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Sample records for 4-year longitudinal study

  1. Does Maternal Depression Predict Young Children's Executive Function?--A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire; Roman, Gabriela; Hart, Martha J.; Ensor, Rosie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Building on reports that parental maltreatment and neglect adversely affect young children's executive function (EF), this longitudinal study examined whether exposure to a more common risk factor, mothers' depressive symptoms, predicted individual differences in EF at school-age. Methods: We followed up at age 6 a socially diverse…

  2. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  3. Gender-Related Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms and Disordered Eating in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The interplay between intrapersonal risk (low self-esteem, perfectionism and body dissatisfaction) and interpersonal protection (social support) appears relevant for delineating gender-specific pathways that lead to both depressive and eating psychopathology. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine gender differences in the levels of…

  4. Continuous up to 4 Years Entecavir Treatment of HBV-Infected Adolescents – A Longitudinal Study in Real Life

    PubMed Central

    Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Smok, Beata; Rajewski, Paweł; Wietlicka-Piszcz, Magdalena; Halota, Waldemar; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term (up to 4 years) efficacy and safety of entecavir ETV treatment and analysed the significance of baseline and on-treatment factors in long-term ETV outcomes in adolescents with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We determined the cumulative virological and serological outcomes of 44 adolescents with CHB receiving ETV for up to 4 years. To investigate the dynamics of HBV DNA, ALT activity and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion over time and their associations with the considered factors, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. The cumulative rates of undetectable HBV DNA (<20 IU/ml) and HBeAg seroconversion after 4 years were 89.7% and 55.4%, respectively. In the study group, we showed that having undetectable HBV DNA at the 6th or 12th month of therapy predicted the achievement of a sustained response rate (SRR, defined as the loss of HBV DNA, loss of HBeAg and ALT normalization) at year 3 of ETV therapy (P = 0.048, OR = 5.83; P = 0.012; OR = 14.57, respectively). The GEE analysis indicated that of the different factors, the duration of ETV therapy had a strong impact on the achievement of virological suppression, HBeAg seroconversion and SRR in adolescents. Each month after the initiation of therapy, the odds of loss of HBV DNA increased by approximately 5% (OR = 1.05, P<0.0001), on average. Additionally, the GEE analysis revealed that adolescents with an age at infection of ≥10 years had 3 times higher odds of achieving undetectable HBV DNA than patients with a younger infection age (OR = 3.67, P = 0.028). None of the ETV-treated patients reported significant adverse effects. ETV is an effective and safe treatment option for adolescents with CHB. Undetectable HBV DNA in the 6th and/or 12th month of ETV treatment and older age at infection could predict maintained virological suppression. PMID:27685782

  5. Predictive Value of Triglyceride Glucose Index for the Risk of Incident Diabetes: A 4-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    The Triglyceride Glucose Index (TyG index) is considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the TyG index has a predictive role in identifying individuals with a high risk of incident diabetes and to compare it with other indicators of metabolic health. A total 2900 non-diabetic adults who attended five consecutive annual health check-ups at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital was divided into four subgroups using three methods: (1) baseline TyG index; (2) obesity status (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and cutoff value of TyG index; (3) obesity status and metabolic health, defined as having fewer than two of the five components of high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and highest decile of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. The development of diabetes was assessed annually using self-questionnaire, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin. We compared the risk of incident diabetes using multivariate Cox analysis. During 11623 person-years there were 101 case of incident diabetes. Subjects with high TyG index had a high risk of diabetes. For TyG index quartiles, hazard ratios (HRs) of quartiles 3 and 4 were 4.06 (p = 0.033) and 5.65 (p = 0.006) respectively. When the subjects were divided by obesity status and cutoff value of TyG index of 8.8, the subgroups with TyG index ≥ 8.8 regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HR 2.40 [p = 0.024] and 2.25 [p = 0.048]). For obesity status and metabolic health, the two metabolically unhealthy subgroups regardless of obesity had a significantly high risk for diabetes (HRs 2.54 [p = 0.024] and 2.73 [p = 0.021]). In conclusion, the TyG index measured at a single time point may be an indicator of the risk for incident diabetes. The predictive value of the TyG index was comparable to that of metabolic health.

  6. The Post-High School Outcomes of Youth With Disabilities up to 4 Years After High School: A Report From the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2009-3017

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Cameto, Renee; Knokey, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) is a 10-year-long study of the characteristics, experiences, and outcomes of a nationally representative sample of youth with disabilities who were 13 to 16 years old and receiving special education services in grade 7 or above, under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in the…

  7. Comparisons across Time of the Outcomes of Youth with Disabilities up to 4 Years after High School. A Report of Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2010-3008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lynn; Wagner, Mary; Cameto, Renee; Knokey, Anne-Marie; Shaver, Debra

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to document the secondary school experiences and postsecondary outcomes of students with disabilities over the last two decades, the U.S. Department of Education (ED) sponsored two longitudinal research studies 15 years apart. The first study, the National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) generated nationally representative…

  8. Longitudinal standards for growth velocity of infants from birth to 4 years born in West Azerbaijan Province of northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Parvin; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Alinejad, Vahid; Haem, Elham

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Growth velocity is an important factor to monitor for appropriate child growth. This study presents the growth velocity of infants based on length, weight, and head circumference. METHODS: The subjects of this study were 308 neonates (160 boys and 148 girls) born in West Azerbaijan Province of northwestern Iran who were followed from birth for 4 years. The weights and lengths of the subjects were recorded at birth, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 9 months, and 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age, while the head circumferences were measured just up to 1.5 years of age. In this study, the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method using LMS Chartmaker Pro (Institute of Child Health, London, UK) was utilized to obtain growth velocity percentiles. RESULTS: After obtaining growth velocity charts for weight, length, and head circumference (5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles), the researchers could deduce that there was a sharp decrease in the velocity growth charts from birth to 2 years of age but these charts remained relatively stable up to 4 years for both sexes. Growth velocities for the length and weight of boys in the present sample are slightly but not significantly greater than those in girls through the first months of infancy and there was no significant difference between girls and boys up to 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provided the first local growth velocity standards of length, weight, and head circumference for infants by analyzing longitudinal measurements produced for West Azerbaijan Province, which should be updated periodically. It seems that there has been a significant difference between the growth velocity of infants in northwestern Iran and southern Iran within the past few years. PMID:26212504

  9. Longitudinal (4 year) change of thigh muscle and adipose tissue distribution in chronically painful vs. painless knees – data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Dannhauer, Torben; Eckstein, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate 4-year longitudinal change in thigh muscle and adipose tissue content in chronically painful versus painless knees. Methods Knees from Osteoarthritis Initiative participants with non-acceptable symptom status (numerical rating scale ≥4) and frequent pain (≥6 months at baseline, year 2 and year 4 follow-up) were studied. These were matched with painless controls (bilateral NRS pain intensity≤1 and ≤infrequent pain at all 3 timepoints). 4-year longitudinal changes in thigh muscle anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs), isometric muscle strength, and in subcutaneous (SCF) and intermuscular fat (IMF) CSAs were obtained from magnetic resonance images (MRI) and were compared between groups (paired t-tests). Results 43 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria of chronic pain, had complete thigh muscle MRI acquisitions and strength measurements, and a matched control. Quadriceps CSAs, but not extensor strength, showed a significant longitudinal decrease in chronically painful knees (-3.9%; 95%confidence interval [95 CI] -6.3%,-1.5%) and in painless controls (-2.4%; 95% CI -4.1%, -0.7%); the difference in change was not statistically significant (p=0.33). There was a significant 4-year gain in SCF in painful knees (8.1%; 95% CI 3.1%, 13%) but not in controls (0.0%; 95%CI -4.4%, +4.4%) with the difference in change being significant (p=0.03). The gain in IMF (∼5.2%) was similar between painful and painless knees. Conclusion This is the first paper to show a significant impact of (chronic) knee pain on longitudinal change in local subcutaneous adipose tissue. The effect of pain on subcutaneous fat appeared stronger than that on intermuscular adipose tissue and on muscle status. PMID:25887367

  10. Determinants of waterpipe smoking initiation among school children in Irbid, Jordan: a 4-year longitudinal analysis*

    PubMed Central

    McKelvey, Karma; Attonito, Jennifer; Madhivanan, Purnima; Jaber, Rana; Yi, Qilong; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Objective Guided by the Attitude-Social influence-self Efficacy (ASE) theory, this study identified predictors of waterpipe (WP) smoking initiation in a WP naïve cohort of Jordanian schoolchildren. Methods A school-based cohort of all 7th grade students (N=1,781) in 19 of 60 schools in Irbid, Jordan, was followed from 2008 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to examine predictors of WP initiation among WP-naïve students (N=1,243). Results During the 3-year study, WP initiation was documented in 39% of boys and 28% of girls. Prior cigarette smoking (boys: Odds Ratio 7.41; 95% Confidence Interval 4.05–12.92 and girls: 8.48; 4.34–16.56) and low WP refusal self-efficacy (boys: 26.67; 13.80–51.53 and girls: 11.49; 6.42–20.55) were strongly predictive of initiating WP. Boys were also more likely to initiate WP smoking if they had siblings (2.30; 1.14- 4.64) or teachers (2.07; 1.12–3.84) who smoked and girls if they had friends (2.96; 1.59–5.54) who smoked. Conclusion There is a sizeable incidence of WP initiation among students of both sexes. These findings will help in designing culturally responsive prevention interventions against WP smoking. Gender-specific factors, refusal skills, and cigarette smoking need to be important components of such initiatives. PMID:25060962

  11. A 4-Year Longitudinal Investigation of the Processes by Which Parents and Peers Influence the Development of Early Adolescent Girls' Bulimic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Gondoli, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Bulimic symptoms are fairly common among adolescent girls, and the dual pathway model outlines one possible etiological chain leading to bulimic symptoms. The present study seeks to longitudinally examine the pathways proposed by this model while focusing on the relative contribution of parents and peers (via direct encouragement or pressure to be…

  12. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples. PMID:27014145

  13. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples.

  14. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    PubMed

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p < 0.0001) gains in weight (3.0 kg), BMI (1.0 kg·m(-2)), body fat (3.6%), and absolute fat mass (3.2 kg). Males gained significantly (p < 0.0001) greater amounts of weight, BMI, percent and absolute fat mass, and fat-free mass than females. Weight change ranged from (-)8.7 to (+)16.8 kg. About 70% of the participants gained weight, which averaged 5.3 kg; significant (p < 0.0001) gains in BMI, fat-free mass, absolute fat mass, and percent body fat and significant (p < 0.0005) increases in neck, chest-bust, waist, hips, seat, and biceps circumferences were also observed in this weight gain group. The percentage of participants classified as overweight-obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with both weight and percent body fat changes. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  15. A 4-year follow-up study of a rural community with endemic Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Yépez, C. Gil

    1968-01-01

    The paper reports on a 4-year follow-up study that represents the continuation of a previous cross-sectional study on Chagas' disease carried out in a rural community (Belén) in Venezuela. The earlier study included 1210 persons all over 5 years of age out of a total of 1656 inhabitants and demonstrated a high prevalence of Chagas' infection (47.3%) and a high rate of Chagas' disease seropositivity among those with chronic myocardial heart disease (84.8%); heart disease was found in 17.3% of persons studied. The follow-up study was based on 812 persons and established that in the sample the frequency of Chagas' infection was 16.3% and that of heart disease 2.2%. Clinical, electrocardiographic and radiological analyses were made on patients with previous heart disease as well as on new patients. Different evolutive electrocardiographic patterns have been found, including variations ranging from normal to definitively abnormal. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2 PMID:4974002

  16. A 4-year study of invasive and native spider populations in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jakob, Elizabeth M.; Porter, Adam H.; Ginsberg, Howard; Bednarski, Julie V.; Houser, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Invasive spiders pose potential threats to native spiders. In 2002, the European spider Linyphia triangularis (Clerck, 1757) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) was discovered in all but one county in Maine. At Acadia National Park, we conducted a 4-year study of L. triangularis and three native linyphiid species of a similar size (Frontinella communis (Hentz, 1850), Pityohyphantes subarcticus Chamberlin and Ivie, 1943, and Neriene radiata (Walckenaer, 1842)). Using line-transect surveys, we measured population densities in coastal and forest habitat. The density of L. triangularis varied across years but was always significantly higher on the coast than in the forest. In contrast, only one native species was present on the coast and at very low numbers. Coastal L. triangularis were larger and in better condition than those in the forest, and numbers and biomass of insect prey were also higher on the coast. In 2 years, we also conducted transects at a second coastal location in Maine where the invader was at low density. At that site, native densities were substantially higher than at either Acadia site. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that L. triangularis is reducing populations of native spiders. Companion studies suggest that L. triangularis negatively impacts natives by usurping both web sites and webs.

  17. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  18. Stability of alexithymia in late adolescence: results of a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Karukivi, Max; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Saikkonen, Suvi; Saarijärvi, Simo

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the present study was to assess the stability of alexithymia in adolescents and the effects of parental factors and social support thereon. The sample comprised 315 late adolescents, of whom 259 were female and 56 male. At baseline, the mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The follow-up period was 4 years (2008-2012). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for the assessment of alexithymia both at baseline and follow-up. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were used as measures at baseline. Regarding absolute stability, the changes in the TAS-20 total scores and two subscales (DIF and EOT) were statistically significant but the effect sizes for the changes were small (Cohen׳s d 0.21-0.24). The test-retest correlations for the TAS-20 total and subscale scores were high (ρ=0.50-0.64, P<0.001), indicating relative stability. While several parental and social support variables were associated with alexithymia at baseline, low social support from friends was the only to predict higher alexithymia at follow-up. Alexithymia is a stable personality trait also in late adolescence. Low social support from friends is related to alexithymia in young adulthood.

  19. The Impact of Admission Diagnosis on Recurrent or Frequent Hospitalizations in 3 Dementia Subtypes: A Hospital-Based Cohort in Taiwan with 4 Years Longitudinal Follow-Ups.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Chih; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Nai-Ching; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lui, Chun-Chung; Huang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lee, Chen-Chang; Lai, Wei-An

    2015-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients with different types of dementia have resulted in the increasing medical care loads. It is not known whether explanatory factors for recurrent or prolong hospitalization were driven by the subtypes of dementia. We analyzed 203 dementia patients aged >65-year-old with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), or Parkinsonism-related dementia (PRD). With a 4-year follow-up period, logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of dementia diagnosis, cerebrovascular risk factors, chronic systemic diseases, and the etiology for admission for recurrent (>4 times/4 years) or prolonged hospitalization stay (>14 days per hospitalization). There were 48 AD, 96 VaD, and 59 PRD patients that completed the 4-year study. The average length of hospital stay was significant, the shortest in AD and the longest in PRD (P = 0.01), whereas the frequency of hospitalization was not different among 3 dementia subtypes. Although delirium is the most common etiology for admission in the patients, diabetes mellitus (Odds ratio, OR = 2.79, P = 0.02), pneumonia (OR = 11.21, P < 0.001), and fall-related hip fracture (OR = 4.762, P = 0.029) were significantly associated with prolong hospitalization. Patients with coronary artery disease (OR = 9.87, P = 0.02), pneumonia (OR = 84.48, P < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR = 55.09, P < 0.001), and fall-related fracture (OR = 141.7, P < 0.001) predict recurrent hospitalization. Dementia subtypes did not influence directly on the hospitalization courses. The etiologies for admission carried higher clinical significance, compared with the coexisted systemic diseases.

  20. Natural History of Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 31: a 4-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Katsuya; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Matsushima, Akira; Shimizu, Yusaku; Sato, Shunichi; Yahikozawa, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Shinji; Yazawa, Masanobu; Ushiyama, Masao; Sato, Mitsuto; Morita, Hiroshi; Inoue, Atsushi; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2017-04-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) is known as a late-onset, relatively pure cerebellar form of ataxia, but a longitudinal prospective study on the natural history of SCA31 has not been done yet. In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled 44 patients (mean ± standard deviation 73.6 ± 8.5 years) with genetically confirmed SCA31 from 10 ataxia referral centers in the Nagano area, Japan. Patients were evaluated every year for 4 years using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and the Barthel Index (BI). Of the 176 follow-up visits (91.5%), 161 were completed in this study. Five patients (11.4%) died during the follow-up period, and two patients (4.5%) were lost to follow-up. The annual progression of the SARA score was 0.8 ± 0.1 points/year and that of the BI was -2.3 ± 0.4 points/year (mean ± standard error). Shorter disease duration at baseline was associated with faster progression of the SARA score. Our study indicated the averaged clinical course of SCA31 as follows: the patients develop ataxic symptoms at 58.5 ± 10.3 years, become wheelchair bound at 79.4 ± 1.7 years, and died at 88.5 ± 0.7 years. Our prospective dataset provides important information for clinical trials of forthcoming disease-modifying therapies for cerebellar ataxia. It also represents a useful resource for SCA31 patients and their family members in genetic counseling sessions.

  1. Psychological distress and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 4-year policemen cohort study in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Liu, J C; Xiao, X; Chen, X; Yue, S; Yu, H; Tian, F S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated whether psychological distress predicts the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and if the association differs between populations at a high or low diabetes risk level among Chinese police officers. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Single centre. Participants 6559 participants underwent clinical measurements at the hospital in April 2007. 5811 police officers participated in the follow-up consisting of new-onset diabetes (NOD) events occurring annually between 2008 and 2011. Primary outcome measures Baseline data were collected from policemen who completed the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaire and a self-designed questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured by the SCL-90-R questionnaire. Hong Kong Chinese Diabetes Risk Score (HKCDRS) was used to evaluate the risk of T2DM, and the participants were divided into low-risk group and high-risk group based on the HKCDRS. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the HRs of the incidence of T2DM related to psychological distress and further stratified the analysis based on HKCDRS. Results Among 5811 participants, 179 subjects developed NOD during the 4-year follow-up. 54 subjects (1.63%) with a HKCDRS 0–7 vs 125 subjects (4.98%) with a HKCDRS>7 developed NOD (p<0.05). There was a significant association between psychological distress and T2DM (HR=1.46; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.02). Among the participants with a high-risk score (HKCDRS>7), 7.07% of those with psychological distress developed T2DM compared with 4.43% of participants without psychological distress (p<0.05). The corresponding adjusted HR for psychological distress was 1.61 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.37). Conclusions Psychological distress is an independent risk factor for T2DM in this prospective cohort study. Stratification analysis indicated that psychological distress was associated with T2DM in a high-risk level population. PMID:28132015

  2. Adoptive and Nonadoptive Mother–Child Behavioral Interaction: A Comparative Study at 4 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Padilla, Christina M.; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Horn, E. Parham; Bradley, Alexandra L.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Comparable samples of low-risk adopted and nonadopted children and mothers were observed during 3 tasks at age 4 years. Quality of mother-child interactions, child level of functioning in 4 domains, and maternal parenting satisfaction and social support were assessed. Adopted children were as competent as nonadopted children on measures of developmental functioning. Both groups of mothers expressed high satisfaction and support as parents. However, ratings of child, maternal, and dyadic behavior when interacting were all lower for adoptive dyads than for nonadoptive dyads, and adoptive dyads with boys accounted for the maternal and dyadic group differences. PMID:27134518

  3. Is self-esteem a cause or consequence of social support? A 4-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Sarah L; Parker, Phillip D; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (M(age) = 13.41 years). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to test between a self-esteem antecedent model (self-esteem precedes changes in social support), self-esteem consequence model (social support precedes change in self-esteem), and a reciprocal influence model. Self-esteem reliably predicted increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time. In contrast, the consequence model was not supported. The implications of this for helping adolescents to develop higher quality social support structures are discussed.

  4. Dental caries development among African-American children: results from a 4-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine dental caries development and caries risk factors among preschool African-American children from low-income families in Detroit, Michigan over a four- year window. Methods Data came from a representative sample of 1,021 children (zero to five years) and their caregivers in Detroit. The baseline participants in 2002–03 (W1) were reexamined in 2004–05 (W2) and 2007 (W3). Caries was measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Bivariate and multivariate analyses for repeated data were conducted to explore associations between caries increment outcomes and demographics, access to dental care, oral health-related behaviors, and social and physical environments. Results The mean number of new NCCL (non-cavitated caries lesions) was 2.8 between W1 and W2 and 2.6 between W2 and W3, while the mean number of new CCL (cavitated caries lesions) was 2.0 and 2.0, respectively, during the same time periods. In younger children (< three years old in W1) higher number of new NCCL than new CCL were observed in both W1–W2 and W2–W3. The risk of new NCCL was associated with child’s soda intake and caregiver’s age. For the risk of new CCL, significant risk factors included baseline NCCL, baseline CCL, as well as child’s age. Baseline caries and child’s soda intake were also associated with the risk of developing new decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces. Conclusions Higher number of new NCCL relative to CCL was developed among low-income Africa-American children during early childhood. New caries development was associated with baseline caries and child’s soda intake. PMID:25441657

  5. Is Self-Esteem a Cause or Consequence of Social Support? A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Sarah L.; Parker, Phillip D.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has been devoted to examining the relations between self-esteem and social support. However, the exact nature and direction of these relations are not well understood. Measures of self-esteem, and social support quantity and quality were administered to 961 adolescents across five yearly time points (M[subscript…

  6. Early Predictors of Biliteracy Development in Children in French Immersion: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2011-01-01

    English language predictors of English and French reading development were investigated in a group of 140 children who were enrolled in French immersion programs. Children were first tested in kindergarten, and their reading achievement was tested yearly in both English and French from Grades 1 to 3, with word-level and passage-level measures that…

  7. Observations from a 4-year contamination study of a sample depth profile through Martian meteorite Nakhla.

    PubMed

    Toporski, Jan; Steele, Andrew

    2007-04-01

    Morphological, compositional, and biological evidence indicates the presence of numerous well-developed microbial hyphae structures distributed within four different sample splits of the Nakhla meteorite obtained from the British Museum (allocation BM1913,25). By examining depth profiles of the sample splits over time, morphological changes displayed by the structures were documented, as well as changes in their distribution on the samples, observations that indicate growth, decay, and reproduction of individual microorganisms. Biological staining with DNA-specific molecular dyes followed by epifluorescence microscopy showed that the hyphae structures contain DNA. Our observations demonstrate the potential of microbial interaction with extraterrestrial materials, emphasize the need for rapid investigation of Mars return samples as well as any other returned or impactor-delivered extraterrestrial materials, and suggest the identification of appropriate storage conditions that should be followed immediately after samples retrieved from the field are received by a handling/curation facility. The observations are further relevant in planetary protection considerations as they demonstrate that microorganisms may endure and reproduce in extraterrestrial materials over long (at least 4 years) time spans. The combination of microscopy images coupled with compositional and molecular staining techniques is proposed as a valid method for detection of life forms in martian materials as a first-order assessment. Time-resolved in situ observations further allow observation of possible (bio)dynamics within the system.

  8. Atresia of the Aortic Arch in 4-Year-Old Child: A Clinical Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Nigro Stimato, Vittoria; Didier, Dominique; Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Atresia of the aortic arch is a rare congenital heart defect with a high mortality when associated with other intracardiac defects. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) provides the exact anatomy of the aortic arch and collateral circulation and is useful to diagnose-associated aortic arch anomalies. This report describes the case of a 4-year-old child with atresia of the aortic arch, referred to our institution with the diagnosis of aortic coarctation and bicuspid aortic valve. On clinical exam, the femoral pulses were not palpable and there was a significant differential blood pressure between the upper and lower limbs. The echocardiography showed a severely stenotic bicuspid aortic valve but was limited for the exact description of the aortic arch. CMR showed absence of lumen continuity between the ascending and descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery, extending over 5 mm, with the presence of a bend in the arch and diverticulum on either side of the zone of discontinuity, suggesting the diagnosis atresia of the aortic arch rather than coarctation or interruption. The patient benefited from a successful surgical commissurotomy of the aortic valve and reconstruction of the aortic arch with a homograft. The post-operative CMR confirmed the good surgical result. This case emphasizes the utility of CMR to provide good anatomical information to establish the exact diagnosis and the operative strategy. PMID:25853109

  9. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  10. CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON FINE ROOT LENGTH, PRODUCTION, AND MORTALITY: A 4-YEAR PONDEROSA PINE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  11. Integrating Research-Informed Teaching within an Undergraduate Level 4 (Year 1) Diagnostic Radiography Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Robert; Hogg, Peter; Robinson, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the piloting and evaluation of the Research-informed Teaching experience (RiTe) project. The aim of RiTe was to link teaching and learning with research within an undergraduate diagnostic radiography curriculum. A preliminary pilot study of RiTe was undertaken with a group of level 4 (year 1) volunteer BSc (Hons) diagnostic…

  12. EFL Learning and Identity Development: A Longitudinal Study in 5 Universities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yihong; Jia, Zengyan; Zhou, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Combining psychological and social perspectives and using mixed methods, this 4-year longitudinal study examined the EFL learning and self-identity development of about 1,000 students from 5 universities in Beijing, China. The self-designed questionnaire, administered 5 times during the 4 years, consisted of 7 identity categories of identity…

  13. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  14. Metabolic Evaluation in Paediatric Urolithiasis: A 4-Year Open Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gajengi, Ajay Kumar R; Tanwar, Harshwardhan V; Mhaske, Sunil; Patwardhan, Sujata K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Children with urolithiasis are associated with considerable morbidity and commonly associated with metabolic abnormalities. By treating these abnormalities stone formation is prevented. Objectives To study the metabolic risk factors of urolithiasis in children and compare them with literature. Materials and Methods In open, prospective and observational study, 75 children were evaluated from August 2010 to June 2014. In all patients’ dietary history, water intake and results of laboratory findings were recorded. All urine samples obtained from patients were without dietary restrictions. Reference paediatric 24 hour urinary parameter was used according to western literature. Results We investigated 75 patients with urolithiasis. Low urine volume was found in 49 patients which is comparable with previous studies indicating simple intervention as to increase water intake. Low calcium intake was found in 44 patients suggesting that low calcium intake is associated with higher incidence of urolithiasis due to increased intestinal oxalate absorption. Hypocalcaemia was found in 32 patients and 24 hour urinary abnormality was found in only 16 patients’. Both these finding does not support previous literature. Stone analysis finding does not correlate with urinary finding. Conclusions Low urine volume secondary to low water intake is predominant finding. Hypocalcaemia is major metabolic abnormality in contradiction to western literature. There are no nomograms for urinary excretion of Calcium, uric acid, oxalate and citrate in Indian children. Keeping the optimum blood calcium level & increased fluid intake can prevent stone formation in children. PMID:27042515

  15. Spinal epidural abscess: aetiology, predisponent factors and clinical outcomes in a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Stephan M E; Conen, Anna; Müller, Andreas A; Sailer, Martin; Taub, Ethan; Flückiger, Ursula; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja C

    2011-12-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare, but serious, condition with multiple causes. We prospectively studied the aetiology, predisposing factors, and clinical outcomes of SEA in all patients with SEA treated in our hospital's neurosurgical service from 2004 to 2008. For each patient, we recorded the medical history, comorbidities, focus of infection, pathogen(s), and outcome. The 36 patients (19 women and 17 men) ranged in age from 34 to 80 years old (mean 57; median 56). The SEA was primary (i.e., due to haematogenous spread) in 16 patients (44%); it was secondary to elective spinal procedures, either injections or surgery, in 20 patients (56%). The duration of follow-up was 12-60 months (mean 36; median 37.5). The most common pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, was found in 18 patients (50%). Patients with primary SEA had different underlying diseases and a wider range of pathogens than those with secondary SEA. Only five patients (14%) had no major comorbidity; 16 of the 20 patients with secondary SEA (44% of the overall group) had undergone spinal surgery before developing the SEA; the treatment of the SEA involved multiple surgical operations in all 16 of these patients, and spinal instrumentation in 5 (14%); 22 patients (61% of the overall group) recovered fully.

  16. Implementation of a Zebrafish Health Program in a Research Facility: A 4-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Nuno; Franco, Maysa; Vale, Liliana; Pereira, Margarida; Cunha, Mónica V.; Amaro, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Rebelo, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the past two decades, zebrafish (Danio rerio)-based research has contributed to significant scientific advances. Still, husbandry and health programs did not evolve at the same pace, as evidenced by the absence of general guidelines. Health monitoring is essential to animal welfare, to permit animal exchanges across facilities, to contribute to robust experimental results, and for data reproducibility. In this study, we report a health program implemented in a zebrafish research facility to prevent, monitor, and control pathogen, and disease dissemination. This program includes quarantine, routine health screening of sentinels, and nonroutine screenings of retired animals and sick/moribund individuals. An extensive list of clinical signs, lesions, and pathogens was monitored based on: daily observation of fish, necropsy, histology, and bacterial culture. The results indicate that the combined analysis of sentinels with the evaluation of sick/moribund animals enables a comprehensive description not only of pathogen prevalence but also of clinical and histopathologic lesions of resident animals. The establishment of a quarantine program revealed to be effective in the reduction of Pseudoloma neurophilia frequency in the main aquaria room. Finally, characterization of the colony health status based on this multiapproach program shows a low prevalence of lesions and pathogens in the facility. PMID:27186875

  17. Implementation of a Zebrafish Health Program in a Research Facility: A 4-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ana C; Pereira, Nuno; Franco, Maysa; Vale, Liliana; Pereira, Margarida; Cunha, Mónica V; Amaro, Ana; Albuquerque, Teresa; Rebelo, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    In the past two decades, zebrafish (Danio rerio)-based research has contributed to significant scientific advances. Still, husbandry and health programs did not evolve at the same pace, as evidenced by the absence of general guidelines. Health monitoring is essential to animal welfare, to permit animal exchanges across facilities, to contribute to robust experimental results, and for data reproducibility. In this study, we report a health program implemented in a zebrafish research facility to prevent, monitor, and control pathogen, and disease dissemination. This program includes quarantine, routine health screening of sentinels, and nonroutine screenings of retired animals and sick/moribund individuals. An extensive list of clinical signs, lesions, and pathogens was monitored based on: daily observation of fish, necropsy, histology, and bacterial culture. The results indicate that the combined analysis of sentinels with the evaluation of sick/moribund animals enables a comprehensive description not only of pathogen prevalence but also of clinical and histopathologic lesions of resident animals. The establishment of a quarantine program revealed to be effective in the reduction of Pseudoloma neurophilia frequency in the main aquaria room. Finally, characterization of the colony health status based on this multiapproach program shows a low prevalence of lesions and pathogens in the facility.

  18. Gamma-knife radiosurgery in acromegaly: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Roberto; Epaminonda, Paolo; Motti, Enrico; Giugni, Enrico; Ventrella, Laura; Cozzi, Renato; Farabola, Mario; Loli, Paola; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Arosio, Maura

    2003-07-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery by gamma-knife (GK) is an attractive therapeutic option after failure of microsurgical removal in patients with pituitary adenoma. In these tumors or remnants of them, it aims to obtain the arrest of cell proliferation and hormone hypersecretion using a single precise high dose of ionizing radiation, sparing surrounding structures. The long-term efficacy and toxicity of GK in acromegaly are only partially known. Thirty acromegalic patients (14 women and 16 men) entered a prospective study of GK treatment. Most were surgical failures, whereas in 3 GK was the primary treatment. Imaging of the adenoma and target coordinates identification were obtained by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were treated with multiple isocenters (mean, 8; range, 3-11). The 50% isodose was used in 27 patients (90%). The mean margin dose was 20 Gy (range, 15-35), and the dose to the visual pathways was always less than 8 Gy. After a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 9-96), IGF-I fell from 805 micro g/liter (median; interquartile range, 640-994) to 460 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 217-654; P = 0.0002), and normal age-matched IGF-I levels were reached in 7 patients (23%). Mean GH levels decreased from 10 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 6.4-15) to 2.9 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 2-5.3; P < 0.0001), reaching levels below 2.5 micro g/liter in 11 (37%). The rate of persistently pathological hormonal levels was still 70% at 5 yr by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The median volume was 1.43 ml (range, 0.20-3.7). Tumor shrinkage (at least 25% of basal volume) occurred after 24 months (range, 12-36) in 11 of 19 patients (58% of assessable patients). The rate of shrinkage was 79% at 4 yr. In no case was further growth observed. Only 1 patient complained of side-effects (severe headache and nausea immediately after the procedure, with full recovery in a few days with steroid therapy). Anterior pituitary failures were observed in 2 patients

  19. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  20. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  1. Psychosocial and neurohormonal predictors of HIV disease progression (CD4 cells and viral load): A 4 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ironson, G.; O'Cleirigh, C.; Kumar, M.; Kaplan, L.; Balbin, E.; Kelsch, C. B.; Fletcher, M. A.; Schneiderman, N.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of psychosocial predictors of disease progression in HIV have not considered norepinephrine (NE), a neurohormone related to emotion and stress, even though NE has been related to accelerated viral replication in vitro and impaired response to ART. We therefore examine NE, cortisol, depression, hopelessness, coping, and life event stress as predictors of HIV progression in a diverse sample. Participants (n = 177) completed psychological assessment, blood draws (CD4, viral load (VL)), and a 15-hour urine sample (NE, cortisol) every 6 months over 4 years. HLM was used to model slope in CD4 and viral load controlling for ART at every time point, gender, age, race, SES, and initial disease status. NE (as well as depression, hopelessness, and avoidant coping) significantly predicted a greater rate of decrease in CD4 and increase in VL. Cortisol was not significantly related to CD4, but predicted VL increase. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating NE, in vivo, to accelerated disease progression over an extended time. It also extends our previous 2 year study by relating depressed mood and coping to accelerated disease progression over 4 years. PMID:25234251

  2. Head Start, 4 years After Completing the Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Joo

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of the Head Start program on children's achievements in reading and math tests during their first 4 years of schooling after completing the program. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, I found large measurement error in the parental reports of Head Start attendance, which…

  3. Weight gain and reduced energy expenditure in low-income Brazilian women living in slums: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Florêncio, Telma M M T; Bueno, Nassib B; Clemente, Ana P G; Albuquerque, Fabiana C A; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Sawaya, Ana L

    2015-08-14

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible changes in anthropometric and biochemical parameters in low-income women living in the outskirts of Maceió (northeast Brazil), and to explore the possible role of dietary intake and physical activity in these changes. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a cohort of mothers of malnourished children who attended the Center for Nutritional Recovery and Education, an outreach programme of the Federal University of Alagoas. Socio-economic, anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were assessed at baseline and after a follow-up period of 4 years. Energy expenditure (using doubly labelled water) and physical activity (using triaxial accelerometers) were assessed only in a subgroup of women after 4 years. A total of eighty-five women were assessed. Participants showed an altered biochemical profile, increased systolic blood pressure, decreased thyroid hormone levels, and body-weight gain. However, dietary intakes of the participants did not include large quantities of highly processed and high-glycaemic index foods. The energy intake of the participants did not differ from their total energy expenditure (7990.3 (7173.7-8806.8) v. 8798.1 (8169.0-9432.4) kJ, respectively; P= 0.084). Multivariate analyses showed a significant effect of time spent watching television (β = 0.639 (0.003 to 1.275); P= 0.048) and dietary diversity score (β = -1.039 ( -2.010 to -0.067); P = 0.036) on weight gain. The present study indicates that poor women, who are mothers of malnourished children and have a reasonably balanced dietary intake, exhibit weight gain and are at risk of developing chronic diseases.

  4. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  5. What physical performance measures predict incident cognitive decline among intact older adults? A 4.4year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Trevisan, Caterina; Bolzetta, Francesco; De Rui, Marina; Solmi, Marco; Sartori, Leonardo; Musacchio, Estella; Zambon, Sabina; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in physical performance, cognitive impairment (CI) and decline (CD), are common in older age, but few prospective cohort studies have considered the relationship between these domains. In this study we investigated whether reduced physical performance and low handgrip/lower limbs strength, could predict a higher incidence of CI/CD during a 4-year follow-up among a cohort of elderly individuals. From 3099 older community-dwelling individuals initially enrolled in the Progetto Veneto Anziani (PRO.V.A.) study, 1249 participants without CI at the baseline were included (mean age 72.2years, 59.5% females). Physical performance measures included the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 4m gait speed, chair stands time, leg extension and flexion, handgrip strength, and 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), categorized in gender-specific tertiles. CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score below 24; CD a decline of 3 or more points in the MMSE without CI. At baseline, participants developing CI during follow-up scored significantly worse across all physical performance measures compared to those that retained normal cognitive status. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant trend for MMSE changes was noted for all physical performance tests, except for the SPPB and chair stands time. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that slow gait speed at baseline significantly predicted CD at follow up. Poor SPPB performance and slower gait speed predicted the onset of CI at the follow-up. In conclusion, slow walking speed appears to be the best independent predictor of poor cognitive status over a 4.4-year follow-up, while other items of SPPB were also significantly associated with CI.

  6. Students at Less-Than-4-Year Institutions. National Postsecondary Student Aid Study. Statistical Analysis Report. Contractor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byce, Chuck; Schmitt, Carl M.

    This report examines the characteristics of less-than-4-year institutions and the students who attend them. Data are presented on the number and size of less-than-4-year institutions, their educational offerings, types of degrees awarded, and on student demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, attendance costs, and financial aid. Following…

  7. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  8. A longitudinal study of confabulation.

    PubMed

    Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Brazzarola, Marta; Marangoni, Sara; Barbera, Claudia; Zannoni, Ilaria

    2017-02-01

    Confabulation, the production of statements and actions that are unintentionally incongruous to the subject's history, background, present and future situation, is a rather infrequent disorder, observed in several conditions affecting the nervous system. Little is known about the quantitative and qualitative evolution of confabulation in time. In this study we evaluated longitudinally the evolution of this disorder in a group of severe confabulators, using the Confabulation Battery (CB), a sensitive tool to detect confabulations in various memory domains. It was found that confabulations were stable over time and not temporally limited. It was also found that "Habits Confabulations" (HCs), i.e., habits and repeated personal events mistaken as specific, unique past and future personal episodes, or well-known public events when semantic knowledge is concerned, was the more frequently observed type of confabulation. Confabulations were also more prominent in the domain of Temporal Consciousness (TC), i.e., a specific form of consciousness that allows individuals to remember their personal past, to be oriented in their present world and to predict their personal future, than in Knowing Consciousness (KC), i.e., a specific form of consciousness allowing individuals to be aware of past, present and future impersonal knowledge and information. Confabulations showed also persistence, i.e., confabulations at the same questions over time, and consistency, i.e., same type of confabulation at the same question over time. These findings are discussed within the framework of the Memory, Consciousness and Temporality Theory.

  9. Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

  10. INTRAUTERINE EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER AND EARLY WHEEZE. PROSPECTIVE BIRTH COHORT STUDY IN 4-YEAR OLDS

    PubMed Central

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Maugeri, Umberto; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elzbieta; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Flak, Elzbieta; Edwards, Susan; Spengler, John; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine the relationship between prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured by PAH-DNA adducts in umbilical cord blood and early wheeze. The level of PAH-DNA adducts in the cord blood is assumed to reflect the cumulative dose of PAHs absorbed by the fetus over the prenatal period. The effect of prenatal PAH exposure on respiratory health measured by the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for the number of wheezing days in the subsequent four year follow-up was adjusted for potential confounding factors such as personal prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), gender of child, maternal characteristics (age, education and atopy), parity, and mold/dampness in the home. The study sample includes 339 newborns of non-smoking mothers 18-35 years of age and free from chronic diseases, who were recruited from ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. The number of wheezing days during the first two years of life was positively associated with prenatal level of PAH-DNA adducts (IRR = 1.69, 95%CI = 1.52 – 1.88), prenatal particulate matter (PM2.5) level dichotomized by the median (IRR = 1.38; 95%CI: 1.25 – 1.51), maternal atopy (IRR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.29 – 1.58), moldy/damp house (IRR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.27 – 1.61). The level of maternal education and maternal age at delivery were inversely associated with the IRRs for wheeze. The significant association between frequency of wheeze and the level of prenatal environmental hazards (PAHs and PM2.5) was not observed at ages 3 or 4 years. Although the frequency of wheezing at ages 3 or 4 years was no longer associated with prenatal exposure to PAHs and PM2.5, its occurrence depended on the presence of wheezing in the first two years of life, which nearly tripled the risk of wheezing in later life. In conclusion, the findings may suggest that driving force for early wheezing (<24 months of age

  11. [Risk of death 4 years after a 1st cerebral infarction: prospective study in Barquisimeto, Estado Lara, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Poni, E; Granero, R; Escobar, B

    1995-12-01

    Stroke, the 5th. cause of death in Venezuela, has been associated to cerebral infarction. However, there is little information concerning lethality factors. 33 atherothrombotic subtype stroke patients, 31 (96%) Latino and 2(4%) white, were admitted into a prospective study to analyze the role of 11 mortality risk factors for those patients. A mortality relative risk (RR) > 1.5 or < 1 (protective) was considered clinically important if 1 was excluded from the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). The Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square procedure was use to test statistical significance (p < 0.05). Mortality RR for patients age 65 and over (RR = 2.95) and 4 year mortality RR for male patients (RR = 2.04) were clinically and statistically significant. History of high blood pressure was protective (RR = 0.62) probably due to good medical control. Cumulative mortality was higher than that of comparable studies, even from the first week of follow-up, reaching 67% at the 4th year.

  12. Long-term effectiveness of azathioprine in IBD beyond 4 years: a European multicenter study in 1176 patients.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Martin H; Krummenauer, Frank; Claas, Christina; Kremeyer, Kristina; Lorenz, Dirk; Rainer, Olivia; Vogel, Iris; Böcker, Ulrich; Böhm, Stephan; Büning, Carsten; Duchmann, Rainer; Gerken, Guido; Herfarth, Hans; Lügering, Norbert; Kruis, Wolfgang; Reinshagen, Max; Schmidt, Jan; Stallmach, Andreas; Stein, Jürgen; Sturm, Andreas; Galle, Peter R; Hommes, Daan W; D'Haens, Geert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Neurath, Markus F

    2006-09-01

    In Crohn's disease the optimal duration of azathioprine treatment is still controversial and for ulcerative colitis only limited data are available to support its efficacy. Charts of 1176 patients with IBD from 16 European centers were analyzed. Flare incidences and steroid dosages were assessed for the time before and during treatment and after discontinuation. Within the first 4 years, azathioprine suppressed flare incidence and steroid consumption in both diseases (P < 0.001). While in CD discontinuation after 3-4 years did not lead to reactivation, this was the case in UC. However, continuation beyond 4 years further improved clinical activity in CD and steroid requirement in both diseases (P < 0.001). Discontinuation of azathioprine may thus be considered after 3-4 years in CD patients in complete remission without steroid requirement. In all other CD patients and for UC patients in general, continuation seems beneficial. These results support a novel differential algorithm for long-term azathioprine therapy in IBD.

  13. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  14. Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Immunocompromised Patients by Real-Time PCR: a 4-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Belaz, Sorya; Revest, Matthieu; Tattevin, Pierre; Jouneau, Stéphane; Decaux, Olivier; Chevrier, Sylviane; Le Tulzo, Yves; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is more sensitive than microscopic examination for the detection of P. jirovecii but also detects colonized patients. Hence, its positive predictive value (PPV) needs evaluation. In this 4-year prospective observational study, all immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory symptoms who were investigated for PCP were included, totaling 659 patients (814 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples). Patients with negative microscopy but positive qPCR were classified through medical chart review as having retained PCP, possible PCP, or colonization, and their clinical outcomes were compared to those of patients with microscopically proven PCP. Overall, 119 patients were included for analysis, of whom 35, 41, and 43 were classified as having retained PCP, possible PCP, and colonization, respectively. The 35 patients with retained PCP had clinical findings similar to those with microscopically proven PCP but lower fungal loads (P < 0.001) and were mainly non-HIV-infected patients (P < 0.05). Although the mean amplification threshold was higher in colonized patients, it was not possible to determine a discriminant qPCR cutoff. The PPV of qPCR in patients with negative microscopy were 29.4% and 63.8% when considering retained PCP and retained plus possible PCP, respectively. Patients with possible PCP had a higher mortality rate than patients with retained PCP or colonization (63% versus 3% and 16%, respectively); patients who died had not received co-trimoxazole. In conclusion, qPCR is a useful tool to diagnose PCP in non-HIV patients, and treatment might be better targeted through a multicomponent algorithm including both clinical/radiological parameters and qPCR results. PMID:25009050

  15. Association of vascular endothelial factors with cardiovascular outcome and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients: A 4-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rambod, Mehdi; Heine, Gunnar H.; Seiler, Sarah; Dominic, Elizabeth A; Rogacev, Kyrill S.; Dwivedi, Rama; Ramezani, Ali; Wing, Maria R.; Amdur, Richard L.; Fliser, Danilo; Raj, Dominic S

    2014-01-01

    Background Angiogenic cytokines fms-like tyrosine kinase-1(sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. In this study we examine the association between these vascular endothelial factors and atherosclerosis, cardiovascular outcome, and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods Serum level of PlGF and sFlt-1 were measured in 301 patients with CKD, who were followed for up to 4 years. Primary outcomes were CV events and all-cause mortality. Carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT) was used as marker of atherosclerosis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the Cox proportional hazard model were used to assess the association of biomarkers and clinical outcomes. Results Mean (SD) PlGF and sFlt-1 were 5.45 ng/ml (3.76) and 68.6 (28.0) pg/ml, respectively. During the follow up time, 60 patients (19.9%) experienced CV events and 22 patients (7.3%) died. Compared with low PlGF, patients with PlGF above median level had higher CV events (12.7% vs. 27.2%, p=0.002) and mortality (2.0% vs. 12.6%, p < 0.001). The associations of PlGF and sFlt-1 with CV events were not statistically significant in the fully adjusted model. Higher PlGF was associated with greater death risk (HR=5.22, 95%CI: 1.49–18.33, p=0.01), which was robust to adjustment for sFlt-1 and other risk factors. Elevated sFlt-1 level was also an independent predictor of mortality (HR 3.41, 95%CI: 1.49-9.51, p=0.019). Conclusion In CKD patients not yet on dialysis, higher serum level of PlGF and sFlt-1 are associated with increased mortality, but not CV events. PMID:25128974

  16. The Relationship between Early Language, Cognitive and Social Development through a Longitudinal Study of Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogura, Tamiko

    The development of and relationship between early language, symbolic play, sensorimotor skills, and social development were examined in a longitudinal study conducted in Japan with two young autistic males who were observed from the approximate ages of 2 to 4 years in clinic, day care, and home settings. One child acquired speech; the other did…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  18. The Proportion of Women Who Have a Breast 4 Years after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mennie, Joanna C.; Mohanna, Pari-Naz; O’Donoghue, Joseph M; Rainsbury, Richard; Cromwell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are numerous pathways in breast cancer treatment, many of which enable women to retain a breast after treatment. We evaluated the proportion of women who have a breast, either through conserving surgery (BCS) or reconstruction, at 4-years after diagnosis, and how this varied by patient group. Methods and Findings We identified women with breast cancer who underwent initial BCS or mastectomy in English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals between January 2008 and December 2009 using the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database. Women were assigned into one of four patient groups depending on their age at diagnosis and presence of comorbidities. The series of breast cancer procedure (BCS, mastectomy, immediate, or delayed reconstruction) undergone by each women was identified over four years, and the proportion of women with a breast calculated. Variation was examined across patient groups, and English Cancer Networks. Between 2008 and 2009, 60,959 women underwent BCS or mastectomy. The proportion with a breast at 4 years was 79.3%, and 64.0%, in women less than 70 years without, and with comorbidities. Whilst in women aged 70 and over without, and with comorbidities, proportions were 52.6%, and 38.2%, respectively. Comorbidities were associated with lower proportions of BCS, but had little effect on reconstruction rates unlike age. Networks variation of 15% or more was found within each patient group, and Cancer Networks tended to have either a high or low proportion across all four patient groups. However, while 14% of women under 70 years had undergone reconstruction, less than 2% of women aged 70 or more had this treatment option. Conclusion The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer who retain a breast at 4 years is strongly associated with age, and presence of comorbidities. There was significant variation between Cancer Networks indicating that women’s experience in England was dependent on their geographical location of

  19. Is intensification of reproduction rhythm sustainable in an organic sheep production system? A 4-year interdisciplinary study.

    PubMed

    Benoit, M; Tournadre, H; Dulphy, J P; Laignel, G; Prache, S; Cabaret, J

    2009-05-01

    A 4-year interdisciplinary study was performed to compare two organically managed sheep production systems, using 118 ewes and 24 ha each. The systems differed in the ewes' reproduction rhythm: one lambing per ewe per year (1L/1Y), with the aim of balancing feed self-sufficiency and lamb marketing periods v. three lambings over 2 years (3L/2Y), with the aim of maximising ewes' productivity. The sustainability was evaluated through ewes' reproductive performance, lamb growth rate, carcass characteristics and quality, animal health, forage and feed self-sufficiency, soil mineral balance and gross margin. General animal health was assessed by recording ewe and lamb mortality and putative cause of death. Nematode digestive-tract strongyles parasitism was studied using faecal egg counts and necropsies. Carcass quality was assessed by recording carcass weight, conformation and fatness, and colour and firmness of subcutaneous fat. Thirty-three percent of 3L/2Y ewes lambed twice a year against 4% of 1L/1Y. Mean ewe productivity was 161.3% and 151.0% in 3L/2Y and 1L/1Y, respectively, and it was more variable between years in 3L/2Y. Average concentrate feed consumption and the corresponding cost per ewe were higher in 3L/2Y than in 1L/1Y (156 v. 121 kg, and €49.5 v. €39.3, respectively). Finally, average gross margin was lower in 3L/2Y than in 1L/1Y (€59 v. €65 per ewe, respectively). Even in year 2002, when ewe productivity was highest in 3L/2Y (193%), gross margin was not different between systems (€90 v. €86 per ewe in 3L/2Y and 1L/1Y, respectively), because of higher concentrate costs in 3L/2Y. The 3L/2Y animals presented a lower health status, with a higher lamb mortality (P < 0.05) and a higher digestive-tract strongyles and coccidia parasitism level (P < 0.05). Lamb carcass conformation, fatness and fat colour were not different between systems, but carcass weight and subcutaneous dorsal fat firmness were lower in 3L/2Y lambs than in 1L/1Y lambs (P < 0

  20. Young Children's Improvisations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…

  1. Effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention for 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-11-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n = 5, control n = 4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The experimental group significantly improved their object manipulation and overall motor scores from pre- to post-intervention. The wait-list control design revealed no group-by-time interactions; however, with the groups combined time was a significant factor for all motor variables. There were no significant changes in adaptive behavior and social skills. These preliminary findings suggest that a fundamental motor skill intervention may benefit young children with autism spectrum disorder. Future research with larger samples is warranted.

  2. Longitudinal Studies--Are They Worth It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Judith

    A longitudinal study of otitis media in young children, begun in 1981, aimed to provide information on the incidence and prevalence of otitis media in young children in the Newcastle (England) region and to follow their academic progress. Subjects selected for the study were kindergartners in five schools and represented an ethnically homogeneous…

  3. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  4. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  5. Cohort Profile: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

  6. Lower serum uric acid is associated with mild cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Savastano, Riccardo; Moccia, Marcello; Picillo, Marina; Siano, Pietro; Erro, Roberto; Vallelunga, Annamaria; Amboni, Marianna; Vitale, Carmine; Santangelo, Gabriella; Barone, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and many patients eventually develop dementia; however, its occurrence is unpredictable. Serum uric acid (UA) has been proposed as a biomarker of PD, both in the preclinical and clinical phase of the disease. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate relationships between baseline serum UA levels and occurrence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at 4-year follow-up in a cohort of early PD patients. Early PD patients, not presenting concomitant diseases, cognitive impairment or treatment possibly interfering with UA levels, underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline and 4-year follow-up. UA levels were determined in serum at baseline. MCI was found in 23 out of 42 PD patients completing 4-year follow-up. Patients presenting MCI had significantly higher age at onset and lower Frontal Assessment Battery scores at baseline as compared with patients cognitively intact. Logistic regression analysis showed that both serum UA levels (OR = 0.54, p = 0.044) and age (OR = 1.16, p = 0.009) contribute to the occurrence of MCI at 4-year follow-up. Our pilot study suggests that lower levels of serum UA in the early disease stages are associated to the later occurrence of MCI. These results need to be confirmed by further studies on larger samples.

  7. Maternal depression from pregnancy to 4 years postpartum and emotional/behavioural difficulties in children: results from a prospective pregnancy cohort study.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, Hannah; Gartland, Deirdre; Mensah, Fiona; Giallo, Rebecca; Brown, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on women's mental health in the perinatal period and the subsequent impacts on children. Comparatively, we know much less about maternal depression at later time points and the potential implications for child mental health. The objective of this paper was to explore the association between maternal depression and child emotional/behavioural difficulties at 4 years postpartum, taking into account earlier episodes of perinatal depression. The Maternal Health Study is a prospective cohort study of 1,507 nulliparous women. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in early pregnancy and at 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum and again at 4 years postpartum. Maternal depressive symptoms at 4 years postpartum were associated with significantly increased odds of child emotional/behavioural difficulties (odds ratio (OR) = 3.46, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.21-5.43). This remained significant after adjusting for earlier episodes of perinatal depression and socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 2.07, 95 % CI = 1.18-3.63). We also observed a robust association between child difficulties at age 4 and measures of socio-economic disadvantage. Our findings suggest a pressing need to rethink current paradigms of maternal health surveillance and extend mental health surveillance and support to at least 4 years postpartum.

  8. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  9. Two-wave longitudinal findings from the Berlin aging study: introduction to a collection of articles.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacqui; Maas, Ineke; Mayer, Karl Ulrich; Helmchen, Hanfried; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Baltes, Paul B

    2002-11-01

    We provide background information for a collection of articles that describe two-wave longitudinal findings derived from the first intensive follow-up of participants of the Berlin Aging Study (BASE). Multidisciplinary data were collected during 1995-1996 from 206 survivors approximately 4 years after baseline assessment (1990-1993). The strengths of the initial BASE design, in terms of a focus on very old age, multidisciplinary intensive assessment, and an examination of selectivity issues, were maintained in this longitudinal extension of the study.

  10. Predictors of Transfer Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Department of Psychology . : PREDICTORS OF TRANSFER AIIJUSTNEN: . A LONGITUDIN4AL STUDY"- Jaues B. Shaw Cynthia D. Fisher and Richard W. Woodman...1985 Acssa o NTIS GRA&I TR-ONR-7 DTIC TAB Unannounced E Just ification Distribution/ Department of Psychology Availability Codes Department of...PROJECT. TASKAREA & WORK UNIT NUMIBERS Departments of Management and Psychology 62763 N Texas.A&M University RF 63521 College Station, TX 77843 RF

  11. [Methodological problems of longitudinal studies on schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; an der Heiden, W

    2000-05-01

    Longitudinal studies are a key to understanding schizophrenia. They are the more informative, the longer the periods covered. Hence, good studies into the course of schizophrenia almost exclusively involve a lot of effort and cost. In practice, however, time-consuming methods and design variables must be avoided. The pitfalls this constraint produces are instructive of the difficulties longitudinal studies are faced with in striving for valid results. For reasons of research economy, requirements must be adjusted to study objectives. Studies into the short term course are less time-consuming, but because of the rapid changes in the illness course study intervals should be defined clearly and observed strictly. In long-term studies, too, one source of error lies in the highly varying lengths of illness of the patients studied. Even some of the classic long-term studies are marred by this error. The beginning of the follow-up period should be comparable across the study cohort and as close to illness onset as possible. To obtain generally valid results the probands must be representative of all the illness cases in the general population not only at the outset, but also all the later stages of the study. Besides the efforts to avoid attrition in the study cohort, ways must be found for correcting and estimating data for an acceptable proportion of drop-outs. In the analysis of course and outcome the indicators chosen must be apt to the traditional subtypes as well as to a theoretical symptom patterns and empirical symptom structures. In the context of typical design variables of longitudinal studies the assets and weaknesses of two retrospective and one prospective design will be discussed. Concerning the social course, importance of disease-independent factors, such as age, sex and level of social development at illness onset, as well as of control groups will be demonstrated. Predictor models will be discussed with reference to the direct and indirect influences

  12. Curriculum Planning: Trends in Communication Studies, Workplace Competencies, and Current Programs at 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelsen, Dale A.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2009-01-01

    Many communication scholars recognize the need to regularly explore current communication curriculum and to evaluate its contribution to meeting the needs of students and the demands of the workplace. However, within the communication discipline, current curricular decisions are based on studies conducted nearly a decade ago. This study (a)…

  13. Predictors of 4-Year Retention among African American and White Community-Dwelling Participants in the UAB Study of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Richard M.; Sawyer, Patricia; Crowther, Martha; Strothers, Harry S., III; Turner, Timothy; Fouad, Mona N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To identify racial/ethnic differences in retention of older adults at 3 levels of participation in a prospective observational study: telephone, in-home assessments, and home visits followed by blood draws. Design and Methods: A prospective study of 1,000 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older included a…

  14. Exploring the Academic and Social Experiences of Latino Engineering Community College Transfer Students at a 4-Year Institution: A Qualitative Research Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagler, LaTesha R.

    As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.

  15. A Case Study of the Perceptions of Faculty in a Formalized Mentoring Program at a Private 4-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study was designed to investigate mentors and mentees and their relationships in a formal group-mentoring program. Results and findings were expected to contribute to the literature on how to best support future new faculty and senior faculty careers by providing data on the opinions of those who participated in the mentoring…

  16. Classification of Speech and Language Profiles in 4-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Prospective Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.; Gorton, Kristin; Lee, Jimin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors proposed and tested a preliminary speech and language classification system for children with cerebral palsy. Method: Speech and language assessment data were collected in a laboratory setting from 34 children with cerebral palsy (CP; 18 male, 16 female) with a mean age of 54 months (SD = 1.8). Measures of…

  17. Supporting Non-Tenure-Track Faculty at 4-Year Colleges and Universities: A National Study of Deans' Values and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrke, Sean J.; Kezar, Adrianna

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the values held by 264 academic deans and the decisions they make pertaining to supporting non-tenure-track faculty (NTTF). Multiple analyses are utilized to examine the prevalence of supportive policies for both full- and part-time NTTF, as well as the extent to which deans' values are associated with the existence of these…

  18. Profile of cervical cancer patients attending Tertiary Care Hospitals of Mangalore, Karnataka: A 4 year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aadhya; Kulkarni, Vaman; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan; Singha, Meher; Mujtahedi, Saad; Chatrath, Anshul; Sridhar, Mallika; Thapar, Rekha; Mithra, P. Prasanna; Kumar, Nithin; Holla, Ramesh; Darshan, B. B.; Kumar, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical profile of women presenting with cervical carcinoma and to identify factors associated with the timing of presentation and prognosis. Materials and Methods: A record-based descriptive study was carried out from 1st February to 31st March 2014 at Tertiary Care Hospitals of Mangalore. The study population included women who were diagnosed with cervical carcinoma from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. A pretested data extraction sheet aimed at collecting information from the inpatient records was used as the study instrument. The collected data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 227 patients were included in the study. Mean (Standard Deviation) age of diagnosis of cervical cancer was found to be 55 ± 11 years. Majority of the women were Hindus (88.5%) and 51.0% of the women had occupational activities out of which manual labor was the most common. Forty-eight percent of the patients presented in the late stages. Squamous cell carcinoma was found to be the most common histological type. It was also observed that a slightly higher proportion of women with an age >49 years presented in late stages of the disease (n = 70, 48.6%) compared to women <49 years of age (n = 28, 46.7%); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.800). Conclusions: Our study found out a higher proportion of late presentation by the patients. It emphasizes the need for the development and implementation of an efficient screening cum prevention program for cervical cancer and to continue active research in the domains of identifying all possible risk factors and steps to mitigate them. PMID:28250688

  19. The independent predictive value of peritraumatic dissociation for postdisaster intrusions, avoidance reactions, and PTSD symptom severity: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Peter G; Kleber, Rolf J; Christiaanse, B; Gersons, Berthold P R; Marcelissen, Frans G H; Drogendijk, Annelieke N; Grievink, Linda; Olff, Miranda; Meewisse, Mariel L

    2006-08-01

    This 4-year prospective study (N=662) of victims of a fireworks disaster examines the independent predictive value of peritraumatic dissociation for self-reported intrusions, avoidance reactions, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity at both 18-months (T2) and almost 4-years postdisaster (T3). Peritraumatic dissociation was measured 2-3 weeks after the disaster (T1). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that peritraumatic dissociation was not a strong independent predictor for intrusions and avoidance reactions and PTSD symptom severity at T2 or at T3 above initial intrusions, avoidance reactions, and psychological distress (T1). Results suggest that an early screening procedure for peritraumatic dissociation, which is aimed at identifying disaster victims who are at risk for long-term psychological disturbances can be omitted.

  20. Middle school students' attitudes toward math and STEM career interests: A 4-year follow-up study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Madalyn R.

    The purpose of the current study is to examine middle school students' attitudes toward math, intent to pursue STEM-related education and occupations, and STEM interest from middle school to high school. The data used in this study are from a larger, on-going National Science Foundation (NSF) grant-funded study that is investigating middle school students' disengagement while using the Assistments system (Baker, Heffernan & San Pedro, 2012), a computer-based math tutoring system. The NSF grant study aims to explore how disengagement with STEM material can aid in the prediction of students' college enrollment as well as how it may interact with other factors affecting students' career choices (San Pedro, Baker, Bowers, Heffernan, 2013). Participants are students from urban and suburban schools in Massachusetts measured first in middle school and again four years later. Measures at Time 1 included: various items related to attitudes toward mathematics, occupations they could see themselves doing as adults, and the Brief Self-Control Scale (Tangney, Baumeister, & Luzio Boone, 2004). Measures at Time 2 included: items requesting the students' current mathematics and science courses and intended majors or occupations following high school graduation. Exploratory factor analysis, multiple regression and logistic regression analyses were used to test the following four hypotheses: I. There will be several distinct factors that emerge to provide information about middle school students' attitudes toward math; II. Students' attitudes toward math will correlate positively and significantly with students' intent to pursue STEM-related careers at Time 1 with a medium effect; III. Middle school attitudes toward mathematics will relate positively and significantly to level of high school mathematics and science courses with a medium effect; IV. Middle school intent to pursue STEM will correlate positively and significantly with high school intent to pursue STEM majors

  1. Incidence, Etiology, and Patterns of Maxillofacial Fractures in Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt: A 4-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Amr; Helal, Hesham; Mohamed, Abdel Rahman; Mahmoud, Nada

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a worldwide increase in maxillofacial trauma incidence; the pattern and etiology of these injuries varies from one country to another depending on socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental factors. This study aims to realize the epidemiological characteristics of maxillofacial fractures in our department. A retrospective cross-sectional study of all facial trauma patients admitted to our department during 2009 to 2012. Patients' data including gender, age, etiology of trauma, the pattern and demographic distribution of fractures of maxillofacial skeleton, and associated injuries were analyzed and compared with previously published data. The chi-square test was used with a p value of less than 0.05, which was considered statistically significant. There is a significant increase in maxillofacial fractures incidence in the past 2 years than former ones. There is a male predominance with highest incidence in the age group of 20 to 40 years. Road traffic accident is the most common etiological factor followed by violence. There is increase in mandibular fracture incidence compared with midface. The significant increased incidence of maxillofacial fracture due to motor car accidents and assaults in the past 2 years reflects a behavioral change within the community. PMID:25136412

  2. Prevalence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis infections in Tunisian hospitalized infants: results of a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Asma; Smaoui, Hanen; Brun, Delphine; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Sghaier, Soufien; Zouari, Emna; Félix, Renaud; Menif, Khaled; Ben Jaballah, Najla; Guiso, Nicole; Kechrid, Amel

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of pertussis in Tunisia remains undetermined essentially because of the unavailability of a basic laboratory diagnostic service. Specific diagnostic tools were applied for the first time in a Tunisian prospective study in order to get a first estimation of the prevalence of Bordetella pertussis/parapertussis infections and to evaluate their use to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of these infections in Tunisian infants. Between 2007 and 2011, a total of 626 samples from 599 infants aged <1 year with and without pertussoid cough were investigated for the presence of B. pertussis/parapertussis using culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The real-time PCR (RT-PCR) targets include IS481 commonly found in B. pertussis, B. bronchiseptica, and B. holmesii; IS1001 specific of B. parapertussis, in combination with the pertussis toxin promoter region gene (ptx) of B. pertussis; and the recA gene specific of B. holmesii. When possible, patients' household contacts provided nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) for RT-PCR detection of B. pertussis/parapertussis or single-serum samples for anti-PT IgG quantification. All except 1 NPAs were negative by conventional culture, whereas PCR gave positive signals for 126 specimens (21%): B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and Bordetella spp. were detected in 82%, 6%, and 4% of the samples, respectively. The simultaneous presence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis was noted in 8% of the cases. Pertussis was reported throughout the year with a peak during the summer of the year 2009. The prevalence of Bordetella infection was 20% between 2007 and 2011. Most of these cases corresponded to patients younger than 6 months who received <3 doses of pertussis vaccine. Among the household contacts enrolled in the study, mothers seemed to be the likely source of infection. This study showed that pertussis is still prevalent in Tunisia and that the disease remains a public health problem affecting not only

  3. Regret on Choice of Colorectal Cancer Screening Modality Was Associated with Poorer Screening Compliance: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin C. S.; Ching, Jessica Y. L.; Chan, Victor C. W.; Bruggemann, Renee; Lam, Thomas Y. T.; Luk, Arthur K. C.; Wu, Justin C. Y.; Chan, Francis K. L.; Sung, Joseph J. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Very few studies examined the issue of regret on choosing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests. We evaluated the determinants of regret and tested the hypothesis that regret over screening choices was associated with poorer screening compliance. Methods A bowel cancer screening centre invited all Hong Kong citizens aged 50-70 years who were asymptomatic of CRC to participate in free-of-charge screening programmes. Upon attendance they attended health seminars on CRC and its screening, and were offered an option to choose yearly faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for up to four years vs. one direct colonoscopy. They were not allowed to switch the screening option after decision. A self-administered, four-item validated survey was used to assess whether they regretted over their choice (> 2 = regretful from a scale of 0 [no regret]-5 [extreme regret]). A binary logistic regression model evaluated if initial regret over their choice was associated with poorer programme compliance. Results From 4,341 screening participants who have chosen FIT or colonoscopy, 120 (2.8%) regretted over their decision and 1,029 (23.7%) were non-compliant with the screening programme. Younger subjects and people who felt pressure when making their decision were associated with regret. People who regretted their decision were 2.189 (95% C.I. 1.361-3.521, p = 0.001) times more likely to be non-compliant with the programme. Conclusions This study is the first to show that regret over the initial CRC screening choice was associated with later non-compliance. Screening participants who expressed regret over their choice should receive additional reminders to improve their programmatic compliance. PMID:25875160

  4. Development of the time course for processing conflict: an event-related potentials study with 4 year olds and adults

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, M Rosario; Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K; Davis-Stober, Clintin P

    2004-01-01

    Background Tasks involving conflict are widely used to study executive attention. In the flanker task, a target stimulus is surrounded by distracting information that can be congruent or incongruent with the correct response. Developmental differences in the time course of brain activations involved in conflict processing were examined for 22 four year old children and 18 adults. Subjects performed a child-friendly flanker task while their brain activity was registered using a high-density electroencephalography system. Results General differences were found in the amplitude and time course of event-related potentials (ERPs) between children and adults that are consistent with their differences in reaction time. In addition, the congruency of flankers affected both the amplitude and latency of some of the ERP components. These effects were delayed and sustained for longer periods of time in the children compared to the adults. Conclusions These differences constitute neural correlates of children's greater difficulty in monitoring and resolving conflict in this and similar tasks. PMID:15500693

  5. Increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with occupational stress in Chinese policemen: A 4-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Xing, Jing-Jing; Shan, An-Qi; Leng, Ling; Liu, Jin-Chuan; Yue, Song; Yu, Hao; Chen, Xi; Tian, Feng-Shi; Tang, Nai-Jun

    2016-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and occupational stress have been recognized as major public health concerns. We aimed to explore whether occupational stress was associated with NAFLD in a police population.A total of 6559 male police officers were recruited for this prospective study in April 2007. Among them, 2367 eligible subjects participated in follow-up from 2008 to 2011. NAFLD was diagnosed based on standard criteria. Occupational stress was evaluated by Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised scores.The incidence of NAFLD was 31.2% in the entire police. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, moderate occupational stress (MOS), high occupational stress (HOS), and high personal strain (HPS) were risk factors (MOS: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.049-1.460; HOS: HR = 1.727, 95% CI = 1.405-2.124; HPS: HR = 3.602, 95% CI = 1.912-6.787); and low occupational stress (LOS) and low personal strain (LPS) were protective factors (LOS: HR = 0.366, 95% CI = 0.173-0.776; LPS: HR = 0.490, 95% CI = 0.262-0.919) for NAFLD in the entire police cohort. HOS and HPS remained robust among traffic police.HOS and HPS were independent predictors for the development of NAFLD in a Chinese police population. Additional future prospective investigations are warranted to validate our findings.

  6. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome.

  7. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Batshaw, Mark L.; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The urea cycle disorders consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCD) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCD enrolled in the UCDC’s longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenybutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. PMID:25135652

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Developmental Trajectories of Parental Attachment and Career Maturity of South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sumi; Hutchison, Brian; Lemberger, Matthew E.; Pope, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the developmental trajectories of career maturity (CM) and parental attachment (PA), the longitudinal influence of both, and gender as a moderator. Findings showed developmental progressions in adolescents' PA and CM over 4 years. The change in PA was positively related to the developmental change in CM. For gender, there was a…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Overweight, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans among Low-Income Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…

  10. Self-Esteem Development across the Life Span: A Longitudinal Study with a Large Sample from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated…

  11. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  12. Prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility of mef(A)-positive macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae over 4 years (2000 to 2004) of the PROTEKT US Study.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J; File, Thomas M; Jenkins, Stephen G

    2007-02-01

    In the United States, approximately 30% of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates are macrolide (erythromycin [ERY]) resistant (ERSP), most commonly due to expression of the mef(A) gene previously associated with lower-level ERY resistance (ERYr; MIC=1 to 4 microg/ml). The data from the PROTEKT US surveillance study were analyzed to evaluate the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility of mef(A)-positive ERSP. In all, 26,634 isolates of S. pneumoniae were collected in the United States between 2000 and 2004 from centers common to all years. ERYr was stable at approximately 29% over the 4 years, but the proportion of ERSP isolates positive for mef(A) alone decreased (year 1 [2000 to 2001], 69.0%; year 4 [2003 to 2004], 60.7%), with the sharpest declines seen in isolates from patients from 0 to 2 years of age. Conversely, the proportion isolates positive for both erm(B) and mef(A) increased over the duration of the present study (year 1, 9.3%; year 4, 19.1%), a change that was again most marked in patients aged 4 years of the study (MIC90=0.5 to 1 microg/ml).

  13. New renal scarring in children who at age 3 and 4 years had had normal scans with dimercaptosuccinic acid: follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, S. J.; Coulthard, M. G.; Lambert, H. J.; Keir, M. J.; Matthews, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine up to what age children remain at risk of developing a new renal scar from a urinary tract infection. DESIGN: Follow up study. Families of children who had normal ultrasound scans and scanning with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) after referral with a urinary tract infection when aged 3 (209) or 4 (220) were invited to bring the children for repeat scans 2-11 years later. A history of infections since the original scan was obtained for children not having a repeat scan. SETTING: Teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: Children from three health districts in whom a normal scan had been obtained at age 3-4 years in 1985-1992 because of a urinary tract infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Frequency of new renal scars in each age group. RESULTS: In each group, about 97% of children either had repeat scanning (over 80%) or were confidently believed by their general practitioner or parent not to have had another urinary infection. The rate of further infections since the original scan was similar in the 3 and 4 year old groups (48/176 (27%)) and 55/179 (31%)). Few children in either group known to have had further urinary infections did not have repeat scanning (3/209 (1.4%) and 4/220 (1.8%)). In the 3 year old group, 2.4% (5/209) had one or more new kidney scars at repeat scanning (one sided 95% confidence interval up to 5.0%), whereas none of the 4 year olds did (one sided 95% confidence interval up to 1.4%). The children who developed scars were all aged under 3.4 years when scanned originally. CONCLUSIONS: Children with a urinary tract infection but unscarred kidneys after the third birthday have about a 1 in 40 risk of developing a scar subsequently, but after the fourth birthday the risk is either very low or zero. Thus the need for urinary surveillance is much reduced in a large number of children. PMID:9361538

  14. Children’s Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children’s interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle ‘nur’ (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with ‘only’ in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for ‘only’ in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children’s performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with ‘only’ in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which–depending on specific task demands–may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities. PMID:26930286

  15. Children's Comprehension of Sentences with Focus Particles and the Role of Cognitive Control: An Eye Tracking Study with German-Learning 4-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Höhle, Barbara; Fritzsche, Tom; Müller, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Children's interpretations of sentences containing focus particles do not seem adult-like until school age. This study investigates how German 4-year-old children comprehend sentences with the focus particle 'nur' (only) by using different tasks and controlling for the impact of general cognitive abilities on performance measures. Two sentence types with 'only' in either pre-subject or pre-object position were presented. Eye gaze data and verbal responses were collected via the visual world paradigm combined with a sentence-picture verification task. While the eye tracking data revealed an adult-like pattern of focus particle processing, the sentence-picture verification replicated previous findings of poor comprehension, especially for 'only' in pre-subject position. A second study focused on the impact of general cognitive abilities on the outcomes of the verification task. Working memory was related to children's performance in both sentence types whereas inhibitory control was selectively related to the number of errors for sentences with 'only' in pre-subject position. These results suggest that children at the age of 4 years have the linguistic competence to correctly interpret sentences with focus particles, which--depending on specific task demands--may be masked by immature general cognitive abilities.

  16. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  17. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  18. CO2 and N-fertilization effects on fine-root length, production, and mortality: a 4-year ponderosa pine study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald L; Johnson, Mark G; Tingey, David T; Storm, Marjorie J; Ball, J Timothy; Johnson, Dale W

    2006-06-01

    We conducted a 4-year study of juvenile Pinus ponderosa fine root (< or =2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at three CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mumol/mol, ambient+350 mumol/mol) and three N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g m(-2) year(-1)). Length and width of individual roots were measured from minirhizotron video images bimonthly over 4 years starting when the seedlings were 1.5 years old. Neither CO2 nor N-fertilization treatments affected the seasonal patterns of root production or mortality. Yearly values of fine-root length standing crop (m m(-2)), production (m m(-2) year(-1)), and mortality (m m(-2) year(-1)) were consistently higher in elevated CO2 treatments throughout the study, except for mortality in the first year; however, the only statistically significant CO2 effects were in the fine-root length standing crop (m m(-2)) in the second and third years, and production and mortality (m m(-2) year(-1)) in the third year. Higher mortality (m m(-2) year(-1)) in elevated CO2 was due to greater standing crop rather than shorter life span, as fine roots lived longer in elevated CO2. No significant N effects were noted for annual cumulative production, cumulative mortality, or mean standing crop. N availability did not significantly affect responses of fine-root standing crop, production, or mortality to elevated CO2. Multi-year studies at all life stages of trees are important to characterize belowground responses to factors such as atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. This study showed the potential for juvenile ponderosa pine to increase fine-root C pools and C fluxes through root mortality in response to elevated CO2.

  19. Interaction and imitation deficits from infancy to 4 years of age in children with autism: a pilot study based on videotapes.

    PubMed

    Receveur, Christine; Lenoir, Pascal; Desombre, Hugues; Roux, Sylvie; Barthelemy, Catherine; Malvy, Joëlle

    2005-02-01

    The present study investigated the influence of developmental level on interaction and imitation in infants and young children with autism on the basis of family videos and filmed consultation. The sample comprised 18 children with autism divided into groups according to their developmental quotient (DQ>50 and DQ<50). A quantitative evaluation was performed on video observations at four periods (10-12 months, 16-18 months, 24-26 months, after 4 years) using scales appropriate for the evaluation of interaction and imitation impairments. The findings showed that, at a very early age, infants later diagnosed as having autistic disorder show different intensities of interaction and imitation deficits according to developmental level.

  20. B-Vitamin Intake and Biomarker Status in Relation to Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults in a 4-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Catherine F.; Ward, Mary; Tracey, Fergal; Hoey, Leane; Molloy, Anne M.; Pentieva, Kristina; McNulty, Helene

    2017-01-01

    Advancing age can be associated with an increase in cognitive dysfunction, a spectrum of disability that ranges in severity from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Folate and the other B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with cognition in ageing but the evidence is not entirely clear. The hypothesis addressed in this study was that lower dietary intake or biomarker status of folate and/or the metabolically related B-vitamins would be associated with a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline over a 4-year follow-up period in healthy older adults. Participants (aged 60–88 years; n = 155) who had been previously screened for cognitive function were reassessed four years after initial investigation using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). At the 4-year follow-up assessment when participants were aged 73.4 ± 7.1 years, mean cognitive MMSE scores had declined from 29.1 ± 1.3 at baseline to 27.5 ± 2.4 (p < 0.001), but some 27% of participants showed a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline (i.e., decrease in MMSE > 0.56 points per year). Lower vitamin B6 status, as measured using pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP; <43 nmol/L) was associated with a 3.5 times higher risk of accelerated cognitive decline, after adjustment for age and baseline MMSE score (OR, 3.48; 95% CI, 1.58 to 7.63; p < 0.05). Correspondingly, lower dietary intake (0.9–1.4 mg/day) of vitamin B6 was also associated with a greater rate of cognitive decline (OR, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.28–13.90; p < 0.05). No significant relationships of dietary intake or biomarker status with cognitive decline were observed for the other B-vitamins. In conclusion, lower dietary and biomarker status of vitamin B6 at baseline predicted a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline over a 4-year period in healthy older adults. Vitamin B6 may be an important protective factor in helping maintain cognitive health in ageing. PMID:28075382

  1. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  3. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  4. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

  5. Psychological and Functional Vulnerability Predicts Fraud Cases in Older Adults: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugarman, Michael A.; Paulson, Daniel; Ficker, Lisa J; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2016-01-01

    Using cross sectional data Psychological vulnerability was identified as a correlate of older adult’s being defrauded. We extend that research by examining fraud prevalence using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and to identify the best predictors of fraud longitudinally across a 4-year time frame. Whereas reported fraud prevalence was 5.0% in a 5-year look-back period in 2008, it increased to 6.1% in 2012. The rate of new-incident fraud across only a 4-year look-back was 4.3%. Being younger-old, having a higher level of education, and having more depression significantly predicted the new cases of fraud reported in 2012. Psychological vulnerability was a potent longitudinal predictor of fraud, with the most vulnerable individuals being more than twice as likely to be defrauded. Results indicate that fraud victimization among older adults is rising, and that vulnerability variables, along with some demographic variables, predict new cases of fraud. PMID:27065511

  6. Baccalaureate and Beyond: A First Look at the Employment Experiences and Lives of College Graduates, 4 Years On (B&B:08/12). NCES 2014-141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Siegel, Peter; Shepherd, Bryan; Cooney, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This report presents initial findings about the employment outcomes of bachelor's degree recipients approximately 4 years after they completed their 2007-08 degrees. These findings are based on data from the second follow-up of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/12), a nationally representative longitudinal sample survey…

  7. Surgery and parental separation as potential risk factors for abnormal eating attitudes-longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Eytan; Stein, Daniel; Canetti, Laura; Gur, Eitan

    2008-11-01

    Due to the susceptibility of eating disorders (ED) to stressful life events, we wanted to examine longitudinally whether two childhood adversities: (1) surgery and (2) parental separation, will affect abnormal eating attitudes in adolescents. Consecutively for 4 years, the eating attitude test (EAT-26) and the eating disorder inventory-2 (EDI-2) questionnaires were administered to students from grades 7th through 10th and 8th through 11th. Multilevel analysis revealed that parental separation and oral or cosmetic dermatologic surgeries were significantly correlated with EAT-26 and EDI-2 scores throughout the 4 years of the study. Post-hoc interpretation suggests a connection between (A) chirurgic intervention in the oral cavity and problematic eating attitudes, and (B) cosmetic dermatologic surgery and greater awareness to body appearance-a feature which might characterize adolescents who are prone to develop ED.

  8. Is Sexual Abuse a Part of War? A 4-Year Retrospective Study on Cases of Sexual Abuse at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omondi, Lilian; Olando, Yvonne; Makenyengo, Margaret; Bukusi, David

    2013-01-01

    The harmful effects of sexual abuse are long lasting. Sexual abuse when associated with violence is likely to impact negatively on the life of the victim. Anecdotal reports indicate that there was an increase in the number of cases of sexual violence following the 2007 post election conflict and violence in Kenya. Although such increases in sexual abuse are common during war or conflict periods the above reports have not been confirmed through research evidence. The purpose of the current study is to establish the trend in numbers of reported cases of sexual abuse at Kenyatta National Hospital over a 4-year period (2006-2009). Data on sexually abused persons for the year 2006-2009 was retrieved from the hospitals record. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the completed Post Rape Care (PRC) form. The PRC-Ministry of Health no. 363 (MOH363) form is mandatorily completed by the physician attending the sexually abused patient. There was an increase in the number of cases of sexual abuse reported in 2007 election year in Kenya, with a statistically significant increase in the sexually abused male cases. Sexual crime is more prevalent when there is war or conflict. PMID:28299094

  9. Diet quality from pre-school to school age in Brazilian children: a 4-year follow-up in a randomised control study.

    PubMed

    Rauber, Fernanda; Hoffman, Daniel J; Vitolo, Márcia Regina

    2014-02-01

    A previous study demonstrated that dietary counselling for mothers during the first year of life improved overall diet quality of children at pre-school age in a low-income population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the long-term effect of this intervention on diet quality of children at school age and examine the tracking of dietary intake throughout childhood. The present study was a follow-up of a randomised controlled trial with children who were assessed at 3-4 years (n 345) and 7-8 years (n 307) of age. We collected two 24 h dietary recalls and assessed diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Analyses were performed by group using a paired t test and a Student's t test for independent samples. Diet quality did not differ between the intervention and control groups at 7-8 years of age (HEI score 65·2 (SD 9·5) v. 64·9 (SD 8·5)). Regarding changes in diet quality from pre-school to school age, we observed the tracking of diet quality in the control group and the loss of the intervention effect in the intervention group. In both groups, the score for fruit and milk intake decreased, while that for saturated fat and dietary variety intake increased. The score for the intakes of grains, meat and legumes, and total fat remained constant for all children. The present data provide evidence that diet quality tracks during childhood since the total HEI score did not differ over time in the control group. The decrease in score for some HEI components did not affect the overall diet quality due to the increase in score for other HEI components.

  10. Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-05-01

    Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.

  11. 78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study... Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011), sponsored by the National...

  12. J's Rhymes: A Longitudinal Case Study of Language Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelas, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study of one children documents an invented language game consisting of suffixal reduplication and onset replacement. Argues that this game may more closely resemble adult rhyme. (Author/VWL)

  13. [Halm-Zielke instrumentation as primary stable improvement of the Zielke-VDS in idiopathic scoliosis. 1 to 4 year outcome of a prospective study of 29 consecutive patients].

    PubMed

    Halm, H; Niemeyer, T; Halm, B; Liljenqvist, U; Steinbeck, J

    2000-06-01

    Halm-Zielke Instrumentation (HZI) was developed to eliminate the disadvantage of ventral derotation spondylodesis (VDS)-Zielke in terms of lack of primary stability and in order to simplify sagittal plane control. Within a prospective clinical trial started in 1993, we have studied whether HZI fulfills these demands. HZI is an anterior double-rod system with a two screw per vertebral body fixation. The longitudinal components consist of a threaded VDS rod and a solid rod, which are attached to a hinge-conducted lid plate. Twenty-nine consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis and curves ranging from 36 degrees to 92 degrees were treated with HZI. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 4 years. Correction of the frontal plane within the instrumented levels averaged 71.6% and 70.5% postoperatively and at follow-up, respectively. Derotation averaged 53.7% and mean correction of the tilt of the lowest instrumented vertebra was 69.5% at final follow-up. Thoracolumbar kyphosis was present in eight patients and was always completely corrected from +18.8 degrees to 3.3 degrees on average. One implant-related complication involved a screw breakage 18 months postoperatively without adverse effects. There was no case of pseudoarthrosis. All patients were mobilized without any additional external immobilization in terms of a brace or cast, and were allowed to go swimming for physiotherapeutical purposes immediately after wound healing. This study proves that HZI is a primary stable implant to perform VDS. Implant-related disadvantages typical of VDS are eliminated. Thereby, the period of rehabilitation is shortened by many months due to avoidance of cast and brace treatment.

  14. Reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity of a protein-based pneumococcal vaccine in Gambian children aged 2-4 years: A phase II randomized study.

    PubMed

    Odutola, A; Ota, M O; Ogundare, E O; Antonio, M; Owiafe, P; Worwui, A; Greenwood, B; Alderson, M; Traskine, M; Verlant, V; Dobbelaere, K; Borys, D

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been successful in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease but effectiveness has been challenged by replacement of vaccine serotypes with non-vaccine serotypes. Vaccines targeting common pneumococcal protein(s) found in most/all pneumococci may overcome this limitation. This phase II study assessed safety and immunogenicity of a new protein-based pneumococcal vaccine containing polysaccharide conjugates of 10 pneumococcal serotypes combined with pneumolysin toxoid(dPly) and pneumococcal histidine triad protein D(PhtD) (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30) in African children. 120 Gambian children (2-4 years, not previously vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae) randomized (1:1) received a single dose of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 or PCV13. Adverse events occurring over 4 d post-vaccination were reported, and blood samples obtained pre- and 1-month post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were reported for 6 months post-vaccination. Solicited local and systemic adverse events were reported at similar frequency in each group. One child (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 group) reported a grade 3 local reaction to vaccination. Haematological and biochemical parameters seemed similar pre- and 1-month post-vaccination in each group. High pre-vaccination Ply and PhtD antibody concentrations were observed in each group, but only increased in PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccinees one month post-vaccination. One month post-vaccination, for each vaccine serotype ≥96.2% of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccinees had serotype-specific polysaccharide antibody concentrations ≥0.20µg/mL except serotypes 6B (80.8%) and 23F (65.4%), and ≥94.1% had OPA titres of ≥8 except serotypes 1 (51.9%), 5 (38.5%) and 6B (78.0%), within ranges seen in PCV13-vaccinated children. A single dose of PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 vaccine, administered to Gambian children aged 2-4 y not previously vaccinated with a pneumococcal vaccine, was well-tolerated and immunogenic.

  15. Does Theory of Mind in Pre-Kindergarten Predict the Ability to Think about a Reader's Mind in Elementary School Compositions? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peskin, Joan; Comay, Julie; Chen, Xi; Prusky, Carly

    2016-01-01

    A critical skill in emergent writing is the developing ability to take the perspective of different readers; however, the precursors of this skill have not yet been identified. In this longitudinal study, 105 children (90 after attrition) were tested at 3 time points: pre-kindergarten (3-4 years old, n = 105), kindergarten (5 years old, n = 97),…

  16. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  17. Social Class Differentiation in Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Mark; And Others

    In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…

  18. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  19. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  1. Longitudinal Study of Low and High Achievers in Early Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…

  2. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Judge Leniency and Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.

    This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…

  4. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  5. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  6. Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

    2011-04-14

    The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

  7. Antipsychotic prescribing in care homes before and after launch of a national dementia strategy: an observational study in English institutions over a 4-year period

    PubMed Central

    Szczepura, Ala; Owen, David W; Palmer, Thomas; Muhammad, Tariq; Clark, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess associations between the launch of the National Dementia Strategy (NDS) and antipsychotic prescribing in long-term residential care (LTC) in England. Setting and participants Retrospective analysis of prescribing patterns in 616 LTC institutions (31 619 residents) following launch of the NDS, using information from electronic medicines management system. Primary and secondary outcome measures Antipsychotic prescribing point prevalence (PP) for all residents in a cross section of LTC settings over a 4-year period following NDS launch. Secondary outcomes included dosages, length of treatment and use of recommended second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) versus first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs). Associations between facility-level PP values and institutional characteristics, resident demographics were explored. Variations across geographical areas examined. Prescription net ingredient costs calculated. Results No statistically significant difference was observed in overall prescribing rates over the 4-year period (Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test p=0.60), and there was no significant shift towards newer SGAs (KS test p=0.32). Dosages were above the maximum indicated in only 1.3% of cases, but duration of prescribing was excessive in 69.7% of cases. Care homes in the highest prescribing quintile were more likely to be located in a deprived area (rate ratio (Q5/Q1) RR=5.89, 95% CI 4.35 to 7.99), registered for dementia (RR=3.38, 95% CI 3.06 to 3.73) and those in the lowest quintile were more likely to be served by a single general practitioner (GP) practice (RR=0.48; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.63); p<0.001 all. A sixfold variation in PP levels was observed between geographical areas. The average annual expenditure on antipsychotics was £65.6 per person resident (2012 prices). Conclusions The NDS in England was not associated with reduced PP levels or the types of antipsychotic prescribing in care homes. Further research is needed to explore why. Clear

  8. Sleep Patterns of Young Men and Women Enrolled at the United States Military Academy: Results from Year 1 of a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    REQUIREMENTS OF ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS ARE DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT FROM THOSE of other age groups. I·’ When compared 10 adulls, the cir· cadian...fluctuation of the naturally occurring honnone melatonin differs in adolescents and is thought to reflect the underlying pro- cesses that control...but is less able to wake up early in the morning. Adolescents have extremely variable sleep pat- terns, tending 10 sleep less on week nights

  9. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  11. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  12. Longitudinal Field Research Methods for Studying Processes of Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Ven, Andrew H.; Huber, George P.

    1990-01-01

    This and the next issue of "Organization Science" contain eight papers that deal with the process of organizational change. The five papers in this issue feature the theory of method and practice of researchers engaged in longitudinal field studies aimed at understanding processes of organizational change. (MLF)

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…

  14. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  15. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  16. Health Benefits of Volunteering in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-01-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…

  17. A Longitudinal Study on Learner Career Advancement in MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.

  18. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  19. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  20. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Relational and Physical Aggression in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crick, Nicki R.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Burr, Jean E.; Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Jansen-Yeh, Elizabeth; Ralston, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To understand the development of relational aggression during early childhood, 91 girls and boys ("M" age=39.0; "SD"=7.6 months) and their teachers participated in an 18-month longitudinal study. Children were observed for relational and physical aggression during free play in four time periods. Individually administered interviews were conducted…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Talent Search Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Ernest W.; Landers, Jama McMahan

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the impact of participation in the federally funded Talent Search program at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The Talent Search program provides career exploration and counseling services to low-income students with the potential to be first-generation college graduates. Postsecondary education enrollment…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Idiom and Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Nesi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The relation between text and idiom comprehension in children with poor text comprehension skills was investigated longitudinally. In the first phase of the study, six-year-old first graders with different levels of text comprehension were compared in an idiom and sentence comprehension task. Text comprehension was shown to be more closely related…

  5. Violence Viewing and Adolescent Aggression: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viemero, Vappu

    A longitudinal field study conducted in Turku, Finland, traced the development of aggression as a function of the viewing of violence by children from the ages of 7 and 9 to the ages of 15 and 17 to explore the connection between violence viewing and viewers' aggression, and to shed light on the question of causality. The 220 subjects, both male…

  6. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of ESL Learners' Fluency and Comprehensibility Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ron I.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal mixed-methods study compared the oral fluency of well-educated adult immigrants from Mandarin and Slavic language backgrounds (16 per group) enrolled in introductory English as a second language (ESL) classes. Speech samples were collected over a 2-year period, together with estimates of weekly English use. We also conducted…

  8. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  9. Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…

  10. Effects of early treatment on maxillary arch development in BCLP. A study on dental casts between 0 and 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Heidbuchel, K L; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Van't Hof, M A; Kramer, G J; Prahl-Andersen, B

    1998-06-01

    The present investigation analyses longitudinally the effects of early orthopaedic and/or surgical treatment on maxillary alveolar arch development in 30 children with a complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP). Palatal arch dimensions were measured on dental casts and their growth velocities during different treatment periods were calculated. Differences in growth velocities between consecutive treatment periods were examined and tested statistically. Furthermore, growth velocities were compared with those of 80 non-cleft children. Before lip closure, growth of the intercanine width of children with a BCLP and non-cleft children was comparable. Only for arch length significantly was less growth observed in BCLP patients in comparison with the control group. After lip closure, intercanine width, arch length and segmental angle diminished. During the intersurgical period, arch form seemed to adapt to a new muscular balance. Immediately after soft palate surgery, growth of the intercanine width and intertuberosity width was restricted. This negative growth was compensated in the postsurgical period, where a catch-up growth of intertuberosity width was even observed.

  11. Pierce College Longitudinal Study: First Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, M. Stephen; Hunter, Russell

    During 1977-78 Pierce College undertook a study to (1) examine major reasons for attrition; (2) determine reasons for student attendance at Pierce; (3) determine the long-range effects of academic residence at Pierce for its students; and (4) experimentally determine the effects on retention of special treatment, through a "caring ombudsman." Each…

  12. Tourism Degree Internships: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…

  13. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  14. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  15. Benchmarking pathology services: implementing a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M; Holmes, S; McGrath, K; Neil, A

    1999-05-01

    This paper details the benchmarking process and its application to the activities of pathology laboratories participating in a benchmark pilot study [the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasian (RCPA) Benchmarking Project]. The discussion highlights the primary issues confronted in collecting, processing, analysing and comparing benchmark data. The paper outlines the benefits of engaging in a benchmarking exercise and provides a framework which can be applied across a range of public health settings. This information is then applied to a review of the development of the RCPA Benchmarking Project. Consideration is also given to the nature of the preliminary results of the project and the implications of these results to the on-going conduct of the study.

  16. Identifying the cognitive predictors of early counting and calculation skills: Evidence from a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Soto-Calvo, Elena; Simmons, Fiona R; Willis, Catherine; Adams, Anne-Marie

    2015-12-01

    The extent to which phonological, visual-spatial short-term memory (STM), and nonsymbolic quantitative skills support the development of counting and calculation skills was examined in this 14-month longitudinal study of 125 children. Initial assessments were made when the children were 4 years 8 months old. Phonological awareness, visual-spatial STM, and nonsymbolic approximate discrimination predicted growth in early calculation skills.These results suggest that both the approximate number system and domain-general phonological and visual-spatial skills support early calculation. In contrast, only performance on a small nonsymbolic quantity discrimination task (where the presented quantities were always within the subitizing range) predicted growth in cardinal counting skills. These results suggest that the development of counting and the development of calculation are supported by different cognitive abilities.

  17. Longitudinal studies of exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Blindt, M; Mason, H J

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of urinary proteins, blood and urinary cadmium, and in vivo kidney and liver cadmium have been made for a group of workers at several times between 1981 and 1990. The possibility of the introduction of measurement artifacts due to the use of different in vivo measurement systems has been assessed and is considered to be small. Changes in cadmium body burden with time have been studied in relation to kidney function. The results suggest several interesting patterns, although more data are needed to elucidate these further. They do, however, show the effectiveness of good hygiene in the workplace. PMID:1515347

  18. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement.

  19. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  20. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  1. Longitudinal study of alexithymia and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chahraoui, Khadija; Duchene, Céline; Rollot, Fabien; Bonin, Bernard; Moreau, Thibault

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the course of alexithymia and its relation with anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), over a period of 5 years. Methods Sixty-two MS patients were examined at two timepoints, 5 years apart, and they answered questionnaires collecting socio-demographic, medical, and psychological data (depression, anxiety, alexithymia). Results Our data show that emotional disorders remain stable over time in patients with MS, particularly as regards alexithymia and anxiety. Conversely, the rate of depression decreased between the two evaluations, falling from 40% to 26%. The two dimensions of alexithymia (i.e., difficulty describing and difficulty identifying feelings) were correlated with anxiety and depression, whereas the third component of alexithymia (externally oriented thinking) was independent, and was the only component to change over time, with a significant fall observed at 5 years. Conclusion Alexithymia was associated with increased severity of anxiety and attack relapses. PMID:24653957

  2. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  3. The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Relationship Between Personality and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner; Willis, Sherry L.; Caskie, Grace I.L.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the history, measures and principal findings of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. This study began in 1956 focusing upon age differences and age changes in cognitive abilities. Its sampling frame is a large HMO in the Pacific Northwest. The study has been expanded to investigate various influences on cognitive aging including, cognitive styles, personality traits, life styles, and family environment. Current interest is also in the early detection of risk for dementia. In addition, this article reports original analyses of the relation of personality dimensions to cognitive abilities (both concurrent and longitudinal). While personality remains relatively stable over the adult life span, modest proportions of variance are shared between various personality traits and the cognitive abilities. PMID:16755303

  4. Predictors of attrition in a longitudinal study of substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Claus, Ronald E; Kindleberger, Lisa R; Dugan, Mary C

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has emphasized the importance of minimizing attrition in longitudinal studies. The authors examined the influence of demographic, clinical, and process factors on attrition from a longitudinal study of 286 substance abusers recruited at a central intake unit. Univariate tests showed that those who completed three, six, and 12 month interviews had higher baseline alcohol and drug use and were more likely to provide three or more contacts when recruited, to be female, to have been married, and to have previously received substance abuse or psychiatric treatment. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that complete data participants (those who completed all three ASI interviews) were nearly three times more likely to have previously received psychiatric treatment and twice as likely to have completed an early engagement interview. In addition, they were twice as likely to be female, and nearly twice as likely to be employed, own a residence, have completed high school, and be married. Procedures that may help decrease study attrition are discussed.

  5. Positive parenting predicts the development of adolescent brain structure: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Dennison, Meg; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Schwartz, Orli; Yap, Marie B H; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-04-01

    Little work has been conducted that examines the effects of positive environmental experiences on brain development to date. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of positive (warm and supportive) maternal behavior on structural brain development during adolescence, using longitudinal structural MRI. Participants were 188 (92 female) adolescents, who were part of a longitudinal adolescent development study that involved mother-adolescent interactions and MRI scans at approximately 12 years old, and follow-up MRI scans approximately 4 years later. FreeSurfer software was used to estimate the volume of limbic-striatal regions (amygdala, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens) and the thickness of prefrontal regions (anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices) across both time points. Higher frequency of positive maternal behavior during the interactions predicted attenuated volumetric growth in the right amygdala, and accelerated cortical thinning in the right anterior cingulate (males only) and left and right orbitofrontal cortices, between baseline and follow up. These results have implications for understanding the biological mediators of risk and protective factors for mental disorders that have onset during adolescence.

  6. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning.

  7. Academic dishonesty among Italian nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Macale, Loreana; Ghezzi, Valerio; Rocco, Gennaro; Fida, Roberta; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2017-03-01

    Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students. A non-experimental longitudinal design was used. All nursing students were recruited from the Nursing Science Bachelor Degree Program of a big Italian university in the centre of Italy and participants were part of an ongoing longitudinal research project which started in 2011 on nursing students' wellbeing. The results show that students get accustomed to taking academically deceitful actions. They come to consider their behaviours acceptable and normal, thereby stabilizing them, which increases the probability of stabilizing subsequent deceitful behaviours. The stability through time of academic cheating behaviours committed during higher education, within the study's timeframe, provides important perspectives into the establishment of rigorous standards of ethical and moral behaviours by the students.

  8. Inverse association of carotenoid intakes with 4-year change in bone mineral density in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that carotenoids may inhibit bone resorption and stimulate proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Few studies have examined the association between carotenoid intake (other than beta-carotene) and bone mineral density (BMD). We evaluated associations b...

  9. Evidence for safety and efficacy of risedronate in men with osteoporosis over 4 years of treatment: Results from the 2-year, open-label, extension study of a 2-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Steven; Lorenc, Roman S; Wenderoth, Dietrich; Stoner, Karen J; Eusebio, Rachelle; Orwoll, Eric S

    2012-09-01

    A 2-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with osteoporosis demonstrated that treatment with risedronate 35mg once a week significantly decreased bone turnover markers (BTMs) and increased bone mineral density (BMD). This study was extended to include a 2-year, open-label extension to continue to assess the safety and efficacy of risedronate in men with osteoporosis. In the open-label extension, all patients received risedronate 35mg once a week, and 1000mg elemental calcium and 400 to 500IU vitamin D daily for up to 2 years. The safety of risedronate was evaluated based on adverse events, laboratory data, vital signs, and physical examination results. BMD, BTMs, and the incidence of new vertebral fractures were also assessed. A total of 218 (of 284) patients enrolled in the open-label extension. Risedronate continued to produce significant increases in lumbar spine BMD from baseline (7.87%) in the group of patients who took it for 4 years. Risedronate produced significant increases in lumbar spine BMD from baseline (6.27%) in the former placebo group who took it for 2 years during the open-label extension. Few new vertebral and clinical fractures occurred during the study. There were no significant differences in BTMs between the two groups at months 36 and 48. Incidences of any upper GI adverse events during the extension were low and similar in the two groups; however, the percent of moderate to severe events were higher (8% versus 2%) in the group that received placebo prior to the extension. Safety results continued to show that risedronate was well-tolerated in men with osteoporosis. Patients who received risedronate 35mg once a week for 2years in the open-label extension study showed similar safety and efficacy results compared with those who received risedronate treatment in the first 2 double-blind years of the study. Patients who received risedronate for 4 years in total showed similar safety and efficacy to that observed in

  10. Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…

  11. 77 FR 20885 - Agency Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    .... 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence. For Further Information or a Copy of....mclamb@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey... Control Number: 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey). Type of Review: New data collection....

  12. Relationships between subjective or objective symptoms and mortality in schizophrenia: a prospective study on 310 schizophrenic patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years.

    PubMed

    Loas, Gwenolé; Yon, Valérie; Maréchal, Virginie; Dècle, Pénélope

    2011-01-30

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between subjective or objective symptoms and mortality in schizophrenia. 310 subjects meeting the ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia were included in the study between 1998 and 2000. At the initial assessment the following variables were respectively assessed to evaluate subjective and objective symptoms: the Frankfurt Complaints Questionnaire (FCQ) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In May 2008, information about the subjects were collected in order to know if they are alive or not and if they are deceased to know the date and the causes of their death. Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated. A multivariate Cox regression was done to detect predictive factors associated with mortality. Absolute mortality rates were 10.01%, 4.46% and 5.42% for overall mortality, unnatural causes and natural causes, respectively. SMR for overall mortality was 4.73. Cox regression analyses showed that elevated scores of FCQ was significant predictor of deaths from unnatural causes. High levels of subjective symptoms, as rated by the FCQ were independent predictor of mortality by unnatural causes in schizophrenic subjects. There were several limitations: The causes of death were not determined by autopsy and secondly, the duration of the study could be insufficient to detect significant associations between clinical variables and mortality.

  13. The effects of combination therapy with dutasteride plus tamsulosin on clinical outcomes in men with symptomatic BPH: 4-year post hoc analysis of European men in the CombAT study.

    PubMed

    Haillot, O; Fraga, A; Maciukiewicz, P; Pushkar, D; Tammela, T; Höfner, K; Chantada, V; Gagnier, P; Morrill, B

    2011-12-01

    CombAT (Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin) was a randomised, double-blind study in men (n=4844) aged ≥ 50 years with a clinical diagnosis of BPH. Patients were randomised to daily tamsulosin 0.4 mg, dutasteride 0.5 mg or both for 4 years. The primary endpoint was time to acute urinary retention (AUR) or BPH-related surgery. Secondary endpoints included BPH clinical progression, symptoms and maximum urinary flow rate. A post hoc analysis of data from the European subgroup was conducted. A total of 2925 men were randomised to treatment in Europe as part of CombAT (tamsulosin, n=972; dutasteride, n=970; combination, n=983). Combination therapy significantly reduced the relative risk of AUR or BPH-related surgery compared with either monotherapy at 4 years, and also significantly reduced the risk of BPH clinical progression. Combination therapy also provided significantly greater symptom improvement than either monotherapy at 4 years. Safety and tolerability of dutasteride plus tamsulosin was consistent with previous experience of this combination and with the monotherapies. These data provide further evidence to support the use of long-term combination therapy (dutasteride plus tamsulosin) in men with moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms because of BPH and prostatic enlargement. The results in the European subgroup are generally consistent with those in the overall study population.

  14. Neonatal brain image segmentation in longitudinal MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Fan, Yong; Tang, Songyuan; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2010-01-01

    In the study of early brain development, tissue segmentation of neonatal brain MR images remains challenging because of the insufficient image quality due to the properties of developing tissues. Among various brain tissue segmentation algorithms, atlas-based brain image segmentation can potentially achieve good segmentation results on neonatal brain images. However, their performances rely on both the quality of the atlas and the spatial correspondence between the atlas and the to-be-segmented image. Moreover, it is difficult to build a population atlas for neonates due to the requirement of a large set of tissue-segmented neonatal brain images. To combat these obstacles, we present a longitudinal neonatal brain image segmentation framework by taking advantage of the longitudinal data acquired at late time-point to build a subject-specific tissue probabilistic atlas. Specifically, tissue segmentation of the neonatal brain is formulated as two iterative steps of bias correction and probabilistic-atlas-based tissue segmentation, along with the longitudinal atlas reconstructed by the late time image of the same subject. The proposed method has been evaluated qualitatively through visual inspection and quantitatively by comparing with manual delineations and two population-atlas-based segmentation methods. Experimental results show that the utilization of a subject-specific probabilistic atlas can substantially improve tissue segmentation of neonatal brain images.

  15. Early natural auditory-verbal education of children with profound hearing impairments in the Federal Republic of Germany: results of a 4 year study.

    PubMed

    Diller, G; Graser, P; Schmalbrock, C

    2001-09-28

    Early education of children with hearing impairments has been carried out in the FRG for the past ca. 40 years using a variety of different educational concepts. One of these concepts is the natural auditory-verbal approach. By supporting the development of hearing, even amongst children with profound hearing impairments, it stakes the claim of being capable of initiating the children's development of natural auditory-verbal skills, which are then comparable to those of children with normal hearing. Nevertheless, to this date, no empirical study of the approach and its measure of success had ever been undertaken. During the course of this study, the measures involved in a hearing-oriented system of early education were comprehensively examined. The analysis was performed on the advancements made in the natural auditory-verbal skills of infants suffering a loss of hearing of 90 dB or more and who were educated in such a way. The study comprised 103 children with profound hearing impairments, who were younger than 24 months old at the time the study began. Their respective developments were followed in three separate surveys between 1996 and 1998. The results were analysed using bivariate as well as statistical correlation methods. The children's development is impeded by such factors as late initial diagnosis; delayed supply of hearing aids and late commencement of early education; poorly-adjusted hearing aids and short periods of wearing them. A system of early education that is only to a very limited degree hearing-oriented, and a family environment where little is spoken and where the child's auditory disability receives only scant attention, may also play a part. On the other hand, under favourable circumstances, even children with profound hearing-impairments may attain a development level of natural auditory-verbal skills which corresponds to that of children who can hear well-perhaps with a certain time-delay, and certainly involving a greater effort on the

  16. Preparation, piloting and validation for a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean

    2009-07-01

    No longitudinal study should go into the field prior to detailed piloting and validation studies of the measures and techniques to be used. Preparation should also involve the training of staff, the acquisition of space and appropriate equipment, and liaison with the community and ethical committees as well as with scientific collaborators. Because different measures will continually be introduced as the participants age, the preparation, piloting and validation studies have to be ongoing. Here we describe some of the different strategies that should be used.

  17. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EXPERIENCE OF TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT IN PATIENTS 1-4 YEARS POST-SURGERY IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Stenquist, Derek S.; Elman, Scott A.; Davis, Aileen M.; Bogart, Laura M.; Brownlee, Sarah A.; Sanchez, Edward S.; Santiago, Adianez; Ghazinouri, Roya; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Musculoskeletal disorders are the second-leading cause of years lived with disability globally. Total Knee Replacement (TKR) offers patients with advanced arthritis relief from pain and the opportunity to return to physical activity. We investigated the impact of TKR on physical activity for patients in a developing nation. Methods We interviewed 18 Dominican patients (78% female) who received TKR as part of the Operation Walk Boston surgical mission program about their level of physical activity after surgery. Qualitative interviews were conducted in Spanish, and English transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results Most patients found that TKR increased their participation in physical activities in several life domains such as occupational or social pursuits. Some patients limited their own physical activities due to uncertainty about medically appropriate levels of joint use and post-operative physical activity. Many patients noted positive effects of TKR on mood and mental health. For most patients in the study, religion offered a framework for understanding their receipt of and experience with TKR. Conclusions Our findings underscore the potential of TKR to permit patients in the developing world to return to physical activities. This research also demonstrates the influence of patient education, culture, and religion on patients’ return to physical activity. As the global burden of musculoskeletal disease increases, it is important to characterize the impact of activity limitation on patients’ lives in diverse settings, and the potential for surgical intervention to ease the burden of chronic arthritis. PMID:24818572

  18. Resilience, post-traumatic growth, and work engagement among health care professionals after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A 4-year prospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Daisuke; Kawashima, Yuzuru; Noguchi, Hiroko; Usuki, Masato; Yamashita, Akihiro; Koido, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Although attention has been paid to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among health care professionals after disasters, the impact of traumatic events on their work has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether disaster-related distress, resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) affect work engagement among health care professionals who had been deployed to the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011. Methods: We recruited disaster medical assistance team members who were engaged in rescue activities after the earthquake. The short version of the Resilience Scale (RS-14) and Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) were administered one month after the earthquake, and the short form of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (SF-PTGI) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were administered four years after the earthquake. Work engagement is composed of vigor, dedication, and absorption. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of UWES with RS-14, PDI, and SF-PTGI. Results: We obtained baseline data of 254 participants in April 2011, and 191 (75.2%) completed the follow-up assessment between December 2014 and March 2015. The results showed that RS-14 predicted vigor, dedication, and absorption; in addition, SF-PTGI was positively related with these three parameters (p<0.01 for all). Conclusions: Resilience at baseline and PTG after rescue activities may increase work engagement among health care professionals after disasters. These findings could be useful for establishing a support system after rescue activities during a large-scale disaster and for managing work-related stress among health care professionals. PMID:27265533

  19. Knowing Minds, Controlling Actions: The Developmental Relations between Theory of Mind and Executive Function from 2 to 4 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ulrich; Liebermann-Finestone, Dana P.; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.; Hammond, Stuart I.; Bibok, Maximilian B.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the concurrent and predictive relations between executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM) in 82 preschoolers who were assessed when they were 2, 3, and 4 years old. The results showed that the concurrent relation between EF and ToM, after controlling for age, verbal ability, and sex, was significant at 3 and…

  20. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  1. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  2. Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

    1989-05-01

    We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

  3. National Longitudinal Study. Withdrawal from Institutions of Higher Education. An Appraisal with Longitudinal Data Involving Diverse Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetters, William B.

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, the National Center for Education Statistics undertook a study of dropouts in higher education. Specifically, the study was designed to discover: (1) to what extent students withdraw from institutions of higher education before completion, and how these rates might…

  4. The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baum, Charles L; Ford, William F

    2004-09-01

    We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings.

  5. Comparing classification methods for longitudinal fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    Schmah, Tanya; Yourganov, Grigori; Zemel, Richard S; Hinton, Geoffrey E; Small, Steven L; Strother, Stephen C

    2010-11-01

    We compare 10 methods of classifying fMRI volumes by applying them to data from a longitudinal study of stroke recovery: adaptive Fisher's linear and quadratic discriminant; gaussian naive Bayes; support vector machines with linear, quadratic, and radial basis function (RBF) kernels; logistic regression; two novel methods based on pairs of restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM); and K-nearest neighbors. All methods were tested on three binary classification tasks, and their out-of-sample classification accuracies are compared. The relative performance of the methods varies considerably across subjects and classification tasks. The best overall performers were adaptive quadratic discriminant, support vector machines with RBF kernels, and generatively trained pairs of RBMs.

  6. Sleep and the Transition to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E.; Shahar, Golan; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the links between sleep and pubertal development using a longitudinal design. Design: Three consecutive annual assessments of sleep and pubertal development. Sleep was assessed using a week of home actigraphy. Setting: Naturalistic sleep in the home setting of school children, Tel Aviv Area, Israel. Participants: A sample of 94 (41 boys) typically developing healthy school-age children (age range at first assessment: 9.9–11.2 years). Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: The Petersen's Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) were used to assess pubertal development, and a week of actigraphy served to assess naturalistic sleep patterns. The results reflect expected developmental trends: an increase in signs of pubertal maturation, delayed sleep onset, and shorter sleep time. After controlling for age, significant relationships were found between sleep onset time, true sleep time, and number of night wakings at Time 1 and pubertal ratings at Time 2, and pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. Delayed and disrupted sleep at Time 1 predicted faster pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. These results were supported by structural equation modeling. These findings were similar in boys and girls. Conclusions: Based on these longitudinal data, it appears that pubertal changes in sleep (delayed sleep phase and disrupted sleep patterns) antedate bodily changes associated with puberty. The underlying mechanisms explaining these predictive links should be further explored. Citation: Sadeh A; Dahl RE; Shahar G; Rosenblat-Stein S. Sleep and the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal study. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1602-1609. PMID:20041596

  7. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  8. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

  9. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2017-05-04

    Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  10. INCAP Oriente longitudinal study: 40 years of history and legacy.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Memory Advantages in Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Jessica K.; Hansson, Patrik; Andrés, Pilar; Josefsson, Maria; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task) and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n = 178) between 35–70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging. PMID:24023803

  12. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  13. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  14. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  15. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  16. A Four-Year Longitudinal Study on Restless Legs Syndrome in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Marcello; Erro, Roberto; Picillo, Marina; Santangelo, Gabriella; Spina, Emanuele; Allocca, Roberto; Longo, Katia; Amboni, Marianna; Palladino, Raffaele; Assante, Roberta; Pappatà, Sabina; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Barone, Paolo; Vitale, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) prevalence estimates range from 0% to 52% in Parkinson disease (PD), but the causal relationship between the two disorders is still debated. The present study aims to evaluate RLS prevalence in de novo PD subjects, its incidence during the first 4 years from diagnosis, and possible relationships with clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiological data. Methods: One hundred nine newly diagnosed, drug-naïve PD subjects were evaluated at the time of PD diagnosis, and after 2- and 4-years. RLS diagnosis was performed with the RLS Diagnostic Index at each visit. Motor features, additional non-motor symptoms (NMS), and concomitant dopaminergic and nondopaminergic treatments were also gathered. Moreover, at baseline, 65 subjects were randomly selected to undergo a FP-CIT SPECT to study dopamine transporter availability. Results: RLS prevalence rose from 4.6% at baseline evaluation to 6.5% after 2 years and to 16.3% after 4 years (P = 0.007). A multinomial logistic stepwise regression model selected NMS Questionnaire items more likely to be associated with RLS at diagnosis (insomnia, OR = 15.555; P = 0.040) and with occurrence of RLS during follow-up (dizziness, OR = 1.153; P = 0.022; and daytime sleepiness; OR = 9.557; P = 0.001), as compared to patients without RLS. Older age was more likely associated to increased RLS occurrence during follow-up in a random effect logistic regression model (OR = 1.187; P = 0.036). A multinomial logistic stepwise model found increased dopaminergic transporter availability of affected caudate and putamen to be more likely associated with RLS presence at diagnosis (n = 5; OR = 75.711; P = 0.077), and RLS occurrence during follow-up (n = 16; OR = 12.004; P = 0.059), respectively, as compared to patients without RLS (n = 88). Conclusions: RLS is present since PD diagnosis, and increases in prevalence during the course of PD. PD subjects with RLS have higher age at PD onset, more preserved

  17. Longitudinal Studies of Attitude Change: Issues and Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    relative contributions of variables which are presently influencing attitudes from historical variables. Conversely a longitudinal method can be used to...different training techniques. Neidt and Meredith (1966) used a longitudinal method to determine the changes in attitudes of a single group of Air... longitudinal method is viewed as the most promising for measurement of change. With the increasing improvement in unobtrusive measures (e.g., Webb

  18. Semiparametric Stochastic Modeling of the Rate Function in Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Song, Peter X.-K.

    2011-01-01

    In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the rate functions, which describe the functional rates of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to model these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:22423170

  19. Study of weld offset in longitudinally welded SSME HPFTP inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Spanyer, K. S.; Brunair, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Welded joints are an essential part of rocket engine structures such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. Defects produced in the welding process can be detrimental to weld performance. Recently, review of the SSME high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) titanium inlet X-rays revealed several weld discrepancies such as penetrameter density issues, film processing discrepancies, weld width discrepancies, porosity, lack of fusion, and weld offsets. Currently, the sensitivity of welded structures to defects is of concern. From a fatigue standpoint, weld offset may have a serious effect since local yielding, in general, aggravates cyclic stress effects. Therefore, the weld offset issue is considered in this report. Using the FEM and beamlike plate approximations, parametric studies were conducted to determine the influence of weld offsets and a variation of weld widths in longitudinally welded cylindrical structures with equal wall thicknesses on both sides of the joint. Following the study, some conclusions are derived for the weld offsets.

  20. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  1. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  2. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes.

    PubMed

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time-dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data.

  3. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time‐dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data. PMID:27917593

  4. Rationales, design and recruitment of the Taizhou Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Ming; Qian, Ji; Yang, Yajun; Li, Shilin; Lu, Daru; Yu, Shunzhang; Meng, Wei; Ye, Weimin; Jin, Li

    2009-01-01

    Background Rapid economic growth in China in the past decades has been accompanied by dramatic changes in lifestyle and environmental exposures. The burdens of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer, have also increased substantially. Methods/design We initiated a large prospective cohort–the Taizhou Longitudinal Study–in Taizhou (a medium-size city in China) to explore the environmental and genetic risk factors for common non-communicable diseases. The sample size of the cohort will be at least 100,000 adults aged 30–80 years drawn from the general residents of the districts of Hailin, Gaogang, and Taixing (sample frame, 1.8 million) of Taizhou. A three-stage stratified sampling method will be applied. Baseline investigations include interviewer-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and collection of buccal mucosal cells and blood specimens. DNA will be extracted for genetic studies and serum samples will be used for biochemical examinations. A follow-up survey will be conducted every three years to obtain information on disease occurrence and information on selected lifestyle exposures. Study participants will be followed-up indefinitely by using a chronic disease register system for morbidity and cause-specific mortality. Information on non-fatal events will be obtained for certain major categories of disease (e.g., cancer, stroke, myocardial infarction) through established registry systems. Discussion The Taizhou Longitudinal Study will provide a good basis for exploring the roles of many important environmental factors (especially those concomitant with the economic transformation in China) for common chronic diseases, solely or via interaction with genetic factors. PMID:19589173

  5. Longitudinal Study of the Emerging Functional Connectivity Asymmetry of Primary Language Regions during Infancy.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Robert W; Gao, Wei; Lin, Weili

    2016-10-19

    Asymmetry in the form of left-hemisphere lateralization is a striking characteristic of the cerebral regions involved in the adult language network. In this study, we leverage a large sample of typically developing human infants with longitudinal resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans to delineate the trajectory of interhemispheric functional asymmetry in language-related regions during the first 2 years of life. We derived the trajectory of interhemispheric functional symmetry of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG), the sensory and visual cortices, and two higher-order regions within the intraparietal sulcus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Longitudinal models revealed a best fit with quadratic age terms and showed significant estimated coefficients of determination for both the IFG (r(2) = 0.261, p < 0.001) and the STG (r(2) = 0.142, p < 0.001) regions while all other regions were best modeled by log-linear increases. These inverse-U-shaped functions of the language regions peaked at ∼11.5 months of age, indicating that a transition toward asymmetry began in the second year. This shift was accompanied by an increase in the functional connectivity of these regions within the left hemisphere. Finally, we detected an association between the trajectory of the IFG and language outcomes at 4 years of age (χ(2) = 10.986, p = 0.011). Our results capture the developmental timeline of the transition toward interhemispheric functional asymmetry during the first 2 years of life. More generally, our findings suggest that increasing interhemispheric functional symmetry in the first year might be a general principle of the developing brain, governing different functional systems, including those that will eventually become lateralized in adulthood.

  6. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  7. Early cognitive profiles of emergent readers: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brunswick, Nicola; Neil Martin, G; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and matching letter-like forms tasks and later reading ability. Rhyme awareness correlated with later reading ability during the earliest stages, but onset awareness did not emerge as important until after the children had started reading. Digit span correlated significantly with future reading ability at every stage. These findings indicate that although phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability are all necessary for emergent reading, their relative importance varies across the first 2 years of reading development.

  8. [Autoaggression and pulse rate--a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Rohmann, U H; Elbing, U; Hartmann, H

    1988-12-01

    This article presents a model of autoaggressive behavior in which a distinction is made between determining and maintaining factors. Specific environmental, in particular social, and organismic variables are linked to them. The two types of variables interact, thus causing or maintaining autoaggressive behavior. A theory of autoaggression must therefore rely on multicausal/multimodal explanations. A connection between autoaggression and a high level of arousal suggests itself. In this single-case longitudinal study a comparison was made between heart rate and frequency of autoaggressive behavior. High heart rates were found to be correlated with low frequencies of autoaggressive behavior and vice versa. Decreasing autoaggressive behavior was coupled with increasing muscle relaxation and increasing motor activity. However, abnormally high heart rates were associated with both low and high levels of motor activity.

  9. The Development of Preschoolers' Living Kinds Concept: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Margett-Jordan, Tessa; Falcon, Rachael G; Witherington, David C

    2016-12-19

    Given limitations in the integrative scope of past research, basic questions about the organization and development of preschoolers' living kinds concept remain open to debate. This study was designed to address past limitations through use of a longitudinal design, extensive stimulus set, and alternate indices of understanding. Thirty-five English-speaking 3-year-olds from middle-class families in Albuquerque, NM participated in four testing sessions over 1 year. Indices of understanding included statements that preschoolers generated about various living and nonliving objects, biological properties they attributed to the objects, and their characterization of objects as "alive" or not. Results reveal a multifaceted picture of developmental change in preschoolers' living kinds concept involving both the construction and elaboration of a core biological understanding.

  10. J's rhymes: a longitudinal case study of language play.

    PubMed

    Inkelas, Sharon

    2003-08-01

    A longitudinal study of one child aged 2;5 documents an invented language game consisting of suffixal reduplication and onset replacement. Initially, reduplication is partial: the reduplicant enlarges in discrete increments over the five stages of the game until by the last stage reduplication is total. Reduplication is accompanied by a process of onset replacement, in which the reduplicant always begins with /b/. Early in the game, this replacive onset 'dissimilates' to /p/ whenever the reduplicant would independently have begun with /b/. In subsequent stages, other voiced obstruents trigger dissimilation as well. Though similar in many ways to adult language reduplication, it is argued that J's game may more closely resemble adult rhyme (both poetic and word rhyme). Regardless, the structure of the game clearly reveals the child's awareness, in the third year of life, of stress and metrical feet, segmental natural classes, and segments themselves (phonemic awareness).

  11. Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-12-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly related to well-being and self-reported health. The relationship of volunteering to psychological well-being was moderated by level of social integration, such that those who were less well integrated benefited the most. Mattering appears to mediate the link between volunteering and wellbeing. Controls for other forms of social participation and for the predictors of volunteering are employed in analyses of well-being in 1992. We find volunteering effects on psychological well-being in 2004, controlling for 1992 wellbeing, thus providing strong evidence for a causal effect.

  12. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia.

  13. Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning Impairments and Aggression: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior. PMID:25174802

  14. The nutritional situation in Swedish nursing homes - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Borgström Bolmsjö, Beata; Jakobsson, Ulf; Mölstad, Sigvard; Ostgren, Carl Johan; Midlöv, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutritional status is widespread among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to longitudinally describe the nutritional status in elderly people living in nursing homes. Nutritional status was recorded longitudinally in elderly people living in 11 different nursing homes in Sweden. Participants were examined at baseline by specially trained nurses who also assisted with questionnaires and collected data for current medical treatment from patient records. Nutritional status was evaluated at baseline and after 24 months with the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). The study included 318 subjects. The mean age of the participants was 85.0 years (range 65-101). At baseline, 41.6% were well nourished, 40.3% at risk of malnutrition, and 17.7% malnourished according to the MNA. Survival was significantly lower in the malnourished group. After 24 months, almost half of the population had died. The group of participants who survived at 24 months represents a population of better nutritional state, where 10.6% were malnourished at baseline increasing to 24.6% after 24 months. After 24 months, 38.7% of the participants showed a decline in nutritional state. The group with deteriorating MNA scores had higher weight, BMI values, and a higher hospitalization rate. The prevalence of malnutrition in nursing home residents increased over time and it is important to evaluate nutritional state regularly. Nutritional interventions should be considered in better nourished groups, as well as in malnourished individuals, to prevent a decline in nutritional state.

  15. Strategies for longitudinal neuroimaging studies of overt language production.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Jed A; Postman-Caucheteux, Whitney A; McArdle, Joseph J; Braun, Allen R

    2009-08-15

    Longitudinal fMRI studies of language production are of interest for evaluating recovery from post-stroke aphasia, but numerous methodological issues remain unresolved, particularly regarding strategies for evaluating single subjects at multiple timepoints. To address these issues, we studied overt picture naming in eleven healthy subjects, scanned four times each at one-month intervals. To evaluate the natural variability present across repeated sessions, repeated scans were directly contrasted in a unified statistical framework on a per-voxel basis. The effect of stimulus familiarity was evaluated using explicitly overtrained pictures, novel pictures, and untrained pictures that were repeated across sessions. For untrained pictures, we found that activation declined across multiple sessions, equally for both novel and repeated stimuli. Thus, no repetition priming for individual stimuli at one-month intervals was found, but rather a general effect of task habituation was present. Using a set of overtrained pictures identical in each session, no decline was found, but activation was minimized and produced less consistent patterns across participants, as measured by intra-class correlation coefficients. Subtraction of a baseline task, in which subjects produced a stereotyped utterance to scrambled pictures, resulted in specific activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and other language areas for untrained items, while overlearned stimuli relative to pseudo pictures activated only the fusiform gyrus and supplementary motor area. These findings indicate that longitudinal fMRI is an effective means of detecting changes in neural activation magnitude over time, as long as the effect of task habituation is taken into account.

  16. Living arrangements of the elderly and the sociodemographic and health determinants: a longitudinal study 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Tavares, Darlene Mara dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and the number of morbidities in the elderly, according to the dynamics of living arrangements and evaluate the sociodemographic and health determinants of the living arrangements. Methods: this is a household longitudinal survey (2005-2012), carried out with 623 elderly people. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed (p<0.05). Results: there was predominance of elderly living alone, accompanied and with change in the living arrangements, females, age range between 60├ 70 years, 1├ 4 years of study and with income between 1├┤ 3 minimum wages. During the development of this research, it was identified an increase in the incidence of elderly with 1├┤3 minimum wages. The number of morbidities increased in the three groups throughout the study, with the highest rates observed among the elderly with change in the dynamics of living arrangements. It was found that elderly men showed less chance of living alone (p=0.007) and having change in the living arrangements compared to women (p = 0.005). Incomes less than a minimum wage decreased the chances of change in the living arrangements compared to incomes above three salaries (p=0.034). Conclusion: the determining factors of the living arrangements were sex and income, and the variables functional capacity and number of morbidities were not associated with the outcome analyzed. PMID:27508909

  17. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12 months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12 months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12 months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12 months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12 months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899

  18. An Investigation into Using National Longitudinal Studies to Examine Trends in Educational Attainment and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiece, Rosie; Bidgood, Penelope; Soan, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies can provide individual histories of educational attainment and are becoming widely used in educational research. Two national longitudinal studies, the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and the British Cohort Study of 1970 (BCS70), are used here to investigate changing trends in the educational attainment of children in…

  19. Longitudinal trajectories of arterial stiffness and the role of blood pressure: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Strait, James B; Morrell, Chris H; Canepa, Marco; Wright, Jeanette; Elango, Palchamy; Scuteri, Angelo; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-11-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, is an established independent cardiovascular risk factor. Little information is available on the pattern and determinants of the longitudinal change in PWV with aging. Such information is crucial to elucidating mechanisms underlying arterial stiffness and the design of interventions to retard it. Between 1988 and 2013, we collected 2 to 9 serial measures of PWV in 354 men and 423 women of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who were 21 to 94 years of age and free of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Rates of PWV increase accelerated with advancing age in men more than women, leading to sex differences in PWV after the age of 50 years. In both sexes, not only systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg but also SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg was associated with steeper rates of PWV increase compared with SBP<120 mm Hg. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent effect of SBP in men with marked acceleration in PWV rate of increase with age at SBP ≥140 mm Hg compared with SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg. Except for waist circumference in women, no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors predicted longitudinal PWV increase. In conclusion, the steeper longitudinal increase of PWV in men than women led to the sex difference that expanded with advancing age. Age and SBP are the main longitudinal determinants of PWV, and the effect of SBP on PWV trajectories exists even in the prehypertensive range.

  20. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  1. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles.

  2. A longitudinal study relating carpeting with sick building syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Norbaeck, D.; Torgen, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal questionnaire study was performed among personnel in two Swedish primary schools with wall-to-wall carpets and four schools with hard floor covering. The study groups consisted of all primary schools equipped with wall-to-wall carpets in the town of Uppsala, plus a random sample of two newer and two elderly primary schools with hard floor covering. In an initial cross-sectional study, the wall-to-wall carpet group reported an enhanced prevalence of eye and airway symptoms, face rashes, headache, abnormal tiredness and a sensation of being electrostatically charged in comparison with personnel in schools with hard floor covering. Since the enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the wall-to-wall carpets versus the hard floor covering group was also observed among persons without signs of atopy it was concluded that wall-to-wall carpets are not exclusively a problem for the sensitive atopic individual. The type of ventilation system (mechanical ventilation versus natural ventilation) had no significant effect on the symptom frequencies. After the removal of the wall-to-wall carpets, many of the reported symptoms decreased to a level similar to the group without previous or present exposure to such carpets. However, the frequency of airway symptoms remained enhanced among the wall-to-wall carpet group.

  3. [Changes in interpersonal values in student nurses: a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Nagata, H; Kondo, M; Ogawa, S

    1994-01-01

    Our cross-sectional studies of interpersonal values in female student nurses showed that (1) third graders attached more importance to the values of Support and Independence and less to those of Benevolence and Leadership than did first graders, and (2) the discrepancy between the ratings of what they were and those of what their ideal nurses were was greater in the third than in the first graders. We interpreted these differences between the two graders as indicating a developmental change brought about during the three years. This study examined the internal validity of this interpretation through the use of a longitudinal method. The KG-SIV (Kikuchi-Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values) was administered twice to 85 female student nurses: immediately after entering their nursing schools and immediately before finishing them, with a testing interval of approximately three years. For each testing, subjects were asked to rate what they were and then what their ideal nurses were. Analyses produced almost the same results as obtained in cross-sectional studies: perceived values of Benevolence and Leadership decrease while those of Support and Independence increase over the three years, with the discrepancy increasing from the first to the second testing. Findings thus support the internal validity of our prior interpretation. The changes in interpersonal values found for the student nurses suggest a socialization process they undertake in nurse training and imply an increase of stress they experience in that process.

  4. Data management in a longitudinal cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R J; Musick, B S; Olley, B; Hall, K S; Hendrie, H C; Oyediran, A B

    The Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project compares the rates of dementia at two sites, one in the U.S.A. and one in Nigeria. This paper concentrates on the data management issues in this longitudinal cross-cultural study. Approximately 2500 elderly people were recruited at each site, and continue to be re-assessed every two years. All the data are collected on paper and then entered into a FoxPro relational database. Most of the data management, including data cleaning, is done in Indianapolis. The design of the data collection forms is particularly important in a cross-cultural study, with the questions and the coding of responses clear and simple. Since Nigeria and the U.S.A. have different levels of technological development, the computer hardware and software were chosen to be suitable for use at either site. Exchange visits have been needed to address data management issues and resolve unexpected problems. The data management on cross-cultural studies can be handled successfully, given careful planning.

  5. An overview of the design, implementation, and analyses of longitudinal studies on aging.

    PubMed

    Newman, Anne B

    2010-10-01

    Longitudinal studies have contributed substantially to understanding of aging and geriatric syndromes. These efforts have provided a base of knowledge of the critical factors to consider in designing and implementing new longitudinal studies in older adults. This review highlights some of the major considerations in planning and implementing this type of study. Longitudinal studies can assess change over time and specific disease endpoints. Such projects require multidisciplinary teams with expertise in the many health and contextual factors that must be considered. Recent advances in study design include the use of imaging and biomarkers to assess mechanisms and approaches that raise the ceiling on measurement and integrate assessment of exposures over time. Study implementation requires careful planning and monitoring to maintain fidelity to the scientific goals. Analysis of longitudinal data requires approaches that account for inevitable missing data. New studies should take advantage of the experience obtained from longitudinal studies on aging already conducted.

  6. Training Kentuckians for industrial jobs: a longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Weseman, M.; Preston-Anderson, A.

    1982-09-01

    The Training and Technology (TAT) program, operated by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, in a Department of Energy facility, has trained unemployed Kentuckians for a number of years. The program is part of DOE's continuing effort to help supply trained personnel for the energy industry. During fiscal years 1978 to 1980, the period covered in this study, TAT enrolled 192 Kentuckians under CETA, Balance of State, and Governor's Special Grants contracts with the Department for Human Resources. One hundred sixty-seven (87%) of these participants completed the program, of which 154 (92%) were placed in unsubsidized employment. Average hourly wage rates for the 154 graduates placed in unsubsidized employment were as follows: FY 1980 - $6.05; FY 1979 - $4.94; and FY 1978 - $4.97. These data indicate short-term success but do not address the questions of postprogram employment stability and wage increases over time. In order to assess the long term impact of TAT, ORAU has conducted a longitudinal study of participants' employment experiences after training.

  7. Training Tennesseans for industrial jobs: a longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Weseman, M.; Preston-Anderson, A.

    1982-09-01

    The Training and Technology (TAT) program is operated for the US Department of Energy by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) and Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, in a Department of Energy facility. The program is part of the Department's continuing efforts to help supply trained personnel for the energy industry. TAT has trained unemployed economically disadvantaged Tennesseans for 16 years. During fiscal years 1978 to 1980, the period covered in this study, TAT enrolled 460 Tennesseans under CETA, Title 2B contracts with the Department of Employment Security. Three hundred sixty (78%) of these participants completed the program, of which 335 (93%) were placed in unsubsidized employment. Average hourly wage rates for the 335 graduates placed in unsubsidized employment were as follows: FY 1980 - $6.32; FY 1979 - $5.12; FY 1978 - $5.71. These data indicate short-term success but do not address the questions of postprogram employment stability and wage increases over time. In order to assess the long-term impact of TAT, ORAU has conducted a longitudinal study of participants' employment experiences after training.

  8. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  9. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  10. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  11. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  12. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  13. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  14. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  15. Lifestyle-Related Factors Contributing to Decline in Knee Extension Strength among Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Miji; Saito, Kyoko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Yoshida, Yuko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Obuchi, Shuichi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takao; Kim, Hunkyung

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional and 4-year longitudinal cohort study aimed to clarify how various lifestyle-related variables affect knee extension strength in elderly Japanese women. The participants were community-dwelling women (n = 575) living in the Itabashi Ward of Tokyo, Japan aged 75–85 years at baseline (in 2008) who returned for a follow-up examination 4 years later (in 2012). Maximum isometric knee extension strength in the dominant leg was measured during comprehensive medical check-ups at baseline and follow-up. Interviews with participants included questions on their history of 11 diseases and lifestyle-related factors such as physical activity as well as dietary, smoking, and drinking habits. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses yielded inconsistent results regarding the associations between lifestyle-related factors and knee extension strength. While going out more frequently and regular physical exercise positively affected baseline knee extension strength, they did not affect knee extension strength in the longitudinal analysis. The longitudinal analysis revealed that more frequent intake of soy products or green and yellow vegetables at baseline decreased age-related knee extension strength decline. The inconsistent results from the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that conducting both types of analyses is crucial for researching this type of subject. The present study demonstrates that the age-related decline in muscle strength is lower in those who frequently eat soy products or green and yellow vegetables. Thus, recommending higher intake of soy products, and green and yellow vegetables for the elderly might help maintain their muscle health. PMID:26177292

  16. A longitudinal study of category-specific agnosia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Forde, Emer M E; Humphreys, Glyn W; Graham, Kim S

    2002-01-01

    We report a 12-year longitudinal case study on a 60-year-old male patient (DW) with category-specific agnosia. The extent to which DW's impairment has changed over time was evaluated using identical tests at time 1 (1988) and time 2 (2000). In particular, we assessed his ability to identify pictures and real objects, to draw from memory, and to access stored semantic information about living and non-living things. The principal findings were: (i). DW was significantly better at identifying real objects in comparison with line drawings. (ii). DW presented with a category-specific impairment for living things that remained consistent over the 12-year period. (iii). He significantly improved in his ability to identify real non-living objects over the 12-year period but real living objects remained at floor. (iv). His ability to access stored visual knowledge declined over time. On the basis of these data, we suggest that visual perception is required to maintain intact visual memories over a period of time. We also suggest that integrative visual agnosia co-occurs with a category-specific impairment for living things because the recognition of these items requires more global processing than for non-living things. In addition, we suggest that degradation to stored visual knowledge can cause category-specific naming impairments for living compared with non-living things because naming living things requires access to more detailed visual knowledge.

  17. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  18. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  19. Neurophysiological Characterization of Subacute Stroke Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamola, Giuseppe; Fanciullacci, Chiara; Sgherri, Giada; Bertolucci, Federica; Panarese, Alessandro; Micera, Silvestro; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients. Evaluations were performed in a window between 10 and 45 days (t0) and at 3 months after the acute event (t1). Our main finding is that 3 months after the acute event patients affected by subcortical stroke presented a reduction in contralateral SP duration in the unaffected hemisphere; this trend is related to clinical improvement of upper limb motor function. In conclusion, SP proved to be a valid parameter to characterize cortical reorganization patterns in stroke survivors and provided useful information about motor recovery within 3 months in subcortical patients. PMID:27899888

  20. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A

    1990-06-01

    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  1. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  2. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  3. Phenol reduces hypertonia and enhances strength: a longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Patrick H; Eng, Janice J; Willms, Rhonda

    2004-06-01

    Phenyl alcohol blocks are used to relieve spasticity. Such nerve conduction blocks result from phenol-induced axonotmesis and could potentially affect muscle properties related to the ability to generate, maximize, and reduce force. This study assessed the 12-week longitudinal effect of phenol on position (stiffness) and velocity (damping) components of hypertonia, in addition to strength (peak torque and times to generate and reduce torque) in an individual with chronic elbow flexor spasticity following stroke. Phenol motor point injections of flexor muscles paradoxically increased the magnitude of flexion torque and decreased the times required to generate and reduce flexion and extension joint torques, in addition to reducing elbow extension stiffness and damping. Large reductions in the velocity-related component of hypertonia (damping changes > 90%) occurred immediately following injection, which is a finding that supports the velocity-dependent definition of spasticity. Although the changes in damping were large and transient, changes in stiffness and strength variables were small, slower to occur, and maintained. This suggests secondary changes following nerve block, possibly facilitated by regular elbow use subsequent to spasticity reduction.

  4. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.

  5. Markers of gluten sensitivity in acute mania: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Yolken, Robert

    2012-03-30

    Increased levels of antibodies to gliadin, which is derived from the wheat protein gluten, have been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally the levels of antibody reactivity to gliadin in acute mania. The sample included 60 individuals assessed during a hospital stay for acute mania, 39 at a 6-month follow-up, and a sample of 143 non-psychiatric controls. Antibodies to gliadin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The relationship of the antibodies to the clinical course of mania was analyzed by the use of regression models. Individuals with mania had significantly increased levels of IgG antibodies to gliadin, but not other markers of celiac disease, at baseline compared with controls in multivariate analyses. However, these levels were not significantly different from those of controls at the six month follow-up. Among the individuals with mania, elevated levels at follow-up were significantly associated with re-hospitalization in the 6-month follow-up period. The monitoring and control of gluten sensitivity may have significant effects on the management of individuals hospitalized with acute mania.

  6. Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Victimization among people with a Severe Mental Illness is a common phenomenon. The objectives of this study proposal are: to delineate the extent and kind of victimization in a representative sample of chronic psychiatric patients; to contribute to the development and validation of a set of instruments registering victimization of psychiatric patients; to determine risk factors and protective factors; and to gain insight into the possible consequences of victimization. Methods/Design An extensive data set of 323 patients with Sever Mental Illness (assessed 4 years ago) is used. In 2010 a second measurement will be performed, enabling longitudinal research on the predictors and consequences of victimization. Discussion The consequences of (re)victimization have barely been subjected to analysis, partially due to the lack of a comprehensive, conceptual model for victimization. This research project will contribute significantly to the scientific development of the conceptual model of victimization in chronic psychiatric patients. PMID:21067566

  7. Longitudinal study of habits leading to malocclusion development in childhood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion. Methods This is a longitudinal study in which 80 mother-child pairs were monitored from the beginning of pregnancy to the 30th month after childbirth. Home visits for interviews with the mothers were made on the 12th, 18th and 30th months of age. Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, bottle feeding, breastfeeding and nocturnal mouth breathing, were the variables studies. On the 30th month, clinical examinations were performed for overjet, overbite and posterior crossbite. A previously calibrated single examiner (Kappa coefficient = 0.92) was responsible for all examinations. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests, at a significance level of 5%. Results Bottle feeding was the most prevalent habit at 12, 18 and 30 months (87.5%; 90% and 96.25%, respectively). Breastfeeding was 40%, 25% and 12.50% at 12, 18 and 30 months, respectively. Nearly 70% of the children in this study had some sort of malocclusion. Pacifier sucking habit at 12, 18 and 30 months of age was associated with overjet and open bite; and at 30 months, an association with overbite was also observed. Finger sucking habit and breastfeeding at 12, 18 and 30 months were also associated with overjet and open bite. The posterior crossbite was associated with bottle feeding at 12 and 30 months, and nocturnal mouth breathers at 12 and 18 months. Conclusions Sucking habits, low rates of breastfeeding, and nocturnal mouth breathing were risk factors for malocclusion. PMID:25091288

  8. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Bois, Corinne; Pirus, Claudine; Sarter, Hélène; Salines, Georges; Leridon, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP) established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year) as well as medical interview (at 2 years) and examination (at 6 years). Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children) with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development. PMID:19772571

  9. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  10. Molluscum contagiosum and associations with atopic eczema in children: a retrospective longitudinal study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Piguet, Vincent; Gallacher, John; Francis, Nick A

    2016-01-01

    Background Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common skin condition in children. Consultation rates and current management in primary care, and how these have changed over time, are poorly described. An association between the presence of atopic eczema (AE) and MC has been shown, but the subsequent risk of developing MC in children with a diagnosis of AE is not known. Aim To describe the consultation rate and management of MC in general practice in the UK over time, and test the hypothesis that a history of AE increases the risk of developing MC in childhood. Design and setting Two studies are reported: a retrospective longitudinal study of MC cases and an age–sex matched case-cohort study of AE cases, both datasets being held in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 2004 to 2013. Method Data of all recorded MC and AE primary care consultations for children aged 0 to 14 years were collected and two main analyses were conducted using these data: a retrospective longitudinal analysis and an age–sex matched case-cohort analysis. Results The rate of MC consultations in primary care for children aged 0 to 14 years is 9.5 per 1000 (95% CI = 9.4 to 9.6). The greatest rate of consultations for both sexes is in children aged 1–4 years and 5–9 years (13.1 to 13.0 (males) and 13.0 to 13.9 (females) per 1000 respectively). Consultation rates for MC have declined by 50% from 2004 to 2013. Children were found to be more likely to have an MC consultation if they had previously consulted a GP with AE (OR 1.13; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.16; P<0.005). Conclusion Consultations for MC in primary care are common, especially in 1–9-year-olds, but they declined significantly during the decade under study. A primary care diagnosis of AE is associated with an increased risk of a subsequent primary care diagnosis of MC. PMID:26639950

  11. Longitudinal Factor Structure of General Self-Concept and Locus of Control among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Su, Ihui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal factor structure of general self-concept and locus of control among high school students over a 4-year period, with data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. Measurement invariance was tested over time and across gender and ethnic groups; second-order piecewise latent growth models were…

  12. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  13. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Review and Annotation of Study Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Samuel S.; And Others

    Over 150 journal articles, papers presented at professional meetings, dissertations, government publications, contract reports, and studies in progress as of March 1977 on the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) are annotated and indexed by subject, author, and sponsoring agency. Introductory chapters describe the…

  14. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

  15. Longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.

    PubMed

    Laarhoven, Laura M; de Heus, Phebe; van Luijn, Jeanine; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present) of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former) MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of colonization of

  16. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  17. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  18. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

  19. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  20. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong

    2016-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  1. Recruitment Modeling Applied to Longitudinal Studies of Group Differences in Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Hunt, Earl; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Dykiert, Dominika

    2009-01-01

    In longitudinal studies data is collected in a series of waves. Each wave after the first suffers from attrition. Therefore it can be difficult to discriminate between changes in sample parameters due to a longitudinal process (e.g. ageing) and changes due to attrition. The problem is particularly vexing if one of the purposes is to compare…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  3. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  4. Macular function and morphological features in juvenile Stargardt disease: Longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Francesco; Melillo, Paolo; Iorio, Valentina Di; Orrico, Ada; Attanasio, Marcella; Rossi, Settimio; Simonelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose to evaluate disease progression in a cohort of patients with clinical and genetic diagnosis of Stargardt disease. Design longitudinal cohort study. Subjects 56 selected patients with a clinical and molecular diagnosis of Stargardt disease, an early age of onset and a median follow-up length of two years. Methods patients underwent routine examination including full-field electroretinography, microperimetry and optical coherence tomography. Main Outcome Measures best corrected visual acuity, mean retinal sensitivity, fixation stability, preferred retinal locus, inner-outer segment (IS/OS) junction loss, atrophic lesion area. Results 56 patients with a mean age of disease onset of 15.3 years (range: 3 - 28 years), a mean disease length of 12.1 years and a mean age at baseline of 27.4 years were analyzed. The median best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography parameters (IS/OS alteration and retinal pigment epithelium lesion area) were obtained in 49 patients because signal quality was poor in the remaining 7 patients. Optical coherence tomography revealed a mean retinal pigment epithelium lesion area of 2.6 mm2, preserved foveal IS/OS in 4.1% of patients, loss of foveal IS/OS in 59.2%, and extensive loss of macular IS/OS in 36.7%. Microperimetric findings showed a reduced macular sensitivity (mean 10 dB) and an unstable fixation in half of the patient cohort. The longitudinal analysis showed a significant progressive reduction of best corrected visual acuity and macular sensitivity (at an estimated rate of 0.04 decimals and 1.19 dB per year, respectively) associated with a significant enlargement of retinal pigment epithelium lesion area (0.282 mm2 per year). No significant changes in ophthalmoscopic findings and electroretinographic responses were detected. Conclusions this study highlights the importance of microperimetry and optical coherence tomography in monitoring Stargardt patients. In fact, quantifying the

  5. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  6. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  8. Exercise and Three Psychosocial Variables: A Longitudinal Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in whom, when, and where exercise participation (EX) has significant effects on depression (DEP), self - esteem (SE), and quality of life (QOL). Data...subgroups, Depression Longitudinal, Residualized gain analysis, Self - Esteem , Navy Men and Women....A predominant opinion in research and society today maintains that exercise is beneficial for the reduction of depression and enhancement of self

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Individual and Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…

  10. Marriage and Career Role Expectations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaub, Patricia K.

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold: (1) to assess the extent to which adolescent girls' sex role expectations reflect traditional or egalitarian concepts of marriage and career roles as evidenced in a longitudinal design; and (2) to compare both the adolescents' role projections and their subsequent enactment to the educational attainment and…

  11. Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health

  12. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  13. Parenting style influences bullying: A longitudinal study comparing children with and without behavioural problems

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Kruszewski, Edyta; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background More optimal parenting has been linked with lower rates of bullying. However, it is not clear whether parenting can alter the trajectories of bullying among children diagnosed with ADHD or ODD as well as those who are not so diagnosed. This study examined whether parenting at age 4 to 5 years was associated with changes in bullying over the next 4 years among children with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) relative to children without these disorders. Method Children from the New York metropolitan area (n = 162) were prospectively studied over 6 annual assessment points between preschool and 9 years of age. Parenting was assessed by laboratory observations of the parent and child; teachers rated child bullying, and parents reported on children's diagnostic status (Neither ADHD nor ODD, ADHD but not ODD, both ADHD and ODD). Results Children with comorbid ADHD and ODD were more likely to bully than the other two groups. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed a fall in bullying over five-years. Diagnostic status was significantly associated with initial levels of bullying. Irrespective of diagnostic group, children receiving more parent support for child autonomy at age 4 to 5 years showed a significantly greater decline in bullying than those provided with little support for autonomy. There was no longitudinal link between parent negative affect, emotionally supportive parenting and quality of parent-child interactions with bullying. Conclusions Greater parent support for child autonomy at age 4 to 5 years is related to reduced bullying. Interventions that encourage parent support for child autonomy at the time of entry into school may reduce bullying during early school years. PMID:26053670

  14. Early Neurodevelopmental Findings Predict School Age Cognitive Abilities in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chieffo, Daniela; Brogna, Claudia; Berardinelli, Angela; D’Angelo, Grazia; Mallardi, Maria; D’Amico, Adele; Alfieri, Paolo; Mercuri, Eugenio; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental and cognitive difficulties are known to occur frequently in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy but so far none of the published studies have reported both early neurodevelopmental assessments and cognitive tests in the same cohort. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to establish the correlation between early neurodevelopmental assessments performed in preschool boys and the cognitive scales performed at school age or later. Methods We performed cognitive tests at school age (mean age 5.7 year ±1.7 SD) (69 months+19 SD) in a cohort of Duchenne boys, previously assessed using the Griffiths scales before the age of 4 years (mean age when the Griffiths scales were performed 30 months ±8.9 SD). Results The range of total Developmental quotients on the Griffiths ranged between 56 and 116 (mean 89 ± 15.6 SD). The total Intelligence Quotients on the Wechsler scales ranged between 35 and 119 (mean 87 ± 17.2 SD). There was a significant correlation between the findings on the two scales. P = <0.0001. When we subdivided the cohort according to site of mutations, there was a difference between boys with mutations upstream exon 44 and those with mutations in exon 44–45 affecting Dp140 on both Developmental and Intelligence Quotient (p 0.01 and p 0,003 respectively). Conclusions Our results confirm that Duchenne boys tend to slightly underperform on both neurodevelopmental and cognitive assessments. Early neurodevelopmental findings correlated with the cognitive results obtained at school age with a clear concordance between subscales exploring similar domains on the two scales. PMID:26275215

  15. Adolescents with a Childhood Experience of Parental Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of Mental Health and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storksen, Ingunn; Roysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjorn; Tambs, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression,…

  16. Recruiting and retaining mobile young injection drug users in a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2010-04-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings.

  17. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging.

  18. A longitudinal study of risk-glorifying video games and behavioral deviance.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jay G; Brunelle, Timothy J; Prescott, Anna T; Sargent, James D

    2014-08-01

    Character-based video games do more than allow one to practice various kinds of behaviors in a virtual environment; they allow one to practice being a different kind of person. As such, we propose that games can alter self-perceptions of personal characteristics, attitudes, and values with broad consequences for behavior. In a multiwave, longitudinal study of adolescents, we examined the extent to which play of mature-rated, risk-glorifying (MRRG) games was associated with increases in alcohol use, cigarette smoking, aggression, delinquency, and risky sex as a consequence of its effects on personality, attitudes, and affiliations indicative of increased tolerance of deviance. Participants were selected with random-digit-dial procedures and followed for 4 years. Data were analyzed with linear mixed modeling to assess change over time and structural equation modeling with latent variables to test hypothesized mediational processes. Among those who play video games, playing MRRG games was associated with increases in all measures of behavioral deviance. Mediational models support the hypothesis that these effects are in part a consequence of the effects of such gameplay on sensation seeking and rebelliousness, attitudes toward deviant behavior in oneself and others, and affiliation with deviant peers. Effects were similar for males and females and were strongest for those who reported heavy play of mature-rated games and games that involved protagonists who represent nonnormative and antisocial values. In sum, the current research supports the perspective that MRRG gameplay can have consequences for deviant behavior broadly defined by affecting the personality, attitudes, and values of the player.

  19. Longitudinal and retrospective study has demonstrated morphometric variations in the fingerprints of elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lara Rosana Vieira; Mizokami, Leila Lopes; Vieira, Paola Rabello; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida Souza

    2016-02-01

    Dermatoglyphics can be found in the thick skin of both hands and feet which make the identification process possible, however morphological changes throughout life can affect identification in elderly individuals. Considering that dermatoglyphics is an important biometric method, due to it being practical and inexpensive, this longitudinal and retrospective study was aimed to evaluate the morphological variations in fingerprints obtained from men and women (n=20) during their adult and elderly stages of life; the time between obtaining the two fingerprints was 33.5±9.4 years. For the morphometric analysis, an area of 1 cm(2) was selected to quantify the visible friction ridges, minutiae, interpapillary and white lines, and later side-by-side confrontation was used to determine the identity of the individuals. Our results showed a reduction of friction ridges, an increase in the number of white lines for the group (men and women) and a decrease in the number of interpapillary lines in the group of women. It also showed that the selection of compatible fingerprints by the automated AFIS/VRP system allowed the identification of 23 individuals (57.5%), but when the identification was made by the automated AFIS/VRP system, followed by the analysis of archived patterns to eliminate incompatible fingerprints, determination of the identity of 28 individuals (70.0%) was possible. The dermatoglyphics of the elderly suffered morphometric changes that prevented the identification of 30% of them, probably due to the aging process, and pointed to the importance of improving the methods of obtaining fingerprints to clarify issues related to the identification of the elderly.

  20. Cemented and screw-retained implant-supported single-tooth restorations in the molar mandibular region: A retrospective comparison study after an observation period of 1 to 4 years

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Pradíes, Guillermo; Sola-Ruiz, María-Fernanda; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival and compare the appearance of different mechanical and biological complications, in screw-retained and cemented-retained single-tooth implant-supported restorations localized in the molar mandibular region, over a period of 1 to 4 years. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out with a total of eighty implant-supported restorations, which were placed in eighty patients for prosthetic rehabilitation of a mandibular molar. Forty patients were rehabilitated with a cemented-retained restoration and the other forty with a screw-retained restoration. The presence of the following complications was recorded for both types of prostheses: Fractures of the ceramic veneering, loosening screws, mucositis and peri-implantitis. Debonding of the restoration was analyzed in the cemented-retained restoration group. The clinical survival of crowns was analyzed with a Kaplan-Meier test and the clinical complications were compared, using a Student t test and Log-rank test. Results: 27 patients registered some complication. The average rate of complications was 37,5% for cemented-retained restorations and 30% for screw-retained restorations. The complications more common in the cemented-retained restoration were the presence of mucositis (14,87%), while in the screw-retained restorations was the loosening screw (20%). Student t test and Log-Rank test found significant differences (p=0,001) between the screw loosening and presence of mucositis. Conclusions: The cemented-retained restorations seem to prevent screw loosening, but the presence of cement seem to increase the complications around the soft tissues, however in the screw-retained restorations the presence of mucositis and peri-implantitis are lower than cemented-retained restorations. The incidence of fracture of ceramic veneering was similar in both groups. Key words:Screw-retained restorations, cemented-retained restorations, screw loosening

  1. 77 FR 39344 - Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans.... Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey) in...

  2. 77 FR 22068 - Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in...

  3. Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents: the Kangwha study. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Chae, Hyun Wook; Suh, Il; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ye Jin; Kim, Yong Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Ha Yan; Oh, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity are essential to monitor for appropriate linear growth. We aimed to construct standards in Korean children and adolescents through the population-based longitudinal Kangwha study. Our study was a part of a community-based prospective cohort study from 1986 to 1999 with 800 school children. Height and height velocity were recorded annually from age 6 until final height. Results were compared with cross-sectional data from the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Final height was 173.5 cm in boys and 160.5 cm in girls. Although final height was similar between longitudinal and cross-sectional standards, the mean height for age was higher in the longitudinal standard by 1-4 cm from age 6 until the completion of puberty. Using the longitudinal standard, age at peak height velocity (PHV) was 12 in boys and 10 in girls; height velocity at PHV was 8.62 cm/yr in boys and 7.07 cm/yr in girls. The mean height velocity was less than 1 cm/yr at age 17 in boys and 15 in girls. Thus, we have presented the first report of longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents by analyzing longitudinal data from the Kangwha cohort.

  4. Integrating prospective longitudinal data: modeling personality and health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Goldberg, Lewis R; Friedman, Howard S

    2014-05-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated as a multigroup analysis. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test life span theories of personality and health.

  5. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  6. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  7. A study of simplified methods for longitudinal control decoupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, R.; Ohmiya, H.; Ellis, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Using an inflight simulator, a simple longitudinal decoupling concept was compared with conventional airplane characteristics for the approach and landing tasks. The decoupling system allowed the pilot to command flight path angle changes with the stick with little or no accompanying speed change; likewise, speed changes with only small accompanying flight path changes could be made with throttle only. The unique feature of the concept is that it is an open loop (that is, nonfeedback) control system. Results indicate that in calm air and up to moderate levels of turbulence the decoupling system provides a substantial reduction in pilot workload.

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  9. Development of the perceptual span in reading: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Anja; Meixner, Johannes; Laubrock, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    The perceptual span is a standard measure of parafoveal processing, which is considered highly important for efficient reading. Is the perceptual span a stable indicator of reading performance? What drives its development? Do initially slower and faster readers converge or diverge over development? Here we present the first longitudinal data on the development of the perceptual span in elementary school children. Using the moving window technique, eye movements of 127 German children in three age groups (Grades 1, 2, and 3 in Year 1) were recorded at two time points (T1 and T2) 1 year apart. Introducing a new measure of the perceptual span, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to separate window size effects from asymptotic reading performance. Cross-sectional differences were well replicated longitudinally. Asymptotic reading rate increased monotonously with grade, but in a decelerating fashion. A significant change in the perceptual span was observed only between Grades 2 and 3. Together with results from a cross-lagged panel model, this suggests that the perceptual span increases as a consequence of relatively well-established word reading. Stabilities of observed and predicted reading rates were high after Grade 1, whereas the perceptual span was only moderately stable for all grades. Comparing faster and slower readers as assessed at T1, in general, a pattern of stable between-group differences emerged rather than a compensatory pattern; second and third graders even showed a Matthew effect in reading rate and the perceptual span, respectively.

  10. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  11. Perceptions of Study Newsletters for Older Cancer Patients in Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Mohamedali, Mustafa; Sandoval, Joanna; Thiruvarooran, Vikarnan; Stacey, Holly; O'Neill, Meagan; Breunis, Henriette; Timilshina, Narhari; Durbano, Sara; Alibhai, Shabbir M H

    2016-11-29

    To date, no study has examined the value of providing study newsletters in educating and motivating participants taking part in longitudinal intervention studies and reducing attrition in studies. The study team examined perceptions and satisfaction towards study newsletters, and their potential benefits, in a population of older men with prostate cancer participating in two ongoing longitudinal trials. Two study newsletters issues were mailed out 4 months apart to prostate cancer patients participating in a bone health and/or exercise intervention trial. Participants (n = 133) were invited to complete an 18-item custom-designed survey examining perceptions towards and satisfaction with the newsletter, and provide feedback about what makes an ideal study newsletter. Analyses were primarily descriptive. Resources required to produce a study newsletter were also calculated. Of 133 participants, 83 usable surveys were returned (response rate 62.4%). The mean satisfaction rating for the newsletter was 8.5/10 (SD 1.9) (10 = highly satisfied). Seventy eight percent said the newsletter encouraged them to continue to participate in the study, and 93% indicated that providing such study newsletters should be optional (64%) or mandatory (29%). Each newsletter required 31 h of study personnel time (mostly research student) to produce. Study participants were very satisfied with the newsletter and the majority indicated that study newsletters should be a regular practice in all long-term studies and may improve participant retention. Producing a newsletter is a low-cost method of educating participants in longitudinal studies. Its impact on recruitment and retention should be examined in clinical trials.

  12. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21. Methods Prospective cohort study conducted in Denmark with baseline examination in 1996 and follow-up questionnaire in 2003 with a mean follow-up time of 6.4 years. A sample of 1,656 adolescents participated in both baseline (mean age 14.8) and follow-up (mean age 21.3). Of these, 1,402 had a body mass index (BMI = weight/height2kg/m2) corresponding to a value below 25 at baseline when adjusted for age and gender according to guidelines from International Obesity Taskforce, and were at risk of developing overweight during the study period. The exposure was parental occupational status. The main outcome measures were change in BMI and development of overweight (from BMI < 25 to BMI > = 25). Results Average BMI increased from 21.3 to 22.7 for girls and from 20.6 to 23.6 in boys during follow-up. An inverse social gradient in overweight was seen for girls at baseline and follow-up and for boys at follow-up. In the full population there was a tendency to an inverse social gradient in the overall increase in BMI for girls, but not for boys. A total of 13.4% developed overweight during the follow-up period. Girls of lower parental socioeconomic position had a higher risk of developing overweight (OR's between 4.72; CI 1.31 to 17.04 and 2.03; CI 1.10-3.74) when compared to girls of high parental socioeconomic position. A tendency for an inverse social gradient in the development of overweight for boys was seen, but it did not meet the significance criteria Conclusions The levels of overweight and obesity

  13. Risk factors for children's receptive vocabulary development from four to eight years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine L; Christensen, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2013-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary develops rapidly in early childhood and builds the foundation for language acquisition and literacy. Variation in receptive vocabulary ability is associated with variation in children's school achievement, and low receptive vocabulary ability is a risk factor for under-achievement at school. In this study, bivariate and multivariate growth curve modelling was used to estimate trajectories of receptive vocabulary development in relation to a wide range of candidate child, maternal and family level influences on receptive vocabulary development from 4-8 years. The study sample comprised 4332 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Predictors were modeled as risk variables with the lowest level of risk as the reference category. In the multivariate model, risks for receptive vocabulary delay at 4 years, in order of magnitude, were: Maternal Non- English Speaking Background (NESB), low school readiness, child not read to at home, four or more siblings, low family income, low birthweight, low maternal education, maternal mental health distress, low maternal parenting consistency, and high child temperament reactivity. None of these risks were associated with a lower rate of growth from 4-8 years. Instead, maternal NESB, low school readiness and maternal mental health distress were associated with a higher rate of growth, although not sufficient to close the receptive vocabulary gap for children with and without these risks at 8 years. Socio-economic area disadvantage, was not a risk for low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years but was the only risk associated with a lower rate of growth in receptive vocabulary ability. At 8 years, the gap between children with and without socio-economic area disadvantage was equivalent to eight months of receptive vocabulary growth. These results are consistent with other studies that have shown that social gradients in children's developmental outcomes

  14. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF AGING IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    WEIR, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430

  15. A longitudinal study of families with technology-dependent children.

    PubMed

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C

    2012-02-01

    Few researchers have longitudinally examined families caring for technology-dependent children at home. We tested a theoretically and empirically based conceptual model by examining family functioning and normalization in 82 mothers (female primary caregivers) twice over 12 months. Time 1 and Time 2 cross-sectional findings were consistent; the only predictor of family functioning was mothers' depressive symptoms. Contrary to the proposed model, normalization, caregiving duration, and home nursing hours were not directly related to family functioning. Baseline family functioning significantly predicted future family functioning. Also, mothers whose children were no longer technology-dependent at Time 2 reported significant improvements in family functioning and normalization. An intervention to address high levels of depressive symptoms of these mothers is essential to optimizing family functioning.

  16. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific.

  17. Joint spatial Bayesian modeling for studies combining longitudinal and cross-sectional data

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Andrew B; Carroll, Rachel; Castro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Design for intervention studies may combine longitudinal data collected from sampled locations over several survey rounds and cross-sectional data from other locations in the study area. In this case, modeling the impact of the intervention requires an approach that can accommodate both types of data, accounting for the dependence between individuals followed up over time. Inadequate modeling can mask intervention effects, with serious implications for policy making. In this paper we use data from a large-scale larviciding intervention for malaria control implemented in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, collected over a period of almost 5 years. We apply a longitudinal Bayesian spatial model to the Dar es Salaam data, combining follow-up and cross-sectional data, treating the correlation in longitudinal observations separately, and controlling for potential confounders. An innovative feature of this modeling is the use of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process to model random time effects. We contrast the results with other Bayesian modeling formulations, including cross-sectional approaches that consider individual-level random effects to account for subjects followed up in two or more surveys. The longitudinal modeling approach indicates that the intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam by 20% whereas the joint model did not suggest significance within the results. Our results suggest that the longitudinal model is to be preferred when longitudinal information is available at the individual level. PMID:24713159

  18. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and risk of depression in older people: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Chigogora, S; Zaninotto, P; Kivimaki, M; Steptoe, A; Batty, G D

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disorders are a leading cause of disability in older age. Although the role of psychosocial and behavioural predictors has been well examined, little is known about the biological origins of depression. Findings from animal studies have implicated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the aetiology of this disorder. A total of 6017 older adults (mean age of 65.7 years; 55% women) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing provided serum levels of IGF-1 (mean=15.9 nmol l−1, s.d. 5.7) during a nurse visit in 2008. Depression symptoms were assessed in the same year and again in 2012 using the eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Self-reports of a physician-diagnosis of depression were also collected at both time points. In separate analyses for men and women, the results from both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses revealed a ‘U'-shaped pattern of association, such that lower and higher levels of IGF-1 were associated with a slightly elevated risk of depression, whereas the lowest risk was seen around the median levels. Thus, in men, with the lowest quintile of IGF-1 as the referent, the age-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of developing depression symptoms after 4 years of follow-up, for increasing quintiles of IGF-1, were: 0.51 (0.28–0.91), 0.50 (0.27–0.92), 0.63 (0.35–1.15) and 0.63 (0.35–1.13) (P-value for quadratic association 0.002). Some attenuation of these effects was apparent after adjustment for co-morbidity, socioeconomic status and health behaviours. In conclusion, in the present study of older adults, there was some evidence that moderate levels of IGF-1 levels conferred a reduced risk of depression. PMID:27648920

  19. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-03-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  20. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation. PMID:20617009

  1. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck’s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. Results: The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Conclusion: Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study. PMID:23967424

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus a and b display different temporal patterns in a 4-year prospective cross-sectional study among children with acute respiratory infection in a tropical city.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, Maiara L; Oliveira, Juliana R; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F; Borges, Igor C; Barral, Aldina; Van der Gucht, Winke; Wollants, Elke; Van Ranst, Marc; de Oliveira, Camila I; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana M

    2016-10-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common etiological agents of childhood respiratory infections globally. Information on seasonality of different antigenic groups is scarce. We aimed to describe the frequency, seasonality, and age of children infected by RSV antigenic groups A (RSVA) and B (RSVB) among children with ARI in a 4-year period.Children (6-23 months old) with respiratory infection for ≤7 days were enrolled in a prospective cross-sectional study, from September, 2009 to October, 2013, in Salvador, in a tropical region of Brazil. Upon recruitment, demographic, clinical data, and nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected. A multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with a group-specific primer and probeset for RSVA and RSVB was used. Seasonal distribution of infection by RSV different antigenic groups was evaluated by Prais-Wisten regression.Of 560 cases, the mean age was 11.4 ± 4.5 months and there were 287 (51.3%) girls. Overall, RSV was detected in 139 (24.8%; 95% CI: 21.4%-28.5%) cases, RSVA in 74 (13.2%; 95% CI: 10.6%-16.2%) cases, and RSVB in 67 (12.0%; 95% CI: 9.5%-14.9%) cases. Two (0.4%; 95% CI: 0.06%-1.2%) cases had coinfection. RSVA frequency was 9.6%, 18.4%, 21.6%, and 3.1% in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. RSVB frequency was 19.2%, 0.7%, 1.4%, and 35.4% in the same years. RSVA was more frequently found from August to January than February to July (18.2% vs. 6.4%, P < 0.001). RSVB was more frequently found (P < 0.001) between March and June (36.0%) than July to October (1.0%) or November to February (1.6%). RSVB infection showed seasonal distribution and positive association with humidity (P = 0.02) whereas RSVA did not. RSVA was more common among children ≥1-year-old (17.8% vs. 1.8%; P = 0.02), as opposed to RSVB (11.5% vs. 12.2%; P = 0.8).One quarter of patients had RSV infection. RSVA compromised more frequently children aged ≥1 year. RSVA predominated in 2011 and

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus a and b display different temporal patterns in a 4-year prospective cross-sectional study among children with acute respiratory infection in a tropical city

    PubMed Central

    Bouzas, Maiara L.; Oliveira, Juliana R.; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F.; Borges, Igor C.; Barral, Aldina; Van der Gucht, Winke; Wollants, Elke; Van Ranst, Marc; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common etiological agents of childhood respiratory infections globally. Information on seasonality of different antigenic groups is scarce. We aimed to describe the frequency, seasonality, and age of children infected by RSV antigenic groups A (RSVA) and B (RSVB) among children with ARI in a 4-year period. Children (6–23 months old) with respiratory infection for ≤7 days were enrolled in a prospective cross-sectional study, from September, 2009 to October, 2013, in Salvador, in a tropical region of Brazil. Upon recruitment, demographic, clinical data, and nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected. A multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with a group-specific primer and probeset for RSVA and RSVB was used. Seasonal distribution of infection by RSV different antigenic groups was evaluated by Prais-Wisten regression. Of 560 cases, the mean age was 11.4 ± 4.5 months and there were 287 (51.3%) girls. Overall, RSV was detected in 139 (24.8%; 95% CI: 21.4%–28.5%) cases, RSVA in 74 (13.2%; 95% CI: 10.6%–16.2%) cases, and RSVB in 67 (12.0%; 95% CI: 9.5%–14.9%) cases. Two (0.4%; 95% CI: 0.06%–1.2%) cases had coinfection. RSVA frequency was 9.6%, 18.4%, 21.6%, and 3.1% in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. RSVB frequency was 19.2%, 0.7%, 1.4%, and 35.4% in the same years. RSVA was more frequently found from August to January than February to July (18.2% vs. 6.4%, P < 0.001). RSVB was more frequently found (P < 0.001) between March and June (36.0%) than July to October (1.0%) or November to February (1.6%). RSVB infection showed seasonal distribution and positive association with humidity (P = 0.02) whereas RSVA did not. RSVA was more common among children ≥1-year-old (17.8% vs. 1.8%; P = 0.02), as opposed to RSVB (11.5% vs. 12.2%; P = 0.8). One quarter of patients had RSV infection. RSVA compromised more frequently children aged ≥1 year. RSVA

  4. Positive Illusions in the Academic Context: A Longitudinal Study of Academic Self-Enhancement in College.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joanne; Schriber, Roberta A; Robins, Richard W

    2016-10-01

    In the present research, we examined academic self-enhancement in students (N = 264) followed longitudinally through 4 years of college. We used social comparison (i.e., better-than-average ratings) and self-insight (i.e., criterion-based) approaches to assess the degree to which students self-enhanced in their self-perceptions of academic ability, with SAT scores, high school grade point average (GPA), and college GPA used as criterion measures. We also examined ethnic variability in academic self-enhancement. We found that academic self-enhancement (a) increased or decreased over the 4 years of college, depending on its operationalization, (b) tended to be adaptive according to social comparison indices, and (c) demonstrated a trajectory that differed by ethnicity, but ethnicity did not moderate the effect of academic self-enhancement on outcomes. We discuss the implications of the findings for debates about the adaptive value of self-enhancement, the magnitude of cultural differences, and how best to conceptualize and operationalize the construct.

  5. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated, allowing paths to differ by sample. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test lifespan theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689

  6. Adolescents with a childhood experience of parental divorce: a longitudinal study of mental health and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Størksen, Ingunn; Røysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjørn; Tambs, Kristian

    2005-12-01

    **This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, self-esteem, and school problems. Considering boys separately, parental divorce was prospectively associated only with school problems. Among the girls, divorce was prospectively associated with all variables. The effect of divorce on relative change was partially mediated by paternal absence.

  7. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  8. Gender representation in the vision sciences: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed.

  9. Study of fatigue behavior of longitudinal welded pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, P.; Dia, V.; Istrate, B.; Hrituleac, G.; Hrituleac, I.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    During transport and storage of the various fluids, welded pipes are subjected to cyclic loading due to pressure fluctuations that often exceed the prescribed values for normal operation. These cyclic loading can significantly reduce the life of the pipes; as a result the design should be based on the fatigue strength not only on static resistance. In general the fatigue strength of pipes is dependent by strength, pipe geometry and surface quality. In case of the electric longitudinal welded pipes, the fatigue strength is significantly limited by concentration of residual stress and the size of existing defects in the weld seam. This paper presents the fatigue behaviour of the electric welded pipes by high frequency, under conditions that simulate real operating conditions pipes. Fatigue testing was performed on welded pipes made of micro alloyed carbon steels. Some of these pipes were previously subjected to a heat treatment of normalization, in order to also determine the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue strength of welded pipes. To determine and correlate the different factors affecting the fatigue strength, welded pipes were also subjected to various tests: tensile tests, impact tests, measurement of micro hardness, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Perception Skills and Device Characteristics of Adolescent Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elizabeth J.; Davidson, Lisa S.; Uchanski, Rosalie M.; Brenner, Christine M.; Geers, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Background For pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users, CI processor technology, map characteristics and fitting strategies are known to have a substantial impact on speech perception scores at young ages. It is unknown whether these benefits continue over time as these children reach adolescence. Purpose To document changes in CI technology, map characteristics, and speech perception scores in children between elementary grades and high school, and to describe relations between map characteristics and speech perception scores over time. Research Design A longitudinal design with participants 8–9 years old at session 1 and 15–18 years old at session 2. Study Sample Participants were 82 adolescents with unilateral CIs, who are a subset of a larger longitudinal study. Mean age at implantation was 3.4 years (range: 1.7 – 5.4), and mean duration of device use was 5.5 years (range: 3.8–7.5) at session 1 and 13.3 years (range: 10.9–15) at session 2. Data Collection and Analysis Speech perception tests at sessions 1 and 2 were the Lexical Neighborhood word Test (LNT-70) and Bamford-Kowal-Bench sentences in quiet (BKB-Q), presented at 70 dB SPL. At session 2, the LNT was also administered at 50 dB SPL (LNT-50) and BKB sentences were administered in noise with a +10 dB SNR (BKB-N). CI processor technology type and CI map characteristics (coding strategy, number of electrodes, map threshold levels [T levels], and map comfort levels [C levels]) were obtained at both sessions. Electrical dynamic range [EDR] was computed [C level – T level], and descriptive statistics, correlations, and repeated-measures ANOVAs were employed. Results Participants achieved significantly higher LNT and BKB scores, at 70 dB SPL, at ages 15-18 than at ages 8-9 years. Forty-two participants had 1-3 electrodes either activated or deactivated in their map between test sessions, and 40 had no change in number of active electrodes (mean change: -0.5; range: -3 to +2). After conversion from

  11. A longitudinal study of industrial and clerical workers: incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome and assessment of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gell, Nancy; Werner, Robert A; Franzblau, Alfred; Ulin, Sheryl S; Armstrong, Thomas J

    2005-03-01

    This study followed workers over an extended period of time to identify factors which may influence the onset of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The purpose was to evaluate incidence of CTS and to create a predictive model of factors that play a role in the development of CTS. This prospective study followed 432 industrial and clerical workers over 5.4 years. Incident cases were defined as workers who had no prior history of CTS at baseline testing and were diagnosed with CTS during the follow-up period or at the follow-up screening. On the basis of logistic regression, significant predictors for CTS include baseline median-ulnar peak latency difference, a history of wrist/hand/finger tendonitis, a history of numbness, tingling, burning, and/or pain in the hand, and work above the action level of the peak force and hand activity level threshold limit value. This longitudinal study supports findings from previous cross-sectional studies identifying both work related ergonomic stressors and physical factors as independent risk factors for CTS.

  12. Biased and unbiased estimation in longitudinal studies with informative visit processes

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, Charles E.; Neuhaus, John M.; Olin, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The availability of data in longitudinal studies is often driven by features of the characteristics being studied. For example, clinical databases are increasingly being used for research to address longitudinal questions. Because visit times in such data are often driven by patient characteristics that may be related to the outcome being studied, the danger is that this will result in biased estimation compared to designed, prospective studies. We study longitudinal data that follow a generalized linear mixed model and use a log link to relate an informative visit process to random effects in the mixed model. This device allows us to elucidate which parameters are biased under the informative visit process and to what degree. We show that the informative visit process can badly bias estimators of parameters of covariates associated with the random effects, while allowing consistent estimation of other parameters. PMID:26990830

  13. A two years longitudinal study of a transgenic Huntington disease monkey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-year longitudinal study composed of morphometric MRI measures and cognitive behavioral evaluation was performed on a transgenic Huntington’s disease (HD) monkey. rHD1, a transgenic HD monkey expressing exon 1 of the human gene encoding huntingtin (HTT) with 29 CAG repeats regulated by a human polyubiquitin C promoter was used together with four age-matched wild-type control monkeys. This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. Results Changes in striatal and hippocampal volumes in rHD1 were observed with progressive impairment in motor functions and cognitive decline, including deficits in learning stimulus-reward associations, recognition memory and spatial memory. The results demonstrate a progressive cognitive decline and morphometric changes in the striatum and hippocampus in a transgenic HD monkey. Conclusions This is the first study on a primate model of human HD based on longitudinal clinical measurements. While this study is based a single HD monkey, an ongoing longitudinal study with additional HD monkeys will be important for the confirmation of our findings. A nonhuman primate model of HD could complement other animal models of HD to better understand the pathogenesis of HD and future development of diagnostics and therapeutics through longitudinal assessment. PMID:24581271

  14. Muscle Fiber Size and Function in Elderly Humans: A Longitudinal Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-sectional studies are likely to underestimate age-related changes in skeletal muscle strength and mass. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to assess whole muscle and single muscle fiber alterations in the same cohort of 12 older (mean age: start of study=71.1+/-5.4 yrs and end of study...

  15. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  16. A longitudinal study of WIC participation on household food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth; Gorman, Kathleen S; Wilde, Parke; Kallio, Jan

    2011-07-01

    We examined the association between women's/children's duration of WIC participation and household food security status. For mothers (n = 21,863) and their children (n = 57,377) participating in WIC (2001-2006), longitudinal measures of household food security status were collected using a subscale of the USDA Food Security Module. Using logistic regression, household food security status at the last WIC visit was associated with measures of WIC duration (number of trimesters on WIC for pregnant women, and number of WIC visits for children). Among women with prenatal household food insecurity with hunger, odds of any post-partum household food insecurity was reduced with first (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.48-0.94) or second trimester of entry (AOR= 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.90) versus third. Among children with initial household food insecurity without hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.90-0.94) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-0.98) at the last visit. Among those with initial household food insecurity with hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.83-0.94) at the last visit. Earlier and longer WIC participation may improve household food security status, particularly of vulnerable groups.

  17. Does Youth Relationship Education Continue to Work after a High School Class? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Scott P.; Boellaard, Rila

    2007-01-01

    "Connections: Relationships and Marriage" ("Connections") is a high school marriage education curriculum designed to teach students how to develop healthy relationships and marriages. This study evaluated the effectiveness of this curriculum over 4-years postintervention with a matched set of 72 high school students who were in either the…

  18. The Impact of Familial and Environmental Factors on the Adjustment of Immigrants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mirsky, Julia; Rubinstein, Ludmila; Nauck, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of family interaction, perceived discrimination, stressful life events, and the hosting country on the adjustment of Israeli and German immigrants. Results show that changes in self-esteem between the 1st year of immigration and 2 and 4 years later were significantly related to family relations: the better the…

  19. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  20. Longitudinal Study of Developmental Problems of Children: Comparison between Japan and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    Two studies investigated behavioral problems in childhood. Study 1 longitudinally investigated similarities and differences in enuresis and nailbiting among Japanese and American children. Incidences of enuresis decreased as subjects' age increased. Socio-cultural and family tolerance were related to incidences of nailbiting. In Study 2, changes…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing and Extreme Body Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…

  2. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  3. Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

  4. Longitudinal Studies Using a "Natural Experiment" Design: The Case of Adoptees from Romanian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…

  5. Explanatory model of emotional-cognitive variables in school mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in primary school.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Gamal; Pérez, Carlos; Navarro, José I; Aguilar, Manuel; Casas, José A; Aragón, Estíbaliz

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a structural model of cognitive-emotional explanatory variables to explain performance in mathematics. The predictor variables assessed were related to students' level of development of early mathematical competencies (EMCs), specifically, relational and numerical competencies, predisposition toward mathematics, and the level of logical intelligence in a population of primary school Chilean students (n = 634). This longitudinal study also included the academic performance of the students during a period of 4 years as a variable. The sampled students were initially assessed by means of an Early Numeracy Test, and, subsequently, they were administered a Likert-type scale to measure their predisposition toward mathematics (EPMAT) and a basic test of logical intelligence. The results of these tests were used to analyse the interaction of all the aforementioned variables by means of a structural equations model. This combined interaction model was able to predict 64.3% of the variability of observed performance. Preschool students' performance in EMCs was a strong predictor for achievement in mathematics for students between 8 and 11 years of age. Therefore, this paper highlights the importance of EMCs and the modulating role of predisposition toward mathematics. Also, this paper discusses the educational role of these findings, as well as possible ways to improve negative predispositions toward mathematical tasks in the school domain.

  6. Explanatory model of emotional-cognitive variables in school mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in primary school

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Gamal; Pérez, Carlos; Navarro, José I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Casas, José A.; Aragón, Estíbaliz

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a structural model of cognitive-emotional explanatory variables to explain performance in mathematics. The predictor variables assessed were related to students’ level of development of early mathematical competencies (EMCs), specifically, relational and numerical competencies, predisposition toward mathematics, and the level of logical intelligence in a population of primary school Chilean students (n = 634). This longitudinal study also included the academic performance of the students during a period of 4 years as a variable. The sampled students were initially assessed by means of an Early Numeracy Test, and, subsequently, they were administered a Likert-type scale to measure their predisposition toward mathematics (EPMAT) and a basic test of logical intelligence. The results of these tests were used to analyse the interaction of all the aforementioned variables by means of a structural equations model. This combined interaction model was able to predict 64.3% of the variability of observed performance. Preschool students’ performance in EMCs was a strong predictor for achievement in mathematics for students between 8 and 11 years of age. Therefore, this paper highlights the importance of EMCs and the modulating role of predisposition toward mathematics. Also, this paper discusses the educational role of these findings, as well as possible ways to improve negative predispositions toward mathematical tasks in the school domain. PMID:26441739

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Early English Immersion and Literacy in Xi'an, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knell, Ellen Shipley

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of early English immersion in the Shi Da Fu Elementary School in Xi'an, China. Three hundred and fifty one students were tested in Grades 1-6. There were two main purposes that motivated this longitudinal and cross-sectional study. The first goal was to compare the L1 and L2 language and literacy…

  8. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  10. Exploring Student Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…

  11. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  12. Variability in Fundamental Frequency during Speech in Prodromal and Incipient Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…

  13. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  14. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  15. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  16. Continuity and Change in Work Values among Young Adults: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Paul; Knox, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous findings, from a more limited sample, of the stability of work values, their effects on occupational selection, and the socializing effects of occupations are all reconfirmed in a study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. (Author/IS)

  17. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  18. Powerful and Cost-Efficient Designs for Longitudinal Intervention Studies with Two Treatment Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    Three issues need to be decided in the design stage of a longitudinal intervention study: the number of persons, the number of repeated measurements per person, and the duration of the study. The degree to which polynomial effects vary across persons and the drop-out pattern also influence the statistical power to detect intervention effects. This…

  19. Tracking Changes in Pre-Service EFL Teacher Beliefs in Greece: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal study that aims to investigate pre-service EFL teacher beliefs about learning and teaching in Greece. The study attempts to track possible changes in those beliefs during a 3-year teacher education program and explores the impact of teaching practice, in particular, on student teachers' beliefs. The results…

  20. Power of Models in Longitudinal Study: Findings from a Full-Crossed Simulation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…

  1. Gifted Girls and Nonmathematical Aspirations: A Longitudinal Case Study of Two Gifted Korean Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyeong Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2012-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of two gifted Korean girls, experiences with early admittance into a gifted program are charted alongside their family and societal experiences that ultimately influenced their career choices in nonmathematical fields. The 8-year-long qualitative study involved extensive interviews with the two gifted girls and their…

  2. Individual Differences in Pronoun Reversal: Evidence from Two Longitudinal Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen E.; Demuth, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Pronoun reversal, the use of "you" for self-reference and "I" for an addressee, has often been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and impaired language. However, recent case studies have shown the phenomenon also to occur in typically developing and even precocious talkers. This study examines longitudinal corpus data from two…

  3. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  4. Prospective Prediction of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult…

  5. The Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning: Challenging Assumptions. Research Brief. Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…

  6. Which Middle School Model Works Best? Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.; Weiss, Christopher C.; Matthews, Jamaal S.

    2015-01-01

    There are few areas of school organization that reflect more dissatisfaction than how to structure the education of adolescents in the middle grades. This study uses multilevel models on nationally representative data provided by the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate the relationship between schools' middle-level grade span and…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  8. Students' Perceptions of Campus Services. Maryland Longitudinal Study Research Highlights. Research Report 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Maryland Longitudinal Study Steering Committee.

    As part of the Maryland Longitudinal Study of 772 students entering the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP) in 1980, the use and ratings of UMCP campus services by students in the third year of the study were analyzed. Findings included the following: (1) Representative Group (containing members of all ethnic groups) and Black Group…

  9. Serial-Order Short-Term Memory Predicts Vocabulary Development: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  11. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  12. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  13. Exposure to Parental Cigarette Smoking and Child Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles

    2008-01-01

    This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…

  14. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  15. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  16. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  17. Positive Socialization Mechanisms in Secure and Insecure Parent-Child Dyads: Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early…

  18. Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…

  19. Social Dominance in Romantic Relationships: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Non-Verbal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The study of social dominance has a long tradition within the peer relationships literature, but rarely has the topic been investigated observationally and longitudinally within other salient close relationships. The present study investigated the role of experiences in social relationships and adjustment indices in childhood in predicting later…

  20. Chronic Illness and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris

    2002-01-01

    Depression is quite common among the elderly members of Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the impact of a series of chronic illnesses on change in depressive symptoms among the older people. The respondents were 260 people aged 70 years or older from a longitudinal study of a representative community sample of the elderly population…

  1. Training, Careers and Lives: A Longitudinal Study of a Teaching Dynasty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Bill

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the pedagogical history of the Anglo-Welsh Adams family that spans the 1840s to the 1930s in England and Wales. Comprises summarized biographical details of relevant family members and offers generalizations drawn from this longitudinal case study. Argues that this study highlights neglected aspects within educational history. (DSK)

  2. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  3. Rates of Bullying Perpetration and Victimisation: A Longitudinal Study of Secondary School Students in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…

  4. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996-2001 (BPS:1996/2001) Methodology Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)

  5. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  6. Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Effects: Design, Instruments, and Specifications for a Field Test. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest D.; And Others

    Patterns of cognitive, affective, and social growth of elementary school children are described and the school and home variables which influence such growth are identified in this longitudinal study. This final report presents the final instruments and the interpretive data associated with them. The study permits the tracing of developmental…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  8. Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

  9. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  10. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  11. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  12. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  13. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…

  14. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…

  15. Personal Context and Continuity of Human Thought: Recurrent Themes in a Longitudinal Study of Students' Conceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellden, Gustav F.

    The present study of personal context and continuity in twenty-three students' thinking builds upon data from a longitudinal study of the students' conceptualizations of ecological processes. Each student was interviewed eleven times from age 9-15 about the conditions for life, decomposition, and the role of the flower in plant reproduction. At…

  16. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  17. Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  19. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  20. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  1. Listening Text Comprehension in Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of Semantic Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…

  2. Understanding Differences in State Support for Higher Education across States, Sectors, and Institutions: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines factors that explain differences in levels of state appropriations for higher education across states, sectors, and institutions between 1984 and 2004. The study sheds light on the complex relationship between institutional mission, state fiscal health, and state political context in explaining appropriations for…

  3. Is the human left middle longitudinal fascicle essential for language? A brain electrostimulation study.

    PubMed

    De Witt Hamer, Philip C; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Gatignol, Peggy; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-06-01

    Human brain pathways required for language processing are poorly known. A new white matter tract in humans, the middle longitudinal fascicle, has recently been anatomically determined by diffusion tensor imaging and suggested to be essential for language. Our aim is to determine the importance of the middle longitudinal fascicle for language processing. This study is based on 8 patients with glioma resection at least involving the superior temporal gyrus of the left dominant hemisphere. Language is systematically examined pre- and postoperatively at 3 months. Intraoperative electrostimulation is used to map cortical and subcortical structures as functional boundaries of the glioma resection, including those essential for language processing. The resections are extensive (on average 62 ml, ranging from 21 to 111 ml) and include a large part of the middle longitudinal fascicle in all patients. Intraoperatively, no interference with picture naming is observed by electrostimulation of the middle longitudinal fascicle, while in all patients the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle is identified by eliciting semantic paraphasia as functional boundary. Postoperatively, no new permanent language deficits are detected by systematic language examination. Therefore, we suggest that the middle longitudinal fascicle may participate but is not essential for language processing.

  4. State-of-the-art in longitudinal studies on aging: an overview of the supplement.

    PubMed

    Tappen, Ruth M; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2010-10-01

    The articles in this supplement are based on a conference held in January 2008 sponsored by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The purpose of the conference was to summarize major findings and methodological issues in previous and ongoing longitudinal studies on aging and to identify potentially fruitful areas for future research. This article is a review and synthesis of the articles in this supplement. Each of the articles makes important contributions to summarizing existing research, identifying challenging methodological issues, or proposing areas that should be explored in future research. Three themes were identified: general improvement in the health status of the population aged 65 and older in the United States, a shift in longitudinal research on aging from a focus on the endpoints of disease to a focus on the preclinical stage and underlying mechanisms of these diseases, and contemporary developments in longitudinal research methodology. A number of practical suggestions were also drawn from the articles reviewed.

  5. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman’s work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. PMID:24590918

  6. Should Community College Students Earn an Associate Degree before Transferring to a 4-Year Institution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopko, Elizabeth M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Using data on over 41,000 students in one state who entered community college before transferring to a 4-year institution, this study examines the following question: Are community college students who earn an associate degree before transferring to a 4-year college more likely to earn a bachelor's degree? Due to the causal nature surrounding this…

  7. Persistence by 2-Year College Graduates to 4-Year Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Stephen L.

    1996-01-01

    Presents findings from a study of the relationship between the characteristics of 3,762 Connecticut 2-year college students 25 or older and their persistence to 4-year colleges. Reports that students with higher perceptions of social and institutional support and those over 35 were more likely to persist to 4-year institutions. (10 citations) (AJL)

  8. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  9. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging.

  10. American Sign Language/English bilingual model: a longitudinal study of academic growth.

    PubMed

    Lange, Cheryl M; Lane-Outlaw, Susan; Lange, William E; Sherwood, Dyan L

    2013-10-01

    This study examines reading and mathematics academic growth of deaf and hard-of-hearing students instructed through an American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual model. The study participants were exposed to the model for a minimum of 4 years. The study participants' academic growth rates were measured using the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measure of Academic Progress assessment and compared with a national-normed group of grade-level peers that consisted primarily of hearing students. The study also compared academic growth for participants by various characteristics such as gender, parents' hearing status, and secondary disability status and examined the academic outcomes for students after a minimum of 4 years of instruction in an ASL/English bilingual model. The findings support the efficacy of the ASL/English bilingual model.

  11. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  12. Female Bisexuality from Adolescence to Adulthood: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Conversations with Parents about Sex and Dating during College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st…

  14. Classroom Connectivity and Algebra 1 Achievement: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  16. A Snapshot of Young Children's Mathematical Competencies: Results from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Amy; Carmichael, Colin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a snapshot of the mathematical competencies of children aged four to five years in Australian early childhood education settings, as perceived by their educators. Data are presented from a nationally-representative sample of 6511 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). The results…

  17. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend at…

  18. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002: Base Year Data File User's Manual. NCES 2004-405

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Rogers, James E.; Siegel, Peter H.; Stutts, Ellen S.

    2004-01-01

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing for the base year of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). It also provides the necessary documentation for use of the public-use data files, as they appear on the ELS:2002 base year Electronic Codebook (ECB). Most…

  19. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, Karl

    2016-11-29

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  20. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  1. Young Children's Acquisition of Knowledge about the Earth: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannust, Triin; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the acquisition of early knowledge of astronomy to determine whether children's knowledge at any point in time is consistent with a naive "mental model." Children were first assessed by means of open questions and drawing tasks at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 143). The knowledge was reassessed over the course of the…

  2. State Dependence and Trait Stability of Perfectionism: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Aldea, Mirela A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined state dependency on depression, trait stability, and state-trait characteristics of perfectionism in a short-term longitudinal study of university students. Relative stability of perfectionism was assessed with test-retest correlations across 3 time points, and results showed higher rank order and relative stability for…

  3. The External Validity of a Business Management Game: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Joseph; Roberts, C. Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal study designed to determine whether a positive correlation exists between the economic performance of college seniors in a business decision-making simulation (The Business Management Laboratory) and business career success 5 years later as measured by salary level, salary improvement, promotions, and job satisfaction.…

  4. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  5. A Library Credit Course and Student Success Rates: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    The University of West Georgia's Ingram Library has offered a fifteen-week two-hour credit course since 1998. In a longitudinal study covering twelve years, the library analyzed the progression and graduation rates of more than fifteen thousand students. Students who took the class during their undergraduate career were found to graduate at much…

  6. Examining College Developmental Learners' Reasons for Persisting in College: A Longitudinal Retention Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeri-Gold, Maria; Kearse, Wendy; Deming, Mary P.; Errico, Maryann; Callahan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Presents results from a longitudinal study of 23 college developmental students, who were surveyed regarding their educational needs and objectives. Recommends that colleges: (1) create a student advisement center with academic counselors; (2) require that all incoming freshmen enroll in learning experience courses; and (3) schedule a monthly…

  7. The Precursors of Reading Ability in Young Readers: Evidence from a Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakhill, Jane V.; Cain, Kate

    2012-01-01

    We report a longitudinal study investigating the predictors of reading comprehension and word reading accuracy between the ages of 7 to 8 (UK Year 3) and 10 to 11 years (Year 6). We found that different skills predicted the development of each. Reading comprehension skill measured in Year 3 was a strong predictor of comprehension in Year 6;…

  8. Minority Achievement Gaps in STEM: Findings of a Longitudinal Study of Project Excite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Thomson, Dana; Rosen, Rhoda

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the outcomes of Project Excite on reducing minority students' achievement gaps in STEM over 14 years. Project Excite was designed to provide intensive supplemental enrichment and accelerated programming for high-potential, underrepresented minority students from third through eighth grades to better prepare them…

  9. Video-Based Interaction, Negotiation for Comprehensibility, and Second Language Speech Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya; Akiyama, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video-based conversational interaction on the longitudinal development (one academic semester) of second language production by college-level Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language learners. Students in the experimental group engaged in weekly dyadic conversation exchanges with native speakers in the United States…

  10. Investigation of University Students' Self-Acceptance and Learned Resourcefulness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceyhan, A. Aykut; Ceyhan, Esra

    2011-01-01

    Self-acceptance and learned resourcefulness of university students are important concepts in coping with the environmental and developmental stressors and in the development of healthy personality. In this study, university students' self acceptance and learned resourcefulness levels were investigated longitudinally. 198 university students' self…

  11. Effects of Early Relationships on Children's Perceived Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Orrie; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bar-haim, Yair; Eshel, Yohanan

    2011-01-01

    People's response to stress depends to a large extent on their sense of perceived control over the situations they encounter. This longitudinal study of 136 children (70 girls) examined associations between attachment patterns and maternal sensitivity at 12 months of age, and perceived primary and secondary control at 11 years of age. Compared…

  12. Loss of Credit and Its Impact on High School Students: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Stephen J.; And Others

    For students in most high schools, graduation is predicated on the successful completion of a specified number of courses or credits. In most cases when these students fail they are not retained in grade but become credit deficient. This report is concerned with a longitudinal study of loss of credit among high school students in the St. Paul…

  13. Statewide Longitudinal Study: Report on Academic Year 1979-80. Part 4--Spring 1980 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Russell; Sheldon, M. Stephen

    As the fourth in a series of reports on a longitudinal study of over 7,000 students who entered 15 California community colleges in Fall 1978, this eight-chapter report profiles the students as of Spring 1980 in terms of: (1) demography, academic progress, and employment status; and (2) their distribution among 18 "prototypes," defined…

  14. Newspapers and Adult Understanding of Public Affairs: Two Longitudinal Community Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichenor, P. J.; And Others

    Two longitudinal field studies of the process of information dissemination through newspapers were conducted on two different public affairs topics (regional planning and routing of a high voltage power line) in four communities to examine the role of newspapers in increasing levels of conflict and in creating greater levels of awareness and…

  15. Longitudinal Study of Performance of Students Entering Harper College, 1967-1980. Volume XI, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John A.

    A longitudinal study of full- and part-time students was undertaken at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to provide institutional data about student performance over time. Each fall from 1967 to 1980, transcripts of a random sample of 200 full-time and 200 part-time beginning credit students were analyzed to obtain data about students'…

  16. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  17. Making Meaning in Writing: A Longitudinal Study of Young Children's Writing Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Linda

    This longitudinal study examined the development of the semantic "strand" (the relationship between drawing and writing, differentiation of literary genres, influence of literature, coherence, and part-whole coordination) of children's writing development over a 5-year period. Subjects, eight girls and nine boys enrolled in a small,…

  18. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  19. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  20. Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…

  1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Negative Life Events, Stress, and School Experiences of Gifted Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean; Duncan, Nancy; Canady, Kate

    2009-01-01

    An 11-year mixed-methods, cross-sectional longitudinal study began with a group of 121 children, identified as gifted, and followed them until high-school graduation. Parents annually identified negative life events experienced by child and family, and, at graduation, students completed an open-ended retrospective questionnaire, focusing on…

  3. Child Care Quality and Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Development: An Australian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gialamas, Angela; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that high-quality non-parental child care can contribute to children's learning, development and successful transition to school. Research examining the quality of child care and the effect on children's development is not well documented outside the USA. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to…

  4. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  5. Predictors of the Acquisition and Portability of Transferable Skills: A Longitudinal Portuguese Case Study on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The basis for this longitudinal study was to find the predictors of transferable skills acquisition and portability among university sophomore students. The method employed was the path analysis using as variables: (1) the theoretical framework of transferable skills representations (Evers and Rush in "Manag Learn" 27(4):275-300, 1996;…

  6. The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Sympathy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Michalik, Nicole; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Kupfer, Anne; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey; Cumberland, Amanda; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The relations of children's (n=214 at Time 1; M age=6 years at Time 1) dispositional sympathy to adult-reported and behavioral measures of effortful control (EC) and impulsivity were examined in a longitudinal study including five assessments, each two years apart. Especially for boys, relatively high levels of EC and growth in EC were related to…

  7. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...

  8. Schooling, Childhood Poverty and International Development: Choices and Challenges in a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Jo; James, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rarity of longitudinal data, evidence on the benefits of education across the life-course is relatively sparse in developing countries. Young Lives is the only comparative dual-cohort study to combine data collection using mixed-methods at child, household, school and community levels, following 12,000 children in two cohorts across…

  9. Almost All Start but Who Continue? A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsson, Britta Thedin; Lundvall, Suzanne; Redelius, Karin; Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…

  10. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  11. Rural Disparities in Baseline Data of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: A Chartbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Cathy; Shores, Elizabeth F.; Zaslow, Martha; Brown, Brett; Aufseeser, Dena; Bell, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This report shows the rural disparities in the baseline data of the Birth and Kindergarten Cohorts of the national Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The National Center for Rural Early Childhood Learning Initiatives, known as Rural Early Childhood, commissioned Child Trends to perform the analysis of key indicators of child well-being and…

  12. Long-Term Effects of Course-Embedded Undergraduate Research: The CASPiE Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szteinberg, Gabriela A.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that seeks to introduce first- and second-year undergraduate students to research in their mainstream laboratory courses. To investigate the effects of this research-based curriculum, a longitudinal study was initiated at Purdue…

  13. Long-Term Benefits of Full-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, M. D.; Nickel, N. C.; Chateau, D.; Martens, P. J.; Taylor, C.; Crockett, L.; Katz, A.; Sarkar, J.; Burland, E.; Goh, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were…

  14. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  15. Constructing a Measure for Longitudinal Medical Achievement Studies by the Rasch Model One-Step Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    As part of a longitudinal study of the growth of general medical knowledge among osteopathic medical students, a simple, convenient, and accurate vertical equating method was developed for constructing a scale for medical achievement. It was believed that Parts 1, 2, and 3 of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' (NBOME) examination…

  16. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  18. Validating the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Peter M.; Cooper, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed the effectiveness of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA) in measuring psychosocial changes from the freshman year through the senior year using longitudinal research design. Results provide evidence of validity for the SDTLA and demonstrate that as a measurement tool, the SDTLA is sensitive to changes…

  19. Segmental Acquisition in Adult ESL Learners: A Longitudinal Study of Vowel Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Murray J.; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2008-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) phonetic learning indicates that, even in adults, segmental acquisition remains possible through L2 experience. However, the findings of previous cross-sectional studies of vowel and consonant learning have proved difficult to interpret. In this longitudinal investigation of 44 recent arrivals in Canada,…

  20. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  1. Strong Genetic Contribution to Peer Relationship Difficulties at School Entry: Findings from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the genetic and environmental contributions to peer difficulties in the early school years. Twins' peer difficulties were assessed longitudinally in kindergarten (796 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 6.1 years), Grade 1 (948 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 7.1 years), and Grade 4 (868 twins, "M"[subscript…

  2. Does the Left Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Play a Role in Language? A Brain Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Nouet, Aurelien; Gatignol, Peggy; Capelle, Laurent; Duffau, Hugues

    2007-01-01

    Although advances in diffusion tensor imaging have enabled us to better study the anatomy of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), its function remains poorly understood. Recently, it was suggested that the subcortical network subserving the language semantics could be constituted, in parallel with the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, by…

  3. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  4. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  5. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  6. From Initial Teacher Education through Induction and Beyond: A Longitudinal Study of Primary Teacher Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the relationship between beginning teachers' beliefs and the pedagogies of teacher education (TE) programmes that support their learning across time can enhance TE programme effectiveness. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the development and change of beginning primary classroom teachers' (n = 6) beliefs about…

  7. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  8. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Argument in the Elementary Science Classroom. A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anita M.; Hand, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal case study describes the factors that affect an experienced teacher's attempt to shift her pedagogical practices in order to implement embedded elements of argument into her science classroom. Research data was accumulated over 2 years through video recordings of science classes. The Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol (RTOP)…

  9. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

  10. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  11. Using Evidence in L2 Argumentative Writing: A Longitudinal Case Study across High School and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Hardigree, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This 8-year longitudinal case study of Fabiola, a Spanish-English bilingual, investigated her argumentative writing development, focusing on her use of evidence to support and develop arguments over time from high school through university. Data sources included 36 writing samples. Texts across grade levels and course types were analyzed to…

  12. Emotional Intelligence throughout Portuguese Secondary School: A Longitudinal Study Comparing Performance and Self-Report Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Ana; Faria, Luísa

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the developmental trajectories of ability and trait emotional intelligence (EI) in the Portuguese secondary school. Within a three-wave longitudinal design, 395 students (M[subscript age] = 15.4; SD = 0.74) completed both the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ) and the Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET). Results…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  14. Vulnerability and Resiliency: A Longitudinal Study of Asian Americans from Birth to Age 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Emmy E.

    A 30-year longitudinal study was undertaken in order to document the course, and determine the outcome, of all pregnancies in a community of Asian Americans on Kauai, the western most of the Hawaiian Islands and equidistant from the continental United States and Japan. The project's goal was to document both the good and poor outcomes of the…

  15. Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Perceptions, and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…

  16. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  17. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  18. Predicting Children's Academic Achievement after the Transition to First Grade: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossaert, Goele; Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    The transition from kindergarten to first grade has been described as a critical period for children's academic development. Furthermore, research indicates that peer status is connected with academic adjustment, yet the underlying processes remain unclear. By means of a two-year longitudinal study during kindergarten and first grade (N = 153), we…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Timing in Young Children Later Found to Have Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan B.; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development of timing characteristics in early spontaneous speech of children who were later identified as having reading disability (RD). Method: Child-adult play sessions were recorded longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age in 27 children, most of whom were at high familial risk for RD. For each speaking turn,…

  20. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation, Positive Parenting, and Adjustment Problems among Physically Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen.; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Information Technology Impact on Business Faculty in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen, J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Perrreault, Heidi; Waldman, Lila

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared business faculty's use of information technology in distance education as well as their perception of the technology's impact on their productivity and technology preferences between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected from 81 professors in 2000 and 140 professors in 2006 at AACSB-accredited business colleges across…

  2. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  3. A Longitudinal Study on Mathematics Teaching Efficacy: Which Factors (Un)Support the Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…

  4. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  5. Minimizing Respondent Attrition in Longitudinal Research: Practical Implications from a Cohort Study of Adolescent Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys, Annabel; Marsden, John; Stillwell, Garry; Hatchings, Kevin; Griffiths, Paul; Farrell, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the methods used to maximize retention in a longitudinal study of adolescent drinking. Strategies to minimize attrition included the collection of detailed contact information, incentives for participation, postcard and telephone reminders and telephone interviews. Ninety-six percent of the original sample completed the first follow-up…

  6. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  7. Scrutinizing Practicum for a More Powerful Teacher Education: A Longitudinal Study with Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdar Tülüce, Hande; Çeçen, Sevdeger

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the role of school-based practicum in promoting pre-service English language teachers' professional development through the use of a longitudinal design in combination with qualitative methods. To achieve this aim, pre-service teachers were asked to successively reflect on video-recordings of their micro-lessons in their…

  8. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in Higher Education: A Longitudinal Study of Motivational Changes and Their Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…

  9. Student-Development Preparation and Placement: A Longitudinal Study of Graduate Students' and New Professionals' Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Jayne; Sherman, Karen J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined graduate students' and new professionals' choices and satisfaction with careers, preparation programs, and mentor relationships. Findings from four phases of longitudinal study begun in 1983 with graduate students in student development field suggest that entering students need to be adequately informed about changing career options in…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  11. Shyness and Emotion-Processing Skills in Preschoolers: A 6-Month Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Paul S.; Cerna, Sandra; Downs, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to examine the hypothesis that shyness in preschoolers is differentially related to different aspects of emotion processing. Using teacher reports of shyness and performance measures of emotion processing, including (1) facial emotion recognition, (2) non-facial emotion…

  12. How Long Does Victimization Foster Fear of Crime? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele

    2010-01-01

    We studied the relationship between victimization and fear of crime longitudinally, analyzing data from the Observatory of the North-West (Italian national sample, N = 1,701, two waves: January 2006 and January 2007). We modeled fear of crime at T[subscript 2] using as independent variables: (a) the main sociodemographic variables and fear of…

  13. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Fifth Year Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Wolf, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report in a five-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP). This report features analyses of student achievement growth four years after the authors carefully assembled longitudinal study panels of MPCP and Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) students in 2006-07. The MPCP, which began in 1990, provides…

  14. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Baseline Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

  15. Developing Communicative Competence: A Longitudinal Study of the Acquisition of Mental State Terms and Indirect Requests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mulder, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in…

  16. A Longitudinal Evaluation Study of a Science Professional Development Program for K-12 Teachers: NERDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing-Taylor, Jacque M.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal evaluation study of a science professional development program for K-12 teachers was conducted using the CIPP evaluation model. Eleven years of program data were described and analyzed. Elementary teachers comprised 62% of the 384 participants, 17% of all participants were middle school teachers, and 13% of all participants were…

  17. Recruiting and Retaining an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Older Adults in a Longitudinal Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…

  18. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  19. Sport Involvement and Educational Outcomes of High School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seunghyun; Feltz, Deborah L.; Kietzmann, Laura A.; Diemer, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations among sport involvement and social and personal influences on high school students' educational expectations and attainment, using National Education Longitudinal Survey-88. Athletic engagement, educational expectations of significant others, peer support for academics, parental involvement in academics, and…

  20. Early Risk Indicators of Internalizing Problems in Late Childhood: A 9-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Smit, Filip; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies on risk indicators of internalizing problems in childhood are in short supply, but could be valuable to identify target groups for prevention. Methods: Standardized assessments of 294 children's internalizing problems at the age of 2-3 years (parent report), 4-5 years (parent and teacher report) and 11 years…

  1. The Longitudinal Assessment Study (LAS): Eighteen Year Follow-Up. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    Premised on the view that students with more years of Montessori education (MEY) would possess to a higher degree those qualities emphasized in the Montessori environment and that Montessori students would be as successful as students more traditionally educated, this report presents the final assessment for the Longitudinal Assessment Study,…

  2. Relationships between Family Connectedness and Body Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Carla; Kielpikowski, Magdalena; Jose, Paul; Pryor, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal links between perceptions of family connectedness and body satisfaction in 1,774 (52% female) adolescents. Participants (10-15 years of age at Time 1) completed self-report measures at three measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Mean group difference results showed that both body satisfaction…

  3. A Longitudinal Study Showing How Students Use a Molecule Concept when Explaining Everyday Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofgren, Lena; Hellden, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present results from a 10-year (1997-2006) longitudinal study in which we, by interviews once or twice every year, followed how students, throughout the compulsory school, developed their understanding of three situations in which transformations of matter occur. We believe that students have to meet scientific ideas early in…

  4. The Home Environment and School Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Primary School Children in Swaziland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller

    In rural Swaziland, fathers often migrate for work, leaving wives and children behind. The family is denied the presence of a husband, father, and role model, as well as economic support, which fathers often fail to remit home regularly. A longitudinal study investigated the effects of parent availability and other home characteristics on the…

  5. Investigating the Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Greek: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Georgiou, George K.; Kendeou, Panayiota

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinally the double-deficit hypothesis in Greek, an orthographically consistent language, following a group of children from kindergarten to Grade 2. Four groups were formed on the basis of two composite scores of phonological and naming-speed criterion measures: a double-deficit group (DD; n = 17), a phonological deficit…

  6. The Development of Metacognitive Monitoring and Control in Second Graders: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Spiess, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Although metacognition is considered a central aspect of self-regulated learning and is often linked to learning outcomes, little is known about the intraindividual development and factors that lead to developmental improvement over time. This longitudinal study investigated 2nd graders' (N = 119, aged 8-9 years) metacognitive monitoring and…

  7. Effectiveness of Challenging Behavior IHP Objectives in Residential Settings: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Hayden, Mary F.; Lakin, K. Charlie

    1999-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effectiveness of intervention for behavioral objectives in Individualized Habilitation Plans of 130 adults with mental retardation in residential settings. Little evidence of effective intervention was found using three indicators: discontinuation of the behavior objective, change in challenging behavior, and…

  8. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  9. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustees: Final Report on Waves 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Walter; Corson, Walter

    The study reports the results of a two-wave longitudinal interview of over 2,000 individuals who exhausted their unemployment insurance (UI) benefits in October 1974. The interviews were conducted at the time of exhaustion and four months later in Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, and Seattle. UI exhaustees are a relatively representative cross-section…

  11. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Chronic Maltreatment on Children's Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethier, L.S.; Lemelin, J.P.; Lacharite, C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to examine the links between chronicity of maltreatment and child behavioral and emotional problems. Method: Forty-nine maltreated children (32 victims of continuous, or chronic, maltreatment; 17 victims of transitory maltreatment) and their mothers were evaluated in their homes three times…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Disadvantaged Children Who Participated in Three Different Preschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Merle B.; And Others

    This 3-year study made a longitudinal comparison of three types of preschool intervention programs. The Traditional approach (two classes of 15 students and three teachers each) worked in conventional ways to improve personal, social, motor and general language development; children were placed in a regular public school kindergarten the following…

  14. Women in Intercollegiate Sport. A Longitudinal Study--Twenty Three Year Update, 1977-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean

    This report presents data from a longitudinal study of women in intercollegiate sports, highlighting: participation opportunities for female athletes and the status of women as head coaches, assistant coaches, administrators, sports information directors, and athletic trainers. The average number of teams for women offered per school is at an…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Assessing APA Writing Competence at a BSW Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaliari, Efrosini D.; Brainerd, Mary; Roy, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Presented is a longitudinal study evaluating a Bachelor of Social Work writing program. The independent variable is a BSW curriculum in which social work courses include American Psychological Association 5th edition writing modules. In 2005, a baseline was established. From 2006 to 2010, a writing program was implemented. Using a brief rating…

  16. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  17. Spouse Health Status, Depressed Affect, and Resilience in Mid and Late Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…

  18. Predictors of Reading Skills for Kindergartners and First Grade Students in Spanish: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Conceptual Change: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…

  20. Parenthood and the Quality of Experience in Daily Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fave, Antonella Delle; Massimini, Fausto

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes the time budget and the quality of experience reported by new parents. Five primiparous couples were repeatedly administered Experience Sampling Method. They carried pagers sending random signals 6-8 times a day; at the signal reception, they filled out forms sampling current thoughts, activities, and the quality…