions of adults, which itself is known to be very strong. The evidence suggests that 4-year-olds’ enactment of punishment is at least partially based on a belief that antisocial actions deserve to be punished. PMID:23162486

  13. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years.

    PubMed

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children's early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants' responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children's responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children's awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children's DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children's early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  14. A measure of inspection time in 4-year-old children: the Benny Bee IT task.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah E; Turley, Christopher; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R

    2009-09-01

    Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool children. N = 71 4-year-old children completed the new IT task and standardized measures of fluid ability, visuospatial ability, and speed of processing. N = 50 adults completed the same tasks and, additionally, a standard IT task. Results showed that the new IT task is a stable, reliable measure of IT in 4-year-old children. The new task had reasonable concurrent validity with the standard IT task in adults and the relationships between cognitive abilities, particularly general cognitive ability, and IT are sufficiently similar in young children and adults to suggest that the new IT task may be a useful tool for research in populations where IT was previously not measurable. PMID:19994574

  15. A 4-year investigation into phonetic inventory development in young cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Serry, T A; Blamey, P J

    1999-02-01

    Phonetic inventories of 9 children with profoundly impaired hearing who used the 22-electrode cochlear implant (Cochlear Limited) were monitored before implantation and during the first 4 years of implant use. All children were 5 years old or younger at the time of implant. Spontaneous speech samples were collected at regular intervals for each child and analyzed to investigate phone acquisition over the post-implant period. Acquisition was measured using two different criteria. The "targetless" criterion required the child to produce a phonetically recognizable sound spontaneously, and the "target" criterion required the child to produce the phone correctly at least 50% of the time in meaningful words. At 4 years post-implant, 40 out of 44 phones (91 %) had reached the targetless criterion, and 29 phones (66%) had reached the target criterion for 5 or more of the children. Over the time of the study 100% of monophthongs, 63% of diphthongs, and 54% of consonants reached the target criterion. The average time taken for a phone to progress from the targetless to target criterion was 15 months. Overall, the data suggest trends in the order of phone acquisition similar to those of normally hearing children, although the process of acquisition occurred at a slower rate. PMID:10025550

  16. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    PubMed Central

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants’ responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  17. Social context effects in 2- and 4-year-olds' selective versus faithful imitation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-03-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully (overimitate causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a mimicry game, an instrumental game, or a noninteractive control game. They then participated in a puzzle-box imitation task in which the demonstrator performed 1 causally necessary and 1 unnecessary action to retrieve an object. Whereas 4-year-olds imitated faithfully across all conditions, 2-year-olds were more likely to imitate faithfully after a mimicry game and to imitate selectively after an instrumental game. Experiment 2 showed no effect of playing a mimicry game with a different experimenter prior to the imitation trials, thus ruling out 2-year-olds' faithful imitation being the result of motor priming or training effects. The results are discussed in terms of children's social affiliation and social-cognitive inferences. PMID:23978298

  18. The 4 year stability of psychopathic traits in non-referred youth.

    PubMed

    Frick, Paul J; Kimonis, Eva R; Dandreaux, Danielle M; Farell, Jamie M

    2003-01-01

    One significant limitation in research extending the construct of psychopathy to youth has been the absence of longitudinal studies testing the stability of psychopathic traits prior to adulthood. To begin to address this limitation, the current study estimated the stability of psychopathic traits over a 4 year period in a sample of non-referred children in the third, fourth, sixth, and seventh grades at the first assessment. For parent ratings of psychopathic traits, stability estimates using intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.80 to 0.88 across 2-4 years, with a stability estimate of 0.93 across all four assessments. There were also distinct trends in the patterns of stability found in the sample. Specifically, children rated as being initially high on these traits were more likely to be rated lower at later assessments than was the case for children rated initially low on these traits. Finally, the child's level of conduct problems, the socioeconomic status of the child's family, and the quality of parenting the child received were the most consistent predictors of stability of psychopathic traits. PMID:14696028

  19. Three- and 4-year-old children's response tendencies to various interviewers.

    PubMed

    Okanda, Mako; Kanda, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Unlike young preschoolers, older preschoolers may exhibit a response bias under social pressure from authoritative interviewers. To examine this, 3- and 4-year-old preschoolers were asked yes-no questions about familiar and unfamiliar objects in three conditions. In one condition an adult asked them questions in a live interaction, in a second condition an adult asked questions via video, and in a third condition a robot asked questions via video. The 3-year-olds exhibited a yes bias-a tendency to say "yes"-in nearly all conditions. The only exception was when they were asked questions about unfamiliar objects by the human interviewer via video, where they did not respond in a biased manner. The 4-year-olds exhibited a yes bias in only one condition-when they were questioned by a live human interviewer about both objects. They also exhibited a nay-saying bias when asked questions about unfamiliar objects in both video conditions, and they did not show any response bias in other conditions. The results suggest that the social pressure from an authoritative adult in a live interaction is problematic. PMID:23664558

  20. The Graduate School Funding Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, April Vahle

    This guide for prospective graduate students contains information on funding graduate study in the United States and abroad through scholarships, loans, and other programs. The chapters are: (1) "Graduate Degrees, Institutional Financial Aid, and Graduate School Application Tips"; (2) "External Funding"; (3) "Individual Training Fellowships"; (4)…

  1. Assessing Demand for Graduate and Professional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syverson, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    Graduate education is entering an era of market segmentation, varying student demand, and changing requirements from employers, meaning graduate students will assess graduate opportunities differently and institutions will assess programs differently. The traditional view of graduate study as preparation for a research or teaching career and…

  2. 38 CFR 21.4273 - Collegiate graduate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged. (c) Undergraduate or combination. If a graduate student is enrolled in both graduate and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collegiate graduate. 21... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4273 Collegiate graduate. (a) In residence. (1) The Department of Veterans...

  3. 38 CFR 21.4273 - Collegiate graduate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engaged. (c) Undergraduate or combination. If a graduate student is enrolled in both graduate and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collegiate graduate. 21... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4273 Collegiate graduate. (a) In residence. (1) The Department of Veterans...

  4. 38 CFR 21.4273 - Collegiate graduate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engaged. (c) Undergraduate or combination. If a graduate student is enrolled in both graduate and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collegiate graduate. 21... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4273 Collegiate graduate. (a) In residence. (1) The Department of Veterans...

  5. A Graduation Stole Uniquely Designed for Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    In response to student requests, and to help celebrate the graduation of our physics majors, we have designed a graduation stole uniquely befitting physics. The design incorporates the four visible spectral lines of hydrogen--the Balmer series. Since the 2002 debut of the design, all our graduates have proudly worn their physics graduation stoles…

  6. The Way to Win in Graduate School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortada, James W.; Winkler, Vera C.

    Designed to help students who either want to go to American graduate schools or who are already in advanced degree programs, this book was written from the student's point of view. Chapter One on becoming a graduate student discusses motivation, choice of school, preparation for graduate work, graduate programs (the M.A. and PhD.), differences…

  7. Graduate Study in Psychology, 2013 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APA Books, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Graduate Study in Psychology" is the best source of information related to graduate programs in psychology and provides information related to approximately 600 graduate programs in psychology in the U.S. and Canada. "Graduate Study in Psychology" contains information about: (1) number of applications received by a program; (2) number of…

  8. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  9. An Outcomes Study of 40 Years of Graduates of a General Practice Dental Residency.

    PubMed

    Lau, Agnes; Dodson, Thomas B; Sonis, Stephen T; Kaban, Leonard B

    2015-08-01

    Assessing program quality and outcomes is essential to improve postgraduate dental education. This study's aims were to document career direction and practice patterns of graduates of the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) General Practice Residency (GPR), to compare BWH GPR outcomes to those of other American GPRs, and to identify characteristics of the BWH GPR program that trainees valued. This was a retrospective cohort study with a sample comprised of BWH GPR graduates between 1973 and 2013. Outcomes examined included pursuit of specialty training and positions on academic or hospital staff. Data sources were a survey of BWH GPR graduates and published national surveys. Of the 190 BWH graduates (95% of total) who were located and contacted, 133 (70% response rate) completed the survey. Compared to national survey data, BWH GPR graduates were significantly more likely to be specialists, full-time hospital staff, or full-time or part-time dental school faculty. Most BWH graduates (96.2%) ranked the program as outstanding or good. Faculty characteristics were considered by BWH graduates to be the most important factors in judging program quality. Since faculty characteristics were the most important factors in residents' judgment of program quality, GPR programs should recruit, maintain, and develop a quality faculty in order to attract students. PMID:26246526

  10. [Traumatic hip dislocation in children. Case report of a 4 year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guerrero, J I; Olguín-Hernández, F; Cabrera, A

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic hip dislocation with a history of high energy trauma is infrequent in children. The incidence rate in our country has not been determined in the literature. Everything depends on the patient's age group, the type of trauma and the ligament laxity of children. We report herein the case of a 4 year-old girl with this condition and a history of high energy trauma. She was seen at Aragón Pediatric Hospital, SSDF, 8 hours after the injury and received conservative treatment. She has done well so far and has been followed-up monthly for 18 months, without complications. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is the most frequent complication and has irreversible sequelae. After the follow-up period the patient is totally functional and independent. PMID:23320340

  11. Diabetic ketoacidosis in a 9 month old child and the journey to 4 years.

    PubMed

    Chapp-Jumbo, Assumpta Udechi; Ijeoma, Stella

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of diabetes mellitus in a 9-month-old male, a product of a non-consanguinous marriage with no family history of diabetes mellitus. He presented initially with ketoacidosis in our emergency room and recovered from coma after 48 hours but was discharged after 14 days. He is now 4 years old and doing well and caregivers are coping even with the challenges of caring for a very young diabetic child. This article will help to build up the data bank for diabetes in infancy and childhood in our environment as well as highlight the challenges faced by both caregivers and physicians in the management of very young diabetics irrespective of socioeconomic status. PMID:25567469

  12. Acute phenytoin intoxication in a 4-year-old mimicking viral meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Amlin; Sankar, Jhuma; Verma, Ankit; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2013-01-01

    We report here the case of a 4-year-old female preschooler who presented to the emergency department with generalised tonic-clonic convulsions and history of vomiting, irritability and dysarthria of short duration. On examination she was found to be responsive only to painful stimulus, had terminal neck stiffness and bilateral extensor plantars. In view of her clinical presentation, an initial diagnosis of viral meningoencephalitis was made in the emergency room and the child treated accordingly. On subsequent transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU), the parents revealed additional history of an elder sibling taking phenytoin for seizures. Therefore, a suspicion of acute phenytoin toxicity was made and phenytoin levels sent for confirmation. Her serum phenytoin level was 80 μgm/mL (normal: 10–20). The child was managed conservatively and discharged after 5 days of hospitalisation. We chose to report this case to highlight the unusual presentation of this rare intoxication. PMID:23814089

  13. INDIRECT PULP TREATMENT IN A PERMANENT MOLAR: CASE REPORT OF 4-YEAR FOLLOW-UP

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Ticiane Cestari; Barata, Terezinha Jesus Esteves; Prakki, Anuradha; Bresciani, Eduardo; Pereira, José Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes the Indirect Pulp Treatment (IPT) of deep caries lesion in a permanent molar. A 16-year-old male patient reported discomfort associated with thermal stimulation on the permanent mandibular left first molar. The radiographs revealed a deep distal caries lesion, very close to the pulp, absence of radiolucencies in the periapical region, and absence of periodontal space thickening. Pulp sensitivity was confirmed by thermal pulp vitality tests. Based on the main complaint and the clinical and radiographic examinations, the treatment plan was established to preserve pulp vitality. Clinical procedures consisted of removing the infected dentin and lining the caries-affected dentin with calcium hydroxide paste. The tooth was provisionally sealed for approximately 60 days. After this period, tooth vitality was confirmed, the remaining carious dentin was removed, and the tooth was restored. At 4-year follow-up, no clinical or radiographic pathological findings were found. PMID:19148410

  14. [School attendance of children with trisomy 21. A 4-year experiment].

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Roth, M P

    1983-04-28

    Four years ago a class was started with 8 children from 7 to 11 years of age with Down's syndrome. The classroom is in a state school. The children lived at home. They were with the other children of the school for several classes and for lunch. Like other children they learned reading, writing and arithmetic. Psychomotricity was emphasized. The children's I.Q. and behavior were studied before entering the class. After 24 to 30 months every child was able to read and write. Their I.Q.'s were retested after 4 years and the results were far better than previously. The children gained confidence and began to cope very well at school and outside school. PMID:6306812

  15. A Review and Report of Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in a 4-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Nekouei, Afsaneh; Eshghi, Alireza; Jafarnejadi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is a common benign and reactive gingival epulis in oral cavity. It is often difficult to make a clinical diagnosis; thereby definitive diagnosis depends on histopathologic features. We report a case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy presenting with a five-month history a 20 × 15 × 12 mm pedunculated, lobular soft tissue mass of the left anterior maxilla gingiva which was misdiagnosed and maltreated before his referral. An excisional biopsy of the lesion followed by histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen revealed distinctive features of peripheral giant cell granuloma. Early detection and excision of this hyperplastic nodule especially in children are important to minimize potential dentoalveolar complications. PMID:27403351

  16. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications. PMID:24736219

  17. Long-Term Exercise in Older Adults: 4-Year Outcomes of Music-Based Multitask Training

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, François R.; Fielding, Roger A.; Reid, Kieran F.; Rizzoli, René; Trombetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Prospective controlled evidence supporting the efficacy of long-term exercise to prevent physical decline and reduce falls in old age is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the effects of long-term music-based multitask exercise (i.e., Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics) on physical function and fall risk in older adults. A 3-year follow-up extension of a 1-year randomized controlled trial (NCT01107288) was conducted in Geneva (Switzerland), in which 134 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years at increased risk of falls received a 6-month music-based multitask exercise program. Four years following original trial enrolment, 52 subjects (baseline mean ± SD age, 75 ± 8 years) who (i) have maintained exercise program participation through the 4-year follow-up visit (“long-term intervention group”, n = 23) or (ii) have discontinued participation following original trial completion (“control group”, n = 29) were studied. They were reassessed in a blind fashion, using the same procedures as at baseline. At 4 years, linear mixed-effects models showed significant gait (gait speed, P = 0.006) and balance (one-legged stance time, P = 0.015) improvements in the long-term intervention group, compared with the control group. Also, long-term intervention subjects did better on Timed Up & Go, Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand and handgrip strength tests, than controls (P < 0.05, for all comparisons). Furthermore, the exercise program reduced the risk of falling (relative risk, 0.69; 95 % confidence interval, 0.5–0.9; P = 0.008). These findings suggest that long-term maintenance of a music-based multitask exercise program is a promising strategy to prevent age-related physical decline in older adults. They also highlight the efficacy of sustained long-term adherence to exercise for falls prevention. PMID:25148876

  18. Microperimetric Assessment after Epiretinal Membrane Surgery: 4-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Dal Vecchio, Marco; Lavia, Carlo; Nassisi, Marco; Grignolo, Federico M.; Fea, Antonio M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate retinal function using microperimetry in patients affected by idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) and cataract who underwent combined surgery: 4-year follow-up. Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Methods. 30 eyes of 30 consecutive patients with iERM and age-related cataract underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy and cataract surgery. At baseline, 90 and 180 days, and 1 and 4 years, we examined retinal mean sensitivity (MS), retinal mean defect (MD), fixation stability, and frequency of microscotomas using MP1 microperimetry. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were also performed. Results. All patients completed 1-year follow-up, while 23 patients reached last follow-up. Baseline MS and MD (10.48 ± 4.17 and −9.18 ± 4.40 dB) significantly changed at one year (12.33 ± 3.66 and −7.49 ± 3.31 dB, p < 0.01), at four years (14.18 ± 3.46 and −4.66 ± 2.85, p < 0.01), and between one and four years (p < 0.01) after surgery. Compared to baseline, CRT and BCVA significantly changed at one year and remained stable at four years. No variations were observed in fixation stability and frequency of microscotomas compared to baseline. Conclusions. Long-term follow-up using microperimetry seems useful to evaluate patients after iERM surgery: retinal sensitivity changes even when BCVA and CRT remain stable. PMID:27088008

  19. Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues.

    PubMed

    Odlare, M; Pell, M; Svensson, K

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100kgNha(-1)year(-1). The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, microSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, microPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (microPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes. PMID:17697770

  20. Minimum 4-Year Outcomes of Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty Versus Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ai-Min; Xu, Hui; Mullinix, Kenneth Paul; Jin, Hai-Ming; Huang, Zhe-Yu; Lv, Qing-Bo; Wang, Sheng; Xu, Hua-Zi; Chi, Yong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of cervical disc disease is high, and the traditional surgical method of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) carries with it the disadvantages of motion loss at the operated level, and accelerated adjacent level disc degeneration. Preliminary results of the efficacy and reoperative rate comparing TDA versus ACDF have been reported; however, the long-term outcomes of TDA versus ACDF still remain a topic of debate. This review was prepared following the standard procedures set forth by the Cochrane Collaboration organization, and preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). The only studies included were randomized controlled trials with a minimum of 4 years of follow-up data. The meta-analysis included the neck disability index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS) of neck and arm pain, SF-36 physical component scores (SF-36 PCS), over success, neurological success, work status, implant-related complications, and secondary surgery events. Four randomized controlled trials meet the inclusion criteria. The long-term improvement of NDI, VAS of neck and arm pain, SF-36 PCS, over success, and neurological success favored the TDA group. The TDA group also had a lower incidence of secondary surgery for both the index level (RR: 0.45 [0.28, 0.72]) and adjacent level (RR: 0.53 [0.33, 0.88]). In this meta-analysis of 4 included RCTs with a minimum 4 years of follow-ups, total disc arthroplasty showed improvements over ACDF as measured by the NDI, VAS of neck and arm pain, and SF-36 PCS. PMID:25881841

  1. Long-term exercise in older adults: 4-year outcomes of music-based multitask training.

    PubMed

    Hars, Mélany; Herrmann, François R; Fielding, Roger A; Reid, Kieran F; Rizzoli, René; Trombetti, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Prospective controlled evidence supporting the efficacy of long-term exercise to prevent physical decline and reduce falls in old age is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the effects of long-term music-based multitask exercise (i.e., Jaques-Dalcroze eurhythmics) on physical function and fall risk in older adults. A 3-year follow-up extension of a 1-year randomized controlled trial (NCT01107288) was conducted in Geneva (Switzerland), in which 134 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years at increased risk of falls received a 6-month music-based multitask exercise program. Four years following original trial enrolment, 52 subjects (baseline mean ± SD age, 75 ± 8 years) who (i) have maintained exercise program participation through the 4-year follow-up visit ("long-term intervention group", n = 23) or (ii) have discontinued participation following original trial completion ("control group", n = 29) were studied. They were reassessed in a blind fashion, using the same procedures as at baseline. At 4 years, linear mixed-effects models showed significant gait (gait speed, P = 0.006) and balance (one-legged stance time, P = 0.015) improvements in the long-term intervention group, compared with the control group. Also, long-term intervention subjects did better on Timed Up & Go, Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand and handgrip strength tests, than controls (P < 0.05, for all comparisons). Furthermore, the exercise program reduced the risk of falling (relative risk, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.9; P = 0.008). These findings suggest that long-term maintenance of a music-based multitask exercise program is a promising strategy to prevent age-related physical decline in older adults. They also highlight the efficacy of sustained long-term adherence to exercise for falls prevention. PMID:25148876

  2. Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rates for the Graduating Class of 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report details the graduation rates for the class of 2003 for Montana High Schools. Sections include: Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rate Overview, and Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rates, 2002-03 School Year.

  3. Determinants of waterpipe smoking initiation among school children in Irbid, Jordan: a 4-year longitudinal analysis*

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Karma; Attonito, Jennifer; Madhivanan, Purnima; Jaber, Rana; Yi, Qilong; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Objective Guided by the Attitude-Social influence-self Efficacy (ASE) theory, this study identified predictors of waterpipe (WP) smoking initiation in a WP naïve cohort of Jordanian schoolchildren. Methods A school-based cohort of all 7th grade students (N=1,781) in 19 of 60 schools in Irbid, Jordan, was followed from 2008 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to examine predictors of WP initiation among WP-naïve students (N=1,243). Results During the 3-year study, WP initiation was documented in 39% of boys and 28% of girls. Prior cigarette smoking (boys: Odds Ratio 7.41; 95% Confidence Interval 4.05–12.92 and girls: 8.48; 4.34–16.56) and low WP refusal self-efficacy (boys: 26.67; 13.80–51.53 and girls: 11.49; 6.42–20.55) were strongly predictive of initiating WP. Boys were also more likely to initiate WP smoking if they had siblings (2.30; 1.14- 4.64) or teachers (2.07; 1.12–3.84) who smoked and girls if they had friends (2.96; 1.59–5.54) who smoked. Conclusion There is a sizeable incidence of WP initiation among students of both sexes. These findings will help in designing culturally responsive prevention interventions against WP smoking. Gender-specific factors, refusal skills, and cigarette smoking need to be important components of such initiatives. PMID:25060962

  4. Beliefs and Practices of Samoan Teachers: From BEd Cohort Program to Master's Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, William L.; Ropeti, Siamaua; Ino, Lisa Vaivao; Ah-Sue, Denise; Sappa, Faleula Aoelua

    2006-01-01

    Four and a half years have passed since four teachers from Cohort VI in American Samoa graduated from the University of Hawai'i with bachelor of education degrees and with teaching licenses from the state of Hawai'i. This article highlights changes and developments in the beliefs and practices of these four teachers who, in the midst of full time…

  5. Using a Cohort Model for School Counselor Preparation to Enhance Commitment to Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paisley, Pamela O.; Bailey, Deryl F.; Hayes, Richard L.; McMahon, H. George; Grimmett, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a cohort model of school counselor preparation designed to enhance graduate student commitment to social justice. Foundational principles of group work are used as the vehicle for understanding self in context and for integrating the tenets associated with social justice advocacy. Key components related to program mission,…

  6. Exercise frequency and calcium intake predict 4-year bone changes in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cussler, Ellen C; Going, Scott B; Houtkooper, Linda B; Stanford, Vanessa A; Blew, Robert M; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G; Metcalfe, Lauve L; Choi, Ji-Eun; Lohman, Timothy G

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of exercise frequency and calcium intake (CI) with change in regional and total bone mineral density (BMD) in a group of postmenopausal women completing 4 years of progressive strength training. One hundred sixty-seven calcium-supplemented (800 mg/day) sedentary women (56.1+/-4.5 years) randomized to a progressive strength training exercise program or to control were followed for 4 years. Fifty-four percent of the women were using hormone therapy (HT) at baseline. At 1 year, controls were permitted to begin the exercise program (crossovers). The final sample included 23 controls, 55 crossovers, and 89 randomized exercisers. Exercisers were instructed to complete two sets of six to eight repetitions of exercises at 70-80% of one repetition maximum, three times weekly. BMD was measured at baseline and thereafter annually using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Four-year percentage exercise frequency (ExFreq) averaged 26.8%+/-20.1% for crossovers (including the first year at 0%), and 50.4%+/-26.7% for exercisers. Four-year total CI averaged 1,635+/-367 mg/day and supplemental calcium intake, 711+/-174 mg/day. In adjusted multiple linear regression models, ExFreq was positively and significantly related to changes in femur trochanter (FT) and neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS), and total body (TB) BMD. Among HT users, FT BMD increased 1.5%, and FN and LS BMD, 1.2% (p<0.01) for each standard deviation (SD) of percentage ExFreq (29.5% or 0.9 days/week). HT non-users gained 1.9% and 2.3% BMD at FT and FN, respectively, (p<0.05) for every SD of CI. The significant, positive, association between BMD change and ExFreq supports the long-term usefulness of strength training exercise for the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, especially HT users. The positive relationship of CI to change in BMD among postmenopausal women not using HT has clinical implications in light of recent evidence of an increased health risk

  7. Inverse Planned High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Cervical Cancer: 4-Year Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Tinkle, Christopher L.; Weinberg, Vivian; Chen, Lee-May; Littell, Ramey; Cunha, J. Adam M.; Sethi, Rajni A.; Chan, John K.; Hsu, I-Chow

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of image guided brachytherapy using inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From December 2003 through September 2009, 111 patients with primary cervical cancer were treated definitively with IPSA-planned HDRB boost (28 Gy in 4 fractions) after external radiation at our institution. We performed a retrospective review of our experience using image guided brachytherapy. Of the patients, 70% had a tumor size >4 cm, 38% had regional nodal disease, and 15% had clinically evident distant metastasis, including nonregional nodal disease, at the time of diagnosis. Surgical staging involving pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 15% of patients, and 93% received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Toxicities are reported according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 guidelines. Results: With a median follow-up time of 42 months (range, 3-84 months), no acute or late toxicities of grade 4 or higher were observed, and grade 3 toxicities (both acute and late) developed in 8 patients (1 constitutional, 1 hematologic, 2 genitourinary, 4 gastrointestinal). The 4-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of late grade 3 toxicity was 8%. Local recurrence developed in 5 patients (4 to 9 months after HDRB), regional recurrence in 3 (6, 16, and 72 months after HDRB), and locoregional recurrence in 1 (4 months after HDR boost). The 4-year estimates of local, locoregional, and distant control of disease were 94.0%, 91.9%, and 69.1%, respectively. The overall and disease-free survival rates at 4 years were 64.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] of 54%-73%) and 61.0% (95% CI, 51%-70%), respectively. Conclusions: Definitive radiation by use of inverse planned HDRB boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer is well tolerated and achieves excellent local control of disease. However, overall

  8. Occupational Cohort Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores how highly correlated time variables (occupational cohort time scales) contribute to confounding and ambiguity of interpretation. Methods: Occupational cohort time scales were identified and organized through simple equations of three time scales (relational triads) and the connections between these triads (time scale web). The behavior of the time scales was examined when constraints were imposed on variable ranges and interrelationships. Results: Constraints on a time scale in a triad create high correlations between the other two time scales. These correlations combine with the connections between relational triads to produce association paths. High correlation between time scales leads to ambiguity of interpretation. Conclusions: Understanding the properties of occupational cohort time scales, their relational triads, and the time scale web is helpful in understanding the origins of otherwise obscure confounding bias and ambiguity of interpretation. PMID:25647318

  9. Undergraduate Debt and Participation in Graduate Education: The Relationship between Educational Debt and Graduate School Aspirations, Applications, and Attendance among Students with a Pattern of Full-Time, Continuous Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Ruth; And Others

    This study explored the relationship between undergraduate educational loan indebtedness and graduate school aspirations, application, enrollment, and persistence, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of 1972 and from the 1980 and 1982 cohorts of the High School and Beyond study. The analysis was limited to full-time students who did…

  10. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of developing diabetes: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the relation between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the incidence of diabetes among initially healthy participants. Design Prospective cohort study with estimates of relative risk adjusted for sex, age, years of university education, total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, sedentary habits, smoking, family history of diabetes, and personal history of hypertension. Setting Spanish university department. Participants 13 380 Spanish university graduates without diabetes at baseline followed up for a median of 4.4 years. Main outcome measures Dietary habits assessed at baseline with a validated 136 item food frequency questionnaire and scored on a nine point index. New cases of diabetes confirmed through medical reports and an additional detailed questionnaire posted to those who self reported a new diagnosis of diabetes by a doctor during follow-up. Confirmed cases of type 2 diabetes. Results Participants who adhered closely to a Mediterranean diet had a lower risk of diabetes. The incidence rate ratios adjusted for sex and age were 0.41 (95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.87) for those with moderate adherence (score 3-6) and 0.17 (0.04 to 0.75) for those with the highest adherence (score 7-9) compared with those with low adherence (score <3). In the fully adjusted analyses the results were similar. A two point increase in the score was associated with a 35% relative reduction in the risk of diabetes (incidence rate ratio 0.65, 0.44 to 0.95), with a significant inverse linear trend (P=0.04) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes. PMID:18511765

  11. Mathematical learning instruction and teacher motivation factors affecting science technology engineering and math (STEM) major choices in 4-year colleges and universities: Multilevel structural equation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ahlam

    2011-12-01

    Using the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002/06, this study examined the effects of the selected mathematical learning and teacher motivation factors on graduates' science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) related major choices in 4-year colleges and universities, as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, I analyzed: (1) the association between mathematical learning instruction factors (i.e., computer, individual, and lecture-based learning activities in mathematics) and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities as mediated by math performance and math self-efficacy and (2) the association between school factor, teacher motivation and students' STEM major choices in 4-year colleges and universities via mediators of math performance and math self-efficacy. The results revealed that among the selected learning experience factors, computer-based learning activities in math classrooms yielded the most positive effects on math self-efficacy, which significantly predicted the increase in the proportion of students' STEM major choice as mediated by math self-efficacy. Further, when controlling for base-year math Item Response Theory (IRT) scores, a positive relationship between individual-based learning activities in math classrooms and the first follow-up math IRT scores emerged, which related to the high proportion of students' STEM major choices. The results also indicated that individual and lecture-based learning activities in math yielded positive effects on math self-efficacy, which related to STEM major choice. Concerning between-school levels, teacher motivation yielded positive effects on the first follow up math IRT score, when controlling for base year IRT score. The results from this study inform educators, parents, and policy makers on how mathematics instruction can improve student math performance and encourage more students to prepare for STEM careers. Students

  12. Meandering toward Graduation: Transcript Outcomes of High School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Marni; Theokas, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Graduation rates have reached an all-time high and postsecondary enrollment rates are steadily rising in this country. However, thousands of those new college students are testing into remedial reading, writing, or math courses because they don't have the foundation to perform at the levels demanded in college classes. Employers, too, report that…

  13. University Student Information System: Graduating Students (USIS-Graduating).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statistics Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). Education, Science, and Culture Div.

    A description is presented of types of information and codes pertaining to graduation statistics of the University Student Information System (USIS), a data base that provides a Canada-wide system of university enrollment statistics. The information for this system is collected on an individual student basis. In 1974 the USIS enrollment statistics…

  14. Graduate Student and Faculty Perspectives about Graduate School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descutner, Carol J.; Thelen, Mark H.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates how clinical psychology graduate students and faculty at nine universities perceive the student role and student control over the academic environment. Despite high correlation between student and faculty attitudes toward student characteristics needed for success, students rated stress management significantly higher. Suggests that…

  15. Preparing the Senior or Graduating Student for Graduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Bor Luen; Gan, Yunn Hwen

    2005-01-01

    Senior undergraduates in the honors or graduation year with an intention to further their career in science would soon face the real world of scientific research as a junior scientist. It is important to acquaint these students with and adequately prepare them for the key aspects of a scientist's professional life. These include technical…

  16. Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma in a 4-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ghandehari-Motlagh, Mehdi; Khosravi, Zahra; Meighani, Ghasem; Baradaran-Nakhjavani, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is defined as a benign odontogenic tumor with slow growing behavior. Its prevalence is rare. AFO is characterized by histologic features of ameloblastic fibroma (AF) with the formation of enamel and dentine. Case Presentation This is a case report of AFO accompanied with a number of impacted deciduous teeth and its management in a 4-year old boy. Examination of oral cavity revealed an extensive swelling from midline to left deciduous maxillary first molar, covered with normal mucosa. Radiographic examination showed a well-defined mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion that extended horizontally from midline to mesial border of the left maxillary primary first molar and vertically from alveolar crest to the floor of nose. The differential diagnosis was odontoma (ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, complex odontoma). Surgical enucleation and curettage was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathologic sections show bone trabeculae in marrow spaces. There was myxoid matrix in some spaces which contained odontogenic epithelial cells. These findings led to diagnosis of AFO. No sign of recurrence has been observed during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusion Although AFO is a rare tumor, it is more prevalent in childrenʼs jaw. Conservative surgical treatment allowed the normal development of teeth. PMID:27307963

  17. A 4-year study of invasive and native spider populations in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jakob, Elizabeth M.; Porter, Adam H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Bednarski, Julie V.; Houser, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Invasive spiders pose potential threats to native spiders. In 2002, the European spider Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) was discovered in all but one county in Maine. At Acadia National Park, we conducted a 4-year study of L. triangularis and three native linyphiid species of a similar size (Frontinella communis (Hentz, 1850), Pityohyphantes subarcticus Chamberlin and Ivie, 1943, and Neriene radiata (Walckenaer, 1842)). Using line-transect surveys, we measured population densities in coastal and forest habitat. The density of L. triangularis varied across years but was always significantly higher on the coast than in the forest. In contrast, only one native species was present on the coast and at very low numbers. Coastal L. triangularis were larger and in better condition than those in the forest, and numbers and biomass of insect prey were also higher on the coast. In 2 years, we also conducted transects at a second coastal location in Maine where the invader was at low density. At that site, native densities were substantially higher than at either Acadia site. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that L. triangularis is reducing populations of native spiders. Companion studies suggest that L. triangularis negatively impacts natives by usurping both web sites and webs.

  18. Antibiotic Consumption During a 4-year Period in a Community Hospital with an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program

    PubMed Central

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Arias, Ariadna Villanueva; Fernandez, Eliezer Alemán; Guerrero, Yaquelín Batista; Serrano, Ramon N. Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to evaluate the trend of antibiotic consumption in patients admitted to a community hospital in Qatar with an antimicrobial stewardship program. Methods This observational study was carried out in a 75-bed facility in Western Qatar over a 4-year period (2012–2015). The monitoring of antimicrobial consumption from inpatient wards was performed from the pharmacy records and presented as defined daily dose (DDD) divided by the patient days and expressed as 100 bed-days (DBD). Results The consumption of antimicrobials in 2012 was 171.3 DBD, and increased to 252.7 DBD in 2013, 229.1 DBD in 2014, and 184.7 DBD in 2015. Cephalosporins use reduced from 98.2 DBD in 2013 to 51.5 DBD in 2015 while the consumption of penicillins increased during the beginning of 2014 with a slight decrease in 2015. Carbapenems consumption during 2014–2015 was lower than previous years, and vice-versa for aminoglycosides. Fluoroquinolones had a sustained increase with 37.1% increased consumption in 2015 compared to the two previous years. There was an increase in the use of intravenous (IV) (108.5%) and oral azithromycin (55.1%) and the use of oral (152.8%) and IV moxifloxacin (22.9%). Conclusions We observed a decrease in antibiotic use in patients admitted to a community hospital with an antimicrobial stewardship program, but the increase in fluoroquinolones consumption is a concern that requires focused strategies. PMID:27602189

  19. Compensatory orthodontic treatment for maxillary deficiency: a 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Giordani Santos; de Gauw, Johnny Holanda; Motta, Alexandre Trindade; Mucha, José Nelson

    2014-08-01

    In this article, we report the orthodontic treatment of a boy (age 12 years 9 months) who had a midface deficiency, a concave facial profile with maxillary retrusion, a complete crossbite (anterior and posterior), and the maxillary right canine retained in the alveolus. Rapid maxillary expansion was performed followed by complete orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances combined with Class III elastics and anterior vertical elastics. Time was allowed to elapse until growth was virtually over before removing the fixed appliances (at age 18 years 4 months), and no retainer of any type was used. As a result of treatment, significant improvement was noted in his facial appearance, with a proper maxillomandibular relationship, total correction of the maxillary atresia, and satisfactory overjet and overbite. The results remained stable at the 4-year follow-up. Therefore, it can be argued that the use of Class III elastics combined with rapid maxillary expansion has a beneficial effect in the treatment of transverse and sagittal maxillary deficiency in growing patients. Excellence in how the treatment was finished and discontinuation of treatment and control in the final stages of growth contributed to the stability of the final results. PMID:25085306

  20. Performance of the SCUBA-2 dry dilution refrigerator: 4 years of operation at the JCMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bintley, Dan; Kuroda, John T.; Starman, Erik G.; Craig, Simon; Holland, Wayne S.

    2012-09-01

    Cryogen free or ‘dry’ dilution refrigerators that integrate a cryocooler such as a two stage pulse tube to replace the conventional liquid helium bath and 1K pot, have become a practical alternative for cooling astronomical detectors to mK temperatures and offer many advantages. SCUBA-2, the new submillimetre camera in operation at the JCMT, on the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, was one of the first instruments to use such a fridge design. The dry dilution fridge for SCUBA-2 has now been in service for almost 4 years during commissioning at JCMT. In the most recent astronomical commissioning phase, the dilution fridge was in continuous operation for 10 months with no loss of base temperature or cooling power, cooling the SCUBA-2 detector arrays to below 100mK while maintaining a further 100Kg of enclosure, shields and SQUID amplifiers at 1K. In this paper we review some of the lessons from operating a dry dilution fridge at the JCMT and the necessary changes that have been incorporated. We present the performance of the fridge and discus its role in ensuring the success of SCUBA-2.

  1. Children's Spatial Representations: 3- and 4-Year-Olds are Affected by Irrelevant Peripheral References.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Markus; Jahn, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Children as young as 3 years can remember an object's location within an arrangement and can retrieve it from a novel viewpoint (Nardini et al., 2006). However, this ability is impaired if the arrangement is rotated to compensate for the novel viewpoint, or, if the arrangement is rotated and children stand still. There are two dominant explanations for this phenomenon: self-motion induces an automatic spatial updating process which is beneficial if children move around the arrangement, but misleading if the children's movement is matched by the arrangement and not activated if children stand still and only the arrangement is moved (see spatial updating; Simons and Wang, 1998). Another explanation concerns reference frames: spatial representations might depend on peripheral spatial relations concerning the surrounding room instead on proximal relations within the arrangement, even if these proximal relations are sufficient or more informative. To evaluate these possibilities, we rotated children (N = 120) aged between 3 and 6 years with an occluded arrangement. When the arrangement was in misalignment to the surrounding room, 3- and 4-year-olds' spatial memory was impaired and 5-year-olds' was lightly impaired suggesting that they relied on peripheral references of the surrounding room for retrieval. In contrast, 6-years-olds' spatial representation seemed robust against misalignment indicating a successful integration of spatial representations. PMID:26617537

  2. Unexpected Leiomyosarcoma 4 Years after Laparoscopic Removal of the Uterus Using Morcellation.

    PubMed

    Prins, J R; Van Oven, M W; Helder-Woolderink, J M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic hysterectomies are increasingly popular; a morcellation device is often used. Although there are some clear benefits, morcellation of tissue does have potential risks. Case Presentation. In this case report we present a 55-year-old woman with an abdominal tumour 4 years after a laparoscopic hysterectomy using a morcellation device. Postoperative histological analysis, compromised by morcellated tissue, showed benign myoma. Because of the benign tumour no follow-up was performed. The patient presented now with an abdominal tumour, and she was scheduled for surgical removal of the tumour. During abdominal surgery the tumour appeared malignant and biopsies were taken. Histological analysis showed leiomyosarcoma, and the patient was referred to a third care centre for further treatment. The patient recovered quickly after abdominal removal of the tumour; however, after 7 months the patient had complaints and a CT scan showed a large intra-abdominal tumour with possible lung metastasis. The patient received palliative chemotherapy and died after 10 months. Conclusion. This case shows that although unexpected after a hysterectomy, a leiomyosarcoma has to be considered in case of a suspect tumour in the lower abdomen. PMID:26491585

  3. The effects of a 4-year program promoting bicycle helmet use among children in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Farley, C; Haddad, S; Brown, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study assessed the effectiveness of a 4-year program of bicycle helmet promotion that targeted elementary school children in one region of Quebec. The program revolved primarily around persuasive communication and community organization, combining standard educational activities and activities to facilitate helmet acquisition and use. METHODS. Helmet use was compared between more than 8000 young cyclists in municipalities exposed or not exposed to the program. Factors influencing helmet use were controlled through the use of multivariate analyses. RESULTS. Helmet use increased from 1.3% before program implementation to 33% in 1993. The program was clearly effective in most cycling circumstances and for various groups of children. However, the benefits of the program were unequally distributed; the program was one third as effective in poorer municipalities as in "average-rich" ones. CONCLUSIONS. This community-based program that combined various types of activities appeared to be effective. New intervention models are needed to ensure an equitable distribution of benefits. PMID:8561241

  4. Value of PCR in surgically treated patients with staphylococcal infective endocarditis: a 4-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zaloudíková, B; Němcová, E; Pol, J; Sorm, Z; Wurmová, S; Novotná, K; Vaněrková, M; Holá, V; Růžička, F; Dušek, L; Němec, P; Freiberger, T

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to establish a diagnostic value for broad-range polymerase chain reaction (br-PCR) and staphylococci-specific multiplex PCR (ssm-PCR) performed on surgical material from patients with staphylococcal infective endocarditis (IE). Data were analysed retrospectively from 60 patients with suspected staphylococcal IE and 59 controls who were surgically treated at three cardiosurgery centres over 4 years. Both PCR tests showed high agreement and could be aggregated. In patients with definite and rejected IE, the clinical sensitivity and specificity of PCR reached 89 and 95%, respectively. Tissue culture (TC) and PCR agreed with blood culture (BC) in 29% and 67% of IE cases. TC helped to determine aetiology in five BC negative cases while PCR aided in nine cases. Out of 52 patients with conclusive staphylococcal IE, 40 were diagnosed with S. aureus and 12 with coagulase-negative staphylococci. PCR was shown to be highly superior to TC in confirming preoperative diagnosis of IE. In addition to aid in culture negative patients, PCR helped to establish or refine aetiology in inconclusive cases. We suggest that simultaneous br-PCR and ssm-PCR performed on surgical material together with histopathology could significantly increase the performance of current Duke criteria. PMID:21964590

  5. Visual access trumps gender in 3- and 4-year-old children's endorsement of testimony.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Nathalie; Bernard, Stéphane; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have investigated how preschoolers weigh social cues against epistemic cues when taking testimony into account. For instance, one study showed that 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of an informant who had the same gender as the children; by contrast, when the gender cue conflicted with an epistemic cue-past reliability-the latter trumped the former. None of the previous studies, however, has shown that 3-year-olds can prioritize an epistemic cue over a social cue. In Experiment 1, we offer the first demonstration that 3-year-olds favor testimony from a same-gender informant in the absence of other cues. In Experiments 2 and 3, an epistemic cue-visual access-was introduced. In those experiments, 3- and 4-year-olds endorsed the testimony of the informant with visual access regardless of whether it was a same-gender informant (Experiment 3) or a different-gender informant (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that 3-year-olds are able to give more weight to an epistemic cue than to a social cue when evaluating testimony. PMID:26925718

  6. Effect of Retention in First Grade on Children’s Achievement Trajectories Over 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the relatively short-term and longer term effects of grade retention in 1st grade on the growth of mathematics and reading achievement over 4 years. The authors initially identified a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children who were below the median in literacy at school entrance. From this sample, the authors closely matched 1 retained with 1 promoted child (n = 97 pairs) on the basis of propensity scores constructed from 72 background variables and compared growth of retained and promoted children using Rasch-modeled W scores and grade standard scores, which facilitate age-based and grade-based comparisons, respectively. When using W scores, retained children experienced a slower increase in both mathematics and reading achievement in the short term but a faster increase in reading achievement in the longer term than did the promoted children. When using grade standard scores, retained children experienced a faster increase in the short term but a faster decrease in the longer term in both mathematics and reading achievement than did promoted children. Some of the retention effects were moderated by limited English language proficiency, home-school relationship, and children’s externalizing problems. PMID:19337582

  7. MSW Students' Perspectives on Social Work Goals and Social Activism before and after Completing Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizrahi, Terry; Dodd, Sarah-Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes perspectives on the goals of the social work profession and social activism of a cohort of MSW students before and after attending their graduate program. This study provides insights into the question about whether and how preexisting values, experiences, and background characteristics affect beginning and ending…

  8. Examination Phase of the Master's Thesis: A Plausible Cause of Delayed Completion of Graduate Studies at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oonyu, Joseph C.; Wamala, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the examination stage of student theses on the completion time of graduate studies at Makerere University, Uganda. The assessment is based on the administrative data of 504 Master's degree students in the 2000 to 2008 enrollment cohorts at the School of Education, Makerere University. The total elapsed time…

  9. Impact of the Complete College Tennessee Act's Retention and Graduation Benchmarks on Budget Appropriations at Tennessee State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sedric D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the Tennessee State University (TSU) fall 2005 Freshmen Cohort (N = 1205) based on the variables of race, gender, persistence, retention and graduation, as well as to examine the impact of the newly implemented Complete College Tennessee Act's (CCTA) funding formula component on the university's budget…

  10. Physical Activity during Pregnancy and Offspring Neurodevelopment and IQ in the First 4 Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Marlos R.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Santos, Iná S.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal physical activity during pregnancy could alter offspring's IQ and neurodevelopment in childhood. Methods Children belonging to a birth cohort were followed at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age. Physical activity during pregnancy was assessed retrospectively at birth. Neurodevelopment was evaluated by Battelle's Development Inventory (12, 24 and 48 months) and IQ by the Weschler's Intelligence Scale (48 months). Neurodevelopment was based on Battelles' (90th percentile) and also analyzed as a continuous outcome. IQ was analyzed as a continuous outcome. Potential confounders were: family income, mother's age, schooling, skin color, number of previous births and smoking; and newborns': preterm birth, sex and low birth weight. Results From birth to 48 months, sample size decreased from 4231 to 3792. Crude analysis showed that IQ at 48 months was slightly higher (5 points) among children from active women. The Battelle's score at 12 and 24 months was higher among offspring from active mothers. After controlling for confounders, physical activity during pregnancy was positively associated to the Battelle's Inventory at 12 months IQ, however, at 48 months no association was observed. Conclusion Physical activity during pregnancy does not seem to impair children's neurodevelopment and children from active mothers presented better performance at 12 months. PMID:25350666

  11. Weight gain and reduced energy expenditure in low-income Brazilian women living in slums: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Florêncio, Telma M M T; Bueno, Nassib B; Clemente, Ana P G; Albuquerque, Fabiana C A; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Sawaya, Ana L

    2015-08-14

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible changes in anthropometric and biochemical parameters in low-income women living in the outskirts of Maceió (northeast Brazil), and to explore the possible role of dietary intake and physical activity in these changes. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a cohort of mothers of malnourished children who attended the Center for Nutritional Recovery and Education, an outreach programme of the Federal University of Alagoas. Socio-economic, anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were assessed at baseline and after a follow-up period of 4 years. Energy expenditure (using doubly labelled water) and physical activity (using triaxial accelerometers) were assessed only in a subgroup of women after 4 years. A total of eighty-five women were assessed. Participants showed an altered biochemical profile, increased systolic blood pressure, decreased thyroid hormone levels, and body-weight gain. However, dietary intakes of the participants did not include large quantities of highly processed and high-glycaemic index foods. The energy intake of the participants did not differ from their total energy expenditure (7990.3 (7173.7-8806.8) v. 8798.1 (8169.0-9432.4) kJ, respectively; P= 0.084). Multivariate analyses showed a significant effect of time spent watching television (β = 0.639 (0.003 to 1.275); P= 0.048) and dietary diversity score (β = -1.039 ( -2.010 to -0.067); P = 0.036) on weight gain. The present study indicates that poor women, who are mothers of malnourished children and have a reasonably balanced dietary intake, exhibit weight gain and are at risk of developing chronic diseases. PMID:26123236

  12. Reduced Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 4 Years after Bivalent HPV Vaccination in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Rolando; Quint, Wim; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula; Struijk, Linda; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Wacholder, Sholom; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly with type 16, causes a growing fraction of oropharyngeal cancers, whose incidence is increasing, mainly in developed countries. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted to investigate vaccine efficacy (VE) of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against cervical infections and lesions, we estimated VE against prevalent oral HPV infections 4 years after vaccination. Methods and Findings A total of 7,466 women 18–25 years old were randomized (1∶1) to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. At the final blinded 4-year study visit, 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women) to evaluate VE against oral infections. Our primary analysis evaluated prevalent oral HPV infection among all vaccinated women with oral and cervical HPV results. Corresponding VE against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection was calculated for comparison. Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%). Approximately four years after vaccination, there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI = 63% to 100%). Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection for the same cohort at the same visit was 72·0% (95% CI = 63% to 79%) (p versus oral VE = 0·04). There was no statistically significant protection against other oral HPV infections, though power was limited for these analyses. Conclusions HPV prevalence four years after vaccination with the ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine was much lower among women in the vaccine arm compared to the control arm, suggesting that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov, Registry number NCT00128661 PMID:23873171

  13. Analysis of graduates' perceptions of an accelerated bachelor of science program in nursing.

    PubMed

    Kemsley, Martha; McCausland, Linda; Feigenbaum, Janice; Riegle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Rapid expansion of second-degree programs as one approach to addressing the nursing shortage by increasing the number of graduates in shorter periods of time prompted the need for program evaluation to identify the outcomes, strengths, and best practices of these programs. This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods of inquiry to analyze the responses of 28 of 56 recent graduates of an accelerated baccalaureate program. Respondents rated components of the program from preadmission to graduation on a Likert scale and responded to open-ended questions regarding strengths and weaknesses of the program. Analysis included descriptive statistics for quantitative data and content analysis for qualitative data. The analysis showed a high degree of similarity between the quantitative and qualitative data. Highly rated program components, that is, opportunity for graduate course work and integration with graduate students, clinical skill practice and experiences, variety of teaching methodologies, peer and faculty support, were reflected in the themes of cohort bonding, variety of clinical experiences, and supportive faculty and staff. Outcomes of program satisfaction, National Council Licensure Examination pass rates, successful nursing employment, and graduate school attendance were supported by the data. PMID:21272836

  14. Caries experience in the primary dentition and presence of plaque in 7-year-old Chinese children: A 4-year time-lag study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xuan; Fan, Mingwen; Mulder, Jan; Frencken, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dental caries prevalence and caries experience in primary dentitions has increased over 4 years and to compare the presence of plaque on permanent teeth in child cohorts over 4 years. Materials and Methods: A time-lag study design was used comprising two cohorts of children aged 7 years from the same five primary schools in Wuhan examined in 2007 and 2011. Two calibrated examiners visually assessed plaque accumulation according to the Greene and Vermillion Index and the dentitions according to the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) caries criteria. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), logistic regression, and Chi-square test were used to test for differences between dependent and independent variables. Results: The 2007 sample consisted of 817 children and the 2011 sample consisted of 1010 children. The prevalence of dental caries (d3mft) was 68.2% in 2007 and 67.7% in 2011, while that of d2mft was 78.5% in 2007 and 71.4% in 2011 (P < 0.0006). The mean d3mft score was 2.8 in 2007 and 3.1 in 2011 (P = 0.046), while the mean d3mfs score was 4.9 in 2007 and 7.3 in 2011 (P < 0.0001). The d3-component of the d3mft index was 73% in 2007 and 69% in 2011, while the f-component was 22% in 2007 and 26% in 2011. The hypothesis was not accepted. The proportion of children with plaque code 3 (extensive coverage) was higher in 2011 (21.8%) than in age mates in 2007 (5.7%). Conclusions: There were no obvious signs that dental caries prevalence had been increased in primary dentitions of this child population between 2007 and 2011. But as the mean caries experience scores at the surface level were higher in 2011 than in 2007, monitoring caries prevalence remains essential, but should start at an earlier age than that covered by this study. Health and educational authorities should collaborate in setting up programs aimed at ensuring good oral health for school children. PMID:26236680

  15. Higher Education, Graduate Skills and the Skills of Graduates: The Case of Graduates as Residential Sales Estate Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tholen, Gerbrand; Relly, Susan James; Warhurst, Chris; Commander, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The UK labour market is subject to significant graduatisation. Yet in the context of an over-supply of graduates, little is known about the "demand" for and "deployment" of graduate skills in previously non-graduate jobs. Moreover, there is little examination of where these skills are developed, save an assumption in higher…

  16. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  17. Science Graduation Requirements. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics (Table 153), there are almost as many states that require a minimum of 2 credits of science for graduation (22) as there are those that require 3 credits (21). According to the "2000 High School Transcript Study," between 1990 and 2000, not only did the average number of science credits…

  18. Nontraditional Student Graduation Rate Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    The prominence of discourse on postsecondary degree completion, student persistence, and retention has increased in the national dialogue. Heightened attention to college completion rates by the federal government and pressure to tie state funding to performance metrics associated with graduation rates are catalysts for the discussion.…

  19. 1997 Graduate Student Researchers Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1980, NASA initiated the Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP) to cultivate additional research ties to the academic community and to support a culturally diverse group of students pursuing advanced degrees in science and engineering. Eligibility requirements for this program are described, and program administrators are listed. Research areas are detailed for NASA Headquarters and all Research and Flight Centers.

  20. Graduate Studies in Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities Council on Water Resources.

    This brochure is the third edition of a publication designed to give brief information about educational opportunities in the United States for graduate studies in water resources. The 65 universities listed from 42 states are all members of the Universities Council on Water Resources. For each university, a brief description of the program is…

  1. Admission Conditions and Graduates' Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando; Portela, Miguel; Sa, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In a context of increasing competition for students, admission conditions have been used as an instrument in a strategy of differentiation. Such a strategy is guided by short-run concerns, that is, the immediate need to attract more students. This article takes a longer term view, by examining graduates' employability. The authors find that…

  2. Advisement and Graduation Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Harold; And Others

    This descriptive report outlines Miami-Dade Community College's Advisement and Graduate Information System (AGIS) which, as an on-line computer aid for counseling staff, monitors students' progress in degree attainment. The need for AGIS is discussed first, in terms of: (1) the college's commitment to providing students with adequate information…

  3. Improving Measurement for Graduate Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Mary K.; Rock, Donald A.; Bennett, Randy Elliot

    1998-01-01

    Examined alternative-item types and section configurations for improving the discriminant and convergent validity of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) general test using a computer-based test given to 388 examinees who had taken the GRE previously. Adding new variations of logical meaning appeared to decrease discriminant validity. (SLD)

  4. Proportional Hazards Models of Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimka, Justin R.; Reed-Rhoads, Teri; Barker, Kash

    2008-01-01

    Survival analysis is a statistical tool used to describe the duration between events. Many processes in medical research, engineering, and economics can be described using survival analysis techniques. This research involves studying engineering college student graduation using Cox proportional hazards models. Among male students with American…

  5. The T-Shaped Graduate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    As President Obama said in advance remarks about the American Graduation Initiative: "[T]he hard truth is that some of the jobs that have been lost in the auto industry and elsewhere won't be coming back. And that only underscores the importance of generating new businesses and industries to replace the ones we've lost, and of preparing our…

  6. GRADUATE ENGINEERING EDUCATION VIA TELEVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORSMAN, MARION E.

    THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING INSTALLED IN 1964 A CLOSED CIRCUIT TV NETWORK INTERLOCKING GAINESVILLE, DAYTONA BEACH, ORLANDO, AND PORT CANAVERAL TO PROVIDE GRADUATE ENGINEERING EDUCATION TO A GREATER NUMBER OF STUDENTS, MAINLY EMPLOYEES OF INDUSTRIES. CENTERS ARE CONNECTED THROUGH INTERCITY MICROWAVE CIRCUITS, EACH CIRCUIT…

  7. Graduate Global Public Health Education: Activities and Outcomes in Relation to Student Prior Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Suzanne F.; Cole, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    The Dalla Lana School of Public Health uses an “add-on” or concentration model of global health education. Records of masters’ graduate cohorts across five disciplinary fields from 2006 to 2009 were classified as to prior experience at application and completion of global health concentration requirements. Alumni from the first two cohorts (2006-08 and 2007-09) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Prior experience was not linked consistently with the number of elective courses, location of practica or completion of requirements. Successful completion of the global health requirements depended more on the student’s base disciplinary program. Interviewed alumni with medium prior experience reported greater satisfaction with the concentration. Alumni with lower prior experience wanted more courses and support with practica. The pros and cons of a concentration model of global public health graduate education are discussed. PMID:23618475

  8. NSF Analyzes Federal Aid for Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes the number of graduate science students on federally supported fellowships and traineeships between 1967 and 1973. Presents enrollment trends of graduate science and engineering students for the same period. (GS)

  9. High School and Beyond. Financial Aid Supplement (Senior Cohort). [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Education Statistics (ED/OERI), Washington, DC.

    Supplementary data on college student financial aid recipients for academic years 1980-81 through 1983-84 are presented for a sample of the 1980 Senior Cohort of the High School and Beyond (HSB) Study, which had been out of high school 4 years by 1984. This Financial Aid supplement contains seven data files: (1) the Student Sample File--containing…

  10. Reductions in Serum Lipids with a 4-year Decline in Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Fitz-Simon, Nicola; Fletcher, Tony; Luster, Michael I.; Steenland, Kyle; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Armstrong, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have found positive associations between serum concentrations of lipids and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8). A longitudinal study should be less susceptible to biases from uncontrolled confounding or reverse causality. Methods We investigated the association between within-individual changes in serum PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and changes in serum lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides) over a 4.4-year period. The study population consisted of 560 adults living in parts of Ohio and West Virginia where public drinking water had been contaminated with PFOA. They had participated in a cross-sectional study in 2005–2006, and were followed up in 2010, by which time exposure to PFOA had been substantially reduced. Results Overall serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS fell by half from initial geometric means of 74.8 and 18.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little corresponding change in LDL cholesterol (mean increase 1.8%, standard deviation 26.6%). However, there was a tendency for people with greater declines in serum PFOA or PFOS to have greater LDL decrease. For a person whose serum PFOA fell by half, the predicted fall in LDL cholesterol was 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 1.5–5.7%). The association with a decline in PFOS was even stronger, with a 5% decrease in LDL (2.5–7.4%). Conclusions Our findings from this longitudinal study support previous evidence from cross-sectional studies of positive associations between PFOA and PFOS in serum and LDL cholesterol. PMID:23685825

  11. Somatosensory Evoked Field in Response to Visuotactile Stimulation in 3- to 4-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Remijn, Gerard B.; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Ueno, Sanae; Yoshimura, Yuko; Nagao, Kikuko; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Kojima, Haruyuki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    A child-customized magnetoencephalography system was used to investigate somatosensory evoked field (SEF) in 3- to 4-year-old children. Three stimulus conditions were used in which the children received tactile-only stimulation to their left index finger or visuotactile stimulation. In the two visuotactile conditions, the children received tactile stimulation to their finger while they watched a video of tactile stimulation applied either to someone else’s finger (the finger-touch condition) or to someone else’s toe (the toe-touch condition). The latencies and source strengths of equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) over contralateral (right) somatosensory cortex were analyzed. In the preschoolers who provided valid ECDs, the stimulus conditions induced an early-latency ECD occurring between 60 and 68 ms mainly with an anterior direction. We further identified a middle-latency ECD between 97 and 104 ms, which predominantly had a posterior direction. Finally, initial evidence was found for a late-latency ECD at about 139–151 ms again more often with an anterior direction. Differences were found in the source strengths of the middle-latency ECDs among the stimulus conditions. For the paired comparisons that could be formed, ECD source strength was more pronounced in the finger-touch condition than in the tactile-only and the toe-touch conditions. Although more research is necessary to expand the data set, this suggests that visual information modulated preschool SEF. The finding that ECD source strength was higher when seen and felt touch occurred to the same body part, as compared to a different body part, might further indicate that connectivity between visual and tactile information is indexed in preschool somatosensory cortical activity, already in a somatotopic way. PMID:24715860

  12. Dietary fat types and 4-year cognitive change in community-dwelling older women

    PubMed Central

    Okereke, Olivia I.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kim, Dae H.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Grodstein, Francine

    2012-01-01

    Objective To relate dietary fat types to cognitive change in healthy community-based elders. Methods Among 6,183 older participants in the Women’s Health Study, we related intake of major fatty acids (FAs) (saturated [SFA], mono-unsaturated [MUFA], total poly-unsaturated [PUFA], trans-unsaturated) to late-life cognitive trajectory. Serial cognitive testing, conducted over 4 years, began 5 years post-dietary assessment. Primary outcomes were global cognition (averaging tests of general cognition, verbal memory and semantic fluency) and verbal memory (averaging tests of recall). We used analyses of response profiles and logistic regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted differences in cognitive trajectory and risk of worst cognitive change (worst 10%) by fat intake. Results Higher SFA intake was associated with worse global cognitive (p-linear-trend=0.008) and verbal memory (p-linear-trend=0.01) trajectories. There was a higher risk of worst cognitive change, comparing highest vs. lowest SFA quintiles: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) was 1.64 (1.04,2.58) for global cognition and 1.65 (1.04,2.61) for verbal memory. By contrast, higher MUFA intake was related to better global cognitive (p-linear-trend<0.001) and verbal memory (p-linear-trend=0.009) trajectories, and lower OR (95% CI) of worst cognitive change in global cognition (0.52 [0.31,0.88]) and verbal memory (0.56 [0.34,0.94]). Total fat, PUFA, and trans fat intakes were not associated with cognitive trajectory. Interpretation Higher SFA intake was associated with worse global cognitive and verbal memory trajectories, while higher MUFA intake was related to better trajectories. Thus, different consumption levels of the major specific fat types, rather than total fat intake itself, appeared to influence cognitive aging. PMID:22605573

  13. False belief understanding and "cool" inhibitory control in 3-and 4-years-old Italian children.

    PubMed

    Bellagamba, Francesca; Addessi, Elsa; Focaroli, Valentina; Pecora, Giulia; Maggiorelli, Valentina; Pace, Beatrice; Paglieri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    During preschool years, major developments occur in both executive function and theory of mind (ToM), and several studies have demonstrated a correlation between these processes. Research on the development of inhibitory control (IC) has distinguished between more cognitive, "cool" aspects of self-control, measured by conflict tasks, that require inhibiting an habitual response to generate an arbitrary one, and "hot," affective aspects, such as affective decision making, measured by delay tasks, that require inhibition of a prepotent response. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between 3- and 4-year-olds' performance on a task measuring false belief understanding, the most widely used index of ToM in preschoolers, and three tasks measuring cognitive versus affective aspects of IC. To this end, we tested 101 Italian preschool children in four tasks: (a) the Unexpected Content False Belief task, (b) the Conflict task (a simplified version of the Day-Night Stroop task), (c) the Delay task, and (d) the Delay Choice task. Children's receptive vocabulary was assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test. Children's performance in the False Belief task was significantly related only to performance in the Conflict task, controlling for vocabulary and age. Importantly, children's performance in the Conflict task did not significantly correlate with their performance in the Delay task or in the Delay Choice task, suggesting that these tasks measure different components of IC. The dissociation between the Conflict and the Delay tasks may indicate that monitoring and regulating a cool process (as flexible categorization) may involve different abilities than monitoring and regulating a hot process (not touching an available and highly attractive stimulus or choosing between a smaller immediate option and a larger delayed one). Moreover, our findings support the view that "cool" aspects of IC and ToM are interrelated, extending to an Italian sample of

  14. Effects of explicit teacher-implemented phoneme awareness instruction in 4-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Ann A; Osterhouse, Heather; Wickham, Katherine; Mcnutt, Robert; Shao, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gains would be observed in an integrated group of 4-year-olds when phoneme awareness skills were explicitly taught by trained early childhood educators. In a quasi-experimental design with a delayed treatment approach, one classroom (N = 14) was randomly assigned to receive the instructional program in fall, while a second classroom (N = 10) served as a control and subsequently received the program in spring. Baseline assessment of speech and language skills indicated there were four participants with speech and/or language impairments. The teacher training involved an initial workshop and weekly hour-long mentoring meetings; the program was provided for 20 min a day, 4 d a week, for 10 weeks. Outcome measures of phoneme awareness and letter knowledge skills were obtained from non-standardized tasks administered pre-instruction and post-instruction, at mid-year and end-year points. When each classroom received the phoneme instruction, participants made gains in letter knowledge and phoneme level skills in comparison with group performance under regular instruction. These gains were statistically significant for phoneme blending and letter knowledge. Using an aggregate of all outcome measures, the gain for each classroom when under instruction was statistically significant as compared with when that same classroom was receiving the regular curriculum. Children with speech and/or language impairment responded more variably. Gains in the more difficult phoneme awareness skill of blending suggest the potential for marked change with an intensive, explicit classroom instruction and hold promise for SLPs collaborating with preschool teachers to provide time-efficient PA instruction. PMID:25000374

  15. Drinking Consequences and Subsequent Drinking in College Students Over 4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Julia A.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Wood, Phillip K.

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence that college student drinkers may continue drinking in the face of adverse consequences. We examined 2 hypotheses: (a) that this seemingly pathological behavior is a phenomenon of university life, occurring with consistency throughout the entirety of college, and (b) that individuals accumulate these consequences over multiple semesters in college. A sample of 3,720 students from a large Midwestern university was asked to complete surveys the summer before college and every semester thereafter for 4 years. Results showed that certain drinking-related consequences (e.g., blackouts, regretted sexual experiences) consistently predicted continued frequent heavy drinking in the following semester, even after controlling for sex, race, age, and previous-semester frequent heavy drinking (range of odds ratio = 1.17 to 1.45 across semesters, p < .01). Such potent consequences may predict subsequent drinking for a number of possible reasons that may be examined and addressed as they would pertain to specific protective behavioral strategy-related and cognitive interventions. Furthermore, consequences were accumulated over multiple semesters by notable proportions of students. For example, 13.8% of students reported blacking out 5 time-points or more—describing a full half or more of their college careers. Experimental studies which aim to modify students’ perceptions of norms associated with these consequences may aid in developing interventions to reduce the burden of harm to students. In the broader context, and given the prevalence of students’ accumulation of consequences, future study might aim to determine how and in what ways these findings describe either pathological or normative processes. PMID:25528051

  16. Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia terminology in practice: 4-year experience at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sarah E; Hecht, Jonathan L

    2012-03-01

    An alternative WHO classification system for endometrial precancers and hyperplasia separates a lesion called endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) from diffuse hormonal effects and cancer, resulting in a 3-category system. EIN is a localized lesion with objective histologic criteria, characterized by monoclonal growth of mutated cells, and associated with a 45-fold elevated cancer risk. This study summarizes our department's experience with EIN diagnoses in the 4 years since conversion to the new terminology. We identified all reports from endometrial samples diagnosed as EIN or including the terms "gland crowding" or "atypia" since conversion and obtained follow-up information from subsequent pathology specimens or clinic notes (82%). The diagnoses were reported by a mixture of pathologists, the majority of whom are not subspecialized to gynecologic pathology and the slides were not reviewed. Overall, 17.1% of women with EIN had carcinoma and 34.9% had either carcinoma or persistent EIN. The proportion of women with EIN or cancer on follow-up did not trend with years since adoption of EIN terminology. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 55 years in an overall population of women who underwent sampling at a median age of 47 years. The median follow-up time was 4 months. All cancers were of endometrioid histology; all but 2 were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1. In comparison with a previous reproducibility study among expert pathologists on a comparable population from our department, these results for general pathologists show a higher false positive rate for subsequent cancer. PMID:22317874

  17. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  18. Enhancing Overseas Chinese Graduate Employability: The Case of Chinese Graduates with Finnish Academic Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance overseas Chinese graduate employability by taking Finnish-educated Chinese students/graduates as an example. In so doing, it understands that graduate employability development is a joint effort of multiple stakeholders including students, graduates, academics, program coordinators, employers, and policymakers.…

  19. The Relationship of High School Graduation Exams to Graduation Rates and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Gregory J.; Paulson, Sharon E.

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of high school graduation exams on states' graduation rates, states' aggregated SAT scores, and individual students' SAT scores. Three data sources were used: One source identified states requiring a standardized test for graduation; the NCES provided state aggregated data on graduation rates for the class of…

  20. Comparative Functional Literacy of Adult Performance Level Graduates and Wichita East High School Graduating Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Deborah; Peppers, Jimmy

    1978-01-01

    Study compared fifty adult performance level (APL) graduates' scores to fifty high school graduates' scores for four APL knowledge areas. APL graduates scored significantly higher than high school graduates in consumer economics and occupational knowledge. No significant differences were recorded between groups in areas of community resources and…

  1. Success After Graduation. A Study of the Baccalaureate Graduates of Empire State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Timothy

    Empire State College (ESC) has an interest in following the progress of its recent graduates in the world of work as well as discovering what happens to those graduates wishing to continue their education. To obtain this information a survey was conducted of all graduates and additional data analyzed that was contained in each graduate's file.…

  2. 7 CFR 772.12 - Graduation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... representatives to conduct graduation reviews. (1) AMP loans shall be reviewed at least every two years. In the... the current year. (c) Criteria. Borrowers must graduate from the Minor Programs as follows: (1... time to apply for refinancing. (2) Borrowers with AMP loans will be considered for graduation at...

  3. WCTC Graduate Follow-Up Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waukesha County Technical Coll., Pewaukee, WI.

    This paper reports on a survey of 2001-02 graduates of Waukesha County Technical College (WCTC), Wisconsin. The report indicates 1,257 students were awarded Associate's Degrees, technical diplomas, and apprenticeship certificates by WCTC in 2001-02. Of those graduates, 702 (56%) responded to the Graduate Follow-up Survey. Also, 84% of all…

  4. The Professional Development of Graduate Teaching Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marincovich, Michele, Ed.; Prostko, Jack, Ed.; Stout, Frederic, Ed.

    Sixteen papers address the training and professional development of graduate teaching assistants. The papers are: (1) "Preparing Graduate Students To Teach: Past, Present, and Future" (Nancy Van Note Chism); (2) "The Role of Centralized Programs in Preparing Graduate Students To Teach" (Jacqueline A. Mintz); (3) "The Disciplinary/Departmental…

  5. 1980 Graduates: A Survey of Immediate Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staatse, Holly

    In summer 1980, students applying for June or August graduation from Mercer County Community College (MCCC) were surveyed with respect to their immediate post-graduation plans. A total of 611 students received the mailed questionnaire, and 83% responded. Of the 507 responding graduates, 81% indicated plans for employment in fall 1980, and 59%…

  6. Measuring Up: Benchmarking Graduate Retention. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyers, C.; Perryman, S.; Barber, L.

    Retention of college graduates by employers across the United Kingdom was examined. Data were collected through a survey of 362 organizations and interviews with 36 employers and their graduate employees. Most employers were unworried by their levels of graduate retention; two-thirds expected to keep new recruits for the foreseeable future. Rates…

  7. Graduation Rates: Real Kids, Real Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Christopher B.

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), graduation rate accountability has become the educational law of the land, a small part of it at least. Some uncertainty continues to persist around key issues like exactly how to calculate graduation rates and how much weight should be placed on graduation versus test scores when attaching…

  8. Undergraduate Psychology Courses Preferred by Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.; Reisinger, Debra L.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    Information about the undergraduate psychology courses preferred by graduate programs is useful for a number of purposes, including (a) advising psychology majors who are interested in graduate school, (b) undergraduate curriculum planning, and (c) examining whether graduate programs' preferences reflect national guidelines for the undergraduate…

  9. GRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERELSON, BERNARD

    A BRIEF INTRODUCTORY HISTORY OF GRADUATE STUDY IS FOLLOWED BY AN ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF GRADUATE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES. PURPOSES OF GRADUATE STUDY, INSTITUTIONS, STUDENTS, AND PROGRAMS ARE EXAMINED. ALSO CONSIDERED ARE TEACHER SUPPLY AND DEMAND, INSTITUTIONAL GROWTH AND DECENTRALIZATION, AND STUDENT'S PREPARATION AND BACKGROUND.…

  10. Examining the Nature of Technology Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Nathan; Sarapin, Marvin; Bertoline, Gary; Sarapin, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. This work presents a general discussion of the theoretical foundation for graduate education in technology followed by specific applications of research activities within graduate education in technology. This paper represents the authors' view of the role of graduate education in (a) advancing the knowledge…

  11. Implementing Graduation Counts: State Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides information on states' progress in implementing the graduation rate all 50 governors agreed by signing the Graduation Counts Compact in 2005 to adopt. The governors undertook this commitment because they understand the imperative to gather more accurate, comparable data on how many of their students graduate from high school…

  12. Career Placement and Graduate Transfer Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.

    This report provides data on career and transfer outcomes of 1997 graduates from the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI). A brief preface explains that surveys were distributed to 1,551 graduates from 1997, with a total response rate of 84.8 percent (n=1,315). Results from the survey indicate that, with small exception, 1997 graduates are…

  13. Career Placement and Graduate Transfer Report, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.

    This report provides data on the career and transfer outcomes of 1996 graduates from the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI). A brief foreword indicates that surveys were distributed to 1,669 graduates from 1996, with 82.7% (n=1,381) responding. Next, data on graduate outcomes are presented for the following 27 programs: business…

  14. Developing the Intercultural Competence of Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Nanda; Dawson, Debra L.; Olsen, Karyn C.; Meadows, Ken N.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how teaching development programs may facilitate the development of intercultural competence in graduate students and prepare them for communicating effectively in the global workplace after graduation. First, we describe the concept of intercultural teaching competence and examine the skills that graduate students may need to…

  15. Tidewater Community College 1998 Graduate Survey Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Lisa

    This report presents Tidewater Community College's (TCC's) (Virginia) 1998 graduate survey study. Approximately half of the graduates attended another college or university prior to enrolling at TCC. A small portion enrolled directly from high school. Almost three-fourths of the graduates were working either full- or part-time while enrolled, and…

  16. Interaction and Survival Analysis of Graduation Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimka, Justin R.; Lowe, Lauren Holloway

    2008-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles describing ongoing research that involves studying engineering college student graduation using Cox proportional hazards models. The first article, called "Proportional hazards models of graduation," was based on main effects models of graduation controlling for descriptors such as in-state residence,…

  17. Chapel Hill, Berkeley Head Graduate Rankings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides lists ranking the 25 largest producers of bachelor's, certified bachelor's, master's, and doctoral graduates in chemistry. University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) is the nation's largest producer of bachelor's degree chemistry graduates while the University of California (Berkeley) is the largest producer of Ph.D. chemistry graduates.…

  18. Graduate Development Programmes and Satisfaction Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Edel; Mangan, John; O'Connor, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived progress of graduates who have been recruited by organisations and to assess their expectations and corresponding satisfaction levels. Drawing on the psychological contract and graduate development literature, the objective of the study was to compare the opinions of graduates from an…

  19. Confronting the Graduation Rate Crisis in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Every year, across the country, a dangerously high percentage of students--disproportionately poor and minority--disappear from the educational pipeline before graduating from high school. Nationally, only about 68% of all students who enter 9th grade will graduate "on time" with regular diplomas in 12th grade. While the graduation rate for white…

  20. Smos Instrument Performance and Calibration after 4 Years and 6 Months in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Neira, Manuel; Corbella, Ignasi; Torres, Francesc; Kainulainen, Juha; Oliva, Roger; Closa, Josep; Cabot, François; Khazaal, Ali; Anterrieu, Eric; Barbosa, Jose; Gutierrez, Antonio; Freitas, Sofia; Tenerelli, Joe; Martin-Porqueras, Fernando; Díez-García, Raul; Fauste, Jorge; Delwart, Steven; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; Suess, Martin

    2014-05-01

    By April 2014, ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission will have been in orbit for 4 years and a half, and the second reprocessing of the whole mission data set will have taken place with a fully polarimetric Level-1 processor, for the first time. The assessment of the mission performances based on this new processor will then be possible. In particular the metrics of the spatial ripple and the temporal variations (including orbital, seasonal and long term drifts) will be evaluated and compared against the corresponding values achieved with the current version of the Level-1 processor. This will allow quantifying the improvement of the brightness temperature observations of SMOS since its launch. It is expected that the reprocessed data will no longer exhibit any negative trend in the brightness temperatures at low incidence angles, and that the seasonal and yearly drifts will have been substantially reduced. Other improvements, although not so significant, are also expected, such as a small reduction in the spatial ripple and in the orbital variations. All these benefits come thanks to the readiness of the first fully-polarimetric version of the Level-1 processor, which has been possible, to a great extent, after the correction of some inconsistencies in the use of the cross-polar antenna patterns, the positive cumulative effect of many small improvements in the calibration, a major modification of the image reconstruction processor using the complete polarimetric formulation and the utilization of the available redundancy on-board that allows the selection of the best Noise Injection Radiometer. Major areas that require further work include the correction and handling of the Sun effects, the further reduction of the spatial ripple and temporal variations, some correction of the residual land-sea contamination and an improved Radio-Frequency Interference data flagging. The Sun correction will be attempted through increasingly more complex

  1. CO2 fluxes exchanged by a 4-year crop rotation cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubinet, M.; Moureaux, C.; Bodson, B.; Dufranne, D.; Heinesch, B.; Suleau, M.; Vancutsem, F.; Vilret, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study analyses carbon fluxes exchanged by a production crop during a four year cycle. Between 2004 and 2008, the successive crops were sugar beet, winter wheat, potato and again winter wheat. Eddy covariance, automatic and manual soil chamber, leaf diffusion and biomass measurements were performed continuously in order to obtain the daily and seasonal Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), Net Primary Productivity (NPP), Autotrophic Respiration, Heterotrophic Respiration and Net Biome Production (NBP). The whole cycle budget showed that NEE was negative and the rotation behaved as a sink of 1.59 kgC m-2 over the 4-year rotation. However, if exports were deducted from the budget, the crop would become a small source of 0.22 (+/- 0.14) kgC m-2, which also suggests that the crop soil carbon content decreased. This could partly be explained by the crop management, as neither farmyard manure nor slurry had been applied to the crop for more than 10 years and as cereal straw had been systematically exported for livestock. This result is also strongly dependent on climate: the fluxes were subjected to a large inter-annual variability due to differences between crops but also to climate variability. In particular, the mild winter and the dry spring underwent in 2007 induced an increase of the biomass fraction that returned to the soil, at the expense of harvested biomass. If 2007 had been a ‘normal' year, the carbon emission by the crop rotation would have been twice as great. This is analysed more in detail in a companion presentation (Dufranne et al., this session). The impacts of some farmer interventions were quantified. In particular, the impact of ploughing was found to be limited both in intensity (1 to 2 micromol m-2 s-1) and duration (not more than 1 day). Seasonal budgets showed that, during cropping periods, the TER/GPP ratio varied between 40 and 60% and that TER was dominated mainly by the

  2. Evolution of T1 black holes in patients with multiple sclerosis imaged monthly for 4 years.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, Francesca; Jeffries, Neal; Richert, Nancy D; Stone, Roger D; Ohayon, Joan M; McFarland, Henry F; Frank, Joseph A

    2003-08-01

    T1 black holes (BHs) on MRIs may represent either areas of oedema or axonal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis. BHs begin as contrast enhancing lesions (CELs) and evolve differently from patient to patient, and within the same patient over time. We analysed BHs formation over a 4-year period. Forty-eight monthly MRIs of nine non-treated multiple sclerosis patients were evaluated for numbers of CELs and BHs. A BH was defined as a hypointense lesion on a T1 pre-contrast image that coincided with a region of high signal intensity on the T2-weighted images. A BH was considered as acute (ABH) when it occurred coincidently with the presence of enhancement and as persisting (PBH) when present after the cessation of enhancement. The present study aimed to analyse: (i) the incidence of CELs and new PBHs, and the accumulation of PBHs; (ii) the relationship between the quantity of the CELs in a given month and the likelihood of accumulating PBHs in the subsequent month; and (iii) the relationship between the duration of CELs and PBHs. Pitman's correlation test evaluated the effect of time on either the increase of CELs and new PBHs or the accumulation of PBHs, while a multiple logistic regression analysis evaluated the relationship between progression of time and CELs, and the increase of PBHs in a multivariate model. The relationship between the enhancing lesions duration and the PBHs duration, or the time to revert back to an isointense lesion was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival models. PBHs accumulated (P < 0.001) in all patients, but the formation of new PBHs increased in four patients (P < or = 0.007) in conjunction with an increase in either the quantity of CELs (P < 0.001, for two patients) or the proportion of CELs turning into PBHs (P < or = 0.02, for two patients). Logistic regression analysis showed that neither progression of time nor the number of CELs in a given month were able to predict the probability of increasing the number of PBHs in the

  3. Cohort Profile: Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline HD

    2015-01-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997–98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6–12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up. PMID:24609067

  4. Cohort profile: Mysore parthenon birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-02-01

    The Mysore Parthenon Birth Cohort was established to examine the long-term effects of maternal glucose tolerance and nutritional status on cardiovascular disease risk factors in the offspring. During 1997-98, 830 of 1233 women recruited from the antenatal clinics of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital (HMH), Mysore, India, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Of these, 667 women delivered live babies at HMH. Four babies with major congenital anomalies were excluded, and the remaining 663 were included for further follow-up. The babies had detailed anthropometry at birth and at 6-12-monthly intervals subsequently. Detailed cardiovascular investigations were done at ages 5, 9.5 and 13.5 years in the children, and in the parents at the 5-year and 9.5-year follow-ups. This ongoing study provides extensive data on serial anthropometry and body composition, physiological and biochemical measures, dietary intake, nutritional status, physical activity measures, stress reactivity measures and cognitive function, and socio-demographic parameters for the offspring. Data on anthropometry, cardiovascular risk factors and nutritional status are available for mothers during pregnancy. Anthropometry and risk factor measures are available for both parents at follow-up. PMID:24609067

  5. Ronald E. McNair Graduate Student Researchers Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    According to the latest report by the National Science Foundation, only eighty-three (83) African-Americans received doctoral degrees in all engineering disciplines in 2000. North Carolina A&T State University (NC A&T) awarded Ph.D.s to 15 African-Americans, in only two engineering disciplines over the past 4 years. It clearly indicates that the partnership between NASA and NC A&T plays a significant role in producing minority engineering Ph.D.s, which this country needs to establish an ethnically diverse workforce to compete in a global economy. Many of these students would not have been able to study for their doctoral degrees without the Ronald E. McNair Graduate Research Fellowship Program.

  6. Evolving Graduate Programs in Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, C. D.

    2002-12-01

    At the University of Arizona, as in many other top-ranked research institutions, there is a tension between the desire to give student broad enough skills for the workplace with the demands of the specific academic discipline. 2/3 of the Astronomy graduate students at Steward Observatory go on to permanent jobs at universities or observatories, but some of our most successful graduates take more diverse career paths. We do not wish to sacrifice academic rigor in astrophysics or the primary goal of training students in research. However, we are creating opportunities for (a) students to take M.Sc. and eventually Ph.D. degrees with a specialization in education, and (b) students with technical skills to have Ph.D. minors in optics, applied physics, or ECE. This second initiative is the subject of a pending NSF/IGERT proposal, with the science theme "Search for other Worlds."

  7. Programs for international medical graduates.

    PubMed Central

    Nasmith, L.

    1993-01-01

    Medical graduates from other countries provide health care in many regions of Canada; yet differences in training standards can cause problems. A recent survey looked at the requirements of provincial licensing bodies and the preresidency programs of Canadian faculties of medicine. Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba provide such programs, which differ in length, content, and evaluation process. McGill has recently launched a more focused program. PMID:8292930

  8. Entrepreneurship of dietetic program graduates.

    PubMed

    Mann, Linda L; Blum, Ilya

    2004-01-01

    Successful dietetic program graduates must have an entrepreneurial mindset and skills to respond to environmental changes and consumer trends. The purpose of this study was to determine current or intended entrepreneurship by graduates of a Dietitians of Canada accredited university program, as influenced by self-efficacy stemming from entrepreneurial experiences in education or early career, as well as by internal and external factors. This study employed an exploratory descriptive methodology with a questionnaire mailed to a discrete sample. Ninety graduates completed and returned the questionnaire for a response rate of 55%. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, two-way table analysis, the chi-square test for independence, and Fisher's exact test. Significant relationships were found between self-efficacy scores and entrepreneurial action, specific entrepreneurial experiences and entrepreneurial intent and action, dietetic internship and intent, and belief in the importance of business skills and intent. Those with entrepreneurial intent and/or action identified creativity, dietetic education/internship, persistence, business skills, and family/friend support as helping factors. These results suggest that undergraduate, internship, and continuing education programs for dietitians should incorporate activities that develop entrepreneurial skills and contribute toward an entrepreneurial mindset. PMID:15596035

  9. A 4 year follow-up study of alveolar bone height influenced by two dissimilar Class II amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D; Markitziu, A; Fishel, D; Brayer, L

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-four paired, approximal amalgam fillings, extended (E) versus unextended (NE) were placed in forty-three patients and followed up to 4 years. Yearly measurements between the alveolar crest and (a) the apical margin of the fillings (E, NE), and (b) the cemento-enamel junction of the control group, were performed using bite-wing radiographs joined to a translucent grid magnified ten-fold. The rate of alveolar crest resorption was similar for the control (C) and the unextended filling (NE) and reached 0.45 mm after 4 years of follow-up. The resorption of the alveolar crest under the extended (E) filling was significantly higher and reached 0.80 mm after 4 years (P less than 0.001). PMID:6589386

  10. MO-E-18C-03: Incorporating Active Learning Into A Traditional Graduate Medical Physics Course

    SciTech Connect

    Burmeister, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the ability of graduate students to learn medical physics concepts through the incorporation of active learning techniques. Methods: A traditional lecture-based radiological physics course was modified such that: (1) traditional (two-hour) lectures were provided online for students to watch prior to class, (2) a student was chosen randomly at the start of each class to give a two minute synopsis of the material and its relevance (two-minute drill), (3) lectures were significantly abbreviated and remaining classroom time used for group problem solving, and (4) videos of the abbreviated lectures were made available online for review. In the transition year, students were surveyed about the perceived effects of these changes on learning. Student performance was evaluated for 3 years prior to and 4 years after modification. Results: The survey tool used a five point scale from 1=Not True to 5=Very True. While nearly all students reviewed written materials prior to class (4.3±0.9), a minority watched the lectures (2.1±1.5). A larger number watched the abbreviated lectures for further clarification (3.6±1.6) and found it helpful in learning the content (4.2±1.0). Most felt that the two-minute drill helped them get more out of the lecture (3.9±0.8) and the problem solving contributed to their understanding of the content (4.1±0.8). However, no significant improvement in exam scores resulted from the modifications (mean scores well within 1 SD during study period). Conclusion: Students felt that active learning techniques improved their ability to learn the material in what is considered the most difficult course in the program. They valued the ability to review the abbreviated class lecture more than the opportunity to watch traditional lectures prior to class. While no significant changes in student performance were observed, aptitude variations across the student cohorts make it difficult to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of active

  11. Longitudinal study of amygdala volume and joint attention in 2- to 4-year-old children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Mosconi, Matthew W.; Hazlett, Heather Cody; Poe, Michele D.; Gerig, Guido; Smith, Rachel Gimpel

    2011-01-01

    Context Cerebral cortical volume enlargement has been reported in 2- to 4-year-olds with autism. Little is known about the volume of sub-regions during this period of development. The amygdala is hypothesized to be abnormal in volume and related to core clinical features in autism. Objective To examine amygdala volume at 2 years with follow-up at 4 years of age in children with autism and to explore the relationship between amygdala volume and selected behavioral features of autism. Design Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Setting University medical setting. Participants Fifty-two autistic and 33 control (11 developmentally delayed, 22 typically developing) children between 18 and 35 months (2 years) of age followed up at 42 to 59 months (4 years) of age. Main Outcome Measures Amygdala volumes in relation to joint attention ability measured with a new observational coding system, the Social Orienting Continuum and Response scale; group comparisons including total tissue volume, sex, IQ and age as covariates. Results Amygdala enlargement was observed in subjects with autism at both 2 and 4 years of age. Significant change over time in volume was observed, though the rate of change did not differ between groups. Amygdala volume was associated with joint attention ability at age 4 years in subjects with autism. Conclusions The amygdala is enlarged in autism relative to controls by age 2 years but shows no relative increase in magnitude between 2 and 4 years of age. A significant association between amygdala volume and joint attention suggests that alterations to this structure may be linked to a core deficit of autism. PMID:19414710

  12. Inequality Matters: Bachelor's Degree Losses among Low-Income Black and Hispanic High School Graduates. A Policy Bulletin for HEA Reauthorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Advisory Committee's 2010 report, "The Rising Price of Inequality," found that need-based grant aid from all sources was inadequate by examining the enrollment and completion rates of low-income high school graduates who seek to earn a bachelor's degree and are qualified to gain admission to a 4-year college. The major…

  13. Overcoming challenges to sustainable immunization financing: early experiences from GAVI graduating countries.

    PubMed

    Saxenian, Helen; Hecht, Robert; Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryckman, Theresa; Cornejo, Santiago

    2015-03-01

    Over the 5-year period ending in 2018, 16 countries with a combined birth cohort of over 6 million infants requiring life-saving immunizations are scheduled to transition (graduate) from outside financial and technical support for a number of their essential vaccines. This support has been provided over the past decade by the GAVI Alliance. Will these 16 countries be able to continue to sustain these vaccination efforts? To address this issue, GAVI and its partners are supporting transition planning, entailing country assessments of readiness to graduate and intensive dialogue with national officials to ensure a smooth transition process. This approach was piloted in Bhutan, Republic of Congo, Georgia, Moldova and Mongolia in 2012. The pilot showed that graduating countries are highly heterogeneous in their capacity to assume responsibility for their immunization programmes. Although all possess certain strengths, each country displayed weaknesses in some of the following areas: budgeting for vaccine purchase, national procurement practices, performance of national regulatory agencies, and technical capacity for vaccine planning and advocacy. The 2012 pilot experience further demonstrated the value of transition planning processes and tools. As a result, GAVI has decided to continue with transition planning in 2013 and beyond. As the graduation process advances, GAVI and graduating countries should continue to contribute to global collective thinking about how developing countries can successfully end their dependence on donor aid and achieve self-sufficiency. PMID:24510369

  14. Integrating Research-Informed Teaching within an Undergraduate Level 4 (Year 1) Diagnostic Radiography Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Robert; Hogg, Peter; Robinson, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the piloting and evaluation of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe) project. The aim of RiTe was to link teaching and learning with research within an undergraduate diagnostic radiography curriculum. A preliminary pilot study of RiTe was undertaken with a group of level 4 (year 1) volunteer BSc (Hons) diagnostic…

  15. Different Executive Functions Support Different Kinds of Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from 2-, 3-, and 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakey, Emma; Visser, Ingmar; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in cognitive flexibility during the preschool years have been linked to developments in both working memory and inhibitory control, though the precise contribution of each remains unclear. In the current study, one hundred and twenty 2-, 3-, and 4-year-olds completed two rule-switching tasks. In one version, children switched rules in…

  16. Sensitivity of 4-Year-Olds to Featural and Second-Order Relational Changes in Face Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Boyer, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitivity to adult ratings of facial distinctiveness (how much an individual stands out in a crowd) has been demonstrated previously in children age 5 years or older. Experiment 1 extended this result to 4-year-olds using a "choose the more distinctive face" task. Children's patterns of choice across item pairs also correlated well with those of…

  17. The Prevalence of ADHD, ODD, Depression, and Anxiety in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavigne, John V.; LeBailly, Susan A.; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Binns, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the epidemiology of preschoolers' psychopathology. This study included 796 4-year-old children recruited from schools and pediatric practices in a diverse, urban area. Psychiatric disorder was assessed by a structured interview adapted for preschool children and by questionnaire. The most common disorders were…

  18. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  19. CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON FINE ROOT LENGTH, PRODUCTION, AND MORTALITY: A 4-YEAR PONDEROSA PINE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  20. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  1. Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Wiener, Josh L.; Fils-Aime, Yvon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a 4-year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (N = 4,947) enrolled at a large Midwestern university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco…

  2. Obesity and Developmental Functioning among Children Aged 2-4 Years. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #08-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, obesity tends to be associated with worse labor market outcomes. One possible reason is that obesity leads to less human capital formation early in life. This paper investigates the association between obesity and the developmental functioning of children at younger ages (2-4 years) than ever previously examined. Data from…

  3. Barriers and Opportunities for 2-Year and 4-Year STEM Degrees: Systemic Change to Support Students' Diverse Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcom, Shirley, Ed.; Feder, Michael, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 40 percent of the students entering 2- and 4-year postsecondary institutions indicated their intention to major in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in 2012. But the barriers to students realizing their ambitions are reflected in the fact that about half of those with the intention to earn a STEM bachelor's degree and…

  4. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  5. Job prospects for college graduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    During the recent recessionary slump, employers in the private sector, responding to a national survey conducted by the College Placement Council, continued to report increased employment opportunities for engineering graduates. While business disciplines and the science, math, and other technical categories experienced some fluctuation during this period, overall, employers continued to report increased hiring. What is unique about this early forecast for 1981-82 is that for the first time in the past several years an anticipated increase in hiring was reported for the other nontechnical categories. Five hundred fifty-one employing organizations in the private sector anticipated an increase in hiring for each of the four curricular areas surveyed.

  6. Role Preparation of Associate Degree Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Lillian G.

    The role of associate degree nursing (ADN) programs has changed dramatically in their 30 years of existence. The number of ADN graduates increased from 260 in 1954 to 36,434 in 1980, and 47.8% of all nursing graduates in 1980 came from ADN programs, as compared to 0.9% in 1954. These graduates have the best record of employment five years after…

  7. Spatial abilities of medical graduates and choice of residency programs.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been related in previous studies to three-dimensional (3D) anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The objective of this study was to relate spatial abilities to residency programs with different levels of content of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The hypothesis was that the choice of residency program is related to spatial abilities. A cohort of 210 medical graduates was enrolled in a prospective study in a 5-year experiment. Spatial abilities were measured with a redrawn Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test (MRT) in two (MRTA) and three (MRTC) dimensions. Medical graduates were enrolled in Family Medicine (n = 76, 36.2%), Internal Medicine (64, 30.5%), Surgery (52, 24.8%), and Anesthesia (18, 8.6%). The assumption was that the level of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills content was higher in Surgery and Anesthesia compared to Family Medicine and Internal Medicine. Mean MRTA score of 12.4 (±SD 4.6), 12.0 (±4.3), 14.1 (±4.3), and 14.6 (±4.0) was obtained in Family Medicine, Internal Medicine, Surgery, and Anesthesia, respectively (P = 0.0176). Similarly, mean MRTC score of 8.0 (±4.4), 7.5 (±3.6), 8.5 (±3.9), and 7.9 (±4.1) was obtained (P = 0.5647). Although there was a tendency for lower MRTA score in Family Medicine and Internal Medicine compared to Surgery and Anesthesia, no statistically significant main effect of residency, year, sex, or the interactions were observed for the MRTA and MRTC. Studied sample of medical graduates was not found to choose their residency programs based on their innate spatial abilities. PMID:24953052

  8. Bringing Graduate Education to the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Webster University's four-year-old Corporate Cohort Program, a pioneer in higher education outreach. Between 250-300 students participate in Webster's corporate cohort program, which to date partners with companies in Arkansas, Colorado, California, Florida, Missouri and South Carolina. Webster's cohort concept was the…

  9. OIST - A New Model of Graduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Neil

    I would present the Okinawan Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University. The Graduate University offers outstanding opportunities for students looking to study for a Ph.D. I would outline what makes OIST different from other Graduate Schools and explain the opportunities for students but also the posts open for Faculty. The Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology is an interdisciplinary graduate school offering a 5-year PhD program in Science. Over half of the faculty and students are recruited from outside Japan, and all education and research is conducted entirely in English.

  10. The enculturation of our nursing graduates.

    PubMed

    De Bellis, A; Longson, D; Glover, P; Hutton, A

    2001-09-01

    The transition from undergraduate nursing student to employment as a registered nurse is fraught with difficulties for a neophyte. This qualitative study used interviews and focus groups with graduate nurses from the Flinders University of South Australia in their first year of practice to ascertain their experiences as new graduates. The results reveal an enculturation of graduates not conducive to ongoing learning, consolidation of skills and application to practice. A rushed environment that was unpredictable, together with a lack of support, were recurrent themes from the graduates' perspective. Graduate nurse programs are run by institutions focused on outcomes and expenditure. There is little or no collaboration with the tertiary sector in providing appropriate programs according to graduates' needs. The graduates, as beginning practitioners, focused on not having the time to nurse holistically, an unrealistic workload, and the need for backup and continuous support on an individual basis. The wards, although possibly efficient and effective in providing health care, provided a culture where the graduates felt inadequate, rushed, overworked and unsupported, which is contrary to the aims and objectives of the graduate nurse programs. The nursing profession as a whole needs to develop a culture that is nurturing, enabling, supportive and protective of our young. PMID:11785868

  11. Teaching Chemistry in Graduate School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Benjamin F.

    2008-07-01

    If you are an academic reading this commentary, then you already have teaching experience. Most likely, you have spent several semesters in front of the classroom, and you could probably teach any given lecture from your course(s) with your eyes closed. But think back to your first semester as a faculty member when your teaching skills weren't so polished. Did you feel lost as a teacher? Did you ever wish that you had received the opportunity to teach earlier in your career? If you are like any one of the dozens of faculty members I know, then you had a shaky start in the classroom followed by better years. Now, you are a pro—a teaching veteran who has seen it all. This trend in teaching skills can be troubling, especially to a graduate student such as myself who is interested in pursuing a career in academia. Why do the shaky years have to fall within the tenure window, when everything a new faculty member does is under the magnifying glass and scrupulously analyzed by peers who are already professionals at juggling the faculty trifecta—teaching, research, and service? Why isn't there additional training for teachers in graduate school?

  12. Faculty Expectations of Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartel, Richard W.

    When looking for a new student a few years ago, I considered an international student who wasn't available for me to interview personally—something I've come to require before I accept a student into my research group. After some preliminary discussion, I asked her my "behavioral" questions by email to give her an opportunity to provide me with some insight into her qualifications and character. I asked her to describe experiences where she had to resolve a conflict with someone else, where she had faced and overcome a hurdle, and to describe her motivation for graduate school. In her response, which started by noting a particular interaction she had had with her father, she presented me with a well-written documentary of her skills, into which her responses to my three questions were woven. Being the sort of person myself who would have bullet-pointed a response and detailed specific activities to document those skills, I was greatly impressed with her ability to think more broadly than my specific request, yet get at the heart of my questions in a creative approach. I accepted her as a student immediately because those are the attributes in a graduate student I value most highly.

  13. Job Market Reality for Postsecondary Graduates. Employment Outcome by 1978. Two Years after Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, W.; Zsigmond, Z.

    Based on the 1978 survey of the labor market experiences of 1976 university and college graduates in Canada in the two years after graduation, this report examines the relations and implications of the education-employment nexus for both male and female graduates. Following a review of the background, scope, objectives, audience, methodology and"…

  14. University of Virginia Graduate Mentoring Institute: A Model Program for Graduate Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey-Mooring, Tazzarae; Apprey, Cheryl Burgan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines an innovative model program for the mentorship of diverse graduate students entitled the "Inter-Ethnic/Interdisciplinary Mentoring Institute for Graduate Education" (i.e., "Mentoring Institute"), which was established by the Graduate Student Diversity Programs in the Office of the Vice President for Research…

  15. Financing Graduate School: How To Get the Money You Need for Your Graduate School Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWade, Patricia

    This book provides information to prospective graduate students on how to acquire financial assistance for their graduate programs by explaining (1) what the difference is between undergraduate and graduate aid; (2) aid eligibility; (3) where to go for funding and how much is available; (4) how to be "marketable" to targeted funding sources; (5)…

  16. Graduate Assistants: Students or Staff, Policy or Practice? The Current Legal Employment Status of Graduate Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Bethany H.

    2007-01-01

    In the US, graduate assistants are an integral part of a university's educational and operational climate. Graduate assistants provide teaching, research or administrative services to the educational enterprise in exchange for professional experience and a financial stipend. Recent strikes of graduate teaching assistants at New York University…

  17. Degrees Earned by Foreign Graduate Students: Fields of Study and Plans after Graduation. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beth Aronstamm; Bae, Yupin

    This issue brief uses narrative, tables, and graphs to summarize data on degrees earned by foreign graduate students in the United States, the percentage of foreign graduate students in the United States, the home countries of foreign doctoral students, their major fields of study, and their plans after graduation. Data were obtained from two…

  18. Your Graduates and You: Effective Strategies for Graduate Recruitment and Development. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, H.; Hirsh, W.; Barber, L.

    Many employing organizations in the United Kingdom and elsewhere are finding it increasingly important to have an effective strategy for recruiting and developing higher education graduates. Numerous external and internal factors affect employers' graduate recruitment and development strategies. The following main approaches to graduates' entry…

  19. Graduate Student Dissonance: Graduate Students of Color in a U. S. Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, John S.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Haley, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative investigation examined the experiences of a population of graduate students--graduate students of color--in a U. S. research university (a) to indicate reasons for their dilemmas, ambiguities, and decisions about choosing an academic career, and (b) to identify the practices of one research university's graduate programs that…

  20. The Changing Paradigm of Graduate Student Professional Socialization and Mentoring in Graduate Adult Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T.; Deggs, David

    2012-01-01

    The importance of mentoring has been consistently emphasized in American higher education especially at the graduate level. Increased emphasis on research and teaching for faculty as well as migration to distance education delivery formats has affected the amount of time that faculty can devote to mentoring graduate students. Some graduate program…

  1. Earnings Expectation and Graduate Employment: Evidence from Recent Chinese College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Po, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese college graduates have faced increasing labor market competition since the expansion of tertiary education. Given rigid market demand, graduates with realistic earnings expectations may experience a more efficient job search. Using the 2008 MYCOS College Graduate Employment Survey, this study finds that a 1000 yuan reduction in a…

  2. Graduate Student Support and Manpower Resources in Graduate Science Education, Fall 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Current data on graduate student support and manpower resources in graduate science education are important to science administrators, educators, and others concerned with the education of highly qualified scientists and engineers and other related manpower issues. They are also of interest to prospective graduate students, vocational counselors,…

  3. Graduate Programs in English at Marquette University and the University of Michigan: Bulletins for Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Departments of English, New York, NY.

    For a 1969 report on graduate programs in English, the Association of Departments of English obtained information from chairmen or directors of graduate study in English at 223 institutions. This document contains some of the information collected for the full report (available through ERIC as "Graduate Programs in English: A 1969 Report" by…

  4. Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rates for the Graduating Class of 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Montana School Accreditation Standards require schools to do follow-up studies of graduates and students no longer in attendance, therefore, dropout and graduate data is collected from all public and accredited (by the Montana Board of Public Education) non-public schools. Dropout data can be used in conjunction with graduate data to build a…

  5. Trident Technical College 1998 Graduate Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trident Technical Coll., Charleston, SC.

    Presents the results of South Carolina's Trident Technical College's (TTC's) 1998 graduate follow-up survey report of 915 TTC graduates. Graduates were surveyed and results were obtained for the following items: graduate goals, employment, placement rates, graduates in related fields, when job were obtained, job finding methods, job locations, job…

  6. Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) Training: The View from the Top.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buerkel-Rothfuss, Nancy L.; Gray, Pamela L.

    The use and training of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in higher education was evaluated via questionnaires mailed nationwide to schools and departments offering graduate programs. Usable questionnaires were received from 164 of 323 graduate school deans and from 470 of 1,112 graduate school department chairs/heads. The graduate deans survey…

  7. Cohort Profile: The French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study For Leukaemia (LEA Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Berbis, Julie; Michel, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Bertrand, Yves; Chastagner, Pascal; Demeocq, François; Kanold, Justyna; Leverger, Guy; Plantaz, Dominique; Poirée, Marilyne; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Auquier, Pascal; Contet, Audrey; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Ducassou, Stéphane; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Sirvent, Nicolas; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the Leucémies de l’Enfant et l’Adolescent (LEA) project (Childhood and Adolescent Leukaemia) is to study the determinants (medical, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental) of medium- and long-term outcomes of patients treated for childhood acute leukaemia (AL). The LEA study began in 2004 and is based on a French multicentric prospective cohort. Included are children treated for AL since January 1980 (incident and prevalent cases), surviving at month 24 for myeloblastic AL and lymphoblastic AL grafted in first complete remission or at month 48 for lymphoblastic AL not grafted in first complete remission. Information is collected during specific medical visits and notably includes the following data: socioeconomic data, AL history, physical late effects (such as fertility, cardiac function and metabolic syndrome) and quality of life. Data are collected every 2 years until the patient is 20 years old and has had a 10-year follow-up duration from diagnosis or last relapse. Thereafter, assessments are planned every 4 years. In active centres in 2013, eligible patients number more than 3000. The cohort has already included 2385 survivors, with rate of exhaustiveness of almost 80%. Data access can be requested from principal coordinators and must be approved by the steering committee. PMID:24639445

  8. Cohort Size Effects and Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.

    1983-01-01

    Explores whether changes in the size of cohorts entering the labor force affected the propensity within the U.S. labor force to migrate and socioeconomic circumstances of migrants at destination within 1965-76. Suggests that a significant reduction in the volume of migration among members of the baby boom cohort was the primary adjustment…

  9. Immune response to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered as a 2-dose or 3-dose schedule up to 4 years after vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F; Ferguson, Linda M; Ferguson, Murdo; Peters, Klaus; Dionne, Marc; Schulze, Karin; Ramjattan, Brian; Hillemanns, Peter; Behre, Ulrich; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This randomized, partially-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00541970) evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of 2-dose (2D) schedules of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Results to month (M) 24 have been reported previously and we now report data to M48 focusing on the licensed vaccine formulation (20 μg each of HPV-16 and -18 antigens) administered at M0,6 compared with the standard 3-dose (3D) schedule (M0,1,6). Healthy females (age stratified: 9–14, 15–19, 20–25 years) were randomized to receive 2D at M0,6 (n = 240) or 3D at M0,1,6 (n = 239). In the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort, all initially seronegative subjects seroconverted for HPV-16 and -18 antibodies and remained seropositive up to M48. For both HPV-16 and -18, geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) ratios (3D schedule in women aged 15–25 years divided by 2D schedule in girls aged 9–14 years) at M36 and M48 were close to 1, as they were at M7 when non-inferiority was demonstrated. The kinetics of HPV-16, -18, -31, and -45 antibody responses were similar for both groups and HPV-16 and -18 GMTs were substantially higher than natural infection titers. The vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile in both groups. In summary, antibody responses to a 2D M0,6 schedule of the licensed vaccine formulation in girls aged 9–14 years appeared comparable to the standard 3D schedule in women aged 15–25 years up to 4 years after first vaccination. A 2D schedule could facilitate implementation of HPV vaccination programs and improve vaccine coverage and series completion rates. PMID:24576907

  10. Risk of Future Diabetes in Japanese People with High-normal Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels: A 4-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoh; Eto, Tanenao; Taniguchi, Shotaro; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is no definite consensus regarding the treatment and guidance for individuals with high-normal fasting plasma glucose levels (FPG;100-109 mg/dL). The present study aimed to determine the risk factors for future diabetes in Japanese people with high-normal FPG. Methods Retrospective cohort studies were conducted from 2008 to 2012, including 15,097 individuals who underwent medical examinations. First, the participants were divided into normal FPG (n=13,065) and high-normal FPG (n=2,032) groups to compare the diabetes incidence. Second, the high FPG group was divided into diabetes onset (n=133) and non-diabetes onset (n=1,899) groups to compare the baseline values. Third, to determine the risk factors for future diabetes in the high-normal FPG group, multivariate analyses were conducted. Results The cumulative incidence during the mean follow-up of 4 years was 94/13,065 (0.72%) and 133/2,032 (6.55%) in the normal FPG and high-normal FPG groups, respectively. Within the high-normal FPG group, the baseline body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides, FPG, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly lower in the diabetes onset group than in the non-diabetes onset group. Obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and high ALT were significant risk factors for diabetes according to a multivariate analysis. Conclusion The high-normal FPG group had a higher risk of diabetes than the normal FPG group, particularly when accompanied with obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and high ALT. Thus, this high risk group should receive appropriate guidance for lifestyle changes to avoid developing diabetes at an early stage. PMID:27580535

  11. Height, infant-feeding practices and cardiovascular functioning among 3 or 4 year old children in three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, T; Bryan, G T; Harrison, J A; Rassin, D K; Greaves, K A; Baranowski, J H

    1992-05-01

    Barker recently hypothesized that factors affecting prenatal and infant growth are related to adult blood pressure and CVD mortality. Predictions from Barker's hypothesis in regard to infant feeding were tested among a sample of 3 or 4 year old children. The relationship of infant-feeding characteristics (duration of breast-feeding, times of introduction of high fat, high carbohydrate, high potassium foods and table salt) to indicators of cardiovascular functioning (resting blood pressures and heart rates, and heart rate response to graded activity) while controlling for anthropometric (height, sum of seven skinfolds, BMI) and demographic (ethnicity, gender, social status) characteristics revealed that infant-feeding practices were not related to CV functioning in the predicted directions among this sample of 3 or 4 year old children. Furthermore, the positive relationship between height and systolic blood pressure was inconsistent with the Barker hypothesis. PMID:1588357

  12. Instructional Style and Learner-Centered Approach: A Cross-Institutional Examination of Modality Preference for Online Course Delivery in a Graduate Professional Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnici, Laurie J.; Maatta, Stephanie L.; Klose, M. Katherine; Julien, Heidi; Bajjaly, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This case study examined student preference for delivery mode of online courses in two graduate degree programs in Library and Information Science. Within-group and between-groups comparisons indicated a distinct preference across the institutions. Findings from focus groups conducted with two cohorts of students enrolled in a federally funded…

  13. Post-Graduate Student Performance in "Supervised In-Class" vs. "Unsupervised Online" Multiple Choice Tests: Implications for Cheating and Test Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladyshewsky, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores differences in multiple choice test (MCT) scores in a cohort of post-graduate students enrolled in a management and leadership course. A total of 250 students completed the MCT in either a supervised in-class paper and pencil test or an unsupervised online test. The only statistically significant difference between the nine…

  14. Mobile Technologies for Learning: Exploring Critical Mobile Learning Literacies as Enabler of Graduateness in a South African Research-Led University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosman, J. P.; Strydom, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University there is a drive to integrate the development of graduate attributes and the use of emerging technologies in the curriculum. With the aim of discovering the role of emerging mobile technologies in learning a qualitative research project was undertaken with a senior-student cohort. An inductive thematic analysis was done…

  15. Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma in child. A follow-up of 4 years. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Cunha, Robson Frederico; Silva, Janaína Zavitoski; Soubhia, Ana Maria Pires

    2008-04-01

    Peripheral cement-ossifying fibroma is a relatively common gingival growth of a reactive rather than neoplastic nature, whose pathogenesis is uncertain. It predominantly affects adolescents and young adults, with peak prevalence between 10 and 19 years. We report here the clinical case of a 5-year-old girl with disease duration of 3 years, who was followed up for 4 years, showing a gingival health and normal radiopacity of bone. PMID:19212524

  16. [Severe bacterial infections and sudden death in children less than 4-years-old: 3 case reports].

    PubMed

    Chapelon, E; Bélien-Pallet, V; Ayachi, A; Rambaud, C; Gaudelus, J; de Pontual, L

    2012-02-01

    Infectious factors contribute to sudden infant death in about 1 case out of 3. We report 3 children less than 4-years-old who died suddenly of bacterial infection due to Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The bacteria were isolated from central and peripheral samples. A bacterial origin should be sought in all cases of sudden death in children. When a bacterial origin is confirmed, the question of immunodeficiency should be raised. PMID:22209380

  17. A Patient With Parenteral Nutrition-Dependent Short Bowel Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease With 4-Year Exposure to Teduglutide.

    PubMed

    Compher, Charlene; Levinson, Katherine Boothe; Cambor, Carolyn L; Stoner, Nancy; Boullata, Joseph I; Piarulli, Amanda; Kinosian, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Clinical trials of the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue teduglutide resulted in approval of the drug by the Food and Drug Administration in 2012 as a treatment for parenteral nutrition-dependent short bowel syndrome in adults. This report presents the case study of a man with short bowel syndrome caused by portal vein thrombosis who had 4 years exposure to the drug at the time of his death due to cardiovascular disease. PMID:25567782

  18. Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Tobey; Dunkley, David M; Moroz, Molly

    2015-10-01

    This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress-sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists' vulnerability to depressive and anxious symptoms over the long term. PMID:26191980

  19. Graduate Employment. Research Brief 89-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    In spring 1988, a survey was conducted of the 1987 graduates of Prince George's Community College's (PGCC; in Largo, Maryland), occupational programs to assess graduates' success in obtaining full-time employment and their ratings of their preparation for employment. A questionnaire was mailed to all 933 student receiving an associate degree or…

  20. 1976 Graduates: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sarah J.

    A survey of May and December 1976 graduates from Delgado College was conducted to determine how students perceived the college's output in terms of personal and professional development and satisfaction. A total of 238 or 36% of graduates returned a 26-item questionnaire on their characteristics, educational status, employment, and degree of…

  1. Toward Graduate-Level Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciche, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Critical writing is intertwined with performances of professional identity, voice, and persona--performances that can be studied and practiced. To that end, the author proposes that one intuitive place to locate such study and practice is in English graduate curricula. This essay calls for an explicit commitment to graduate-level writing…

  2. Polytechnic Graduate Placement in Finnish Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockerman, Petri

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses polytechnic graduate placement in Finnish manufacturing. The paper uses a register-based data source covering white-collar manufacturing workers over the period 1995-2004. Taken together, the results show that wages and job classification are higher for polytechnic graduates, once other covariates are controlled for. Despite…

  3. Graduate Employment and Small Businesses in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jun; Matlay, Harry

    2005-01-01

    In contemporary China, there are two far-reaching developments that impact directly on graduate employment: (a) a highly entrepreneurial and rapidly growing small business sector and (b) a rapidly expanding higher education sector. Paradoxically, while the small business sector continues to suffer from acute skills shortages, new graduates are…

  4. Graduates of the FernUniversitat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Jorn

    This survey of economics graduates at the FernUniversitat found that relatively few students who enroll in the program pass the final exam. Full-time students have better graduation rates than part-time students, although the FernUniversitat considers the latter as its main target group. Full-time students on the average require the same number of…

  5. Beyond First Destinations. Graduate Employability Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Anita; Pell, Katherine; Brooke, Pam

    2004-01-01

    The First Destination Survey of new graduates provides only a snapshot of graduate employment. This longitudinal study explores more fully the career pathways taken by undergraduates from two programmes and examines which skills acquired at university contributed to successful employment and development of their careers. It was found that 99…

  6. Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Among Journalism Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Harold C.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of the degree of job satisfaction felt by 404 news/editorial and advertising graduates indicates that journalism graduates develop satisfaction and dissatisfaction with jobs in a manner usually consistent with Frederick Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory of job satisfaction. (GW)

  7. Follow-Up of 1977 Occupational Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    As part of a series of annual studies, this survey determined the characteristics and opinions of Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) occupational graduates for 1976-77. Graduates of business (51 of 81 contacted), health service (72 of 151), public service (60 of 99), and technology (28 of 35) programs responded to a questionnaire that…

  8. Reacting to the American Graduation Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As part of his quest to help the United States reclaim its status as the world's top producer of college graduates by 2020, on July 14 President Obama introduced the aptly named American Graduation Initiative (AGI). The sweeping proposal would, if approved by Congress, pump an unprecedented $12 billion into the nation's community colleges to help…

  9. Calculating Graduation Rates: We Can Do Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    The statistic of choice to prove that U.S. schools are failing has changed over time. First, it was test scores that meant they could not keep up with Japan. More recently it has become graduation rate. Often accompanying the graduation rate in the failure litany is the drop-out rate. NCLB puts additional pressure on dropout counts because it…

  10. The Top 100: Graduate Degrees Conferred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borden, Victor M. H.; Hu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Master's and doctoral degrees are required credentials for entry into the professional class. Although they do not guarantee the recipient an intrinsically rewarding career or a position of leadership, it is increasingly difficult to attain those positions without a graduate degree. The representation of persons of color among graduate degree…

  11. Graduate Student Report, 1997. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.

    The 1990s have seen change in the populations of graduate students in physics departments across the country. The Graduate Student Survey captures demographic characteristics of approximately 10,600 physics and astronomy students who were enrolled in the 1996-97 academic year. It describes the students' sources of support, areas of specialization,…

  12. Professional Skills Needed by Our Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Donald R.; Briedis, Daina; Perna, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Accreditation agencies have outlined professional skills that should be possessed by engineering graduates. The question this paper addresses is "What professional skills do our recent graduates actually use and value as being important?" Young engineering professionals, as well as professionals in many different professions, were asked…

  13. Graduate Student Project: Employer Operations Management Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Part-time graduate students at an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited college complete a unique project by applying operations management concepts to their current employer. More than 92% of 368 graduates indicated that this experiential project was a positive learning experience, and results show a positive impact on…

  14. Graduate Education for the Earthquake Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan, William

    The nature of graduate education, the job market, and the problem of institutional self-renewal are considered. Trends of leveling off of graduate enrollment and of Ph.D. production and a dramatic increase in the level of postdoctoral training have occurred. The oversupply of Ph.D.-producing institutions and the need for financial support of…

  15. A Checklist to Guide Graduate Students' Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Janet S.; Range, Lillian M.; Ross, Melynda Burck

    2012-01-01

    Many graduate students are poor writers because graduate school demands higher quality and more variety of writing skills than undergraduate school, most students write without revision under heavy time pressures, and instructors often lack the time to guide them toward good writing. Helping students improve could happen in different ways. A…

  16. Teacher Preparation--What Graduates Tell Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, G. Thomas; Foster, Walter S.

    Increasingly, those individuals and institutions working with teachers-to-be are assuming responsibility for the performance of their graduates. One measure of an undergraduate teacher education program is the perceptions of its graduates. In studies using G. Thomas Baer's questionnaire for program evaluation, several recurring themes or common…

  17. Perspectives on Graduate Programs in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipes, Lana, Ed.

    The goals and purposes to be served by graduate level professional preparation for educators are examined and redefined in these essays. The authors are experienced as administrators in schools, colleges, or departments of education. The current state of graduate programs in education in terms of the pressures, problems, dilemmas, and…

  18. Graduate Women's Career Salience, Aspirations, and Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Linda P.

    The career salience and career involvement of young women 1 year after graduation were assessed. Respondents attended nine coeducational colleges and six women's colleges located in the U.S. northeast. It was found that graduates of very selective women's colleges had a higher career salience rating on the Life Style Index than did their…

  19. Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Examination Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    This booklet is an explanation of what the Alaska High School Graduation Qualifying Examination means to Alaskans and how it fits into a larger school accountability reform initiative. The high school class of 2002 is the first group of students who will need to pass the High School Graduation Qualifying Examination to receive a high school…

  20. Educational Embodiment within an Online Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jim; Kieser, Doris; McRae, Phil; Doherty, Maryanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines a symposium that brings together professors and graduate students from the University of Alberta to address the implications of site visitations on a graduate e-learning program within the Faculty of Education. The Master of Education in Educational Studies program is designed for the alternate, flexible delivery of graduate…

  1. The Great Graduation-Rate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christine O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote clearer understanding of the graduation-rate debate by distilling the policy developments and controversy surrounding the measurement of these rates over the last decade. The paper concludes with a discussion of the move toward a federally mandated common metric for graduation rates. The No Child Left Behind…

  2. Business Graduate Skill Sets - Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Denise; Chapman, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the competencies required by industry in business graduates and the relative importance and current graduate proficiency levels in each skill area. A secondary purpose was to examine and compare the perceived role of contemporary business schools across different samples. The study was conducted during…

  3. Working Statewide to Boost Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIver, Martha Abele; Groginsky, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado Graduates Initiative demonstrates seven factors that must be present to build an effective statewide collaborative effort to increase high school graduation rates. These include: 1) Leadership to unite diverse stakeholders on specific, common goals and catalyze them into action; 2) A focus on data, particularly on actionable, early…

  4. Cognitive Apprenticeship Theory and Graduate Chemistry Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, K. K.; Lagowski, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    We address the issues of reform in laboratory instruction by linking the critical details in that process to graduate programs designed to teach advanced students the process(es) of "doing" chemistry. The link is the theory of cognitive development, which we show is an excellent model for the training of graduate students.

  5. Study of ESC [Empire State College] Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palola, Ernest G.; Ogden, Katharine

    This paper reports the results of a survey that examined the success or failure of Empire State College's first 29 graduates in obtaining admission to graduate school. Of the 13 applicants, 7 were accepted, 5 were waiting to hear, and 1 was rejected. Difficulties encountered by the applicants are discussed, as are the intentions of those not…

  6. Research Anxiety among Turkish Graduate ELT Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merç, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level and predictors of research-related anxiety among graduate ELT students in the Turkish context. 81 MA and PhD students from 14 universities offering graduate programs in ELT responded to a background questionnaire, a research anxiety scale, and a research self-efficacy survey. The analysis of…

  7. Engaging a New Generation of Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Sue; Fairhurst, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of generational difference and reflect on how this might impact on organisational approaches to graduate development. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explores the characteristics of Generation Y graduates and the implications of their entry into the workplace for organisations'…

  8. Graduate Research: Score Comparison by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Robert L.; Broadston, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    Do males and females differ as to performance in a graduate-level research class? To investigate this question, the study compared test scores before and after a graduate-level advanced research class, by sex. The six classes that were the focus of this study were offered in the fall 2001, spring and fall 2002 and 2003, and spring 2004 terms under…

  9. Historiography in Graduate Technology Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim; Hunt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    A proposal is made suggesting the inclusion of historiography (i.e., historical research and the writing of history) into graduate technology teacher education. In particular, a strategy is forwarded to have graduate students in technology teacher education, who are working at schools in different locations, conduct historical research and write…

  10. Still No Clear Answer on Graduation Prayer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendor, Benjamin

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Supreme Court graduation-prayer decision in "Lee v. Weisman" (1992) and implications of the "Jones v. Clear Creek Independent School District" case, which the Court decided not to review in 1993. Discusses the New Jersey graduation-prayer experiment and ruling of third District Circuit Court Judge Theodore A. McKee, whose rationale…

  11. Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

  12. Multicultural Issues in Graduate Advising Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Talleyrand, Regine M.; Lyons, Heather Z.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Johnson, W. Brad

    2011-01-01

    Although advisor-advisee relationships are ubiquitous to graduate training, there is relatively little scholarship bearing on advising relationships. Not surprisingly, the intersection between multiculturalism and advising relationships is also sparse. Given the potential increase in the numbers of People of Color entering graduate training due to…

  13. Graduate Entrepreneurship: More than Child's Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Cecilia; Jones, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: With the unbridled demand for entrepreneurship in higher education, the purpose of this paper is to identify how pedagogy can inhibit students in making the transition to graduate entrepreneurship. Along the way, the concept of what and who is a graduate entrepreneur is challenged. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reports upon the…

  14. The Philosophy and Future of Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankena, William K., Ed.

    Focusing on critical issues facing graduate education, these papers presented at a conference sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) examine areas such as declining enrollments, job shortage among college teachers, and the role of graduate schools in relation to the various intellectual disciplines. The overview paper,…

  15. Effectiveness of an Online Graduate Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brucato, Brittany

    2010-01-01

    The present study provides a controlled study of the effectiveness of an online graduate preparation program, The Virtual Advisor. The effects of the Virtual Advisor were compared to a website control and a wait-list control group in relation to a range of graduate school preparation variables. Students who utilized The Virtual Advisor were…

  16. A Convenient Storage Rack for Graduated Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Brian

    2004-01-01

    An attempt is made to find a solution to the occasional problem of a need for storing large numbers of graduated cylinders in many teaching and research laboratories. A design, which involves the creation of a series of parallel channels that are used to suspend inverted graduated cylinders by their bases, is proposed.

  17. Curriculum Mapping to Embed Graduate Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, David; Riddle, Matthew; Knewstubb, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    Graduate capabilities are an essential aspect of undergraduate development in higher education. Accordingly, La Trobe University's "Design for learning" has identified particular university-wide graduate capabilities and required all faculties to explicitly embed these in their curricula. The Faculty of Law and Management developed an approach to…

  18. Ranking Workplace Competencies: Student and Graduate Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainsbury, Elizabeth; Hodges, Dave; Burchell, Noel; Lay, Mark

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand business students and graduates made similar rankings of the five most important workplace competencies: computer literacy, customer service orientation, teamwork and cooperation, self-confidence, and willingness to learn. Graduates placed greater importance on most of the 24 competencies, resulting in a statistically significant…

  19. Graduate and Inservice Education. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Caroline M., Ed.

    This document contains the papers on graduate and inservice education from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference. Topics covered include: Geographic Information Systems in teacher education; re-certification and accreditation; construction of a Web site by graduate teacher education students; Web-based…

  20. Desirable ICT Graduate Attributes: Theory vs. Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debuse, J.; Lawley, M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of ICT graduates must begin their careers by successfully fulfilling the requirements advertised within online recruitment sites. Although considerable research into employer requirements is commonly undertaken when preparing curricula, studies investigating how well the graduate attributes on which curricula are based match those…

  1. Graduates' Work: Organisational Change and Students' Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Lee; Moon, Sue; Geall, Vicki; Bower, Ray

    Employer and employee perceptions of the skills and abilities needed by college graduates in a changing workplace were examined through semistructured, in-depth interviews with a sample of 84 strategic managers, 84 college graduates, and 35 nongraduate employees in 91 organizations across England and Scotland that represented a mix of organization…

  2. High School Graduate Enrollment Trends. Focus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount San Antonio Coll., Walnut, CA.

    A study conducted at Mount San Antonio College (MSAC), California, to determine trends in the number of high school graduates in the MSAC district; the percentage of high school graduates attending MSAC; retention in district high schools between the ninth and twelfth grade; high school performance on California Assessment Program (CAP) Tests;…

  3. Supply and Demand for Graduates in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabsheibani, Gholamreza

    1991-01-01

    Data from a sample of university graduates in Egypt are used to test the effect of a mismatch in higher education policy and labor demand on future employment patterns. The results are delayed employment or underemployment and consequent lowering of lifetime earnings of college graduates. (MSE)

  4. Hey, Capitol Hill: Fund Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Philip

    2005-01-01

    In this brief paper, the author asserts that our nation would be well served if our elected officials made improving graduate education a high priority. At first glance, graduate education seems like an unlikely candidate for the legislative front burner. Surely, Americans are beset by far more critical issues, such as the war on terrorism,…

  5. Graduation Rates: The Stakes for Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchese, Theodore J.

    2009-01-01

    Boards typically consider various financial indicators to gauge the health of their institutions, such as meeting enrollment goals. But there's one indicator--seldom bragged about--that trustees should pay closer attention to: graduation rates. Growing public attention to the need for more college graduates will increase pressure on campuses to…

  6. Graduate Student Blues: The Situation in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallos, Henrik; Yamada, Naoto; Okawa, Masako

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of emotional disturbance among Japanese graduate students and the underlying factors of their emotional disturbance. We conducted a cross sectional survey using the Japanese version of the 30-item General Health Questionnaire at 31 graduate schools from 12 university campuses in and around…

  7. Graduate Students as Middle School Content Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luedeman, John K.; Leonard, William H.; Horton, Robert M.; Wagner, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Graduate K-12 Project, which is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and provides fellowship to graduate and highly qualified undergraduate students in the areas of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology to serve in K-12 schools with teachers. Aims to improve communication and teaching skills of fellows,…

  8. Developments in the Financing of Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Student Loan Marketing Association, Washington, DC.

    Contributors' papers include: an overview (Lawrence A. Hough); the federal role (David Breneman); forecasting the stocks and flows of degree holders (Douglas L. Adkins); medical education's response (Bernard Nelson); long-term approach to graduate education student financial assistance (Kurt L. Kendis); needs analysis at the graduate and…

  9. Pathways through Graduate School and into Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendler, Cathy; Bridgeman, Brent; Markle, Ross; Cline, Fred; Bell, Nathan; McAllister, Patricia; Kent, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Historically, graduate education in the United States has played a critical role in the success of the U.S. workforce and economy, attracting and producing many of the world's most influential researchers, innovators, and leaders. As demonstrated in the landmark 2010 report, "The Path Forward: The Future of Graduate Education in the United…

  10. The Benefits of Acceleration: Graduation Advantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of acceleration (dual enrollment) on college graduation. Over 9,200 student records from 1996 to 2006 at North Iowa Area Community College were analyzed in a logistics regression model. Holding all other independent variables constant the odds that an accelerated student graduates compared to a…

  11. Graduate Students' Perceptions of Contrapower Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohipp, Charmaine; Senn, Charlene Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the perceptions of 172 graduate students to traditional versus contrapower sexual harassment. Graduate students are a unique sample due to their dual role as a student and a teacher. After controlling for attitudes toward feminism and sexual harassment, participants viewed contrapower sexual harassment as less indicative of…

  12. Tidewater Community College 2000 Graduate Survey Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Lisa S.

    The 2000 Tidewater Community College (TCC) Graduate Survey Study is a measure of student satisfaction with the college educational experience. The study gives demographic data pertaining to all 2000 graduates, as well as enrollment, attendance, employment, educational, and attitudinal data generated from survey respondents. Highlights of the…

  13. Culturally Responsive Leadership: Graduate Program Egalitarianism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen; Higham, J. Russell, III

    2007-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, it is paramount that university graduate programs produce culturally responsive leaders capable of synergistically energizing an increasingly heterogeneous work force. Inherent in this charge is the egalitarian approach to graduate program design. Culturally responsive leadership development is…

  14. Career Placement and Graduate Transfer Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    Each year, the Community College of Rhode Island attempts to measure its success in helping students enter the workforce or transfer to a university by surveying the previous year's graduates. This report presents survey statistics for the class of 2000 (response rate 80.5%, n=1,073). Highlights include: (1) 637 graduates were employed full time…

  15. First Employment of British Pharmacology Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Michael; Markham, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted in UK Universities to identify the employment of pharmacology graduates (BSc, MSc and PhD) 6 months after graduation in 2003. The aim was to provide data for the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) so they could offer advice to interested bodies and to University staff for careers information. 85% of 52 Universities…

  16. Technology Education Graduate Education: Factors Influencing Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Phillip L.; Rogers, George E.

    A modified Delphi technique was used to identify the factors that positively influence technology education teachers' decision to enroll in graduate education programs and the barriers to their enrollment in advanced degree programs. Two pairs of Delphi panels were established. The doctoral panels consisted of 15 recent doctoral graduates and 30…

  17. Collaborative Graduate Education across Multiple Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J. R.; Hess, G. R.; Bowman, T. A.; Magnusdottir, H.; Stubbs-Gipson, C. E.; Groom, M.; Miller, J. R.; Steelman, T. A.; Stokes, D. L.

    2009-01-01

    Multi-institutional approaches to graduate education continue to emerge as a way to better prepare students for collaborative work. In this article, we describe a graduate course designed to investigate application of conservation biology principles by local land use planners. "Where is Conservation Science in Local Planning?" was offered jointly…

  18. Accelerated Failure-Time Models of Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimka, Justin R.; Wang, Qilu

    2009-01-01

    This third article in a series describing survival analysis of engineering student retention and graduation introduces accelerated failure-time as an alternative to the Cox proportional hazards model to the context of student data. The new survival analysis of graduation data presented here assumes different distributions including exponential,…

  19. Utilizing Academic Graduate Programs in Basic Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Hyram

    1977-01-01

    The need to expand graduate programs in veterinary medical education is described and suggestions are offered for developing curricula. It is noted that the comparative training in species approach of veterinary schools provides a basis for launching expanded graduate programs. (LBH)

  20. A Cohort, Is a Cohort, Is a Cohort...or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.; Akkary, Rima Karami

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a multi-year qualitative study based upon life-history narratives of women pursuing doctoral degrees in Educational Leadership. This paper focuses on findings specific to educational cohort models, and suggests that perhaps, at least for women, naturally emergent cohorts--born of relationships of choice--may be…

  1. Graduate capabilities: putting mathematics into context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, L. N.

    2010-03-01

    The transition from university to professional working life is important to individual students, employers, universities and more generally to national economies. A better understanding of the match between skills required by industry and skills learnt at university is therefore paramount. This study examines the transition from the perspectives of those undergoing the shift-graduates! There are many studies from the viewpoint of employers but these often end up as an extensive list of requirements that are not possible to achieve in a degree programme. There is a significant expectation gap between employers and graduates. Using a small in-depth study, we show that the mathematics graduates interviewed required more computing power than was taught at university and more 'soft' skills such as communication. An understanding of the transition from learning to work for mathematics graduates points the way to how curricula may be reformed to better prepare graduates for professional work.

  2. Problems in Employment Trend of Higher Vocational Graduates and Countermeasures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jianhua; Sheng, Zhichong

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing the regional character of higher vocational graduates employment, this paper analyzes the reasons for this employment trend, advances relevant countermeasures for employment of higher vocational graduates, and explores the direction for higher vocational graduates employment.

  3. New graduate nurses, new graduate nurse transition programs, and clinical leadership skill: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Kathy B; Richards, Kathy C

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated the relationship between new graduate nurses and clinical leadership skill, and between new graduate nurse transition programs and clinical leadership skill. New graduate nurse transition programs have been cited as one strategy to improve clinical leadership skill, but to our knowledge, no one has synthesized the evidence on new graduate nurse transition programs and clinical leadership skill. Results of this review showed that new graduate nurse transition programs that were at least 24 weeks in length had a positive impact on clinical leadership skill. New graduate nurse transition programs using the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing Nurse Residency curriculum had the greatest impact, followed by curriculum developed by the Versant New Graduate RN Residency, an important finding for nursing professional development specialists. PMID:25993451

  4. Report on the Council of Graduate Schools-Graduate Record Examinations Board 1981-82 Survey of Graduate Enrollment, Part II, June 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Virginia B.; Khoury, Bernard V.

    Results of the Council of Graduate Schools-Graduate Record Examinations Board 1981-1982 Survey of Graduate Enrollment, Part II are presented, based on usable responses from 299 institutions. The survey findings provide information about changes in the pattern of graduate school enrollment and allow comparisons between public and private…

  5. The Performance of First-Year Graduate Students on the Graduate Record Examinations. Graduate Record Examinations Special Report Number 68-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marco, Gary L.

    Normative data were obtained on the performance of first-year graduate students on the Aptitude Test and Advanced Tests of the Graduate Record Examinations. The population consisted of students enrolled as full-time graduate students for the first time in the fall of 1964 in a college or university belonging to the Council of Graduate Schools…

  6. Epilepsy in adults with mitochondrial disease: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Helen E.; Gorman, Grainne S.; Schaefer, Andrew M.; Horvath, Rita; Ng, Yi; Nesbitt, Victoria; Lax, Nichola Z.; McFarland, Robert; Cunningham, Mark O.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Douglass M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence and progression of epilepsy in adult patients with mitochondrial disease. Methods We prospectively recruited a cohort of 182 consecutive adult patients attending a specialized mitochondrial disease clinic in Newcastle upon Tyne between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2008. We then followed this cohort over a 7‐year period, recording primary outcome measures of occurrence of first seizure, status epilepticus, stroke‐like episode, and death. Results Overall prevalence of epilepsy in the cohort was 23.1%. Mean age of epilepsy onset was 29.4 years. Prevalence varied widely between genotypes, with several genotypes having no cases of epilepsy, a prevalence of 34.9% in the most common genotype (m.3243A>G mutation), and 92.3% in the m.8344A>G mutation. Among the cohort as a whole, focal seizures, with or without progression to bilateral convulsive seizures, was the most common seizure type. Conversely, all of the patients with the m.8344A>G mutation and epilepsy experienced myoclonic seizures. Patients with the m.3243A>G mutation remain at high risk of developing stroke‐like episodes (1.16% per year). However, although the standardized mortality ratio for the entire cohort was high (2.86), this ratio did not differ significantly between patients with epilepsy (2.96) and those without (2.83). Interpretation Epilepsy is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease. It develops early in the disease and, in the case of the m.3243A>G mutation, often presents in the context of a stroke‐like episode or status epilepticus. However, epilepsy does not itself appear to contribute to the increased mortality in mitochondrial disease. Ann Neurol 2015;78:949–957 PMID:26381753

  7. Graduate Education in Science and Engineering in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findeis, Arthur F.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the organization of graduate study in Japanese public and private universities, including the relationship between research and graduate training, using the sciences, particularly chemistry, for illustration. (AL)

  8. Graduation Rates by Gender and Ethnicity/Race--2011-12 and 2012-13. Research Note 1301

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on the percentages of graduates and dropouts in the Miami-Dade County Public Schools when broken down by both ethnicity/race and gender for years 2011-12 and 2012-13. The percentages in outcome categories for this report are based on a four-year adjusted cohort model. For the purposes of this report, students at the end of…

  9. Cohort: critical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digney, Bruce L.

    2007-04-01

    Unmanned vehicle systems is an attractive technology for the military, but whose promises have remained largely undelivered. There currently exist fielded remote controlled UGVs and high altitude UAV whose benefits are based on standoff in low complexity environments with sufficiently low control reaction time requirements to allow for teleoperation. While effective within there limited operational niche such systems do not meet with the vision of future military UxV scenarios. Such scenarios envision unmanned vehicles operating effectively in complex environments and situations with high levels of independence and effective coordination with other machines and humans pursing high level, changing and sometimes conflicting goals. While these aims are clearly ambitious they do provide necessary targets and inspiration with hopes of fielding near term useful semi-autonomous unmanned systems. Autonomy involves many fields of research including machine vision, artificial intelligence, control theory, machine learning and distributed systems all of which are intertwined and have goals of creating more versatile broadly applicable algorithms. Cohort is a major Applied Research Program (ARP) led by Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) Suffield and its aim is to develop coordinated teams of unmanned vehicles (UxVs) for urban environments. This paper will discuss the critical science being addressed by DRDC developing semi-autonomous systems.

  10. Sex differences in spatial abilities of medical graduates entering residency programs.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, Georges A; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences favoring males in spatial abilities have been known by cognitive psychologists for more than half a century. Spatial abilities have been related to three-dimensional anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The issue of sex differences in spatial abilities has not been addressed formally in the medical field. The objective of this study was to test an a priori hypothesis of sex differences in spatial abilities in a group of medical graduates entering their residency programs over a five-year period. A cohort of 214 medical graduates entering their specialist residency training programs was enrolled in a prospective study. Spatial abilities were measured with a redrawn Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Tests in two (MRTA) and three (MRTC) dimensions. Sex differences favoring males were identified in 131 (61.2%) female and 83 (38.8%) male medical graduates with the median (Q1, Q3) MRTA score [12 (8, 14) vs. 15 (12, 18), respectively; P < 0.0001] and MRTC score [7 (5, 9) vs. 9 (7, 12), respectively; P < 0.0001]. Sex differences in spatial abilities favoring males were demonstrated in the field of medical education, in a group of medical graduates entering their residency programs in a five-year experiment. Caution should be exerted in applying our group finding to individuals because a particular female may have higher spatial abilities and a particular male may have lower spatial abilities. PMID:23554271

  11. Excess Body Weight and 4-Year Function Outcomes: Comparison of African-Americans and Caucasians in the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Colbert, Carmelita J.; Almagor, Orit; Chmiel, Joan S.; Song, Jing; Dunlop, Dorothy; Hayes, Karen W.; Sharma, Leena

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated whether African-Americans in the Osteoarthritis Initiative have a greater risk (vs. Caucasians) of poor 4-year function outcome within strata defined by gender, BMI, and waist circumference. Using WOMAC function, 20 meter walk, and chair stand performance, poor outcome was defined as moving into a worse function group or remaining in the 2 worst groups over 4 years. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between racial group and outcome within each stratum, adjusting for age, education, and income, and then further adjusting for BMI, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, physical activity, knee pain, and OA severity. In 3695 persons with or at higher risk for knee OA, higher BMI and large waist circumference were each associated with poor outcome. Among women with high BMI and among women with large waist circumference, African-Americans were at greater risk for poor outcome by every measure, adjusting for age, education, and income. From fully adjusted models, potential explanatory factors included income, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, pain, and disease severity. Findings were less consistent for men, emerging only for the 20 meter walk or chair stand outcomes, and potentially explained by age and knee pain. Among OAI women with excess body weight, African-Americans are at greater risk than Caucasians for poor 4-year outcome. Modifiable factors that may help to explain these findings in the OAI include comorbidity, depressive symptoms, and knee pain. Targeting such factors, while supporting weight loss, may help to lessen the outcome disparity between African-American and Caucasian women. PMID:22833527

  12. [Preventive-curative dental care in a large East German urban population. The 4-year experiences of a Dresden prevention study with 16- to 35-year-old subjects].

    PubMed

    Klimm, W; Natusch, I; Koch, R; Schreger, E

    1994-01-01

    The present 4-year Dresden preventive study was carried out to realize a dental care concept with preventive emphasis in 6 Dresden state health services. 2502 patients aged 16-35 years were randomly selected in 1988. The effectiveness of this study was evaluated by means of the parameters oral health behaviour, oral health state and preventive care needs. The spectrum of methods included extended anamnesis, plaque index according to Silness & Löe, DMF/T, DMF/S, GPM/T index, CPITN and saliva tests in case of high caries risk. The dental care based on a basic and a risk strategy. The basic strategy included a complex symptomatic dental treatment and a dental prophylaxis, repeated once every 3 month. The patients were given instruction, demonstration, remotivation, professional oral hygiene measures and topical application of fluorides. The 4-year preventive intervention resulted in an improved consultation and oral hygiene behaviour. The nutritional behaviour did not change essentially. Within the cohort plaque index decreased from 1.01 to 0.68, the GPM/T index from 11.7 to 10.4 as well as the preventive care needs. It was found a low caries increment. The care concept with preventive emphasis is recommendable by its effectiveness. PMID:7939548

  13. Practical science communication strategies for graduate students.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Lauren M; Twardochleb, Laura A; Fritschie, Keith J; Mims, Meryl C; Lawrence, David J; Gibson, Polly P; Stewart-Koster, Ben; Olden, Julian D

    2014-10-01

    Development of skills in science communication is a well-acknowledged gap in graduate training, but the constraints that accompany research (limited time, resources, and knowledge of opportunities) make it challenging to acquire these proficiencies. Furthermore, advisors and institutions may find it difficult to support graduate students adequately in these efforts. The result is fewer career and societal benefits because students have not learned to communicate research effectively beyond their scientific peers. To help overcome these hurdles, we developed a practical approach to incorporating broad science communication into any graduate-school time line. The approach consists of a portfolio approach that organizes outreach activities along a time line of planned graduate studies. To help design the portfolio, we mapped available science communication tools according to 5 core skills essential to most scientific careers: writing, public speaking, leadership, project management, and teaching. This helps graduate students consider the diversity of communication tools based on their desired skills, time constraints, barriers to entry, target audiences, and personal and societal communication goals. By designing a portfolio with an advisor's input, guidance, and approval, graduate students can gauge how much outreach is appropriate given their other commitments to teaching, research, and classes. The student benefits from the advisors' experience and mentorship, promotes the group's research, and establishes a track record of engagement. When graduate student participation in science communication is discussed, it is often recommended that institutions offer or require more training in communication, project management, and leadership. We suggest that graduate students can also adopt a do-it-yourself approach that includes determining students' own outreach objectives and time constraints and communicating these with their advisor. By doing so we hope students will

  14. Large Renal Artery Aneurysm Treated with Guglielmi Detachable Coils: Procedural and 4-Year Follow-up Results

    SciTech Connect

    Damascelli, Bruno; Bartorelli, Antonio L.; Ticha, Vladimira; Trabattoni, Daniela; Lanocita, Rodolfo

    2008-07-15

    A large aneurysm of the left renal artery was found incidentally during abdominal ultrasound in a 39-year-old woman with no medical or family history of cardiovascular disease. Vascular pathology with a dysplastic appearance was confirmed by magnetic resonance angiography and the patient was offered transcatheter embolization. Since the position and size of the neck of the aneurysm could not be determined at angiography, detachable platinum coils were used for occlusion. The procedure was performed without complications. During a 4-year follow-up no alterations of renal function, recanalization of the aneurysm, or perfusion defects in the rest of the left renal circulation were noted.

  15. A 4-year prospective evaluation of protocols to improve clinical outcomes for patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a national clinical centre.

    PubMed

    Bee, Janet; Bhatt, Rupesh; McCafferty, Ian; Johnson, Simon R

    2015-12-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare multisystem disease. Progressive airflow limitation, pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma-related bleeding are major morbidities. As treatments are available for these complications, we prospectively audited loss of FEV1 (ΔFEV1), pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma bleeding against clinical standards over 4 years at the UK Clinical Centre. ΔFEV1 for these patients is lower than previously reported and rates of pneumothorax and angiomyolipoma haemorrhage are low. This suggests that real-time analysis of clinical data with targeted interventions can reduce morbidity in LAM. These measures could be applied as quality standards to compare the emerging LAM clinical networks worldwide. PMID:26123659

  16. Graduate engineering research participation in aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The Aeronautics Graduate Research Program commenced in 1971, with the primary goal of engaging students who qualified for regular admission to the Graduate School of Engineering at Old Dominion University in a graduate engineering research and study program in collaboration with NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The format and purposes of this program are discussed. Student selection and program statistics are summarized. Abstracts are presented in the folowing areas: aircraft design, aerodynamics, lift/drag characteristics; avionics; fluid mechanics; solid mechanics; instrumentation and measurement techniques; thermophysical properties experiments; large space structures; earth orbital dynamics; and environmental engineering.

  17. Graduation Research Applying National College Robot Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyama, Shigehiro; Masuyama, Hiroyuki; Hatinohe, Toshitaka; Yamashita, Kouji

    This paper investigates graduation researches applying the national college robot contest whose rules become complicated gradually. First, an analysis of our students participating in the contest indicates that they are almost beginners, and some instruction methods for such beginners are presented. Second, the planning and the making process of a robot for the national college robot contest in 2003 are introduced, and a graduation research on the robot employing a bogie suspension system is illustrated. Finally, two improvement examples of engineering experiment in the electronic mechanical engineering department, which are fed back information gotten through the instruction of the graduation research, are introduced.

  18. Employment Histories of Recent Astronomy Ph.D. Graduates from the University of Texas at Austin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, H.

    1996-12-01

    The University of Texas at Austin has one of the largest astronomy graduate programs in the U.S. As of several years ago, there were over 50 students enrolled, although the current number is closer to 35. During the decade 1980-89, a total of 85 students entered the program, of whom 64 (75%) completed the Ph.D. About a third (33%) of the Ph.D. graduates currently hold postdoctoral positions in astronomy. (Note that the sample includes some students who received their degrees within the last four or five years.) Another 35% hold permanent (or tenure-track) faculty jobs or positions at government laboratories or observatories in the U.S.; if one includes those who hold such positions in other countries, the total rises to 45%. (Some of these were foreign students who returned to their country of origin.) The remaining individuals are supported by grants (``soft money'') or are employed by companies doing work mostly unrelated to astronomy. Examination of the job histories and experiences of this cohort gives us crucial, realistic information on the present-day job market and prospects for professional success for new Ph.D.'s in astronomy. This is extremely important at a time when the American Astronomical Society and the profession at large is re-examining the effectiveness and goals of current graduate programs in astronomy. I report here results from a survey of this large cohort of recent graduates, including such information as the average number of postdocs held, and average number of years between receiving the Ph.D. and finding a permanent position in astronomy.

  19. Cohort Profile: Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC)

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Costagliola, Dominique; Justice, Amy C; de Wolf, Frank; Cavassini, Matthias; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Casabona, Jordi; Hogg, Robert S; Mocroft, Amanda; Lampe, Fiona C; Dabis, François; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Sterling, Timothy R; del Amo, Julia; Gill, M John; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Guest, Jodie; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Sterne, Jonathan AC

    2014-01-01

    The advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996 resulted in fewer patients experiencing clinical events, so that some prognostic analyses of individual cohort studies of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals had low statistical power. Because of this, the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) of HIV cohort studies in Europe and North America was established in 2000, with the aim of studying the prognosis for clinical events in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the mortality of adult patients treated for HIV-1 infection. In 2002, the ART-CC collected data on more than 12,000 patients in 13 cohorts who had begun combination ART between 1995 and 2001. Subsequent updates took place in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. The ART-CC data base now includes data on more than 70 000 patients participating in 19 cohorts who began treatment before the end of 2009. Data are collected on patient demographics (e.g. sex, age, assumed transmission group, race/ethnicity, geographical origin), HIV biomarkers (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma viral load of HIV-1), ART regimen, dates and types of AIDS events, and dates and causes of death. In recent years, additional data on co-infections such as hepatitis C; risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and drug use; non-HIV biomarkers such as haemoglobin and liver enzymes; and adherence to ART have been collected whenever available. The data remain the property of the contributing cohorts, whose representatives manage the ART-CC via the steering committee of the Collaboration. External collaboration is welcomed. Details of contacts are given on the ART-CC website (www.art-cohort-collaboration.org). PMID:23599235

  20. Psychosocial and Neurohormonal Predictors of HIV Disease Progression (CD4 Cells and Viral Load): A 4 Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ironson, G; O'Cleirigh, C; Kumar, M; Kaplan, L; Balbin, E; Kelsch, C B; Fletcher, M A; Schneiderman, N

    2015-08-01

    Most studies of psychosocial predictors of disease progression in HIV have not considered norepinephrine (NE), a neurohormone related to emotion and stress, even though NE has been related to accelerated viral replication in vitro and impaired response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We therefore examined NE, cortisol, depression, hopelessness, coping, and life event stress as predictors of HIV progression in a diverse sample. Participants (n = 177) completed psychological assessment, blood draws [CD4, viral load (VL)], and a 15 h urine sample (NE, cortisol) every 6 months over 4 years. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to model slope in CD4 and VL controlling for ART at every time point, gender, age, race, SES, and initial disease status. NE (as well as depression, hopelessness, and avoidant coping) significantly predicted a greater rate of decrease in CD4 and increase in VL. Cortisol was not significantly related to CD4, but predicted VL increase. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating NE, in vivo, to accelerated disease progression over an extended time. It also extends our previous 2 year study by relating depressed mood and coping to accelerated disease progression over 4 years. PMID:25234251